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Sample records for glass fiber amplifiers

  1. Fiber Amplifiers

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....

  2. Pr3 + -doped GeSx-based glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1.3 µm

    Simons, D. R.; Faber, A. J.; de Waal, H.

    1995-03-01

    The photoluminescence properties of Pr3+ -doped GeS x -based glasses are studied and compared with those of other sulfide and fluoride glasses. The possibility of highly pump-power-efficient fiber amplifiers based on these GeSx-containing glasses in the telecommunications window at 1.3 mu m is discussed.

  3. Pr3+-doped GeSx-based glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1.3 mm

    Simons, D.R.; Faber, A.J.; Waal, de H.

    1995-01-01

    The luminescence of Pr3+-doped GeSx-based glasses were studied and compared with those of other sulfide and fluoride glasses. The possibility of highly pump-power-efficient fiber amplifiers based on these GeSx-contg. glasses in the telecommunications window at 1.3 mm is discussed. [on SciFinder (R)

  4. Highly Doped Phosphate Glass Fibers for Compact Lasers and Amplifiers: A Review

    Nadia Giovanna Boetti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the exploitation of compact laser sources and amplifiers in fiber form has found extensive applications in industrial and scientific fields. The fiber format offers compactness, high beam quality through single-mode regime and excellent heat dissipation, thus leading to high laser reliability and long-term stability. The realization of devices based on this technology requires an active medium with high optical gain over a short length to increase efficiency while mitigating nonlinear optical effects. Multicomponent phosphate glasses meet these requirements thanks to the high solubility of rare-earth ions in their glass matrix, alongside with high emission cross-sections, chemical stability and high optical damage threshold. In this paper, we review recent advances in the field thanks to the combination of highly-doped phosphate glasses and innovative fiber drawing techniques. We also present the main performance achievements and outlook both in continuous wave (CW and pulsed mode regimes.

  5. All-Glass Fiber Amplifier Pumped by Ultra-High Brightness Pumps

    2016-02-15

    coating can exceed its long-term damage threshold. Such a concern obviously does not apply to a fiber with gold protective coating [14]. Thus in... coated triple-clad fibers, we are developing triple-clad Yb fiber with gold coating for improved thermal management. 2.1 Pump laser The two...is still an acrylate coating outside the glass clad for fiber handling and protection . Calculation shows that the temperature of the fiber acrylate

  6. Properties and structure of high erbium doped phosphate glass for short optical fibers amplifiers

    Seneschal, Karine; Smektala, Frederic; Bureau, Bruno; Floch, Marie Le; Jiang Shibin; Luo, Tao; Lucas, Jacques; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2005-01-01

    New phosphate glasses have been developed in order to incorporate high rare-earth ions concentrations. These glasses present a great chemical stability and a high optical quality. The phosphate glass network is open, very flexible, with a linkage of the tetrahedrons very disordered and contains a larger number of non-bridging oxygens (66%). The great stability and resistance against crystallization associated with the possibility to incorporate high doping concentration of rare-earth ions in these phosphate glasses make them very good candidates for the realization of ultra short single mode amplifiers with a high gain at 1.55 μm

  7. Pr{sup 3+}-doped GeS{sub {ital x}}-based glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1.3 {mu}m

    Simons, D.R.; Faber, A.J.; de Waal, H. [Glass Technology, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 595, 5600 AN Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    1995-03-01

    The photoluminescence properties of Pr{sup 3+}-doped GeS{sub {ital x}}-based glasses are studied and compared with those of other sulfide and fluoride glasses. The possibility of highly pump-power-efficient fiber amplifiers based on these GeS{sub {ital x}}-containing glasses in the telecommunications window at 1.3 {mu}m is discussed.

  8. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  9. Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation...

  10. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  11. Self-pulsation in Raman fiber amplifiers

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated.......Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated....

  12. Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber amplifiers

    Liang Liping; Chang Liping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the wave coupling theory and the evolution model of the critical pump power (or Brillouin threshold) for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in double-clad fiber amplifiers, the influence of signal bandwidth, fiber-core diameter and amplifier gain on SBS threshold is simulated theoretically. And experimental measurements of SBS are presented in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers with single-frequency hundred nanosecond pulse amplification. Under different input signal pulses, the forward amplified pulse distortion is observed when the pulse energy is up to 660 nJ and the peak power is up to 3.3 W in the pulse amplification with pulse duration of 200 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz. And the backward SBS narrow pulse appears. The pulse peak power equals to SBS threshold. Good agreement is shown between the modeled and experimental data. (authors)

  13. Optimization of Pr3+:ZBLAN fiber amplifiers

    Pedersen, B.; Miniscalco, J. W.; Quimby, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental parameters have been measured and used in a quantitative model of Pr3+-doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifiers. The optimum cutoff wavelength was determined to be 800 nm and the gain for 400 mW of pump was found to increase from 12 to 34 dB if the NA was increased from 0.15 to 0...

  14. Stochastic phenomena in a fiber Raman amplifier

    Kalashnikov, Vladimir [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Institute of Photonics, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Sergeyev, Sergey V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Ania-Castanon, Juan Diego [Instituto de Optica CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jacobsen, Gunnar [Acreo, Kista (Sweden); Popov, Sergei [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-01-15

    The interplay of such cornerstones of modern nonlinear fiber optics as a nonlinearity, stochasticity and polarization leads to variety of the noise induced instabilities including polarization attraction and escape phenomena harnessing of which is a key to unlocking the fiber optic systems specifications required in high resolution spectroscopy, metrology, biomedicine and telecommunications. Here, by using direct stochastic modeling, the mapping of interplay of the Raman scattering-based nonlinearity, the random birefringence of a fiber, and the pump-to-signal intensity noise transfer has been done in terms of the fiber Raman amplifier parameters, namely polarization mode dispersion, the relative intensity noise of the pump laser, fiber length, and the signal power. The obtained results reveal conditions for emergence of the random birefringence-induced resonance-like enhancement of the gain fluctuations (stochastic anti-resonance) accompanied by pulse broadening and rare events in the form of low power output signals having probability heavily deviated from the Gaussian distribution. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Coherent combination of ultrafast fiber amplifiers

    Hanna, Marc; Guichard, Florent; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick; Zaouter, Yoann; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in coherent combining of femtosecond pulses amplified in optical fibers as a way to scale the peak and average power of ultrafast sources. Different methods of achieving coherent pulse addition in space (beam combining) and time (divided pulse amplification) domains are described. These architectures can be widely classified into active methods, where the relative phases between pulses are subject to a servomechanism, and passive methods, where phase matching is inherent to the geometry. Other experiments that combine pulses with different spectral contents, pulses that have been nonlinearly broadened or successive pulses from a mode-locked laser oscillator, are then presented. All these techniques allow access to unprecedented parameter range for fiber ultrafast sources. (topical review)

  16. Spaceflight 2 um Tm Fiber MOPA Amplifier, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to design, develop, and test a spaceflight prototype 2051 nm thulium (Tm)-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) optical master oscillator power amplifier...

  17. Pump to signal noise transfer in parametric fiber amplifiers

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal.......Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal....

  18. Programmable gain equalizer for multi-core fiber amplifiers

    Fontaine, N.K.; Guan, B.; Ryf, R.; Chen, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Ben Yoo, S.J.; Abedin, K.; Fini, J.; Taunay, T.F.; Neilson, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a programmable gain equalizer for 7-core fiber that can independently equalize spectra or block wavelengths in each core across the C-band. It is spliced directly to a side-pumped multi-core amplifying fiber.

  19. Single-mode operation of a coiled multimode fiber amplifier

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Goldberg, Lew

    2000-01-01

    We report a new approach to obtaining single-transverse-mode operation of a multimode fiber amplifier in which the gain fiber is coiled to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode. We demonstrated this method by constructing a coiled amplifier using Yb-doped, double-clad fiber with a core diameter of 25 μm and a numerical aperture of ∼0.1 (V≅7.4) . When the amplifier was operated as an amplified-spontaneous-emission source, the output beam had an M 2 value of 1.09±0.09 ; when seeded at 1064 nm, the slope efficiency was similar to that of an uncoiled amplifier. This technique will permit scaling of pulsed fiber lasers and amplifiers to significantly higher pulse energies and peak powers and cw fiber sources to higher average powers while maintaining excellent beam quality. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  20. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus...... the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had...

  1. New Trends in Amplifiers and Sources via Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    L. Mescia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glass fiber lasers and amplifiers have great applicative potential in many fields since they are key elements in the near and medium-infrared (mid-IR wavelength range. In this paper, a review, even if not exhaustive, on amplification and lasing obtained by employing rare-earth-doped chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers is reported. Materials, devices, and feasible applications in the mid-IR are briefly mentioned.

  2. Development of new radiopaque glass fiber posts

    Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity and filler content of three experimental glass fiber posts (EGFP) in comparison with other glass/carbon fibers and metal posts from the dental market. Three EGFP were obtained by pultrusion of glass fibers in a polymer matrix based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Using intraoral sensor disks 27 posts, as well as mesiodistal sections of human molar and aluminum step wedges were radiographed for evaluation of radiopacity. The percentage compositions of fillers by weight and volume were investigated by combustion analysis. Two EGFP showed radiopacity higher than enamel. The commercial endodontic posts showed radiopacity as follows: higher than enamel, between enamel and dentin, and lower than dentin. The results showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) when evaluated with one-way ANOVA statistical analysis. According to combustion analyses, the filler content of the tested posts ranges between 58.84 wt.% and 86.02 wt.%. The filler content of the tested EGFP ranged between 68.91 wt.% and 79.04 wt.%. EGFP could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts. Future glass fiber posts are recommended to present higher radiopacity than dentin and perhaps ideally similar to or higher than that of enamel, for improved clinical detection. The posts with a lower radiopacity than dentin should be considered insufficiently radiopaque. The radiopacity of some glass fiber posts is not greatly influenced by the amount of filler. - Highlights: • AR glass fibers for dental applications • AR glass fibers have a great potential for obtaining radiopaque glass fiber posts. • Experimental AR glass fiber posts could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts for clinical application.

  3. Development of new radiopaque glass fiber posts

    Furtos, Gabriel, E-mail: gfurtos@yahoo.co.uk [Raluca Ripan Institute of Research in Chemistry, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Baldea, Bogdan [Dep. of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Timisoara (Romania); Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura [Raluca Ripan Institute of Research in Chemistry, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity and filler content of three experimental glass fiber posts (EGFP) in comparison with other glass/carbon fibers and metal posts from the dental market. Three EGFP were obtained by pultrusion of glass fibers in a polymer matrix based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Using intraoral sensor disks 27 posts, as well as mesiodistal sections of human molar and aluminum step wedges were radiographed for evaluation of radiopacity. The percentage compositions of fillers by weight and volume were investigated by combustion analysis. Two EGFP showed radiopacity higher than enamel. The commercial endodontic posts showed radiopacity as follows: higher than enamel, between enamel and dentin, and lower than dentin. The results showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) when evaluated with one-way ANOVA statistical analysis. According to combustion analyses, the filler content of the tested posts ranges between 58.84 wt.% and 86.02 wt.%. The filler content of the tested EGFP ranged between 68.91 wt.% and 79.04 wt.%. EGFP could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts. Future glass fiber posts are recommended to present higher radiopacity than dentin and perhaps ideally similar to or higher than that of enamel, for improved clinical detection. The posts with a lower radiopacity than dentin should be considered insufficiently radiopaque. The radiopacity of some glass fiber posts is not greatly influenced by the amount of filler. - Highlights: • AR glass fibers for dental applications • AR glass fibers have a great potential for obtaining radiopaque glass fiber posts. • Experimental AR glass fiber posts could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts for clinical application.

  4. Fiber glass reinforced structural materials for aerospace application

    Bartlett, D. H.

    1968-01-01

    Evaluation of fiber glass reinforced plastic materials concludes that fiber glass construction is lighter than aluminum alloy construction. Low thermal conductivity and strength makes the fiber glass material useful in cryogenic tank supports.

  5. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  6. Influence of mode competition on beam quality of fiber amplifier

    Xiao Qi-Rong; Yan Ping; Sun Jun-Yi; Chen Xiao; Ren Hai-Cui; Gong Ma-Li

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the mode competition on the output beam quality of fiber amplifiers are presented. Rate equations and modal decomposition method are used in the theoretical model. In the experiment, the output beam-quality factor of a fiber amplifier, which is based on a Yb-doped double-clad large mode area fiber as a function of the seed beam quality and the pump power of the amplifier, is measured. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. Fiber amplifiers under thermal loads leading to transverse mode instability

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2014-01-01

    Transverse mode instability (TMI) in rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers operating above an average power threshold is caused by intermodal stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering due to quantum defect heating. We investigate thermally induced longitudinal waveguide perturbations causing power...

  8. Wideband multi-element Er-doped fiber amplifier

    Thipparapu, N K; Jain, S; May-Smith, T C; Sahu, J K

    2014-01-01

    A multi-element Er-doped fiber amplifier (MEEDFA) is demonstrated in which the gain profile is extended into the S and L bands. Each fiber element of the MEEDFA is found to provide a maximum gain of 37 dB and a noise figure of < 4 dB in the C-band. The gain profile of the amplifier is shifted towards longer wavelength by cascading fiber elements. The novel geometry of the multi-element fiber (MEF) could allow for the development of a broadband amplifier in a split-band configuration. The proposed amplifier can operate in the wavelength band of 1520 to 1595 nm (75 nm), with a minimum gain of 20 dB. (letter)

  9. Simulation of Glass Fiber Forming Processes

    Von der Ohe, Renate

    Two glass fiber forming processes have been simulated using FEM, which are the drawing of continuous glass fibers for reinforcement purposes and the spinning of discontinuous glass fibers - stone wool for insulation. The aim of this work was to set up a numerical model for each process, and to use...... this model in finding relationships between the production conditions and the resulting fiber properties. For both processes, a free surface with large deformation and radiative and convective heat transfer must be taken into account. The continuous fiber drawing has been simulated successfully......, and parametric studies have been made. Several properties that characterize the process have been calculated, and the relationship between the fictive temperature and the cooling rate of the fibers has been found. The model for the discontinuous fiber spinning was brought to the limits of the commercial code...

  10. Asymmetric gain-saturated spectrum in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rottwitt, Karsten; Galili, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and numerically an unexpected spectral asymmetry in the saturated-gain spectrum of single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The interaction between higher-order four-wave mixing products and dispersive waves radiated as an effect of third-order dispersion inf...... characteristics of the amplifier and shows local maxima for specific dispersion values....

  11. Gain characteristics of a saturated fiber optic parametric amplifier

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2008-01-01

    In this work we discuss saturation performance of a fiber optic parametric amplifier. A simple numerical model is described and applied to specific cases. A system experiment using a saturated amplifier illustrates a 4 dB improvement in required signal to noise ratio for a fixed bit error ratio....

  12. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    Noergaard Petersen, H.; Almdal, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nanotech, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kusano, Y.; Broendsted, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant. (Author)

  13. High SBS-Threshold Er/Yb Co-Doped Phosphate Glass Fiber Amplifiers for High Power, Sub-us Pulsed, Narrow Linewidth, All Fiber-Based Laser Transmitter, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I, NP Photonics has achieved 1.2 kW peak power for 105 ns fiber laser pulses, and successfully demonstrated the feasibility to produce monolithic high SBS...

  14. Photonic lantern adaptive spatial mode control in LMA fiber amplifiers.

    Montoya, Juan; Aleshire, Chris; Hwang, Christopher; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Velázquez-Benítez, Amado; Martz, Dale H; Fan, T Y; Ripin, Dan

    2016-02-22

    We demonstrate adaptive-spatial mode control (ASMC) in few-moded double-clad large mode area (LMA) fiber amplifiers by using an all-fiber-based photonic lantern. Three single-mode fiber inputs are used to adaptively inject the appropriate superposition of input modes in a multimode gain fiber to achieve the desired mode at the output. By actively adjusting the relative phase of the single-mode inputs, near-unity coherent combination resulting in a single fundamental mode at the output is achieved.

  15. Power neodymium-glass amplifier of a repetitively pulsed laser

    Vinogradov, Aleksandr V; Gaganov, V E; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Krotov, V A; Martynenko, S P; Pozdnyakov, E V; Solomatin, I I [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-30

    A neodymium-glass diode-pumped amplifier with a zigzag laser beam propagation through the active medium was elaborated; the amplifier is intended for operation in a repetitively pulsed laser. An amplifier unit with an aperture of 20 Multiplication-Sign 25 mm and a {approx}40-cm long active medium was put to a test. The energy of pump radiation amounts to 140 J at a wavelength of 806 nm for a pump duration of 550 {mu}s. The energy parameters of the amplifier were experimentally determined: the small-signal gain per pass {approx}3.2, the linear gain {approx}0.031 cm{sup -1} with a nonuniformity of its distribution over the aperture within 15%, the stored energy of 0.16 - 0.21 J cm{sup -3}. The wavefront distortions in the zigzag laser-beam propagation through the active element of the amplifier did not exceed 0.4{lambda} ({lambda} = 0.63 {mu}m is the probing radiation wavelength).

  16. Power neodymium-glass amplifier of a repetitively pulsed laser

    Vinogradov, Aleksandr V; Gaganov, V E; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Krotov, V A; Martynenko, S P; Pozdnyakov, E V; Solomatin, I I

    2011-01-01

    A neodymium-glass diode-pumped amplifier with a zigzag laser beam propagation through the active medium was elaborated; the amplifier is intended for operation in a repetitively pulsed laser. An amplifier unit with an aperture of 20 × 25 mm and a ∼40-cm long active medium was put to a test. The energy of pump radiation amounts to 140 J at a wavelength of 806 nm for a pump duration of 550 μs. The energy parameters of the amplifier were experimentally determined: the small-signal gain per pass ∼3.2, the linear gain ∼0.031 cm -1 with a nonuniformity of its distribution over the aperture within 15%, the stored energy of 0.16 - 0.21 J cm -3 . The wavefront distortions in the zigzag laser-beam propagation through the active element of the amplifier did not exceed 0.4λ (λ = 0.63 μm is the probing radiation wavelength).

  17. Thermal-recovery of modal instability in rod fiber amplifiers

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Laurila, Marko; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the temporal dynamics of Modal instabilities (MI) in ROD fiber amplifiers using a 100 μm core rod fiber in a single-pass amplifier configuration, and we achieve ~200W of extracted output power before the onset of MI. Above the MI threshold, we investigate the temporal dynamics of b...... and thermally annealed between each test series. We find that the MI threshold degrades as it is reached multiple times, but is recovered by thermal annealing. We also find that the test history of the rods affects the temporal dynamics....

  18. Short-pulse propagation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    Cristofori, Valentina

    Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are attractive because they can provide large gain over a broad range of central wavelengths, depending only on the availability of a suitable pump laser. In addition, FOPAs are suitable for the realization of all-optical signal processing functionalities...... transfer can be reduced in saturated F OPAs. In order to characterize propagation impairments such as dispersion and Kerr effect, affecting signals reaching multi-terabit per second per channel, short pulses on the order of 500 fs need to be considered. Therefore, a short pulses fiber laser source...... is implemented to obtain an all-fiber system. The advantages of all fiber-systems are related to their reliability, long-term stability and compactness. Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is promising for the amplification of such signals thanks to the inherent compatibility of FOPAs with fiber...

  19. Frequency resolved transverse mode instability in rod fiber amplifiers

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Laurila, Marko; Maack, Martin D.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency dynamics of transverse mode instabilities (TMIs) are investigated by testing three 285/100 rod fibers in a single-pass amplifier setup reaching up to ~200W of extracted output power without beam instabilities. The pump power is increased well above the TMI threshold to uncover output dy...

  20. Detailed design analysis of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Pedersen, Bo; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lumholt, Ole

    1991-01-01

    When pumping the erbium-doped fiber amplifier at 0.98 and 1.48 mu m, the optimum cutoff wavelength for step profiles with arbitrary numerical aperture is shown to be 0.80 and 0.90 mu m, respectively. The use of a confined erbium profile can improve the gain coefficient up to 45%. The index raising...

  1. Self-pulsation threshold of Raman amplified Brillouin fiber cavities

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    An implicit equation for the oscillation threshold of stimulated Brillouin scattering from Raman amplified signals in fibers with external feedback is derived under the assumption of no depletion. This is compared to numerical investigations of Raman amplification schemes showing good agreement...

  2. Processing of optical combs with fiber optic parametric amplifiers

    Slavík, Radan; Kakande, J.; Richardson, D.J.; Petropoulos, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2012), s. 10059-10070 ISSN 1094-4087 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber -optic parametric amplifier * Phase sensitive * Spectral coverage Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.546, year: 2012

  3. Benefits of glass fibers in solar fiber optic lighting systems.

    Volotinen, Tarja T; Lingfors, David H S

    2013-09-20

    The transmission properties and coupling of solar light have been studied for glass core multimode fibers in order to verify their benefits for a solar fiber optic lighting system. The light transportation distance can be extended from 20 m with plastic fibers to over 100 m with the kind of glass fibers studied here. A high luminous flux, full visible spectrum, as well as an outstanding color rendering index (98) and correlated color temperature similar to the direct sun light outside have been obtained. Thus the outstanding quality of solar light transmitted through these fibers would improve the visibility of all kinds of objects compared to fluorescent and other artificial lighting. Annual relative lighting energy savings of 36% in Uppsala, Sweden, and 76% in Dubai were estimated in an office environment. The absolute savings can be doubled by using glass optical fibers, and are estimated to be in the order of 550 kWh/year in Sweden and 1160 kWh/year in Dubai for one system of only 0.159 m(2) total light collecting area. The savings are dependent on the fiber length, the daily usage time of the interior, the type of artificial lighting substituted, the system light output flux, and the available time of sunny weather at the geographic location.

  4. Chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers

    Vladimir S. eShiryaev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments on chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers (HC-MOFs are presented. The comparative analysis of simulated optical properties for chalcogenide HC-MOFs of negative-curvature with different size and number of capillaries is given. The technique for the manufacture of microstructured chalcogenide preforms, which includes the assembly of the substrate glass tube and 8-10 capillaries, is described. Further trends to improve the optical transmission in chalcogenide NCHCFs are considered.

  5. On the Creation of Solitons in Amplifying Optical Fibers

    Christoph Mahnke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We treat the creation of solitons in amplifying fibers. Strictly speaking, solitons are objects in an integrable setting while in real-world systems loss and gain break integrability. That case usually has been treated in the perturbation limit of low loss or gain. In a recent approach fiber-optic solitons were described beyond that limit, so that it became possible to specify how and where solitons are eventually destroyed. Here we treat the opposite case: in the presence of gain, new solitons can arise from an initially weak pulse. We find conditions for that to happen for both localized and distributed gain, with no restriction to small gain. By tracing the energy budget we show that even when another soliton is already present and copropagates, a newly created soliton takes its energy from radiation only. Our results may find applications in amplified transmission lines or in fiber lasers.

  6. High Power Narrow Linewidth 1.26 Micron Ho-Doped Fiber Amplifier, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of an innovative, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26-micron Ho-doped fluoride fiber amplifier. The proposed fiber amplifier...

  7. High Power Narrow Linewidth 1.26 Micron Ho-Doped Fiber Amplifier, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of an innovative, high power, and extremely reliable 1.26-micron Ho-doped fluoride fiber amplifier. The proposed fiber amplifier...

  8. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...

  9. Characterization and morphological properties of glass fiber ...

    Characterization and morphological properties of glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites fabricated under varying degrees of hand lay-up techniques. ... Hence, these composites are projected to possess better dimensional stability adaptable for high performance structural applications. Keywords: composite, interfacial ...

  10. High power pulsed sources based on fiber amplifiers

    Canat, Guillaume; Jaouën, Yves; Mollier, Jean-Claude; Bouzinac, Jean-Pierre; Cariou, Jean-Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Cladding-pumped rare-earth-doped fiber laser technologies are currently among the best sources for high power applications. Theses extremely compact and robust sources appoint them as good candidate for aeronautical and space applications. The double-clad (DC) fiber converts the poor beamquality of high-power large-area pump diodes from the 1st cladding to laser light at another wavelength guided in an active single-mode core. High-power coherent MOPA (Master Oscillator Power Amplifier) sources (several 10W CW or several 100W in pulsed regime) will soon be achieved. Unfortunately it also brings nonlinear effects which quickly impairs output signal distortions. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and optical parametric amplification (OPA) have been shown to be strong limitations. Based on amplifier modeling and experiments we discuss the performances of these sources.

  11. Optimum design of Nd-doped fiber optical amplifiers

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lumholt, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The waveguide parameters for a Nd-doped fluoride (Nd:ZBLANP) fiber amplifier have been optimized for small-signal and booster operation using an accurate numerical model. The optimum cutoff wavelength is shown to be 800 nm and the numerical aperture should be made as large as possible. Around 80%......% booster quantum conversion efficiency can be reached for an input power of 10 dBm and a pump power of 100 mW by the use of one filter...

  12. Improved terbium-doped, lithium-loaded glass scintillator fibers

    Spector, G.B.; McCollum, T.; Spowart, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    An improved terbium-doped, 6 Li-loaded glass scintillator has been drawn into fibers. Tests indicate that the neutron detection response of the fibers is superior to the response with fibers drawn from the original terbium-doped glass. The new fibers offer less attenuation (1/e length of ∝40 cm) and improved gamma ray/neutron discrimination. The improved fibers will be incorporated in a scintillator fiber optic long counter for neutron detection. (orig.)

  13. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  14. Modelling of the glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution in the compounding of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics

    Kloke, P.; Herken, T.; Schöppner, V.; Rudloff, J.; Kretschmer, K.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Walther, Dridger, A.

    2014-05-01

    The use of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for the production of highly stressed parts in the plastics processing industry has experienced an enormous boom in the last few years. The reasons for this are primarily the improvements to the stiffness and strength properties brought about by fiber reinforcement. These positive characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced polymers are governed predominantly by the mean glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution. It is not enough to describe the properties of a plastics component solely as a function of the mean glass fiber length [1]. For this reason, a mathematical-physical model has been developed for describing the glass fiber length distribution in compounding. With this model, it is possible on the one hand to optimize processes for the production of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, and, on the other, to obtain information on the final distribution, on the basis of which much more detailed statements can be made about the subsequent properties of the molded part. Based on experimental tests, it was shown that this model is able to accurately describe the change in glass fiber length distribution in compounding.

  15. Deep UV light generation by a fiber/bulk hybrid amplifier at 199 nm

    Urata, Yoshiharu; Shinozaki, Tatsuya; Wada, Yoshio; Kaneda, Yushi; Wada, Satoshi; Imai, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    A high-pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) pulsed light source in the deep ultraviolet region has been realized by a multiple wavelength conversion technique using a hybrid fiber/bulk amplifier system. Output of 199 nm with a power of 50 mW was achieved at 2.4 MHz PRF. The 1 μm amplifier consisted of a Yb-doped fiber amplifier and a Nd-doped YVO4 amplifier. A 1.5 μm fiber master-oscillator power amplifier was employed as the other fundamental source. The amplifiers exhibited good amplification properties in pulse energy, polarization extinction ratio, and spectrum for nonlinear wavelength conversion

  16. Y-Si-Al-O-N Glass Fibers.

    The excellent mechanical properties and outstanding water corrosion resistance of Y -Si-Al-O- N glasses indicate that they are attractive candidate...materials for forming into high performance glass fibers. Fibers of glasses containing, respectively,3.2 and 6.6 wt% N were drawn freehand in air, and

  17. Recent Progress In Infrared Chalcogenide Glass Fibers

    Bornstein, A.; Croitoru, N.; Marom, E.

    1984-10-01

    Chalcogenide glasses containing elements like As, Ge, Sb and Se have been prepared. A new technique of preparing the raw material and subsequently drawing fibers has been devel-oped in order to avoid the forming of oxygen compounds. The fibers have been drawn by cru-cible and rod method from oxygen free raw material inside an Ar atmosphere glove box. The fibers drawn to date with air and glass cladding have a diameter of 50-500 pm and length of several meterd. Preliminary attenuation measurements indicate that the attentuation is better than 0.1 dB/cm and it is not affected even when the fiber is bent to 2 cm circular radius. The fibes were testes a CO laser beam and were not damaged at power densities below 10 kW/2cm2 CW &100 kw/cm using short pulses 75 n sec. The transmitted power density was 0.8 kW/cm2 which is an appropriate value to the needed for cutting and ablation of human tissues.

  18. Fracture detection in concrete by glass fiber cloth reinforced plastics

    Shin, Soon-Gi; Lee, Sung-Riong

    2006-04-01

    Two types of carbon (carbon fiber and carbon powder) and a glass cloth were used as conductive phases and a reinforcing fiber, respectively, in polymer rods. The carbon powder was used for fabricating electrically conductive carbon powder-glass fiber reinforced plastic (CP-GFRP) rods. The carbon fiber tows and the CP-GFRP rods were adhered to mortar specimens using epoxy resin and glass fiber cloth. On bending, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber tow attached to the mortar specimen increased greatly after crack generation, and that of the CP-GFRP rod increased after the early stages of deflection in the mortar. Therefore, the CP-GFRP rod is superior to the carbon fiber tow in detecting fractures. Also, by reinforcing with a glass fiber cloth reinforced plastic, the strength of the mortar specimens became more than twice as strong as that of the unreinforced mortar.

  19. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    Ku-Herrera, J.J., E-mail: jesuskuh@live.com.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F., E-mail: faviles@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Nistal, A. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Rubio, F.; Rubio, J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bartolo-Pérez, P. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Cinvestav, Unidad Mérida, C.P., 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible.

  20. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    Ku-Herrera, J.J.; Avilés, F.; Nistal, A.; Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible

  1. Mechanical Characterization of Basalt and Glass Fiber Epoxy Composite Tube

    Lapena, Mauro Henrique; Marinucci, Gerson

    2017-01-01

    The application of basalt fibers are possible in many areas thanks to its multiple and good properties. It exhibits excellent resistance to alkalis, similar to glass fiber, at a much lower cost than carbon and aramid fibers. In the present paper, a comparative study on mechanical properties of basalt and E-glass fiber composites was performed. Results of apparent hoop tensile strength test of ring specimens cut from tubes and the interlaminar shear stress (ILSS) test are presented. Tensile te...

  2. High pumping-power fiber combiner for double-cladding fiber lasers and amplifiers

    Zheng, Jinkun; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Baoyin; Li, Zhe; Chang, Chang; Li, Gang; Gao, Qi; Ju, Pei; Gao, Wei; She, Shengfei; Wu, Peng; Hou, Chaoqi; Li, Weinan

    2018-03-01

    A high pumping-power fiber combiner for backward pumping configurations is fabricated and demonstrated by manufacturing process refinement. The pump power handling capability of every pump fiber can extend to 600 W, corresponding to the average pump coupling efficiency of 94.83%. Totally, 2.67-kW output power with the beam quality factor M2 of 1.41 was obtained, using this combiner in the fiber amplifier experimental setup. In addition, the temperature of the splicing region was less than 50.0°C in the designed combiner under the action of circulating cooling water. The experimental results prove that the designed combiner is a promising integrated all-fiber device for multikilowatt continuous-wave fiber laser with excellent beam quality.

  3. Phosphate-based glass fiber vs. bulk glass: Change in fiber optical response to probe in vitro glass reactivity.

    Massera, J; Ahmed, I; Petit, L; Aallos, V; Hupa, L

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fiber drawing on the thermal and structural properties as well as on the glass reactivity of a phosphate glass in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-buffered (TRIS) solution and simulated body fluid (SBF). The changes induced in the thermal properties suggest that the fiber drawing process leads to a weakening and probable re-orientation of the POP bonds. Whereas the fiber drawing did not significantly impact the release of P and Ca, an increase in the release of Na into the solution was noticed. This was probably due to small structural reorientations occurring during the fiber drawing process and to a slight diffusion of Na to the fiber surface. Both the powders from the bulk and the glass fibers formed a Ca-P surface layer when immersed in SBF and TRIS. The layer thickness was higher in the calcium and phosphate supersaturated SBF than in TRIS. This paper for the first time presents the in vitro reactivity and optical response of a phosphate-based bioactive glass (PBG) fiber when immersed in SBF. The light intensity remained constant for the first 48h after which a decrease with three distinct slopes was observed: the first decrease between 48 and 200h of immersion could be correlated to the formation of the Ca-P layer at the fiber surface. After this a faster decrease in light transmission was observed from 200 to ~425h in SBF. SEM analysis suggested that after 200h, the surface of the fiber was fully covered by a thin Ca-P layer which is likely to scatter light. For immersion times longer than ~425h, the thickness of the Ca-P layer increased and thus acted as a barrier to the dissolution process limiting further reduction in light transmission. The tracking of light transmission through the PBG fiber allowed monitoring of the fiber dissolution in vitro. These results are essential in developing new bioactive fiber sensors that can be used to monitor bioresponse in situ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. All-metal coupling and package of semiconductor laser and amplifier with optical fiber

    Xu Fenglan; Li Lina; Zhang Yueqing

    1992-01-01

    The semiconductor laser and optical amplifier made by Changchun Institute of Physics coupled with optical fiber by use of all-metal coupling are represented. The net gain of semiconductor laser amplifier with optical fiber is 14 ∼18 dB

  5. 2-LP mode few-mode fiber amplifier employing ring-core erbium-doped fiber.

    Ono, Hirotaka; Hosokawa, Tsukasa; Ichii, Kentaro; Matsuo, Shoichiro; Nasu, Hitoshi; Yamada, Makoto

    2015-10-19

    A fiber amplifier supporting 2 LP modes that employs a ring-core erbium-doped fiber (RC-EDF) is investigated to reduce differential modal gain (DMG). The inner and outer radii of the ring-core of the RC-EDF are clarified for 2-LP mode operation of the amplifier, and are optimized to reduce the DMG. It is shown that using the overlap integral between the erbium-doped core area and the signal power mode distribution is a good way to optimize the inner and outer radii of the ring-core of the RC-EDF and thus minimize the DMG. A fabricated RC-EDF and a constructed 2-LP mode EDFA are described and a small DMG of around 1 dB is realized for LP01, LP11 and LP21 pumping.

  6. Radiation hardening techniques for rare-earth based optical fibers and amplifiers

    Girard, Sylvain; Marcandella, Claude; Vivona, Marilena; Prudenzano, Luciano Mescia F.; Laurent, Arnaud; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoit; Pinsard, Emmanuel; Ouerdane, Youcef; Boukenter, Aziz; Cannas, Marco; Boscaino, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Er/Yb doped fibers and amplifiers have been shown to be very radiation sensitive, limiting their integration in space. We present an approach including successive hardening techniques to enhance their radiation tolerance. The efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by comparing the radiation responses of optical amplifiers made with same lengths of different rare-earth doped fibers and exposed to gamma-rays. Previous studies indicated that such amplifiers suffered significant degradation for doses exceeding 10 krad. Applying our techniques significantly enhances the amplifier radiation resistance, resulting in a very limited degradation up to 50 krad. Our optimization techniques concern the fiber composition, some possible pre-treatments and the interest of simulation tools used to harden by design the amplifiers. We showed that adding cerium inside the fiber phospho-silicate-based core strongly decreases the fiber radiation sensitivity compared to the standard fiber. For both fibers, a pre-treatment with hydrogen permits to enhance again the fiber resistance. Furthermore, simulations tools can also be used to improve the tolerance of the fiber amplifier by helping identifying the best amplifier configuration for operation in the radiative environment. (authors)

  7. 40 W picosecond fiber amplifier with the large mode-area polarized crystal fiber

    Yu, H; Zhou, J; Wushouer, X; Yan, P; Wang, D; Gong, M

    2009-01-01

    We reported the 5W picosecond laser with pulse width of 30 ps and the repetition rate of 100 MHz, which was amplified to 40.2 W with the linear polarized Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber (PCF), with the slope efficiency of about 58%. As much as 17.3 W second-harmonic power was achieved corresponding to the conversion efficiency of 43%

  8. Mechanical characterization of glass fiber (woven roving/chopped strand mat E-glass fiber) reinforced polyester composites

    Bhaskar, V. Vijaya; Srinivas, Kolla

    2017-07-01

    Polymer reinforced composites have been replacing most of the engineering material and their applications become more and more day by day. Polymer composites have been analyzing from past thirty five years for their betterment for adapting more applications. This paper aims at the mechanical properties of polyester reinforced with glass fiber composites. The glass fiber is reinforced with polyester in two forms viz Woven Rovings (WRG) and Chopped Strand Mat (CSMG) E-glass fibers. The composites are fabricated by hand lay-up technique and the composites are cut as per ASTM Standard sizes for corresponding tests like flexural, compression and impact tests, so that flexural strength, compression strength, impact strength and inter laminar shear stress(ILSS) of polymer matrix composites are analyzed. From the tests and further calculations, the polyester composites reinforced with Chopped Strand Mat glass fiber have shown better performance against flexural load, compression load and impact load than that of Woven Roving glass fiber.

  9. Magnetically sensitive nanodiamond-doped tellurite glass fibers.

    Ruan, Yinlan; Simpson, David A; Jeske, Jan; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Lau, Desmond W M; Ji, Hong; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; Afshar V, Shahraam; Hollenberg, Lloyd; Greentree, Andrew D; Monro, Tanya M; Gibson, Brant C

    2018-01-19

    Traditional optical fibers are insensitive to magnetic fields, however many applications would benefit from fiber-based magnetometry devices. In this work, we demonstrate a magnetically sensitive optical fiber by doping nanodiamonds containing nitrogen vacancy centers into tellurite glass fibers. The fabrication process provides a robust and isolated sensing platform as the magnetic sensors are fixed in the tellurite glass matrix. Using optically detected magnetic resonance from the doped nanodiamonds, we demonstrate detection of local magnetic fields via side excitation and longitudinal collection. This is a first step towards intrinsically magneto-sensitive fiber devices with future applications in medical magneto-endoscopy and remote mineral exploration sensing.

  10. Optical and mechanical anisotropy of oxide glass fibers

    Deubener, J.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    products [1], whereas stretching (frozen-in strain) results in optical and mechanical anisotropy of glass fibers, which is quantified inter alia by the specific birefringence [2]. The paper will stress the later effects by combining previous results on the structural origins of birefringence...... and anisotropic shrinkage in silica and phosphate fibers with recent studies on relaxation of optical anisotropy in E-glass fibers [3,4].......Upon fiber drawing, glass forming oxide melts are thermally quenched and mechanically stretched. High cooling rates (up to 106 K/min) of quenched glass fibres lead to higher enthalpy state of liquids, thereby, to higher fictive temperature than regular quenching (e.g. 20 K/min) of bulk glass...

  11. Thermomechanical analyses of phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat

    Zhou, Jintang; Yao, Zhengjun; Chen, Yongxin; Wei, Dongbo; Wu, Yibing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Over 10% glass fiber was used to reinforce phenolic foam in the shape of glass fiber mat. • Nucleating agents were used together with glass fiber mat and improved tensile strength of phenolic foam by 215.6%. • Nucleating agents lead to a smaller bubble size of phenolic foam. • The glass transition temperature of phenolic foam remained unchanged during the reinforcement. - Abstract: In this paper, thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and dynamic mechanical analysis were employed to study the properties of phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat. Unreinforced phenolic foam was taken as the control sample. Mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy were performed to confirm the results of TMA. The results show that glass fiber mat reinforcement improves the mechanical performance of phenolic foam, and nucleating agents improve it further. Phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat has a smaller thermal expansion coefficient compared with unreinforced foam. The storage modulus of the reinforced phenolic foam is also higher than that in unreinforced foam, whereas the loss modulus of the former is lower than that of the latter. The glass transition temperature of the phenolic foam matrix remains unchanged during the reinforcement

  12. Characterization and Morphological Properties of Glass Fiber ...

    PROF HORSFALL

    used as the matrix for the glass fibre-epoxy resin formation. E- Glass fibre ... reinforcement of composites, coatings of materials, and other ..... composite for the manufacture of glass-ceramic materials ... reinforced epoxy composites with carbon.

  13. Enhanced 1.32 μm fluorescence and broadband amplifying for O-band optical amplifier in Nd3+-doped tellurite glass

    Zhou, Zi-zhong; Zhou, Ming-han; Su, Xiu-e.; Cheng, Pan; Zhou, Ya-xun

    2017-01-01

    WO3 oxides with relatively high phonon energy and different concentrations were introduced into the Nd3+-doped tellurite-based glasses of TeO2-ZnO-Na2O to improve the 1.32 μm band fluorescence emission. The absorption spectra, Raman spectra, 1.32 μm band fluorescence spectra and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curves were measured, together with the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, stimulated emission and gain parameters were calculated to evaluate the effects of WO3 amount on the glass structure and spectroscopic properties of 1.32 μm band fluorescence. It is shown that the introduction of an appropriate amount of WO3 oxide can effectively improve the 1.32 μm band fluorescence intensity through the enhanced multi-phonon relaxation (MPR) processes between the excited levels of Nd3+. The results indicate that the prepared Nd3+-doped tellurite glass with an appropriate amount of WO3 oxide is a potential gain medium applied for the O-band broad and high-gain fiber amplifier.

  14. Characterization of an erbium doped fiber amplifier starting from its experimental parameters

    Bello J, M.; Kuzin, E.A.; Ibarra E, B.; Tellez G, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method to characterize the gain of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) through the numerical simulation of the signal beam along the amplifier. The simulation is based on a model constituted by the propagation and rate equations for an erbium-doped fiber. The manipulation of these equations allows us to regroup the parameters present in an EDFA, which we have named the A, B, C, D parameters, and they can be obtained experimentally from an erbium-doped fiber. Experimental results show that the measurement of these parameters allow us to estimate with very good correspondence the amplifier gain. (Author)

  15. MICROWAVE INDUCED DEGRADATION OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYESTER FOR FIBER AND RESIN RECOVERY

    Ucar, Hülya; Nielsen, Rudi Pankratz; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    A solvolysis process to depolymerize the resin in glass fiber reinforced composites and recover the glass fibers has been investigated using microwave induced irradiation. The depolymerization was carried out in HNO3 with concentrations in the range of 1M-7M and in KOH with concentrations ranging...

  16. Radiographic testing of glass fiber reinforced plastic materials

    Babylas, E.

    1976-01-01

    The microradiography of glass fiber reinforced polymers allowed to obtain informations on the growth of defects during molding. A relation was established between microstructure and routine radiography. The conditions needed for obtaining good quality radiograms are analyzed [fr

  17. Fiber Fabrication Facility for Non-Oxide and Specialty Glasses

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Unique facility for the research, development, and fabrication of non-oxide and specialty glasses and fibers in support of Navy/DoD programs.DESCRIPTION:...

  18. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  19. Multifunctionality in epoxy/glass fibers composites with graphene interphase

    Mahmood, Haroon

    2017-01-01

    In this project, the synergetic effect of a graphene interphase in epoxy/glass fibers composites was investigated by coating glass fibers (GF) with graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. Graphite oxide was prepared using modified Hummers method in which raw graphite powder was oxidized using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in acidic solution. Using ultrasonic technique, the graphite oxide was dispersed homogenously in w...

  20. Deformation, Stress Relaxation, and Crystallization of Lithium Silicate Glass Fibers Below the Glass Transition Temperature

    Ray, Chandra S.; Brow, Richard K.; Kim, Cheol W.; Reis, Signo T.

    2004-01-01

    The deformation and crystallization of Li(sub 2)O (center dot) 2SiO2 and Li(sub 2)O (center dot) 1.6SiO2 glass fibers subjected to a bending stress were measured as a function of time over the temperature range -50 to -150 C below the glass transition temperature (Tg). The glass fibers can be permanently deformed at temperatures about 100 C below T (sub)g, and they crystallize significantly at temperatures close to, but below T,, about 150 C lower than the onset temperature for crystallization for these glasses in the no-stress condition. The crystallization was found to occur only on the surface of the glass fibers with no detectable difference in the extent of crystallization in tensile and compressive stress regions. The relaxation mechanism for fiber deformation can be best described by a stretched exponential (Kohlrausch-Williams-Watt (KWW) approximation), rather than a single exponential model.The activation energy for stress relaxation, Es, for the glass fibers ranges between 175 and 195 kJ/mol, which is considerably smaller than the activation energy for viscous flow, E, (about 400 kJ/mol) near T, for these glasses at normal, stress-free condition. It is suspected that a viscosity relaxation mechanism could be responsible for permanent deformation and crystallization of the glass fibers below T,

  1. Machining of glass fiber reinforced polyamide

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The machinability of a 30 wt% glass fiber reinforced polyamide (PA was investigated by means of drilling tests. A disk was cut from an extruded rod and drilled on the flat surface: thrust was acquired during drilling at different drilling speed, feed rate and drill diameter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and indentation were used to characterize PA so as to evaluate the intrinsic lack of homogeneity of the extruded material. In conclusion, it was observed that the chip formation mechanism affects the thrust dependence on the machining parameters. A traditional modeling approach is able to predict thrust only in presence of a continuous chip. In some conditions, thrust increases as drilling speed increases and feed rate decreases; this evidence suggests not to consider the general scientific approach which deals the machining of plastics in analogy with metals. Moreover, the thrust can be significantly affected by the workpiece fabrication effect, as well as by the machining parameters; therefore, the fabrication effect is not negligible in the definition of an optimum for the machining process.

  2. Radiation modification of glass fiber - reinforced plastics

    Allayarov, S.R.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Lesnichaya, V.A.; Ol'khov, Yu.A.; Belov, G.P.; Dixon, D.A.; Kispert, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    Modification of glass fiber - reinforced plastics (GFRPs) by gamma-irradiation has been researched to receipt of polymeric composite materials. They were produced by the film - technology method and the cheapest thermoplastics (polythene, polyamide were used as polymeric matrixes for their manufacture. GFRPs were irradiated with Co 60 gamma-rays from a Gammatok-100 source in air and in vacuum. The strength properties of GFRPs and initial polymeric matrixes were investigated before and after radiolysis. Molecular - topological structure of the polymeric matrixes were tested by the method of thermomechanical spectroscopy. The strength properties of GFRPs depend on a parity of speeds of structural (physical) and chemical modification of the polymeric matrixes. These two processes proceed simultaneously. The structural modification includes physical transformation of polymers at preservation of their chemical structure. Covalent bonds between various macromolecules or between macromolecules and surface of fiberglasses are formed at the chemical modification of polymeric matrixes induced by radiation. Action of ionizing radiation on the used polymeric matrix results to its structurization (polythene) or to destruction (polyamide). Increasing of durability of GFRPs containing polythene is caused by formation of the optimum molecular topological structure of the polymeric matrix. (authors)

  3. Theoretical study of fiber Raman amplifiers by broadband pumps through moment method

    Teimorpour, M. H.; Pourmoghadas, A.; Rahimi, L.; Farman, F.; Bahrampour, A.

    2007-01-01

    The governing equations of Raman optical fiber amplifier with broadband pumps in the steady state are a system of Uncountable Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations. In this paper, the Moment Method is used to reduce the uncountable system of Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations to a system of finite number of Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations. This system of equations is solved numerically. It is shown that the Moment Method is a precise and fast technique for analysis of optical fiber Raman Amplifier with broadband pumps.

  4. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M

    2003-07-15

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix.

  5. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix

  6. High-Power ZBLAN Glass Fiber Lasers: Review and Prospect

    Xiushan Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF, considered as the most stable heavy metal fluoride glass and the excellent host for rare-earth ions, has been extensively used for efficient and compact ultraviolet, visible, and infrared fiber lasers due to its low intrinsic loss, wide transparency window, and small phonon energy. In this paper, the historical progress and the properties of fluoride glasses and the fabrication of ZBLAN fibers are briefly described. Advances of infrared, upconversion, and supercontinuum ZBLAN fiber lasers are addressed in detail. Finally, constraints on the power scaling of ZBLAN fiber lasers are analyzed and discussed. ZBLAN fiber lasers are showing promise of generating high-power emissions covering from ultraviolet to mid-infrared considering the recent advances in newly designed optical fibers, beam-shaped high-power pump diodes, beam combining techniques, and heat-dissipating technology.

  7. Environmental resistance and mechanical performance of basalt and glass fibers

    Wei Bin; Cao Hailin; Song Shenhua

    2010-01-01

    The treated basalt and glass fibers with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solutions for different times were analyzed, respectively. This paper summarized the mass loss ratio and the strength maintenance ratios of the fibers after treatment. The fibers' surface corrosion morphologies were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and their compositions were detected using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The acid resistance was much better than the alkali resistance for the basalt fibers. Nevertheless, for the glass fibers the situation is different: the acid resistance was almost the same as the alkali resistance. Among the two types of aqueous environments evaluated, the alkali solution is the most aggressive to the fibers' surface. The possible corrosion mechanisms are revealed.

  8. Erbium/ytterbium co-doped double clad fiber amplifier, its applications and effects in fiber optic communication systems

    Dua, Puneit

    Increased demand for larger bandwidth and longer inter-amplifiers distances translates to higher power budgets for fiber optic communication systems in order to overcome large splitting losses and achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. Due to their unique design ytterbium sensitized erbium doped, double clad fiber amplifiers; offer significant increase in the output powers that can be obtained. In this thesis we investigate, a one-stage, high power erbium and ytterbium co-doped double clad fiber amplifier (DCFA) with output power of 1.4W, designed and built in our lab. Experimental demonstration and numerical simulation techniques have been used to systematically study the applications of such an amplifier and the effects of incorporating it in various fiber optic communication systems. Amplitude modulated subcarrier multiplexed (AM-SCM) CATV distribution experiment has been performed to verify the feasibility of using this amplifier in an analog/digital communication system. The applications of the amplifier as a Fabry-Perot and ring fiber laser with an all-fiber cavity, a broadband supercontinuum source and for generation of high power, short pulses at 5GHz have been experimentally demonstrated. A variety of observable nonlinear effects occur due to the high intensity of the optical powers confined in micron-sized cores of the fibers, this thesis explores in detail some of these effects caused by using the high power Er/Yb double clad fiber amplifier. A fiber optic based analog/digital CATV system experiences composite second order (CSO) distortion due to the interaction between the gain tilt---the variation of gain with wavelength, of the doped fiber amplifier and the wavelength chirp of the directly modulated semiconductor laser. Gain tilt of the Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifier has been experimentally measured and its contribution to the CSO of the system calculated. Theoretical analysis of a wavelength division multiplexed system with closely spaced

  9. Stability of a 500 km erbium-doped fiber amplifier cascade

    Lumholt, Ole; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard

    1992-01-01

    The stability of a cascade system of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, due to pump and signal power variations, has been examined by use of a very accurate model. Even with an automatic gain control loop included, a fallout of a pump laser in the first inline amplifier is shown to produce a more than...

  10. Dynamic characterization and amplification of sub-picosecond pulses in fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers

    Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2013-01-01

    We show a first-time demonstration of amplification of 400 fs pulses in a fiber optical parametric amplifier. The 400 fs signal is stretched in time, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs. A significant broadening of the pulses is experimentally shown due to dispersion and limited gain...

  11. 32-core Inline Multicore Fiber Amplifier for Dense Space Division Multiplexed Transmission Systems

    Jain, S.; Mizuno, T.; Jung, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-core-count SDM amplifier, i.e. 32-core multicore-fiber amplifier, in a cladding-pumped configuration. An average gain of 17dB and NF of 7dB is obtained for -5dBm input signal power in the wavelength range 1544nm-1564nm....

  12. Impact of gain saturation on the mode instability threshold in high-power fiber amplifiers

    Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We present a coupled-mode model of transverse mode instability in high-power fiber amplifiers, which takes the effect of gain saturation into account. The model provides simple semi-analytical formulas for the mode instability threshold, which are valid also for highly saturated amplifiers...

  13. Low-NA single-mode LMA photonic crystal fiber amplifier

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Scolari, Lara

    2011-01-01

    a spatially Distributed Mode Filter (DMF). This approach achieves SM performance in a short and straight rod fiber and allows preform tolerances to be compensated during draw. A low-NA SM rod fiber amplifier having a mode field diameter of ~60μm at 1064nm and a pump absorption of 27dB/m at 976nm...

  14. Hybrid Ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber amplifier for long wavelengths

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Poli, Federica

    2012-01-01

    A large-mode-area Ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with build-in gain shaping is presented. The fiber cladding consists of a hexagonal lattice of air holes, where three rows are replaced with circular high-index inclusions. Seven missing air holes define the large-mode-area core. ...

  15. Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability

    Laurila, Marko; Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a high power fiber (85μm core) amplifier delivering up to 292Watts of average output power using a mode-locked 30ps source at 1032nm. Utilizing a single mode distributed mode filter bandgap rod fiber, we demonstrate 44% power improvement before the threshold-like onset of mode inst...

  16. Few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier with photonic lantern for pump spatial mode control

    Lopez-Galmiche, G.; Eznaveh, Z. Sanjabi; Antonio-Lopez, J.E.; Benitez, A. M. Velazquez; Rodriguez-Asomoza, Jorge; Mondragon, J. J. Sanchez; Gonnet, C.; Sillard, P.; Li, G.; Schülzgen, A.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Amezcua Correa, R.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier employing a mode-selective photonic lantern for controlling the modal content of the pump light. Amplification of six spatial modes in a 5 m long erbium-doped fiber to x223C;6.2x2009;x2009;dBm average power is obtained while maintaining high

  17. Thermo-optical effects in high-power Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of temperature gradients in high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers by a numerical beam propagation model, which takes thermal effects into account in a self-consistent way. The thermally induced change in the refractive index of the fiber leads to a thermal lensing effect...

  18. Ultra-stable, diode-pumped Nd-doped glass regenerative amplifier for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Crane, J.K.; Martinez, M.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.; Pratt, G.; Christensen, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    We describe a diode laser-pumped Nd:glass regenerative amplifier that amplifies temporally shaped pulses with low distortion, high pulse-to- pulse stability, and high gain. This laser amplifier is a prototype subsystem for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. 2 refs., 1 fig

  19. Hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide glass nanofilms

    Markos, Christos; Kubat, Irnis; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chalcogenide glasses with polymer photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is a difficult and challenging task due to their different thermo-mechanical material properties. Here we report the first experimental realization of a hybrid polymer-chalcogenide PCF with integrated As2S3 glass...... nanofilms at the inner surface of the air-channels of a poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) PCF. The integrated high refractive index glass films introduce distinct antiresonant transmission bands in the 480-900 nm wavelength region. We demonstrate that the ultra-high Kerr nonlinearity of the chalcogenide glass...

  20. 1-MHz high power femtosecond Yb-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplifier

    Hu, Zhong-Qi; Yang, Pei-Long; Teng, Hao; Zhu, Jiang-Feng; Wei, Zhi-Yi

    2018-01-01

    A practical femtosecond polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fiber amplifier enabling 153 fs transform-limited pulse duration with 32 μJ pulse energy at 1 MHz repetition rate corresponding to a peak power of 0.21 GW is demonstrated. The laser system based on chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique is seeded by a dispersion managed, nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) mode-locked oscillator with spectrum bandwidth of 31 nm at 1040 nm and amplified by three fiber pre-amplifying stages and a rod type fiber main amplifying stage. The laser works with beam quality of M2 of 1.3 and power stability of 0.63% (root mean square, RMS) over 24 hours will be stable sources for industrial micromachining, medical therapy and scientific research.

  1. Empirical multichannel power consumption model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; de Paiva, Getulio E. R.; Argentato, Marcio Colazza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on the first experimental power consumption analysis and model of single and multi-stage booster erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with automatic gain control (AGC), accounting for channel number dependency. Results show that the amount of channels being amplified simu......-users, it is relevant to study channel number dependent power consumption for devising EDFA power efficient control and design.......In this paper we report on the first experimental power consumption analysis and model of single and multi-stage booster erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with automatic gain control (AGC), accounting for channel number dependency. Results show that the amount of channels being amplified...... simultaneously contributes significantly, up to 48%, to the total power consumption due to the circuitry used for controlling the EDFA. As the number of simultaneous amplified WDM channels in high capacity long and medium reach transmission links reflects closely traffic patterns generated by end...

  2. Influences of finite gain bandwidth on pulse propagation in parabolic fiber amplifiers with distributed gain profiles

    Zhao Jia-Sheng; Li Pan; Chen Xiao-Dong; Feng Su-Juan; Mao Qing-He

    2012-01-01

    The evolutions of the pulses propagating in decreasing and increasing gain distributed fiber amplifiers with finite gain bandwidths are investigated by simulations with the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The results show that the parabolic pulse propagations in both the decreasing and the increasing gain amplifiers are restricted by the finite gain bandwidth. For a given input pulse, by choosing a small initial gain coefficient and gain variation rate, the whole gain for the pulse amplification limited by the gain bandwidth may be higher, which is helpful for the enhancement of the output linearly chirped pulse energy. Compared to the decreasing gain distributed fiber amplifier, the increasing gain distributed amplifier may be more conducive to suppress the pulse spectral broadening and increase the critical amplifier length for achieving a larger output linearly chirped pulse energy

  3. Design of a transimpedance amplifier for a bio-optical fiber sensor

    Pola, L.; Camasa, J.; Gomez B, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a fairly detailed model for a photodiode coupled to an operational amplifier in the trans impedance circuit configuration, for the applications in Biotechnology. An optical signal of the fiber optic biosensor is detected by a photodiode and its photocurrent generated is introduced in the trans impedance amplifier. The proposed design uses a photodiode in photovoltaic mode, and its photocurrent is coupled to an amplifier with positive output. Finally, the trans impedance amplifier presents reliable design characteristics such as accuracy, stability, low noise, and the ability to measure photocurrent from 1nA to 100μA. (Author)

  4. Radiation-hardened optical amplifier based on multicore fiber for telecommunication satellites

    Filipowicz, M.; Napierała, M.; Murawski, M.; Ostrowski, L.; Szostkiewicz, L.; Mergo, P.; Kechagias, M.; Farzana, J.; Stampoulidis, L.; Kehayas, E.; Crabb, J.; Nasilowski, T.

    2017-10-01

    Our research results concerning a space-dedicated C-band optical amplifier for application in telecommunication satellites are presented in this article. The device is based on a 7-core microstructured fiber where independent access to each core is granted by an all fiber fan-in/ fan-out coupler. The amplifier properties are described as well as its performance after irradiation to a maximal dose of 100 kRad. Also the difference between two kinds of fiber material compositions is discussed with regard to radiation resistance.

  5. Polarization-maintaining, double-clad fiber amplifier employing externally applied stress-induced birefringence

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Goldberg, Lew; Moeller, Robert P.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.

    2000-01-01

    We report a new approach to obtaining linear-polarization operation of a rare-earth-doped fiber amplifier in which the gain fiber is coiled under tension to induce birefringence. We demonstrated this method by constructing an Er/Yb-doped, double-clad, single-mode fiber amplifier with an output power of 530 mW and a polarization extinction ratio of >17 dB (when seeded with linearly polarized light) at a wavelength of ∼1.5 μm . The technique is achromatic, permits single- or multiple-pass operation of the amplifier, requires no additional components in the optical path, leaves the fiber ends unobstructed, and is inexpensive to implement. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  6. High repetition rate tunable femtosecond pulses and broadband amplification from fiber laser pumped parametric amplifier.

    Andersen, T V; Schmidt, O; Bruchmann, C; Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Cormier, E; Tünnermann, A

    2006-05-29

    We report on the generation of high energy femtosecond pulses at 1 MHz repetition rate from a fiber laser pumped optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Nonlinear bandwidth enhancement in fibers provides the intrinsically synchronized signal for the parametric amplifier. We demonstrate large tunability extending from 700 nm to 1500 nm of femtosecond pulses with pulse energies as high as 1.2 muJ when the OPA is seeded by a supercontinuum generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Broadband amplification over more than 85 nm is achieved at a fixed wavelength. Subsequent compression in a prism sequence resulted in 46 fs pulses. With an average power of 0.5 W these pulses have a peak-power above 10 MW. In particular, the average power and pulse energy scalability of both involved concepts, the fiber laser and the parametric amplifier, will enable easy up-scaling to higher powers.

  7. Effect of fiber content on the properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite

    Zaki, M.Y.; Shahid, M.R.; Subhani, T.; Sharif, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts /components related to electronic and aerospace industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make parts/components of new designs. In the present research, thermosetting phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical and electrical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

  8. Continuous drawing of Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O glass fibers from a preform

    Zheng, H.; Hu, Y.; Mackenzie, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Several issues related to drawing Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O glass fibers from a preform are discussed. Continuous drawing of Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O glass fibers was successfully accomplished. Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O glass fibers are drawn above the crystallization temperature. Minimizing crystallization of the glass preforms is a key for successful drawing of the glass fibers. Two effective means, high glass melting temperature and V 2 O 5 doping, have been used to minimize the crystallization of the preforms, thus assuring the continuous drawing of Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O glass fibers

  9. Physical Properties of AR-Glass Fibers in Continuous Fiber Spinning Conditions

    Lee, Ji-Sun; Lee, MiJai; Lim, Tae-Young; Lee, Youngjin; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Ho [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Soong-Keun [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, a glass fiber is fabricated using a continuous spinning process from alkali resistant (AR) glass with 4 wt%zirconia. In order to confirm the melting properties of the marble glass, the raw material is placed into a Pt crucible and melted at 1650 ℃ for 2 h, and then annealed. In order to confirm the transparency of the clear marble glass, the visible transmittance is measured and the fiber spinning condition is investigated by using high temperature viscosity measurements. A change in the diameter is observed according to the winding speed in the range of 100–900 rpm; it is also verified as a function of the fiberizing temperature in the range of 1200–1260 ℃. The optimum winding speed and spinning temperature are 500 rpm and 1240 ℃, respectively. The properties of the prepared spinning fiber are confirmed using optical microscope, tensile strength, modulus, and alkali-resistant tests.

  10. High peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state amplifier system

    Wushouer, X; Yan, P; Yu, H; Liu, Q; Fu, X; Yan, X; Gong, M

    2010-01-01

    We report the high peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state laser amplifier system. The passively mode-locked solid-state seed source produced an average power of 1.8 W with pulse width of 14 ps and repetition rate of 86 MHz. It was directly coupled into the first Yb-doped polarized photonic crystal fiber amplifier stage. To avoid the nonlinear effects in fiber, the output power from the first stage was merely amplified to 24 W with the narrow spectra broadening of 0.21 nm. For the improvement of the peak power, the dual-end pumped composite Nd:YVO 4 amplifier system has been chosen at the second stage. To reduce the serious thermal effect, the thermally bonded composite YVO 4 – Nd:YVO 4 – YVO 4 rod crystal was used as the gain medium. The 53 W TEM 00 mode with the peak power of 40 kW, beam quality of M 2 < 1.15, corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 42.4% was obtained at the hybrid amplifier laser system. The system allows using a low power seed source and demonstrates an increase in the peak power beyond a fiber master oscillator power amplifier's (MOPA's) limit

  11. Characterization and reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces

    Ortiz Rivera, Lymaris, E-mail: luo105@psu.edu [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bakaev, Victor A.; Banerjee, Joy [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • XPS revealed that these fiber surfaces contain sodium carbonate weathering products. • IGC–MS data confirms the products of acetic acid reaction with sodium carbonate. • NMR data shows two closely spaced, but distinct sodium carboxylate peaks. • Acetic acid reacts with both sodium in the glass and sodium in the sodium carbonate. - Abstract: Multicomponent complex oxides, such as sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fibers, are important materials used for thermal insulation in buildings and homes. Although the surface properties of single oxides, such as silica, have been extensively studied, less is known about the distribution of reactive sites at the surface of multicomponent oxides. Here, we investigated the reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces for better understanding of their interface chemistry and bonding with acrylic polymers. Acetic acid (with and without a {sup 13}C enrichment) was used as a probe representative of the carboxylic functional groups in many acrylic polymers and adhesives. Inverse gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (IGC–MS), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), were used to characterize the fiber surface reactions and surface chemical structure. In this way, we discovered that both sodium ions in the glass surface, as well as sodium carbonate salts that formed on the surface due to the intrinsic reactivity of this glass in humid air, are primary sites of interaction with the carboxylic acid. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of sodium carbonates on these surfaces. Computer simulations of the interactions between the reactive sites on the glass fiber surface with acetic acid were performed to evaluate energetically favorable reactions. The adsorption reactions with sodium in the glass structure provide adhesive bonding sites, whereas the reaction with the sodium carbonate consumes the acid to form sodium-carboxylate, H

  12. Laser amplifier based on a neodymium glass rod 150 mm in diameter

    Shaykin, A A; Fokin, A P; Soloviev, A A; Kuzmin, A A; Shaikin, I A; Burdonov, K F; Khazanov, E A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Charukhchev, A V [Public Limited Company " Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering" , Leningrad region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-30

    A unique large-aperture neodymium glass rod amplifier is experimentally studied. The small-signal gain distribution is measured at different pump energies. The aperture-averaged gain is found to be 2.3. The stored energy (500 J), the maximum possible pump pulse repetition rate, and the depolarisation in a single pulse and in a series of pulses with a repetition rate of one pulse per five minutes are calculated based on the investigations performed. It is shown that the use of this amplifier at the exit of the existing laser can increase the output pulse energy from 300 to 600 J. (lasers)

  13. Optimized radiation-hardened erbium doped fiber amplifiers for long space missions

    Ladaci, A.; Girard, S.; Mescia, L.; Robin, T.; Laurent, A.; Cadier, B.; Boutillier, M.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we developed and exploited simulation tools to optimize the performances of rare earth doped fiber amplifiers (REDFAs) for space missions. To describe these systems, a state-of-the-art model based on the rate equations and the particle swarm optimization technique is developed in which we also consider the main radiation effect on REDFA: the radiation induced attenuation (RIA). After the validation of this tool set by confrontation between theoretical and experimental results, we investigate how the deleterious radiation effects on the amplifier performance can be mitigated following adequate strategies to conceive the REDFA architecture. The tool set was validated by comparing the calculated Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain degradation under X-rays at ˜300 krad(SiO2) with the corresponding experimental results. Two versions of the same fibers were used in this work, a standard optical fiber and a radiation hardened fiber, obtained by loading the previous fiber with hydrogen gas. Based on these fibers, standard and radiation hardened EDFAs were manufactured and tested in different operating configurations, and the obtained data were compared with simulation data done considering the same EDFA structure and fiber properties. This comparison reveals a good agreement between simulated gain and experimental data (vulnerability in terms of gain. The presented approach is a complementary and effective tool for hardening by device techniques and opens new perspectives for the applications of REDFAs and lasers in harsh environments.

  14. Stimulated Raman scattering in soft glass fluoride fibers

    Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune; Agger, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650nm. We found a peak gain of gR ¼ 4:0 2 × 10−14mW−1.......We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650nm. We found a peak gain of gR ¼ 4:0 2 × 10−14mW−1....

  15. Midinfrared optical rogue waves in soft glass photonic crystal fiber

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Steffensen, Henrik; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike

    2011-01-01

    We investigate numerically the formation of extreme events or rogue waves in soft glass tellurite fibers and demonstrate that optical loss drastically diminishes shot-to-shot fluctuations characteristic of picosecond pumped supercontinuum (SC). When loss is neglected these fluctuations include...... distributions. Our results thus implicitly show that rogue waves will not occur in any SC spectrum that is limited by loss, such as commercial silica fiber based SC sources. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  16. Fiber glass-bioactive glass composite for bone replacing and bone anchoring implants.

    Vallittu, Pekka K; Närhi, Timo O; Hupa, Leena

    2015-04-01

    Although metal implants have successfully been used for decades, devices made out of metals do not meet all clinical requirements, for example, metal objects may interfere with some new medical imaging systems, while their stiffness also differs from natural bone and may cause stress-shielding and over-loading of bone. Peer-review articles and other scientific literature were reviewed for providing up-dated information how fiber-reinforced composites and bioactive glass can be utilized in implantology. There has been a lot of development in the field of composite material research, which has focused to a large extent on biodegradable composites. However, it has become evident that biostable composites may also have several clinical benefits. Fiber reinforced composites containing bioactive glasses are relatively new types of biomaterials in the field of implantology. Biostable glass fibers are responsible for the load-bearing capacity of the implant, while the dissolution of the bioactive glass particles supports bone bonding and provides antimicrobial properties for the implant. These kinds of combination materials have been used clinically in cranioplasty implants and they have been investigated also as oral and orthopedic implants. The present knowledge suggests that by combining glass fiber-reinforced composite with particles of bioactive glass can be used in cranial implants and that the combination of materials may have potential use also as other types of bone replacing and repairing implants. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulse-shaping strategies in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    Schimpf, Damian Nikolaus

    2010-02-09

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are an important tool in scientific and industrial applications. However, many applications are demanding higher average powers from these ultrashort pulse sources. This can be achieved by combining direct diode pumping with novel gain media designs. In particular, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are now delivering average powers in the kW range. However, the design of fiber lasers, producing pulses with high peak-powers, is challenging due to the impact of nonlinear effects. To significantly reduce these detrimental effects in ultrashort pulse fiber amplifers, the combination of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and large mode area fibers is employed. Using these methods, the pulse energy of fiber lasers has been steadily increasing for the past few years. Recently, a fiber-based CPA-system has been demonstrated which produces pulse energies of around 1 mJ. However, both the stretching and the enlargement of the mode area are limited, and therefore, the impact of nonlinearity is still noticed in systems employing such devices. The aim of this thesis is the analysis of CPA-systems operated beyond the conventional nonlinear limit, which corresponds to accumulated nonlinear phase-shifts around 1 rad. This includes a detailed discussion of the influence of the nonlinear effect self-phase modulation on the output pulse of CPA-systems. An analytical model is presented. Emphasis is placed on the design of novel concepts to control the impact of self-phase modulation. Pulse-shaping is regarded as a powerful tool to accomplish this goal. Novel methods to control the impact of SPM are experimentally demonstrated. The design of these concepts is based on the theoretical findings. Both amplitude- and phase-shaping are studied. Model-based phase-shaping is implemented in a state-of-the-art fiber CPA-system. The influence of the polarization state is also highlighted. Additionally, existing techniques and recent advances are put into context. (orig.)

  18. Pulse-shaping strategies in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    Schimpf, Damian Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are an important tool in scientific and industrial applications. However, many applications are demanding higher average powers from these ultrashort pulse sources. This can be achieved by combining direct diode pumping with novel gain media designs. In particular, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are now delivering average powers in the kW range. However, the design of fiber lasers, producing pulses with high peak-powers, is challenging due to the impact of nonlinear effects. To significantly reduce these detrimental effects in ultrashort pulse fiber amplifers, the combination of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and large mode area fibers is employed. Using these methods, the pulse energy of fiber lasers has been steadily increasing for the past few years. Recently, a fiber-based CPA-system has been demonstrated which produces pulse energies of around 1 mJ. However, both the stretching and the enlargement of the mode area are limited, and therefore, the impact of nonlinearity is still noticed in systems employing such devices. The aim of this thesis is the analysis of CPA-systems operated beyond the conventional nonlinear limit, which corresponds to accumulated nonlinear phase-shifts around 1 rad. This includes a detailed discussion of the influence of the nonlinear effect self-phase modulation on the output pulse of CPA-systems. An analytical model is presented. Emphasis is placed on the design of novel concepts to control the impact of self-phase modulation. Pulse-shaping is regarded as a powerful tool to accomplish this goal. Novel methods to control the impact of SPM are experimentally demonstrated. The design of these concepts is based on the theoretical findings. Both amplitude- and phase-shaping are studied. Model-based phase-shaping is implemented in a state-of-the-art fiber CPA-system. The influence of the polarization state is also highlighted. Additionally, existing techniques and recent advances are put into context. (orig.)

  19. Integrating amplifiers for PHENIX lead-glass and lead-scintillator calorimeters

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Simpson, M.L.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Palmer, R.L.; Jackson, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Two types of integrating amplifier systems have been developed for use with lead-glass and lead-scintillator calorimeters with photomultiplier tube readout. Requirements for the amplifier system include termination of the line from the photomultiplier, compact size and low power dissipation to allow multiple channels per chip, dual range outputs producing 10-bit accuracy over a 14-bit dynamic range, rms noise levels of one LSB or less, and compatibility with timing filter amplifiers, tower sum circuits for triggering and calibration circuits to be built on the same integrated circuit (IC). Advantages and disadvantages of an active integrator system are compared and contrasted to those of a passive integrator-based system. In addition, details of the designs and results from prototype devices including an 8-channel active integrator IC fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS are presented

  20. Optimization of pump parameters for gain flattened Raman fiber amplifiers based on artificial fish school algorithm

    Jiang, Hai Ming; Xie, Kang; Wang, Ya Fei

    2011-11-01

    In this work, a novel metaheuristic named artificial fish school algorithm is introduced into the optimization of pump parameters for the design of gain flattened Raman fiber amplifiers for the first time. Artificial fish school algorithm emulates three simple social behaviors of a fish in a school, namely, preying, swarming and following, to optimize a target function. In this algorithm the pump wavelengths and power levels are mapped respectively to the state of a fish in a school, and the gain of a Raman fiber amplifier is mapped to the concentration of a food source for the fish school to search. Application of this algorithm to the design of a C-band gain flattened Raman fiber amplifier leads to an optimized amplifier that produces a flat gain spectrum with 0.63 dB in band ripple for given conditions. This result demonstrates that the artificial fish school algorithm is efficient for the optimization of pump parameters of gain flattened Raman fiber amplifiers.

  1. Improving the interfacial and mechanical properties of short glass fiber/epoxy composites by coating the glass fibers with cellulose nanocrystals

    A. Asadi; M. Miller; Robert Moon; K. Kalaitzidou

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the interfacial and mechanical properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) coated glass fiber/epoxy composites were investigated as a function of the CNC content on the surface of glass fibers (GF). Chopped GF rovings were coated with CNC by immersing the GF in CNC (0–5 wt%) aqueous suspensions. Single fiber fragmentation (SFF) tests showed that the...

  2. Optimization of E r-density profile for efficient pumping and high signal gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Arzi, E.; Hassani, A.; Esmaili Seraji, F.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier has been shown to have a great potentiality in Fiber-Optics Communication. A model is suggested for calculating the E r-density profile, using the propagation and rate equations of a homogeneous two-level laser medium in Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier, such that efficient pumping and high signal gain is achieved for different fiber waveguide structure. The result of this numerical calculation shows that the gain, compared with the gain of the existing Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier, is higher by a factor of 3.5. This model is applicable in all active waveguides and any other dopant as well

  3. Ytterbium-Phosphate Glass for Microstructured Fiber Laser

    Ryszard Stępień

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we report on the development of a synthesis and melting method of phosphate glasses designed for active microstructured fiber manufacturing. Non-doped glass synthesized in a P2O5-Al2O3-BaO-ZnO-MgO-Na2O oxide system served as the matrix material; meanwhile, the glass was doped with 6 mol% (18 wt% of Yb2O3, as fiber core. The glasses were well-fitted in relation to optical (refractive index and thermal proprieties (thermal expansion coefficient, rheology. The fiber with the Yb3+-doped core, with a wide internal photonic microstructure for a laser pump, as well as with a high relative hole size in the photonic outer air-cladding, was produced. The laser built on the basis of this fiber enabled achieving 8.07 W of output power with 20.5% slope efficiency against the launched pump power, in single-mode operation M2 = 1.59, from a 53 cm-long cavity.

  4. Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Soft-glass Fibers

    Agger, Christian

    This Ph.D.-project presents numerical simulations of supercontinuum (SC) generation in optical fiber laser systems based on various soft-glass materials. Extensive numerical modeling is performed in order to understand and characterize the generated SC. This includes a review of the generalized...

  5. Effects of moisture on glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    performance of wind turbine blades over their lifetime. Here, environmental moisture conditions were simulated by immersing glass fiber-reinforced polymer specimens in salt water for a period of up to 8 years. The mechanical properties of specimens were analyzed before and after immersion to evaluate...

  6. Investigations on the Broadband Shielding Effectiveness of Metallized Glass Fiber

    Coburn, William

    1998-01-01

    ...) is an E-glass fiber metallized with Al and processed into a nonwoven mat. When formed into a mat, the MGFs lead to an effective sample conductivity, sigma eff, which is the parameter of interest for electromagnetic shielding in the RF region...

  7. Production of continuous glass fiber using lunar simulant

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    The processing parameters and mechanical properties of glass fibers pulled from simulated lunar basalt are tested. The simulant was prepared using a plasma technique. The composition is representative of a low titanium mare basalt (Apollo sample 10084). Lunar gravity experiments are to be performed utilizing parabolic aircraft free-fall maneuvers which yield 30 seconds of 1/6-g per maneuver.

  8. In vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity of chemically treated glass fibers

    Ângela Leão Andrade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of a commercial glass fiber FM® (Fiber Max were used to test the efficacy of a chemical sol-gel surface treatment to enhance their bioactivity. After treatment with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, individual fiber samples were soaked into a simulated body fluid (SBF solution, from which they were removed at intervals of 5 and 10 days. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis of samples chemically treated with TEOS revealed the formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA coating layer after 5 days into SBF solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR analyses confirmed that the coating layer has P-O vibration bands characteristic of HA. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated using a direct contact test, minimum essential medium elution test (ISO 10993-5 and MTT assay. Fibers immersed in SBF and their extracts exhibited lower cytotoxicity than the controls not subjected to immersion, suggesting that SBF treatment improves the biocompatibility of the fiber.

  9. Giant Pulse Phenomena in a High Gain Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

    Li, Stephen X.; Merritt, Scott; Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    High gain Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs) are vulnerable to optical damage when unseeded, e.g. due to nonlinear effects that produce random, spontaneous Q-switched (SQS) pulses with high peak power, i.e. giant pulses. Giant pulses can damage either the components within a high gain EDFA or external components and systems coupled to the EDFA. We explore the conditions under which a reflective, polarization-maintaining (PM), core-pumped high gain EDFA generates giant pulses, provide details on the evolution of normal pulses into giant pulses, and provide results on the transient effects of giant pulses on an amplifier's fused-fiber couplers, an effect which we call Fiber Overload Induced Leakage (FOIL). While FOIL's effect on fused-fiber couplers is temporary, its damage to forward pump lasers in a high gain EDFA can be permanent.

  10. Glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes for evoked potential recordings

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for recording field potentials with tungsten electrodes make it virtually impossible to use the same recording electrode also as a lesioning electrode, for example for histological confirmation of the recorded site, because the lesioning procedure usually wears off the tungsten tip. Therefore, the electrode would have to be replaced after each lesioning procedure, which is a very high cost solution to the problem. We present here a low cost, easy to make, high quality glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrode that shows resistive, signal/noise and electrochemical coupling advantages over tungsten electrodes. Also, currently used carbon fiber microelectrodes often show problems with electrical continuity, especially regarding electrochemical applications using a carbon-powder/resin mixture, with consequent low performance, besides the inconvenience of handling such a mixture. We propose here a new method for manufacturing glass pipette-carbon fiber microelectrodes with several advantages when recording intracerebral field potentials

  11. Ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber amplifier with gain shaping for use at long wavelengths

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Poli, Federica

    2012-01-01

    A large-mode-area Ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with efficient suppression of amplified spontaneous emission is presented. The fiber cladding consists of a hexagonal lattice of air holes, where three rows are replaced with circular high-index inclusions. Seven missing air holes...

  12. 32-core erbium/ytterbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier for next generation space-division multiplexed transmission system

    Jain, Saurabh; Castro, Carlos; Jung, Yongmin

    2017-01-01

    We present a high-core-count 32-core multicore erbium/ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier (32c-MC-EYDFA) in a cladding pumped configuration. A side pumping technique is employed for ease of pump coupling in this monolithic all-fiber amplifier. A minimum gain of >17 dB and an average noise figure (NF)...

  13. Fiber fuse light-induced continuous breakdown of silica glass optical fiber

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the fiber fuse phenomenon that causes a serious problem for the present optical communication systems. High-power light often brings about catastrophic damage to optical devices. Silica glass optical fibers with ultralow transmission loss are not the exception. A fiber fuse appears in a heated region of the fiber cable delivering a few watts of light and runs toward the light source destroying its core region. Understanding this phenomenon is a necessary first step in the development of future optical communication systems. This book provides supplementary videos and photog

  14. Raman and loss induced quantum noise in depleted fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-classical approach for predicting the quantum noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The unavoidable contributors of noise, vacuum fluctuations, loss-induced noise, and spontaneous Raman scattering, are included in the analysis of both phase-insensitive and phase...

  15. Research of the mode instability threshold in high power double cladding Yb-doped fiber amplifiers

    Wang, Yanshan; Ma, Yi; Sun, Yinhong; Peng, Wanjing; Tang, Chun; Liu, Qinyong; Ke, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the behavior of the mode instability (MI) threshold in the double cladding Yb-doped fiber amplifier when the amplifier is pumped by broad linewidth laser diodes and narrow linewidth laser diodes respectively. It is found that the MI threshold increases by 26% when the amplifier is pumped by the broad linewidth laser diodes. Experiment results show that the MI threshold is affected by the local heat load rather than the average or the total heat load. The calculation shows that the local heat deposit actually plays the key role to stimulate the MI behaviour. At the MI threshold position in the fiber, the local heat deposit also changes dramatically. The effect of the thermal conductivity on the MI threshold is also studied. Our investigation shows that the MI threshold increases from 1269 W to 1950 W when the thermal conductivity of the fiber amplifier is increased from 0.3 W/(m . K) to 5 W/(m . K). Through optimizing the pump linewidth and the cooling efficiency of the gain fiber, the MI threshold is doubled in our experiment. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Research of the mode instability threshold in high power double cladding Yb-doped fiber amplifiers

    Wang, Yanshan; Ma, Yi; Sun, Yinhong; Peng, Wanjing; Tang, Chun [Institute of Applied Electronics, CAEP, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); The Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on High Energy Laser, CAEP, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Liu, Qinyong; Ke, Weiwei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, CAEP, Beijing (China); Wang, Xiaojun [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, CAEP, Beijing (China); Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing (China)

    2017-08-15

    We experimentally investigate the behavior of the mode instability (MI) threshold in the double cladding Yb-doped fiber amplifier when the amplifier is pumped by broad linewidth laser diodes and narrow linewidth laser diodes respectively. It is found that the MI threshold increases by 26% when the amplifier is pumped by the broad linewidth laser diodes. Experiment results show that the MI threshold is affected by the local heat load rather than the average or the total heat load. The calculation shows that the local heat deposit actually plays the key role to stimulate the MI behaviour. At the MI threshold position in the fiber, the local heat deposit also changes dramatically. The effect of the thermal conductivity on the MI threshold is also studied. Our investigation shows that the MI threshold increases from 1269 W to 1950 W when the thermal conductivity of the fiber amplifier is increased from 0.3 W/(m . K) to 5 W/(m . K). Through optimizing the pump linewidth and the cooling efficiency of the gain fiber, the MI threshold is doubled in our experiment. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Three mode Er3+ ring-doped fiber amplifier for mode-division multiplexed transmission

    Jung, Y.; Kang, Q.; Sleiffer, V.A.J.M.; Inan, B.; Kuschnerov, M.; Veljanovski, V.; Corbett, B.; Winfield, R.; Li, Z.; Teh, P.S.; Dhar, A.; Sahu, J.K.; Poletti, F.; Alam, S.U.; Richardson, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    We successfully fabricate three-mode erbium doped fiber with a confined Er3+ doped ring structure and experimentally characterize the amplifier performance with a view to mode-division multiplexed (MDM) transmission. The differential modal gain was effectively mitigated by controlling the relative

  18. Polymer-Optical-Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers Doped with Organic Dyes

    Joseba Zubia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymer optical fibers (POFs doped with organic dyes can be used to make efficient lasers and amplifiers due to the high gains achievable in short distances. This paper analyzes the peculiarities of light amplification in POFs through some experimental data and a computational model capable of carrying out both power and spectral analyses. We investigate the emission spectral shifts and widths and on the optimum signal wavelength and pump power as functions of the fiber length, the fiber numerical aperture and the radial distribution of the dopant. Analyses for both step-index and graded-index POFs have been done.

  19. Remote Fiber Laser Cutting System for Dismantling Glass Melter - 13071

    Mitsui, Takashi; Miura, Noriaki [IHI Corporation, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Oowaki, Katsura; Kawaguchi, Isao [IHI Inspection and Instrumentation Co., Ltd, 1 Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru [Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-Mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2008, the equipment for dismantling the used glass melter has been developed in High-level Liquid Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). Due to the high radioactivity of the glass melter, the equipment requires a fully-remote operation in the vitrification cell. The remote fiber laser cutting system was adopted as one of the major pieces of equipment. An output power of fiber laser is typically higher than other types of laser and so can provide high-cutting performance. The fiber laser can cut thick stainless steel and Inconel, which are parts of the glass melter such as casings, electrodes and nozzles. As a result, it can make the whole of the dismantling work efficiently done for a shorter period. Various conditions of the cutting test have been evaluated in the process of developing the remote fiber cutting system. In addition, the expected remote operations of the power manipulator with the laser torch have been fully verified and optimized using 3D simulations. (authors)

  20. Low Noise Optically Pre-amplified Lightwave Receivers and Other Applications of Fiber Optic Parametric Amplifiers

    2010-07-27

    PS) FOPAs are discussed, and the phase-squeezing behavior of PS-FOPAs is characterized in Sec V. In Sec. VI, we present measurements of the noise...fiber and has the following parameters: L = 350 m, Aeff = 9.4 μm2, S0 = 0.025 ps/nm2km, λ0 = 1561.9 nm, β4 = 2.5*10-5 ps4 /km, estimated variation of...obtained the average gain and NF, which makes the analysis complicated and time- consuming . When considering the impacts of ZDW distributions on FOPA

  1. Silver metaphosphate glass wires inside silica fibers--a new approach for hybrid optical fibers.

    Jain, Chhavi; Rodrigues, Bruno P; Wieduwilt, Torsten; Kobelke, Jens; Wondraczek, Lothar; Schmidt, Markus A

    2016-02-22

    Phosphate glasses represent promising candidates for next-generation photonic devices due to their unique characteristics, such as vastly tunable optical properties, and high rare earth solubility. Here we show that silver metaphosphate wires with bulk optical properties and diameters as small as 2 µm can be integrated into silica fibers using pressure-assisted melt filling. By analyzing two types of hybrid metaphosphate-silica fibers, we show that the filled metaphosphate glass has only negligible higher attenuation and a refractive index that is identical to the bulk material. The presented results pave the way towards new fiber-type optical devices relying on metaphosphate glasses, which are promising materials for applications in nonlinear optics, sensing and spectral filtering.

  2. Praseodymium ion doped phosphate glasses for integrated broadband ion-exchanged waveguide amplifier

    Shen, L.F. [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, B.J. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, H., E-mail: lhai8686@yahoo.com [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pun, E.Y.B. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effective near-infrared emission (1380-1525 nm) is observed in Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate glasses. • Effective bandwidth of {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 1}G{sub 4} transition emission is obtained to be 124 nm. • Channel waveguides have been fabricated by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange method. • Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate glasses are promising in developing integrated broadband waveguide amplifier. - Abstract: Effective near-infrared emission covering the fifth optical telecommunication window (1380-1525 nm) has been observed in Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate (NMAP) glasses. Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω{sub 2} (6.38 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}), Ω{sub 4} (20.30 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) and Ω{sub 6} (0.40 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) indicate a high inversion asymmetrical and strong covalent environment in the optical glasses. The effective bandwidth (Δλ{sub eff}) of the corresponding {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 1}G{sub 4} transition emission is obtained to be 124 nm, and the maximum stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sub em-max}) at 1468 nm is derived to be 1.14 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}. Channel waveguide was fabricated successfully by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange method with mode field diameter of 8.8 μm in the horizontal direction and 6.7 μm in the vertical direction. Broad effective bandwidth, large emission cross-section and perfect thermal ion-exchangeability indicate that Pr{sup 3+}-doped NMAP phosphate glasses are promising in developing integrated broadband waveguide amplifier, especially operating at E- and S-bands which belong to the fifth optical telecommunication window.

  3. Influence of core NA on thermal-induced mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers

    Tao, Rumao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the influence of core NA on thermal-induced mode instabilities (MI) in high power fiber amplifiers. The influence of core NA and the V-parameter on MI has been investigated numerically. It shows that core NA has a larger influence on MI for fibers with a smaller core-cladding-ratio, and the influence of core NA on the threshold is more obvious when the amplifiers are pumped at 915 nm. The dependence of the threshold on the V-parameter revealed that the threshold increases linearly as the V-parameter decreases when the V-parameter is larger than 3.5, and the threshold shows an exponential increase as the V-parameter decreases when the V-parameter is less than 3.5. We also discussed the effect of linewidth on MI, which indicates that the influence of linewidth can be neglected for a linewidth smaller than 1 nm when the fiber core NA is smaller than 0.07 and the fiber length is shorter than 20 m. Fiber amplifiers with different core NA were experimentally analyzed, which agreed with the theoretical predictions. (letter)

  4. Mitigating of modal instabilities in linearly-polarized fiber amplifiers by shifting pump wavelength

    Tao, Rumao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of pump wavelength on the modal instabilities (MI) in high-power linearly polarized Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. We built a novel semi-analytical model to determine the frequency coupling characteristics and power threshold of MI, which indicates promising MI suppression through pumping at an appropriate wavelength. By pumping at 915 nm, the threshold can be enhanced by a factor of 2.1 as compared to that pumped at 976 nm. Based on a high-power linearly polarized fiber amplifier platform, we studied the influence of pump wavelength experimentally. A maximal enhancement factor of 1.9 has been achieved when pumped at 915 nm, which agrees with the theoretical calculation and verified our theoretical model. Furthermore, we show that MI suppression by detuning the pump wavelength is weakened for fiber with a large core-to-cladding ratio. (paper)

  5. Theoretical Investigation of Oxazine 170 Perchlorate Doped Polymeric Optical Fiber Amplifier

    Piotr Miluski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical signal amplification in the waveguiding structure of optical fibers can be used for optical telecommunication systems and new light sources constructions. Organic dyes doped materials are interesting for new applications in polymeric optical fibers technology due to their benefits (efficient fluorescence, high absorption cross section, and easy processing. This article presents a numerical simulation of gain in poly(methyl methacrylate optical fiber doped by Oxazine 170 Perchlorate. The calculated gain characteristic for the used dye molar concentration (0.2·10-6–1.4·10-6 and pump power (1–10 kW is presented. The fabricated fluorescent polymeric optical fiber is also shown. The presented analysis can be used for optical amplifier construction based on dye-doped polymeric optical fiber (POF.

  6. Maximizing power output from continuous-wave single-frequency fiber amplifiers.

    Ward, Benjamin G

    2015-02-15

    This Letter reports on a method of maximizing the power output from highly saturated cladding-pumped continuous-wave single-frequency fiber amplifiers simultaneously, taking into account the stimulated Brillouin scattering and transverse modal instability thresholds. This results in a design figure of merit depending on the fundamental mode overlap with the doping profile, the peak Brillouin gain coefficient, and the peak mode coupling gain coefficient. This figure of merit is then numerically analyzed for three candidate fiber designs including standard, segmented acoustically tailored, and micro-segmented acoustically tailored photonic-crystal fibers. It is found that each of the latter two fibers should enable a 50% higher output power than standard photonic crystal fiber.

  7. Glass fiber effect on mechanical properties of Eco-SCC

    Prasad M. L., V.; Loksesh, G.; Ramanjaneyulu, B.; Venkatesh, S.; Mousumi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Sustainable Construction encouraging the use of recycled materials and implies adoption of fewer natural resources in buildings and other infrastructure. In this paper Quarry Dust (QD) is used as partial replacement for River Sand (RS) to make Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) of grade M40. Glass fiber is used as strengthening material to the developed concrete. The present study mainly focused to develop Eco-SCC using QD. In this study it was found that, for developing Eco-SCC, what is the optimum dosage of replacement of QD in RS. Fresh properties of SCC are satisfying the EFNARC specifications and also target strength is achieved. Further it is concluded that, with the glass fiber addition there is an improvement in the split and flexural strength values.

  8. [A maxillary premolar reconstruction with a glass fiber reinforced post].

    Viţalariu, Anca Mihaela; Antohe, Magda; Bahrim, Delia; Tatarciuc, Monica

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a 37 years old female patient who needed a reconstruction of an endodontic treated' second maxillary premolar. The patient presented large areas of occlusal abrasion caused by bruxism, therefore the solution consisted of a reconstruction with a non-metallic post reinforced with glass fibers. In such cases, the excessive occlusal forces developed by bruxism can produce a radicular fracture if the tooth would be reconstructed with a rigid metallic post. The glass-fiber reinforced post has some important qualities, which render it more suitable in most clinical cases: it is easy to use; has the ability to bond with restorative resins; decreases the risk of tooth fracture and provides better esthetics.

  9. CO2 laser-fabricated cladding light strippers for high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers.

    Boyd, Keiron; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Daniel, Jae; Swain, Robert; Mies, Eric; Rees, Simon; Andrew Clarkson, W; Haub, John

    2016-04-10

    We present and characterize a simple CO2 laser processing technique for the fabrication of compact all-glass optical fiber cladding light strippers. We investigate the cladding light loss as a function of radiation angle of incidence and demonstrate devices in a 400 μm diameter fiber with cladding losses of greater than 20 dB for a 7 cm device length. The core losses are also measured giving a loss of cladding light stripping of a 300 W laser diode with minimal heating of the fiber coating and packaging adhesives.

  10. Effects of glass fibers on the properties of micro molded plastic parts

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Glass fibers are used to reinforce plastics and to improve their mechanical properties. But plastic filled with glass fibers is a concern for molding of micro scale plastic parts. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of glass fiber on the replication quality and mechanical properties...... of polymeric thin ribs. It investigates the effect of feature size and gate location on distribution of glass fibers inside the molded parts. The results from this work indicate that glass filled plastic materials have poor replication quality and nonhomogeneous mechanical properties due to the nonuniform...

  11. Design of an amplifier model accounting for thermal effect in fully aperiodic large pitch fibers

    Tragni, K.; Molardi, C.; Poli, F.; Dauliat, R.; Leconte, B.; Darwich, D.; du Jeu, R.; Malleville, M. A.; Jamier, R.; Selleri, S.; Roy, P.; Cucinotta, A.

    2018-02-01

    Yb-doped Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) have triggered a significant power scaling into fiber-based lasers. However thermally-induced effects, like mode instability, can compromise the output beam quality. PCF design with improved Higher Order Mode (HOM) delocalization and effective thermal resilience can contain the problem. In particular, Fully- Aperiodic Large-Pitch Fibers (FA-LPFs) have shown interesting properties in terms of resilience to thermal effects. In this paper the performances of a Yb-doped FA-LPF amplifier are experimentally and numerically investigated. Modal properties and gain competition between Fundamental Mode (FM) and first HOM have been calculated, in presence of thermal effects. The main doped fiber characteristics have been derived by comparison between experimental and numerical results.

  12. Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped tungsten-tellurite glass for waveguide amplifier application

    Zhao Shilong; Wang Xiuli; Fang Dawei; Xu Shiqing; Hu Lili

    2006-01-01

    Tungsten-tellurite glass with molar composition of 60TeO 2 -30WO 3 -10Na 2 O has been investigated for developing planar broadband waveguide amplifier application. Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er 3+ -doped tungsten-tellurite glass have been discussed. The results show that the introduction of WO 3 increases significantly the glass transition temperature and the maximum phonon energy. Er 3+ -doped tungsten-tellurite glass exhibits high glass transition temperature (377 deg. C), large emission cross-section (0.91 x 10 -20 cm 2 ) at 1532 nm and broad full width at half maximum (FWHM), which make it preferable for broadband Er 3+ -doped waveguide amplifier application

  13. Design, development and characterization studies of a large aperture high power Nd : glass rod amplifier stage

    Gopi, N.; Bapna, R.C.; Murali, C.G.; Narayan, B.S.; Dhareshwar, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Laser-plasma interaction studies and experiments related to laser driven shocks as well as laser induced inertially confined thermonuclear fusion have resulted in an ever increasing demand for high brightness lasers capable of producing nanosecond pulse with energy of hundreds of kilo joules. High power Nd-glass laser chains with a master oscillator followed by a number of amplifier stages made up of rods, disks, slabs etc. are in operation in many leading laboratories in the world. This report describes the design, development and characterisation studies of a large aperture Nd:glass laser amplifier which is to be incorporated on line with the existing 40 J, 5 ns high power laser chain built for laser-plasma interaction and laser driven shock wave studies in the Laser and Plasma Technology Division. The development work described in this report discusses the design based on optimum material selection, optimisation of various sub components, ease of maintenance and smooth operation. The necessary operational electronics has also been described. The characterization studies mainly include measurement of spatial gain uniformity, thermally induced depolarization effects, and thermal relaxation studies. (author). 37 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Optimization of Multiple Active Ion Doped Fiber Amplifiers for Three Communication Windows

    Chun Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time a theoretical model of Er3+-Tm3+-Pr3+ codoped fiber pumped with both 800 nm and 980 nm lasers to explore possibility of this co-doped system as all-wave fiber amplifier. The rate and power propagation equations of the model are solved numerically and the dependence of the gains at 1310, 1470, 1530, 1600, 1650 nm windows on fiber length is calculated. The results show that with pump power of 200 mW/200 mW, when the concentrations of Pr3+, Tm3+, Er3+ are around 1.7×1024, 3.9×1024, 1.2×1024 (ions/m3, respectively, the signals at 1310, 1470, 1530, 1600, 1650 nm may be nearly equally amplified with gain of 13–16.0 dB in the active fiber with length of 23.5 m; the co-doping concentrations and fiber length and pump powers may be further optimized to reduce the ripple.

  15. Theoretical analysis of mode instability in high-power fiber amplifiers

    Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Broeng, Jes

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple theoretical model of transverse mode instability in high-power rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers. The model shows that efficient power transfer between the fundamental and higher-order modes of the fiber can be induced by a nonlinear interaction mediated through the thermo......-optic effect, leading to transverse mode instability. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the instability dynamics are investigated, and it is shown that the instability can be seeded by both quantum noise and signal intensity noise, while pure phase noise of the signal does not induce instability...

  16. Real time sensing of structural glass fiber reinforced composites by using embedded PVA - carbon nanotube fibers

    Marioli-Riga Z.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol - carbon nanotube (PVA-CNT fibers had been embedded to glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP for the structural health monitoring of the composite material. The addition of the conductive PVA-CNT fiber to the nonconductive GFRP material aimed to enhance its sensing ability by means of the electrical resistance measurement method. The test specimen’s response to mechanical load and the in situ PVA-CNT fiber’s electrical resistance measurements were correlated for sensing and damage monitoring purposes. The embedded PVA-CNT fiber worked as a sensor in GFRP coupons in tensile loadings. Sensing ability of the PVA-CNT fibers was also demonstrated on an integral composite structure. PVA-CNT fiber near the fracture area of the structure recorded very high values when essential damage occurred to the structure. A finite element model of the same structure was developed to predict axial strains at locations of the integral composite structure where the fibers were embedded. The predicted FEA strains were correlated with the experimental measurements from the PVA-CNT fibers. Calculated and experimental values were in good agreement, thus enabling PVA-CNT fibers to be used as strain sensors.

  17. Static thermo-optic instability in double-pass fiber amplifiers

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A coupled-mode formalism, earlier used to describe transverse mode instabilities in single-pass optical fiber amplifiers, is extended to the case of double-pass amplifiers. Contrary to the single-pass case, it is shown that the thermo-optic nonlinearity can couple light at the same frequency...... between the LP01 and LP11 modes, leading to a static deformation of the output beam profile. This novel phenomenon is caused by the interaction of light propagating in either direction with thermo-optic index perturbations caused by light propagating in the opposite direction. The threshold power...... for the static deformation is found to be several times lower than what is typically found for the dynamic modal instabilities observed in single-pass amplifiers. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  18. Single-mode ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    bandgap structure. The structure allows resonant coupling of higher-order modes from the core and acts as a spatially Distributed Mode Filter (DMF). With this approach, we demonstrate passive SM performance in an only ~50cm long and straight ytterbium-doped rod fiber. The amplifier has a mode field...... diameter of ∼59Lim at 1064nm and exhibits a pump absorption of 27dB/m at 976nm. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  19. Variation method for optimization of Raman fiber amplifier pumped by continuous-spectrum radiation

    Ghasempour Ardekani, A.; Bahrampour, A. R.; Feizpour, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Raman fiber amplifiers, reduction of gain ripple versus frequency has a great importance. In this article using variational method and continuous pump, gain ripple is optimized. It is shown here that for a 40 km line the average gain is 1.3dB and the gain ripple is 0.12 dB, that is lower than the latest published data.

  20. Stabilization in laser wavelength semiconductor with fiber optical amplifier application doped with erbium

    Camas, J.; Anzueto, G.; Mendoza, S.; Hernandez, H.; Garcia, C.; Vazquez, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel electronic design of a DC source, which automatically controls the temperature of a tunable laser. The temperature change in the laser is carried out by the control of DC that circulates through a cooling stage where the laser is set. The laser can be tuned in a wavelength around 1550 nm. Its application is in Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) in reflective configuration. (Author)

  1. Improvement of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites by poling treatment

    Oh, S M; Hwang, H Y

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a new non-destructive method has been proposed for damage monitoring of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials using the piezoelectric characteristics of a polymeric matrix. Several studies of the piezoelectric properties of unidirectional glass fiber epoxy composites and damage monitoring of double-cantilever beams have supported the claim that the piezoelectric method is feasible and powerful enough to monitor the damage of glass fiber epoxy composites. Generally, conventional piezoelectric materials have higher piezoelectric characteristics through poling treatment. In this work, we investigated the change of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites before and after poling treatment. The piezoelectric constants (d 33 ) of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites increased by more than 400%. Also, x-ray diffraction tests revealed that poling treatment changed the degree of crystallinity of the epoxy matrix, and this led to the improvement of the piezoelectric characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. (paper)

  2. Effect of pulse width on near-infrared supercontinuum generation in nonlinear fiber amplifier

    Song, Rui; Lei, Cheng-Min; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Wang, Ze-Feng; Hou, Jing

    2015-08-01

    The effect of pulse width on near-infrared supercontinuum generation in nonlinear fiber amplifier is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and adaptive split-step Fourier method are used to simulate the propagation of pulses with different pulse widths in the fiber amplifier, and the results show that a longer pulse is more profitable in near-infrared supercontinuum generation if the central wavelength of the input laser lies in the normal dispersion region of the gain fiber. A four-stage master oscillator power amplifier configuration is adopted and the output spectra under picosecond and nanosecond input pulses are compared with each other. The experimental results are in good accordance with the simulations which can provide some guidance for further optimization of the system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11404404 and 11274385) and the Outstanding Youth Fund Project of Hunan Province and the Fund of Innovation of National University of Defense Technology, China (Grant No. B120701).

  3. Fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic glass with fibered-silica network

    Zhang, Feng [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Shi, Zhenwu, E-mail: zwshi@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Jiang, Yingjie; Xu, Chengyun; Wu, Zhuhui; Wang, Yanyan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Peng, Changsi, E-mail: changsipeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province & Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic fibred-silica film with water contact angle of 166° and sliding angle of 1° was efficiently prepared using soot as template by CVD. • The film showed transmittance of 88% in visible range. • The superhydrophobic film possesses excellent mechanical robustness, chemical corrosion resistance, and thermal stability. • The superhydrophobic film showed outstanding self-cleaning behavior. - Abstract: In this paper, silica was deposited on the soot film pre-coated glass via chemical vapor deposition. Through calcination at 500 °C with the assistance of O{sub 2} airflow, the soot film was removed and a novel robust fibered-silica network film was then decorated onto the glass substrate. After modification with fluorosilane, the surface water contact angle (WCA) was 166° and sliding angle (SA) was 1° which behaves a good self-cleaning for the as-prepared glass. And its average transmittance was still over 88% in visible wavelength. Moreover, this fibered-silica coating showed a strong tolerance for heavy water droplets, acid/alkali corrosion, salt solution immersion and thermal treatment.

  4. Optimization of the contents of hollow glass microsphere and sodium hexametaphosphate for glass fiber vacuum insulation panel

    Li, C. D.; Chen, Z. F.; Zhou, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, various additive amounts of hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) powders were blended with flame attenuated glass wool (FAGW) to form hybrid core materials (HCMs) through the wet method. Among them, the SHMP was dissolved in the glass fiber suspension and coated on the surface of glass fibers while the HGMs were insoluble in the glass fiber suspension and filled in the fiber-fiber pores. The average pore diameter of the FAGW/HGM HCMs was 8-11 μm which was near the same as that of flame attenuated glass fiber mats (FAGMs, i.e., 10.5 µm). The tensile strength of the SHMP coated FAGMs was enhanced from 160 N/m to 370 N/m when SHMP content increased from 0 wt.% to 0.2 wt.%. By contrast, the tensile strength of the FAGW/HGM HCMs decreased from 160 N/m to 40 N/m when HGM content increased from 0 wt.% to 50 wt.%. Both the FAGW/HGM HCMs and SHMP coated FAGMs were vacuumed completely to form vacuum insulation panels (VIPs). The results showed that both the addition of SHMP and HGM led a slight increase in the thermal conductivity of the corresponding VIPs. To obtain a high-quality VIP, the optimal SHMP content and HGM content in glass fiber suspension was 0.12-0.2 wt.% and 0 wt.%.

  5. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Automotive Structural Composite; TOPICAL

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides recommended durability-based design criteria for a chopped-glass-fiber reinforced polymeric composite for automotive structural applications. The criteria closely follow the framework of an earlier criteria document for a continuous-strand-mat (CSM) glass-fiber reference composite. Together these design criteria demonstrate a framework that can be adapted for future random-glass-fiber composites for automotive structural applications

  6. Synthesis of nanocrystals in KNb(Ge,Si)O5 glasses and chemical etching of nanocrystallized glass fibers

    Enomoto, Itaru; Benino, Yasuhiko; Fujiwara, Takumi; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2006-01-01

    The nanocrystallization behavior of 25K 2 O-25Nb 2 O 5 -(50-x)GeO 2 -xSiO 2 glasses with x=0,25,and50 (i.e., KNb(Ge,Si)O 5 glasses) and the chemical etching behavior of transparent nanocrystallized glass fibers have been examined. All glasses show nanocrystallization, and the degree of transparency of the glasses studied depends on the heat treatment temperature. Transparent nanocrystallized glasses can be obtained if the glasses are heat treated at the first crystallization peak temperature. Transparent nanocrystallized glass fibers with a diameter of about 100μm in 25K 2 O-25Nb 2 O 5 -50GeO 2 are fabricated, and fibers with sharpened tips (e.g., the taper length is about 450μm and the tip angle is about 12 o ) are obtained using a meniscus chemical etching method, in which etching solutions of 10wt%-HF/hexane and 10M-NaOH/hexane are used. Although the tip (aperture size) has not a nanoscaled size, the present study suggests that KNb(Ge,Si)O 5 nanocrystallized glass fibers have a potential for new near-field optical fiber probes with high refractive indices of around n=1.8 and high dielectric constants of around ε=58 (1kHz, room temperature)

  7. A Hybrid Fiber/Solid-State Regenerative Amplifier with Tunable Pulse Widths for Satellite Laser Ranging

    Coyle, Barry; Poulios, Demetrios

    2013-01-01

    A fiber/solid-state hybrid seeded regenerative amplifier, capable of achieving high output energy with tunable pulse widths, has been developed for satellite laser ranging applications. The regenerative amplifier cavity uses a pair of Nd:YAG zigzag slabs oriented orthogonally to one another in order to make thermal lensing effects symmetrical and simplify optical correction schemes. The seed laser used is a fiber-coupled 1,064-nm narrowband (pumped by a single 120-W, pulsed 808-nm laser diode array. In this configuration, the average pump beam distribution in the slabs had a 1-D Gaussian shape, which matches the estimated cavity mode size. A half-wave plate between the slabs reduces losses from Fresnel reflections due to the orthogonal slabs Brewster-cut end faces. Successful "temporal" seeding of the regenerative amplifier cavity results in a cavity Q-switch pulse envelope segmenting into shorter pulses, each having the width of the input seed, and having a uniform temporal separation corresponding to the cavity round-trip time of approx. =10 ns. The pulse energy is allowed to build on successive passes in the regenerative amplifier cavity until a maximum is reached, (when cavity gains and losses are equal), after which the pulse is electro- optically switched out on the next round trip The overall gain of the amplifier is approx. =82 dB (or a factor of 1.26 million). After directing the amplified output through a LBO frequency doubling crystal, approx. = 2.1 W of 532-nm output (>1 mJ) was measured. This corresponds to a nonlinear conversion efficiency of >60%. Furthermore, by pulse pumping this system, a single pulse per laser shot can be created for the SLR (satellite laser ranging) measurement, and this can be ejected into the instrument. This is operated at the precise frequency needed by the measurement, as opposed to commercial short-pulsed, mode-locked systems that need to operate in a continuous fashion, or CW (continuous wave), and create pulses at many

  8. Process monitoring of glass reinforced polypropylene laminates using fiber Bragg gratings

    Mulle, Matthieu; Wafai, Husam; Yudhanto, Arief; Lubineau, Gilles; Yaldiz, R.; Schijve, W.; Verghese, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hot-press molding of glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) laminates was monitored using longitudinally and transversely embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) at different locations in unidirectional laminates. The optical sensors proved

  9. Fiber Based Optical Amplifier for High Energy Laser Pulses Final Report CRADA No. TC02100.0

    Messerly, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cunningham, P. [Boeing Company, Springfield, VA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and The Boeing Company to develop an optical fiber-based laser amplifier capable of producing and sustaining very high-energy, nanosecond-scale optical pulses. The overall technical objective of this CRADA was to research, design, and develop an optical fiber-based amplifier that would meet specific metrics.

  10. Characterization of Glass Fiber Separator Material for Lithium Batteries

    Subbarao, S.; Frank, H.

    1984-01-01

    Characterization studies were carried out on a glass fiber paper that is currently employed as a separator material for some LiSOCl2 primary cells. The material is of the non-woven type made from microfilaments of E-type glass and contains an ethyl acrylate binder. Results from extraction studies and tensile testing revealed that the binder content and tensile strength of the paper were significantly less than values specified by the manufacturer. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the presence of clusters of impurities many of which were high in iron content. Results of emission spectroscopy revealed high overall levels of iron and leaching, followed by atomic absorption measurements, revealed that essentially all of this iron is soluble in SOCl2.

  11. Glass fiber reinforced concrete for terrestrial photovoltaic arrays

    Maxwell, H.

    1979-01-01

    The use of glass-fiber-reinforced concrete (GRC) as a low-cost structural substrate for terrestrial solar cell arrays is discussed. The properties and fabrication of glass-reinforced concrete structures are considered, and a preliminary design for a laminated solar cell assembly built on a GRC substrate is presented. A total cost for such a photovoltaic module, composed of a Korad acrylic plastic film front cover, an aluminum foil back cover, an ethylene/vinyl acetate pottant/adhesive and a cotton fabric electrical isolator in addition to the GRC substrate, of $9.42/sq m is projected, which is less than the $11.00/sq m cost goal set by the Department of Energy. Preliminary evaluations are concluded to have shown the design capabilities and cost effectiveness of GRC; however, its potential for automated mass production has yet to be evaluated.

  12. Effect of Manufacturing Method to Tensile Properties of Hybrid Composite Reinforced by Natural (Agel Leaf Fiber) and Glass Fibers

    Nugroho, A.; Abdurohman, K.; Kusmono; Hestiawan, H.; Jamasri

    2018-04-01

    This paper described the effect of different type of manufacturing method to tensile properties of hybrid composite woven agel leaf fiber and glass fiber as an alternative of LSU structure material. The research was done by using 3 ply of woven agel leaf fiber (ALF) and 3 ply of glass fiber (wr200) while the matrix was using unsaturated polyester. Composite manufacturing method used hand lay-up and vacuum bagging. Tensile test conducted with Tensilon universal testing machine, specimen shape and size according to standard size ASTM D 638. Based on tensile test result showed that the tensile strength of agel leaf fiber composite with unsaturated polyester matrix is 54.5 MPa by hand lay-up and 84.6 MPa with vacuum bagging method. From result of tensile test, hybrid fiber agel composite and glass fiber with unsaturated polyester matrix have potential as LSU structure.

  13. Properties of discontinuous S2-glass fiber-particulate-reinforced resin composites with two different fiber length distributions.

    Huang, Qiting; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lin, Zhengmei; He, Jingwei; Qin, Wei; Liu, Fang; Vallittu, Pekka Kalevi; Lassila, Lippo Veli Juhana

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the reinforcing efficiency and light curing properties of discontinuous S2-glass fiber-particulate reinforced resin composite and to examine length distribution of discontinuous S2-glass fibers after a mixing process into resin composite. Experimental S2-glass fiber-particulate reinforced resin composites were prepared by mixing 10wt% of discontinuous S2-glass fibers, which had been manually cut into two different lengths (1.5 and 3.0mm), with various weight ratios of dimethacrylate based resin matrix and silaned BaAlSiO 2 filler particulates. The resin composite made with 25wt% of UDMA/SR833s resin system and 75wt% of silaned BaAlSiO 2 filler particulates was used as control composite which had similar composition as the commonly used resin composites. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM) and work of fracture (WOF) were measured. Fractured specimens were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Double bond conversion (DC) and fiber length distribution were also studied. Reinforcement of resin composites with discontinuous S2-glass fibers can significantly increase the FS, FM and WOF of resin composites over the control. The fibers from the mixed resin composites showed great variation in final fiber length. The mean aspect ratio of experimental composites containing 62.5wt% of particulate fillers and 10wt% of 1.5 or 3.0mm cutting S2-glass fibers was 70 and 132, respectively. No difference was found in DC between resin composites containing S2-glass fibers with two different cutting lengths. Discontinuous S2-glass fibers can effectively reinforce the particulate-filled resin composite and thus may be potential to manufacture resin composites for high-stress bearing application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Analysis of the strength and stiffness of timber beams reinforced with carbon fiber and glass fiber

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of pinewood beams (Pinus caribea var hondurensis reinforced with glass and/or carbon fibers is discussed. The theoretical model employed to calculate the beam's bending strength takes into account the timber's ultimate limit states of tensile strength and failure by compression, considering a model of fragile elastic tension and plastic elastic compression. The validity of the theoretical model is confirmed by a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results, while the efficiency of the fiber reinforcement is corroborated by the increased strength and stiffness of the reinforced timber beams.

  15. The usage of carbon fiber reinforcement polymer and glass fiber reinforcement polymer for retrofit technology building

    Tarigan, Johannes; Meka, Randi; Nursyamsi

    2018-03-01

    Fiber Reinforcement Polymer has been used as a material technology since the 1970s in Europe. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer can reinforce the structure externally, and used in many types of buildings like beams, columns, and slabs. It has high tensile strength. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer also has high rigidity and strength. The profile of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer is thin and light, installation is simple to conduct. One of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer material is Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer and Glass Fiber Reinforcement Polymer. These materials is tested when it is installed on concrete cylinders, to obtain the comparison of compressive strength CFRP and GFRP. The dimension of concrete is diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm. It is amounted to 15 and divided into three groups. The test is performed until it collapsed to obtain maximum load. The results of research using CFRP and GFRP have shown the significant enhancement in compressive strength. CFRP can increase the compressive strength of 26.89%, and GFRP of 14.89%. For the comparison of two materials, CFRP is more strengthening than GFRP regarding increasing compressive strength. The usage of CFRP and GFRP can increase the loading capacity.

  16. Faraday rotation influence factors in tellurite-based glass and fibers

    Chen, Qiuling; Wang, Qingwei [Henan University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Wang, Hui; Chen, Qiuping [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Turin (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The Faraday rotation influence factors in tellurite-based glass and fibers were studied by experiments and simulations. TeO{sub 2}-ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-BaO glass family was fabricated and characterized in terms of the thermal and magneto-optical properties. Two core-cladding pairs for two fibers were selected from fabricated glasses. The Verdet constants of the glasses and fibers were measured at different wavelengths using a homemade optical bench, and the Verdet constant of fiber was close to that of the bulk glass. The influence from external factors (wavelength, laser power and magnetic field) and internal factors (thermal expansion coefficient difference, refractive index and Verdet constant of core and cladding) on Faraday rotation in fibers was investigated and discussed, and the purpose of this study is to improve the Faraday rotation in tellurite fibers for MO device applications both from internal material property match and external parameter configuration in measurement. (orig.)

  17. Faraday rotation influence factors in tellurite-based glass and fibers

    Chen, Qiuling; Wang, Qingwei; Wang, Hui; Chen, Qiuping

    2015-01-01

    The Faraday rotation influence factors in tellurite-based glass and fibers were studied by experiments and simulations. TeO 2 -ZnO-Na 2 O-BaO glass family was fabricated and characterized in terms of the thermal and magneto-optical properties. Two core-cladding pairs for two fibers were selected from fabricated glasses. The Verdet constants of the glasses and fibers were measured at different wavelengths using a homemade optical bench, and the Verdet constant of fiber was close to that of the bulk glass. The influence from external factors (wavelength, laser power and magnetic field) and internal factors (thermal expansion coefficient difference, refractive index and Verdet constant of core and cladding) on Faraday rotation in fibers was investigated and discussed, and the purpose of this study is to improve the Faraday rotation in tellurite fibers for MO device applications both from internal material property match and external parameter configuration in measurement. (orig.)

  18. From Selenium- to Tellurium-Based Glass Optical Fibers for Infrared Spectroscopies

    Jacques Lucas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chalcogenide glasses are based on sulfur, selenium and tellurium elements, and have been studied for several decades regarding different applications. Among them, selenide glasses exhibit excellent infrared transmission in the 1 to 15 µm region. Due to their good thermo-mechanical properties, these glasses could be easily shaped into optical devices such as lenses and optical fibers. During the past decade of research, selenide glass fibers have been proved to be suitable for infrared sensing in an original spectroscopic method named Fiber Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS. FEWS has provided very nice and promising results, for example for medical diagnosis. Then, some sophisticated fibers, also based on selenide glasses, were developed: rare-earth doped fibers and microstructured fibers. In parallel, the study of telluride glasses, which can have transmission up to 28 µm due to its atom heaviness, has been intensified thanks to the DARWIN mission led by the European Space Agency (ESA. The development of telluride glass fiber enables a successful observation of CO2 absorption band located around 15 µm. In this paper we review recent results obtained in the Glass and Ceramics Laboratory at Rennes on the development of selenide to telluride glass optical fibers, and their use for spectroscopy from the mid to the far infrared ranges.

  19. Flexural properties of polyethylene, glass and carbon fiber-reinforced resin composites for prosthetic frameworks.

    Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Irie, Masao; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minagi, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    High flexural properties are needed for fixed partial denture or implant prosthesis to resist susceptibility to failures caused by occlusal overload. The aim of this investigation was to clarify the effects of four different kinds of fibers on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced composites. Polyethylene fiber, glass fiber and two types of carbon fibers were used for reinforcement. Seven groups of specimens, 2 × 2 × 25 mm, were prepared (n = 10 per group). Four groups of resin composite specimens were reinforced with polyethylene, glass or one type of carbon fiber. The remaining three groups served as controls, with each group comprising one brand of resin composite without any fiber. After 24-h water storage in 37°C distilled water, the flexural properties of each specimen were examined with static three-point flexural test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Compared to the control without any fiber, glass and carbon fibers significantly increased the flexural strength (p glass fiber (p glass fibers (p > 0.05). Fibers could, therefore, improve the flexural properties of resin composite and carbon fibers in longitudinal form yielded the better effects for reinforcement.

  20. Alkali-resistant glass fiber reinforced high strength concrete in simulated aggressive environment

    Kwan, W.H.; Cheah, C.B.; Ramli, M.; Chang, K.Y.

    2018-01-01

    The durability of the alkali-resistant (AR) glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) in three simulated aggresive environments, namely tropical climate, cyclic air and seawater and seawater immersion was investigated. Durability examinations include chloride diffusion, gas permeability, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy examination (SEM). The fiber content is in the range of 0.6 % to 2.4 %. Results reveal that the specimen containing highest AR glass fiber content suffered severe strength loss in seawater environment and relatively milder strength loss under cyclic conditions. The permeability property was found to be more inferior with the increase in the fiber content of the concrete. This suggests that the AR glass fiber is not suitable for use as the fiber reinforcement in concrete is exposed to seawater. However, in both the tropical climate and cyclic wetting and drying, the incorporation of AR glass fiber prevents a drastic increase in permeability. [es

  1. Evaluating the mechanical properties of E-Glass fiber/carbon fiber reinforced interpenetrating polymer networks

    G. Suresh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of vinyl ester and polyurethane interpenetrating polymer networks were prepared by changing the component ratios of VER (Vinyl ester and PU (Polyurethane and the polymerization process was confirmed with Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. IPN (Inter Penetrating Polymer Network - VER/PU reinforced Glass and carbon fiber composite laminates were made using the Hand lay up technique. The Mechanical properties of the E-glass and carbon fiber specimens were compared from tests including Tensile, Compressive, Flexural, ILSS (Inter Laminar Shear Strength, Impact & Head Deflection Test (HDT. The IPN Reinforced Carbon fiber specimen showed better results in all the tests than E-Glass fibre reinforced IPN laminate with same thickness of the specimen, according to ASTM standards. It was found that the combination of 60%VER and 40%PU IPN exhibits better impact strength and maximum elongation at break, but at the slight expense of mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural, ILSS properties. The morphology of the unreinforced and reinforced composites was analyzed with help of scanning electron microscopy.

  2. High efficiency fourth-harmonic generation from nanosecond fiber master oscillator power amplifier

    Mu, Xiaodong; Steinvurzel, Paul; Rose, Todd S.; Lotshaw, William T.; Beck, Steven M.; Clemmons, James H.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate high power, deep ultraviolet (DUV) conversion to 266 nm through frequency quadrupling of a nanosecond pulse width 1064 nm fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA). The MOPA system uses an Yb-doped double-clad polarization-maintaining large mode area tapered fiber as the final gain stage to generate 0.5-mJ, 10 W, 1.7- ns single mode pulses at a repetition rate of 20 kHz with measured spectral bandwidth of 10.6 GHz (40 pm), and beam qualities of Mx 2=1.07 and My 2=1.03, respectively. Using LBO and BBO crystals for the second-harmonic generation (SHG) and fourth-harmonic generation (FHG), we have achieved 375 μJ (7.5 W) and 92.5 μJ (1.85 W) at wavelengths of 532 nm and 266 nm, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the highest narrowband infrared, green and UV pulse energies obtained to date from a fully spliced fiber amplifier. We also demonstrate high efficiency SHG and FHG with walk-off compensated (WOC) crystal pairs and tightly focused pump beam. An SHG efficiency of 75%, FHG efficiency of 47%, and an overall efficiency of 35% from 1064 nm to 266 nm are obtained.

  3. A Comparative Study of Natural Fiber and Glass Fiber Fabrics Properties with Metal or Oxide Coatings

    Lusis, Andrej; Pentjuss, Evalds; Bajars, Gunars; Sidorovicha, Uljana; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for technical textiles industries is stimulated to develop new materials based on hybrid materials (yarns, fabrics) made from natural and glass fibres. The influence of moisture on the electrical properties of metal and metal oxide coated bast (flax, hemp) fibre and glass fibre fabrics are studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The bast fibre and glass fiber fabrics are characterized with electrical sheet resistance. The method for description of electrical sheet resistance of the metal and metal oxide coated technical textile is discussed. The method can be used by designers to estimate the influence of moisture on technical data of new metal coated hybrid technical textile materials and products

  4. High-Performance BiCMOS Transimpedance Amplifiers for Fiber-Optic Receivers

    F. Touati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available High gain, wide bandwidth, low noise, and low-power transimpedance amplifiers based on new BiCMOS common- base topologies have been designed for fiber-optic receivers. In particular a design approach, hereafter called "A more- FET approach", added a new dimension to effectively optimize performance tradeoffs inherent in such circuits. Using conventional silicon 0.8 μm process parameters, simulated performance features of a total-FET transimpedance amplifier operating at 7.2 GHz, which is close to the technology fT of 12 GHz, are presented. The results are superior to those of similar recent designs and comparable to IC designs using GaAs technology. A detailed analysis of the design architecture, including a discussion on the effects of moving toward more FET-based designs is presented.

  5. Prevention of cancer risk of workers of glass fibers manufacture

    G.F. Mukhammadieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of producing of continuous glass fiber workers are exposed to complex impact of carcinogenic chemicals released into the air of the working area (including formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, ethane acids, aerosol of mineral oil. The penetrating effect of harmful substances through the skin is enhanced by the fine glass dust, which has a traumatic and irritating effect. Aggravating factors of the impact of lubricants on the body of the operators is the increased temperature and the excess of heat radiation. A risk factor is also the unfavorable climate of the workplace. Among the professional patients (71 person of 170 examined employees most of persons aged 50–59 years. The average age of the patients at the time of detection of hyperkeratosis was 51,9 ± 0,9 years, skin cancer – 57,3 ± 1,7 years. Professional skin neoplasms were diagnosed mainly in workers who have been working for more than 10 years (average period of 12.6 ± 2.4 years. The period of transformation of limited hyperkeratosis to the skin cancer was on average 5–8 years. It was found that the molecular-genetic factors predisposing to the development of professional skin lesions are polymorphic variants of the gene suppressor of tumor growth TP53 (Ex4 + 119G>C, IVS3 16 bp Del/Ins and IVS6+62A>G. It has been shown that the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of occupational diseases is relevant and should include the interaction of administration, engineering and technical staff of the enterprise, labor protection service, Rospotrebnadzor specialists, doctors specialized in occupational diseases and the workers themselves. The complex of measures of primary and secondary prevention of health problems is suggested. The necessity of including the continuous glass fiber production to the list of carcinogen production processes, presented in national normative documents.

  6. Ceramic fiber-reinforced monoclinic celsian phase glass-ceramic matrix composite material

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Dicarlo, James A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyridopolysilazane-derived ceramic fiber reinforced monoclinic celsian phase barium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix composite material is prepared by ball-milling an aqueous slurry of BAS glass powder and fine monoclinic celsian seeds. The fibers improve the mechanical strength and fracture toughness and with the matrix provide superior dielectric properties.

  7. Fatigue crack initiation in hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates

    Chang, P.-Y.; Yeh, P.-C.; Yang, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue crack initiation behavior of a high modulus and hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber/metal laminate (FML) was investigated experimentally and analytically. Two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were fabricated and studied, which consisted of aluminum alloy sheets as the metal layers and a mixture of boron fibers and glass fibers as the composite layers. For the first type, the boron fiber/prepreg and the glass fiber/prepreg were used separately in the composite layers, and for the second type, the boron fibers and the glass fibers were mingled together to form a hybrid boron/glass/prepreg composite layer. These hybrid FMLs were consolidated using an autoclave curing process. The incorporation of the boron fibers improved the Young's modulus of the composite layer in FMLs, which in turn, would improve the fatigue crack initiation life of the Al sheet. The experimental results clearly showed that the fatigue crack initiation lives for both types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were superior to the monolithic aluminum alloy under the same loading condition. An analytical approach was proposed to calculate the fatigue crack initiation lives of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs based on the classical laminate theory and the small-crack theory. A good correlation was obtained between the predictions and the experimental results

  8. Static and Dynamic Behavior of High Modulus Hybrid Boron/Glass/Aluminum Fiber Metal Laminates

    Yeh, Po-Ching

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation presents the investigation of a newly developed hybrid fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which contains commingled boron fibers, glass fibers, and 2024-T3 aluminum sheets. Two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs are developed. The first, type I hybrid FMLs, contained a layer of boron fiber prepreg in between two layers of S2-glass fiber prepreg, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The second, type II hybrid FMLs, contained three layer of commingled hybrid boron/glass fiber prepreg layers, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics including blunt notch strength, bearing strength and fatigue behavior of these two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were investigated. Compared to traditional S2-glass fiber reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE), the newly developed hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates possess high modulus, high yielding stress, and good blunt notch properties. From the bearing test result, the hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates showed outstanding bearing strength. The high fiber volume fraction of boron fibers in type II laminates lead to a higher bearing strength compared to both type I laminates and traditional GLARE. Both types of hybrid FMLs have improved fatigue crack initiation lives and excellent fatigue crack propagation resistance compared to traditional GLARE. The incorporation of the boron fibers improved the Young's modulus of the composite layer in FMLs, which in turn, improved the fatigue crack initiation life and crack propagation rates of the aluminum sheets. Moreover, a finite element model was established to predict and verify the properties of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  10. Monotonic and cyclic responses of impact polypropylene and continuous glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene composites at different strain rates

    Yudhanto, Arief; Lubineau, Gilles; Wafai, Husam; Mulle, Matthieu; Pulungan, Ditho Ardiansyah; Yaldiz, R.; Verghese, N.

    2016-01-01

    Impact copolymer polypropylene (IPP), a blend of isotactic polypropylene and ethylene-propylene rubber, and its continuous glass fiber composite form (glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene, GFIPP) are promising materials for impact

  11. Enhanced performance of semiconductor optical amplifier at high direct modulation speed with birefringent fiber loop

    K. E. Zoiros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We employ a birefringent fiber loop (BFL for enhancing the performance of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA which is directly modulated. By properly exploiting the BFL comb-like spectral response, we show that the SOA can be directly modulated at a data rate which is more than five times faster than that enabled by the SOA electrical bandwidth. The experimental results, which include chirp measurements, demonstrate the significant improvements achieved in the performance of the directly modulated SOA with the help of the BFL.

  12. Performance analysis of bi-directional broadband passive optical network using erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Almalaq, Yasser; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2014-09-01

    The broadband passive optical network (BPON) has the ability to support high-speed data, voice, and video services to home and small businesses customers. In this work, the performance of bi-directional BPON is analyzed for both down and up streams traffic cases by the help of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The importance of BPON is reduced cost. Because PBON uses a splitter the cost of the maintenance between the providers and the customers side is suitable. In the proposed research, BPON has been tested by the use of bit error rate (BER) analyzer. BER analyzer realizes maximum Q factor, minimum bit error rate, and eye height.

  13. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    Fenu Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF was finally evaluated.

  14. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Cheng, Shaoan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of brush anodes and glass fiber (GF1) separators, and plastic mesh supporters were used here for the first time to create a scalable microbial fuel cell architecture. Separators prevented short circuiting of closely

  15. Comparison between three glass fiber post cementation techniques.

    Migliau, Guido; Piccoli, Luca; Di Carlo, Stefano; Pompa, Giorgio; Besharat, Laith Konstantinos; Dolci, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare the traditional cement systems with those of the latest generation, to assess if indeed these could represent of viable substitutes in the cementation of indirect restorations, and in the specific case of endodontic posts. The assessment of the validity of the cementing methods was performed according to the test of the push-out, conducted on sections obtained from the roots of treated teeth. The samples were divided into three groups. Group A (10 samples): etching for 30 seconds with 37% orthophosphoric acid (Superlux-Thixo-etch-DMG) combined with a dual-curing adhesive system (LuxaBond-Total Etch-DMG), dual-cured resin-composite cement (LuxaCore-DMG) and glass fiber posts (LuxaPost-DMG). Group B (10 samples): self-adhesive resin cement (Breeze-Pentron Clinical) and glass fiber posts (LuxaPost-DMG). Group C (10 samples): 3 steps light-curing, self-etching, self-conditioning bonding agent (Contax-Total-etch-DMG), dual-cured resin-composite cement (LuxaCore-DMG) and glass fiber posts (LuxaPost-DMG). The survey was conducted by examining the breaking resistance of the post-cement-tooth complex, subjected to a mechanical force. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Inc. ver. 13.0, Chicago, IL, USA. Group A values of bond strenth ranged from a minimum of 10.14 Mpa to a maximum value of 14.73 Mpa with a mean value of 12.58 Mpa. In Group B the highest value of bond strength was 6.54 Mpa and the minimum 5.55 Mpa. The mean value of the bond strength for the entire group was 6.58 Mpa. In Group C the highest bond strength was 6.59 Mpa whereas the lowest bond strength was 4.84 Mpa. Mean value of the bond strength of Group C was calculated at 5.7 Mpa. Etching with orthophosphoric acid combined with a dual-curing adhesive system and a dual-cured resin-composite cement was the technique that guaranteed the highest bond strength. Lowest bond strength values were obtained when dual self-adhesive cement was used.

  16. Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bagasse/Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Hybrid Composites

    Mehdi Roohani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of bagasse/glass fiber/polypropylene hybrid composites. Composites were prepared by the melt compounding method and their properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. DSC results found that with incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber the melting temperature (Tm and the crystallisation temperature (Tc shift to higher temperatures and the degree of crystallinity (Xc increase. These findings suggest that the fibers played the role of a nucleating agent in composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that by the incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber into polypropylene, the storage modulus ( and the loss modulus ( increase whereas the mechanical loss factor (tanδ decrease. To assess the effect of reinforcement with increasing temperature, the effectiveness coefficient C was calculated at different temperature ranges and revealed that, at the elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of fibers was more noticeable. The fiber-matrix adhesion efficiency determined by calculating of adhesion factor A in terms of the relative damping of the composite (tan δc and the polymer (tan δpand volume fraction of the fibers (Фf. Calculated adhesion factor A values indicated that by adding glass fiber to bagasse/polypropylene system, the fiber-matrix adhesion improve. Hybrid composite containing 25% bagasse and 15% glass fiber showed better fiber-matrix adhesion.

  17. In vitro cytotoxicity of Manville Code 100 glass fibers: Effect of fiber length on human alveolar macrophages

    Jones William

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs are inorganic noncrystalline materials widely used in residential and industrial settings for insulation, filtration, and reinforcement purposes. SVFs conventionally include three major categories: fibrous glass, rock/slag/stone (mineral wool, and ceramic fibers. Previous in vitro studies from our laboratory demonstrated length-dependent cytotoxic effects of glass fibers on rat alveolar macrophages which were possibly associated with incomplete phagocytosis of fibers ≥ 17 μm in length. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fiber length on primary human alveolar macrophages, which are larger in diameter than rat macrophages, using length-classified Manville Code 100 glass fibers (8, 10, 16, and 20 μm. It was hypothesized that complete engulfment of fibers by human alveolar macrophages could decrease fiber cytotoxicity; i.e. shorter fibers that can be completely engulfed might not be as cytotoxic as longer fibers. Human alveolar macrophages, obtained by segmental bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy, non-smoking volunteers, were treated with three different concentrations (determined by fiber number of the sized fibers in vitro. Cytotoxicity was assessed by monitoring cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase release and loss of function as indicated by a decrease in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence. Results Microscopic analysis indicated that human alveolar macrophages completely engulfed glass fibers of the 20 μm length. All fiber length fractions tested exhibited equal cytotoxicity on a per fiber basis, i.e. increasing lactate dehydrogenase and decreasing chemiluminescence in the same concentration-dependent fashion. Conclusion The data suggest that due to the larger diameter of human alveolar macrophages, compared to rat alveolar macrophages, complete phagocytosis of longer fibers can occur with the human cells. Neither incomplete phagocytosis nor length-dependent toxicity was

  18. Influence of Hybridizing Flax and Hemp-Agave Fibers with Glass Fiber as Reinforcement in a Polyurethane Composite

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp, and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane (PU composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material. The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption (WA, specific gravity (SG, coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE, flexural and compression properties, and hardness. The mechanical properties of hybridized samples showed mixed trends compared to the unhybridized samples, but hybridization with glass fiber reduced water absorption by 37% and 43% for flax and hemp-agave PU composites respectively.

  19. High-energy master oscillator power amplifier with near-diffraction-limited output based on ytterbium-doped PCF fiber

    Li, Rao; Qiao, Zhi; Wang, Xiaochao; Fan, Wei; Lin, Zunqi

    2017-10-01

    With the development of fiber technologies, fiber lasers are able to deliver very high power beams and high energy pulses which can be used not only in scientific researches but industrial fields (laser marking, welding,…). The key of high power fiber laser is fiber amplifier. In this paper, we present a two-level master-oscillator power amplifier system at 1053 nm based on Yb-doped photonic crystal fibers. The system is used in the front-end of high power laser facility for the amplification of nano-second pulses to meet the high-level requirements. Thanks to the high gain of the system which is over 50 dB, the pulse of more than 0.89 mJ energy with the nearly diffraction-limited beam quality has been obtained.

  20. The effect of silanated and impregnated fiber on the tensile strength of E-glass fiber reinforced composite retainer

    Niswati Fathmah Rosyida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fiber reinforced composite (FRC is can be used in dentistry as an orthodontic retainer. FRC  still has a limitations because of to  a weak bonding between fibers and matrix. Purpose: This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of silane as coupling agent and fiber impregnation on the tensile strength of E-glass FRC. Methods: The samples of this research were classified into two groups each of which consisted of three subgroups, namely the impregnated fiber group (original, 1x addition of silane, 2x addition of silane and the non-impregnated fiber group (original, 1x addition of silane, 2x addition of silane. The tensile strength was measured by a universal testing machine. The averages of the tensile strength in all groups then were compared by using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney post hoc tests. Results: The averages of the tensile strength (MPa in the impregnated fiber group can be known as follow; original impregnated fiber (26.60±0.51, 1x addition of silane (43.38±4.42, and 2x addition of silane (36.22±7.23. The averages of tensile strength (MPa in the non-impregnated fiber group can also be known as follow; original non-impregnated fiber (29.38±1.08, 1x addition of silane (29.38±1.08, 2x addition of silane (12.48±2.37. Kruskal Wallis test showed that there was a significant difference between the impregnated fiber group and the non-impregnated fiber group (p<0.05. Based on the results of post hoc test, it is also known that the addition of silane in the impregnated fiber group had a significant effect on the increasing of the tensile strength of E-glass FRC (p<0.05, while the addition of silane in the non-impregnated fiber group had a significant effect on the decreasing of the tensile strength of E-glass FRC. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the addition of silane in the non-silanated fiber group can increase the tensile strength of E-glass FRC, but the addition of silane in the silanated fiber group can

  1. Commercial Production of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass Fiber in Space

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  2. Effect of initial chirp on near-infrared supercontinuum generation by a nanosecond pulse in a nonlinear fiber amplifier

    Song Rui; Hou Jing; Wang Ze-Feng; Lu Qi-Sheng; Xiao Rui

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research on the effect of initial chirp on near-infrared supercontinuum generation by a nanosecond pulse in a nonlinear fiber amplifier is carried out. The complex Ginzburg—Landau equation is used to simulate the propagation of the pulse in the fiber amplifier and the results show that pulses with negative initial chirp produce the widest supercontinuum and pulses with positive initial chirp produce the narrowest supercontinuum when the central wavelength of the pump lies in the normal dispersion region of the gain fiber. A self-made line width narrowing system is utilized to control the initial chirp of the nanosecond pump pulse and a four-stage master oscillator power amplifier configuration is adopted to produce a high power near-infrared suppercontinuum. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulations which can provide some guidance on further optimization of the system in future work. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. Physicochemical properties of discontinuous S2-glass fiber reinforced resin composite.

    Huang, Qiting; Qin, Wei; Garoushi, Sufyan; He, Jingwei; Lin, Zhengmei; Liu, Fang; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2018-01-30

    The objective of this study was to investigate several physicochemical properties of an experimental discontinuous S2-glass fiber-reinforced resin composite. The experimental composite was prepared by mixing 10 wt% of discontinuous S2-glass fibers with 27.5 wt% of resin matrix and 62.5 wt% of particulate fillers. Flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), fracture toughness (FT), work of fracture (WOF), double bond conversion (DC), Vickers hardness, volume shrinkage (VS) and fiber length distribution were determined. These were compared with two commercial resin composites. The experimental composite showed the highest FS, WOF and FT compared with two control composites. The DC of the experimental composite was comparable with controls. No significant difference was observed in VS between the three tested composites. The use of discontinuous glass fiber fillers with polymer matrix and particulate fillers yielded improved physical properties and substantial improvement was associated with the use of S2-glass fiber.

  4. In-plane spectroscopy with optical fibers and liquid-filled APEX™ glass microcuvettes

    Gaillard, William R; Tantawi, Khalid Hasan; Williams, John D; Waddell, Emanuel; Fedorov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Chemical etching and laser drilling of microstructural glass results in opaque or translucent sidewalls, limiting the optical analysis of glass microfluidic devices to top down or non-planar topologies. These non-planar observation topologies prevent each layer of a multilayered device from being independently optically addressed. However, novel photosensitive glass processing techniques in APEX™ have resulted in microfabricated glass structures with transparent sidewalls. Toward the goal of a transparent multilayered glass microfluidic device, this study demonstrates the ability to perform spectroscopy with optical fibers and microcuvettes fabricated in photosensitive APEX™ glass. (technical note)

  5. Investigating the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Glass Fibers and Nanoclay

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of asphaltic pavements during their service life is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of the asphaltic layers. Therefore, in order to extend their service life, scientists and engineers are constantly trying to improve the mechanical properties of the asphaltic mixtures. One common method of improving the performance of asphaltic mixtures is using different types of additives. This research investigated the effects of reinforcement by randomly distributed glass fibers and the simultaneous addition of nanoclayon some engineering properties of asphalt concrete have been investigated. The properties of a typical asphalt concrete reinforced by different percentages of glass fibers were compared with those containing both the fibers and nanoclay. Engineering properties, including Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient, volumetric properties and indirect tensile strength were studied. Glass fibers were used in different percentages of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% (by weight of total mixture, and nanoclay was used in 2, 4 and 6% (by the weight of bitumen. It was found that the addition of fibers proved to be more effective than the nanoclay in increasing the indirect tensile strength. However, nanoclay improved the resistance of the mixture against permanent deformation better than the glass fibers. The results also showed that the mixture reinforced by 0.2% of glass fiber and containing 6% nanoclay possessed the highest Marshall quotient, and the mixture containing 0.6% glass fibers and 2% nanoclay possessedthe highest indirect tensile strength.

  6. Monitoring Poisson's ratio of glass fiber reinforced composites as damage index using biaxial Fiber Bragg Grating sensors

    Yılmaz, Çağatay; Yilmaz, Cagatay; Akalın, Çağdaş; Akalin, Cagdas; Kocaman, Esat Selim; Suleman, A.; Yıldız, Mehmet; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Damage accumulation in Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites is monitored based on Poisson's ratio measurements for three different fiber stacking sequences subjected to both quasi-static and quasi-static cyclic tensile loadings. The sensor systems utilized include a dual-extensometer, a biaxial strain gage and a novel embedded-biaxial Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor. These sensors are used concurrently to measure biaxial strain whereby the evolution of Poisson's ratio as a functi...

  7. Studies on fabrication of glass fiber reinforced composites using polymer blends

    Patel, R. H.; Kachhia, P. H.; Patel, S. N.; Rathod, S. T.; Valand, J. K.

    2018-05-01

    Glass fiber reinforced PVC/NBR composites have been fabricated via hot compression moulding process. PVC is brittle in nature and thus lower thermal stability. Therefore, to improve the toughness of PVC, NBR was incorporated in certain proportions. As both are polar and thus they are compatible. To improve the strength property further, these blends were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced composites. SEM micrograph shows good wettability of the blend with glass fibers resulting in proper bonding which increase the strength of the composites.

  8. Cladding-pumped 70-kW-peak-power 2-ns-pulse Er-doped fiber amplifier

    Khudyakov, M. M.; Bubnov, M. M.; Senatorov, A. K.; Lipatov, D. S.; Guryanov, A. N.; Rybaltovsky, A. A.; Butov, O. V.; Kotov, L. V.; Likhachev, M. E.

    2018-02-01

    An all-fiber pulsed erbium laser with pulse width of 2.4 ns working in a MOPA configuration has been created. Cladding pumped double clad erbium doped large mode area fiber was used in the final stage amplifier. Peculiarity of the current work is utilization of custom-made multimode diode wavelength stabilized at 981+/-0.5 nm - wavelength of maximum absorption by Er ions. It allowed us to shorten Er-doped fiber down to 1.7 m and keep a reasonably high pump-to signal conversion efficiency of 8.4%. The record output peak power for all-fiber amplifiers of 84 kW was achieved within 1555.9+/-0.15 nm spectral range.

  9. Development and applications of femtosecond monolithic Yb-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers

    Zhu, L.

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, compact and environmentally stable high-energy ultrashort pulse laser sources have been broadly utilized in many different applications. Fiber lasers offer big practical advantages over bulk solid-state laser systems in terms of flexibility, compactness, reliability, cost effectiveness and turn-key operability. Moreover, thermal effects are dramatically reduced due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of an optical fiber, and good spatial mode quality can be ensured by its waveguiding property. Therefore, a fiber-based laser system is considered to be the preferred laser architecture. The main theme of this thesis is the development of various femtosecond monolithic Yb-doped fiber chirped-pulse-amplification (FCPA) system and their applications. We demonstrate an ultrafast high-energy monolithic Yb-doped FCPA system in which the pulse fidelity is preserved by weakening the nonlinear effects via a substantial level of temporal stretching of the seed pulses and by using highly doped active fibers as amplifying media. The presented monolithic FCPA delivers up to ∼ 25 μJ diffraction-limited pulses that can be recompressed to sub-200 fs duration, and the pulse quality has been confirmed through the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) conversion efficiency of over 52%. Improved dispersion and nonlinearity management schemes of the FCPA system allowing substantial pulse energy scaling in the monolithic format as well as methods for overcoming a series of technological challenges are reported. Three different types of Yb-doped fiber oscillators have been developed and built in the course of this PhD work. First, we compare two oscillator types that are based on the all-normal-dispersion (ANDi) regime and the dispersion-managed (DM) regime. Both of them have been tested as the seed-pulse source of the monolithic Yb-doped FCPA system. Then we introduce another novel design based on higher-order-mode (HOM) dispersion management that competes with a

  10. NUMERICAL ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE ELASTIC MODULI OF SYNTACTIC FOAMS REINFORCED BY SHORT GLASS FIBERS

    Wei Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hollow glass microsphere/epoxy resin syntactic foams reinforced by short glass fibers are studied using representative volume elements. Both the glass fibers and the hollow glass microspheres exhibit random arrangement in the epoxy resin. The volume fraction and wall thickness of hollow glass microspheres and the volume fraction of glass fibers are considered as parameters. It is observed that the elastic modulus values of syntactic foams decrease with the increase of microsphere volume fraction when the microsphere relative wall thickness is lower. However, it increases with the increase of microsphere volume fraction when the relative wall thickness exceeds a critical value. The elastic modulus value goes through a maximum when the relative wall thickness is around 0.06 at 25 % volume fraction of microspheres. The addition of glass fibers reduces the critical wall thickness values of the microspheres and increases the mechanical properties of the composites. The highest stress lies on the equatorial plane perpendicular to the loading direction. Adding fibers reduces the large stress distribution areas on the microspheres, and the fibers aligned with the loading direction play an important load-bearing role.

  11. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide.

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-05-10

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %). The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  12. Extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for refractive index measurement of optical glass

    Chen Jihuan; Zhao Jiarong; Huang Xuguang; Huang Zhenjian

    2010-01-01

    A simple fiber-optic sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference for refractive index measurement of optical glass is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A broadband light source is coupled into an extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the surfaces of a sensing fiber end and the measured sample. The interference signals from the cavity are reflected back into the same fiber. The refractive index of the sample can be obtained by measuring the contrast of the interference fringes. The experimental data meet with the theoretical values very well. The proposed technique is a new method for glass refractive index measurement with a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  13. Computational analysis of the amplified spontaneous emission in quantum dot doped plastic optical fibers

    Peng, Xuefeng; Han, Yinxia; Hu, Guoqiang; Wu, Pinghui

    2014-01-01

    The properties of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) doped step-index polymer optical fibers (POFs) were computationally analyzed in this paper. A theoretical model based on the rate equations between two main energy levels of CdSe/ZnS QD was built in terms of time (t), distance traveled by light (z) and wavelength (λ), which can describe the ASE successfully. Through analyzing the spectral evolution with distance of the pulses propagating along the CdSe/ZnS QD doped POFs, dependences of the ASE threshold and the slope efficiency on the numerical aperture were obtained. Compared to the ASE in common dye-doped POFs, the pump threshold was just about 1/1000, but the slope efficiency was much higher. (paper)

  14. A flexible receiver with fiber optical parametric amplifier in OCDMA-FSO communication system

    Xia, Min; Yuan, Jin-hui; Sang, Xin-zhu; Yin, Xiao-li; Rao, Lan; Yu, Chong-xiu

    2014-11-01

    A new receiver is proposed, which uses the fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) in optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) over free space optic (FSO) communication system. The noise tolerance as the performance index in this receiver is derived. The receiver can not only improve the noise tolerance but also change the pump data conveniently for adapting to the length variation of the coding sequence under a complex and fast-changing weather condition. The influence of different factors on the noise tolerance is analyzed, and a significant improvement of about 18.77 dB for the noise tolerance can be achieved when the pump power and the length of coding sequence are 5 W and 256, respectively.

  15. Microdrilling of metals with an inexpensive and compact ultra-short-pulse fiber amplified microchip laser

    Ancona, A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory ' LIT3' , Dipartimento Interuniversitario di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Nodop, D.; Limpert, J.; Nolte, S. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF), Jena (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    We have investigated the ultra-fast microdrilling of metals using a compact and cheap fiber amplified passively Q-switched microchip laser. This laser system delivers 100-ps pulses with repetition rates higher than 100 kHz and pulse energies up to 80 {mu}J. The ablation process has been studied on metals with quite different thermal properties (copper, carbon steel and stainless steel). The dependence of the ablation depth per pulse on the pulse energy follows the same logarithmic scaling laws governing laser ablation with sub-picosecond pulses. Structures ablated with 100-ps laser pulses are accompanied only by a thin layer of melted material. Despite this, results with a high level of precision are obtained when using the laser trepanning technique. This simple and affordable laser system could be a valid alternative to nanosecond laser sources for micromachining applications. (orig.)

  16. Gain claming in single-pass and double-pass L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Harun, S.W.; Ahmad, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gain clamping is demonstrated in single-pass and double-pass long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. A C/L-band wavelength division multiplexing coupler is used in single-pass system to generate a laser at 1566 nm. The gain for the amplifier is clamped at 15.5 dB with gain variation of less than 0.2 dB from input signal power of -40 to -14 dBm with almost negligible noise figure penalty. However, the flatness of gain spectrum is slightly degraded due to the un-optimisation of erbium-doped fiber length. The advantage of this configuration is that the oscillating light does not appear at the output of the amplifier. A highly efficient gain-clamped long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with improved noise figure characteristic is demonstrated by simply adding a broadband conventional band fiber Bragg grating in double pass system. The combination of the fiber Bragg grating and optical circulator has created laser in the cavity for gain clamping. By adjusting the power combination of pumps 1 and 2, the clamped gain level can be controlled. The amplifier gain is clamped at 28.1 dB from -40 to -25 dBm with gain variation of less than 0.5 dB by setting the pumps 1 and 2 at 59.5 and 50.6 mW, respectively. The gain is also flat from 1574 nm to 1604 nm with gain variation of less than 3 dB. The corresponding noise figure varies from 5.6 to 7.6 dB, which is 0.8 to 2.6 dB reduced compared to those of unclamped amplifier (Authors)

  17. High-power diode laser bars as pump sources for fiber lasers and amplifiers (Invited Paper)

    Bonati, G.; Hennig, P.; Wolff, D.; Voelckel, H.; Gabler, T.; Krause, U.; T'nnermann, A.; Reich, M.; Limpert, J.; Werner, E.; Liem, A.

    2005-04-01

    Fiber lasers are pumped by fibercoupled, multimode single chip devices at 915nm. That"s what everybody assumes when asked for the type of fiber laser pumps and it was like this for many years. Coming up as an amplifier for telecom applications, the amount of pump power needed was in the range of several watts. Highest pump powers for a limited market entered the ten watts range. This is a range of power that can be covered by highly reliable multimode chips, that have to survive up to 25 years, e.g. in submarine applications. With fiber lasers entering the power range and the application fields of rod and thin disc lasers, the amount of pump power needed raised into the area of several hundred watts. In this area of pump power, usually bar based pumps are used. This is due to the much higher cost pressure of the industrial customers compared to telecom customers. We expect more then 70% of all industrial systems to be pumped by diode laser bars. Predictions that bar based pumps survive for just a thousand hours in cw-operation and fractions of this if pulsed are wrong. Bar based pumps have to perform on full power for 10.000h on Micro channel heat sinks and 20.000h on passive heatsinks in industrial applications, and they do. We will show a variety of data, "real" long time tests and statistics from the JENOPTIK Laserdiode as well as data of thousands of bars in the field, showing that bar based pumps are not just well suitable for industrial applications on high power levels, but even showing benefits compared to chip based pumps. And it"s reasonable, that the same objectives of cost effectiveness, power and lifetime apply as well to thin disc, rod and slab lasers as to fiber lasers. Due to the pumping of fiber lasers, examples will be shown, how to utilize bars for high brightness fiber coupling. In this area, the automation is on its way to reduce the costs on the fibercoupling, similar to what had been done in the single chip business. All these efforts are

  18. Simulation and measurement of optical access network with different types of optical-fiber amplifiers

    Latal, Jan; Vogl, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Vitasek, Jan; Siska, Petr; Liner, Andrej; Papes, Martin; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The optical access networks are nowadays swiftly developing in the telecommunications field. These networks can provide higher data transfer rates, and have great potential to the future in terms of transmission possibilities. Many local internet providers responded to these facts and began gradually installing optical access networks into their originally built networks, mostly based on wireless communication. This allowed enlargement of possibilities for end-users in terms of high data rates and also new services such as Triple play, IPTV (Internet Protocol television) etc. However, with this expansion and building-up is also related the potential of reach in case of these networks. Big cities, such as Prague, Brno, Ostrava or Olomouc cannot be simply covered, because of their sizes and also because of their internal regulations given by various organizations in each city. Standard logical and also physical reach of EPON (IEEE 802.3ah - Ethernet Passive Optical Network) optical access network is about 20 km. However, for networks based on Wavelength Division Multiplex the reach can be up to 80 km, if the optical-fiber amplifier is inserted into the network. This article deals with simulation of different types of amplifiers for WDM-PON (Wavelength Division Multiplexing-Passive Optical Network) network in software application Optiwave OptiSystem and than are the values from the application and from real measurement compared.

  19. Ultrasonic assisted consolidation of commingled thermoplastic/glass fibers rovings

    Francesca eLionetto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic matrix composites are finding new applications in different industrial area thanks to their intrinsic advantages related to environmental compatibility and processability. The approach presented in this work consists in the development of a technology for the simultaneous deposition and consolidation of commingled thermoplastic rovings through to the application of high energy ultrasound. An experimental equipment, integrating both fiber impregnation and ply consolidation in a single process, has been designed and tested. It is made of an ultrasonic welder, whose titanium sonotrode is integrated on a filament winding machine. During winding, the commingled roving is at the same time in contact with the mandrel and the horn. The intermolecular friction generated by ultrasound is able to melt the thermoplastic matrix and impregnate the reinforcement fibers. The heat transfer phenomena occurring during the in situ consolidation were simulated solving by finite element (FE analysis an energy balance accounting for the heat generated by ultrasonic waves and the melting characteristics of the matrix. To this aim, a calorimetric characterization of the thermoplastic matrix has been carried out to obtain the input parameters for the model. The FE analysis has enabled to predict the temperature distribution in the composite during heating and cooling The simulation results have been validated by the measurement of the temperature evolution during ultrasonic consolidation.The reliability of the developed consolidation equipment was proved by producing hoop wound cylinder prototypes using commingled continuous E-glass rovings and Polypropylene (PP filaments. The consolidated composite cylinders are characterized by high mechanical properties, with values comparable with the theoretical ones predicted by the micromechanical analysis.

  20. Fabrication and physical properties of glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for non-metal-clasp dentures.

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2017-11-01

    Recently, non-metal-clasp dentures (NMCDs) made from thermoplastic resins such as polyamide, polyester, polycarbonate, and polypropylene have been used as removable partial dentures (RPDs). However, the use of such RPDs can seriously affect various tissues because of their low rigidity. In this study, we fabricated high-rigidity glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTPs) for use in RPDs, and examined their physical properties such as apparent density, dynamic hardness, and flexural properties. GFRTPs made from E-glass fibers and polypropylene were fabricated using an injection-molding. The effects of the fiber content on the GFRTP properties were examined using glass-fiber contents of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mass%. Commercially available denture base materials and NMCD materials were used as controls. The experimental densities of GFRTPs with various fiber contents agreed with the theoretical densities. Dynamic micro-indentation tests confirmed that the fiber content does not affect the GFRTP surface properties such as dynamic hardness and elastic modulus, because most of the reinforcing glass fibers are embedded in the polypropylene. The flexural strength increased from 55.8 to 217.6 MPa with increasing glass-fiber content from 0 to 50 mass%. The flexural modulus increased from 1.75 to 7.42 GPa with increasing glass-fiber content from 0 to 50 mass%, that is, the flexural strength and modulus of GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 3.9 and 4.2 times, respectively, those of unreinforced polypropylene. These results suggest that fiber reinforcement has beneficial effects, and GFRTPs can be used in NMCDs because their physical properties are better than those of controls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2254-2260, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dynamic mechanical and dielectric behavior of banana–glass hybrid fiber reinforced polyester composites.

    Pothan, LA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites of glass and banana fiber (obtained from the pseudo stem of Musa sapientum) in polyester matrix, are subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis over a range of temperature and three different frequencies. The effect of temperature...

  2. Recycled Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Incorporated in Mortar for Improved Mechanical Performance

    2017-12-11

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) recycled from retired wind turbines was implemented in mortar as a volumetric replacement of sand during the two phases of this study. In Phase I, the mechanically refined GFRP particle sizes were sieved for four...

  3. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars.

    2012-03-01

    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  4. Study on vibration alleviating properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete through orthogonal tests

    Bai Wenfeng; Zhang Jianhua; Yan Peng; Wang Xinli

    2009-01-01

    Polymer concrete (PC), because of its good vibration alleviating properties, is a proper material for elementary machine parts in high-precision machine tools. Glass fiber was applied in PC to improve its mechanical properties, and the material obtained is called glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete (GFRPC). The best parameter to estimate the vibration alleviating property is damping ratio. Orthogonal tests were carried out to prepare GFRPC specimens with different component proportions. Damping ratio of the GFRPC specimens was measured. The effect of the factors considered in the experiments on damping ratio of GFRPC was studied. Results of the tests show that granite proportion plays the most important role in determining damping ratio of GFRPC, then flexibilizer dosage and glass fiber length, while epoxy resin dosage and glass fiber dosage play a comparatively less important part. Detailed descriptions were made about how the considered factors affect damping ratio of GFRPC in this paper

  5. Isothermal and hygrothermal agings of hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber composite

    Barjasteh, Ehsan

    New applications of fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) are arising in non-traditional sectors of industry, such as civil infrastructure, automotive, and power distribution. For example, composites are being used in place of steel to support high-voltage overhead conductors. In this application, conductive strands of aluminum are wrapped around a solid composite rod comprised of unidirectional carbon and glass fibers in an epoxy matrix, which is commercially called ACCC conductor. Composite-core conductors such as these are expected to eventually replace conventional steel-reinforced conductors because of the reduced sag at high temperatures, lower weight, higher ampacity, and reduced line losses. Despite the considerable advantages in mechanical performance, long-term durability of composite conductors is a major concern, as overhead conductors are expected to retain properties (with minimal maintenance) over a service life that spans multiple decades. These concerns stem from the uncertain effects of long-term environmental exposure, which includes temperature, moisture, radiation, and aggressive chemicals, all of which can be exacerbated by cyclic loads. In general, the mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites are adversely affected by such environmental factors. Consequently, the ability to forecast changes in material properties as a function of environmental exposure, particularly bulk mechanical properties, which are affected by the integrity of fiber-matrix interfaces, is required to design for extended service lives. Polymer composites are susceptible to oxidative degradation at high temperatures approaching but not quite reaching the glass transition temperature ( Tg). Although the fibers are stable at such temperatures, the matrix and especially the fiber-matrix interface can undergo degradation that affects the physical and mechanical properties of the structure over time. Therefore, as a first step, the thermal aging of an

  6. Consumer perception of risk associated with filters contaminated with glass fibers.

    Cummings, K M; Hastrup, J L; Swedrock, T; Hyland, A; Perla, J; Pauly, J L

    2000-09-01

    The filters in Eclipse, a new cigarette-like smoking article marketed by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, are contaminated with glass fibers, fragments, and particles. Reported herein are the results of a study in which consumers were questioned about their opinions as to whether exposure to glass fibers in such a filter poses an added health risk beyond that from smoking and whether the manufacturer has an obligation to inform consumers about the glass contamination problem. The study queried 137 adults who were interviewed while waiting at a Division of Motor Vehicles office in Erie County, New York in 1997. All but one person expressed the view that the presence of glass fibers on the filters poses an added health risk beyond that associated with exposure to tobacco smoke alone. Nearly all expressed the position that the cigarette manufacturer has a duty to inform the public about the potential for glass exposure.

  7. 110 GHz rapid, continous tuning from an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber-amplified DBR diode laser

    Lindsay, I.D.; Adhimoolam, B.; Gross, P.; Klein, M.E.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2005-01-01

    A singly-resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO) pumped by a fiber-amplified diode laser is described. Tuning of the pump source allowed the OPO output to be tuned continuously, without mode-hops, over 110 GHz in 29 ms. Discontinuous pump tuning over 20 nm in the region of

  8. Demonstration of Cascaded In-Line Single-Pump Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers in Recirculating Loop Transmission

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Ozolins, Oskars; An, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The performance of cascaded single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) is experimentally studied for the first time using recirculating loop transmission with 80-km dispersion managed spans. Error-free performance has been achieved over 320 km for 40-Gbit/s CSRZ-OOK and CSRZ...

  9. Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified random fiber laser

    Shang, Yaping; Shen, Meili; Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Xu, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the concept of random fiber lasers has attracted a great deal of attention for its feature to generate incoherent light without a traditional laser resonator, which is free of mode competition and insure the stationary narrow-band continuous modeless spectrum. In this Letter, we reported the first, to the best of our knowledge, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an amplified 1070 nm random fiber laser (RFL), in order to generate stationary mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser. The experiment realized a watt-level laser output in the mid-IR range and operated relatively stable. The use of the RFL seed source allowed us to take advantage of its respective stable time-domain characteristics. The beam profile, spectrum and time-domain properties of the signal light were measured to analyze the process of frequency down-conversion process under this new pumping condition. The results suggested that the near-infrared (near-IR) signal light `inherited' good beam performances from the pump light. Those would be benefit for further develop about optical parametric process based on different pumping circumstances.

  10. Recent progress of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and their components

    Fukushima, Masaru; Miura, Jutaro

    2007-09-01

    The Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) are widely available in a today's commercial market, and are deployed in various optical transmission applications from terrestrial system to undersea system. Broad gain spectrum over 9 THz enabled huge growth of bandwidth usage in 1550nm region aimed at broadband Internet, and its broad gain characteristics triggered bandwidth competition on dense wavelength division multiplex (DWDM) network these ten years. At first, we briefly review the evolutional history of EDFA with previous achievements. And we will explain the primary and important key devices which compose EDFA. We will discuss design parameters, and recent trend and achievements of the devices, which cover Erbium-doped fibers (EDF), 980-nm laser diodes (LD), and gain flattening filters (GFFs). The chip structure of 980-nm LD is explained to achieve high power and to realize high reliability. These key devices enabled EDFA to prevail in commercial area. After the discussion of key components, we will introduce recent achievements of gain controlled EDFAs which are applied in conjunction with Re-configurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (ROADM). We will report the transient gain dynamics of the cascaded EDFAs with a recirculating loop experiment.

  11. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Based Gain Controller for Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers

    YUCEL, M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA must have a flat gain profile which is a very important parameter such as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM and dense WDM (DWDM applications for long-haul optical communication systems and networks. For this reason, it is crucial to hold a stable signal power per optical channel. For the purpose of overcoming performance decline of optical networks and long-haul optical systems, the gain of the EDFA must be controlled for it to be fixed at a high speed. In this study, due to the signal power attenuation in long-haul fiber optic communication systems and non-equal signal amplification in each channel, an automatic gain controller (AGC is designed based on the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for EDFAs. The intelligent gain controller is implemented and the performance of this new electronic control method is demonstrated. The proposed ANFIS-based AGC-EDFA uses the experimental dataset to produce the ANFIS-based sets and the rule base. Laser diode currents are predicted within the accuracy rating over 98 percent with the proposed ANFIS-based system. Upon comparing ANFIS-based AGC-EDFA and experimental results, they were found to be very close and compatible.

  12. High-Strength / High Alkaline Resistant Fe-Phosphate Glass Fibers as Concrete Reinforcement

    Mariano Velez

    2008-03-31

    Calcium-iron-phosphate glasses were developed whose chemical durabilities in alkaline solutions (pH 13) were comparable or superior to those of commercial alkaline-resistant (AR) silica-based glasses. However, the tensile strength of Ca-Fe-phosphate fibers, after being exposed to alkaline environments, including wet Portland cement pastes, is lower than that of current AR silicate fibers. Another series of Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses were developed with excellent chemical durability in strong acidic solutions (H2SO4, HF), indicating potential applications where silica-based fibers degrade very quickly, including E-glass. The new Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses can be melted and processed 300 to 500°C lower than silica-based glasses. This offers the possibility of manufacturing glass fibers with lower energy costs by 40-60% and the potential to reduce manufacturing waste and lower gas emissions. It was found that Ca-Fe-phosphate melts can be continuously pulled into fibers depending on the slope of the viscosity-temperature curve and with viscosity ~100 poise, using multi-hole Pt/Rh bushings.

  13. Effect of fiber content on flexural properties of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 prepared by injection molding.

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2017-07-26

    The use of non-metal clasp denture (NMCD) materials may seriously affect the remaining tissues because of the low rigidity of NMCD materials such as polyamides. The purpose of this study was to develop a high-rigidity glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (GFRTP) composed of E-glass fiber and polyamide-6 for NMCDs using an injection molding. The reinforcing effects of fiber on the flexural properties of GFRTPs were investigated using glass fiber content ranging from 0 to 50 mass%. Three-point bending tests indicated that the flexural strength and elastic modulus of a GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 5.4 and 4.7 times higher than those of unreinforced polyamide-6, respectively. The result showed that the physical characteristics of GFRTPs were greatly improved by increasing the fiber content, and the beneficial effects of fiber reinforcement were evident. The findings suggest that the injection-molded GFRTPs are adaptable to NMCDs because of their excellent mechanical properties.

  14. Effect of discrete glass fibers on the behavior of R.C. Beams exposed to fire

    Magdy Riad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding discrete glass fibers on the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams under different fire and cooling conditions. Eighteen beams with different concrete compressive strengths were tested to study the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams containing discrete glass fibers when exposed to different fire and cooling conditions. Nine beams were prepared from normal strength concrete (NSC with compressive strength equal to 35 MPa while the other beams were prepared from high strength concrete (HSC with compressive strength equal to 60 MPa. The beams contained different contents of discrete glass fibers. The modes of failure of tested specimens show that the crack patterns change according to fire condition and fiber content. Analysis of test results show that adding discrete glass fibers to NSC increased the residual stiffness of the tested specimens after firing and decreased the rate of the deflection gain during firing. Also adding fibers to concrete has a limited positive effect on the ultimate strength of the specimens compared to the control specimens. Its effect on deflection due to fire is more pronounced. Finally, the recommended optimum ratio of discrete glass fibers is not more than 0.5% of the total concrete weight.

  15. Preparation and investigation of Ge-S-I glasses for infrared fiber optics

    Velmuzhov, A. P.; Sukhanov, M. V.; Plekhovich, A. D.; Snopatin, G. E.; Churbanov, M. F.; Iskhakova, L. D.; Ermakov, R. P.; Kotereva, T. V.; Shiryaev, V. S.

    2016-02-01

    Glass samples of [GeSx]90I10 (x = 1.5, 1.7, 2.0, 2.3, 2.45, 2.6) compositions were prepared, and some their thermal, optical properties as well as tendency to crystallization were investigated. The compositional dependences of glass transition temperature, volume fraction of crystallized phase and activation energy of glass formation (Eg) have nonmonotonic character with a maximum for [GeS2.0]90I10 glass. Glasses of 85.8GeS2-14.2GeI4 and [GeS1.5]90I10 compositions are identified as promising for preparation of optical fiber. For the first time, Ge-S-I glass fibers were produced. Minimum optical losses in 85.8GeS2-14.2GeI4 glass fiber were 2.7 dB/m at a wavelength of 5.1 μm, and that in [GeS1.5]90I10 glass fiber were 14.5 dB/m at 5.5 μm.

  16. 2.43 kW narrow linewidth linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier based on mode instability suppression

    Su, Rongtao; Tao, Rumao; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Hanwei; Ma, Pengfei; Zhou, Pu; Xu, Xiaojun

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate an experimental study on scaling mode instability (MI) threshold in fiber amplifiers based on fiber coiling. The experimental results show that coiling the active fiber in the cylindrical spiral shape is superior to the coiling in the plane spiral shape. When the polarization maintained Yb-doped fiber (PM YDF: with a core/inner-cladding diameter of 20/400 µm) is coiled on an aluminous plate with a bend diameter of 9-16 cm, the MI threshold is ~1.55 kW. When such a PM YDF is coiled on an aluminous cylinder with diameter of 9 cm, no MI is observed at the output power of 2.43 kW, which is limited by the available pump power. The spectral width and polarization extinction ratio is 0.255 nm and 18.3 dB, respectively, at 2.43 kW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power from a linear polarized narrow linewidth all-fiberized amplifier. By using a theoretical model, the potential MI-free scaling capability in such an amplifier is estimated to be 3.5 kW.

  17. Interlaminar/interfiber failure of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced composites used for wind turbine blades

    Leong, Martin Klitgaard; Overgaard, Lars C. T.; M. Daniel,, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    A unidirectional glass fiber/epoxy composite was characterized under multi-axial loading by testing off-axis specimens under uniaxial tension and compression at various angles relative to the fiber direction. Iosipescu shear tests were performed with both symmetric and asymmetric specimens. Tests...

  18. Tm-Yb Doped Optical Fiber Performance with Variation of Host-Glass Composition

    Anirban Dhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of Thulium-Ytterbium doped optical fiber comprising different host glass through the Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD coupled with solution doping technique is presented. The material and optical performance of different fibers are compared with special emphasis on their lasing efficiency for 2 µm application.

  19. Mechanical Characterization and Fractography of Glass Fiber/Polyamide (PA6) Composites

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Pillai, Saju; Charca, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the glass fiber reinforced Polyamide (PA6) composites made by prepreg tapes and commingled yarns were studied by in-plane compression, short-beam shear, and flexural tests. The composites were fabricated with different fiber volume contents (prepregs—47%, 55%, 60%, an...

  20. Hybrid carbon/glass fiber composites: Micromechanical analysis of structure–damage resistance relationships

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Dai, Gaoming

    2014-01-01

    A computational study of the effect of microstructure of hybrid carbon/glass fiber composites on their strength is presented. Unit cells with hundreds of randomly located and misaligned fibers of various properties and arrangements are subject to tensile and compression loading, and the evolution...... strength than pure composites, while the strength of hybrid composites under inform force loading increases steadily with increasing the volume content of carbon fibers....... of fiber damages is analyzed in numerical experiments. The effects of fiber clustering, matrix properties, nanoreinforcement, load sharing rules on the strength and damage resistance of composites are studied. It was observed that hybrid composites under uniform displacement loading might have lower...

  1. SHIVA Nd: glass disk-amplifier-assembly facility and special purpose fixtures

    Jones, W.A.; Patton, H.G.; Stowers, I.F.; Wentworth, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    The facility built to assemble and maintain the laser amplifiers in the SHIVA Laser System is described. The facility is a Class-100 clean room which includes a high pressure solvent spray box, optical inspection equipment, and several unique amplifier-assembly fixtures

  2. Thermo-tunable hybrid photonic crystal fiber based on solution-processed chalcogenide glass nanolayers

    Markos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    the air-capillaries of the fiber based on a solution-processed glass approach. The deposited high-index layers revealed antiresonant transmission windows from similar to 500 nm up to similar to 1300 nm. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time the possibility to thermally-tune the revealed....../degrees C at 1300 nm. The proposed fiber device could potentially constitute an efficient route towards realization of monolithic tunable fiber filters or sensing elements....

  3. Glass and Process Development for the Next Generation of Optical Fibers: A Review

    John Ballato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applications involving optical fibers have grown considerably in recent years with intense levels of research having been focused on the development of not only new generations of optical fiber materials and designs, but also on new processes for their preparation. In this paper, we review the latest developments in advanced materials for optical fibers ranging from silica, to semi-conductors, to particle-containing glasses, to chalcogenides and also in process-related innovations.

  4. On turbulence structure in vertical pipe flow of fiber suspensions [refractivity, flow measurement, turbulent flow, glass fibers, fluid flow

    Steen, M.

    1989-01-01

    A suspension of glass fibers in alcohol has been used to investigate a upward vertical developing pipe flow. The refractive index of the alcohol was matched to that of the glass fibers, making the whole suspension transparent. Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) was applied, and fluid velocities could then be measured for consistencies up to c = 12 g/l. Radial profiles of axial U-velocity and turbulence spectra have been recorded at various positions (z/D = 2, 5, 36) downstream of an orifice (step) with 64% open area. Measurements were taken for different consistencies (c = 1.2, 12 g/l), fiber lengths (l = 1, 3 mm) and Reynolds numbers (R e = 8.5 ⋅ 10 3 , 6.5 ⋅ 10 4 ). The fiber crowding factor (n f ) has been used to discuss the observed effects of the present fibers on momentum transfer and turbulence structure. The results show both an increase (l= 1 mm, c= 1.2 g/l) and decrease (l=3 mm, c = 12 g/l) in turbulence levels in the presence of fibers. Suspensions with long fibers at the highest consistency show plug flow in parts of the core. This causes damping of the turbulence mainly at smaller length scales. For short fibers at low consistency, the increased turbulent energy was mainly observed at small length scales in the spectrum. (author)

  5. New Erbium Doped Antimony Glasses for Laser and Glass ...

    Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses.

  6. Abrasion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of Waste-Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Roller-compacted Concrete

    Yildizel, S. A.; Timur, O.; Ozturk, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    The potential use of waste glass fibers in roller-compacted concrete (RCC) was investigated with the aim to improve its performance and reduce environmental effects. The research was focused on the abrasion resistance and compressive and flexural strengths of the reinforced concrete relative to those of reference mixes without fibers. The freeze-thaw resistance of RCC mixes was also examined. It was found that the use of waste glass fibers at a rate of 2 % increased the abrasion resistance of the RCC mixes considerably.

  7. Influences of chemical aging on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2008-01-01

    The impact of aging in high humidity and water on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers has been studied using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The results show that interaction between...... the fibers and the surrounding media (high humidity or water at 70 C) leads to chemical changes strongly affecting the surface morphology. The crystallization peak temperature of the basaltic glass fibers are increased without changing the onset temperature, this may be caused by a chemical depletion...

  8. Investigation of mechanical properties of hemp/glass fiber reinforced nano clay hybrid composites

    Unki, Hanamantappa Ningappa; Shivanand, H. K.; Vidyasagar, H. N.

    2018-04-01

    Over the last twenty to thirty years composite materials have been used in engineering field. Composite materials possess high strength, high strength to weight ratio due to these facts composite materials are becoming popular among researchers and scientists. The major proportion of engineering materials consists of composite materials. Composite materials are used in vast applications ranging from day-to-day household articles to highly sophisticated applications. In this paper an attempt is made to prepare three different composite materials using e-glass and Hemp. In this present investigation hybrid composite of Hemp, Glass fiber and Nano clay will be prepared by Hand-layup technique. The glass fiber used in this present investigation is E-glass fiber bi-directional: 90˚ orientation. The composite samples will be made in the form of a Laminates. The wt% of nanoclay added in the preparation of sample is 20 gm constant. The fabricated composite Laminate will be cut into corresponding profiles as per ASTM standards for Mechanical Testing. The effect of addition of Nano clay and variation of Hemp/glass fibers will be studied. In the present work, a new Hybrid composite is developed in which Hemp, E glass fibers is reinforced with epoxy resin and with Nano clay.

  9. Evanescent field infrared spectroscopy using chalcogenide glass fiber

    Katz Moti

    1992-06-01

    In the last few years a simple and cheap fiber-optics based spectroscopy method was developed for the investigation of liquids, pastes gases and thin layers. The fiber is immersed in the sample, and the investigated material becomes the fiber cladding. the interaction between the guided radiation in the fiber and the specimen is taking place by evanescent field which extends outside the fiber. This work concentrates in the quantitative characterization of the absorption of the evanescent field by the fiber cladding (the specimen). This subject was dealt with only briefly in the earlier works, and the aim of this work is to obtain a comprehensive understanding of this issue. (author)

  10. Investigation of mechanical properties of kenaf, hemp and E-glass fiber reinforced composites

    Dinesh, Veena; Shivanand, H. K.; Vidyasagar, H. N.; Chari, V. Srinivasa

    2018-04-01

    Recently the use of fiber reinforced polymer composite in the automobile, aerospace overwhelming designing sectors has increased tremendously due to the ecological issues and health hazard possessed by the synthetic fiber during disposal and manufacturing. The paper presents tensile strength, flexural strength and hardness of kenaf-E glass-kenaf, hemp-E glass-hemp and kenaf-E glass-hemp fiber reinforced polyester composites. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses of each combination. In addition to the physical and mechanical properties, processing methods and application of kenaf and hemp fiber composites is also discussed.

  11. Intrinsic strength of sodium borosilicate glass fibers by using a two-point bending technique

    Nishikubo, Y; Yoshida, S; Sugawara, T; Matsuoka, J

    2011-01-01

    Flaws existing on glass surface can be divided into two types, extrinsic and intrinsic. Although the extrinsic flaws are generated during processing and using, the intrinsic flaws are regarded as structural defects which result from thermal fluctuation. It is known that the extrinsic flaws determine glass strength, but effects of the intrinsic flaws on the glass strength are still unclear. Since it is considered that the averaged bond-strength and the intrinsic flaw would affect the intrinsic strength, the intrinsic strength of glass surely depends on the glass composition. In this study, the intrinsic failure strain of the glass fibers with the compositions of 20Na 2 O-40xB 2 O 3 -(80-40x)SiO 2 (mol%, x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5) were measured by using a two-point bending technique. The failure strength was estimated from the failure strain and Young's modulus of glass. It is elucidated that two-point bending strength of glass fiber decreases with increasing B 2 O 3 content in glass. The effects of the glass composition on the intrinsic strength are discussed in terms of elastic and inelastic deformation behaviors prior to fracture.

  12. Mechanical and abrasive wear characterization of bidirectional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced composite materials

    Siddhartha,; Gupta, Kuldeep

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated. ► Three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed. ► Results are validated against existing microscopic models of Lancaster and Wang. ► Tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases. ► Chopped glass fiber composites are found better in abrasive wear situations. -- Abstract: Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated in five different (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35) wt% in an epoxy resin matrix. The mechanical characterization of these composites is performed. The three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. Abrasive wear characteristics of these composites are successfully analysed using Taguchi’s experimental design scheme and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results obtained from these experiments are also validated against existing microscopic models of Ratner-Lancaster and Wang. It is observed that quite good linear relationships is held between specific wear rate and reciprocal of ultimate strength and strain at tensile fracture of these composites which is an indicative that the experimental results are in fair agreement with these existing models. Out of all composites fabricated it is found that tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases because of interface strength enhancement. Chopped glass fiber reinforced composites are observed to perform better than bi-directional glass fiber reinforced composites under abrasive wear situations. The morphology of worn composite specimens has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand about dominant wear mechanisms.

  13. Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers

    Schuster, K.; Litzkendorf, D.; Grimm, S.; Kobelke, J.; Schwuchow, A.; Ludwig, A.; Leich, M.; Jetschke, S.; Dellith, J.; Auguste, J.-L.; Leparmentier, S.; Humbert, G.; Werner, G.

    2013-03-01

    We report on SiO2-Al2O3-La2O3 glasses - with and without Yb2O3 - suitable for nonlinear and fiber laser applications. We also present successful supercontinuum generation and fiber laser operation around 1060 nm in step-index fibers. We have optimized the glass compositions in terms of thermal and optical requirements for both a high La2O3 (24 mol%) and Yb2O3(6 mol%) concentration. The aluminum concentration was adjusted to about 21 mol% Al2O3 to increase the solubility of lanthanum and ytterbium in the glass beyond possible MCVD based techniques. The glasses have been characterized by dilatometrical methods to find transition temperatures from 860 to 880°C and thermal expansion coefficients between 4.1 and 7.0 × 10-6 K-1. Structured step index fibers with a SiO2-Al2O3-La2O3 core and silica cladding have been realized showing a fiber loss minimum of about 500 dB/km at 1200 nm wavelength. The chromatic dispersion could be adjusted to shift the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) close to the pump wavelength of 1550 nm in a supercontinuum generation setup. First fiber laser experiments show an efficiency of about 41 % with a remarkably reduced photodarkening compared to MCVD based fibers.

  14. The effect of pressure changes during simulated diving on the pull out strength of glass fiber posts

    Meenal Nitin Gulve

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Dentist should consider using resin reinforced glass ionomer or resin cement, for the cementation of glass fiber post, for the patients such as divers, who are likely to be exposed to pressure cycling.

  15. Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on a glass microsphere glued at the etched end of multimode fiber

    Chen, Weiping P.; Wang, Dongning N.; Xu, Ben; Wang, Zhaokun K.; Zhao, Chun-Liu

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate an optical Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on a glass microsphere glued at the etched end of a multimode fiber. The fiber device is miniature and robust, with a convenient reflection mode of operation, a high temperature sensitivity of 202.6 pm/°C within the range from 5°C to 90°C, a good refractive index sensitivity of ˜119 nm/RIU within the range from 1.331 to 1.38, and a gas pressure sensitivity of 0.19 dB/MPa.

  16. Influence of the Processing Parameters on the Fiber-Matrix-Interphase in Short Glass Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastics

    Anna Katharina Sambale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interphase in short fiber thermoplastic composites is defined as a three-dimensional, several hundred nanometers-wide boundary region at the interface of fibers and the polymer matrix, exhibiting altered mechanical properties. This region is of key importance in the context of fiber-matrix adhesion and the associated mechanical strength of the composite material. An interphase formation is caused by morphological, as well as thermomechanical processes during cooling of the plastic melt close to the glass fibers. In this study, significant injection molding processing parameters are varied in order to investigate the influence on the formation of an interphase and the resulting mechanical properties of the composite. The geometry of the interphase is determined using nano-tribological techniques. In addition, the influence of the glass fiber sizing on the geometry of the interphase is examined. Tensile tests are used in order to determine the resulting mechanical properties of the produced short fiber composites. It is shown that the interphase width depends on the processing conditions and can be linked to the mechanical properties of the short fiber composite.

  17. Effects of glass fiber mesh with different fiber content and structures on the compressive properties of complete dentures.

    Yu, Sang-Hui; Cho, Hye-Won; Oh, Seunghan; Bae, Ji-Myung

    2015-06-01

    No study has yet evaluated the strength of complete dentures reinforced with glass fiber meshes with different content and structures. The purpose of this study was to compare the reinforcing effects of glass fiber mesh with different content and structures with that of metal mesh in complete dentures. Two types of glass fiber mesh were used: SES mesh (SES) and glass cloth (GC2, GC3, and GC4). A metal mesh was used for comparison. The complete dentures were made by placing the reinforcement 1 mm away from the tissue surface. A control group was prepared without any reinforcement (n=10). The compressive properties were measured by a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Duncan multiple range test (α=.05). The fracture resistance of the SES group was significantly higher than that of the control, GC4, and metal groups (asymptotic P=.004), but not significantly different from the GC2 and GC3 groups. The toughness of the SES and GC3 groups was significantly higher than that of the others (asymptotic Pglass fiber mesh seemed more important than the structures. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Proof-testing and probabilistic lifetime estimation of glass fibers for sensor applications.

    Komachiya, M; Minamitani, R; Fumino, T; Sakaguchi, T; Watanabe, S

    1999-05-01

    The mechanical reliability of sensing glass fiber is one of the important problems in the practical use of fiber-optic sensors. To ensure long-term reliability on a mass-production level, a method of proof-testing is applied to a sensing glass fiber that will be subjected to mechanical deformation in its service situation. We propose to employ a higher strain level (screening level) in the proof-testing with a fiber-recoating technique that can suppress excessive damage during the testing. We consider a standard lifetime of 15 years of automotive applications and ensure a practical level of failure probability by a model calculation by using the strength data of a prototype fiber with the method of fracture-mechanics theory.

  19. Glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals for frequency conversion of lasers.

    Fang, Zaijin; Xiao, Xusheng; Wang, Xin; Ma, Zhijun; Lewis, Elfed; Farrell, Gerald; Wang, Pengfei; Ren, Jing; Guo, Haitao; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-03-30

    A glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 nanocrystals fabricated using a novel combination of the melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment is reported for the first time. For the melt-in-tube method, fibers act as a precursor at the drawing temperature for which the cladding glass is softened while the core glass is melted. It is demonstrated experimentally that following heat treatment, Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 nanocrystals with diameters below 10 nm are evenly distributed throughout the fiber core. Comparing to the conventional rod-in-tube method, the melt-in-tube method is superior in terms of controllability of crystallization to allow for the fabrication of low loss glass-ceramic fibers. When irradiated using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser, an enhanced green emission at a wavelength of 515 nm is observed in the glass-ceramic fiber, which demonstrates second harmonic generation of a laser action in the fabricated glass-ceramic fibers. Therefore, this new glass-ceramic fiber not only provides a highly promising development for frequency conversion of lasers in all optical fiber based networks, but the melt-in-tube fabrication method also offers excellent opportunities for fabricating a wide range of novel glass-ceramic optical fibers for multiple future applications including fiber telecommunications and lasers.

  20. Guiding hard x rays with glass polycapillary fiber

    Xiao, Q.F.; Ponomarev, I.Y.; Kolomitsev, A.I.; Gibson, D.M.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Nachaliel, E.

    1993-01-01

    X rays can be guided through a polycapillary fiber by multiple total reflections from the smooth channel walls of the fiber. Using monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation at energies of 22 and 44 keV, we measured the efficiency of transmission of x rays through polycapillary fibers with channel diameters of about 13 μm. Efficiencies of 57.3% and 54.5% for 22 keV and 44 keV x rays, respectively, were obtained with a 120-mm-long straight polycapillary fiber aligned with the incident beam. These values are close to the open fraction of the fiber, which is about 60%. In addition, transmission efficiency was measured as a function of the tilt angle between the incident beam and the axis of the fiber. We also measured the transmission efficiency as a function of the deflection angle for a 114-mm-long curved polycapillary fiber. The measurements are compared with a ray-tracing simulation

  1. Plutonium recovery from spent glass fiber paper fine air filter

    Rovnyj, S.I.; Guzhavin, V.I.; Pyatin, N.P.; Evlanov, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into the realizing technology of plutonium recovery from waste glass paper filters of fine purification were conducted. Two process schemes involving the nitro-fluoro-acid treatment of glass paper in the mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids and the previous alkali treatment of glass paper with the following nitro-fluoro-acid leaching of plutonium from pulp by the mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids were developed. Alkali, nitrate solutions and insoluble precipitants were analyzed for plutonium content [ru

  2. Characterization of an erbium doped fiber amplifier starting from its experimental parameters; Caracterizacion de un amplificador de fibra dopada con erbio a partir de sus parametros experimentales

    Bello J, M.; Kuzin, E.A.; Ibarra E, B. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, TonantzintIa, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Tellez G, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No 152, Delegacion Gustavo A. Madero, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: mabello@inaoep.mx

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we describe a method to characterize the gain of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) through the numerical simulation of the signal beam along the amplifier. The simulation is based on a model constituted by the propagation and rate equations for an erbium-doped fiber. The manipulation of these equations allows us to regroup the parameters present in an EDFA, which we have named the A, B, C, D parameters, and they can be obtained experimentally from an erbium-doped fiber. Experimental results show that the measurement of these parameters allow us to estimate with very good correspondence the amplifier gain. (Author)

  3. Influence of Glass Fiber on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self Compacting Concrete

    Bharathi Murugan, R.; Haridharan, M. K.; Natarajan, C.; Jayasankar, R.

    2017-07-01

    The practical need of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is increasing due to increase in the infrastructure competence all over the world. The effective way of increasing the strength of concrete and enhance the behaviour under extreme loading (fire) is the keen interest. Glass fibers were added for five different of volume fractions (0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.6%) to determine the optimum percentage of glass fiber without compensating the fresh properties and enhanced hardened properties of SCC concrete. The fresh state of concrete is characterized by slump flow, T-50cm slump flow, and V-funnel and L- box tests. The results obtained in fresh state are compared with the acceptance criteria of EFNARC specification. Concrete specimens were casted to evaluate the hardened properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Incorporation the glass fiber into SCC reduces the workability but within the standard specification. The hardened properties of SCC glass fiber reinforced concrete were enhanced, due to bridging the pre-existing micro cracks in concrete by glass fiber addition.

  4. Efficient phase locking of two dual-wavelength fiber amplifiers by an all-optical self-feedback loop

    Lei, Bing; Chen, Keshan; Yao, Tianfu; Shi, Jianhua; Hu, Haojun

    2017-10-01

    Efficient phase locking of two dual-wavelength fiber amplifiers has been demonstrated by using a self-feedback coupling and intracavity filtering configuration, and the effect of bandwidth and wavelength spacing on their phase locking performances have been investigated in experiment. Two independent fiber lasers with different operating wavelength were combined incoherently by a 3 dB fiber coupler to form a dual-wavelength seed source laser, which was injected into the fiber amplifiers' coupling array through the self-feedback loop. The effect of bandwidth and wavelength spacing was researched by altering the seed laser's pump power and operating wavelengths respectively. As long as the feedback loop and the single-mode fiber filtering configuration were well constructed in the unidirectional ring laser cavity, stable phase locking states and high fringe visibility interference patterns could always be obtained in our experiment. When the spacing of two operating wavelength was varied from 1.6 nm to 19.6 nm, the fringe visibility decreased slightly with the increase of wavelength spacing, and the corresponding fringe visibility was always larger than 0.6. In conclusion, we believe that efficient phase locking of several multi-wavelength laser sources is also feasible by passive self-adjusting methods, and keeping the component laser beams' phase relationship stable and fixed is more important than controlling their operating wavelengths.

  5. Efficient Phase Locking of Fiber Amplifiers Using a Low-Cost and High-Damage-Threshold Phase Control System

    Pu, Zhou; Yan-Xing, Ma; Xiao-Lin, Wang; Hao-Tong, Ma; Xiao-Jun, Xu; Ze-Jin, Liu

    2010-01-01

    We propose a low-cost and high-damage-threshold phase control system that employs a piezoelectric ceramic transducer modulator controlled by a stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm. Efficient phase locking of two fiber amplifiers is demonstrated. Experimental results show that energy encircled in the target pinhole is increased by a factor of 1.76 and the visibility of the fringe pattern is as high as 90% when the system is in close-loop. The phase control system has potential in phase locking of large-number and high-power fiber laser endeavors. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  6. Remote Water Temperature Measurements Based on Brillouin Scattering with a Frequency Doubled Pulsed Yb:doped Fiber Amplifier

    Thomas Walther

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature profiles of the ocean are of interest for weather forecasts, climate studies and oceanography in general. Currently, mostly in situ techniques such as fixed buoys or bathythermographs deliver oceanic temperature profiles. A LIDAR method based on Brillouin scattering is an attractive alternative for remote sensing of such water temperature profiles. It makes it possible to deliver cost-effective on-line data covering an extended region of the ocean. The temperature measurement is based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering in water. In this contribution, we present the first water temperature measurements using a Yb:doped pulsed fiber amplifier. The fiber amplifier is a custom designed device which can be operated in a vibrational environment while emitting narrow bandwidth laser pulses. The device shows promising performance and demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Furthermore, the current status of the receiver is briefly discussed; it is based on an excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter.

  7. Microstructured fibers with high lanthanum oxide glass core for nonlinear applications

    Kobelke, J.; Schuster, K.; Litzkendorf, D.; Schwuchow, A.; Kirchhof, J.; Bartelt, H.; Tombelaine, V.; Leproux, P.; Couderc, V.; Labruyere, A.

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate a low loss microstructured fiber (MOF) with a high nonlinear glass core and silica holey cladding. The substitution of mostly used silica as core material of microstructured fibers by lanthanum oxide glass promises a high nonlinear conversion efficiency for supercontinuum (SC) generation. The glass composition is optimized in terms of thermochemical and optical requirements. The glass for the MOF core has a high lanthanum oxide concentration (10 mol% La2O3) and a good compatibility with the silica cladding. This is performed by adding a suitable alumina concentration up to 20 mol%. The lanthanum oxide glass preform rods were manufactured by melting technique. Besides purity issues the material homogeneity plays an important role to achieve low optical loss. The addition of fluorides allows the better homogenization of the glass composition in the preform volume by refining. The minimum attenuation of an unstructured fiber drawn from this glass is about 0.6 dB/m. It is mostly caused by decreasing of scattering effects. The microstructured silica cladding allows the considerable shifting of dispersive behavior of the MOF for an optimal pump light conversion. The MOF shows zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDW) of 1140 nm (LP01 mode) and 970 nm (LP11 mode). The supercontinuum generation was investigated with a 1064 nm pump laser (650 ps). It shows a broad band emission between 500 nm and 2200 nm.

  8. Strongly nonlinear optical glass fibers from noncentrosymmetric phase-change chalcogenide materials.

    Chung, In; Jang, Joon I; Malliakas, Christos D; Ketterson, John B; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2010-01-13

    We report that the one-dimensional polar selenophosphate compounds APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), which show crystal-glass phase-change behavior, exhibit strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response in both crystal and glassy forms. The crystalline materials are type-I phase-matchable with SHG coefficients chi((2)) of 151.3 and 149.4 pm V(-1) for K(+) and Rb(+) salts, respectively, which is the highest among phase-matchable nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with band gaps over 1.0 eV. The glass of APSe(6) exhibits comparable SHG intensities to the top infrared NLO material AgGaSe(2) without any poling treatments. APSe(6) exhibit excellent mid-IR transparency. We demonstrate that starting from noncentrosymmetric phase-change materials such as APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), we can obtain optical glass fibers with strong, intrinsic, and temporally stable second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The as-prepared glass fibers exhibit SHG and difference frequency generation (DFG) responses over a wide range of wavelengths. Raman spectroscopy and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses provide further understanding of the local structure in amorphous state of KPSe(6) bulk glass and glass fiber. We propose that this approach can be widely applied to prepare permanent NLO glass from materials that undergo a phase-change process.

  9. Preparation, mechanical, and in vitro properties of glass fiber-reinforced polycarbonate composites for orthodontic application.

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Inami, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Nishiyama, Norihiro; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2015-05-01

    Generally, orthodontic treatment uses metallic wires made from stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-nickel alloy, β-titanium alloy, and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) alloy. However, these wires are not esthetically pleasing and may induce allergic or toxic reactions. To correct these issues, in the present study we developed glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) orthodontic wires made from polycarbonate and E-glass fiber by using pultrusion. After fabricating these GFRP round wires with a diameter of 0.45 mm (0.018 inch), we examined their mechanical and in vitro properties. To investigate how the glass-fiber diameter affected their physical properties, we prepared GFRP wires of varying diameters (7 and 13 µm). Both the GFRP with 13-µm fibers (GFRP-13) and GFRP with 7 µm fibers (GFRP-7) were more transparent than the metallic orthodontic wires. Flexural strengths of GFRP-13 and GFRP-7 were 690.3 ± 99.2 and 938.1 ± 95.0 MPa, respectively; flexural moduli of GFRP-13 and GFRP-7 were 25.4 ± 4.9 and 34.7 ± 7.7 GPa, respectively. These flexural properties of the GFRP wires were nearly equivalent to those of available Ni-Ti wires. GFRP-7 had better flexural properties than GFRP-13, indicating that the flexural properties of GFRP increase with decreasing fiber diameter. Using thermocycling, we found no significant change in the flexural properties of the GFRPs after 600 or 1,200 cycles. Using a cytotoxicity detection kit, we found that the glass fiber and polycarbonate components comprising the GFRP were not cytotoxic within the limitations of this study. We expect this metal-free GFRP wire composed of polycarbonate and glass fiber to be useful as an esthetically pleasing alternative to current metallic orthodontic wire. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Optimizing pulse compressibility in completely all-fibered Ytterbium chirped pulse amplifiers for in vivo two photon laser scanning microscopy.

    Fernández, A; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Andreana, M; Stadler, M; Kirchberger, S; Sturtzel, C; Distel, M; Zhu, L; Kautek, W; Leitgeb, R; Baltuska, A; Jespersen, K; Verhoef, A

    2017-08-01

    A simple and completely all-fiber Yb chirped pulse amplifier that uses a dispersion matched fiber stretcher and a spliced-on hollow core photonic bandgap fiber compressor is applied in nonlinear optical microscopy. This stretching-compression approach improves compressibility and helps to maximize the fluorescence signal in two-photon laser scanning microscopy as compared with approaches that use standard single mode fibers as stretcher. We also show that in femtosecond all-fiber systems, compensation of higher order dispersion terms is relevant even for pulses with relatively narrow bandwidths for applications relying on nonlinear optical effects. The completely all-fiber system was applied to image green fluorescent beads, a stained lily-of-the-valley root and rat-tail tendon. We also demonstrated in vivo imaging in zebrafish larvae, where we simultaneously measure second harmonic and fluorescence from two-photon excited red-fluorescent protein. Since the pulses are compressed in a fiber, this source is especially suited for upgrading existing laser scanning (confocal) microscopes with multiphoton imaging capabilities in space restricted settings or for incorporation in endoscope-based microscopy.

  11. Two Octaves Supercontinuum Generation in Lead-Bismuth Glass Based Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Ryszard Buczynski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a two octave spanning supercontinuum generation in a bandwidth of 700–3000 nm in a single-mode photonic crystal fiber made of lead-bismuth-gallate glass. To our knowledge this is the broadest supercontinuum reported in heavy metal oxide glass based fibers. The fiber was fabricated using an in-house synthesized glass with optimized nonlinear, rheological and transmission properties in the range of 500–4800 nm. The photonic cladding consists of 8 rings of air holes. The fiber has a zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW at 1460 nm. Its dispersion is determined mainly by the first ring of holes in the cladding with a relative hole size of 0.73. Relative hole size of the remaining seven rings is 0.54, which allows single mode performance of the fiber in the infrared range and reduces attenuation of the fundamental mode. The fiber is pumped into anomalous dispersion with 150 fs pulses at 1540 nm. Observed spectrum of 700–3000 nm was generated in 2 cm of fiber with pulse energy below 4 nJ. A flatness of 5 dB was observed in 950–2500 nm range.

  12. Analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of jute and glass fiber as reinforcement epoxy hybrid composites.

    Braga, R A; Magalhaes, P A A

    2015-11-01

    This work describes the study to investigate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Epoxy resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios (69/31/0, 68/25/7 and 64/18/19) respectively to form composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, density, thermal and water absorption tests were carried out using hybrid composite samples. This study shows that the addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in epoxy, increases the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decreases the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behavior and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    Jefferson Ricardo PEREIRA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs and resinmodified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05. The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148. The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. CONCLUSIONS: Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values.

  14. Experimental Investigations on the effect of Additive on the Tensile Properties of Fiber Glass Fabric Lamina

    Nava Sai Divya, A.; Raghu Kumar, B., Dr; Lakshmi Narayana, G., Dr

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the effect of additives on tensile behaviour of fiber glass fabric at lamina level to explore an alternative skin material for the outer body of aerospace applications and machines. This experimental work investigates the effect of silica concentration in epoxy resin lapox L-12 on the tensile properties of glass fabric lamina of 4H-satin weave having 3.6 mm thickness. The lamina was prepared by using hand lay-up method and tests were conducted on it. Various tensile properties values obtained from experimentation were compared for four glass fiber lamina composites fabricated by adding the silica powder to resin bath. The effect of variations in silica concentration (0% SiO2, 5% SiO2, 10% SiO2 and 15% SiO2) on the tensile properties of prepared material revealed that maximum stiffness was obtained at 15% and yield strength at 10% SiO2 concentration in glass fiber lamina. Increasing the silica concentration beyond 10% had led to deterioration in the material properties. The experimentation that was carried out on test specimen was reasonably successful as the effect of silica powder as an additive in glass fiber lamina enhanced the mechanical properties up to certain limit. The underpinning microscopic behaviour at the source of these observations will be investigated in a follow up work.

  15. Laser printed glass planar lightwave circuits with integrated fiber alignment structures

    Desmet, A.; Radosavljevic, A.; Missinne, J.; Van Thourhout, D.; Van Steenberge, G.

    2018-02-01

    Femtosecond laser inscription allows straightforward manufacturing of glass planar lightwave circuits such as waveguides, interferometers, directional couplers, resonators and more complex structures. Fiber alignment structures are needed to facilitate communication with the glass planar lightwave circuit. In this study, a technique is described to create optical waveguides and alignment structures in the same laser exposure step. Using an industrial ytterbium-doped 1030 nm fiber laser pulses of 400 fs were focused into glass with a 0.4 NA objective causing permanent alteration of the material. Depending on laser parameters this modification allows direct writing of waveguides or the creation of channels after exposing the irradiated volumes to an etchant such as KOH. Writing of channels and waveguides with different laser powers, frequencies, polarisations, stage translation speeds and scan densities were investigated in fused silica and borosilicate glass. Waveguides with controlled dimensions were created, as well as etched U-grooves with a diameter of 126 μm and a sidewall roughness Ra of 255 nm. Cut back measurements were performed giving a waveguide propagation loss of 1.1 dB/cm in borosilicate glass. A coupling loss of 0.7 dB was measured for a transition between the waveguide and standard single mode fiber at 1550 nm, using index matching liquid. The described technique eliminates active alignment requirements and is useful for many applications such as microfluidic sensing, PLCs, fan-out connectors for multicore fibers and quantum optical networks.

  16. Structural considerations in design of lightweight glass-fiber composite pressure vessels

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The design concepts used for metal-lined glass-fiber composite pressure vessels are described, comparing the structural characteristics of the composite designs with each other and with homogeneous metal pressure vessels. Specific design techniques and available design data are identified. The discussion centers around two distinctly different design concepts, which provide the basis for defining metal lined composite vessels as either (1) thin-metal lined, or (2) glass fiber reinforced (GFR). Both concepts are described and associated development problems are identified and discussed. Relevant fabrication and testing experience from a series of NASA-Lewis Research Center development efforts is presented.

  17. Multiscale probabilistic modeling of a crack bridge in glass fiber reinforced concrete

    Rypla R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a probabilistic approach to simulating the crack bridging effects of chopped glass strands in cement-based matrices and compares it to a discrete rigid body spring network model with semi-discrete representation of the chopped strands. The glass strands exhibit random features at various scales, which are taken into account by both models. Fiber strength and interface stress are considered as random variables at the scale of a single fiber bundle while the orientation and position of individual bundles with respect to a crack plane are considered as random variables at the crack bridge scale. At the scale of the whole composite domain, the distribution of fibers and the resulting number of crack-bridging fibers is considered. All the above random effects contribute to the variability of the crack bridge performance and result in size-dependent behavior of a multiply cracked composite.

  18. The use of maleic anhydride-modified polypropylene for performance enhancement in continuous glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites

    Rijsdijk, H.A.; Contant, M.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Miravete, A.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of maleic anhydride-modified polypropylene (m-PP) on static mech. properties of continuous glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites was studied. M-PP was added to the PP homopolymer to improve the adhesion between the matrix and the glass fiber. Three-point bending tests

  19. Breaking the glass ceiling: hollow OmniGuide fibers

    Johnson, Steven G.; Ibanescu, Mihai; Skorobogatiy, Maksim A.; Weisberg, Ori; Engeness, Torkel D.; Soljacic, Marin; Jacobs, Steven A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2002-04-01

    We argue that OmniGuide fibers, which guide light within a hollow core by concentric multilayer films having the property of omnidirectional reflection, have the potential to lift several physical limitations of silica fibers. We show how the strong confinement in OmniGuide fibers greatly suppresses the properties of the cladding materials: even if highly lossy and nonlinear materials are employed, both the intrinsic losses and nonlinearities of silica fibers can be surpassed by orders of magnitude. This feat, impossible to duplicate in an index-guided fiber with existing materials, would open up new regimes for long-distance propagation and dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM). The OmniGuide-fiber modes bear a strong analogy to those of hollow metallic waveguides; from this analogy, we are able to derive several general scaling laws with core radius. Moreover, there is strong loss discrimination between guided modes, depending upon their degree of confinement in the hollow core: this allows large, ostensibly multi-mode cores to be used, with the lowest-loss TE01 mode propagating in an effectively single-mode fashion. Finally, because this TE01 mode is a cylindrically symmetrical ('azimuthally' polarized) singlet state, it is immune to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), unlike the doubly-degenerate linearly-polarized modes in silica fibers that are vulnerable to birefringence.

  20. Optical and electrical characterizations of multifunctional silver phosphate glass and polymer-based optical fibers.

    Rioux, Maxime; Ledemi, Yannick; Morency, Steeve; de Lima Filho, Elton Soares; Messaddeq, Younès

    2017-03-03

    In recent years, the fabrication of multifunctional fibers has expanded for multiple applications that require the transmission of both light and electricity. Fibers featuring these two properties are usually composed either of a single material that supports the different characteristics or of a combination of different materials. In this work, we fabricated (i) novel single-core step-index optical fibers made of electrically conductive AgI-AgPO 3 -WO 3 glass and (ii) novel multimaterial fibers with different designs made of AgI-AgPO 3 -WO 3 glass and optically transparent polycarbonate and poly (methyl methacrylate) polymers. The multifunctional fibers produced show light transmission over a wide range of wavelengths from 500 to 1000 nm for the single-core fibers and from 400 to 1000 nm for the multimaterial fibers. Furthermore, these fibers showed excellent electrical conductivity with values ranging between 10 -3 and 10 -1  S·cm -1 at room temperature within the range of AC frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Multimodal taper-tipped fibre microprobes were then fabricated and were characterized. This advanced design could provide promising tools for in vivo electrophysiological experiments that require light delivery through an optical core in addition to neuronal activity recording.

  1. A comprehensive study on gain stabilization of Er-doped fiber amplifier in C-band with uniform fiber Bragg grating-pair

    Yang, Jiuru; Ma, Yu; OuYang, Yunlun; Liu, Chunyu; Zhang, Jiaxiao

    2014-07-01

    Fiber grating-pair is one of the efficient methods for gain stabilization of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) but with a gain-reduction of signals, especially in C-band. In order to overcome it, in this article, we establish a configuration of EDFA based uniform fiber grating-pair and conduct a comprehensive study on gain stabilization by varying the reflectivity, center wavelength and 3dB bandwidth of grating, and by varying the channel number and pump power. The numerical results show that under the optimal parameters of grating the gain stabilization at 1550nm is +/-0.044dB with high gain and large dynamic range.

  2. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z; Bin, L

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP

  3. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-988, Mianyang, China, 621900 (China); Bin, L [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu. China, 610031 (China)], E-mail: sujingqin@tom.com

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  4. THE PROPERTIES OF GUIDED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MODES ON THE GaAs-BASED FIBER GLASS AND LASERS

    Mustafa TEMİZ

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available On the lasers or fiber optic communication electromagnetic waves are transmitted by confining and guiding between special layer's or fiber glass respectively. It is desired that electric and magnetic waves are in the active region of the lasers and in the core of the fiber glass. It is obtained by making more larger the of refractive index of the regions. On this work, the behavior and varying of the electric and magnetic waves and the effects on the electromagnetic waves in the fiber glass and lasers are investigated.

  5. Optical properties of erbium doped antimony based glasses: Promising visible and infrared amplifiers materials

    Hamzaoui, M.; Soltani, M.; Baazouzi, M.; Tioua, B.; Ivanova, Z.G.; Lebullenger, R.; Poulain, M.; Zavadil, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 249, č. 11 (2012), s. 2213-2221 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/2384 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Glasses * Rare earths * Photoluminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2012

  6. High-efficiency ytterbium-free erbium-doped all-glass double cladding silicate glass fiber for resonantly-pumped fiber lasers.

    Qiang, Zexuan; Geng, Jihong; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Shibin

    2014-02-01

    A highly efficient ytterbium-free erbium-doped silicate glass fiber has been developed for high-power fiber laser applications at an eye-safe wavelength near 1.55 μm. Our preliminary experiments show that high laser efficiency can be obtained from a relatively short length of the gain fiber when resonantly pumped at 1535 nm in both core- and cladding-pumping configurations. With a core-pumping configuration as high as 75%, optical-to-optical efficiency and 4 W output power were obtained at 1560 nm from a 1 m long gain fiber. When using a cladding-pumping configuration, approximately 13 W output power with 67.7% slope efficiency was demonstrated from a piece of 2 m long fiber. The lengths of silicate-based gain fiber are much shorter than their silica-based counterparts used in other experiments, which is significantly important for high-power narrow-band and/or pulsed laser applications.

  7. Application of Judd-Ofelt Theory Upon Chlofluorophosphate Glass ...

    A series of erbium doped glasses chlorofluorophosphates were prepared and characterized. The absorption spectra were analyzed to determine the Judd-Ofelt parameters. The optical performance of these doped glasses suggesting the relevance of these glasses for optical fiber/ wave guide lasers and optical amplifiers.

  8. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of brush anodes and glass fiber (GF1) separators, and plastic mesh supporters were used here for the first time to create a scalable microbial fuel cell architecture. Separators prevented short circuiting of closely-spaced electrodes, and cathode supporters were used to avoid water gaps between the separator and cathode that can reduce power production. The maximum power density with a separator and supporter and a single cathode was 75±1W/m3. Removing the separator decreased power by 8%. Adding a second cathode increased power to 154±1W/m3. Current was increased by connecting two MFCs connected in parallel. These results show that brush anodes, combined with a glass fiber separator and a plastic mesh supporter, produce a useful MFC architecture that is inherently scalable due to good insulation between the electrodes and a compact architecture. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass - Final Technical Report

    Li, Hong [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Newhouse, Norman L. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Led by PPG and partnered with Hexagon Lincoln and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the team recently carried out a project “Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass”. The project was funded by DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, starting on September 1, 2014 as a two-year project to assess technical and commercial feasibilities of manufacturing low-cost, high-strength glass fibers to replace T700 carbon fibers with a goal of reducing the composite total cost by 50% of the existing, commercial 700 bar hydrogen storage tanks used in personal vehicles.

  10. Effects of bond primers on bending strength and bonding of glass fibers in fiber-embedded maxillofacial silicone prostheses.

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Watts, David C

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of three commonly used bond primers on the bending strength of glass fibers and their bond strength to maxillofacial silicone elastomer after 360 hours of accelerated daylight aging. Eighty specimens were fabricated by embedding resin-impregnated fiber bundles (1.5-mm diameter, 20-mm long) into maxillofacial silicone elastomer M511 (Cosmesil). Twenty fiber bundles served as control and did not receive surface treatment with primers, whereas the remaining 60 fibers were treated with three primers (n = 20): G611 (Principality Medical), A-304 (Factor II), and A-330-Gold (Factor II). Forty specimens were dry stored at room temperature (23 ± 1°C) for 24 hours, and the remaining specimens were aged using an environmental chamber under accelerated exposure to artificial daylight for 360 hours. The aging cycle included continuous exposure to quartz-filtered visible daylight (irradiance 760 W/m(2) ) under an alternating weathering cycle (wet for 18 minutes, dry for 102 minutes). Pull-out tests were performed to evaluate bond strength between fiber bundles and silicone using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. A 3-point bending test was performed to evaluate the bending strength of the fiber bundles. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni post hoc test, and an independent t-test were carried out to detect statistical significances (p accelerated daylight aging. Treatment with primer and accelerated daylight aging increased bending strength of glass fibers. © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Effect of fabric structure and polymer matrix on flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress, and energy dissipation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    We report the effect of glass fiber structure and the epoxy polymer system on the flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress (ILSS), and energy absorption properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Four different GFRP composites were fabricated from two glass fiber textiles of...

  12. Chemically etched sharpened tip of transparent crystallized glass fibers with nonlinear optical Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals

    Enomoto, Itaru; Benino, Yasuhiko; Komatsu, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2007-01-01

    Glass fibers with a diameter of ∼100 μm are drawn by just pulling up melts of 40BaO·20TiO 2 ·40SiO 2 glass, and transparent crystallized glass fibers consisting of nonlinear optical fresnoite Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 nanocrystals (particle size: ∼100-200 nm) are fabricated by crystallization of glass fibers. Precursor glass fibers and nanocrystallized glass fibers are etched chemically using a meniscus method, in which an etching solution of 0.1wt%-HF/hexane is used. Glass fibers with sharpened tips (e.g., the taper length is ∼L=200 μm and the tip angle is ∼θ=23deg) are obtained. It is found that etched nanocrystallized glass fibers also have sharpened tips (L=50 μm, θ=80deg). Compared with precursor glass fibers, nanocrystallized glass fibers show a high resistance against chemical etching in a 0.1 wt%HF solution. Although sharpened tips in nanocrystallized glass fibers do not have nanoscaled apertures, the present study suggests that nanocrystallized glass fibers showing second harmonic generations would have a potential for fiber-type light control optical devices. (author)

  13. Ultrasound enhanced 50 Hz plasma treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Glass-fiber-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50Hz dielectric barrier discharge at a peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency...

  14. Gliding arc surface treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Drews, Joanna Maria

    2011-01-01

    . The efficiency of such a plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can be further improved by ultrasonic irradiation onto the surface during the treatment. In the present work glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding arc with and without ultrasonic...

  15. Evidence for and implications of self-background of radon dosimeters with glass-fiber filters

    Put, L.W.; Lembrechts, J.; Graaf, E.R. van der; Stoop, P.

    2000-01-01

    The first national radon survey in the Netherlands was conducted in 1984 with passive radon dosimeters that contain glass-fiber diffusion filters. During the last few years, measurements of outdoor-radon concentrations and information in the literature suggested that these dosimeters may give falsely elevated readings. A systematic contribution would be present due to alpha particles from natural radionuclides in the glass-fiber filter producing tracks on the track-etch foil. In the framework of the quality assurance of their laboratories, the origin of this offset was systematically assessed by means of measurements of alpha and gamma radiation from the glass-fiber filters and by intercomparisons between different types of detectors at low radon concentrations. It was found that alpha particles from the decay of 214 Po in the glass-fiber filter are the main cause of the extra tracks (only 12% originates from decay of 212 Po), leading, for this type of filter, to an offset in concentration of approximately 8 Bq m -3 . The implications of this offset are discussed

  16. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Properties in Glass Fiber Reinforced with Aluminium

    Irudaya raja, S. Joseph; Vinod Kumar, T.; Sridhar, R.; Vivek, P.

    2017-03-01

    A test method of a Guarded heat flow meter are used to measure the thermal conductivity of glass fiber and filled with a aluminum powder epoxy composites using an instrument in accordance with ASTM. This experimental study reveals that the incorporation of aluminum and glass fiber reinforced results in enhancement of thermal conductivity of epoxy resin and thereby improves its heat transfer capability. Fiber metal laminates are good candidates for advanced automobile structural applications due to their high categorical mechanical and thermal properties. The most consequential factor in manufacturing of these laminates is the adhesive bonding between aluminum and FRP layers. Here several glass-fiber reinforced aluminum were laminates with different proportion of bonding adhesion were been manufactured. It was observed that the damage size is more preponderant in laminates with poor interfacial adhesion compared to that of laminates with vigorous adhesion between aluminum and glass layers numerically calculated ones and it is found that the values obtained for various composite models using experimental testing method.

  17. Methods for evaluating tensile and compressive properties of plastic laminates reinforced with unwoven glass fibers

    Karl Romstad

    1964-01-01

    Methods of obtaining strength and elastic properties of plastic laminates reinforced with unwoven glass fibers were evaluated using the criteria of the strength values obtained and the failure characteristics observed. Variables investigated were specimen configuration and the manner of supporting and loading the specimens. Results of this investigation indicate that...

  18. Experimental study of fiber-glass plastic work pieces contour milling

    Trushin, N. N.; Lisitsin, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article represents the results of study of cut and feed speed influence on wear of monolithic hard alloy end milling cutter during cutting of foiled fiber-glass plastic sheets, used for printed-circuit boards’ production. The peculiarities and problems of cutting layered materials are described. The most effective feed and cut speed values are determined by cutter wear analysis.

  19. Evidence for and implications of self-background of radon dosimeters with glass-fiber filters

    Put, L.W.; Lembrechts, J.; van der Graaf, E.R.; Stoop, P.

    The first national radon survey in the Netherlands was conducted in 1984 with passive radon dosimeters that contain glass-fiber diffusion filters. During the last few years, measurements of outdoor-radon concentrations and information in the literature suggested to us that these dosimeters may give

  20. hybrid effect on the mechanical properties of sisal fiber and e-glass

    cles was added and the “mix” was vigorously stirred and poured into a mould. Appropriate quantities of fibers (sisal or E-glass) were im- pregnated in the “resin mix” which ultimately cured to give a solid laminate. 2.3. Tensile test. Standard tensile specimens were cut from the hybrid and non-hybrid composite lami-. Nigerian ...

  1. Structural and optical properties of antimony-germanate-borate glass and glass fiber co-doped Eu3+ and Ag nanoparticles.

    Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Baranowska, Agata; Pisarski, Wojciech A; Pisarska, Joanna; Jadach, Renata; Sitarz, Maciej; Dorosz, Dominik

    2018-08-05

    In the paper analysis of structural and luminescent properties of antimony-germanate-borate glasses and glass fiber co-doped with 0.6AgNO 3 /0.2Eu 2 O 3 are presented. Heat treatment of the fabricated glass and optical fiber (400 °C, 12 h) enabled to obtain Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with average size 30-50 nm on their surface. It has been proofed that silver ions migrate to the glass surface, where they are reduced to Ag 0 nanoparticles. Simultaneously, FTIR analysis showed that heat treatment of the glass and optical fiber increases the local symmetry of the Eu 3+ site. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of jute and glass fiber as reinforcement epoxy hybrid composites

    Braga, R.A., E-mail: roney.braga@fiat.com.br [FIAT Automóveis S.A., Teardown, CEP 32530-000 Betim, MG (Brazil); Magalhaes, P.A.A., E-mail: pamerico@pucminas.br [PUC—MINAS, Instituto Politécnico, CEP 30535-610 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    This work describes the study to investigate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Epoxy resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios (69/31/0, 68/25/7 and 64/18/19) respectively to form composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, density, thermal and water absorption tests were carried out using hybrid composite samples. This study shows that the addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in epoxy, increases the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decreases the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behavior and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope. - Highlights: • The work is the study of the mechanical of raw jute and glass fiber with epoxy resin. • The mechanical properties increased with more proportions of glass fibers. • The density of E69-J31-V0 was the lower. • The flexural strength did not have a significant increase. • The water absorption of E69-J31-V0 was the best.

  3. Influence of thermal cycling on flexural properties of composites reinforced with unidirectional silica-glass fibers.

    Meriç, Gökçe; Ruyter, I Eystein

    2008-08-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effect of water storage and thermal cycling on the flexural properties of differently sized unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) containing different quantities of fibers. The effect of fiber orientation on the thermal expansion of FRCs as well as how the stresses in the composites can be affected was considered. An experimental polymeric base material was reinforced with silica-glass fibers. The cleaned and silanized fibers were sized with either linear PBMA-size or crosslinked PMMA-size. For the determination of flexural properties and water uptake, specimens were processed with various quantities of differently sized unidirectional fibers. Water uptake of FRC was measured. Water immersed specimens were thermally cycled for 500 and 12,000 cycles (5 degrees C/55 degrees C). Flexural properties of "dry" and wet specimens with and without thermal cycling were determined by a three-point bending test. The linear coefficients of thermal expansion (LCTE) for FRC samples with different fiber orientations were determined using a thermomechanical analyzer. Water uptake of the FRC specimens increased with a decrease in fiber content of the FRC. Flexural properties of FRCs improved with increasing fiber content, whereas the flexural properties were not influenced significantly by water and thermal cycling. Fiber orientation had different effects on LCTE of FRCs. Unidirectional FRCs had two different LCTE in longitudinal and transverse directions whereas bidirectional FRCs had similar LCTE in two directions and a higher one in the third direction. The results of the study suggest that the surface-treated unidirectional silica-glass FRC can be used for long-term clinical applications in the oral cavity.

  4. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IV. Mass Reconstruction of the Lensing Cluster Abell 2744 from Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Wang, X.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Jones, T. A.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Trenti, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  5. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). IV. MASS RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LENSING CLUSTER ABELL 2744 FROM FRONTIER FIELD IMAGING AND GLASS SPECTROSCOPY

    Wang, X.; Schmidt, K. B.; Jones, T. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Bradac, M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Brammer, G. B.; Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Trenti, M., E-mail: xinwang@physics.ucsb.edu [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2015-09-20

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  6. Synthesis of biodegradable polymer/glass fiber composite by EB irradiation and its biodegradability

    Yoshii, Fumio; Doam Thi The

    2006-01-01

    A composite was synthesized by irradiation of poly (butylene succinate), PBS and glass fiber (GF) in the presence of a polyfunctional monomer, trimethallyl isocyanurate (TMAIC), which accelerates gel formation of the matrix (PBS). The highest gel fraction was achieved at 1% concentration of TMAIC at the dose level of 200 kGy. Mechanical properties of the composites were highly dependent on the gel fraction of the polymer and volume fraction of glass fiber reinforcement in the composite. Optimal conditions to synthesize a PBS/GF composite reaching maximum value of bending strength were 1% TMAIC, 67% fiber volume fraction, and radiation dose of 200 kGy. These synthesized PBS/GF composites can be degraded by enzymes produced by the microorganism population in soil. (author)

  7. Effective thermal conductivity of glass-fiber board and blanket standard reference materials

    Smith, D.R.; Hust, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports on measurements of effective thermal conductivity performed on a series of specimens of glass-fiber board and glass-fiber blanket. Explains that measurements of thermal conductivity were conducted as a function of temperature from 85 to 360 K, of temperature difference with T=10 to 100 K, of bulk density from 11 to 148 kg/m 3 and for nitrogen, argon, and helium inter-fiber fill gases at pressures from atmospheric to high vacuum. Analyzes and compares results with values from the published literature and National Bureau of Standards (NBS) certification data for similar material. Gives polynomial expressions for the functional relation between conductivity, temperature, and density for board and for blanket

  8. Machinability of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite ...

    This paper deals with the study of machinability of GFRP composite tubes of different fiber orientation angle vary from 300 to 900. Machining studies were carried out on an all geared lathe using three different cutting tools: namely Carbide (K-20), Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) and Poly-Crystalline Diamond (PCD). Experiments ...

  9. Quantum and Raman Noise in a Depleted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    The noise properties of both phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive saturated parametric amplifiers are studied using a semi-classical approach. Vacuum fluctuations as well as spontaneous Raman scattering are included in the analysis....

  10. Pump-to-Signal Intensity Modulation Transfer in Saturated- Gain Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The pump-to-signal intensity modulation transfer in saturated degenerate FOPAs is numerically investigated over the whole gain bandwidth. The intensity modulation transfer decreases and the OSNR improves when the amplifier operates in the saturation regime....

  11. Application of nonlinear pulse shaping of femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber amplifier at 500 MHz repetition rate

    Liu, Yang; Luo, Daping; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Wenxue

    2018-03-01

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate that a nonlinear pulse shaping technique based on pre-chirping management in a short gain fiber can be exploited to improve the quality of a compressed pulse. With prior tuning of the pulse chirp, the amplified pulse express different nonlinear propagating processes. A spectrum with s flat top and more smooth wings, showing a similariton feature, generates with the optimal initial pulse chirp, and the shortest pulses with minimal pulse pedestals are obtained. Experimental results show the ability of nonlinear pulse shaping to enhance the quality of compressed pulses, as theoretically expected.

  12. Tribological analysis of nano clay/epoxy/glass fiber by using Taguchi’s technique

    Senthil Kumar, M.S.; Mohana Sundara Raju, N.; Sampath, P.S.; Vivek, U.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • To study the tribological property of modified epoxy with and without E glass fiber. • To analyze the tribological property of specimens by Taguchi’s technique and ANOVA. • To investigate the surface morphology of test specimens with SEM. - Abstract: In this work, a detailed analysis was performed to profoundly study the tribological property of various nano clay (Cloisite 25A) loaded epoxy, with and without inclusion of E-glass fiber using Taguchi’s technique. For this purpose, the test samples were prepared according to the ASTM standard, and the test was carried out with the assistance of pin-on-disk machine. To proceed further, L 25 orthogonal array was constructed to evaluate the tribological property with four control variables such as filler content, normal load, sliding velocity and sliding distance at each level. The results indicated that the combination of factors greatly influenced the process to achieve the minimum wear and coefficient of friction. Overall, the experiment results depicted least wear and friction coefficient for fiber reinforced laminates. In the same way, appreciable wear and friction coefficient was noted for without fiber laminates. Additionally, the SN ratio results too exhibited the similar trend. Moreover, ANOVA analysis revealed that the fiber inclusion on laminates has lesser contribution on coefficient of friction and wear when compared to without fiber laminates. At last, the microstructure behavior of the test samples was investigated with an assistance of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to analyze the surface morphology

  13. Photonic Lantern Adaptive Spatial Mode Control in LMA Fiber Amplifiers using SPGD

    2015-12-15

    3 non -overlapping (orthogonal) beams on the output. Similarly, sending in a single fiber on the input to a lantern results in three orthogonal...proof of concept experiment is illustrated in Fig. 4 below. A seed laser is split into three fibers using a polarization -maintaining fiber splitter ... Polarization , Coupling and Symmetry (New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2009). 11. D. A. B. Miller, "All linear optical devices are mode converters

  14. Generation of 46 W green-light by frequency doubling of 96 W picosecond unpolarized Yb-doped fiber amplifier

    Qi, Yaoyao; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Ling; He, Chaojian; Lin, Xuechun

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrated a high efficiency and high average power picosecond green light source based on SHG (second harmonic generation) of an unpolarized ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier chain. Using single-pass frequency doubling in two temperature-tuned type-I phase-matching LBO crystals, we were able to generate 46 W, >70 ps pulses at 532 nm from a fundamental beam at 1064 nm, whose output is 96 W, 4.8 μJ, with a repetition frequency of 20 MHz and nearly diffraction limited. The optical conversion efficiency was ∼48% in a highly compact design. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported on ps green source through SHG of an unpolarized fiber laser with such a high output and high efficiency.

  15. The applicability of alkaline-resistant glass fiber in cement mortar of road pavement: Corrosion mechanism and performance analysis

    Qin Xiaochun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main technical requirements of road pavement concrete are high flexural strength and fatigue durability. Adding glass fiber into concrete could greatly increase flexural strength and wearing resistance of concrete. However, glass fiber has the great potential of corrosion during the cement hydration, which will directly affect the long-term performance and strength stability. In this paper, accelerated corrosion experiments have been done to find out the corrosion mechanism and property of alkali-resistant glass fiber in cement mortar. The applicability and practicability of alkaline-resistant glass fiber in road concrete have been illustrated in the analysis of flexural strength changing trend of cement mortar mixed with different proportions of activated additives to protect the corrosion of glass fiber by cement mortar. The results have shown that a 30% addition of fly ash or 10% addition of silica fume to cement matrix could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of alkali-resistant glass fiber. The optimal mixing amount of alkali-resistant glass fiber should be about 1.0 kg/m3 in consideration of ensuring the compressive strength of reinforced concrete in road pavement. The closest-packing method has been adopted in the mixture ratio design of alkali-resistant glass fiber reinforced concrete, not only to reduce the alkalinity of the cement matrix through large amount addition of activated additives but also to greatly enhance the flexural performance of concrete with the split pressure ratio improvement of 12.5–16.7%. The results suggested a prosperous application prospect for alkaline-resistant glass fiber reinforced concrete in road pavement.

  16. Gain optimization in fiber optical parametric amplifiers by combining standard and high-SBS threshold highly nonlinear fibers

    Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Combining Al-doped and Ge-doped HNLFs as gain media in FOPAs is proposed and optimized, resulting in efficient SBS mitigation while circumventing the additional loss of the high SBS threshold Al-doped fiber.......Combining Al-doped and Ge-doped HNLFs as gain media in FOPAs is proposed and optimized, resulting in efficient SBS mitigation while circumventing the additional loss of the high SBS threshold Al-doped fiber....

  17. Structural Laminate Aluminum-Glass-Fiber Materials 1441-Sial

    Shestov, V. V.; Antipov, V. V.; Senatorova, O. G.; Sidel'nikov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The structure, composition and set of properties of specimens and components, and some parameters of the process of production of a promising FML class of metallic polymers based on sheets of high-modulus ( E 79 GPa) alloy 1441 with reduced density ( d 2.6 g/cm3) and an optimized glued prepreg reinforced with fibers of high-strength high-modulus VMPglass are described. Results of fire and fatigue tests of a promising 1441-SIAL structural laminate are presented.

  18. Effect of Different Fillers on Adhesive Wear Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    E. Feyzullahoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric composites are used for different aims as substitute of traditional materials such as metals; due to their improved strength at small specific weight. The fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite material consists of polymeric matrix and reinforcing material. Polymeric materials are commonly reinforced with synthetic fibers such as glass and carbon. The glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP composites are used with different filler materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different filler materials on adhesive wear behavior of GFRP. In this experimental study; polymetilmetacrilat (PMMA, Glass beads (GB and Glass sand (GS were used as filling material in GFRP composite samples. The adhesive wear behaviors of samples were carried out using ball on disc type tribometer. The friction force and coefficient of friction were measured during the test. The volume loss and wear rate values of samples were calculated according to test results. Barcol hardness values of samples were measured. The densities of samples were measured. Results show that the wear resistance of GB filled GFRP composite samples was much more than non-filled and PMMA filled GFRP composite samples.

  19. A Method for Cobalt and Cesium Leaching from Glass Fiber in HEPA Filter

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Suk Chol; Yang, Hee Chul; Yoon, In Ho; Choi, Wang Kyu; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2011-01-01

    A great amount of radioactive waste has been generated during the operation of nuclear facilities. Recently, the storage space of a radioactive waste storage facility in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was almost saturated with many radioactive wastes. So, the present is a point of time that a volume reduction of the wastes in a radioactive waste storage facility needs. There are spent HEPA filter wastes of about 2,226 sets in the radioactive waste storage facility in KAERI. All these spent filter wastes have been stored in accordance with their original form without any treatment. Up to now a compression treatment of these spent HEPA filters has been carried out to repack the compressed spent HEPA filters into a 200 liter drum for their volume reduction. Frame and separator are contaminated with a low concentration of nuclide, while the glass fiber is contaminated with a high concentration of nuclide. So, for the disposal of the glass filter to the environment, the glass fiber should be leached to lower its radioactive concentration first and then must be stabilized by solidification and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a leaching process of glass fiber in a HEPA filter. Leaching is a separation technology, which is often used to remove a metal or a nuclide from a solid mixture with the help of a liquid solvent

  20. Er3+ phosphate glass optical waveguide amplifiers at 1.5 μm on silicon

    Yan, Yingchao; Faber, Anne J.; de Waal, Henk

    1996-01-01

    RF-sputtering techniques were employed to produce Er-doped phosphate glass films on thermally oxidized silicon wafers. Film compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As-deposited films showed very low Er luminescence lifetimes. By postannealing of deposited films in pure oxygen, Er photoluminescence emission lifetime of the 4I13/2 - 4I15/2 transition could be increased from 1 - 2 ms to 8 - 9 ms. The long Er lifetime of the deposited films is very promising for achieving an optical gain. A dependence of measured lifetimes on pump power was observed which are related to a up-conversion quenching process. After postannealing, the sputtered waveguides showed relatively low attenuation loss at the potential pumping and signaling wavelengths. The loss spectrum from 700 nm to 1600 nm was measured by two-prism coupling. The films were easy to be patterned by lithography and ridge channel waveguides were developed by argon plasma etching.

  1. 85 μm core rod fiber amplifier delivering 350 W/m

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Michieletto, Mattia; Kristensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    An improved version of the distributed modal filtering (DMF) rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 350 W/m of extracted signal average power limited by the available pump power. The rod fiber is thoroughly tested to record the transverse modal instability (TMI) behavior and also me...

  2. Study on processing parameters of glass cutting by nanosecond 532 nm fiber laser

    Wang, Jin; Gao, Fan; Xiong, Baoxing; Zhang, Xiang; Yuan, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    The processing parameters of soda-lime glass cutting with several nanosecond 532 nm pulsed fiber laser are studied in order to obtain sufficiently large ablation rate and better processing quality. The influences of laser processing parameters on effective cutting speed and cutting quality of 1 2 mm thick soda-lime glass are studied. The experimental results show that larger laser pulse energy will lead to higher effective cutting speed and larger maximum edge collapse of the front side of the glass samples. Compared with that of 1.1 mm thick glass samples, the 2.0 mm thick glass samples is more difficult to cut. With the pulse energy of 51.2 μJ, the maximum edge collapse is more than 200 μm for the 2.0 mm thick glass samples. In order to achieve the high effective cutting speed and good cutting quality at the same time, the dual energy overlapping method is used to obtain the better cutting performance for the 2.0 mm thick glass samples, and the cutting speed of 194 mm/s and the maximum edge collapse of less than 132 μm are realized.

  3. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Influence of the curing cycles on the fatigue performance of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    Hüther, Jonas; Brøndsted, Povl

    2016-01-01

    During the manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polymers the curing reaction of the resin results in shrinkage of the resin and introduces internal stresses in the composites. When curing at higher temperatures in order to shorten up the processing time, higher curing stresses and thermal...... to different levels of internal stresses. The mechanical properties, static strength and fatigue life time, are measured in three different directions of the material, i.e. the fiber direction, 0°, the 30° off axis direction, and the 90° direction transverse to the fiber direction. It is experimentally...... demonstrated that the resulting residual stresses barely influences the quasi-static mechanical properties of reinforced glass-fiber composites. It is found that the fatigue performance in the 0° direction is significantly influenced by the internal stresses, whereas the fatigue performance in the off axes...

  5. Fiber-Amplifier-Enhanced QEPAS Sensor for Simultaneous Trace Gas Detection of NH3 and H2S

    Hongpeng Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A selective and sensitive quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS sensor, employing an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA, and a distributed feedback (DFB laser operating at 1582 nm was demonstrated for simultaneous detection of ammonia (NH3 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S. Two interference-free absorption lines located at 6322.45 cm−1 and 6328.88 cm−1 for NH3 and H2S detection, respectively, were identified. The sensor was optimized in terms of current modulation depth for both of the two target gases. An electrical modulation cancellation unit was equipped to suppress the background noise caused by the stray light. An Allan-Werle variance analysis was performed to investigate the long-term performance of the fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor. Benefitting from the high power boosted by the EDFA, a detection sensitivity (1σ of 52 parts per billion by volume (ppbv and 17 ppbv for NH3 and H2S, respectively, were achieved with a 132 s data acquisition time at atmospheric pressure and room temperature.

  6. Fiber-Amplifier-Enhanced QEPAS Sensor for Simultaneous Trace Gas Detection of NH3 and H2S

    Wu, Hongpeng; Dong, Lei; Liu, Xiaoli; Zheng, Huadan; Yin, Xukun; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2015-01-01

    A selective and sensitive quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor, employing an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), and a distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating at 1582 nm was demonstrated for simultaneous detection of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Two interference-free absorption lines located at 6322.45 cm−1 and 6328.88 cm−1 for NH3 and H2S detection, respectively, were identified. The sensor was optimized in terms of current modulation depth for both of the two target gases. An electrical modulation cancellation unit was equipped to suppress the background noise caused by the stray light. An Allan-Werle variance analysis was performed to investigate the long-term performance of the fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor. Benefitting from the high power boosted by the EDFA, a detection sensitivity (1σ) of 52 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and 17 ppbv for NH3 and H2S, respectively, were achieved with a 132 s data acquisition time at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. PMID:26506351

  7. Efficient design of gain-flattened multi-pump Raman fiber amplifiers using least squares support vector regression

    Chen, Jing; Qiu, Xiaojie; Yin, Cunyi; Jiang, Hao

    2018-02-01

    An efficient method to design the broadband gain-flattened Raman fiber amplifier with multiple pumps is proposed based on least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR). A multi-input multi-output LS-SVR model is introduced to replace the complicated solving process of the nonlinear coupled Raman amplification equation. The proposed approach contains two stages: offline training stage and online optimization stage. During the offline stage, the LS-SVR model is trained. Owing to the good generalization capability of LS-SVR, the net gain spectrum can be directly and accurately obtained when inputting any combination of the pump wavelength and power to the well-trained model. During the online stage, we incorporate the LS-SVR model into the particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal pump configuration. The design results demonstrate that the proposed method greatly shortens the computation time and enhances the efficiency of the pump parameter optimization for Raman fiber amplifier design.

  8. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Brow, Richard K.; Liu, Kun; Brow, Katherine A.; Ma, Yinfa

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. - Highlights: • Novel dynamic flow cell culture modules were designed. • Bioactive glass fibers were evaluated for their effects on VEGF secretion. • Borate-based glass fibers stimulate VEGF secretion under dynamic condition. • CuO and ZnO doped borate-based glass fibers stimulate the greatest VEGF release.

  9. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions

    Chen, Sisi [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Yang, Qingbo [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Brow, Richard K. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Liu, Kun [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Brow, Katherine A. [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Ma, Yinfa [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. - Highlights: • Novel dynamic flow cell culture modules were designed. • Bioactive glass fibers were evaluated for their effects on VEGF secretion. • Borate-based glass fibers stimulate VEGF secretion under dynamic condition. • CuO and ZnO doped borate-based glass fibers stimulate the greatest VEGF release.

  10. CO2-laser-assisted processing of glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    Brecher, Christian; Emonts, Michael; Schares, Richard Ludwig; Stimpfl, Joffrey

    2013-02-01

    To fully exploit the potential of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (FRTC) and to achieve a broad industrial application, automated manufacturing systems are crucial. Investigations at Fraunhofer IPT have proven that the use of laser system technology in processing FRTC allows to achieve high throughput, quality, flexibility, reproducibility and out-of-autoclave processing simultaneously. As 90% of the FRP in Europe1 are glass fiber-reinforced a high impact can be achieved by introducing laser-assisted processing with all its benefits to glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTC). Fraunhofer IPT has developed the diode laser-assisted tape placement (laying and winding) to process carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRTC) for years. However, this technology cannot be transferred unchanged to process milky transparent GFRTC prepregs (preimpregnated fibers). Due to the short wavelength (approx. 980 nm) and therefore high transmission less than 20% of the diode laser energy is absorbed as heat into non-colored GFRTC prepregs. Hence, the use of a different wave length, e.g. CO2-laser (10.6 μm) with more than 90% laser absorption, is required to allow the full potential of laser-assisted processing of GFRTC. Also the absorption of CO2-laser radiation at the surface compared to volume absorption of diode laser radiation is beneficial for the interlaminar joining of GFRTC. Fraunhofer IPT is currently developing and investigating the CO2-laser-assisted tape placement including new system, beam guiding, process and monitoring technology to enable a resource and energy efficient mass production of GFRP composites, e.g. pipes, tanks, masts. The successful processing of non-colored glass fiber-reinforced Polypropylene (PP) and Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) has already been proven.

  11. Evaluation of air jet erosion profiles in metal mesh supported SCR plate catalyst based on glass fiber concentrations

    Rajath, S.; Nandakishora, Y.; Siddaraju, C.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    This paper explains the evaluation of erosion profiles in metal mesh supported SCR plate catalyst structures in which the glass fibers concentration in the catalyst material is considered as prime factor for erosion resistance and mechanical strength. The samples are prepared and tested at the specified and constant conditions like velocity as 30m/s, sand flow rate as 2g/min, average particle diameter 300 µm and all these samples were tested at different angles at impact preferably 15°,30°,45°,60°,75°,and 90° as per ASTM G76 standards. Say, if 5% glass fibers are present in catalyst material, then erosion resistance increases, but the density of glass fibers is very less because each glass fiber is approximately 20 microns in diameter and weight of individual is negligible. The composition in which 2% fiber is present has slightly higher erosion comparatively, but 3% glass fibers or more foreign inclusion like excessive binders can be eliminated that contributes much for the conversion of NOx. So 2% -3% glass fibers are preferred and optimized based on NOx conversion and erosion resistance property.

  12. True Tapping Mode Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy with Bent Glass Fiber Probes.

    Smirnov, A; Yasinskii, V M; Filimonenko, D S; Rostova, E; Dietler, G; Sekatskii, S K

    2018-01-01

    In scanning near-field optical microscopy, the most popular probes are made of sharpened glass fiber attached to a quartz tuning fork (TF) and exploiting the shear force-based feedback. The use of tapping mode feedback could be preferable. Such an approach can be realized, for example, using bent fiber probes. Detailed analysis of fiber vibration modes shows that realization of truly tapping mode of the probe dithering requires an extreme caution. In case of using the second resonance mode, probes vibrate mostly in shear force mode unless the bending radius is rather small (ca. 0.3 mm) and the probe's tip is short. Otherwise, the shear force character of the dithering persists. Probes having these characteristics were prepared by irradiation of a tapered etched glass fiber with a CW CO 2 laser. These probes were attached to the TF in double resonance conditions which enables achieving significant quality factor (4000-6000) of the TF + probe system (Cherkun et al., 2006). We also show that, to achieve a truly tapping character, dithering, short, and not exceeding 3 mm lengths of a freestanding part of bent fiber probe beam should also be used in the case of nonresonant excitation.

  13. True Tapping Mode Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy with Bent Glass Fiber Probes

    A. Smirnov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In scanning near-field optical microscopy, the most popular probes are made of sharpened glass fiber attached to a quartz tuning fork (TF and exploiting the shear force-based feedback. The use of tapping mode feedback could be preferable. Such an approach can be realized, for example, using bent fiber probes. Detailed analysis of fiber vibration modes shows that realization of truly tapping mode of the probe dithering requires an extreme caution. In case of using the second resonance mode, probes vibrate mostly in shear force mode unless the bending radius is rather small (ca. 0.3 mm and the probe’s tip is short. Otherwise, the shear force character of the dithering persists. Probes having these characteristics were prepared by irradiation of a tapered etched glass fiber with a CW CO2 laser. These probes were attached to the TF in double resonance conditions which enables achieving significant quality factor (4000–6000 of the TF + probe system (Cherkun et al., 2006. We also show that, to achieve a truly tapping character, dithering, short, and not exceeding 3 mm lengths of a freestanding part of bent fiber probe beam should also be used in the case of nonresonant excitation.

  14. Serial topology of wide-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier for WDM applications

    Karásek, Miroslav; Menif, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9 (2001), s. 939-941 ISSN 1041-1135 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/0393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : erbium * wavelength division multiplexing * optical fibre amplifiers * optical fibre communication Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2001

  15. Protection of surviving channels in pump-controlled gain-locked Raman fiber amplifier

    Karásek, Miroslav; Menif, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 210, 1/2 (2002), s. 57-65 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2067202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : optical fibre amplifiers * wavelength division multiplexing * optical communication Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2002

  16. Channel addition/removal response in all-optical gain-clamped lumped Raman fiber amplifier

    Karásek, Miroslav; Kaňka, Jiří; Honzátko, Pavel; Radil, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2004), s. 771-773 ISSN 1041-1135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : optical communication * optical fibre amplifiers * wavelength division multiplexing Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2004

  17. Suppression of dynamic cross saturation in cascades of overpumped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Karásek, Miroslav; Willems, F. W.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (1998), s. 1036-1038 ISSN 0162-8828 Grant - others:EU COST(XE) OC 241.10 Keywords : optical communication * amplifiers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.417, year: 1998

  18. Cross-gain modulation in Raman fiber amplifier: experimentation and modeling

    Menif, M.; Karásek, Miroslav; Rusch, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 9 (2002), s. 1261-1263 ISSN 1041-1135 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 265.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : wavelength division multiplexing * optical communication * optical fibre amplifiers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.100, year: 2002

  19. Dielectric studies of Graphene and Glass Fiber reinforced composites

    Praveen, D.; Shashi Kumar, M. E.; Pramod, R.

    2018-02-01

    Graphene and E-glass fibres are one of the key materials used currently due to their unique chemical and mechanical properties. Lately graphene has attracted many researchers across academic fraternity as it can yield better properties with lesser reinforcement percentages. The current research emphasizes on the development of graphene-based nanocomposites and its investigation on dielectric applications. The composites were fabricated by adding graphene reinforcements from 1%-3% by weight using conventional Hand-lay process. A thorough investigation was carried out to determine the dielectric behaviour of the nano-composites using impedance analyser according to ASTM standards. The dielectric measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 300K to 400K in a step of 20K. The current research proposes the material for application in capacitor industry as the sample of 2.5% weight fraction showed highest value of K with 14 at 26.1 Hz and 403K.

  20. High energy single frequency Yb:YAG crystalline fiber waveguide master oscillator power amplifier, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective is to demonstrate the concept of Yb:YAG crystalline fiber MOPA laser and investigation the technical feasibility toward 50 mJ single frequency...

  1. Near-infrared multispectral photoacoustic microscopy using a graded-index fiber amplifier

    Takashi Buma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM of lipid-rich tissue using a multi-wavelength pulsed laser based on nonlinear fiber optics. 1047 nm laser pulses are converted to 1098, 1153, 1215, and 1270 nm pulses via stimulated Raman scattering in a graded-index multimode fiber. Multispectral PAM of a lipid phantom is demonstrated with our low-cost and simple technique.

  2. Frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    Pakarzadeh Dezfuli Nezhad, Hassan; Rottwitt, Karsten; Zakery, A.

    2009-01-01

    Using a numerical model, the frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in FOPAs has been investigated. The model includes fiber loss, pump depletion as well as difference in group velocity among interacting beams.......Using a numerical model, the frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in FOPAs has been investigated. The model includes fiber loss, pump depletion as well as difference in group velocity among interacting beams....

  3. Brillouin suppression in a fiber optical parametric amplifier by combining temperature distribution and phase modulation

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....

  4. Glass fiber sensors for detecting special nuclear materials at portal and monitor stations

    Hull, C.D.; Seymour, R.; Crawford, T.; Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Safeguards and Security Systems LLC (NucSafe) participated in the Illicit Trafficking Radiation Assessment Program (ITRAP) recently conducted by the Austrian Research Center, Seibersdorf (ARCS) for IAEA, INTERPOL, and the World Customs Organization (IAEA, in press). This presentation reviews ITRAP test results of NucSafe instrumentation. NucSafe produces stationary, mobile, and hand-held systems that use neutron and gamma ray sensors to detect Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Neutron sensors are comprised of scintillating glass fibers (trade name 'PUMA' for Pu Materials Analysis), which provide several advantages over 3 He and 10 BF 3 tubes. PUMA 6 Li glass fiber sensors offer greater neutron sensitivity and dynamic counting range with significantly less microphonic susceptibility than tubes, while eliminating transport and operational hazards. PUMA sensors also cost less per active area than gas tubes, which is important since rapid neutron detection at passenger, freight, and vehicle portals require large sensor areas to provide the required sensitivity

  5. Micropatterning of nanocomposite polymer scaffolds using sacrificial phosphate glass fibers for tendon tissue engineering applications.

    Alshomer, Feras; Chaves, Camilo; Serra, Tiziano; Ahmed, Ifty; Kalaskar, Deepak M

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a simple and reproducible method of micropatterning the novel nanocomposite polymer (POSS-PCU) using a sacrificial phosphate glass fiber template for tendon tissue engineering applications. The diameters of the patterned scaffolds produced were dependent on the diameter of the glass fibers (15 μm) used. Scaffolds were tested for their physical properties and reproducibility using various microscopy techniques. For the first time, we show that POSS-PCU supports growth of human tenocytes cells. Furthermore, we show that cellular alignment, their biological function and expression of various tendon related proteins such as scleraxis, collagen I and III, tenascin-C are significantly elevated on the micropatterned polymer surfaces compared to flat samples. This study demonstrated a simple, reproducible method of micropatterning POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer for novel tendon repair applications, which when provided with physical cues could help mimic the microenvironment of tenocytes cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of optical fiber of zinc tin borophosphate glass with zero photoelastic constant

    Saitoh, Akira; Oba, Yuya; Takebe, Hiromichi

    2015-10-01

    An optical fiber made of zinc tin boro-phosphate glass having a zero photoelastic constant, good water durability, and excluding hazardous elements was drawn from a prepared preform for use in a fiber-type current sensor device. The proposed cladding compositions enable single-mode propagation for a wavelength of 1550 nm, which is estimated from the difference in the refractive index between the core and cladding compositions. The drawing conditions should be controlled since the multiple-component glass is very sensitive to changes in viscosity and crystal precipitation during the heat-treated stretching of the preform. The temperature dependence of viscosity in the core and cladding reveals the feasibility of drawing.

  7. Dynamic compressive properties and failure mechanism of glass fiber reinforced silica hydrogel

    Yang Jie; Li Shukui; Yan Lili; Huo Dongmei; Wang Fuchi

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic compressive properties of glass fiber reinforced silica (GFRS) hydrogel were investigated using a spilt Hopkinson pressure bar. Failure mechanism of GFRS hydrogel was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Result showed that dynamic compressive stresses were much higher than the quasi-static compressive stresses at the same strain. The dynamic compressive strength was directly proportional to the strain rate with same sample dimensions. The dynamic compressive strength was directly proportional to the sample basal area at same strain rate. Dynamic compressive failure strain was small. At high strain rates, glass fibers broke down and separated from the matrix, pores shrank rapidly. Failure resulted from the increase of lateral tensile stress in hydrogel under dynamic compression.

  8. FeCoNi coated glass fibers in composite sheets for electromagnetic absorption and shielding behaviors

    Lee, Joonsik; Jung, Byung Mun; Lee, Sang Bok; Lee, Sang Kwan; Kim, Ki Hyeon

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the electromagnetic (EM) absorption and shield of magnetic composite sheet, we prepared the FeCoNi coated glass fibers filled in composite sheet. The FeCoNi was coated by electroless plating on glass fiber as a filler. The coated FeCoNi found that consist of mixtures of bcc and fcc phase. The magnetization and coercivity of coated FeCoNi are about 110 emu/g and 57 Oe, respectively. The permittivity and permeability of the FeCoNi composite sheet were about 21 and 1, respectively. Power absorption increased 95% with the increment of frequency up to 10 GHz. Inter-decoupling of this composite sheet showed maximum 30 dB at around 5.3 GHz, which is comparable to that of a conductive Cu foil. Shielding effectiveness (SE) was measured by using rectangular waveguide method. SE of composite obtained about 37 dB at X-band frequency region.

  9. LABORATORY EVALUATION ON PERFORMANCE OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC MORTAR PIPE CULVERTS

    Huawang Shi; Lianyu Wei

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigated the performance and behaviour of glass fiber reinforced plastic mortar (FRPM) pipes under different loading conditions. FRPM pipes with inner diameter of 1500 mm were prefabricated in factory. Mechanics performance testing (ring and axial compressive strength and elastic modulus), stiffness and fatigue test were carried out in laboratory. Ring stiffness test provided pipe stiffness (PS) which is a function of geometry and material type of pipe through parallel plate lo...

  10. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-01-01

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this stud...

  11. Fatigue resistance and stiffness of glass fiber-reinforced urethane dimethacrylate composite.

    Narva, Katja K; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2004-02-01

    Retentive properties of cast metal clasps decrease over time because of metal fatigue. Novel fiber-reinforced composite materials are purported to have increased fatigue resistance compared with metals and may offer a solution to the problem of metal fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate the fatigue resistance and stiffness of E-glass fiber-reinforced composite. Twelve cylindrical fiber-reinforced composite test cylinders (2 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length) were made from light-polymerized urethane dimethacrylate monomer with unidirectional, single-stranded, polymer preimpregnated E-glass fiber reinforcement. Six cylinders were stored in dry conditions and 6 in distilled water for 30 days before testing. Fatigue resistance was measured by a constant-deflection fatigue test with 1 mm of deflection across a specimen span of 11 mm for a maximum of 150,000 loading cycles. The resistance of the cylinder against deflection was measured (N) and the mean values of the force were compared by 1-way analysis of variance (alpha = .05). The flexural modulus (GPa) was calculated for the dry and water-stored cylinders for the first loading cycle. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the distribution of the fibers, and the volume percent of fibers and polymer were assessed by combustion analysis. The test cylinders did not fracture due to fatigue following 150,000 loading cycles. Flexural modulus at the first loading cycle was 18.9 (+/- 2.9) GPa and 17.5 (+/- 1.7) GPa for the dry and water-stored cylinders, respectively. The mean force required to cause the first 1-mm deflection was 33.5 (+/- 5.2) N and 37.7 (+/- 3.6) N for the dry and water stored cylinders, respectively; however, the differences were not significant. After 150,000 cycles the mean force to cause 1-mm deflection was significantly reduced to 23.4 (+/- 8.5) N and 13.1 (+/- 3.5) N, respectively (P fiber- and polymer-rich areas within the specimens and indicated that individual fibers were

  12. Flexure and impact properties of glass fiber reinforced nylon 6-polypropylene composites

    Kusaseh, N. M.; Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Ismail, N. M.; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.; Iqbal, A. K. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, polymer composites are rapidly developing and replacing the metals or alloys in numerous engineering applications. These polymer composites are the topic of interests in industrial applications such as automotive and aerospace industries. In the present research study, glass fiber (GF) reinforced nylon 6 (PA6)-polypropylene (PP) composite specimens were prepared successfully using injection molding process. Test specimens of five different compositions such as, 70%PA6+30%PP, 65%PA6+30%PP+5%GF, 60%PA6+30%PP+10%GF, 55%PA6+30%PP+15%GF and 50%PA6+30%PP+20%GF were prepared. In the experiments, flexure and impact tests were carried out. The obtained results revealed that flexure and impact properties of the polymer composites were significantly influenced by the glass fiber content. Results showed that flexural strength is low for pure polymer blend and flexural strength of GF reinforced composite increases gradually with the increase in glass fiber content. Test results also revealed that the impact strength of 70%PA6+30%PP is the highest and 55%PA6+30%PP+15%GF composite shows moderate impact strength. On the other hand, 50%PA6+30%PP+20%GF composite shows low toughness or reduced impact strength.

  13. Fracture strengths of chair-side-generated veneers cemented with glass fibers.

    Turkaslan, S; Bagis, B; Akan, E; Mutluay, M M; Vallittu, P K

    2015-01-01

    CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) systems have refreshed the idea of chair-side production of restorations, but the fracture of ceramic veneers remains a problem. Cementation with glass fibers may improve the fracture strengths and affect the failure modes of CAD/CAM-generated ceramic veneers. Therefore, this study compared the fracture strengths of ceramic veneers produced at chair side and cemented with or without glass fibers with those of composite veneers. Thirty intact mandibular incisors were randomly divided into three groups ( n = 10) and treated with CAD/CAM-fabricated veneers cemented with dual-cure composite resin luting cement (CRLC; Group 1), CAD/CAM-fabricated veneers cemented with a glass fiber network (GFN) and dual-cure CRLC (Group 2), and a direct particulate filler composite veneer constructed utilizing fiber and a restorative composite resin (Group 3). The specimens were tested with a universal testing machine after thermal cycling treatment. The loads at the start of fracture were the lowest for traditionally fabricated composite veneers and higher for CAD/CAM-generated. Veneers cemented either without or with the GFN. The failure initiation loads (N) for the veneers were 798.92 for Group 1, 836.27 for Group 2, and 585.93 for Group 3. The predominant failure mode is adhesive failure between the laminates and teeth for Group 1, cohesive failure in the luting layer for Group 2, and cohesive laminate failure for Group 3, which showed chipping and small fractures. Ceramic material is a reliable alternative for veneer construction at chair side. Fibers at the cementation interface may improve the clinical longevity and provide higher fracture strength values.

  14. Exotic Optical Fibers and Glasses: Innovative Material Processing Opportunities in Earth's Orbit.

    Cozmuta, Ioana; Rasky, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    Exotic optical fibers and glasses are the platform material for photonics applications, primarily due to their superior signal transmission (speed, low attenuation), with extending bandwidth deep into the infrared, exceeding that of silica fibers. Gravitational effects (convection sedimentation) have a direct impact on the phase diagram of these materials and influence melting properties, crystallization temperatures, and viscosity of the elemental mix during the manufacturing process. Such factors constitute limits to the yield, transmission quality, and strength and value of these fibers; they also constrain the range of applications. Manufacturing in a gravity-free environment such as the Earth's Orbit also helps with other aspects of the fabrication process (i.e., improved form factor of the manufacturing unit, sustainability). In this article, revolutionary developments in the field of photonics over the past decade merge with the paradigm shift in the privatization of government-owned capabilities supporting a more diverse infrastructure (parabolic, suborbital, orbital), reduced price, and increased frequency to access space and the microgravity environment. With the increased dependence on data (demand, bandwidth, efficiency), space and the microgravity environment provide opportunities for optimized performance of these exotic optical fibers and glasses underlying the development of enabling technologies to meet future data demand. Existing terrestrial markets (Internet, telecommunications, market transactions) and emerging space markets (on-orbit satellite servicing, space manufacturing, space resources, space communications, etc.) seem to converge, and this innovative material processing opportunity of exotic optical fibers and glasses might just be that "killer app": technologically competitive, economically viable, and with the ability to close the business case.

  15. Effect of surface treatment on mechanical properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    N, Karunagaran [S.K.P Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai (India); A, Rajadurai [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-06-15

    This paper investigates the effect of surface treatment for glass fiber, stainless steel wire mesh on tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. The glass fiber fabric is surface treated either by 1 N solution of sulfuric acid or 1 N solution of sodium hydroxide. The stainless steel wire mesh is also surface treated by either electro dissolution or sand blasting. The hybrid composites are fabricated using epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber and fine stainless steel wire mesh by hand lay-up technique at room temperature. The hybrid composite consisting of acid treated glass fiber and sand blasted stainless steel wire mesh exhibits a good combination of tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact behavior in comparison with the composites made without any surface treatment. The fine morphological modifications made on the surface of the glass fiber and stainless steel wire mesh enhances the bonding between the resin and reinforcement which inturn improved the tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties.

  16. Bismuth silicate glass: A new choice for 2 μm fiber lasers

    Ding, Jia; Zhao, Guoying; Tian, Ying; Chen, Wei; Hu, Lili

    2012-11-01

    We report on a new Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ co-doped bismuth silicate glass: SiO2-Bi2O3-R2O (R = Li, Na, K) for 2 μm fiber lasers. Bi2O3 was introduced into alkali silicate glass to optimize 2 μm emission properties. Physical, chemical and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ co-doped SiO2-Bi2O3-R2O (SBR) glass were presented. The Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ co-doped SBR glass shows excellent thermal stability (ΔT = 162 °C), an intense 2.0 μm emission pumped by 980 nm LD with a lifetime of 1.33 ms and width of 168 nm, large maximum emission cross section of Ho3+ (5.3 × 10-21 cm2), thus large σemτ product (7.049 × 10-24 cm2 s), which suggest its application in 2 μm fiber lasers.

  17. Grafting Carbon Nanotubes on Glass Fiber by Dip Coating Technique to Enhance Tensile and Interfacial Shear Strength

    Bahador Dastorian Jamnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of noncovalent bonding and mechanical interlocking of carbon nanotubes (CNT coating on tensile and interfacial strength of glass fiber were investigated. CNT were coated over glass fiber by a simple dip coating method. Acid treated CNT were suspended in isopropanol solution containing Nafion as binding agent. To achieve uniform distribution of CNT over the glass fiber, an optimized dispersion process was developed by two parameters: CNT concentration and soaking time. CNT concentration was varied from 0.4 to 2 mg/mL and soaking time was varied from 1 to 180 min. The provided micrographs demonstrated appropriate coating of CNT on glass fiber by use of CNT-Nafion mixture. The effects of CNT concentration and soaking time on coating layer were studied by performing single fiber tensile test and pull-out test. The obtained results showed that the optimum CNT concentration and soaking time were 1 mg/mL and 60 min, respectively, which led to significant improvement of tensile strength and interfacial shear stress. It was found that, at other concentrations and soaking times, CNT agglomeration or acutely curly tubes appeared over the fiber surface which caused a reduction of nanotubes interaction on the glass fiber.

  18. A Robust Distributed Multipoint Fiber Optic Gas Sensor System Based on AGC Amplifier Structure.

    Zhu, Cunguang; Wang, Rende; Tao, Xuechen; Wang, Guangwei; Wang, Pengpeng

    2016-07-28

    A harsh environment-oriented distributed multipoint fiber optic gas sensor system realized by automatic gain control (AGC) technology is proposed. To improve the photoelectric signal reliability, the electronic variable gain can be modified in real time by an AGC closed-loop feedback structure to compensate for optical transmission loss which is caused by the fiber bend loss or other reasons. The deviation of the system based on AGC structure is below 4.02% when photoelectric signal decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is 20 times lower than the ordinary differential system. In addition, the AGC circuit with the same electric parameters can keep the baseline intensity of signals in different channels of the distributed multipoint sensor system at the same level. This avoids repetitive calibrations and streamlines the installation process.

  19. Effects of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bending strength and bonding of glass fibers in fiber-embedded maxillofacial silicone prostheses.

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Watts, David C

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of different periods of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bond strength of glass fiber bundles embedded into maxillofacial silicone elastomer and on bending strength of the glass fiber bundles. Forty specimens were fabricated by embedding resin-impregnated fiber bundles (1.5-mm diameter, 20-mm long) into maxillofacial silicone elastomer. Specimens were randomly allocated into four groups, and each group was subjected to different periods of accelerated daylight aging as follows (in hours); 0, 200, 400, and 600. The aging cycle included continuous exposure to quartz-filtered visible daylight (irradiance 760 W/m(2)) under an alternating weathering cycle (wet for 18 minutes, dry for 102 minutes). Pull-out tests were performed to evaluate bond strength between fiber bundles and silicone using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Also a three-point bending test was performed to evaluate bending strength of the fiber bundles. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were carried out to detect statistical significance (p aging only. After 200 hours of exposure to artificial daylight and moisture conditions, bond strength between glass fibers and heat-cured silicones is optimal, and the bending strength of the glass fiber bundles is enhanced.

  20. Scintillating-Glass-Fiber neutron sensors, their application and performance for plutonium detection and monitoring

    Seymour, R.S.; Richardson, B.; Morichi, M.; Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Most neutron detection sensors presently employ 3 He gas-filled detectors. Despite their excellent performance and widespread use, there are significant limitations to this technology. A significant alternative neutron sensor utilizing neutron-active material incorporated into a glass scintillator is presented that offers novel commercial sensors not possible or practical with gas tube technology. The scintillating optical fiber permits sensors with a multitude of sizes ranging from devices of a single fiber of 150μm to sensors with tens of thousands of fibers with areas as large as 5m 2 depending on the neutron flux to be measured. A second significant advantage is the use of high-speed electronics that allow a greater dynamic range, not possible with gas detectors. These sensors are flexible, conformable and less sensitive to vibration that optimizes the source-to-detector geometry and provides robust performance in field applications. The glass-fibers are sensitive to both gamma rays and neutrons. However the coincidence electronics are optimized for neutron to gamma ray discrimination allowing very sensitive measurements with a low false-alarm rate. Applications include SNM surveillance, material control and accountability (MC and A), safeguard inspections, Pu health physics / bioassay and environmental characterization. (author)

  1. "Brick-and-Mortar" Nanostructured Interphase for Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites.

    De Luca, Francois; Sernicola, Giorgio; Shaffer, Milo S P; Bismarck, Alexander

    2018-02-28

    The fiber-matrix interface plays a critical role in determining composite mechanical properties. While a strong interface tends to provide high strength, a weak interface enables extensive debonding, leading to a high degree of energy absorption. Balancing these conflicting requirements by engineering composite interfaces to improve strength and toughness simultaneously still remains a great challenge. Here, a nanostructured fiber coating was realized to manifest the critical characteristics of natural nacre, at a reduced length scale, consistent with the surface curvature of fibers. The new interphase contains a high proportion (∼90 wt %) of well-aligned inorganic platelets embedded in a polymer; the window of suitable platelet dimensions is very narrow, with an optimized platelet width and thickness of about 130 and 13 nm, respectively. An anisotropic, nanostructured coating was uniformly and conformally deposited onto a large number of 9 μm diameter glass fibers, simultaneously, using self-limiting layer-by-layer assembly (LbL); this parallel approach demonstrates a promising strategy to exploit LbL methods at scale. The resulting nanocomposite interphase, primarily loaded in shear, provides new mechanisms for stress dissipation and plastic deformation. The energy released by fiber breakage in tension appear to spread and dissipate within the nanostructured interphase, accompanied by stable fiber slippage, while the interfacial strength was improved up to 30%.

  2. Development of suspended core soft glass fibers for far-detuned parametric conversion

    Rampur, Anupamaa; Ciąćka, Piotr; Cimek, Jarosław; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Buczyński, Ryszard; Klimczak, Mariusz

    2018-04-01

    Light sources utilizing χ (2) parametric conversion combine high brightness with attractive operation wavelengths in the near and mid-infrared. In optical fibers, it is possible to use χ (3) degenerate four-wave mixing in order to obtain signal-to-idler frequency detuning of over 100 THz. We report on a test series of nonlinear soft glass suspended core fibers intended for parametric conversion of 1000-1100 nm signal wavelengths available from an array of mature lasers into the near-to-mid-infrared range of 2700-3500 nm under pumping with an erbium sub-picosecond laser system. The presented discussion includes modelling of the fiber properties, details of their physical development and characterization, and experimental tests of parametric conversion.

  3. Voronoi polygons and self-consistent technique used to compute the airflow resistivity of randomly placed fibers in glass wool

    Tarnow, Viggo

    2002-01-01

    is constant, and equal to the constant current value. A computation of resistivity from fiber density and diameter will be presented for a model of glass wool that consists of parallel randomly placed fibers with equal diameters. The computation is based on Voronoi polygons, and the results will be compared...

  4. Modal instability of rod fiber amplifiers: a semi-analytic approach

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Laurila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The modal instability (MI) threshold is estimated for four rod fiber designs by combining a semi-analytic model with the finite element method. The thermal load due to the quantum defect is calculated and used to numerically determine the mode distributions on which the expression for the onset o...

  5. Regime dependence of photo-darkening-induced modal degradation in high power fiber amplifier (Conference Presentation)

    Boullet, Johan; Vincont, Cyril; Jolly, Alain; Pierre, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Thermally induced transverse modal instabilities (TMI) have attracted these five years an intense research efforts of the entire fiber laser development community, as it represents the current most limiting effect of further power scaling of high power fiber laser. Anyway, since 2014, a few publications point out a new limiting thermal effect: fiber modal degradation (FMD). It is characterized by a power rollover and simultaneous increase of the cladding light at an average power far from the TMI threshold together with a degraded beam which does not exhibit temporal fluctuations, which is one of the main characteristic of TMI. We report here on the first systemic experimental study of FMD in a high power photonic crystal fiber. We put a particular emphasis on the dependence of its average power threshold on the regime of operation. We experimentally demonstrate that this dependence is intrinsically linked to regime-dependent PD-saturated losses, which are nearly three times higher in CW regime than in short pulse picosecond regime. We make the hypothesis that the existence of these different PD equilibrium states between CW regime and picosecond QCW pulsed regime is due to a partial photo-bleaching of color centers in picosecond regime thanks to a higher probability of multi-photon process induced photobleaching (PB) at high peak power. This hypothesis is corroborated by the demonstration of the reversibility of the FMD induced in CW regime by simply switching the seed CW 1064 nm light by a short pulse, picosecond oscillator.

  6. Study of the Effect of Reinforced Glass Fibers on Fatigue Properties for Composite Materials

    Mohamed G. Hamad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This  research  included  the  study of  the effect  of  reinforced  glass fibers  on  fatigue  properties  for composite materials. Polyester  resin  is used  as  connective  material(matrix in two types  of  glass  fibers  for reinforced. The  first  type  is regular  glass fibers  (woven  roving with the  directional(0-90, the second  is  glass  fibers  with  the  random  direction. The first type is the panels with regular reinforced (0-90, and with number of layer (1,2.The  second  type  is  the  panels with random  reinforced  and  with  number  of  layers (1,2. The  results  and  the  laboratory  examinations  for  the samples  reinforce  with  fibers  have  manifested (0-90  that there  is  a decrease  in the number  of  cycles  to the  fatigue  limit  when  the  number  of  reinforce  layers  have  increased . And  an elasticity of this  type  of  samples  are decreased  by  increasing  the number  of  reinforced  layers  with  fiber  .We  find  the  random  reinforced  number  of  fatigue  cycles  for the samples  with  two  layers  of  random  reinforced  are  decreased  more  than the samples  with  one  layer of random  reinforced .

  7. The effects of embedded piezoelectric fiber composite sensors on the structural integrity of glass-fiber-epoxy composite laminate

    Konka, Hari P.; Wahab, M. A.; Lian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composite sensors (PFCSs) made from micro-sized lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers have many advantages over the traditional bulk PZT sensors for embedded sensor applications. PFCSs as embedded sensors will be an ideal choice to continuously monitor the stress/strain levels and health conditions of composite structures. PFCSs are highly flexible, easily embeddable, have high compatibility with composite structures, and also provides manufacturing flexibility. This research is focused on examining the effects of embedding PFCS sensors (macro-fiber composite (MFC) and piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC)) on the structural integrity of glass-fiber-epoxy composite laminates. The strengths of composite materials with embedded PFCSs and conventional PZT sensors were compared, and the advantages of PFCS sensors over PZTs were demonstrated. Initially a numerical simulation study is performed to understand the local stress/strain field near the embedded sensor region inside a composite specimen. High stress concentration regions were observed near the embedded sensor corner edge. Using PFCS leads to a reduction of 56% in longitudinal stress concentration and 38% in transverse stress concentration, when compared to using the conventional PZTs as embedded sensors. In-plane tensile, in-plane tension-tension fatigue, and short beam strength tests are performed to evaluate the strengths/behavior of the composite specimens containing embedded PFCS. From the tensile test it is observed that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors in the composite structures leads to a reduction in ultimate strength by 3 and 6% respectively. From the fatigue test results it is concluded that both embedded PFCS and PZT sensors do not have a significant effect on the fatigue behavior of the composite specimens. From the short beam strength test it is found that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors leads to a reduction in shear strength by 7 and 15% respectively. Overall the pure PZT sensors

  8. Broadband generation by multiple four-wave mixing process due to ASE Q-switching in high-power double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Chowdhury, Sourav D.; Shekhar, Nishant; Saha, Maitreyee; Sen, Ranjan; Pal, Mrinmay

    2014-11-01

    Broadband output from 1060nm to 1700nm and cascaded four-wave mixing generated red light pulsing is observed in a fiber amplifier set up consisting of a 5.5m double clad, double D shaped Ytterbium doped fiber, a single clad passive fiber for excess pump absorption and a splitter, both with and without a CW seed. Self-pulsing occurs from ASE due to passive Q-switching by saturable absorption effect of the active fiber and also depends on splice loss. The pulses generate broadband output by multiple four-wave mixing process with maximum broadening efficiency near 1300nm which is the zero dispersion wavelength for silica fiber. Pulses traveling both in forward and backward direction have enough peak power and energy to damage splice points and fiber components. When seeded the self-pulsing and broadband generation is often suppressed but again generate at increased pump powers.

  9. A glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass cranioplasty implant: A case study of an early development stage implant removed due to a late infection.

    Posti, Jussi P; Piitulainen, Jaakko M; Hupa, Leena; Fagerlund, Susanne; Frantzén, Janek; Aitasalo, Kalle M J; Vuorinen, Ville; Serlo, Willy; Syrjänen, Stina; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-03-01

    This case study describes the properties of an early development stage bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite calvarial implant with histology that has been in function for two years and three months. The patient is a 33-year old woman with a history of substance abuse, who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury later unsuccessfully treated with an autologous bone flap and a custom-made porous polyethylene implant. She was thereafter treated with developmental stage glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass implant. After two years and three months, the implant was removed due to an implant site infection. The implant was analyzed histologically, mechanically, and in terms of chemistry and dissolution of bioactive glass. Mechanical integrity of the load bearing fiber-reinforced composite part of the implant was not affected by the in vivo period. Bioactive glass particles demonstrated surface layers of hydroxyapatite like mineral and dissolution, and related increase of pH was considerably less after two and three months period than that for fresh bioactive glass. There was a difference in the histology of the tissues inside the implant areas near to the margin of the implant that absorbed blood during implant installation surgery, showed fibrous tissue with blood vessels, osteoblasts, collagenous fibers with osteoid formation, and tiny clusters of more mature hard tissue. In the center of the implant, where there was less absorbed blood, only fibrous tissue was observed. This finding is in line with the combined positron emission tomography - computed tomography examination with (18F)-fluoride marker, which demonstrated activity of the mineralizing bone by osteoblasts especially at the area near to the margin of the implant 10 months after implantation. Based on these promising reactions found in the bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite implant that has been implanted for two years and three months, calvarial

  10. SBS management in Yb-fiber-amplifiers using multimode seeds and pulse-shaping

    Jolly, Alain; Fikri Serdar Gokhan; Bello, Ramatou; Dupriez, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the technique of Longitudinal-Mode-Filling (LMF) to reduce Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) limitations in Ytterbium Doped Fibre Amplifiers (YDFA), for the generation of nanosecond, temporally shaped pulses. A basic Master-Oscillator-Power-Amplifier (MOPA) system, comprising an output YDFA with 10 μm-core active fibre, is experienced for benchmarking purposes. Input pulse-shaping is operated thanks to direct current modulation in highly multimode laser-diode seeds, either based on the use of Distributed Feed-Back (DFB) or of a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG). These seeds enable wavelength control. We verify the effectiveness of the combination of LMF, with appropriate mode spacing, in combination with natural chirp effects from the seed to control the SBS threshold in a broad range of output energies, from a few to some tens of μJ. These variations are discussed versus all the parameters of the laser system. In accordance with the proposal of a couple of basic principles and with the addition of gain saturation effects along the active fibre, we develop a full-vectorial numerical model. Fine fits between experimental results and theoretical expectations are demonstrated. The only limitation of the technique arises from broadband beating noise, which is analysed thanks to a simplified, but fully representative description to discuss the signal-to-noise ratio of the amplified pulses. This provides efficient tools for application to the design of robust and cost-effective MOPAs, aiming to the generation of finely shaped and energetic nanosecond pulses without the need for any additional electro-optics. (authors)

  11. Novel High Temperature and Radiation Resistant Infrared Glasses and Optical Fibers for Sensing in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Ballato, John [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2018-01-22

    One binary and three series of ternary non-oxide pure sulfide glasses compositions were investigated with the goal of synthesizing new glasses that exhibit high glass transition (Tg) and crystallization (Tc) temperatures, infrared transparency, and reliable glass formability. The binary glass series consisted of Ges2 and La2S3 and the three glass series in the x(nBaS + mLa2S3) + (1-2x)GeS2 ternary system have BaS:La2S3 modifier ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 with . With these glasses, new insights were realized as to how ionic glasses form and how glass modifiers affect both structure and glass formability. All synthesized compositions were characterized by Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to better understand the fundamental structure, optical, and thermal characteristics of the glasses. After a range of these glasses were synthesized, optimal compositions were formed into glass disks and subjected to gamma irradiation. Glass disks were characterized both before and after irradiation by microscope imaging, measuring the refractive index, density, and UV-VIS-IR transmission spectra. The final total dose the samples were subjected to was ~2.5 MGy. Ternary samples showed a less than 0.4% change in density and refractive index and minimal change in transmission window. The glasses also resisted cracking as seen in microscope images. Overall, many glass compositions were developed that possess operating temperatures above 500 °C, where conventional chalcogenide glasses such as As2S3 and have Tgs from ~200-300 °C, and these glasses have a greater than Tc – Tg values larger than 100 °C and this shows that these glasses have good thermal stability of Tg such that they can be fabricated into optical fibers and as such can be considered candidates for high temperature infrared fiber optics. Initial fiber fabrication efforts showed that selected glasses could be drawn but larger

  12. Thermally controlled mid-IR band-gap engineering in all-glass chalcogenide microstructured fibers: a numerical study

    Barh, Ajanta; Varshney, Ravi K.; Pal, Bishnu P.

    2017-01-01

    Presence of photonic band-gap (PBG) in an all-glass low refractive index (RI) contrast chalcogenide (Ch) microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) is investigated numerically. The effect of external temperature on the position of band-gap is explored to realize potential fiber-based wavelength filters....... Then the temperature sensitivity of band-gaps is investigated to design fiber-based mid-IR wavelength filters/sensors....

  13. Relining effects on the push-out shear bond strength of glass fiber posts

    Adriana Rosado Valente ANDRIOLI

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The correct use of glass fiber posts in endodontically treated teeth is essential for the clinical success of restorative treatment. Objective This study evaluated the push-out shear bond strength of relined (R or non-relined (NR glass fiber posts, cemented with self-adhesive resin cement [RelyXTM U100 (U100] and conventional resin cement [RelyXTM ARC (ARC]. Material and method Sixty human single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and divided into ARC-NR; U100-NR; ARC-R; U100-R groups. The teeth were sectioned into cervical, middle and apical thirds, and subjected to the push-out test. Bond strength was analyzed by the Friedman test; cement and post types were compared by the Mann Whitney test. The pattern of failures was evaluated with digital camera through images at 200x magnification, and was classified as adhesive (at the cement/dentin or cement/post interface, cohesive (cement or post, and mixed failures. Result In ARC-NR, bond strength values were higher in the cervical third; in U100-NR and ARC-R they were similar between the thirds. In U100-R, in the cervical and middle thirds the bond strength values were similar, and there was lower value in the apical third. For non-relined glass fiber posts, the highest mean bond strength values were observed with self-adhesive resin cement. Whereas, relined posts cemented with conventional resin cement had stronger cement layer in comparison with non-relined fiber posts. Conclusion The post relining technique was efficient in ARC-R. ARC-NR and U100-R showed improved bond strength in the cervical region of canal walls. The main failures were adhesive at the cement-post interface.

  14. A device for uranium series leaching from glass fiber in HEPA filter

    Gye-Nam Kim; Hye-Min Park; Wang-Kyu Choi; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2012-01-01

    For the disposal of a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) glass filter into the environment, the glass fiber should be leached to lower its radioactive concentration to the clearance level. To derive an optimum method for the removal of uranium series from a HEPA glass fiber, five methods were applied in this study. That is, chemical leaching by a 4.0 M HNO 3 -0.1 M Ce(IV) solution, chemical leaching by a 5 wt% NaOH solution, chemical leaching by a 0.5 M H 2 O 2 -1.0 M Na 2 CO 3 solution, chemical consecutive chemical leaching by a 4.0 M HNO 3 solution, and repeated chemical leaching by a 4.0 M HNO 3 solution were used to remove the uranium series. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, and 234 Th in glass after leaching for 5 h by the 4.0 M HNO 3 -0.1 M Ce(IV) solution were 2.1, 0.3, 1.1, and 1.2 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, and 234 Th in glass after leaching for 36 h by 4.0 M HNO 3 -0.1 M Ce(IV) solution were 76.9, 3.4, 63.7, and 71.9 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, and 234 Th in glass after leaching for 8 h by a 0.5 M H 2 O 2 -1.0 M Na 2 CO 3 solution were 8.9, 0.0, 1.91, and 6.4 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, and 234 Th in glass after consecutive leaching for 8 h by the 4.0 M HNO 3 solution were 2.08, 0.12, 1.55, and 2.0 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, and 234 Th in glass after three repetitions of leaching for 3 h by the 4.0 M HNO 3 solution were 0.02, 0.02, 0.29, and 0.26 Bq/g. Meanwhile, the removal efficiencies of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, and 234 Th from the waste solution after its precipitation-filtration treatment with NaOH and alum for reuse of the 4.0 M HNO 3 waste solution were 100, 100, 93.3, and 100%. (author)

  15. Online Structural-Health Monitoring of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastics Using Different Carbon Allotropes in the Interphase

    Michael Thomas Müller

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An electromechanical response behavior is realized by nanostructuring the glass fiber interphase with different highly electrically conductive carbon allotropes like carbon nanotubes (CNT, graphene nanoplatelets (GNP, or conductive carbon black (CB. The operational capability of these multifunctional glass fibers for an online structural-health monitoring is demonstrated in endless glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene. The electromechanical response behavior, during a static or dynamic three-point bending test of various carbon modifications, shows qualitative differences in the signal quality and sensitivity due to the different aspect ratios of the nanoparticles and the associated electrically conductive network densities in the interphase. Depending on the embedding position within the glass fiber-reinforced composite compression, shear and tension loadings of the fibers can be distinguished by different characteristics of the corresponding electrical signal. The occurrence of irreversible signal changes during the dynamic loading can be attributed to filler reorientation processes caused by polymer creeping or by destruction of electrically conductive paths by cracks in the glass fiber interphase.

  16. High modulus rare earth and beryllium containing silicate glass compositions. [for glass reinforcing fibers

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 16 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of approximately, by weight, 20 to 43% SiO2, 8 to 21% Al2O3, 4 to 10% BeO, 27 to 58% of at least one oxide selected from a first group consisting of Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Ce2O3, Ce2O3, and the mixed rare earth oxides, and 3 to 12% of at least one oxide selected from a second group consisting of MgO, ZrO2, ZnO and CaO are described. The molar ratio of BeO to the total content of the first group oxides is from 1.0 to 3.0.

  17. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions.

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Brow, Richard K; Liu, Kun; Brow, Katherine A; Ma, Yinfa; Shi, Honglan

    2017-04-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microstructural evaluation and flexural mechanical behavior of pultruded glass fiber composites

    Chacon, Y.G.; Paciornik, S.; D'Almeida, J.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mosaic images fully characterize the microstructure of heterogeneous materials. → Mosaic images have advantages over microscopy techniques using single fields. → UV and water immersion aging are minimized at the fibers' direction. → UV radiation produced marked changes on the composite surface. - Abstract: The microstructure of a pultruded glass fiber-reinforced composite was fully characterized using digital image analysis. A mosaic technique was used to analyze the entire thickness along specimens' cross-sections, enabling the visualization of the fiber, resin and filler spatial distribution. The advantages of this technique over the usual analysis on single fields, is presented and discussed. The fiber spatial distribution was correlated with flexural mechanical properties as a function of the specimens' position along the length and across the cross section of the composite. The influence of aging by immersion in distilled water and by UV radiation on flexural properties was also analyzed. Minor variation due to aging occurred when longitudinal specimens were tested. Transversally to the fibers, the matrix-dominated composite properties were more affected.

  19. Osteoconductive properties of two different bioactive glass forms (powder and fiber) combined with collagen

    Magri, Angela Maria Paiva; Fernandes, Kelly Rossetti; Ueno, Fabio Roberto; Kido, Hueliton Wilian; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Braga, Francisco José Correa; Granito, Renata Neves; Gabbai-Armelin, Paulo Roberto; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2017-11-01

    Bioactive Glasses (BG) is a group of synthetic silica-based materials with the unique ability to bond to living bone and can be used in bone repair. Although the osteogenic potential of BG, this material may have not present sufficient osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties to allow bone regeneration, especially in compromised situations. In order to overcome this limitation, it was proposed the combination the BG in two forms (powder and fiber) combined with collagen type I (COL-1). The aim of this study was to evaluate the BG/COL-based materials in terms of morphological characteristics, physicochemical features and mineralization. Additionally, the second objective was to investigate and compare the osteoconductive properties of two different bioactive glass forms (powder and fiber) enriched or not with collagen using a tibial bone defect model in rats. For this, four different formulations (BG powder - BGp, BG powder enriched with collagen - BGp/Col, BG fibers - BGf and BGp fibers enriched with collagen - BGf/Col) were developed. The physicochemical and morphological modifications were analyzed by SEM, FTIR, calcium assay and pH measurement. For in vivo evaluations, histopathology, morphometrical and immunohistochemistry were performed in a tibial defect in rats. The FTIR analysis indicated that BGp and BGf maintained the characteristic peaks for this class of material. Furthermore, the calcium assay showed an increased Ca uptake in the BG fibers. The pH measurements revealed that BGp (with or without collagen) presented higher pH values compared to BGf. In addition, the histological analysis demonstrated no inflammation for all groups at the site of the injury, besides a faster material degradation and higher bone ingrowth for groups with collagen. The immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated Runx-2 and Rank-L expression for all the groups. Those findings support that BGp with collagen can be a promising alternative for treating fracture of difficult

  20. Optimized process for recovery of glass- and carbon fibers with retained mechanical properties by means of near- and supercritical fluids

    Sokoli, Hülya U.; Beauson, Justine; Simonsen, Morten E.

    2017-01-01

    on the resin degradation efficiency and the quality of the recovered glass and carbon fibers. Supercritical acetone at 260 ºC, 60 bar and a c/s ratio up to 2.1 g/mL could achieve nearly complete degradation of the resin. The glass fibers were recovered with up to 89% retained tensile strength compared...... to the virgin glass fibers. The use of near-critical water reduced the tensile strength of the glass fibers by up to 65%, whereas the carbon fibers were recovered with retained tensile strength compared to the virgin carbon fibers using water or acetone.......Degradation of hybrid fiber composites using near-critical water or supercritical acetone has been investigated in this study. Process parameters such as temperature (T= 260-300 ºC), pressure (p = 60-300 bar) and composite/solvent (c/s = 0.29-2.1 g/mL) ratio were varied to determine the effect...

  1. Efficient terahertz wave generation from GaP crystals pumped by chirp-controlled pulses from femtosecond photonic crystal fiber amplifier

    Li, Jiang; Shi, Junkai; Xu, Baozhong; Xing, Qirong; Wang, Chingyue; Chai, Lu; Liu, Bowen; Hu, Minglie; Li, Yanfeng; Fedotov, Andrey B.; Zheltikov, Aleksei M.

    2014-01-01

    A chirp-tunable femtosecond 10 W, 42 MHz photonic-crystal-fiber oscillator-amplifier system that is capable of delivering sub-60 fs light pulses at 1040 nm is used to demonstrate high-efficiency terahertz radiation generation via optical rectification in GaP crystals only a few millimeters in length. The optimization of the chirp of the fiber-laser pulses is shown to radically enhance the terahertz output, indicating one possible way to more efficiently use these extended nonlinear crystals in compact fiber-pumped terahertz radiation sources

  2. Intra-Laminar Fracture Toughness of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer By Using Theory, Experimentation and FEA

    Firojkhan, Pathan; Tanpure, Kshitijit; Dawale, Ajinkya; Patil, Shital

    2018-04-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are widely use in aerospace, marine, auto-mobile and civil engineering applications because of their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, corrosion resistance and potentially high durability. The purpose of this research is to experimentally investigate the mechanical and fracture properties of glass-fiber reinforced polyester composite material, 450 g/m 2 randomly distributed glass-fiber mat also known as woven strand mat with polyester resin as a matrix. The samples have been produced by the conventional hand layup process and the specimens were prepared as per the ASTM standards. The tensile test was performed on the composite specimens using Universal testing machine (UTM) which are used for the finite element simulation of composite Layered fracture model. The mechanical properties were evaluated from the stress vs. strain curve obtained from the test result. Later, fracture tests were performed on the CT specimen. In case of CT specimen the load vs. Displacement plot obtained from the experimental results was used to determine the fracture properties of the composite. The failure load of CT specimen using FEA is simulated which gives the Stress intensity factor by using FEA. Good agreement between the FEA and experimental results was observed.

  3. 2.45 GHz Microwave Processing and Its Influence on Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Zaremba, Swen

    2018-01-01

    During the production of fiber-reinforced composite materials, liquid resin is introduced into the fiber material and cured, i.e., hardened. An elevated temperature is needed for this curing. Microwave curing of composites has been investigated for some time, but it has mostly been done using small domestic or laboratory equipment. However, no investigation has been carried out using an industrial-sized chamber-microwave for glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP). Here, we show that microwave curing produces laminates of the same quality as oven-cured ones. The study shows that, if the process is done right, GFRP samples can be produced with an industrial scale microwave. Even if not fully cured, microwave samples show a glass transition temperature measured with DMA (Tg-DMA) that is comparable to the Tg-DMA according to the proposed cure cycle on the data sheet. Specific microwave-cured configurations show better inter-laminar shear strength than oven specimens. The results show that microwave-based heat introduction can be a beneficial curing method for GFRP laminates. A microwave-optimized process is faster and leads to better mechanical properties. PMID:29783684

  4. Behaviour of reinforced columns with E_Glass fiber and carbon fiber

    BOUCHELAGHEM Hafida; BEZAZI Abederrezak; Benzanache Naziha; SCARPA Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Externally bonded reinforcement using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a good response to the concern represented by the need for rehabilitation of concrete structures. These techniques are more and more attractive because of their fast and low labour costs, very good strength to weight ratio, good fatigue properties, and non-corrosive characteristics of FRP. The present work is an experimental study investigating the mechanical behaviour under a uni-axial loading of short concrete columns r...

  5. Mode-locked 1.5 micrometers semiconductor optical amplifier fiber ring

    Pedersen, Niels V.; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Vaa, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of a mode-locked SOA fiber ring are investigated experimentally and numerically. Generation of near transform-limited (time-bandwidth product=0.7) 1.5 μm 54 ps FWHM pulses with a peak power of 2.8 mW at a repetition rate of 960 MHz is demonstrated experimentally. The experimental...... results agree well with the simulation results obtained using a transmission line laser model (TLLM) model, Both experiments and numerical simulations show how the RF power and the detuning affect the pulsewidth...

  6. A high power, continuous-wave, single-frequency fiber amplifier at 1091 nm and frequency doubling to 545.5 nm

    Stappel, M; Steinborn, R; Kolbe, D; Walz, J

    2013-01-01

    We present a high power single-frequency ytterbium fiber amplifier system with an output power of 30 W at 1091 nm. The amplifier system consists of two stages, a preamplifier stage in which amplified spontaneous emission is efficiently suppressed (>40 dB) and a high power amplifier with an efficiency of 52%. Two different approaches to frequency doubling are compared. We achieve 8.6 W at 545.5 nm by single-pass frequency doubling in a MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO 3 crystal and up to 19.3 W at 545.5 nm by frequency doubling with a lithium-triborate crystal in an external enhancement cavity. (paper)

  7. Degradation of glass-fiber reinforced plastics by low temperature irradiation

    Nishijima, S.; Nishiura, T.; Ueno, S.; Tsukazaki, Y.; Okada, T.; Okada, T.M.; Miyata, K.; Kodaka, H.

    1998-01-01

    Low-temperature irradiation effects of glass-fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) have been investigated in terms of mechanical properties such as interlaminar shear strength and creep, in order to obtain the selection standard of insulating materials of superconducting magnets used for fusion reactor. It was revealed that the degradation of interlaminar shear strength was strongly dependent of characteristics of matrix and/or glass/epoxy interface. Especially, the research has been carried out towards the creep behaviour of epoxy which is the matrix of GFRP, by both experimental and simulation method. It was suggested that the synergistic effects was observed in creep test. From the molecular dynamics simulation it was found that the cage effects was the one of the main reason of the stress effects of creep behavior under irradiation. (author)

  8. Effect of the impact directions, of the fibers and of the aging on the glass fibers composite resistance

    Vina, J.; Arguelles, A.; Zenasni, R.; Ouinas, D.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, composites of epoxy matrix reinforced with glass fiber are used in the fabrication of wind turbine blades. This material has an anisotropic structure and its mechanical properties are not the same in all the directions. The impact strength was evaluated from the mechanical tests carried out in two perpendicular directions. The effect of aging was analyzed immersing the specimens into water to 70 C, during different periods of time. From the results of the tests, the dynamic fracture toughness (Kid) and the resilience (KCV) were obtained. An important difference was obtained between the specimens taken out in the blade direction and in the perpendicular direction. The aging specimens, in the two directions, have showed continuous decrements in the dynamic toughness and resilience, from the first period of immersion of 15 days until 180 days. (authors)

  9. Photoluminescence quenching by OH in Er- and Pr-doped glasses for 1.5 and 1.3 μm optical amplifiers

    Faber, Anne J.; Simons, Dennis R.; Yan, Yingchao; de Waal, Henk

    1994-09-01

    In this paper we report on the effect of hydroxyl (OH) groups on the photoluminescence in the near IR (1.5 and 1.3 micrometers ) in rare earth (Er, Pr)-doped glasses. The 1.5 micrometers emission of Er-doped phosphate glasses was studied, before and after a special heat treatment. The luminescent lifetime of the 1.5 micrometers emission increases substantially, typically from 3 ms up to 7.2 ms for a 2 mole% Er2O3-doped phosphate glass, due to the controlled heat treatment. The increase in lifetime is ascribed to a decrease in OH- concentration, which is confirmed by IR-absorption spectroscopy. The quenching by OH is described by a simplified quenching model, which predicts the 1.5 micrometers emission lifetime as a function of Er- concentration with the OH-concentration as parameter. It appears that the larger part of the OH groups is coupled to Er ions and thus acts as quenching center. Photoluminescence quenching by OH groups is also reported for the 1.3 micrometers emission of Pr in GeS2-glasses: In pure OH-free GeS2 glass the 1.3 micrometers emission lifetime is as high as 350 microsecond(s) , for a 400 ppm dopant level. In GeS2 glasses containing only small amounts of OH (approximately 100 ppm), this lifetime is less than 200 microsecond(s) . Both examples demonstrate that for the fabrication of efficient glass optical amplifiers at the telecommunication windows 1.3 and 1.5 micrometers , the OH-impurity level of the host glass must be kept as low as possible.

  10. The influence of glass fibers on the morphology of β-nucleated isotactic polypropylene evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry

    Janevski Aco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fillers/fibers can significantly affect the polymorphic behavior of semi-crystalline polymers. The influence of glass fibers on morphology of β-nucleated iPP during isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization was analyzed in detail by DSC, and the kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were determined for the systems containing 10-60 % glass fibers. The presence of glass fibers in model composites with β-iPP has insignificant effect on the morphology of the polymer. Thermodynamic and kinetics parameters of crystallization of iPP in model composites are close to those obtained for the nucleated polymer. The relative content of β-crystalline phase is slightly affected by increasing glass fiber’s content from 10 % mas to 60 % mas, due to appearance of α-crystallites. However, the stability of β-crystalline phase is decreased by the increasing glass fibers content and there appeared certain amount of β1 and β2 phases which are known as disposed to recrystallization.

  11. Fiber sensor on the basis of Ge26As17Se25Te32 glass for FEWS analysis

    Velmuzhov, A. P.; Shiryaev, V. S.; Sukhanov, M. V.; Kotereva, T. V.; Churbanov, M. F.; Zernova, N. S.; Plekhovich, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    The high-purity Ge26As17Se25Te32 glass sample was prepared by chemical distillation purification method. This glass is characterized by high value of glass transition temperature (263°С), high optical transparency in the spectral range of 2-10 μm, and low content of residual impurities. The Ge26As17Se25Te32 glass rods were drawn into single-index fibers using the "rod" method and the single crucible technique. The optical losses in the 400 μm diameter fiber, fabricated by the "rod" method, were within 0.3-1 dB/m in the spectral range 5.2-9.3 μm. The minimum optical losses in the 320 μm diameter fiber, fabricated by the "crucible" technique, were 1.6-1.7 dB/m in the spectral range 6-8.5 μm. Using these Ge26As17Se25Te32 glass fibers as a sensor, the aqueous solutions of acetone (0-20 mol.%) and ethanol (0-90 mol.%) were analyzed by fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy. Peculiarities in the change of the integrated intensity and spectral position of absorption bands of these organic substances in dependence on the analyte composition and the length of the sensitive zone were established.

  12. Replacement of glass particles by multidirectional short glass fibers in experimental composites: Effects on degree of conversion, mechanical properties and polymerization shrinkage.

    Bocalon, Anne C E; Mita, Daniela; Narumyia, Isabela; Shouha, Paul; Xavier, Tathy A; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero

    2016-09-01

    To test the null hypothesis that the replacement of a small fraction of glass particles with random short glass fibers does not affect degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS), fracture toughness (FT) and post-gel polymerization shrinkage (PS) of experimental composites. Four experimental photocurable composites containing 1 BisGMA:1 TEGDMA (by weight) and 60vol% of fillers were prepared. The reinforcing phase was constituted by barium glass particles (2μm) and 0%, 2.5%, 5.0% or 7.5% of silanated glass fibers (1.4mm in length, 7-13μm in diameter). DC (n=4) was obtained using near-FTIR. FS (n=10) was calculated via biaxial flexural test and FT (n=10) used the "single edge notched beam" method. PS at 5min (n=8) was determined using the strain gage method. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey test (DC, FS, PS) or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (FT, alpha: 5% for both tests). DC was similar among groups (p>0.05). Only the composite containing 5.0% of fibers presented lower FS than the control (pglass fibers significantly increased fracture toughness and reduced post-gel shrinkage of experimental composites. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quick analytical separation of glucose and fructose with impregnated woven glass fiber

    Jones, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    (1) A wide separation of glucose and fructose was obtained in 30 min with simple, inexpensive equipment using polysilicic impregnated woven glass fiber and the solvent acetone-n-butanol-1 M H 3 BO 3 (50:40:10). (2) A calibration of a radiochromatogram scanner was performed for 11 C. (3) Three Rsub(F) values could be compared to provide positive chemical identification of [ 11 C]glucose and [ 11 C]fructose. (4) Radiochemical composition and approximate specific activity were determined from a small aliquot (1-4 μl). (Auth.)

  14. Determination of mechanical properties of some glass fiber reinforced plastics suitable to Wind Turbine Blade construction

    Steigmann, R.; Savin, A.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Leitoiu, B.; Iftimie, N.; Stanciu, M. D.; Curtu, I.

    2016-08-01

    The control of wind turbine's components is very rigorous, while the tower and gearbox have more possibility for revision and repairing, the rotor blades, once they are deteriorated, the defects can rapidly propagate, producing failure, and the damages can affect large regions around the wind turbine. This paper presents the test results, performed on glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) suitable to construction of wind turbine blades (WTB). The Young modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, ultimate stress have been determined using tensile and shear tests. Using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA), the activation energy for transitions that appear in polyester matrix as well as the complex elastic modulus can be determined, function of temperature.

  15. Paper-based microfluidics with high resolution, cut on a glass fiber membrane for bioassays.

    Fang, Xueen; Wei, Shasha; Kong, Jilie

    2014-03-07

    In this report, we describe a simple, low-cost, straight forward and highly reproducible fabrication method of microfluidic systems. This system was cut on a glass fiber membrane by a common cutter without using any other sophisticated equipment or organic solvents. This format represents a novel type of paper-based microfluidics with high resolution of the microchannel down to ~137 μm, comparable to those made by conventional photolithography. We successfully applied this method to microfluidics to create a star micro-array format of multiplexed urine tests in this study.

  16. Joining of aluminum sheet and glass fiber reinforced polymer using extruded pins

    Conte, Romina; Buhl, Johannes; Ambrogio, Giuseppina; Bambach, Markus

    2018-05-01

    The present contribution proposes a new approach for joining sheet metal and fiber reinforced composites. The joining process draws upon a Friction Stir Forming (FSF) process, which is performed on the metal sheet to produce slender pins. These pins are used to pierce through the composite. Joining is complete by forming a locking head out of the part if the pin sticks out of the composite. Pins of different diameters and lengths were produced from EN AW-1050 material, which were joined to glass fiber reinforced polyamide-6. The strength of the joint has been experimentally tested in order to understand the effect of the process temperature on the pins strength and therefore on the joining. The results demonstrate the feasibility of this new technique, which uses no excess material.

  17. Frequency and deflection analysis of cenosphere/glass fiber interply hybrid composite cantilever beam

    Bharath, J.; Joladarashi, Sharnappa; Biradar, Srikumar; Kumar, P. Naveen

    2018-04-01

    Interply hybrid laminates contain plies made of two or more different composite systems. Hybrid composites have unique features that can be used to meet specified design requirements in a more cost-effective way than nonhybrid composites. They offer many advantages over conventional composites including balanced strength and stiffness, enhanced bending and membrane mechanical properties, balanced thermal distortion stability, improved fatigue/impact resistance, improved fracture toughness and crack arresting properties, reduced weight and cost. In this paper an interply hybrid laminate composite containing Cenosphere reinforced polymer composite core and glass fiber reinforced polymer composite skin is analysied and effect of volume fraction of filler on frequency and load v/s deflection of hybrid composite are studied. Cenosphere reinforced polymer composite has increased specific strength, specific stiffness, specific density, savings in cost and weight. Glass fiber reinforced polymer composite has higher torsional rigidity when compared to metals. These laminate composites are fabricated to meet several structural applications and hence there is a need to study their vibration and deflection properties. Experimental investigation starts with fabrication of interply hybrid composite with cores of cenosphere reinforced epoxy composite volume fractions of CE 15, CE 25, CE15_UC as per ASTM E756-05C, and glasss fiber reinforced epoxy skin, cast product of required dimension by selecting glass fibre of proper thickness which is currently 0.25mm E-glass bidirectional woven glass fabric having density 2500kg/m3, in standard from cast parts of size 230mmX230mmX5mm in an Aluminum mould. Modal analysis of cantilever beam is performed to study the variation of natural frequency with strain gauge and the commercially available Lab-VIEW software and deflection in each of the cases by optical Laser Displacement Measurement Sensor to perform Load versus Deflection Analysis

  18. Diode-laser-pump module with integrated signal ports for pumping amplifying fibers and method

    Savage-Leuchs,; Matthias, P [Woodinville, WA

    2009-05-26

    Apparatus and method for collimating pump light of a first wavelength from laser diode(s) into a collimated beam within an enclosure having first and second optical ports, directing pump light from the collimated beam to the first port; and directing signal light inside the enclosure between the first and second port. The signal and pump wavelengths are different. The enclosure provides a pump block having a first port that emits pump light to a gain fiber outside the enclosure and that also passes signal light either into or out of the enclosure, and another port that passes signal light either out of or into the enclosure. Some embodiments use a dichroic mirror to direct pump light to the first port and direct signal light between the first and second ports. Some embodiments include a wavelength-conversion device to change the wavelength of at least some of the signal light.

  19. Efficient enhancement of bismuth NIR luminescence by aluminum and its mechanism in bismuth doped germanate laser glass

    Wang, L.P.; Tan, L.L.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    As a new member of laser glass family, bismuth-doped glasses have received rising interests due to the application of fiber amplifiers and laser sources in the new spectral range for the next-generation optical communication system. For practical application of the glasses, it must be considered ...

  20. Optimization for Tribological Properties of Glass Fiber-Reinforced PTFE Composites with Grey Relational Analysis

    Firojkhan Pathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most recent history shows that polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE is widely used as antifrictional materials in industry for wide speed range. A high antifriction property of PTFE makes it suitable for dry friction bearing. Main disadvantage of using PTFE is its high wear rate, so extensive research had been carried out to improve the wear resistance with addition of filler material. This study focuses on four input parameters load, sliding speed, sliding distance, and percentage of glass fiber as a filler material. Taguchi method was used for experimentation; each parameter is having 3 levels with L27 orthogonal array. Grey relational analysis is used to convert multiple response parameters, namely, wear and coefficient of friction, into single grey relation grade. The optimal input parameters were selected based on the S/N ratio. It was observed that load 3 kg, sliding speed 5.1836 m/s (900 rpm, sliding distance 2 km, and 15% of glass fiber are optimal input parameters for PTFE without significantly affecting the wear rate and coefficient of friction.

  1. Thermal performance of glass fiber reinforced intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Ullah, Sami; Aziz, Hammad, E-mail: engr.hammad.aziz03@gmail.com; Omar, Nor Sharifah [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The results of influence of glass fiber addition into the basic intumescent coating formulation towards the enhancement of its thermal insulation properties are presented. The intumescent coatings were formulated from expandable graphite, ammonium polyphosphate, melamine, boric acid, bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188, polyamide amine H-2310 hardener and fiberglass (FG) of length 3.0 mm. Eight intumescent formulations were developed and the samples were tested for their fire performance by burning them at 450°C, 650°C and 850°C in the furnace for two hours. The effects of each fire test at different temperatures; low and high temperature were evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Diffraction technique and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis were conducted on the samples to study the morphology, the chemical components of char and the residual weight of the coatings. The formulation, FG08 containing 7.0 wt% glass fiber provided better results with enhanced thermal insulation properties of the coatings.

  2. Multifunctional glass fiber/polyamide composites with thermal energy storage/release capability

    G. Fredi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic composite laminates with thermal energy storage (TES capability were prepared by combining a glass fabric, a polyamide 12 (PA12 matrix and two different phase change materials (PCMs, i.e. a paraffinic wax microencapsulated in melamine-formaldehyde shells and a paraffin shape stabilized with carbon nanotubes. The melt flow index of the PA12/PCM blends decreased with the PCM concentration, especially in the systems with shape stabilized wax. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that, for the matrices with microcapsules, the values of enthalpy were approximately the 70% of the theoretical values, which was attributed to the fracture of some microcapsules. Nevertheless, most of the energy storage capability was preserved. On the other hand, much lower relative enthalpy values were measured on the composites with shape stabilized wax, due to a considerable paraffin leakage or degradation. The subsequent characterization of the glass fabric laminates highlighted that the fiber and void volume fractions were comparable for all the laminates except for that with the higher amount of shape stabilized wax, where the high viscosity of the matrix led to a low fiber volume fraction and higher void content. The mechanical properties of the laminates were only slightly impaired by PCM addition, while a more sensible drop of the elastic modulus, of the stress at break and of the interlaminar shear strength could be observed in the shape stabilized wax systems.

  3. Quantification of defects depth in glass fiber reinforced plastic plate by infrared lock-in thermography

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Man Yong [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The increasing use of composite materials in various industries has evidenced the need for development of more effective nondestructive evaluation methodologies in order to reduce rejected parts and to optimize production cost. Infrared thermography is a noncontact, fast and reliable non-destructive evaluation technique that has received vast and growing attention for diagnostic and monitoring in the recent years. This paper describes the quantitative analysis of artificial defects in Glass fiber reinforced plastic plate by using Lockin infrared thermography. The experimental analysis was performed at several excitation frequencies to investigate the sample ranging from 2.946 Hz down to 0.019 Hz and the effects of each excitation frequency on defect detachability. The four point method was used in post processing of every pixel of thermal images using the MATLAB programming language. The relationship between the phase contrast with defects depth and area was examined. Finally, phase contrast method was used to calculate the defects depth considering the thermal diffusivity of the material being inspected and the excitation frequency for which the defect becomes visible. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of Lock-in infrared thermography as a powerful measurement technique for the inspection of Glass fiber reinforced plastic structures.

  4. Flexural Behavior of RC Members Using Externally Bonded Aluminum-Glass Fiber Composite Beams

    Ki-Nam Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns improvement of flexural stiffness/strength of concrete members reinforced with externally bonded, aluminum-glass fiber composite (AGC beams. An experimental program, consisting of seven reinforced concrete slabs and seven reinforced concrete beams strengthened in flexure with AGC beams, was initiated under four-point bending in order to evaluate three parameters: the cross-sectional shape of the AGC beam, the glass fiber fabric array, and the installation of fasteners. The load-deflection response, strain distribution along the longitudinal axis of the beam, and associated failure modes of the tested specimens were recorded. It was observed that the AGC beam led to an increase of the initial cracking load, yielding load of the tension steels and peak load. On the other hand, the ductility of some specimens strengthened was reduced by more than 50%. The A-type AGC beam was more efficient in slab specimens than in beam specimens and the B-type was more suitable for beam specimens than for slabs.

  5. Amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on glass fiber textiles

    Plentz, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.plentz@leibniz-ipht.de; Andrä, Gudrun; Pliewischkies, Torsten; Brückner, Uwe; Eisenhawer, Björn; Falk, Fritz

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous silicon solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics are demonstrated. • Open circuit voltages of 883 mV show shunt-free contacting on non-planar fabrics. • Short-circuit current densities of 3.7 mA/cm{sup 2} are limited by transmission losses. • Fill factors of 43.1% and pseudo fill factors of 70.2% show high series resistance. • Efficiencies of 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies of 2.1% realized on textile fabrics. - Abstract: In this contribution, amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics for smart textiles are prepared and the photovoltaic performance is characterized. These solar cells on fabrics delivered open circuit voltages up to 883 mV. This shows that shunt-free contacting of the solar cells was successful, even in case of non-planar fabrics. The short-circuit current densities up to 3.7 mA/cm{sup 2} are limited by transmission losses in a 10 nm thin titanium layer, which was used as a semi-transparent contact. The low conductivity of this layer limits the fill factor to 43.1%. Pseudo fill factors, neglecting the series resistance, up to 70.2% were measured. Efficiencies up to 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies up to 2.1% were realized on textile fabrics. A transparent conductive oxide could further improve the efficiency to above 5%.

  6. Study on the influence of design parameters on the damping property of glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Nanda, B. K.

    2018-04-01

    Fiber reinforced composites are widely used in industrial applications due to their high strength, light weight and ease in manufacturing. In applications such as automotive, aerospace and structural parts, the components are subjected to unwanted vibrations which reduce their service life, accuracy as well as increases noise. Therefore, it is essential to avoid the detrimental effects of vibrations by enhancing their damping characteristics. The current research deals with estimating the damping properties of Glass fiber reinforced epoxy (GFRE) composites. Processing of the GFRE composites is carried out using hand-lay technique. Various design parameters such as number of glass fiber layers, orientation of fibers and weight ratio are varied while manufacturing GFRE composites. The effects of variation of these design parameters on damping property of GFRE composites are studied extensively.

  7. Mechanical Property Evaluation of Palm/Glass Sandwiched Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite in Comparison with few natural composites

    Raja Dhas, J. Edwin; Pradeep, P.

    2017-10-01

    Natural fibers available plenty can be used as reinforcements in development of eco friendly polymer composites. The less utilized palm leaf stalk fibers sandwiched with artificial glass fibers was researched in this work to have a better reinforcement in preparing a green composite. The commercially available polyester resin blend with coconut shell filler in nano form was used as matrix to sandwich these composites. Naturally available Fibers of palm leaf stalk, coconut leaf stalk, raffia and oil palm were extracted and treated with potassium permanganate solution which enhances the properties. For experimentation four different plates were fabricated using these fibers adopting hand lay-up method. These sandwiched composite plates are further machined to obtain ASTM standards Specimens which are mechanically tested as per standards. Experimental results reveal that the alkali treated palm leaf stalk fiber based polymer composite shows appreciable results than the others. Hence the developed composite can be recommended for fabrication of automobile parts.

  8. Push-out bond strengths of different dental cements used to cement glass fiber posts.

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Lins do Valle, Accácio; Ghizoni, Janaina Salomon; Lorenzoni, Fábio César; Ramos, Marcelo Barbosa; Barbosa, Marcelo Ramos; Dos Reis Só, Marcus Vinícius

    2013-08-01

    Since the introduction of glass fiber posts, irreversible vertical root fractures have become a rare occurrence; however, adhesive failure has become the primary failure mode. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts cemented with different luting agents on 3 segments of the root. Eighty human maxillary canines with similar root lengths were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10) according to the cement assessed (Rely X luting, Luting and Lining, Ketac Cem, Rely X ARC, Biscem, Duo-link, Rely X U100, and Variolink II). After standardized post space preparation, the root dentin was pretreated for dual-polymerizing resin cements and untreated for the other cements. The mixed luting cement paste was inserted into post spaces with a spiral file and applied to the post surface that was seated into the canal. After 7 days, the teeth were sectioned perpendicular to their long axis into 1-mm-thick sections. The push-out test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until extrusion of the post occurred. The results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and the all pairwise multiple comparison procedures (Tukey test) (α=.05). ANOVA showed that the type of interaction between cement and root location significantly influenced the push-out strength (Pcements and glass ionomer cements showed significantly higher values compared to dual-polymerizing resin cements. In all root segments, dual-polymerizing resin cements provided significantly lower bond strength. Significant differences among root segments were found only for Duo-link cement. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomaeki, M.; Ashammakhi, N.; Gomes, M. E.; Reis, R. L.; Chiellini, F.; Chiellini, E.

    2008-01-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ε-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 deg. C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 deg. C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 deg. C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications

  10. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Gomes, M. E.; Chiellini, F.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomäki, M.; Chiellini, E.; Reis, R. L.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ɛ-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 °C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 °C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 °C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  11. Glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for use in metal-free removable partial dentures: combined effects of fiber loading and pigmentation on color differences and flexural properties.

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nagakura, Manamu; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2018-02-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of fiber loading and pigmentation on the color differences and flexural properties of glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTPs), for use in non-metal clasp dentures (NMCDs). The GFRTPs consisted mainly of E-glass fibers, a polypropylene matrix, and a coloring pigment: the GFRTPs with various fiber loadings (0, 10, and 20mass%) and pigmentations (0, 1, 2, and 4mass%) were fabricated by using an injection molding. The color differences of GFRTPs were measured based on the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) Lab color system, by comparing with a commercially available NMCD. The flexural properties of GFRTPs were evaluated by using a three-point bending test, according to International Standards Organization (ISO) specification number 20795-1. The visible colors of GFRTPs with pigment contents of 2mass% were acceptable for gingival color, and the glass fibers harmonized well with the resins. The ΔE* values of the GFRTPs with pigment contents of 2mass% obtained by using the CIE Lab system were lowest at all fiber loadings. For GFRTPs with fiber contents of 10 and 20mass% at 2mass% pigment content, these GFRTPs surpassed the ISO 20795-1 specification regarding flexural strength (> 60MPa) and modulus (> 1.5GPa). A combination of the results of color difference evaluation and mechanical examination indicates that the GFRTPs with fiber contents of 10 or 20mass%, and with pigment contents of 2mass% have acceptable esthetic appearance and sufficient rigidity for NMCDs. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flexural creep of coated SiC-fiber-reinforced glass-ceramic composites

    Sun, E.Y.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the flexural creep behavior of a fiber-reinforced glass-ceramic and associated changes in microstructure. SiC fibers were coated with a dual layer of SiC/BN to provide a weak interface that was stable at high temperatures. Flexural creep, creep-rupture, and creep-strain recovery experiments were conducted on composite material and barium-magnesium aluminosilicate matrix from 1,000 to 1,200 C. Below 1,130 C, creep rates were extremely low (∼10 -9 s -1 ), preventing accurate measurement of the stress dependence. Above 1,130 C, creep rates were in the 10 -8 s -1 range. The creep-rupture strength of the composite at 1,100 C was about 75--80% of the fast fracture strength. Creep-strain recovery experiments showed recovery of up to 90% under prolonged unloading. Experimental creep results from the composite and the matrix were compared, and microstructural observations by TEM were employed to assess the effectiveness of the fiber coatings and to determine the mechanism(s) of creep deformation and damage

  13. Flexible, Heat-Resistant, and Flame-Retardant Glass Fiber Nonwoven/Glass Platelet Composite Separator for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Ulrich Schadeck

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of high-temperature stable and self-supporting composite separator for lithium-ion batteries was developed consisting of custom-made ultrathin micrometer-sized glass platelets embedded in a glass fiber nonwoven together with a water-based sodium alginate binder. The physical and electrochemical properties were investigated and compared to commercial polymer-based separators. Full-cell configuration cycling tests at different current rates were performed using graphite and lithium iron phosphate as electrode materials. The glass separator was high-temperature tested and showed a stability up to at least 600 °C without significant shrinking. Furthermore, it showed an exceptional wettability for non-aqueous electrolytes. The electrochemical performance was excellent compared to commercially available polymer-based separators. The results clearly show that glass platelets integrated into a glass fiber nonwoven performs remarkably well as a separator material in lithium-ion batteries and show high-temperature stability.

  14. Thermostimulated transitions of radiation colour centers in fiber light guides on the base of pure quartz glass

    Abramov, A.V.; Dianov, E.M.; Karpechev, V.N.; Kornienko, L.S.; Rybaltovskij, A.O.; Chernov, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    Study on properties and characteristics of induced absorption (IA) in glass fiber light guides (GFLG) with a pure quartz glass core is continued. Effect of thermal-stimulated construction of colour radiation centers (CRC) giving induced absorption bands at 670, 550, and 380 nm has been detected. Effective temperatures of these IA band annealings have been determined as well as bands at 340 nm and induced absorption IR edge. Positions of IA band halfwidths and maxima on the assumption that IA bands have the Gauss form. It is assumed that CRC photo- and thermostimulated construction may occur with participation of physically dissolved in a glass grid gases or their radiolysis products

  15. Formation mechanism of a silane-PVA/PVAc complex film on a glass fiber surface.

    Repovsky, Daniel; Jane, Eduard; Palszegi, Tibor; Slobodnik, Marek; Velic, Dusan

    2013-10-21

    Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced composite materials are affected by fiber sizing. A complex film formation, based on a silane film and PVA/PVAc (polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl acetate) microspheres on a glass fiber surface is determined at 1) the nanoscale by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and 2) the macroscale by using the zeta potential. Silane groups strongly bind through the Si-O-Si bond to the glass surface, which provides the attachment mechanism as a coupling agent. The silane groups form islands, a homogeneous film, as well as empty sites. The average roughness of the silanized surface is 6.5 nm, whereas it is only 0.6 nm for the non-silanized surface. The silane film vertically penetrates in a honeycomb fashion from the glass surface through the deposited PVA/PVAc microspheres to form a hexagonal close pack structure. The silane film not only penetrates, but also deforms the PVA/PVAc microspheres from the spherical shape in a dispersion to a ellipsoidal shape on the surface with average dimensions of 300/600 nm. The surface area value Sa represents an area of PVA/PVAc microspheres that are not affected by the silane penetration. The areas are found to be 0.2, 0.08, and 0.03 μm(2) if the ellipsoid sizes are 320/570, 300/610, and 270/620 nm for silane concentrations of 0, 3.8, and 7.2 μg mL(-1), respectively. The silane film also moves PVA/PVAc microspheres in the process of complex film formation, from the low silane concentration areas to the complex film area providing enough silane groups to stabilize the structure. The values for the residual silane honeycomb structure heights (Ha ) are 6.5, 7, and 12 nm for silane concentrations of 3.8, 7.2, and 14.3 μg mL(-1), respectively. The pH-dependent zeta-potential results suggest a specific role of the silane groups with effects on the glass fiber surface and also on the PVA/PVAc microspheres. The non-silanized glass fiber surface and the silane film have similar zeta potentials ranging

  16. Solid state solvation effect and reduced amplified spontaneous emission threshold value of glass forming DCM derivative in PMMA films

    Vembris, Aivars, E-mail: aivars.vembris@cfi.lu.lv [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV 1063 (Latvia); Zarins, Elmars; Kokars, Valdis [Institute of Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, 14/24 Azenes Street, Riga LV 1048 (Latvia)

    2015-02-15

    Molecule crystallization is one of the limitations for obtaining high-gain organic laser systems. One of the examples is well known red laser dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). The lowest threshold value of amplified spontaneous emission was achieved by doping 2 wt% of DCM molecule in tris-(8-hydroxy quinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) matrix. Further increase of the DCM dye concentration makes the system less efficient as its threshold value increases. It is due to large intermolecular interaction, which induces photoluminescence quenching. Compounds with reduced intermolecular interaction could be prospective in organic laser systems due to higher possible doping. In this work photoluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission properties of modified DCM molecule in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix were investigated. Bulky trityloxyethyl groups were attached to the donor part of DCM. These groups increase intermolecular distance wherewith reduce photoluminescence quenching. More than one order of magnitude lower excitation threshold energy of the amplified spontaneous emission was achieved in doped polymer films with investigated compound in comparison to doped polymer with DCM. It means that the investigated compound is more perspective as a laser material compared to the previously studied. In addition, amplified spontaneous emission maximum could be tuned within 15 nm by changing concentration from 0.1 wt% to 10 wt% DWK-1 in PMMA matrix due to solid state solvation effect. - Highlights: • Bulky groups attached to DCM dye reduce photoluminescence quenching. • Amplified spontaneous emission is in red spectral region. • Amplified spontaneous emission spectra were tuned by 15 nm. • Amplified spontaneous emission threshold value was reduced by one order of magnitude.

  17. Experimental and theoretical studies in non-linear optical applications. Fiber oscillatiors, regenerative amplifiers, simulations on white-light generation

    Zia, Haider

    2015-12-15

    Compact and stable ultrafast laser sources for electron diffraction experiments are the first step in accomplishing the dream experiment of producing a molecular movie. This thesis work focuses on developing new robust laser sources to enable arbitrary scaling in laser repetition rate, pulse energy, duration and stability as needed to provide sufficient integrated detected electrons for high quality diffraction patterns that can be inverted to real space movies. In chapter 2, the construction of a novel stable and high power stretched pulse fiber oscillator outputting 300 mW at 31 MHz and compressible pulses to below 90 fs will be described. Chapter 3 describes the construction of a solid-state regenerative amplifier that was developed to achieve pulse energies above 1mJ with 0.40 mJ already achieved at 1 kHz. Novel simulation techniques were explored that aided the construction of the amplifier. Chapter 4 derives a new, fast and powerful numerical theory that is implemented for generalized non-linear Schrodinger equations in all spatial dimensions and time. This new method can model complicated terms in these equations that outperforms other numerical methods with respect to minimizing numerical error and increased speed. These advantages are due to this method's Fourier nature. A simulation tool was created, employing this numerical technique to simulate white-light generation in bulk media. The simulation matches extremely well with published experimental data, and is superior to the original simulation method used to match the experiment. The use of this tool enables accurate calculations of continuum or white light generation as needed for different experimental protocols and serves as the primary input to generate wide bandwidth coherent light.This work has solved the problem of predictably designing continuum generation within targeted wavelength ranges. This information is needed as part of an overall scheme in laser source development to coherently

  18. Experimental and theoretical studies in non-linear optical applications. Fiber oscillatiors, regenerative amplifiers, simulations on white-light generation

    Zia, Haider

    2015-12-01

    Compact and stable ultrafast laser sources for electron diffraction experiments are the first step in accomplishing the dream experiment of producing a molecular movie. This thesis work focuses on developing new robust laser sources to enable arbitrary scaling in laser repetition rate, pulse energy, duration and stability as needed to provide sufficient integrated detected electrons for high quality diffraction patterns that can be inverted to real space movies. In chapter 2, the construction of a novel stable and high power stretched pulse fiber oscillator outputting 300 mW at 31 MHz and compressible pulses to below 90 fs will be described. Chapter 3 describes the construction of a solid-state regenerative amplifier that was developed to achieve pulse energies above 1mJ with 0.40 mJ already achieved at 1 kHz. Novel simulation techniques were explored that aided the construction of the amplifier. Chapter 4 derives a new, fast and powerful numerical theory that is implemented for generalized non-linear Schrodinger equations in all spatial dimensions and time. This new method can model complicated terms in these equations that outperforms other numerical methods with respect to minimizing numerical error and increased speed. These advantages are due to this method's Fourier nature. A simulation tool was created, employing this numerical technique to simulate white-light generation in bulk media. The simulation matches extremely well with published experimental data, and is superior to the original simulation method used to match the experiment. The use of this tool enables accurate calculations of continuum or white light generation as needed for different experimental protocols and serves as the primary input to generate wide bandwidth coherent light.This work has solved the problem of predictably designing continuum generation within targeted wavelength ranges. This information is needed as part of an overall scheme in laser source development to coherently

  19. Watt-level ~2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass double-cladding fiber.

    Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Guang; Hu, Lili

    2010-12-15

    We report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a watt level cw fiber laser at ~2 μm from a piece of 40-cm-long newly developed highly thulium-doped (3.76 × 10(20) ions/cm(3)) tungsten tellurite glass double cladding fiber pumped by a commercial 800 nm laser diode. The maximum output power of the fiber laser reaches 1.12 W. The slope efficiency and the optical-optical efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump are 20% and 16%, respectively. The lasing threshold is 1.46 W, and the lasing wavelength is centered at 1937 nm.

  20. Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber/Toughened Epoxy Thick Composite Joints Subject to Drop-Weight and Ballistic Impacts

    Liaw, Benjamin; Delale, Feridun

    2007-01-01

    ... No. DAAD19-02-R-0010 to conduct research on hybrid carbon-S2 glass fiber/toughened epoxy thick-section, hybrid interwoven composite joints subject to drop-weight and ballistic impacts. Dr. Basavaraju B. Raju of U.S...

  1. Novel Application of Glass Fibers Recovered From Waste Printed Circuit Boards as Sound and Thermal Insulation Material

    Sun, Zhixing; Shen, Zhigang; Ma, Shulin; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using glass fibers, a recycled material from waste printed circuit boards (WPCB), as sound absorption and thermal insulation material. Glass fibers were obtained through a fluidized-bed recycling process. Acoustic properties of the recovered glass fibers (RGF) were measured and compared with some commercial sound absorbing materials, such as expanded perlite (EP), expanded vermiculite (EV), and commercial glass fiber. Results show that RGF have good sound absorption ability over the whole tested frequency range (100-6400 Hz). The average sound absorption coefficient of RGF is 0.86, which is prior to those of EP (0.81) and EV (0.73). Noise reduction coefficient analysis indicates that the absorption ability of RGF can meet the requirement of II rating for sound absorbing material according to national standard. The thermal insulation results show that RGF has a fair low thermal conductivity (0.046 W/m K), which is comparable to those of some insulation materials (i.e., EV, EP, and rock wool). Besides, an empirical dependence of thermal conductivity on material temperature was determined for RGF. All the results showed that the reuse of RGF for sound and thermal insulation material provided a promising way for recycling WPCB and obtaining high beneficial products.

  2. Partial Replacement of Glass Fiber by Woven Kenaf in Hybrid Composites and its Effect on Monotonic and Fatigue Properties

    Mohaiman Jaffar Sharba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural–synthetic fiber hybrid composites offer a combination of high mechanical properties from the synthetic fibers and the advantages of renewable fibers to produce a material with highly specific and determined properties. In this study, plain-woven kenaf/glass reinforced unsaturated polyester (UP hybrid composites were fabricated using the hand lay-up method with a cold hydraulic press in a sandwich-configuration laminate. The glass was used as a shell with kenaf as a core, with an approximate total fiber content of 40%. Three glass/kenaf weight ratios percentages of (70/30% (H1, (55/45% (H2, and (30/70% (H3 were used to fabricate hybrid composites. Also pure glass/UP and kenaf/UP were fabricated for comparison purposes. Monotonic tests, namely tensile, compression, and flexural strengths of the composites, were performed. The morphological properties of tensile and compression failure of kenaf and hybrid composites were studied. In addition, uniaxial tensile fatigue life of hybrid composites were conducted and evaluated. The results revealed that the hybrid composite (H1 offered a good balance and the best static properties, but in tensile fatigue loading (H3 displayed low fatigue sensitivity when compared with the other hybrid composites.

  3. Fluorescence and amplified spontaneous emission of glass forming compounds containing styryl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene fragment

    Vembris, Aivars, E-mail: aivars.vembris@cfi.lu.lv [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia); Muzikante, Inta [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia); Karpicz, Renata; Sliauzys, Gytis [Institute of Physics, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Miasojedovas, Arunas; Jursenas, Saulius [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gulbinas, Vidmantas [Institute of Physics, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-09-15

    Potential of glassy films of newly synthesised low molecular weight organic molecules for light amplification and lasing applications has been investigated by analysing fluorescence, transient differential absorption and amplified spontaneous emission properties. These non-symmetric and symmetric molecules contain styryl-4H-pyran-4-ylidene fragment with three different electron acceptor groups: dicyanomethylene, barbituric acid, indene-1,3-dione. Fluorescence quantum yields of the investigated compounds in solutions are between 0.32 and 0.54, while they drop down by an order of magnitude in thin solid films. Incorporation of bulky side groups reduced excitonic interactions enabling manifestation of amplified spontaneous emission in the neat films of the investigated derivatives. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bulky substituents attached to DCM dye enable formation of neat glassy films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated dyes show amplified spontaneous emission in neat films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two electron donor groups negatively influence light amplification.

  4. Raman band intensities of tellurite glasses.

    Plotnichenko, V G; Sokolov, V O; Koltashev, V V; Dianov, E M; Grishin, I A; Churbanov, M F

    2005-05-15

    Raman spectra of TeO2-based glasses doped with WO3, ZnO, GeO2, TiO2, MoO3, and Sb2O3 are measured. The intensity of bands in the Raman spectra of MoO3-TeO2 and MoO3-WO3-TeO2 glasses is shown to be 80-95 times higher than that for silica glass. It is shown that these glasses can be considered as one of the most promising materials for Raman fiber amplifiers.

  5. LABORATORY EVALUATION ON PERFORMANCE OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC MORTAR PIPE CULVERTS

    Huawang Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the performance and behaviour of glass fiber reinforced plastic mortar (FRPM pipes under different loading conditions. FRPM pipes with inner diameter of 1500 mm were prefabricated in factory. Mechanics performance testing (ring and axial compressive strength and elastic modulus, stiffness and fatigue test were carried out in laboratory. Ring stiffness test provided pipe stiffness (PS which is a function of geometry and material type of pipe through parallel plate loading test (PPLT. The fatigue test and micro-structure measure method were used to evaluate the durability effects of FRPM under repeated compression load. Results indicated that FRPM pipes had better mechanic performances as the road culverts under soils. It may be helpful for the design and construction of FRPM culverts.

  6. Weather ability studies of phenolic resin coated woods and glass fiber reinforced laminates

    Munir, A.; Hussain, R.; Rizvi, M.H.; Ahmed, F.

    1997-01-01

    Phenolic resins have made a major breakthrough in the field of high technology in 80's. These are now active participants of h igh tech' areas ranging from electronics, computers, communication, outer space, aerospace, advanced materials, bio materials and technology. A phenol - formaldehyde (1:1.5) resin having resin content of 70% synthesized in the laboratory has been applied for wood coating and reinforcing glass fiber. The weatherability and solvent resistance of these items have been studied and results discussed keeping in view the envisaged application for structural materials and chemical equipment. The toxic materials released during contact with solvents for chemical applications and during degradation general have been monitored. The results are discussed with reference to environmental pollution due to these resins and their composites under different conditions. (authors)

  7. Supersonic Panel Flutter Test Results for Flat Fiber-Glass Sandwich Panels with Foamed Cores

    Tuovila, W. J.; Presnell, John G., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    Flutter tests have been made on flat panels having a 1/4 inch-thick plastic-foam core covered with thin fiber-glass laminates. The testing was done in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.76 t o 2.87. The flutter boundary for these panels was found to be near the flutter boundary of thin metal panels when compared on the basis of an equivalent panel stiffness. The results also demonstrated that the depth of the cavity behind the panel has a pronounced influence on flutter. Changing the cavity depth from 1 1/2 inches to 1/2 inch reduced the dynamic pressure at start of flutter by 40 percent. No flutter was obtained when the spacers on the back of the panel were against the bottom of the cavity.

  8. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Posts Subjected to Laser Surface Treatments.

    Barbosa Siqueira, Carolina; Spadini de Faria, Natália; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Colucci, Vivian; Alves Gomes, Erica

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laser irradiation on flexural strength, elastic modulus, and surface roughness and morphology of glass fiber posts (GFPs). Laser treatment of GFPs has been introduced to improve its adhesion properties. A total of 40 GFPs were divided into 4 groups according to the irradiation protocol: GC-no irradiation, GYAG-irradiation with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Er:YAG], GCR-irradiation with erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG), and GDI-irradiation with diode laser. The GFP roughness and morphology were evaluated through laser confocal microscopy before and after surface treatment. Three-point bending flexural test measured flexural strength and elastic modulus. Data about elastic modulus and flexural strength were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test (p properties of GFPs.

  9. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  10. Glass fiber reinforced polyester in the works of Tous and Fargas

    D. Hernández Falagán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The architects Enric Tous (1925; t 1952 and Josep Maria Fargas (1926-2011, t 1952 achieved remarkable success during the 1960s and 1970s thanks to their commitment to technical experimentation and exploration of new construction systems. Among their most significant contributions is the incorporation of polyester reinforced with glass fiber as a material applied to solutions of light facades. This article tracks the origin, context, and results they obtained with this material. We propose an approach to the GRC material through the experience developed by the architects, analyzing the characteristics and specific implications of the systems proposed in their projects. Through this reading, the industrial initiative implemented by Tous and Fargas is put into value, and the key aspects that limited the progression of the construction system are detected.

  11. Measurement and analysis of thrust force in drilling sisal-glass fiber reinforced polymer composites

    Ramesh, M.; Gopinath, A.

    2017-05-01

    Drilling of composite materials is difficult when compared to the conventional materials because of its in-homogeneous nature. The force developed during drilling play a major role in the surface quality of the hole and minimizing the damages around the surface. This paper focuses the effect of drilling parameters on thrust force in drilling of sisal-glass fiber reinforced polymer composite laminates. The quadratic response models are developed by using response surface methodology (RSM) to predict the influence of cutting parameters on thrust force. The adequacy of the models is checked by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis is carried out to analyze the quality of the drilled surface. From the results, it is found that, the feed rate is the most influencing parameter followed by spindle speed and the drill diameter is the least influencing parameter on the thrust force.

  12. The mechanical and thermal characteristics of phenolic foam reinforced with kaolin powder and glass fiber fabric

    Xiao, Wenya; Huang, Zhixiong; Ding, Jie

    2017-12-01

    In this work, kaolin powder and glass fiber fabric were added to PF in order to improve its thermal stability and mechanical property. Micro-structures of carbonized PF with kaolin powder were inspected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to demonstrate the filler’s pinning effect. SEM results illustrated modified PF had well morphology after high-temperature heat treatment. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) test was carried out and found that kaolin powder only physically dispersed in PF. The compression test and thermal weight loss test were done on two groups of modified PF (Group A: add powder and fabric; Group B: add powder only). Results showed that all modified PF were better than pure PF, while foams with powder and fabric showed better mechanical characteristic and thermal stability compared with foams with powder only.

  13. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Bouaricha Leyla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°, and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%.

  14. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Bouaricha, Leyla; Henni, Ahmed Djafar; Lancelot, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand) with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°), and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%).

  15. Thermo-mechanical characterization of siliconized E-glass fiber/hematite particles reinforced epoxy resin hybrid composite

    Arun Prakash, V.R., E-mail: vinprakash101@gmail.com; Rajadurai, A., E-mail: rajadurai@annauniv.edu.in

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Particles dimension have reduced using Ball milling process. • Importance of surface modification was explored. • Surface modification has been done to improve adhesion of fiber/particles with epoxy. • Mechanical properties has been increased by adding modified fiber and particles. • Thermal properties have been increased. - Abstract: In this present work hybrid polymer (epoxy) matrix composite has been strengthened with surface modified E-glass fiber and iron(III) oxide particles with varying size. The particle sizes of 200 nm and <100 nm has been prepared by high energy ball milling and sol-gel methods respectively. To enhance better dispersion of particles and improve adhesion of fibers and fillers with epoxy matrix surface modification process has been done on both fiber and filler by an amino functional silane 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Crystalline and functional groups of siliconized iron(III) oxide particles were characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Fixed quantity of surface treated 15 vol% E-glass fiber was laid along with 0.5 and 1.0 vol% of iron(III) oxide particles into the matrix to fabricate hybrid composites. The composites were cured by an aliphatic hardener Triethylenetetramine (TETA). Effectiveness of surface modified particles and fibers addition into the resin matrix were revealed by mechanical testing like tensile testing, flexural testing, impact testing, inter laminar shear strength and hardness. Thermal behavior of composites was evaluated by TGA, DSC and thermal conductivity (Lee’s disc). The scanning electron microscopy was employed to found shape and size of iron(III) oxide particles adhesion quality of fiber with epoxy matrix. Good dispersion of fillers in matrix was achieved with surface modifier APTMS. Tensile, flexural, impact and inter laminar shear strength of composites was improved by reinforcing surface modified fiber and filler. Thermal stability of epoxy resin was improved

  16. Application of sandwich honeycomb carbon/glass fiber-honeycomb composite in the floor component of electric car

    Sukmaji, I. C.; Wijang, W. R.; Andri, S.; Bambang, K.; Teguh, T.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays composite is a superior material used in automotive component due to its outstanding mechanical behavior. The sandwich polypropylene honeycomb core with carbon/glass fiber composite skin (SHCG) as based material in a floor component of electric car application is investigated in the present research. In sandwich structure form, it can absorb noise better compare with the conventional material [1]. Also in present paper, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of SHCG as based material for floor component of the electric car is analyzed. The composite sandwich is contained with a layer uniform carbon fiber and mixing non-uniform carbon-glass fiber in upper and lower skin. Between skins of SHCG are core polypropylene honeycomb that it have good flexibility to form following dies profile. The variables of volume fraction ratio of carbon/glass fiber in SHCG skin are 20/80%, 30/70%, and 50/50%. The specimen of SHCG is tested using the universal testing machine by three points bending method refers to ASTM C393 and ASTM C365. The cross point between tensile strength to the volume fraction the mixing carbon/glass line and ratio cost line are the searched material with good mechanical performance and reasonable cost. The point is 30/70 volume fraction of carbon/glass fiber. The result of the testing experiment is become input properties of model structure sandwich in FEA simulation. FEA simulation approach is conducted to find critical strength and factor of complex safety geometry against varied distributed passenger loads of a floor component the electric car. The passenger loads variable are 80, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg.

  17. Fluid flow analysis of E-glass fiber reinforced pipe joints in oil and gas industry

    Bobba, Sujith; Leman, Z.; Zainuddin, E. S.; Sapuan, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Glass Fiber reinforced composites have become increasingly important over the past few years and now they are the first choice materials for fabricating pipes with low weight in combination with high strength and stiffness. In Oil And Gas Industry, The Pipelines transporting heavy crude oil are subjected to variable pressure waves causing fluctuating stress levels in the pipes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using solid works flow stimulation software to study the effects of these pressure waves on some specified joints in the pipes. Depending on the type of heavy crude oil being used, the flow behavior indicated a considerable degree of stress levels in certain connecting joints, causing the joints to become weak over a prolonged period of use. This research proposes a new perspective that is still required to be developed regarding the change of the pipe material, fiber winding angle in those specified joints and finally implementing cad wind technology to check the output result of the stress levels so that the life of the pipes can be optimized.

  18. Fabrication of polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates using fiber laser crystallization

    Dao, Vinh Ai; Han, Kuymin; Heo, Jongkyu; Kyeong, Dohyeon; Kim, Jaehong; Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Yongkuk; Jung, Sungwook; Kim, Kyunghae [Information and Communication Device Laboratory, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.k [Information and Communication Device Laboratory, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Laser crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si), using a fiber laser of {lambda} = 1064 nm wavelength, was investigated. a-Si films with 50 nm thickness deposited on glass were prepared by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The infrared fundamental wave ({lambda} = 1064 nm) is not absorbed by amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. Thus, different types of capping layers (a-CeO{sub x}, a-SiN{sub x}, and a-SiO{sub x}) with a desired refractive index, n and thickness, d were deposited on the a-Si surface. Crystallization was a function of laser energy density, and was performed using a fiber laser. The structural properties of the crystallized films were measured via Raman spectra, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The relationship between film transmittance and crystallinity was discussed. As the laser energy density increased from 10-40 W, crystallinity increased from 0-90%. However, the higher laser density adversely affected surface roughness and uniformity of the grain size. We found that favorable crystallization and uniformity could be accomplished at the lower energy density of 30 W with a-SiO{sub x} as the capping layer.

  19. Irradiation conditions for fiber laser bonding of HAp-glass ceramics with bovine cortical bone.

    Tadano, Shigeru; Yamada, Satoshi; Kanaoka, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Orthopedic implants are widely used to repair bones and to replace articulating joint surfaces. It is important to develop an instantaneous technique for the direct bonding of bone and implant materials. The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the laser bonding of bone with an implant material like ceramics. Ceramic specimens (10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness) were sintered with hydroxyapatite and MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 glass powders mixed in 40:60 wt% proportions. A small hole was bored at the center of a ceramic specimen. The ceramic specimen was positioned onto a bovine bone specimen and a 5 mm diameter area of the ceramic specimen was irradiated using a fiber laser beam (1070-1080 nm wavelength). As a result, the bone and the ceramic specimens bonded strongly under the irradiation conditions of a 400 W laser power and a 1.0 s exposure time. The maximum shear strength was 5.3 ± 2.3 N. A bonding substance that penetrated deeply into the bone specimen was generated around the hole in the ceramic specimen. On using the fiber laser, the ceramic specimen instantaneously bonded to the bone specimen. Further, the irradiation conditions required for the bonding were investigated.

  20. Process monitoring of glass reinforced polypropylene laminates using fiber Bragg gratings

    Mulle, Matthieu

    2015-12-29

    Hot-press molding of glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) laminates was monitored using longitudinally and transversely embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) at different locations in unidirectional laminates. The optical sensors proved to efficiently characterize some material properties; for example, strain variations could be related physical change of the laminate, revealing key transition points such as the onset of melt or solidification. These results were confirmed through some comparison with traditional techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry. After the GFPP plate was released from the mold, residual strains were estimated. Because cooling rate is an important process parameter in thermoplastics, affecting crystallinity and ultimately residual strain, two different conditions (22 and 3 °C/min) were investigated. In the longitudinal direction, results were nearly identical while in the transverse direction results showed a 20% discrepancy. Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) were also identified during a post-process heating procedure using the embedded FBGs and compared to the results of a thermo-mechanical analysis. Again, dissimilarities were observed for the transverse direction. With regards to through the thickness properties, no differences were observed for residual strains or for CTEs.

  1. Micromechanical modeling of short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics-Isotropic damage of pseudograins

    Kammoun, S.; Brassart, L.; Doghri, I.; Delannay, L.; Robert, G.

    2011-01-01

    A micromechanical damage modeling approach is presented to predict the overall elasto-plastic behavior and damage evolution in short fiber reinforced composite materials. The practical use of the approach is for injection molded thermoplastic parts reinforced with short glass fibers. The modeling is proceeded as follows. The representative volume element is decomposed into a set of pseudograins, the damage of which affects progressively the overall stiffness and strength up to total failure. Each pseudograin is a two-phase composite with aligned inclusions having same aspect ratio. A two-step mean-field homogenization procedure is adopted. In the first step, the pseudograins are homogenized individually according to the Mori-Tanaka scheme. The second step consists in a self-consistent homogenization of homogenized pseudograins. An isotropic damage model is applied at the pseudograin level. The model is implemented as a UMAT in the finite element code ABAQUS. Model is shown to reproduce the strength and the anisotropy (Lankford coefficient) during uniaxial tensile tests on samples cut under different directions relative to the injection flow direction.

  2. Effects of Fiber Content on Mechanical Properties of CVD SiC Fiber-Reinforced Strontium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramic Composites

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1996-01-01

    Unidirectional CVD SiC(f)(SCS-6) fiber-reinforced strontium aluminosilicate (SAS) glass-ceramic matrix composites containing various volume fractions, approximately 16 to 40 volume %, of fibers were fabricated by hot pressing at 1400 C for 2 h under 27.6 MPa. Monoclinic celsian, SrAl2Si2O8, was the only crystalline phase formed, with complete absence of the undesired hexacelsian phase, in the matrix. Room temperature mechanical properties were measured in 3-point flexure. The matrix microcracking stress and the ultimate strength increased with increase in fiber volume fraction, reached maximum values for V(sub f) approximately equal to 0.35, and degraded at higher fiber loadings. This degradation in mechanical properties is related to the change in failure mode, from tensile at lower V(sub f) to interlaminar shear at higher fiber contents. The extent of fiber loading did not have noticeable effect on either fiber-matrix debonding stress, or frictional sliding stress at the interface. The applicability of micromechanical models in predicting the mechanical properties of the composites was also examined. The currently available theoretical models do not appear to be useful in predicting the values of the first matrix cracking stress, and the ultimate strength of the SCS-6/SAS composites.

  3. PERBAIKAN KEKUATAN DAN DAKTILITAS KOLOM BETON BERTULANG YANG MENDAPAT BEBAN GEMPA MENGGUNAKAN GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER

    Parmo Parmo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Repairing the Strength and Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Column That Got Earthquake using Gla­ss Fiber Reinforced Polymer. This study aims to identify the additional strength and ductility of reinforced concrete columns af­ter being re­­­­tro­fitted using glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP and got the brunt of the earth­quake. This study uses two objects tested columns, which are being tested for three times. Each column size is 350 x 350 x 1100 mm with f'c = 20.34 MPa and fy = 549.94 MPa. The tes­t­ing is performed by giving a constant axial load of 748 kN and cyclic lateral load using con­trol displacement method in order to simulate the brunt of earth­quake. The results show an in­crea­se in lateral capacity of co­lumn by 43.96%. Re­tro­­fitting the column with GFRP has a duc­tile property, which is shown by the increase of the displacement ductility by 129.14% and curvature ductility by 118.27%.   Penelitian ini ber­tujuan untuk mengetahui penambahan kekuatan dan dak­ti­li­­­­tas kolom beton bertulang se­telah diretrofit menggunakan glass fiber reinforced po­ly­­­mer (GFRP dan mendapat be­ban gempa. Penelitian ini menggunakan benda ­uji dua buah kolom dengan tiga kali pengujian. Masing-masing ukuran kolom 350 x 350 x 1100 mm dengan f’c = 20,34 MPa dan fy = 549,94 MPa. Pengujian dilakukan de­ngan memberikan beban ak­sial konstan 748 kN dan beban lateral siklik yang meng­gu­nakan metode di­splacemet con­trol untuk mensimulasikan beban gempa. Hasil pe­ne­­­litian menunjukkan pe­ningkatan kapasitas lateral pada kolom sebesar 43,96%. Retrofit kolom dengan GFRP bersifat dak­tail yang ditunjukkan dengan meningkatnya daktilitas per­pindahan sebesar 129,14% dan dak­­­tilitas kurvatur se­besar 118,27%.

  4. Effect of Reinforcement Using Stainless Steel Mesh, Glass Fibers, and Polyethylene on the Impact Strength of Heat Cure Denture Base Resin - An In Vitro Study.

    Murthy, H B Mallikarjuna; Shaik, Sharaz; Sachdeva, Harleen; Khare, Sumit; Haralur, Satheesh B; Roopa, K T

    2015-06-01

    The impact strength of denture base resin is of great concern and many approaches have been made to strengthen acrylic resin dentures. The objective of this study was to compare the impact strength of the denture base resin with and without reinforcement and to evaluate the impact strength of denture base resin when reinforced with stainless steel mesh, glass fiber, and polyethylene fibers in the woven form. The specimens (maxillary denture bases) were fabricated using a standard polyvinylsiloxane mold with conventional heat cured polymethyl methacrylate resin. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group I specimens or control group were not reinforced. Group II specimens were reinforced with stainless steel mesh and Group III and Group IV specimens were reinforced with three percent by weight of glass fibers and polyethylene fibers in weave form respectively. All the specimens were immersed in water for 1-week before testing. The impact strength was measured with falling weight impact testing machine. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. Highest impact strength values were exhibited by the specimens reinforced with polyethylene fibers followed by glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and control group. Reinforcement of maxillary complete dentures showed a significant increase in impact strength when compared to unreinforced dentures. Polyethylene fibers exhibit better impact strength followed by glass fibers and stainless steel mesh. By using pre-impregnated glass and polyethylene fibers in woven form (prepregs) the impact strength of the denture bases can be increased effectively.

  5. Effects of Kenaf Fiber Orientation on Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Life of Glass/Kenaf Hybrid Composites

    Mohaiman Jaffar Sharba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the effect of kenaf fiber alignment on the mechanical and fatigue properties of kenaf/glass hybrid sandwich composites. Three types of kenaf fibers were used, namely, non-woven random mat, unidirectional twisted yarn, and plain-woven kenaf. A symmetric sandwich configuration was constructed with glass as the shell and kenaf as the core with a constant kenaf/glass weight ratio of 30/70% and a volume fraction of 35%. Tensile, compression, flexural, and fully reversed fatigue tests were conducted, and a morphological study of the tensile failure surface of each hybrid composite was carried out. The non-woven mat kenaf hybrid had poor properties for all tests, while the unidirectional kenaf hybrid composite possessed higher tensile strength and similar compressive properties compared with the woven kenaf. Hybridization with kenaf fibers improved the fatigue degradation coefficient of the final composites to 6.2% and 6.4% for woven and unidirectional kenaf, respectively, compared with 7.9% for non-woven. Because woven kenaf hybrid composite is lightweight, environment friendly, and has a considerable balance in static and fatigue strengths with low fatigue sensitivity in bidirectional planes compared to glass, it is strongly recommended for structural applications.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of UPR/ LNR/ Glass Fiber Composite by using Unsaturated Polyester Resin (PET) from PET Wastes

    Siti Farhana Hisham; Ishak Ahmad; Rusli Daik

    2011-01-01

    UPR/ LNR/ glass fibre composite had been prepared by using unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) based from recycled PET product. PET waste was recycled by glycolysis process and the glycides product was then reacted with maleic anhydride to produce unsaturated polyester resin. The preparation of UPR/ LNR blends were conducted by varying the amount of LNR addition to the resin ranging from 0-7.5 % (wt). The composition of UPR/LNR blend with good mechanical properties had been selected as a matrix of the glass fiber reinforced composite. Glass fibre was also treated by (3-Amino propil)triethoxysilane as a coupling agent. From the result, the addition of 2.5 % LNR in UPR had showed the optimum mechanical and morphological properties where the elastomer particle's were well dispersed in the matrix with smaller size. The silane treatment on the glass fiber increased the tensile and impact strength values of the UPR/ LNR/ GF composite compared to untreated fiber reinforcement. (author)

  7. Glasses

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  8. Thermal stress modification in regenerated fiber Bragg grating via manipulation of glass transition temperature based on CO₂-laser annealing.

    Lai, Man-Hong; Lim, Kok-Sing; Gunawardena, Dinusha S; Yang, Hang-Zhou; Chong, Wu-Yi; Ahmad, Harith

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we have demonstrated thermal stress relaxation in regenerated fiber Bragg gratings (RFBGs) by using direct CO₂-laser annealing technique. After the isothermal annealing and slow cooling process, the Bragg wavelength of the RFBG has been red-shifted. This modification is reversible by re-annealing and rapid cooling. It is repeatable with different cooling process in the subsequent annealing treatments. This phenomenon can be attributed to the thermal stress modification in the fiber core by means of manipulation of glass transition temperature with different cooling rates. This finding in this investigation is important for accurate temperature measurement of RFBG in dynamic environment.

  9. Bond strength of resin cement to dentin and to surface-treated posts of titanium alloy, glass fiber, and zirconia

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of two resin cements (ParaPost Cement and Panavia F) to posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (ParaPost Fiber White), and zirconia (Cerapost), and to dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After embedding, planar surfaces...... of posts (n = 9 to 14) and human dentin (n = 10) were obtained by grinding. The posts received one of three surface treatments: 1. roughening (sandblasting, hydrofluoric acid etching), 2. application of primer (Alloy Primer, Metalprimer II, silane), or 3. roughening followed by application of primer...

  10. Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars.

    Zeng, Xiaodong; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chhoa, Chia Yee; Bremner, Theodore W; Brown, Anthony W; DeMerchant, Michael D; Ferrier, Graham; Kalamkarov, Alexander L; Georgiades, Anastasis V

    2002-08-20

    The strain measurement of a 1.65-m reinforced concrete beam by use of a distributed fiber strain sensor with a 50-cm spatial resolution and 5-cm readout resolution is reported. The strain-measurement accuracy is +/-15 microepsilon (microm/m) according to the system calibration in the laboratory environment with non-uniform-distributed strain and +/-5 microepsilon with uniform strain distribution. The strain distribution has been measured for one-point and two-point loading patterns for optical fibers embedded in pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) rods and those bonded to steel reinforcing bars. In the one-point loading case, the strain deviations are +/-7 and +/-15 microepsilon for fibers embedded in the GFRP rods and fibers bonded to steel reinforcing bars, respectively, whereas the strain deviation is +/-20 microepsilon for the two-point loading case.

  11. Effect of the Volume Fraction of Jute Fiber on the Interlaminar Shear Stress and Tensile Behavior Characteristics of Hybrid Glass/Jute Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Bar for Concrete Structures

    Chan-Gi Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid glass/jute fiber reinforced polymer (HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured for concrete structures, and their interlaminar shear stress and tensile performance were evaluated. HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured using a combination of pultrusion and braiding processes. Jute fiber was surface-treated with a silane coupling agent. The mixing ratio of the fiber to the vinyl ester used in the HGJFRP composite bars was 7 : 3. Jute fiber was used to replace glass fiber in proportions of 0, 30, 50, 70, and 100%. The interlaminar shear stress decreased as the proportion of jute fiber increased. Fractures appeared due to delamination between the surface-treated component and the main part of the HGJFRP composite bar. Tensile load-strain curves with 50% jute fiber exhibited linear behavior. With a jute fiber volume fraction of 70%, some plastic deformation occurred. A jute fiber mixing ratio of 100% resulted in a display of linear elastic brittle behavior from the fiber; however, when the surface of the fiber was coated with poly(vinyl acetate, following failure, the jute fiber exhibited partial load resistance. The tensile strength decreased as the jute fiber content increased; however, the tensile strength did not vary linearly with jute fiber content.

  12. Use of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier and dual-ring architecture design to produce a stable multi-wavelength fiber laser

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Lu, Shao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a multi-wavelength laser source produced by utilizing a C-band reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) with a dual-ring fiber cavity. Here, the laser cavity consists of an RSOA, a 1 × 2 optical coupler, a 2 × 2 optical coupler and a polarization controller. As a result, thirteen to eighteen wavelengths around the L band could be generated simultaneously when the bias current of the C-band RSOA was driven at 30–70 mA. In addition, the output stabilities of the power and wavelength are also discussed. (paper)

  13. Use of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier and dual-ring architecture design to produce a stable multi-wavelength fiber laser

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Lu, Shao-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a multi-wavelength laser source produced by utilizing a C-band reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) with a dual-ring fiber cavity. Here, the laser cavity consists of an RSOA, a 1 × 2 optical coupler, a 2 × 2 optical coupler and a polarization controller. As a result, thirteen to eighteen wavelengths around the L band could be generated simultaneously when the bias current of the C-band RSOA was driven at 30-70 mA. In addition, the output stabilities of the power and wavelength are also discussed.

  14. Experimental investigation of saturation effect on pump-to-signal intensity modulation transfer in single-pump phase-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers

    Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental characterization of how signal gain saturation affects the transfer of intensity modulation from the pump to the signal in single-pump, phase-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). In this work, we demonstrate experimentally for the first time, to our...... knowledge, how gain saturation of a FOPA reduces the noise contribution due to the transfer of pump power fluctuations to the signal. In a particular example, it is shown that the transferred noise is significantly reduced by a factor of 3, while the FOPA gain remains above 10 dB....

  15. Influence of different adhesive systems on the pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts.

    da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; Andrade, Andréa Mello de; Machuca, Melissa Fernanda Garcia; da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; da Silva, Ricardo Virgolino C; Veronezi, Maria Cecília

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost - Angelus-Brazil) cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC - 3M/ESPE) associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP) Plus - 3M/ESPE), using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10): G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE) + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost - Angelus) + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin - Angelus) + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf) and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 +/- 7.123; G2- 37.752 +/-13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; a=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (pAdhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1). The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength.

  16. Influence of different adhesive systems on the pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts

    Luciana Mendonça da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost - Angelus-Brazil cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC - 3M/ESPE associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP Plus - 3M/ESPE, using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10: G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost - Angelus + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin - Angelus + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 ± 7.123; G2- 37.752 ±13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; a=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the groups. Adhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1. The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength.

  17. Mechanical characterization of SiC particulate & E-glass fiber reinforced Al 3003 hybrid metal matrix composites

    Narayana, K. S. Lakshmi; Shivanand, H. K.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites constitute a class of low cost high quality materials which offer high performance for various industrial applications. The orientation of this research is towards the study of mechanical properties of as cast silicon carbide (SiC) particulates and Short E-Glass fibers reinforced Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs). The Hybrid metal matrix composite is developed by reinforcing SiC particulates of 100 microns and short E-Glass fibers of 2-3 mm length with Al 3003 in different compositions. The vortex method of stir casting was employed, in which the reinforcements were introduced into the vortex created by the molten metal by means of mechanical stirrer. The mechanical properties of the prepared metal matrix composites were analyzed. From the studies it was noticed that an improvement in mechanical properties of the reinforced alloys compared to unreinforced alloys.

  18. An ultra-long cavity passively mode-locked fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    Liu, Tonghui; Jia, Dongfang; Yang, Jingwen; Chen, Jiong; Wang, Zhaoying; Yang, Tianxin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate an ultra-long cavity passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Experimental results are presented which indicate that stable mode-locked pulses can be obtained by combining nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) in the SOA with a polarization controller. By adding a 4 km single mode fiber into the ring cavity, a stable fundamental-order mode-locked pulse train with a repetition rate of 50.72 kHz is generated through the NPR effect in the SOA. The central wavelength, 3 dB bandwidth and single pulse energy of the output pulse are 1543.95 nm, 1.506 nm and 33.12 nJ, respectively. Harmonic mode-locked pulses are also observed in experiments when the parameters are chosen properly. (paper)

  19. Compensation of nonlinearity in a fiber-optic transmission system using frequency-degenerate phase conjugation through counter-propagating dual pump FWM in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    Anchal, Abhishek; K, Pradeep Kumar; O'Duill, Sean; Anandarajah, Prince M.; Landais, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    We present a scheme of frequency-degenerate mid-span spectral inversion (MSSI) for nonlinearity compensation in fiber-optic transmission systems. The spectral inversion is obtained by using counter-propagating dual pump four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Frequency-degeneracy between signal and conjugate is achieved by keeping two pump frequencies symmetrical about the signal frequency. We simulate the performance of MSSI for nonlinearity compensation by scrutinizing the improvement of the Q-factor of a 200 Gbps QPSK signal transmitted over a standard single mode fiber, as a function of launch power for different span lengths and number of spans. We demonstrate a 7.5 dB improvement in the input power dynamic range and an almost 83% increase in the transmission length for optimum MSSI parameters of -2 dBm pump power and 400 mA SOA current.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of chromium-doped nanophase separated yttria-alumina-silica glass-based optical fibers

    Dutta, Debjit; Dhar, Anirban; Das, Shyamal; Paul, Mukul C. [Fiber Optics and Photonics Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Kir' yanov, Alexander V. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Guanajuato (Mexico); Bysakh, Sandip [Electron Microscopic Section, Material Characterization Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-08-15

    The basic material and optical properties of chromium-doped nanophase-separated yttria-alumina-silica (YAS) glass based optical preforms and fibers, fabricated through the modified chemical vapor deposition process in conjunction with solution doping technique under suitable thermal annealing conditions are reported. The size of the phase-separated particles within the core of the annealed preform is around 20-30 nm which is significantly reduced to around 5.0 nm in the drawn fiber. The absorption spectra of fibers drawn from the annealed and non-annealed preform samples revealed the presence of Cr{sup 4+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 6+} specie. Numerically, extinction of absorption drops ∝3-3.5 times for the annealed sample as a result of nano-phase restructuration during annealing process. Intense broadband emission (within 500-800 nm) in case of the annealed preform sample is observed as compared to the non-annealed one and is associated with the presence of Cr{sup 3+} ions in nanostructured environment inside the YAS core glass. The final fibers show broadband emission ranging from 900 to 1400 nm under pumping at 1064 nm which is attributed mainly to the presence of Cr{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 4+} ions. The fabricated fibers seem to be a potential candidate for the development of fiber laser sources for the visible and near-infra ranges and for effective Q-switching units for ∝1-1.1 μm all-fiber ytterbium lasers. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Time-Dependent Deformation Modelling for a Chopped-Glass Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria; FINAL

    Ren, W

    2001-01-01

    Time-dependent deformation behavior of a polymeric composite with chopped-glass-fiber reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications, The material under stress was exposed to representative automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on time-dependent deformation behavior of the material. The data were analyzed and experimentally-based models developed for the time-dependent deformation behavior as a basis for automotive structural durability design criteria

  2. Time-Dependent Deformation Modelling for a Chopped-Glass Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria

    Ren, W

    2001-08-24

    Time-dependent deformation behavior of a polymeric composite with chopped-glass-fiber reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications, The material under stress was exposed to representative automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on time-dependent deformation behavior of the material. The data were analyzed and experimentally-based models developed for the time-dependent deformation behavior as a basis for automotive structural durability design criteria.

  3. Investigation on Stress-Rupture Behavior of a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria

    Ren, W

    2001-08-24

    Practical and inexpensive testing methods were developed to investigate stress-rupture properties of a polymeric composite with chopped glass fiber reinforcement for automotive applications. The material was tested in representative automotive environments to generate experimental data. The results indicate that environments have substantial effects on the stress-rupture behavior. The data were analyzed and developed into stress-rupture design criteria to address one of the durability aspects of the material for automotive structural applications.

  4. Investigation on Stress-Rupture Behavior of a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria; FINAL

    Ren, W

    2001-01-01

    Practical and inexpensive testing methods were developed to investigate stress-rupture properties of a polymeric composite with chopped glass fiber reinforcement for automotive applications. The material was tested in representative automotive environments to generate experimental data. The results indicate that environments have substantial effects on the stress-rupture behavior. The data were analyzed and developed into stress-rupture design criteria to address one of the durability aspects of the material for automotive structural applications

  5. Influence of Coating with Some Natural Based Materials on the Erosion Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin

    Aseel Basim Abdul Hussein; Emad Saadi AL-Hassani; Reem Alaa Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding. The composites constituents were epoxy resin as a matrix, 6% volume fractions of glass fibers (G.F) as reinforcement and 3%, 6% volume fractions of preparation natural material (Rice Husk Ash, Carrot Powder, and Sawdust) as filler. Studied the erosion wear behavior and coating by natural wastes (Rice Husk Ash) with epoxy resin after erosion. The results showed the non – reinforced epoxy have lower resistance erosion than n...

  6. Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Reinforced with SiliconCarbide Powder And with Chopped Glass Fiber

    Bushra Hosnie Musa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The work studied the effectoffine silicon carbide (SiC powder with (0,3,5,7wt % on the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester composite in the presence of a fixed amount of chopped glass fiber. The hand lay-up technique was employed to preparethe required samples. Results showed that tensile, impact strength and thermal conductivity increased with increasing the weight fraction of reinforced materials.

  7. Study on mechanical properties of fly ash impregnated glass fiber reinforced polymer composites using mixture design analysis

    Satheesh Raja, R.; Manisekar, K.; Manikandan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • FRP with and without fly ash filler were prepared. • Mechanical properties of composites were analyzed. • Mixture Design Method was used to model the system. • Experimental and mathematical model results were compared. - Abstract: This paper describes the mechanical behavior of fly ash impregnated E-glass fiber reinforced polymer composite (GFRP). Initially the proportion of fiber and resin were optimized from the analysis of the mechanical properties of the GFRP. It is observed that the 30 wt% of E-glass in the GFRP without filler material yields better results. Then, based on the optimized value of resin content, the varying percentage of E-glass and fly ash was added to fabricate the hybrid composites. Results obtained in this study were mathematically evaluated using Mixture Design Method. Predictions show that 10 wt% addition of fly ash with fiber improves the mechanical properties of the composites. The fly ash impregnated GFRP yields significant improvement in mechanical strength compared to the GFRP without filler material. The surface morphologies of the fractured specimens were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The chemical composition and surface morphology of the fly ash is analyzed by using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Scanning Electron Microscope

  8. Tribological and mechanical behaviors of polyamide 6/glass fiber composite filled with various solid lubricants.

    Li, Duxin; Xie, Ying; Li, Wenjuan; You, Yilan; Deng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF) were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  9. The Effect of Thermooxidative Aging on the Durability of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy

    Amin Khajeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin-skinned organic matrix composites within aeronautical structures are subjected to thermooxidative aging during their service life, leading to reductions in their durability. In this paper, a durability evaluation of fiberglass epoxy prepreg is performed on the original composite thickness before and after 800 h isothermal aging at 82°C. The characterization of both aged and unaged composites comprised tensile tests, DMA, FTIR, weight loss measurements, SEM, and DSC. The tensile strength and modulus of the composites increased after being exposed to pronounced aging conditions, whereas a decrease was observed in the toughness. DMA results revealed that the glass transition temperature and rubbery state modulus increased as a result of the thermooxidative aging. FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated the formation of carbonyl compounds due to oxidation of the chemical structure of the resin. SEM observations indicated the existence of minor superficial cracking and poor fiber-matrix adhesion after aging. In addition, a minor mass change was observed from mass loss monitoring methods. The overall findings suggest that postcuring and physical aging enhanced the brittleness of the resin, leading to a significant decline in the useful structural life of the thin-skinned composite.

  10. Application of Glass Fiber Waste Polypropylene Aggregate in Lightweight Concrete – thermal properties

    Citek, D.; Rehacek, S.; Pavlik, Z.; Kolisko, J.; Dobias, D.; Pavlikova, M.

    2018-03-01

    Actual paper focus on thermal properties of a sustainable lightweight concrete incorporating high volume of waste polypropylene aggregate as partial substitution of natural aggregate. In presented experiments a glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) which is a by-product of PP tubes production, partially substituted fine natural silica aggregate in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mass %. Results were compared with a reference concrete mix without plastic waste in order to quantify the effect of GFPP use on concrete properties. Main material physical parameters were studied (bulk density, matrix density without air content, and particle size distribution). Especially a thermal transport and storage properties of GFPP were examined in dependence on compaction time. For the developed lightweight concrete, thermal properties were accessed using transient impulse technique, where the measurement was done in dependence on moisture content (from the fully water saturated state to dry state). It was found that the tested lightweight concrete should be prospective construction material possessing improved thermal insulation function and the reuse of waste plastics in concrete composition was beneficial both from the environmental and financial point of view.

  11. Preparation and characterization of glass fibers – polymers (epoxy bars (GFRP reinforced concrete for structural applications

    Alkjk Saeed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some of the results from a large experimental program undertaken at the Department of Civil Engineering of Damascus University. The project aims to study the ability to reinforce and strengthen the concrete by bars from Epoxy polymer reinforced with glass fibers (GFRP and compared with reinforce concrete by steel bars in terms of mechanical properties. Five diameters of GFRP bars, and steel bars (4mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 12mm tested on tensile strength tests. The test shown that GFRP bars need tensile strength more than steel bars. The concrete beams measuring (15cm wide × 15cm deep × and 70cm long reinforced by GFRP with 0.5 vol.% ratio, then the concrete beams reinforced by steel with 0.89 vol.% ratio. The concrete beams tested on deflection test. The test shown that beams which reinforced by GFRP has higher deflection resistance, than beams which reinforced by steel. Which give more advantage to reinforced concrete by GFRP.

  12. Double-Sided Terahertz Imaging of Multilayered Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

    Przemyslaw Lopato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymer matrix composites (PMC play important roles in modern industry. Increasing the number of such structures in aerospace, construction, and automotive applications enforces continuous monitoring of their condition. Nondestructive inspection of layered composite materials is much more complicated process than evaluation of homogenous, (mostly metallic structures. Several nondestructive methods are utilized in this case (ultrasonics, shearography, tap testing, acoustic emission, digital radiography, infrared imaging but none of them gives full description of evaluated structures. Thus, further development of NDT techniques should be studied. A pulsed terahertz method seems to be a good candidate for layered PMC inspection. It is based on picosecond electromagnetic pulses interacting with the evaluated structure. Differences of dielectric parameters enables detection of a particular layer in a layered material. In the case of multilayered structures, only layers close to surface can be detected. The response of deeper ones is averaged because of multiple reflections. In this paper a novel inspection procedure with a data processing algorithm is introduced. It is based on a double-sided measurement, acquired signal deconvolution, and data combining. In order to verify the application of the algorithm stress-subjected glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP was evaluated. The obtained results enabled detection and detailed analysis of delaminations introduced by stress treatment and proved the applicability of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Tribological and Mechanical Behaviors of Polyamide 6/Glass Fiber Composite Filled with Various Solid Lubricants

    Duxin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  14. Response of fiber Bragg gratings bonded on a glass/epoxy laminate subjected to static loadings

    Mulle, Matthieu

    2015-04-22

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) may be used to monitor strain over the surface of a structure as an alternative technology to conventional strain gauges. However, FBG bonding techniques have still not been established to yield satisfactory surface measurements. Here, two adhesives were investigated, one with low viscosity and the other with high viscosity for bonding FBGs on glass/epoxy sandwich skins. First, instrumented elementary specimens were tested under tension. FBG strain results were analyzed together with digital image correlation (DIC) measurements. The influence of the bonding layer on the measured strain and on the integrity of the sensor was investigated by considering different regions of interest. Next, an instrumented structural sandwich beam was tested under four-point bending. FBG rosettes were compared to conventional strain gauge rosettes. The high viscosity adhesive demonstrated behaviors that affected FBG accuracy. Brittleness of the bonding layer and poor interface adhesion were observed using DIC and X-ray tomography. By contrast, the low viscosity adhesive demonstrated satisfactory results. The FBG strain measurements appeared to be consistent with those of DIC. The accuracy is also adequate as the FBGs and the conventional strain gauges had similar results in three directions, under tension and under compression.

  15. Experimental Investigation on the Durability of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites Containing Nanocomposite

    Weiwen Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoclay layers incorporated into polymer/clay nanocomposites can inhibit the harmful penetration of water and chemicals into the material, and thus the durability of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP composites should be enhanced by using polymer/clay nanocomposite as the matrix material. In this study, 1.5 wt% vinyl ester (VE/organoclay and 2 wt% epoxy (EP/organoclay nanocomposites were prepared by an in situ polymerization method. The dispersion states of clay in the nanocomposites were studied by performing XRD analysis. GFRP composites were then fabricated with the prepared 1.5 wt% VE/clay and 2.0 wt% EP/clay nanocomposites to investigate the effects of a nanocomposite matrix on the durability of GFRP composites. The durability of the two kinds of GFRP composites was characterized by monitoring tensile properties following degradation of GFRP specimens aged in water and alkaline solution at 60°C, and SEM was employed to study fracture behaviors of aged GFRP composites under tension. The results show that tensile properties of the two types of GFRP composites with and without clay degrade significantly with aging time. However, the GFRP composites with nanoclay show a lower degradation rate compared with those without nanoclay, supporting the aforementioned hypothesis. And the modification of EP/GFRP enhanced the durability more effectively.

  16. Shear Strengthening of RC Beams Using Sprayed Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer

    Sayed Mohamad Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of externally bonded sprayed glass fiber reinforced polymer (Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening of RC beams under quasi-static loading is investigated. Different techniques were utilized to enhance the bond between concrete and Sprayed GFRP, involving the use of through bolts and nuts paired with concrete surface preparation through sandblasting and through the use of a pneumatic chisel prior to Sprayed GFRP application. It was found that roughening the concrete surface using a pneumatic chisel and using through bolts and nuts were the most effective techniques. Also, Sprayed GFRP applied on 3 sides (U-shaped was found to be more effective than 2-sided Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening. Sprayed GFRP increased the shear load-carrying capacity and energy absorption capacities of RC beams. It was found that the load-carrying capacity of strengthened RC beams was related to an effective strain of applied Sprayed GFRP. This strain was related to Sprayed GFRP configuration and the technique used to enhance the concrete-FRP bond. Finally, an equation was proposed to calculate the contribution of Sprayed GFRP in the shear strength of an RC beam.

  17. Terahertz and Thermal Testing of Glass-Fiber Reinforced Composites with Impact Damages

    T. Chady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on glass-fiber reinforced composites, due to their growing popularity and high diversity of industrial applications, are becoming an increasingly popular branch of the nondestructive testing. Mentioned composites are used, among other applications, in wind turbine blades and are exposed to various kinds of damages. The equipment reliability requirements force the development of accurate methods of their health monitoring. In this paper we present the study of composite samples with impact damages, using three methods: terahertz time domain inspection, active thermography with convective excitation, and active thermography with microwave excitation. The results of discrete Fourier transform of obtained time sequences of signals will be presented as well as some image processing of resulting amplitude and phase images. Proposed experimental methods combined with harmonic analysis are efficient tool of defects detection and allowed to detect flaws in examined specimens. Reader may find it interesting that in spite of differences in nature of applied experimental methods, one technique of signal processing (harmonic analysis gave adequate and comparable results in each case.

  18. Preparation and optical properties of TeO2-BaO-ZnO-ZnF2 fluoro-tellurite glass for mid-infrared fiber Raman laser applications

    Li, Jie; Xiao, Xusheng; Gu, Shaoxuan; Xu, Yantao; Zhou, Zhiguang; Guo, Haitao

    2017-04-01

    A serial of novel fluoro-tellurite glasses with compositions of 60TeO2-20BaO-(20-x)ZnO-xZnF2 (x = 0, 2, 4, 5 and 6 mol%) were prepared. The compositional dependences of glass structural evaluation, Raman gain coefficient, UV-Vis transmission spectrum, IR transmission spectrum, linear refractive index and third-order nonlinearity were analyzed. The results showed that the addition of 6 mol% ZnF2 can further improve the Raman gain coefficient to as well as 52 × 10-11 cm/W and effectively decrease around 73% and 57% absorption coefficients respectively caused by free Osbnd H groups (@3.3 μm) and hydrogen-bonded Osbnd H groups (@4.5 μm) in glass. Addition of ZnF2 does not change the UV-Vis absorption edge, optical band gap energy and infrared region cut-off edge almost, while the linear refraction index and ultrafast third-nonlinearity show unmonotonic changes. These novel fluoro-tellurite glasses may be suitable candidates for using in mid-infrared Raman fiber laser and/or amplifier.

  19. 1.7  μm band narrow-linewidth tunable Raman fiber lasers pumped by spectrum-sliced amplified spontaneous emission.

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Di; Du, Quanli; Li, Xiaoyan; Han, Kexuan; Zhang, Lizhong; Wang, Tianshu; Jiang, Huilin

    2017-12-10

    A 1.7 μm band tunable narrow-linewidth Raman fiber laser based on spectrally sliced amplified spontaneous emission (SS-ASE) and multiple filter structures is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this scheme, an SS-ASE source is employed as a pump source in order to avoid stimulated Brillouin scattering. The ring configuration includes a 500 m long high nonlinear optical fiber and a 10 km long dispersion shifted fiber as the gain medium. A segment of un-pumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber is used to modify the shape of the spectrum. Furthermore, a nonlinear polarization rotation scheme is applied as the wavelength selector to generate lasers. A high-finesse ring filter and a ring filter are used to narrow the linewidth of the laser, respectively. We demonstrate tuning capabilities of a single laser over 28 nm between 1652 nm and 1680 nm by adjusting the polarization controller (PC) and tunable filter. The tunable laser has a 0.023 nm effective linewidth with the high-finesse ring filter. The stable multi-wavelength laser operation of up to four wavelengths can be obtained by adjusting the PC carefully when the pump power increases.

  20. Ferromagnetic glass ceramics and glass fibers based on the composition of SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass system

    Liu, Jianan, E-mail: lja@qlu.edu.cn; Zhu, Chaofeng; Zhang, Meimei; Zhang, Yanfei; Yang, Xuena

    2017-03-15

    Ferromagnetic glass-ceramics and glass fibers were obtained by the melt-method from the glass system SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} without performing any nucleation and crystallization heat treatments. Glass-ceramics and glass fibers were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, magnetic measurements, and thermal expansion instrument. The influence of alumina content on the spontaneous crystallization of magnetite, magnetism properties and thermal expansion performances in glass were investigated. We examined the crystallization behavior of the glasses and found that the spontaneous crystallization capacity of magnetite and magnetism properties in base glass increases with increasing the content of alumina. The ferromagnetic glass fibers containing magnetite nano-crystals are also obtained. - Highlights: • Magnetite nano-crystals are formed spontaneously in the investigated glass systems. • The crystallization behavior of the glasses with the alumina content is examined. • Ferromagnetic glass fibers containing magnetite nano-crystals are obtained.

  1. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pediatric Urology Research Center, Section of Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Therapy, Department of Pediatric Urology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran, Iran (IRI) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moztarzadeh, Fatollah [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi-Majidi, Reza [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70–200 μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150–450 nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. - Highlights: • Fabrication of 45S5 sub-micron bioglass fiber using electrospinning method. • Production of copper doped submicron bioglass fibers on 45S5 bioglass base by electrospinning sol gel route method. • Incorporation of bioglass/Cu-bioglass sub-micron fibers into gelatin/collagen matrix to form biomimetic composite scaffold which were non-cytotoxic according to MTT assay. • Discovering that copper can decrease the glass transition temperatures and enhance osteoblast cell adhesion and viability.

  2. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Moztarzadeh, Fatollah; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya; Ai, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70–200 μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150–450 nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. - Highlights: • Fabrication of 45S5 sub-micron bioglass fiber using electrospinning method. • Production of copper doped submicron bioglass fibers on 45S5 bioglass base by electrospinning sol gel route method. • Incorporation of bioglass/Cu-bioglass sub-micron fibers into gelatin/collagen matrix to form biomimetic composite scaffold which were non-cytotoxic according to MTT assay. • Discovering that copper can decrease the glass transition temperatures and enhance osteoblast cell adhesion and viability.

  3. Phase-stable, multi-µJ femtosecond pulses from a repetition-rate tunable Ti:Sa-oscillator-seeded Yb-fiber amplifier

    Saule, T.; Holzberger, S.; De Vries, O.; Plötner, M.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.; Pupeza, I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a high-power, MHz-repetition-rate, phase-stable femtosecond laser system based on a phase-stabilized Ti:Sa oscillator and a multi-stage Yb-fiber chirped-pulse power amplifier. A 10-nm band around 1030 nm is split from the 7-fs oscillator output and serves as the seed for subsequent amplification by 54 dB to 80 W of average power. The µJ-level output is spectrally broadened in a solid-core fiber and compressed to 30 fs with chirped mirrors. A pulse picker prior to power amplification allows for decreasing the repetition rate from 74 MHz by a factor of up to 4 without affecting the pulse parameters. To compensate for phase jitter added by the amplifier to the feed-forward phase-stabilized seeding pulses, a self-referencing feed-back loop is implemented at the system output. An integrated out-of-loop phase noise of less than 100 mrad was measured in the band from 0.4 Hz to 400 kHz, which to the best of our knowledge corresponds to the highest phase stability ever demonstrated for high-power, multi-MHz-repetition-rate ultrafast lasers. This system will enable experiments in attosecond physics at unprecedented repetition rates, it offers ideal prerequisites for the generation and field-resolved electro-optical sampling of high-power, broadband infrared pulses, and it is suitable for phase-stable white light generation.

  4. Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H{sub 2}S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing

    Wu, Hongpeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zheng, Huadan; Yin, Xukun; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Sampaolo, Angelo [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari and Politecnico di Bari, CNR-IFN UOS BARI, Via Amendola 173, Bari 70126 (Italy); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Dong, Lei, E-mail: donglei@sxu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Patimisco, Pietro; Spagnolo, Vincenzo [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari and Politecnico di Bari, CNR-IFN UOS BARI, Via Amendola 173, Bari 70126 (Italy); Tittel, Frank K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    A quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor, employing an erbium-doped fiber amplified laser source and a custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) with its two prongs spaced ∼800 μm apart, is reported. The sensor employs an acoustic micro-resonator (AmR) which is assembled in an “on-beam” QEPAS configuration. Both length and vertical position of the AmR are optimized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, significantly improving the QEPAS detection sensitivity by a factor of ∼40, compared to the case of a sensor using a bare custom QTF. The fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor is applied to H{sub 2}S trace gas detection, reaching a sensitivity of ∼890 ppb at 1 s integration time, similar to those obtained with a power-enhanced QEPAS sensor equipped with a standard QTF, but with the advantages of easy optical alignment, simple installation, and long-term stability.

  5. Ho3+-doped AlF3-TeO2-based glass fibers for 2.1 µm laser applications

    Wang, S. B.; Jia, Z. X.; Yao, C. F.; Ohishi, Y.; Qin, G. S.; Qin, W. P.

    2017-05-01

    Ho3+-doped AlF3-TeO2-based glass fibers based on AlF3-BaF2-CaF2-YF3-SrF2-MgF2-TeO2 glasses are fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. The glass rod including a core and a thick cladding layer is prepared by using a suction method, where the thick cladding layer is used to protect the core from the effect of surface crystallization during the fiber drawing. By inserting the glass rod into a glass tube, the glass fibers with relatively low loss (~2.3 dB m-1 @ 1560 nm) are prepared. By using a 38 cm long Ho3+-doped AlF3-TeO2-based glass fiber as the gain medium and a 1965 nm fiber laser as the pump source, 2065 nm lasing is obtained for a threshold pump power of ~220 mW. With further increasing the pump power to ~325 mW, the unsaturated output power of the 2065 nm laser is about 82 mW and the corresponding slope efficiency is up to 68.8%. The effects of the gain fiber length on the lasing threshold, the slope efficiency, and the operating wavelength are also investigated. Our experimental results show that Ho3+-doped AlF3-TeO2-based glass fibers are promising gain media for 2.1 µm laser applications.

  6. Contribution to the improved ultrasonic testing of glass fiber-reinforced polymers based on analytic modeling; Beitrag zur Verbesserung der Ultraschallpruefung glasfaserverstaerkter Polymere auf der Grundlage analytischer Modellierung

    Gripp, S.

    2001-04-01

    The non-destructive testing of acoustic anisotropic materials like fiber composites has been evaluated. Modelling enabled predictions about wave deflection, direction of wave propagation, and refractive angle of ultrasonic waves in these media. Thus, measurements could be carried out using unidirectional glass-fiber composites.

  7. The influence of glass fibers on elongational viscosity studied by means of optical coherence tomography and X-ray computed tomography

    Aigner, M.; Köpplmayr, T.; Lang, C.; Burzic, I.; Miethlinger, J.; Salaberger, D.; Buchsbaum, A.; Leitner, M.; Heise, B.; Schausberger, S. E.; Stifter, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the flow characteristics of glass-fiber-reinforced polymers in elongational rheometry. Unlike polymers with geometrically isotropic fillers, glass-fiber-reinforced polymers exhibit flow behavior and rheology that depend heavily on the orientation, the length distribution and the content of the fibers. One of the primary objectives of this study was to determine the effect of fiber orientation, concentration and distribution on the entrance pressure drop by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM), and X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Both pressure drop and melt flow were analyzed using a special elongation die (Thermo Scientific X-Die [3]) for inline measurements. Samples with a variety of fiber volume fractions, fiber lengths and processing temperatures were measured

  8. The influence of glass fibers on elongational viscosity studied by means of optical coherence tomography and X-ray computed tomography

    Aigner, M.; Salaberger, D.; Buchsbaum, A.; Heise, B.; Schausberger, S. E.; Köpplmayr, T.; Lang, C.; Leitner, M.; Stifter, D.; Burzic, I.; Miethlinger, J.

    2014-05-01

    We report on the flow characteristics of glass-fiber-reinforced polymers in elongational rheometry. Unlike polymers with geometrically isotropic fillers, glass-fiber-reinforced polymers exhibit flow behavior and rheology that depend heavily on the orientation, the length distribution and the content of the fibers. One of the primary objectives of this study was to determine the effect of fiber orientation, concentration and distribution on the entrance pressure drop by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM), and X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Both pressure drop and melt flow were analyzed using a special elongation die (Thermo Scientific X-Die [3]) for inline measurements. Samples with a variety of fiber volume fractions, fiber lengths and processing temperatures were measured.

  9. Influence of screw holes and gamma sterilization on properties of phosphate glass fiber-reinforced composite bone plates.

    Han, Na; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J; Harper, Lee; Scotchford, Colin A; Scammell, Brigitte E; Rudd, Chris D

    2013-05-01

    Polymers prepared from polylactic acid (PLA) have found a multitude of uses as medical devices. For a material that degrades, the main advantage is that an implant would not necessitate a second surgical event for removal. In this study, fibers produced from a quaternary phosphate-based glass (PBG) in the system 50P2O5-40CaO-5Na2O-5Fe2O3 were used to reinforce PLA polymer. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of screw holes in a range of PBG-reinforced PLA composites with varying fiber layup and volume fraction. The flexural properties obtained showed that the strength and modulus values increased with increasing fiber volume fraction; from 96 MPa to 320 MPa for strength and between 4 GPa and 24 GPa for modulus. Furthermore, utilizing a larger number of thinner unidirectional (UD) fiber prepreg layers provided a significant increase in mechanical properties, which was attributed to enhanced wet out and thus better fiber dispersion during production. The effect of gamma sterilization via flexural tests showed no statistically significant difference between the sterilized and nonsterilized samples, with the exception of the modulus values for samples with screw holes. Degradation profiles revealed that samples with screw holes degraded faster than those without screw holes due to an increased surface area for the plates with screw holes in PBS up to 30 days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed fiber pullout before and after degradation. Compared with various fiber impregnation samples, with 25% volume fraction, 8 thinner unidirectional prepreg stacked samples had the shortest fiber pull-out lengths in comparison to the other samples investigated.

  10. Reinforcing effect of glass-fiber mesh on complete dentures in a test model with a simulated oral mucosa.

    Yu, Sang-Hui; Oh, Seunghan; Cho, Hye-Won; Bae, Ji-Myung

    2017-11-01

    Studies that evaluated the strength of complete dentures reinforced with glass-fiber mesh or metal mesh on a cast with a simulated oral mucosa are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the mechanical properties of maxillary complete dentures reinforced with glass-fiber mesh with those of metal mesh in a new test model, using a simulated oral mucosa. Complete dentures reinforced with 2 types of glass-fiber mesh, SES mesh (SES) and glass cloth (GC) and metal mesh (metal) were fabricated. Complete dentures without any reinforcement were prepared as a control (n=10). The complete dentures were located on a cast with a simulated oral mucosa, and a load was applied on the posterior artificial teeth bilaterally. The fracture load, elastic modulus, and toughness of a complete denture were measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The fracture load and elastic modulus were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance, and the toughness was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=.05). The Tukey multiple range test was used as a post hoc test. The fracture load and toughness of the SES group was significantly higher than that of the metal and control groups (P<.05) but not significantly different from that of the GC group. The elastic modulus of the metal group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<.05), and no significant differences were observed in the SES and GC groups. Compared with the control group, the fracture load and toughness of the SES and GC groups were higher, while those of the metal group were not significantly different. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient fiber-laser-pumped Ho:YLF oscillator and amplifier utilizing the transmitted pump power of the oscillator

    Strauss, HJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available the amplifier. OCIS codes: 140.0140, 140.3070, 140.3480, 140.3580, 140.5680s 1. Introduction High energy 2 �m laser sources are of great interested for applications in remote sensing, medicine and defense. Ho:YLF is an attractive laser material to use since...

  12. Analysis of channel addition/removal response in all-optical gain-clamped cascade of lumped Raman fiber amplifiers

    Karásek, Miroslav; Kaňka, Jiří; Radil, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 10 (2004), s. 2271-2278 ISSN 0733-8724 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2067202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : optical communication * optical fibre amplifiers * wavelength division multiplexing Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2004

  13. Analysis of dynamic pump-loss controlled gain-locking system for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    Karásek, Miroslav; Plaats van der, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (1998), s. 1171-1173 ISSN 1041-1135 Grant - others:EU COST(XE) OC 241.10 Keywords : optical communication * amplifiers * fibre lasers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.791, year: 1998

  14. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). VI. Comparing the Mass and Light in MACS J0416.1-2403 Using Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Wang, X.; Brammer, G. B.; Broussard, A.; Amorin, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Schrabback, T.; Trenti, M.; Vulcani, B.

    2016-11-01

    We present a model using both strong and weak gravitational lensing of the galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403, constrained using spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) and Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. We search for emission lines in known multiply imaged sources in the GLASS spectra, obtaining secure spectroscopic redshifts of 30 multiple images belonging to 15 distinct source galaxies. The GLASS spectra provide the first spectroscopic measurements for five of the source galaxies. The weak lensing signal is acquired from 884 galaxies in the F606W HFF image. By combining the weak lensing constraints with 15 multiple image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and nine multiple image systems with photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster on an adaptive grid. The resulting map of total mass density is compared with a map of stellar mass density obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields imaging data to study the relative distribution of stellar and total mass in the cluster. We find that the projected stellar mass to total mass ratio, f ⋆, varies considerably with the stellar surface mass density. The mean projected stellar mass to total mass ratio is =0.009+/- 0.003 (stat.), but with a systematic error as large as 0.004-0.005, dominated by the choice of the initial mass function. We find agreement with several recent measurements of f ⋆ in massive cluster environments. The lensing maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available to the broader community in the standard HFF format.

  15. Optimization Of Fluoride Glass Fiber Drawing With Respect To Mechanical Strength

    Schneider, H. W.; Schoberth, A.; Staudt, A.; Gerndt, Ch.

    1987-08-01

    Heavy metal fluoride fibers have attracted considerable attention recently as lightguides for infrared optical devices. Besides the optical loss mechanical performance of the fiber is of major interest. At present fiber strength suffers from surface crystallization prior to or during fiber drawing. We developed an etching method for the preparation of preforms with clean surface. Drawing these preforms under optimized conditions in a dry atmosphere results in fibers with improved strength. So far, mean value of 400 N/mm2 tensile strength have been achieved. Maximum values of 800 N/mm2 measured on etched fibers indicate an even higher strength potential for the material itself.

  16. Tribological properties of solid lubricants filled glass fiber reinforced polyamide 6 composites

    Li, Du-Xin; You, Yi-Lan; Deng, Xin; Li, Wen-Juan; Xie, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The tribological properties of GF/PA6 improved by the incorporation of PTFE. ► PTFE and UHMWPE exhibited a synergism effect on reducing friction coefficient. ► Solid lubricants enlarged the range of applied velocity for GF/PA6 composite. - Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to further optimize the tribological properties of the glass fiber reinforced PA6 (GF/PA6,15/85 by weight) for high performance friction materials using single or combinative solid lubricants such as Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and the combination of both of them. Various polymer blends, where GF/PA6 acts as the polymer matrix and solid lubricants as the dispersed phase were prepared by injection molding. The tribological properties of these materials and the synergism as a result of the incorporation of both PTFE and UHMWPE were investigated. The results showed that, at a load of 40 N and a velocity of 200 rpm, PTFE was effective in improving the tribological capabilities of matrix material. On the contrary, UHMWPE was not conductive to maintain the structure integrity of GF/PA6 composite and harmful to the friction and wear properties. The combination of PTFE and UHMWPE showed synergism on further reducing the friction coefficient of the composites filled with either PTFE or UHMWPE only. Effects of load and velocity on tribological behavior were also discussed. To further understand the wear mechanism, the worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy

  17. Flexural strength using Steel Plate, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) on reinforced concrete beam in building technology

    Tarigan, Johannes; Patra, Fadel Muhammad; Sitorus, Torang

    2018-03-01

    Reinforced concrete structures are very commonly used in buildings because they are cheaper than the steel structures. But in reality, many concrete structures are damaged, so there are several ways to overcome this problem, by providing reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and reinforcement with steel plates. Each type of reinforcements has its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, researchers discuss the comparison between flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam using steel plates and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). In this case, the researchers use Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as external reinforcements. The dimension of the beams is 15 x 25 cm with the length of 320 cm. Based on the analytical results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.991 times its initial, GFRP is 1.877 times while with the steel plate is 1.646 times. Based on test results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.444 times its initial, GFRP is 1.333 times while the steel plate is 1.167 times. Based on these test results, the authors conclude that beam with CFRP is the best choice for external reinforcement in building technology than the others.

  18. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). V. EXTENT AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 0.5 CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Treu, Tommaso; Malkan, Matthew; Abramson, Louis; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Dressler, Alan; Fontana, Adriano; Pentericci, Laura; Bradac, Marusa; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuan-Han; He, Julie; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Trenti, Michele; Linden, Anja von der; Morris, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We present the first study of the spatial distribution of star formation in z ∼ 0.5 cluster galaxies. The analysis is based on data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). We illustrate the methodology by focusing on two clusters (MACS 0717.5+3745 and MACS 1423.8+2404) with different morphologies (one relaxed and one merging) and use foreground and background galaxies as a field control sample. The cluster+field sample consists of 42 galaxies with stellar masses in the range 10 8 –10 11 M ⊙  and star formation rates in the range 1–20 M ⊙ yr −1 . Both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside-out growth. In ∼20% of the cases, the Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. We investigate trends with the hot gas density as traced by the X-ray emission, and with the surface mass density as inferred from gravitational lens models, and find no conclusive results. The diversity of morphologies and sizes observed in Hα illustrates the complexity of the environmental processes that regulate star formation. Upcoming analysis of the full GLASS data set will increase our sample size by almost an order of magnitude, verifying and strengthening the inference from this initial data set

  19. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). V. EXTENT AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 0.5 CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Treu, Tommaso; Malkan, Matthew; Abramson, Louis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Schmidt, Kasper B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Poggianti, Bianca M. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Dressler, Alan [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Fontana, Adriano; Pentericci, Laura [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Bradac, Marusa; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuan-Han; He, Julie [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Trenti, Michele [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Linden, Anja von der [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Morris, Glenn [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We present the first study of the spatial distribution of star formation in z ∼ 0.5 cluster galaxies. The analysis is based on data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). We illustrate the methodology by focusing on two clusters (MACS 0717.5+3745 and MACS 1423.8+2404) with different morphologies (one relaxed and one merging) and use foreground and background galaxies as a field control sample. The cluster+field sample consists of 42 galaxies with stellar masses in the range 10{sup 8}–10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates in the range 1–20 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside-out growth. In ∼20% of the cases, the Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. We investigate trends with the hot gas density as traced by the X-ray emission, and with the surface mass density as inferred from gravitational lens models, and find no conclusive results. The diversity of morphologies and sizes observed in Hα illustrates the complexity of the environmental processes that regulate star formation. Upcoming analysis of the full GLASS data set will increase our sample size by almost an order of magnitude, verifying and strengthening the inference from this initial data set.

  20. NEW ERBIUM DOPED ANTIMONY GLASSES FOR LASER AND GLASS AMPLIFICATION

    B. Tioua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses. In this poster will offer new doped erbium glasses synthesized in silicate crucibles were obtained in the combination Sb2O3-WO3-Na2O. Several properties are measured and correlated with glass compositions. The absorption spectral studies have been performed for erbium doped glasses. The intensities of various absorption bands of the doped glasses are measured and the Judd-Ofelt parameters have been computed. From the theory of Judd-Ofelt, various radiative properties, such as transition probability, branching ratio and radiative life time for various emission levels of these doped glasses have been determined and reported. These results confirm the ability of antimony glasses for glass amplification.