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Sample records for glass bead model

  1. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  2. Preparation and characterization of physically modified glass beads used as model carriers in dry powder inhalers.

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Redlinger-Pohn, Jakob Dominik; Kappl, Michael; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is the physical modification and characterization of the surface topography of glass beads used as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). By surface modification the contact area between drug and carrier and thereby interparticle forces may be modified. Thus the performance of DPIs that relies on interparticle interactions may be improved. Glass beads were chosen as model carriers because various prospects of physical surface modification may be applied without affecting other factors also impacting interparticle interactions like particle size and shape. To generate rough surfaces glass beads were processed mechanically by friction and impaction in a ball mill with different grinding materials that were smaller and harder with respect to the glass beads. By varying the grinding time (4 h, 8 h) and by using different grinding media (tungsten carbide, quartz) surfaces with different shades of roughness were generated. Depending on the hardness of the grinding material and the grinding time the surface roughness was more or less pronounced. Surface roughness parameters and specific surface area were determined via several complementary techniques in order to get an enhanced understanding of the impact of the modifying procedure on the surface properties of the glass beads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  4. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  5. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Adamson, D.; Pickenheim, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  6. Effect of gravity on colloid transport through water-saturated columns packed with glass beads: modeling and experiments.

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V; Syngouna, Vasiliki I

    2014-06-17

    The role of gravitational force on colloid transport in water-saturated columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Transport experiments were performed with colloids (clays: kaolinite KGa-1b, montmorillonite STx-1b). The packed columns were placed in various orientations (horizontal, vertical, and diagonal) and a steady flow rate of Q = 1.5 mL/min was applied in both up-flow and down-flow modes. All experiments were conducted under electrostatically unfavorable conditions. The experimental data were fitted with a newly developed, analytical, one-dimensional, colloid transport model. The effect of gravity is incorporated in the mathematical model by combining the interstitial velocity (advection) with the settling velocity (gravity effect). The results revealed that flow direction influences colloid transport in porous media. The rate of particle deposition was shown to be greater for up-flow than for down-flow direction, suggesting that gravity was a significant driving force for colloid deposition.

  7. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  8. exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery

    User

    Glass bead making techniques and their mass production will help the individual ... communicate cultural values in a symbolic lan- guage which ..... Surface of most of the new beads were rough ... tourism potential to be developed further to.

  9. Beads.

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Beads served both as ornaments and as a medium of exchange, and the Indians manufactured them from such natural sources as bones, stones, beans, nuts, animal teeth, and polished antlers. Even after the introduction of European glass beads, the Indians continued to make their favorite beads from the natural sources. (DS)

  10. Standard specification for beaded process glass pipe and fittings

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers chemically resistant, low expansion Type-I borosilicate glass, Class A, (see Specification E 438) used to manufacture beaded end flanged-glass pipe and fittings for pressure and vacuum applications.

  11. On the chemical variability of Middelburg glass beads and rods

    Karklins, K.; Kottman, J.; Hancock, R.G.V.; Sempowski, M.L.; Nohe, A.W.; Moreau, J.-F.; Aufreiter, S.; Kenyon, I.

    2001-01-01

    Forty-three glass samples from a late 16th-early 17th century, glass beadmaking house in Middelburg, the Netherlands, were selected for maximum colouring variability, including plain and multi-coloured varieties. The glass chemistries were quite diverse, within each colour grouping. For each single colour of glass, anticipated colouring elements (copper for turquoise blue, cobalt for dark blue, manganese for rose, and tin for white) were used, with the exception of two beads that were opacified wih antimony rather than with tin. Multi-coloured glass glasses (chevron beads) produced chemistries that match the mixing of the different coloured glasses. In some cases, low relative amounts of some inter-mixed glasses were not detectable against the composition of the major glass component. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Chemical surface modification of glass beads for the treatment of paper machine process waters

    Jradi, Khalil; Daneault, Claude; Chabot, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption of detrimental contaminants on a solid sorbent is proposed to remove these contaminants from process waters to increase water recycling and reduce effluent loads in the papermaking industry. A self-assembly process of attaching (covalent grafting) cationic aminosilane molecules to glass beads was investigated. The existence and the hydrolytic stability of self-assembled monolayers and multilayers were confirmed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Effects of reaction time and curing on aminosilane layer structures are also discussed. The curing step after silanization seems to be crucial in the hydrophobization of the quaternary ammonium silane coated onto glass beads, and curing could affect the final chemical structure of the ammonium groups of grafted organosilane. Results indicated that modified glass beads have a strong hydrophobicity, which is attributed to the hydrophobic property of the longest carbon chain grafted onto the glass surface. Adsorption of a model contaminant (stearic acid) onto chemically modified glass beads was determined using colloidal titration. Hydrophobic interactions could be the main driving force involved between the long carbon chains of stearic acid and the carbon chains of the aminosilane layers on glass bead surfaces. Finally, self-assembly processes applied onto glass beads may have two promising applications for papermaking and self-cleaning systems.

  13. Surface modification of glass beads with glutaraldehyde: Characterization and their adsorption property for metal ions

    Ozmen, Mustafa; Can, Keziban; Akin, Ilker; Arslan, Gulsin [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, 42031, Konya (Turkey); Tor, Ali, E-mail: ali.alitor@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Selcuk University, Engineering Faculty, Campus, 42031, Konya (Turkey); Cengeloglu, Yunus; Ersoz, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, 42031, Konya (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, a new material that adsorbs the metal ions was prepared by modification of the glass beads surfaces with glutaraldehyde. First, the glass beads were etched with 4 M NaOH solution. Then, they were reacted with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Finally, silanized glass beads were treated with 25% of glutaraldehyde solution. The characterization studies by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), elemental analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) indicated that modification of the glass bead surfaces was successfully performed. The adsorption studies exhibited that the modified glass beads could be efficiently used for the removal of the metal cations and anion (chromate ion) from aqueous solutions via chelation and ion-exchange mechanisms. For both Pb(II) and Cr(VI), selected as model ions, the adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 60 min and adsorption of both ions followed the second-order kinetic model. It was found that the sorption data was better represented by the Freundlich isotherm in comparison to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II) and Cr(VI) were 9.947 and 11.571 mg/g, respectively. The regeneration studies also showed that modified glass beads could be re-used for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions over three cycles.

  14. Exploring Traditional Glass Bead Making Techniques in Jewellery ...

    Exploring traditional glass bead making techniques in jewellery in some prominent areas in Ghana is a means to exposing the area for metal and ceramic artists and other related fields of discipline such as aesthetics and criticism to complement their form of ... Keywords: livelihood, vitreous, glass bottles, furnace, threading ...

  15. Corrosion of ancient glass beads found in Southern Thailand

    Won-in, K; Thongkam, Y; Intarasiri, S; Kamwanna, T; Dararutana, P

    2012-01-01

    Glass has been used as ornaments and decorations in Thailand for several hundred years. The archaeological resources suggested that the ancient glass beads excavated in southern Thailand were made more than 1300 years ago. Initial findings revealed that there were number of difference in shade between the glass beads of difference colors. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) system attached with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were firstly used to study the surface corrosion of the samples. SEM micrographs showed more corroded and flaked microstructure. These were contributed to the interaction of both the ground water and its dissolved chemical compounds.

  16. Analysis of early medieval glass beads - Glass in the transition period

    Smit, Ziga, E-mail: ziga.smit@ijs.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, Timotej [National Museum of Slovenia, Presernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jezersek, David [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Istenic, Janka [National Museum of Slovenia, Presernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Glass beads from graves excavated in Slovenia and dated archaeologically to the 7th-10th century AD were analysed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The results indicate two groups of glass; natron glass made in the Roman tradition and glass made with alkalis from the ash of halophytic plants, which gradually replaced natron glass after c. 800 AD. The alkalis used in the second group of glass seem to be in close relation to a variant of the Venetian white glass that appeared several centuries later. The origin of this glass may be traced to glass production in Mesopotamia and around the Aral Sea. All the mosaic beads with eye decoration, as well as most of the drawn-segmented and drawn-cut beads analysed, are of plant-ash glass, which confirms their supposed oriental origin.

  17. Capture, isolation and release of cancer cells with aptamer-functionalized glass bead array.

    Wan, Yuan; Liu, Yaling; Allen, Peter B; Asghar, Waseem; Mahmood, M Arif Iftakher; Tan, Jifu; Duhon, Holli; Kim, Young-tae; Ellington, Andrew D; Iqbal, Samir M

    2012-11-21

    Early detection and isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTC) can enable better prognosis for cancer patients. A Hele-Shaw device with aptamer functionalized glass beads is designed, modeled, and fabricated to efficiently isolate cancer cells from a cellular mixture. The glass beads are functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) aptamer and sit in ordered array of pits in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. A PDMS encapsulation is then used to cover the channel and to flow through cell solution. The beads capture cancer cells from flowing solution depicting high selectivity. The cell-bound glass beads are then re-suspended from the device surface followed by the release of 92% cells from glass beads using combination of soft shaking and anti-sense RNA. This approach ensures that the cells remain in native state and undisturbed during capture, isolation and elution for post-analysis. The use of highly selective anti-EGFR aptamer with the glass beads in an array and subsequent release of cells with antisense molecules provide multiple levels of binding and release opportunities that can help in defining new classes of CTC enumeration devices.

  18. Glass bead transformation method for gram-positive bacteria

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive and reproducible transformation method was developed for Gram-positive bacteria. It was based on agitation of bacterial protoplasts with glass beads in the presence of DNA and polyethylene glycol. By using this method, introduction of pGK12 into protoplasts of several strains of Gram-positive bacteria was achieved.

  19. Low-cost commercial glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy

    Jafari, S.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Gouldstone, C.A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.; Alalawi, A.; Jordan, T.J.; Clark, C.H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size ( 60 Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500 cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1 cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000 cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500 cGy, with an R 2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600 cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the dosimetric properties of a low cost commercially produced glass seed beads. • Glass beads are available in small size of 1–3 mm, suitable for dosimetry of small radiation fields. • The results demonstrate a mean reproducibility of 0.23% (2 SD), batch homogeneity of within 5%. • Dose response was linear over wide dose range tested for 1 cGy to kGy. • Improved fading effect of 10

  20. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting: a new technique

    Peter Kotschy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Kotschy1, Sascha Virnik2, Doris Christ3, Alexander Gaggl21Private Practice, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Central Hospital, Klagenfurt, Austria; 3Klagenfurt, AustriaObjective: The aim of periodontal therapy is the healing of periodontal inflammation; the protection of the attachment and the alveolar bone; and the regeneration of the periodontal structures. In the therapy of periodontitis, supra- and subgingival scaling and root planing plays a main role. The procedure described combines perfect root cleaning without scaling and root planing and minimal invasive periodontal surgery without a scalpel.Material and methods: Glass beads of 90 µm were used with the kinetic preparation unit PrepStart® under a pressure of 0.5–5 bar. This technique was practised only under visual control using the OPMI® PRO Magis microscope. Seven examinations were carried out at baseline after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months.Results: Time shows a statistically significant influence on all of the considered target variables (P < 0.0001 for all. As the according estimate is negative, probing depth decreases over time. The major decrease seems to be during the first 6 months. Considering probing depth, plaque on the main effect root shows significant influence (again, P < 0.0001 for all. Observations with high probing depth at the beginning were faster than those with low probing depth. The same characteristic appears by attachment level. Patients with more loss of attachment show more gain.Conclusions: Using microscope-controlled glass bead blasting results in a perfectly clean root surface using visual control (magnification 20×. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting is therefore a good alternative to periodontal surgery.Keywords: periodontal therapy, microscope, periodontitis

  1. Development of bead-type radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeter applicable to various purposes

    Sato, F.; Toyota, Y.; Maki, D.; Zushi, N.; Kato, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Iida, T.

    2013-01-01

    Bead-type radiophotoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters were well fabricated with a gas-particle jet flame system for glass melting-cooling process. A rod of silver-activated phosphate glass was pulverized into micrometer-size particles. Spherical glass particles were formed from the pulverized glass particles in the high-temperature jet flame owing to the surface tension of the glass material. Some groups of spherical glass particles were irradiated with X-rays and their RPL was demonstrably observed for their exposure to UV light. A flexible RPL glass sheet was also made of bead-type RPL glass dosimeters and was useful for radiation imaging. Bead-type RPL glass dosimeters are expected to be used for dose monitoring in highly radioactively-contaminated area. -- Highlights: ► We developed bead-type radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters. ► Bead-type glass RPL dosimeters are satisfactorily used as radiation dosimeters. ► A flexible RPL glass sheet is made of bead-type RPL glass dosimeters

  2. Evaluation of the Seismic Characterision of Select Engineered Nanoparticles in Saturated Glass Beads

    A laboratory testing apparatus was developed for the study of seismic body wave propagation through nanoparticles dispersed in pore fluid that is essentially saturating glass beads. First, the responses of water-saturated glass bead specimens were studied to establish baseline si...

  3. Chinese and Venetian glass beads excavated from Fais Island in Micronesia

    Intoh, Michiko

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Over 830 glass beads were excavated from a late prehistoric cemetery site on Fais Island in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia In one of the 13 excavated burials a young woman had more that 310 glass beads around her wrist. Bone collagen from this burial was dated by AMS to 387 + 64 BP. The associated glass beads were classified into three groups based on colour and size. A sample from each group was examined for evidence of manufacturing technique. The chemical composition was determined using an X-ray microanalyser. The first group consisted of more than 300 pale green, transparent glass beads which are less than 2 mm in diameter. The chemical composition is high in PbO (75.22%) while low in MgO. Such a high lead content is characteristic of Chinese glass. The manufacturing technique could not be determined because the surfaces were too eroded. The second group contains several yellow, translucent glass beads. The chemical composition is also high in PbO (54.8%) and low in MgO. The beads were made by winding. The combination of winding and high lead strongly indicates that the beads were made in China. The third group had only one white, translucent glass bead. It has particular white stripes which suggest that it is a 'gooseberry' bead which was made in Venice between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. In conclusion, both Chinese and Venetian glass beads co-existed on Fais Island around the time of European contact. They are likely to have been brought in from an area which had access to both beads. Island South-East Asia is tentatively considered to be the source area

  4. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RETRO-REFLECTIVE COATED PAPER BASED ON MICRO-GLASS BEADS

    YulongWang; ChuanshanZhao; TaoZhang

    2004-01-01

    High-reflectivity micro-glass bead, as a kind ofretro-reflective material, is widely used in reflectivefabric or film and other reflective coatings. But it israrely used in coated paper. The retro-reflectivetheory of micro-bead is described. Also the effect ofsize of micro-bead, dosage of binder and differentcolor layers on reflective properties of coated paperare discussed in this article. The results show that itsretro-reflective efficiency is good, equally toreflective fabric or film when the micro-glass bead isused in coated paper.

  5. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RETRO-REFLECTIVE COATED PAPER BASED ON MICRO-GLASS BEADS

    Yulong Wang; Chuanshan Zhao; Tao Zhang

    2004-01-01

    High-reflectivity micro-glass bead, as a kind of retro-reflective material, is widely used in reflective fabric or film and other reflective coatings. But it is rarely used in coated paper. The retro-reflective theory of micro-bead is described. Also the effect of size of micro-bead, dosage of binder and different color layers on reflective properties of coated paper are discussed in this article. The results show that its retro-reflective efficiency is good, equally to reflective fabric or film when the micro-glass bead is used in coated paper.

  6. Chemical–physical characterisation of Early Iron Age glass beads from Central Europe

    Agua, F.; Conde, J.F.; Kobylińska, U.; Kobyliński, Z.; García-Heras, M.; Villegas, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    Archaeological excavation of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology (Polish Academy of Sciences, PAN) at several Iron Age sites located in West Poland and South Germany has allowed the recovery of an important set of coloured glass beads mostly decorated (6th–4th centuries BC). The present paper summarises the results obtained through the chemical and microstructural characterisation of such beads. The research was carried out by binocular microscope observations, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and visible spectrophotometry. The main objective was to attain information on the production technology and conservation state of these beads. The results indicated that all them were produced with soda lime silicate glass, even though two groups can be separated: (i) beads containing high MgO percentages made from plant ashes as an alkaline source, and (ii) beads containing low MgO percentages made from natron as an alkaline source. As regards decorations, opaque white was obtained from tin oxide, turquoise blue from Cu2+-ions, and opaque yellow from lead antimonate. Additionally, results showed microstructural and microcrystalline differences between some glass beads studied here and other glass beads from Mediterranean areas, dated in the same chronological period. This fact pointed out the valuable role given to these beads by Iron Age communities from Central Europe. (Author)

  7. Preparation of carbon nanotubes/epoxy resin composites by using hollow glass beads as the carrier

    Wu, X.F.; Zhao, Y.K.; Zhang, D.; Chen, T.B.; Ma, L.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass beads had been utilized as the carrier to assist dispersion of carbon nanotubes in epoxy resin. Hollow glass beads were firstly aminated with gamma-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane, sencondly reacted with carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes via an amidation reaction and susequently mixed with epoxy resin and hardener. The experimental results showed that carbon nanotubes could be loaded on the surfaces of hollow glass beads and approximately a monolayer of carbon nanotubes was formed when the weight ratio of hollow glass beads to carbon nanotubes was 100:5. Moreover, the dispersity of carbon nanotubes in the matrix was improved as compared to the control samples prepared by using a conventional mixing method. (author)

  8. Micro-Raman and micro-XRF analysis of glass beads from the Chungde site, Taiwan

    Liou, Y. S.; Wang, S. C.; Liu, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    A large number of ancient glass beads dating back from Late Neolithic Age to early Historical Period (ca. 2300-400 BP) of Taiwan have been uncovered from archaeological sites. These glass beads with variant colors, shapes, and stylistics have long been considered to possess socio-cultural significance. Due to the color and chemical composition of glass bead might be determined by raw materials, fluxing agents, colorants, opacifiers and stabilizers. In addition, ancient glass beads are rare and precious, non-destructive analysis has been employed to decipher about the provenances, manufacturing techniques, and exchange/trade routes. In this work, micro-Raman spectroscopy and micro X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (μ-XRF) were used to examine ten ancient glass beads excavated from the Chungde site, Hualien, Taiwan, dating back to 1500-800 BP, to unravel the mineralogical and chemical compositions. Micro Raman experimental results show that glass and anorthite glass are the main constituents accompanying with trace level of quartz, albite, siderite, ankerite, and amazonite. The Raman Index of Polymerization (Ip) indicate that the sintering temperature of the glass beads is in the range of 1000~1400°C. Furthermore, the chemical compositions are corresponding to the maximum stretching vibration peak wave number (νmax Si-O Stretching) and the maximum bending vibration peak wave number (δmax Si-O Bending), which are essentially consistent with that of the India-Pacific beads. The μ-XRF results indicate the presence of oxides including SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, CaO, MgO, SnO2, TiO2, CuO, etc., and could be classified to high aluminum of soda-lime glass system. According to ternary phase diagram analysis of CaO-K2O-Na2O and K2O-Al2O3-CaO, the ancient glass beads analyzed could be attributed to the India-Pacific beads, and is in accordance with that of Raman spectra. The combination of these facts leads to the conclusion that glass beads obtained from the Chungde

  9. Experimental investigation of virus and clay particles cotransport in partially saturated columns packed with glass beads.

    Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2015-02-15

    Suspended clay particles in groundwater can play a significant role as carriers of viruses, because, depending on the physicochemical conditions, clay particles may facilitate or hinder the mobility of viruses. This experimental study examines the effects of clay colloids on the transport of viruses in variably saturated porous media. All cotransport experiments were conducted in both saturated and partially saturated columns packed with glass beads, using bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 as model viruses, and kaolinite (KGa-1b) and montmorillonite (STx-1b) as model clay colloids. The various experimental collision efficiencies were determined using the classical colloid filtration theory. The experimental data indicated that the mass recovery of viruses and clay colloids decreased as the water saturation decreased. Temporal moments of the various breakthrough concentrations collected, suggested that the presence of clays significantly influenced virus transport and irreversible deposition onto glass beads. The mass recovery of both viruses, based on total effluent virus concentrations, was shown to reduce in the presence of suspended clay particles. Furthermore, the transport of suspended virus and clay-virus particles was retarded, compared to the conservative tracer. Under unsaturated conditions both clay particles facilitated the transport of ΦX174, while hindered the transport of MS2. Moreover, the surface properties of viruses, clays and glass beads were employed for the construction of classical DLVO and capillary potential energy profiles, and the results suggested that capillary forces play a significant role on colloid retention. It was estimated that the capillary potential energy of MS2 is lower than that of ΦX174, and the capillary potential energy of KGa-1b is lower than that of STx-1b, assuming that the protrusion distance through the water film is the same for each pair of particles. Moreover, the capillary potential energy is several orders of

  10. Water movement in glass bead porous media: 1. Experiments of capillary rise and hysteresis

    Lu, T. X.; Biggar, J. W.; Nielsen, D. R.

    1994-12-01

    Experimental observations of capillary rise and hysteresis of water or ethanol in glass beads are presented to improve our understanding of those physical processes in porous media. The results provide evidence that capillary rise into porous media cannot be fully explained by a model of cylinders. They further demonstrate that the "Ink bottle" model does not provide an adequate explanation of hysteresis. Glass beads serving as a model for ideal soil are enclosed in a rectangular glass chamber model. A TV camera associated with a microscope was used to record the processes of capillary rise and drainage. It is clearly shown during capillary rise that the fluid exhibits a "jump" behavior at the neck of the pores in an initially dry profile or at the bottom of the water film in an initially wet profile. Under an initially dry condition, the jump initiates at the particle with smallest diameter. The jump process continues to higher elevations until at equilibrium the surface tensile force is balanced by the hydrostatic force. The wetting front at that time is readily observed as flat and saturated. Under an initially wet condition, capillary rise occurs as a water film thickening process associated with the jump process. Trapped air behind the wetting front renders the wetting front irregular and unsaturated. The capillary rise into an initially wet porous medium can be higher than that into an initially dry profile. During the drying process, large surface areas associated with the gas-liquid interface develop, allowing the porous medium to retain more water than during the wetting process at the same pressure. That mechanism explains better the hysteresis phenomenon in porous media in contrast to other mechanisms that now prevail.

  11. The characterization of ceramic alumina prepared by using additive glass beads

    Suprapedi; Muljadi; Sardjono, Priyo

    2018-01-01

    The ceramic alumina has been made by using additive glass bead (5 and 10 % wt.). There are two kinds of materials, such as : gamma Alumina and glass bead. Synthesis of alumina was done by ball milling for 24 hours, then the mixed powder was dried in drying oven at 100 °C for 6 hours. Furthermore, the dried powder was mixed by using 2 % of PVA and continued with compacted to form a pellet with pressure of 50 MPA. The next step is sintering process with variation temperature of 1150, 1200, 1250, 1300 and 1400 °C and holding time for 2 hours. The characterization conducted are consist of test density, hardness, shrinkage, and microstructure. The results show that ceramic alumina with addition of 10 % wt. glass bead has the higher value of density, hardness and shrinkage than addition of 5% wt. glass bead. The highest characterization of ceramic alumina with addition 10 % glass bead was achieved at sintering temperature of 1400 °C with density 3.68 g/cm3, hardness vickers 780.40 Hv and shrinkage 15.23 %. The XRD results show that it was founds a corrundum (alpha Alumina) as dominant phase and mullite as minor phase.

  12. Covalent attachment of the plant natural product naringenin to small glass and ceramic beads

    Grotewold Erich

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural products have numerous medicinal applications and play important roles in the biology of the organisms that accumulate them. Few methods are currently available for identifying proteins that bind to small molecules, therefore the discovery of cellular targets for natural products with pharmacological activity continues to pose a significant challenge in drug validation. Similarly, the identification of enzymes that participate in the biosynthesis or modification of natural products remains a formidable bottleneck for metabolic engineering. Flavonoids are one large group of natural products with a diverse number of functions in plants and in human health. The coupling of flavonoids to small ceramic and glass beads provides a first step in the development of high-throughput, solid-support base approaches to screen complex libraries to identify proteins that bind natural products. Results The utilization of small glass and ceramic beads as solid supports for the coupling of small molecules was explored. Initial characterization of the beads indicated uniform and high capacity loading of amino groups. Once the beads were deemed adequate for the linking of small molecules by the coupling of NHS-fluorescein followed by microscopy, chemical hydrolysis and fluorometry, the flavonoid naringenin was modified with 1,4-dibromobutane, followed by the attachment of aminopropyltriethoxysilane. After NMR structural confirmation, the resulting 7-(4-(3-(triethoxysilylpropylaminobutoxy naringenin was attached to the ceramic beads. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ceramic and glass beads provide convenient solid supports for the efficient and facile coupling of small molecules. We succeeded in generating naringenin-coupled ceramic and glass beads. We also developed a convenient series of steps that can be applied for the solid-support coupling of other related flavonoids. The availability of solid-support coupled naringenin opens

  13. Mathematical Kinetic Modelling and Representing Design Equation for a Packed Photoreactor with Immobilised TiO2-P25 Nanoparticles on Glass Beads in the Removal of C.I. Acid Orange 7

    Sheidaei Behnaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a design equation was presented for a batch-recirculated photoreactor composed of a packed bed reactor (PBR with immobilised TiO2-P25 nanoparticle thin films on glass beads, and a continuous-flow stirred tank (CFST. The photoreactor was studied in order to remove C.I. Acid Orange 7 (AO7, a monoazo anionic dye from textile industry, by means of UV/TiO2 process. The effect of different operational parameters such as the initial concentration of contaminant, the volume of solution in CFST, the volumetric flow rate of liquid, and the power of light source in the removal efficiency were examined. A rate equation for the removal of AO7 is obtained by mathematical kinetic modelling. The results of reaction kinetic analysis indicate the conformity of removal kinetics with Langmuir-Hinshelwood model (kL-H = 0.74 mg L-1 min-1, Kads = 0.081 mg-1 L. The represented design equation obtained from mathematical kinetic modelling can properly predict the removal rate constant of the contaminant under different operational conditions (R2 = 0.963. Thus the calculated and experimental results are in good agreement with each other.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of AD 1660-1930 European copper-coloured blue glass trade beads from Ontario, Canada

    Kenyon, I.; Hancock, R.G.V.; Aufreiter, S.

    1995-01-01

    Blue glass trade beads from well-dated late seventeenth- to early twentieth-century sites and collections have been analysed non-destructively by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The beads display enough variations in their elemental contents to allow us to characterize the different chemistries. The implication of these results is that similar chemical analyses of blue beads from undated archaeological sites may be used to help date the sites, since each bead chemistry has a specific earliest period. (author)

  15. Am/Cm TTR testing - 3/8-inch glass beads evaluation in CIM5

    Witt, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    To facilitate the procurement and handling of the glass former for Am/Cm vitrification in the F-Canyon MPPF, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch diameter glass beads were purchased from Corning for evaluation in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Prior to evaluating the beads in the CIM5, tests were conducted in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) with 1/4 inch beads, 3/8 inch beads, and a 50/50 mixture to identify any process concerns. Results of the DTTS tests are summarized in Attachment 1. A somewhat larger volume expansion was experienced in all three DTTS runs as compared to a standard run using cullet. Further testing of the use of glass beads in the CIM5 was requested by the Design Authority as Task 1.02 of Technical Task Request 99-MNSS/SE-006. Since the Technical Task Plan was not yet approved, the completion of this task was conducted under an authorization request approved by the SRTC Laboratory Director, S. Wood. This request is included as Attachment 2

  16. Mean shear resistance at steady-state for wet glass beads impact of liquid content and particle size

    Louati, Haithem; Oulahna, Driss; de Ryck, Alain

    2017-06-01

    The flow behaviour of a granular media is due to their weight, frictional contact forces between them, and external forces exerted by the walls. If their size is lower than 50 microns, the Van-der-Waals forces between them may also influence their flowability. When adding some wetting liquid, we introduce attractive forces between the particles, whose order of magnitude may overcome the particle weight and V-d-W interactions. This leads to a cohesive behaviour. The shear stress to start the flow is greater than in the dry case but the steady-state flow is also perturbed by the presence of liquid bridges. This later phenomenon has been recently quantitatively studied for 70-110 μm glass beads with a non-volatile liquid, with experimental results for different normal stresses (up to 12 kPa) and liquid content (up to 20 % in volume). These results have been compared to a heuristic model, based on the model for capillary bridges and the simplest hypothesis for the granular bed texture depending on the stresses applied. We extend this study with new results concerning smaller glass beads 12-40 μm in diameter and larger liquid fraction for 70-110 μm glass beads using experimental and theoretical approaches.

  17. Improvement in precision and trueness of quantitative XRF analysis with glass-bead method. 1

    Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Ogasawara, Noriko; Yuhara, Yoshitaroh; Yokoyama, Yuichi

    1995-01-01

    The factors which lower the precisions of simultaneous X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer were investigated. Especially in quantitative analyses of oxide powders with glass-bead method, X-ray optical characteristics of the equipment affects the precision of the X-ray intensities. In focused (curved) crystal spectrometers, the precision depends on the deviation of the actual size and position of the crystals from those of theoretical designs, thus the precision differs for each crystal for each element. When the deviation is large, a dispersion of the measured X-ray intensities is larger than the statistical dispersion, even though the intensity itself keeps unchanged. Moreover, a waviness of the surface of glass-beads makes the difference of the height of an analyzed surface from that of the designed one. This difference makes the change of the amount of the X-ray incident on the analyzing crystal and makes the dispersion of the X-ray intensity larger. Considering these factors, a level of the waviness must be regulated to improve the precision under exsisting XRF equipments. In this study, measurement precisions of 4 simultaneous XRF spectrometers were evaluated, and the element lead (Pb-Lβ1) was found to have the lowest precision. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of the measurements of 10 glass-beads for the same powder sample was 0.3% without the regulation of the waviness of analytical surface. With mechanical flattening of the glass-bead surface, the level of waviness, which is the maximum difference of the heights in a glass-bead, was regulated as under 30 μm, RSD was 0.038%, which is almost comparable to the statistical RSD 0.033%. (author)

  18. Study on Surface Modification of Glass Bead by a Block Copolymer Coupling Agent

    LI Yin; ZHANG Bing; ZHOU Xiao-dong

    2008-01-01

    A tri-block copolymer coupling agent polystyrene biock-poly(n-butyl-acrylate)-block-poly(r-methacryloxypro pylt rimethoxysilane)(PS-b-PnBA-b-PMPS)was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization(ATRP),and its molecular structure was characterized by fourier-transform infrared spectra,hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography.The glass bead was treated with the block copolymer coupling agent,and then studied by transmission electron microscopy.The result showed that strong interaction was formed between the block copolymer coupling agent and the surface of glass bead,and then the block of poly(n-butylacrylate)formed a layer of film on the surface.

  19. Functionalized glass beads for the recovery of waste radioactive elements. Final report

    Geldard, J.F.

    1979-09-01

    Various substituted ethylenediamine tetraacetic acids and their precursors have been prepared and characterized. In addition to containing groups that can chelate metal ions, these substances also contain groups that can be used to bond them to glass beads. Experiments have shown, however, that a large enough number of active sites cannot be achieved by this route. An alternative scheme was devised, whereby trimethoxysilyl groups are incorporated into molecules that have the necessary functional groups. These silyl compounds can be bonded directly to glass beads; the ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid can then be formed in place. The prognosis for this reaction scheme is good, based on the experiments done so far. Stability constants have been measured for some metal ion complexes of the acids mentioned above

  20. Neutron activation analysis of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from the eastern Great Lakes area of North America

    Hancock, R.G.V.; Chafe, A.; Kenyon, I.

    1994-01-01

    Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from aboriginal sites in the eastern Great Lakes area of North America have been analysed non-destructively using low neutron dose instrumental neutron activation analysis, so that the beads could be returned to their keepers. Dark blue (cobalt-coloured) beads are readily separable from turquoise (copper-coloured) beads. Differences in the chemistries of the turquoise blue beads appear to be useful in separating glass beads from the two centuries. Low calcium, sixteenth-century turquoise beads tend to disintegrate by a leaching of the alkali metals. (Author)

  1. Stationary and Dynamic Permeability and Coupling Coefficient Measurements in Sintered Glass Bead Systems

    Gueven, I.; Steeb, H.; Luding, S.

    2014-12-01

    Electrokinetic waves describe the coupling between seismic and electromagnetic waves that exist in porous media. The coupling between them arise from an electrochemical boundary layer between grain and fluid interface of saturated porous media. Acoustical waves cause a disturbance of the electrical fluid charge within the double layer, which therefore creates an electric streaming current (seismoelectric effect). Inversely, electromagnetic waves can generate mechanical signals (electroseismic effect). Electrokinetic conversion potentially combines high seismic resolution with good electromagnetic hydrocarbon sensitivity. The (stationary and frequency-dependent) streaming potential coefficient is a key property, which gives rise to the coupling between electromagnetic and acoustical waves. It depends strongly on the fluid conductivity, porosity, tortuosity, permeability, pore throat and zeta potential of porous media. We examine experimentally both, the stationary and dynamic permeabilities and coupling coefficients of sintered glass bead systems. For this purpose a multi-purpose measuring cell was developed which allows us to carry out - besides common ultrasound experiments - also to perform stationary and frequency-dependent permeability and coupling coefficient measurements. For the experiments sintered mono- and slightly polydisperse glass bead samples with different glass bead diameters between 0.4 and 8mm and porosities ranging between 21 and 39% were used. The stationary and dynamic permeability and streaming potential measurements are supported by μCT scans which enable us a deeper insight into the porous medium. Based on the μCT scans of the produced sintered glass bead samples essential influence parameters, like tortuosity, porosity, effective particle diameters and pore throats in different regions of the entire scanned region have been analyzed in detail to understand the laboratory experiments, cf. Illustration 1. In addition lattice Boltzmann

  2. Physical and chemical analysis of glass beads and glassy slag from Iron Age sites in northeast Thailand : preliminary findings

    Saitowitz, S.J.; Reid, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Substantial numbers of glass beads have been found at the Iron Age site of Noen U-Loke (ca. 850 BC to AD 500) in northeast Thailand. Typological classification of the beads, using standardised procedures, together with specialized analytical data show that while distinctly different bead-making techniques were used to produce the beads, the chemical composition of the glass was very similar. This information suggests the possibility of multiple craftsmen, at varied levels of expertise, using glass made at a single source or using raw materials found within a specific region. These findings allow for more detailed physical and chemical analysis of the beads, so as to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of different bead types. A fragment of glassy slag, excavated at Noen U-Loke, was analysed to distinguish whether it could be associated with a glass making process. However, the results were unable to confirm whether it was used to make glass suitable for beads. (author). 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Commercial glass beads as TLDs in radiotherapy produced by different manufacturers

    Jafari, S. M.; Bates, N. M.; Jupp, T.; Abdul Sani, S. F.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    While commercial jewellery glass beads offer the basis of novel radiotherapy TL dosimetry (Jafari et al. 2014a,b,c, 2015a,b), detailed study of TL variation is required for the products from various manufacturers. Investigation is made for glass beads from four manufacturers from four countries: China (Rocaille), Japan (Mill Hill), Indonesia (TOHO™) and Czech Republic (Czech). Sample composition was determined using an energy-dispersive X-ray unit coupled to a scanning electron microscope. Values of mass attenuation coefficient, μ/ρ, as a function of photon energy were then calculated for photons of energy 1 keV to 10 MeV, using the National Institute of Standards and Technology XCOM program. Radiation and energy response were determined using X-rays generated at accelerating potentials from 80 kVp to 6 MV (TPR20/10=0.670). All bead types showed TL to be linear with dose (R2>0.999). Glow curve dosimetric peaks reached a maximum value at 300 °C for the Toho and 290 °C for the Czech and Mill Hill products but was between 200-250 °C for the Rocaille product. Radiation sensitivity following mass normalisation varied within an order of magnitude; Toho samples showed the greatest and Rocaille the least sensitivity. For the Toho, Czech, Rocaille and Mill Hill samples the energy responses at 80 kVp were 5.0, 4.0, 3.6 and 3.3 times that obtained at 6 MV. All four glass bead types offer potential use as TL dosimeters over doses commonly applied in radiotherapy. Energy response variation was <1% at 6 MV but significant variation was found for photon beam energies covering the kV range; careful characterisation is required if use at this range is intended.

  4. X-ray fluorescent analysis on Indo-Pacific glass beads from Sungai Mas archaeological sites, Kedah, Malaysia

    Zuliskandar Ramli; Nik Hassan Shuhaimi; Nik Abdul Rahman; Abdul Latif Samian

    2011-01-01

    Sungai Mas was an ancient port-kingdom located on West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia in a district of Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia. The port-kingdom evolved as an entrepot since fifth century AD and continuously visited by international trader from India, China, Middle East and Europe until eighteenth century AD. Sungai Mas was also one of the Indo-Pacific beads making centers in Southeast Asia since sixth to thirteenth century AD and also produced pottery and brick. X-ray fluorescent analysis (XRF) on Sungai Mas Indo-Pacific beads is carried out to determine whether the glass beads originated from Arikamedu, India or locally made by community in Sungai Mas. Totally, twenty-two samples of beads and beads materials assayed by XRF were chosen. Contents of nine major elements and nine trace elements, which might be present of flux, stabilizer, colorants or opacifier were examined. The elements Si, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Mn, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zr, Sr, Ba, La, U, Ni and Cr were detectable in all samples. The concentration of elements found are discussed in terms of flux, silica or lead base glass, color and/or opacity of the glass beads and glass samples. The result showed that Sungai Mas produced their own Indo-Pacific beads from sixth to thirteenth century AD. (author)

  5. Glass bead sterilizer comprehensively defeats hot air oven in orthodontic clinic

    Sanjeev Vasudev Jakati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary to ′try in′ several bands before the correct one is selected. A possible concern with re-using such bands is the lack of cross-infection control. Aim and Objectives: To determine whether such bands could be successfully decontaminated with Glass bead sterilization so that they could be re-used without a cross-infection risk. Materials: Custom made molar bands were taken and buccal tubes,lingual sheath and lingual cleat were welded under strict aseptic conditions. Methods: Samples were divided into 2 groups i.e. A and B, based on mode for sterilization. Sterilized attachments were placed in each of 2 conical flask. The bacteria spores were inoculated into both flask under strict aseptic conditions. Bacteria Bacillus subtillis and Staphylococcus albus species were allowed to multiply in individual flasks filled with BHI broth for 24 hours. Bands from 1st group were placed in a glass bead sterilizer. For the 2 nd group i.e. hot air oven group, all bands were placed together. After sterilization bands were removed and placed in freshly sterilized 500ml conical flask containing BHI broth for 24 hours in the incubator. The following day randomly 4 attachments were selected from each group and streaked on blood agar culture plates. Results: After sterilization and on further incubation in BHI broth for 24 and 48 hrs. Respectively no growth was seen. Conclusion: 1 hr. of Hot Air Oven sterilization (excluding pre sterilization heat up time and post sterilization cooling time at 190°C is as effective as 3 min of Chair side Glass Bead sterilization.

  6. Optical enhancement of phosphor-converted wLEDs using glass beads

    Güner, Tuğrul; Şentürk, Ufuk; Demir, Mustafa M.

    2017-10-01

    YAG:Ce3+ is a yellow-source compound commonly used in phosphor conversion layers for direct coating or remote phosphor configurations in LED illumination. This material, however, suffers from a high correlated color temperature, and low color-rendering index due to its deficiency in the red spectrum. In this study, glass beads (GB) with an average particle diameter of 10 μm were introduced to the conversion layer of a YAG:Ce3+ particulate-filled polydimethylsiloxane matrix composite structure and found to improve the optical features of the resulting composite.

  7. EFFECT OF INTERFACIAL ADHESION ON CRYSTALLIZATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/GLASS BEAD COMPOSITES

    OU Yuchun; YU Zhongzhen; ZHU Jin; LI Ge; ZHU Shanguang

    1996-01-01

    The interfacial adhesion between poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and glass bead was investigated by scanning electron microscope and parallel-plate rheometer. Effect of interfacial adhesion on the crystallization and mechanical properties of PET/glass bead composites was also studied by differential scanning calorimeter and mechanical testers.The results obtained indicate that the glass bead has a heterogeneous nucleation effect on the PET crystallization. Although better interfacial adhesion is advantageous to the increase of the tensile strength of the composite, yet it is unfavorable to the crystallization of PET. It should be pointed out that the crystallization rate of filled PET is always higher than that of pure PET, regardless of the state of interfacial adhesion.

  8. Characterization of some tin-contained ancient glass beads found in China by means of SEM-EDS and raman spectroscopy.

    Li, Qinghui; Liu, Song; Su, Bomin; Zhao, Hongxia; Fu, Qiang; Dong, Junqing

    2013-02-01

    A total of nine tin-contained ancient glass beads were characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. These glass beads dated from 1st century BC to 10th century AD were excavated from the Xinjiang and Guangxi provinces of China. Two kinds of tin-based opacifiers/colorants included crystalline cassiterite (SnO(2)) and lead-tin yellow types II were first found in these soda lime glass beads. The tentative chronology of the tin-based opacifiers/colorants used in ancient glasses from China and the West was compared. In addition, several transition metal ions colorants were also found in these beads. The detailed study of the glassy matrices, crystalline inclusions, and the microstructural heterogeneities for these glass beads has revealed some valuable information to trace the possible making technology and provenances. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bioleaching of Primary Nickel Ore Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LR Cells Immobilized in Glass Beads

    Ellen Cristine Giese

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulphide minerals are one of the most important sources of value metals. For several years, a large number of hydrometallurgical and biotechnological processes have been developed to leach low-grade sulphide ores and the conditions are well established. However, the management of microorganisms in the bioleaching process is not easy to handle. In this paper, the use of immobilized cells of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LR in glass beads in bioleaching of primary nickel ore was evaluated. The column experiments inoculated with immobilized cells of A. ferrooxidans LR showed the same efficiency than the conventional method using free cells and is promising for application on a larger scale as it ensuring integrity and activity of biomining microorganisms and reduce process costs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i2.698 

  10. Relationship between microhardness and fatigue strength after glass micro-bead peening and ion implantation

    Lunarski, J.; Zielecki, M.

    1989-01-01

    Results of tests on fatigue strength and condition of the surface layer, produced by ion implantation or/and glass micro-bead peening for E1961Sz and 12H2N4MAZ steels and WT3-1 titanium alloy are reported. In the tests the following characteristics are measured: Knoop hardness, residual stresses (by etching method), surface roughness, and oscillatory bending fatigue limit at the resonance frequency of the specimen. The test results indicate that for the examined steels there is a strong correlation between surface microhardness and fatigue limit, in spite of various surface treatments. This fact enables to predict changes in the fatigue limit, basing on the results of surface microhardness measurements, which are inexpensive and easy to perform. (author)

  11. Němčice and Pistiros: glass beads as historical markers in the third century BC

    Venclová, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, 1-2 (2015), s. 143-148 ISSN 1212-5865 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25396S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : glass beads * Iron Age * imports Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. PFG NMR Study of Liquid n-Hexane Self-Diffusion in the Bed of Porous Glass Beads

    Peksa, M.; Lang, J.; Kočiřík, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 36 (2009), s. 1-2 ISSN 1862-4138 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : PFG NMR Study * porous glass beads Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.uni-leipzig.de/diffusion/journal/index.html

  13. New research on glass beads confirms trade and contact between Southern Africa and Southeast Asia ca. AD 950-1250

    Saitowitz-Fenton, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Luxury goods, used in Muslim and medieval long distance trade between ca. AD 900-1250, found an important market among the Iron Age peoples of southern Africa. Indirect evidence of this trade can be seen in the form of archaeological collections of glass beads at sites throughout Africa and Southeast Asia. Texts, chronicles, glass weights, scribal notes and receipts confirm that it was already a successful industrial centre with a history of glass-making when the Fatimids gained control of Egypt. In this study the author addressed three aspects of research to investigate the trade networks associated with internal and foreign contact: (1) the manufacturing origins of the beads, (2) who brought them to southern Africa, and (3) their dispersal in the region. Glass material from Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Southeast Asia was used for comparison, and as possible source material. Scientific techniques were used to confirm these operations. The beads were described, classified, and sampled selectively for physical and chemical analysis. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) used to determine the rare earth element (REE) shows that a particular glass, used to make beads in Egypt, is the same as that used to make some of the beads found at sites in the northern and eastern Transvaal. They document the existence of a trade link with the Mediterranean via the Red Sea 1000 years ago. Until now, both the origin of this contact and the extent of indigenous responses were largely unknown. These findings cast a different light on maritime trade along the east coast of Africa a millennium ago, and on external influences which helped to launch significant political developments in southern Africa

  14. Metallic glasses: structural models

    Nassif, E.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work is to give a summary of the attempts made up to the present in order to discribe by structural models the atomic arrangement in metallic glasses, showing also why the structure factors and atomic distribution functions cannot be always experimentally determined with a reasonable accuracy. (M.W.O.) [pt

  15. Sampling polyhexamethylene guanidine aerosols using eosin Y-coated glass beads

    Choi, Sang Hyun; Park, Seon Kyung; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kwon, Jung Hwan; Lee, Kyu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Fatalities caused by the use of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), a general-purpose chemical germicide used as a humidifier disinfectant in Korea, have raised concerns about exposure to biocide aerosols in indoor environments. A sampler capable of accumulating PHMG from aqueous aerosols was developed as an alternative to low-volume air samplers. This sampler was prepared by placing glass beads coated with 2-(2,4,5,7-tetrabromo-6-oxido-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)benzoate (Eosin Y) in a custom-made plastic holder. Passive sampling rates, measured in a bench-top exposure chamber at two different aqueous PHMG aerosol generation rates, were found to be independent of the experimental conditions. This suggests that the capacity of the sampler to accumulate the PHMG aerosol was sufficient for the sampling duration tested. However, the passive sampling rate was 7.6 × 10"−"6 m"3/h for the sampler area of 22 cm"2. This rate is lower than the typical human breathing rate and inadequate for quantitative instrumental analyses at low concentrations in indoor air. A 30-fold enhancement of the sampling rate was achieved by forced convection using a commercial battery-operated fan at ≥2000 rpm. With this accelerated sampling rate, the sampler could be used to monitor time-integrated concentrations of PHMG aerosols in the air

  16. Sampling polyhexamethylene guanidine aerosols using eosin Y-coated glass beads

    Choi, Sang Hyun; Park, Seon Kyung; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kwon, Jung Hwan [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu Hong [Korea Institute of Toxicology, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Fatalities caused by the use of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), a general-purpose chemical germicide used as a humidifier disinfectant in Korea, have raised concerns about exposure to biocide aerosols in indoor environments. A sampler capable of accumulating PHMG from aqueous aerosols was developed as an alternative to low-volume air samplers. This sampler was prepared by placing glass beads coated with 2-(2,4,5,7-tetrabromo-6-oxido-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)benzoate (Eosin Y) in a custom-made plastic holder. Passive sampling rates, measured in a bench-top exposure chamber at two different aqueous PHMG aerosol generation rates, were found to be independent of the experimental conditions. This suggests that the capacity of the sampler to accumulate the PHMG aerosol was sufficient for the sampling duration tested. However, the passive sampling rate was 7.6 × 10{sup −6} m{sup 3}/h for the sampler area of 22 cm{sup 2}. This rate is lower than the typical human breathing rate and inadequate for quantitative instrumental analyses at low concentrations in indoor air. A 30-fold enhancement of the sampling rate was achieved by forced convection using a commercial battery-operated fan at ≥2000 rpm. With this accelerated sampling rate, the sampler could be used to monitor time-integrated concentrations of PHMG aerosols in the air.

  17. Deposition behavior of colloid in filtration process through glass beads packed bed

    Chinju, Hirofumi; Nagasaki, Shinya; Tanaka, Satoru; Tanaka, Tadao; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the deposition behavior in colloid transport through porous media by conducting column experiments and batch experiments using polystyrene latex particles and spherical glass beads. The conclusion of this present work are summarized as follows: (1) The comparison between the results of the batch and the column experiments indicated that the deposition was enhanced in the column experiments compared with the batch experiments due to particles trapped by the effect of slow field. (2) Colloid BTCs showed three different stages of deposition which can be characterized by the different rate of the change in the C/C O . Three stages can be explained by the existence of large area of weak deposition sites and small area of strong deposition sites on the collector surfaces. (3) The amount of deposited particles until the beginning of the third stage was larger for lower flow velocity. (4) The results of the column experiments revealed that breakthrough behavior of colloidal particles of the second run after back wash process is affected by remaining particles on collector surfaces. (J.P.N.)

  18. An Analysis of the Nonlinear Spectral Mixing of Didymium and Soda-Lime Glass Beads Using Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) Microscopy

    2014-05-01

    2001). Learning with Kernels: Support Vector Machines , Regularization, Optimization, and Beyond. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 644 p. [26] Banerjee...A., Burlina, P., and Broadwater, J., (2007). A Machine Learning Approach for finding hyperspectral endmembers. Proceedings of the IEEE International... lime glass beads using hyperspectral imagery (HSI) microscopy Ronald G. Resmini1*, Robert S. Rand2, David W. Allen3, and Christopher J. Deloye1

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of different fluid phase in samples of glass beads by X-ray microtomography

    Marques, Leonardo C.; Nagata, Rodrigo; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Moreira, Anderson C.; Fernanades, Celso P.

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray microtomography has showed to be a useful tool for studies of inner structure of reservoir rocks. Moreover recent works have used this methodology to visualize different fluid phases present in these microstructures. In this paper X-ray microtomography has been applied to visualize three fluid phases, separately or simultaneously, in addition to a solid phase (glass beads). Two glass beads samples were manufactured and scanned, one with 0.8 mm (GB1) and other with 0.6 mm (GB2) diameter, respectively. The three fluid phases used were air, oil and a water-salt-potassium iodine solution. Two Skyscan scanners were used, both a 1172 model, which employs X-ray tube with W anode and cone beam. This laboratory based equipment is able to provide images of until 1 μm spatial resolution. One microtomograph is located at CENPES/PETROBRAS and has a CCD camera of 10 mega pixels resolution. It was used to measure the GB1 sample at 4.84 μm spatial resolution. The other one is located at LAMIR/UFPR and has a CCD camera of 11 mega pixels resolution. It was used to measure the GB2 sample at 4.99 μm spatial resolution. GB1 sample was set up with three fluid phases and presented 38.0 (2.7) % of total porosity before fluid presence and 3.5 % and 19.8 %, as lower and higher average porosity values, respectively, after to be filled with them. GB2 sample was set up with oil and water-salt-potassium iodine solution separated. It presented 36.7 (1.9) % of total porosity when dried, 18.7 (2.0) % when filled with oil and 0 % when filled with the solution. The 2D images clearly show the presence of the solution in addition to the air and solid phases. They also show that the presence of oil phase is less clear than the solution. When all the phases are present together in the sample it is possible to differentiate all of them. Individual 3D images are shown for each phase present in the sample. The 3D image containing all the phases is also shown. (author)

  20. Model for the ultrasound reflection from micro-beads and cells distributed in layers on a uniform surface

    Couture, O; Cherin, E; Foster, F S [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-07-21

    A model predicting the reflection of ultrasound from multiple layers of small scattering spheres is developed. Predictions of the reflection coefficient, which takes into account the interferences between the different sphere layers, are compared to measurements performed in the 10-80 MHz and 15-35 MHz frequency range with layers of glass beads and spherical acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, respectively. For both types of scatterers, the reflection coefficient increases as a function of their density on the surface for less than three superimposed layers, at which point it saturates at 0.38 for glass beads and 0.02 for AML cells. Above three layers, oscillations of the reflection coefficient due to constructive or destructive interference between layers are observed experimentally and are accurately predicted by the model. The use of such a model could lead to a better understanding of the structures observed in layered tissue images.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of fine ceramic based on alumina, bentonite, and glass bead

    Sebayang, P.; Nurdina; Simbolon, S.; Kurniawan, C.; Yunus, M.; Setiadi, E. A.; Sitorus, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Fabrication of fine ceramics based on alumina, bentonite and glass bead has been carried out by powder metallurgy. The preparation of powder has been performed using High Energy Milling (HEM) with wet milling process and using toluene as medium for 2 hours. The powder milling result was dried in oven at 100 °C for 24 hours. After that, the powder was compacted into pellet by using hydraulic press with 80 kgf/cm2 pressure at room temperature. Then, the pellet was sintered at 900 °C for 4 hours. Materials characterization such as physical properties (true density, bulk density, porosity, and water absorption), average particle diameter, hardness, microstructure and phase were measured by Archimedes method, Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), Hardness Vickers (HV), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). From the result, the optimum condition is sample D (with addition of 30 wt.% γ-Al2O3) with sintering temperature of 900 °C for 4 hours. At this condition, these properties were measured: average particle diameter of 4.27 μm, true density of 2.32 g/cm3, porosity of 5.57%, water absorption of 2.46%, bulk density of 2.39 g/cm3, and hardness of 632 HV. The fine ceramic has four phases with albite (Al2NaO8Si3) and quartz (SiO2) as dominant phases and corundum (Al2O3) and nepheline (AlNaO4Si) as minor phases.

  2. Development of the rectal dosage form with silver-coated glass beads for local-action applications in lower sections of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Siczek, Krzysztof; Fichna, Jakub; Zatorski, Hubert; Karolewicz, Bożena; Klimek, Leszek; Owczarek, Artur

    2018-03-01

    Recent findings indicating the anti-inflammatory action of silver preparations through modulation of the gut microbiota and apoptosis of inflammatory cells predestine silver use in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to validate the possibility of effective silver release from silver-coated glass beads for anti-inflammatory local application in the lower sections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Silver-coated glass beads were prepared using magnetron method. Release of silver from the silver-coated glass bead surface was carried out in BIO-DIS reciprocating cylinder apparatus. Erosion of silver coating and indirect estimation of the silver release dynamics was assessed using scanning electron microscope. Rectal suppositories containing silver-coated glass beads were prepared using five different methods (M1-M5) and X-ray scanned for their composition. The XR microanalysis and the chemical composition analysis evidenced for a rapid (within 30 min) release of nearly 50% of silver from the coating of the glass beads, which remained stable up to 24 h of incubation. The most homogeneous distribution of beads in the entire volume of the suppository was obtained for formulation M5, where the molten base was poured into mold placed in an ice bath, and the beads were added after 10 s. Our study is the first to present the concept of enclosing silver-coated glass beads in the lipophilic suppository base to attenuate inflammation in the lower GI tract and promises efficient treatment with reduced side effects.

  3. An on-line monitor for cation exchange elution chromatography using lithium silicate glass beads as solid scintillator

    Zhu Rongbao; Yang Liucheng; Wei Liansheng; Ji Liqiang; Zhang Zengrui

    1988-03-01

    A new type of on-line monitoring system used to monitor radioactive nuclides with α or soft β radiation in the effluent from a high pressure ion exchange column is described. The beads made of cerium-impregnated lithium silicate glass are used as scientillation material. They are filled into a quartz glass tube to form a flow cell. By reducing the diameter of glass beads to more closly approximate the average range of α or soft β radiation in solution, the absolute counting efficiency for 241 Am, 242 Cm α radiation have reached and 85.8% and 92.8% respectively, for 14 C, 90 Sr- 90 Y β radiation, 62.1% and 88.6% respectively. These values can be comparable to those achieved with on-line liquid scientillation technique. When the total amount of 241 Am added into column is decreased to 7.4 Bq it is still possible to obtain a clear chromatography peak (half peak width = 0.22 mL)

  4. Cotransport of clay colloids and viruses through water-saturated vertically oriented columns packed with glass beads: Gravity effects.

    Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2016-03-01

    The cotransport of clay colloids and viruses in vertically oriented laboratory columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 were used as model viruses, and kaolinite (ΚGa-1b) and montmorillonite (STx-1b) as model clay colloids. A steady flow rate of Q=1.5 mL/min was applied in both vertical up (VU) and vertical down (VD) flow directions. In the presence of KGa-1b, estimated mass recovery values for both viruses were higher for VD than VU flow direction, while in the presence of STx-1b the opposite was observed. However, for all cases examined, the produced mass of viruses attached onto suspended clay particles were higher for VD than VU flow direction, suggesting that the flow direction significantly influences virus attachment onto clays, as well as packed column retention of viruses attached onto suspended clays. KGa-1b hindered the transport of ΦX174 under VD flow, while STx-1b facilitated the transport of ΦX174 under both VU and VD flow directions. Moreover, KGa-1b and STx-1b facilitated the transport of MS2 in most of the cases examined except of the case where KGa-1b was present under VD flow. Also, the experimental data were used for the estimation of virus surface-coverages and virus surface concentrations generated by virus diffusion-limited attachment, as well as virus attachment due to sedimentation. Both sedimentation and diffusion limited virus attachment were higher for VD than VU flow, except the case of MS2 and STx-1b cotransport. The diffusion-limited attachment was higher for MS2 than ΦΧ174 for all cases examined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. On the transition from tin-rich to antimony-rich European white soda-glass trade beads for the Senecas of Northeastern North America

    Sempowski, M.L.; Nohe, A.W.; Moreau, J.F.; Karklins, K.; Aufreiter, S.; Toronto Univ. ON; Hancock, R.G.V.; Royal Military College, Kingston, ON

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that several modifications occurred, over the span of the 17th to 19th centuries, in the agents used to opacify European-made white soda-glass beads that were transmitted as trade goods to northeastern North America. Tin was used at the beginning of the 17th century, followed by Sb later in the century, and then by As during the 18th and 19th centuries. In an attempt to define more closely the transition from Sn-rich to Sb-rich white beads, 198 white glass beads from a number of archaeological sites in western New York State were analyzed. It was shown that the arrival of Sb-white soda-glass trade beads began in this region during the period from approximately A.D. 1625-1640, and that they had completely replaced Sn-white beads by A.D. 1675. Specific bead chemistries link a number of the archaeological sites. (author)

  6. FUZZY REGRESSION MODEL TO PREDICT THE BEAD GEOMETRY IN THE ROBOTIC WELDING PROCESS

    B.S. Sung; I.S. Kim; Y. Xue; H.H. Kim; Y.H. Cha

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there has been a rapid development in computer technology, which has in turn led todevelop the fully robotic welding system using artificial intelligence (AI) technology. However, therobotic welding system has not been achieved due to difficulties of the mathematical model andsensor technologies. The possibilities of the fuzzy regression method to predict the bead geometry,such as bead width, bead height, bead penetration and bead area in the robotic GMA (gas metalarc) welding process is presented. The approach, a well-known method to deal with the problemswith a high degree of fuzziness, is used to build the relationship between four process variablesand the four quality characteristics, respectively. Using these models, the proper prediction of theprocess variables for obtaining the optimal bead geometry can be determined.

  7. Modeling of welded bead profile for rapid prototyping by robotic MAG welding

    CAO Yong; ZHU Sheng; WANG Tao; WANG Wanglong

    2009-01-01

    As a deposition technology, robotic metal active gas(MAG) welding has shown new promise for rapid prototyping (RP) of metallic parts. During the process of metal forming using robotic MAG welding, sectional profile of single-pass welded bead is critical to formed accuracy and quality of metal pans. In this paper, the experiments of single-pass welded bead for rapid prototyping using robotic MAG welding were carried out. The effect of some edge detectors on the cross-sectional edge of welded bead was discussed and curve fitting was applied using leat square fitting. Consequently, the mathematical model of welded bead profile was developed. The experimental results show that good shape could be obtained under suitable welding parameters. Canny operawr is suitable to edge detection of welded bead profile, and the mathematical model of welded bead profile developed is approximately parabola.

  8. X-ray fluorescence analysis with micro glass beads using milligram-scale siliceous samples for archeology and geochemistry

    Ichikawa, Shintaro, E-mail: sichi@meiji.ac.jp [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Properties, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshihiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    A micro glass bead technique was developed to assay precious siliceous samples for geochemical and archeological analyses. The micro-sized (approximately 3.5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in height) glass beads were prepared by mixing and fusing 1.1 mg of the powdered sample and 11.0 mg of the alkali lithium tetraborate flux for wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence determination of major oxides (Na{sub 2}O, MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, MnO, and total Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The preparation parameters, including temperature and agitation during the fusing process, were optimized for the use of a commercial platinum crucible rather than a custom-made crucible. The procedure allows preparation of minute sample amounts of siliceous samples using conventional fusing equipment. Synthetic calibration standards were prepared by compounding chemical reagents such as oxides, carbonates, and diphosphates. Calibration curves showed good linearity with r values > 0.997, and the lower limits of detection were in the 10s to 100s of μg g{sup −1} range (e.g., 140 μg g{sup −1} for Na{sub 2}O, 31 μg g{sup −1} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 8.9 μg g{sup −1} for MnO). Using the present method, we determined ten major oxides in igneous rocks, stream sediments, ancient potteries, and obsidian. This was applicable to siliceous samples with various compositions, because of the excellent agreement between the analytical and recommended values of six geochemical references. This minimal-scale analysis may be available for precious and limited siliceous samples (e.g., rock, sand, soil, sediment, clay, and archeological ceramics) in many fields such as archeology and geochemistry. - Highlights: • X-ray fluorescence determination of major oxides was performed using 1.1 mg of sample. • Preparation and measurement techniques of the XRF micro glass bead specimen were optimized. • Calibration curves using synthetic standards showed good

  9. Study on the most early glass eye-beads in China unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan of Henan Province, China

    GAN FuXi; CHENG HuanSheng; HU YongQing; MA Bo; GU DongHong

    2009-01-01

    The eye-beads dating to the early Warring States Period unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan County of Henan Province, China are studied. The structure and the chemical composition of the samples are analysed by the undestructive methods of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The results show that these eye-beads are of glass state. Its chemical composition indicates that they belong to the glass of soda lime silicate system (Na2O-CaO-SiO2). By comparing the decorative design and the chemical composition of the samples with those from ancient Babylon and ancient Egypt, we think that these ancient eye-beads in Xichuan were most possibly imported from the West.

  10. Study on the most early glass eye-beads in China unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan of Henan Province,China

    2009-01-01

    The eye-beads dating to the early Warring States Period unearthed from Xu Jialing Tomb in Xichuan County of Henan Province, China are studied. The structure and the chemical composition of the sam- ples are analysed by the undestructive methods of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The results show that these eye-beads are of glass state. Its chemical composition indicates that they belong to the glass of soda lime silicate system (Na2O-CaO-SiO2). By comparing the decorative design and the chemical composition of the samples with those from ancient Babylon and ancient Egypt, we think that these ancient eye-beads in Xichuan were most possibly im- ported from the West.

  11. Single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass: some selected Bead Leach I results

    Coles, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass beads (7 mm dia) was concluded after 420 days of uninterrupted operation. Variables included in the experimental matrix were flow-rate, leachant composition, and temperature. Analysis was conducted on all leachate samples for 237 Np and 239 Pu as well as a number of nonradioactive elements. Results indicated that flow-rate and leachant systematically affected the leach rate, but only slightly. Temperature effects were significant. Plutonium leach rate was lower at higher temperature suggesting that Pu sorption onto the beads was enhanced at the higher temperature. The range of leach rates for all analyzed elements (except Pu), at both temperature, at all three flow rates, and with all three leachant compositions varied only three orders of magnitude. The range of variables used in this experiment covered those expected in many proposed repository environments. The preliminary interpretation of the results also indicated that matrix dissolution may be the dominant leaching mechanism, at least for Np in bicarbonate leachant. Regardless of the leaching mechanism the importance of this study is that it bounds the effects of repository environments when the ground water is oxidizing and when it doesn't reach the waste form until the waste has cooled to ambient rock temperature

  12. Single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass: some selected Bead Leach I results

    Coles, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass beads (7 mm dia) was concluded after 420 days of uninterrupted operation. Variables included in the experimental matrix were flow-rate, leachant composition, and temperature. Analysis was conducted on all leachate samples for 237 Np and 239 Pu as well as a number of nonradioactive elements. Results indicated that flow-rate and leachant systematically affected the leach rate, but only slightly. Temperature effects were significant. Plutonium leach rate was lower at higher temperature suggesting that Pu sorption onto the beads was enhanced at the higher temperature. The range of leach rates for all analyzed elements (except Pu), at both temperatures, at all three flow rates, and with all three leachant compositions varied over only three orders of magnitude. The range of variables used in this experiment covered those expected in many proposed repository environments. The preliminary interpretation of the results aPPh 3 also reacted with Mn 2 (CO) 10 and Cp 2 Mo 2 (CO) 6 to give a variety of products at room temperature. A radical mechanism was suggested

  13. START - glass model of PWR

    Marn, J.; Ramsak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of nuclear engineering in the area of process engineering the University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering has invested in procuring and erecting glass model of pressurized water reactor. This paper deals with description of the model, its capabilities, and plans for its use within nuclear engineering community of Slovenia. The model, made primarily of glass, serves three purposes: educational, professional development and research. As an example, medium break loss of coolant accident is presented in the paper. Temperatures within primary and secondary side, and pressure on primary side of reactor coolant system are followed. The characteristic points are emphasized, and commented.(author)

  14. Tribological Characterisation of PBT + Glass Bead Composites with the Help of Block-on-Ring Test

    C. Georgescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The materials involved in this research study were produced by diemoulding in order to obtain bone samples type 1A (SR EN ISO 527‐2:2003. These composites have a matrix of polybutylene terephthalate(PBT commercial grade Crastin 6130NC010,DuPont. The valuesfor theglass beads concentrations were established at 10 % and 20 %(wt.Block‐on‐ring tests were run in order to characterize the tribologicalbehaviour of this friction couple (PBT and PBT composites with glassbeads on steel. The block was manufactured by cutting parts from thebone samples, having the dimensions of 16.5 mm × 10 mm × 4 mm. Theother triboelement was the external ring of the tapered rolling bearing KBS 30202, having dimensions of Ø35 mm × 10 mm and was made ofsteel grade DIN 100Cr6. There were analysed the followingcharacteristics: friction coefficient (mean value over a test andscattering range, wear (wear rate. There are also presented particular aspects oftheworn surfaces, asinvestigated fromSEMimages

  15. High-Level Waste Glass Formulation Model Sensitivity Study 2009 Glass Formulation Model Versus 1996 Glass Formulation Model

    Belsher, J.D.; Meinert, F.L.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the differences between two HLW glass formulation models (GFM): The 1996 GFM and 2009 GFM. A glass formulation model is a collection of glass property correlations and associated limits, as well as model validity and solubility constraints; it uses the pretreated HLW feed composition to predict the amount and composition of glass forming additives necessary to produce acceptable HLW glass. The 2009 GFM presented in this report was constructed as a nonlinear optimization calculation based on updated glass property data and solubility limits described in PNNL-18501 (2009). Key mission drivers such as the total mass of HLW glass and waste oxide loading are compared between the two glass formulation models. In addition, a sensitivity study was performed within the 2009 GFM to determine the effect of relaxing various constraints on the predicted mass of the HLW glass.

  16. Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Pure and Metal-Doped Titania Nanoparticles Coated on Glass Beads: Adsorption and Column Studies

    M. Ihsan Danish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized metal oxide, Titania, provides high surface area and specific affinity for the adsorption of heavy metals, including arsenic (As, which is posing a great threat to the world population due to its carcinogenic nature. In this study, As(III adsorption was studied on pure and metal- (Ag- and Fe- doped Titania nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized by liquid impregnation method with some modifications, with crystallite size in the range of 30 to 40 nm. Band gap analysis, using Kubelka-Munk function showed a shift of absorption band from UV to visible region for the metal-doped Titania. Effect of operational parameters like dose of nanoparticles, initial As(III concentration, and pH was evaluated at 25°C. The data obtained gave a good fit with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics. In batch studies, over 90% of arsenic removal was observed for both types of metal-doped Titania nanoparticles from a solution containing up to 2 ppm of the heavy metal. Fixed bed columns of nanoparticles, coated on glass beads, were used for As(III removal under different operating conditions. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to predict the breakthrough curves and to find the characteristic column parameters useful for process design. The columns were regenerated using 10% NaOH solution.

  17. GLASS COMPOSITION-TCLP RESPONSE MODEL FOR WASTE GLASSES

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.

    2004-01-01

    A first-order property model for normalized Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) release as a function of glass composition was developed using data collected from various studies. The normalized boron release is used to estimate the release of toxic elements based on the observation that the boron release represents the conservative release for those constituents of interest. The current TCLP model has two targeted application areas: (1) delisting of waste-glass product as radioactive (not mixed) waste and (2) designating the glass wastes generated from waste-glass research activities as hazardous or non-hazardous. This paper describes the data collection and model development for TCLP releases and discusses the issues related to the application of the model

  18. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    Hrma, Pavel R; Piepel, Gregory F; Vienna, John D; Cooley, Scott K; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region

  19. Characterization of bead trajectories through the draft tube of a turbine physical model

    Weiland, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mueller, R. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinstry, C. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) makes extensive use of 1:25 scale Plexiglass models of hydroelectric turbines along the Columbia River to study turbine hydraulic performance and to identify potential hazards for fish passing through the turbines. Plastic beads are sent through the models and imaging has been done with laser Doppler velocimetry and high-speed videography to measure flow field variables and to study the probable paths of fish through the turbine units. Understanding has been limited by the lack of data showing actual bead trajectories in three dimensions (3-D) and the lack of quantified velocity, acceleration, and other kinematics describing the trajectories of beads as they pass through the physical models.

  20. A curious relationship between Potts glass models

    Yamaguchi, Chiaki

    2015-08-01

    A Potts glass model proposed by Nishimori and Stephen [H. Nishimori, M.J. Stephen, Phys. Rev. B 27, 5644 (1983)] is analyzed by means of the replica mean field theory. This model is a discrete model, has a gauge symmetry, and is called the Potts gauge glass model. By comparing the present results with the results of the conventional Potts glass model, we find the coincidences and differences between the models. We find a coincidence that the property for the Potts glass phase in this model is coincident with that in the conventional model at the mean field level. We find a difference that, unlike in the case of the conventional p-state Potts glass model, this system for large p does not become ferromagnetic at low temperature under a concentration of ferromagnetic interaction. The present results support the act of numerically investigating the present model for study of the Potts glass phase in finite dimensions.

  1. Encapsulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by alginate gel beads as an in vitro metastasis model

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Wang, Shu-jun; Sun, Guang-wei; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and often forms metastases, which are the most important prognostic factors. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of HCC, a culture system mimicking the in vivo tumor microenvironment is needed. In this study, we investigated the metastatic ability of HCC cells cultured within alginate gel (ALG) beads. In the culture system, HCC cells formed spheroids by proliferation and maintained in nuclear abnormalities. The gene and protein expression of metastasis-related molecules was increased in ALG beads, compared with the traditional adhesion culture. Furthermore, several gene expression levels in ALG bead culture system were even closer to liver cancer tissues. More importantly, in vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion cells derived from ALG beads was 7.8-fold higher than adhesion cells. Our results indicated that the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model based on ALG beads increased metastatic ability compared with adhesion culture, even partly mimicked the in vivo tumor tissues. Moreover, due to the controllable preparation conditions, steady characteristics and production at large-scale, the 3D ALG bead model would become an important tool used in the high-throughput screening of anti-metastasis drugs and the metastatic mechanism research. -- Highlights: •We established a 3D metastasis model mimicking the metastatic ability in vivo. •The invasion ability of cells derived from our model was increased significantly. •The model is easy to reproduce, convenient to handle, and amenable for large-scale

  2. Granular packing as model glass formers

    Wang Yujie

    2017-01-01

    Static granular packings are model hard-sphere glass formers. The nature of glass transition has remained a hotly debated issue. We review recent experimental progresses in using granular materials to study glass transitions. We focus on the growth of glass order with five-fold symmetry in granular packings and relate the findings to both geometric frustration and random first-order phase transition theories. (paper)

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Discrepancy in Tooth Colored Self Cure Acrylic Provisional Restorations With and Without Reinforcement of Glass Beads: An In-Vitro Study.

    Yasangi, Manoj Kumar; Mannem, Dhanalakshmi; Bommireddy, Vikram Simha; Neturi, Sirisha; Ravoori, Srinivas; Jyothi

    2015-05-01

    This invitro study was conducted to compare and evaluate marginal discrepancy in two types of tooth colored self cure provisional restorative materials {DPI&UNIFAST TRAD} before and after reinforcement of glass beads. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare marginal discrepancy in two types of provisional restorative materials (DPI and UNI FAST TRAD) before and after reinforcement with Glass beads. Tooth shaped resin copings were fabricated on custom made brass metal die. A total of 60 resin copings were fabricated in which 30 samples were prepared with DPI and 30 samples with UNIFAST material. Each group of 30 samples were divided in to two sub groups in which 15 samples were prepared with glass bead reinforcement and 15 samples without reinforcement. The marginal discrepancy was evaluated with photomicroscope {Reichet Polyvar 2 met} by placing the resin copings on custom made brass resin coping holder. Measurements obtained were statistically analysed by unpaired t-test to know any significance between two variables. Unreinforced DPI specimens had shown lower marginal discrepancy (442.82) than reinforced specimens (585.77). Unreinforced UNIFAST specimens have shown high values of marginal discrepancy (592.83) than reinforced specimens (436.35). p-value between reinforced and unreinforced specimens of DPI (p=0.0013) and UNIFAST (p= 0.0038) has shown statistical significance. This in-vitro study revealed that unreinforced DPI specimens have shown lower marginal discrepancy than reinforced specimens and unreinforced UNIFAST specimens have shown higher values of marginal discrepancy than reinforced specimens.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Discrepancy in Tooth Colored Self Cure Acrylic Provisional Restorations With and Without Reinforcement of Glass Beads: An In-Vitro Study

    Yasangi, Manoj Kumar; Mannem, Dhanalakshmi; Neturi, Sirisha; Ravoori, Srinivas; Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Context This invitro study was conducted to compare and evaluate marginal discrepancy in two types of tooth colored self cure provisional restorative materials {DPI&UNIFAST TRAD} before and after reinforcement of glass beads. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare marginal discrepancy in two types of provisional restorative materials (DPI and UNI FAST TRAD) before and after reinforcement with Glass beads. Materials and Methods Tooth shaped resin copings were fabricated on custom made brass metal die. A total of 60 resin copings were fabricated in which 30 samples were prepared with DPI and 30 samples with UNIFAST material. Each group of 30 samples were divided in to two sub groups in which 15 samples were prepared with glass bead reinforcement and 15 samples without reinforcement. The marginal discrepancy was evaluated with photomicroscope {Reichet Polyvar 2 met} by placing the resin copings on custom made brass resin coping holder. Results Measurements obtained were statistically analysed by unpaired t-test to know any significance between two variables. Unreinforced DPI specimens had shown lower marginal discrepancy (442.82) than reinforced specimens (585.77). Unreinforced UNIFAST specimens have shown high values of marginal discrepancy (592.83) than reinforced specimens (436.35). p-value between reinforced and unreinforced specimens of DPI (p=0.0013) and UNIFAST (p= 0.0038) has shown statistical significance. Conclusion This in-vitro study revealed that unreinforced DPI specimens have shown lower marginal discrepancy than reinforced specimens and unreinforced UNIFAST specimens have shown higher values of marginal discrepancy than reinforced specimens. PMID:26155574

  5. Glass Durability Modeling, Activated Complex Theory (ACT)

    CAROL, JANTZEN

    2005-01-01

    The most important requirement for high-level waste glass acceptance for disposal in a geological repository is the chemical durability, expressed as a glass dissolution rate. During the early stages of glass dissolution in near static conditions that represent a repository disposal environment, a gel layer resembling a membrane forms on the glass surface through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer has been found to age into either clay mineral assemblages or zeolite mineral assemblages. The formation of one phase preferentially over the other has been experimentally related to changes in the pH of the leachant and related to the relative amounts of Al +3 and Fe +3 in a glass. The formation of clay mineral assemblages on the leached glass surface layers ,lower pH and Fe +3 rich glasses, causes the dissolution rate to slow to a long-term steady state rate. The formation of zeolite mineral assemblages ,higher pH and Al +3 rich glasses, on leached glass surface layers causes the dissolution rate to increase and return to the initial high forward rate. The return to the forward dissolution rate is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in a disposal environment. An investigation into the role of glass stoichiometry, in terms of the quasi-crystalline mineral species in a glass, has shown that the chemistry and structure in the parent glass appear to control the activated surface complexes that form in the leached layers, and these mineral complexes ,some Fe +3 rich and some Al +3 rich, play a role in whether or not clays or zeolites are the dominant species formed on the leached glass surface. The chemistry and structure, in terms of Q distributions of the parent glass, are well represented by the atomic ratios of the glass forming components. Thus, glass dissolution modeling using simple

  6. Brownian dynamics simulations with stiff finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Fraenkel springs as approximations to rods in bead-rod models.

    Hsieh, Chih-Chen; Jain, Semant; Larson, Ronald G

    2006-01-28

    A very stiff finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE)-Fraenkel spring is proposed to replace the rigid rod in the bead-rod model. This allows the adoption of a fast predictor-corrector method so that large time steps can be taken in Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations without over- or understretching the stiff springs. In contrast to the simple bead-rod model, BD simulations with beads and FENE-Fraenkel (FF) springs yield a random-walk configuration at equilibrium. We compare the simulation results of the free-draining bead-FF-spring model with those for the bead-rod model in relaxation, start-up of uniaxial extensional, and simple shear flows, and find that both methods generate nearly identical results. The computational cost per time step for a free-draining BD simulation with the proposed bead-FF-spring model is about twice as high as the traditional bead-rod model with the midpoint algorithm of Liu [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 5826 (1989)]. Nevertheless, computations with the bead-FF-spring model are as efficient as those with the bead-rod model in extensional flow because the former allows larger time steps. Moreover, the Brownian contribution to the stress for the bead-FF-spring model is isotropic and therefore simplifies the calculation of the polymer stresses. In addition, hydrodynamic interaction can more easily be incorporated into the bead-FF-spring model than into the bead-rod model since the metric force arising from the non-Cartesian coordinates used in bead-rod simulations is absent from bead-spring simulations. Finally, with our newly developed bead-FF-spring model, existing computer codes for the bead-spring models can trivially be converted to ones for effective bead-rod simulations merely by replacing the usual FENE or Cohen spring law with a FENE-Fraenkel law, and this convertibility provides a very convenient way to perform multiscale BD simulations.

  7. Transverse Ising spin-glass model

    Santos, Raimundo R. dos; Santos, R.M.Z. dos.

    1984-01-01

    The zero temperature behavior of the Transverse Ising spin-glass (+-J 0 ) model is discussed. The d-dimensional quantum model is shown to be equivalent to a classical (d + 1)- dimensional Ising spin-glass with correlated disorder. An exact Renormalization Group treatment of the one-dimensional quantum model indicates the existence of a spin-glass phase. The Migdal-Kadanoff approximation is used to obtain the phase diagram of the quantum spin-glass in two-dimensions. (Author) [pt

  8. Spherical 2+p spin-glass model: An exactly solvable model for glass to spin-glass transition

    Crisanti, A.; Leuzzi, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present the full phase diagram of the spherical 2+p spin-glass model with p≥4. The main outcome is the presence of a phase with both properties of full replica symmetry breaking phases of discrete models, e.g., the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and those of one replica symmetry breaking. This phase has a finite complexity which leads to different dynamic and static properties. The phase diagram is rich enough to allow the study of different kinds of glass to spin glass and spin glass to spin glass phase transitions

  9. Development and validation of predictive simulation model of multi-layer repair welding process by temper bead technique

    Okano, Shigetaka; Miyasaka, Fumikazu; Mochizuki, Masahito; Tanaka, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has recently been observed in the nickel base alloy weld metal of dissimilar pipe joint used in pressurized water reactor (PWR) . Temper bead technique has been developed as one of repair procedures against SCC applicable in case that post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is difficult to carry out. In this regard, however it is essential to pass the property and performance qualification test to confirm the effect of tempering on the mechanical properties at repair welds before temper bead technique is actually used in practice. Thus the appropriate welding procedure conditions in temper bead technique are determined on the basis of the property and performance qualification testing. It is necessary for certifying the structural soundness and reliability at repair welds but takes a lot of work and time in the present circumstances. Therefore it is desirable to establish the reasonable alternatives for qualifying the property and performance at repair welds. In this study, mathematical modeling and numerical simulation procedures were developed for predicting weld bead configuration and temperature distribution during multi-layer repair welding process by temper bead technique. In the developed simulation technique, characteristics of heat source in temper bead welding are calculated from weld heat input conditions through the arc plasma simulation and then weld bead configuration and temperature distribution during temper bead welding are calculated from characteristics of heat source obtained through the coupling analysis between bead surface shape and thermal conduction. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results under the same welding heat input conditions. As the results, the bead surface shape and temperature distribution, such as A cl lines, were in good agreement between simulation and experimental results. It was concluded that the developed simulation technique has the potential to become useful for

  10. Artificial intelligence versus statistical modeling and optimization of continuous bead milling process for bacterial cell lysis

    Shafiul Haque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA. Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A, bead load (B, cell load (C and run time (D, were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v, cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h: 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v: 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm: 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  11. Critical review of glass performance modeling

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-07-01

    Borosilicate glass is to be used for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. Mechanistic chemical models are used to predict the rate at which radionuclides will be released from the glass under repository conditions. The most successful and useful of these models link reaction path geochemical modeling programs with a glass dissolution rate law that is consistent with transition state theory. These models have been used to simulate several types of short-term laboratory tests of glass dissolution and to predict the long-term performance of the glass in a repository. Although mechanistically based, the current models are limited by a lack of unambiguous experimental support for some of their assumptions. The most severe problem of this type is the lack of an existing validated mechanism that controls long-term glass dissolution rates. Current models can be improved by performing carefully designed experiments and using the experimental results to validate the rate-controlling mechanisms implicit in the models. These models should be supported with long-term experiments to be used for model validation. The mechanistic basis of the models should be explored by using modern molecular simulations such as molecular orbital and molecular dynamics to investigate both the glass structure and its dissolution process

  12. Critical review of glass performance modeling

    Bourcier, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Borosilicate glass is to be used for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. Mechanistic chemical models are used to predict the rate at which radionuclides will be released from the glass under repository conditions. The most successful and useful of these models link reaction path geochemical modeling programs with a glass dissolution rate law that is consistent with transition state theory. These models have been used to simulate several types of short-term laboratory tests of glass dissolution and to predict the long-term performance of the glass in a repository. Although mechanistically based, the current models are limited by a lack of unambiguous experimental support for some of their assumptions. The most severe problem of this type is the lack of an existing validated mechanism that controls long-term glass dissolution rates. Current models can be improved by performing carefully designed experiments and using the experimental results to validate the rate-controlling mechanisms implicit in the models. These models should be supported with long-term experiments to be used for model validation. The mechanistic basis of the models should be explored by using modern molecular simulations such as molecular orbital and molecular dynamics to investigate both the glass structure and its dissolution process.

  13. Constructing Molecular Models with Low-Cost Toy Beads

    Ng, Pun-hon; Wong, Siu-ling; Mak, Se-yuen

    2012-01-01

    In teaching the science of the nano world, ball-and-stick molecular models are frequently used as 3D representations of molecules. Unlike a chemical formula, a molecular model allows us to visualise the 3D shape of the molecule and the relative positions of its atoms, the bonds between atoms and why a pair of mirror isomers with the same atoms,…

  14. Toward a consistent model for glass dissolution

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the process of glass dissolution in aqueous media has advanced significantly over the last 10 years through the efforts of many scientists around the world. Mathematical models describing the glass dissolution process have also advanced from simple empirical functions to structured models based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics. Although borosilicate glass has been selected as the waste form for disposal of high-level wastes in at least 5 countries, there is no international consensus on the fundamental methodology for modeling glass dissolution that could be used in assessing the long term performance of waste glasses in a geologic repository setting. Each repository program is developing their own model and supporting experimental data. In this paper, we critically evaluate a selected set of these structured models and show that a consistent methodology for modeling glass dissolution processes is available. We also propose a strategy for a future coordinated effort to obtain the model input parameters that are needed for long-term performance assessments of glass in a geologic repository. (author) 4 figs., tabs., 75 refs

  15. Affinity functions for modeling glass dissolution rates

    Bourcier, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Glass dissolution rates decrease dramatically as glass approach ''saturation'' with respect to the leachate solution. Most repository sites are chosen where water fluxes are minimal, and therefore the waste glass is most likely to dissolve under conditions close to ''saturation''. The key term in the rate expression used to predict glass dissolution rates close to ''saturation'' is the affinity term, which accounts for saturation effects on dissolution rates. Interpretations of recent experimental data on the dissolution behaviour of silicate glasses and silicate minerals indicate the following: 1) simple affinity control does not explain the observed dissolution rate for silicate minerals or glasses; 2) dissolution rates can be significantly modified by dissolved cations even under conditions far from saturation where the affinity term is near unity; 3) the effects of dissolved species such as Al and Si on the dissolution rate vary with pH, temperature, and saturation state; and 4) as temperature is increased, the effect of both pH and temperature on glass and mineral dissolution rates decrease, which strongly suggests a switch in rate control from surface reaction-based to diffusion control. Borosilicate glass dissolution models need to be upgraded to account for these recent experimental observations. (A.C.)

  16. Glass Transition Temperature- and Specific Volume- Composition Models for Tellurite Glasses

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report provides models for predicting composition-properties for tellurite glasses, namely specific gravity and glass transition temperature. Included are the partial specific coefficients for each model, the component validity ranges, and model fit parameters.

  17. Evaluation of models of waste glass durability

    Ellison, A.

    1995-01-01

    The main variable under the control of the waste glass producer is the composition of the glass; thus a need exists to establish functional relationships between the composition of a waste glass and measures of processability, product consistency, and durability. Many years of research show that the structure and properties of a glass depend on its composition, so it seems reasonable to assume that there also is relationship between the composition of a waste glass and its resistance to attack by an aqueous solution. Several models have been developed to describe this dependence, and an evaluation their predictive capabilities is the subject of this paper. The objective is to determine whether any of these models describe the ''correct'' functional relationship between composition and corrosion rate. A more thorough treatment of the relationships between glass composition and durability has been presented elsewhere, and the reader is encouraged to consult it for a more detailed discussion. The models examined in this study are the free energy of hydration model, developed at the Savannah River Laboratory, the structural bond strength model, developed at the Vitreous State Laboratory at the Catholic University of America, and the Composition Variation Study, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  18. Analytical and numerical study of microswimming using the 'bead-spring model'

    Pande, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we use the bead-spring microswimmer design as a model system to study mechanical microswimming. The basic form of such a swimmer was introduced as the 'three-sphere swimmer' in Najafi & Golestanian, Phys. Rev. E (2004) and has found wide use in theoretical, numerical and experimental research. In our work, we have modified and extended the model in various ways, which, as explained in this thesis, allow us to gain insight into many general principles of microswimming, for insta...

  19. Spectral Unmixing Modeling of the Aristarchus Pyroclastic Deposit: Assessing the Eruptive History of Glass-Rich Regional Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits

    Jawin, E. R.; Head, J. W., III; Cannon, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit in central Oceanus Procellarum is understood to have formed in a gas-rich explosive volcanic eruption, and has been observed to contain abundant volcanic glass. However, the interpreted color (and therefore composition) of the glass has been debated. In addition, previous analyses of the pyroclastic deposit have been performed using lower resolution data than are currently available. In this work, a nonlinear spectral unmixing model was applied to Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data of the Aristarchus plateau to investigate the detailed mineralogic and crystalline nature of the Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit by using spectra of laboratory endmembers including a suite of volcanic glasses returned from the Apollo 15 and 17 missions (green, orange, black beads), as well as synthetic lunar glasses (orange, green, red, yellow). Preliminary results of the M3 unmixing model suggest that spectra of the pyroclastic deposit can be modeled by a mixture composed predominantly of a featureless endmember approximating space weathering and a smaller component of glass. The modeled spectra were most accurate with a synthetic orange glass endmember, relative to the other glasses analyzed in this work. The results confirm that there is a detectable component of glass in the Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit which may be similar to the high-Ti orange glass seen in other regional pyroclastic deposits, with only minimal contributions of other crystalline minerals. The presence of volcanic glass in the pyroclastic deposit, with the low abundance of crystalline material, would support the model that the Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit formed in a long-duration, hawaiian-style fire fountain eruption. No significant detection of devitrified black beads in the spectral modeling results (as was observed at the Apollo 17 landing site in the Taurus-Littrow pyroclastic deposit), suggests the optical density of the eruptive plume remained low throughout the

  20. Numerical simulation of drag-reducing channel flow by using bead-spring chain model

    Fujimura, M.; Atsumi, T.; Mamori, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Murata, A.; Masuda, M.; Ando, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations of drag-reduced turbulent flow by polymer additives were performed by using a discrete element model. • A decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to drag reduction by polymer addition. • Energy transport by the polymer attenuates the turbulence. • The viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with increasing relaxation time of polymer. • The polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer. - Abstract: Numerical simulations of the drag-reducing turbulent channel flow caused by polymer addition are performed. A bead-spring chain model is employed as a model of polymer aggregation. The model consists of beads and springs to represent the polymer dynamics. Three drag-reduction cases are studied with different spring constants that correspond to the relaxation time of the polymer. The energy budget is mainly focused upon to discuss the drag-reduction mechanism. Our results show that a decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to strengthening the anisotropy of the turbulence. Furthermore, energy transport by the polymer models attenuates the turbulence. These viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with decreasing spring constant. By visualizing the flow field, it is found that this polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer.

  1. Chromium (VI) ion adsorption by grafted cross-linked chitosan beads in aqueous solution - a mathematical and statistical modeling study.

    Igberase, E; Osifo, P; Ofomaja, A

    2017-12-01

    Chitosan outstanding qualities and efficient way of binding metal ions even to near zero concentration is the major reason for special attention. Modification of chitosan allows the polymer to be applied in numerous field of research. Depending on the modification techniques, chitosan possesses increased adsorption capacity. In this study chitosan beads (CS) were formulated from chitosan flakes, the beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and thereafter grafted with ethyldiaminetetraacetic acid. The stability and amine concentration of the beads were determined. The chemical functionalities of the beads were obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). However, in the adsorption studies with Cr(VI), the number of runs in the experiment was obtained by response surface methodology (RSM), and the maximum adsorption capacity (Q m ) from each run was determined from the Langmuir model. The results of the experiment showed that the non-modified beads were soluble at pH 1-4 and insoluble at pH 5, while the modified beads were insoluble at pH 1-6. The amine concentration of CS, CCS and grafted cross-linked chitosan beads (GCCS) were 4.4, 3.8 and 5.0 mmol/g, respectively. The point of zero charge (pH PZC ) of GCCS was found to be 4.4. The quadratic model was significant and adequate in describing the experimental data. The difference between experimental and predicted Q m was negligible. From the design matrix and results, increased Q m was achieved at pH 5, contact time 70 min, temperature 45°C, adsorbent dosage 5 g and initial concentration 70 mg/l. The desorption of the beads loaded with Cr(VI) was successful with 0.5 M HCl eluant and contact time of 180 min, leading to cost minimization.

  2. Comment on 'Spherical 2+p spin-glass model: An analytically solvable model with a glass-to-glass transition'

    Krakoviack, V.

    2007-01-01

    Guided by old results on simple mode-coupling models displaying glass-glass transitions, we demonstrate, through a crude analysis of the solution with one step of replica symmetry breaking (1RSB) derived by Crisanti and Leuzzi for the spherical s+p mean-field spin glass [Phys. Rev. B 73, 014412 (2006)], that the phase behavior of these systems is not yet fully understood when s and p are well separated. First, there seems to be a possibility of glass-glass transition scenarios in these systems. Second, we find clear indications that the 1RSB solution cannot be correct in the full glassy phase. Therefore, while the proposed analysis is clearly naive and probably inexact, it definitely calls for a reassessment of the physics of these systems, with the promise of potentially interesting developments in the theory of disordered and complex systems

  3. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  4. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  5. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan

  6. Models of agglomeration and glass transition

    Kerner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This book is for any physicist interested in new vistas in the domain of non-crystalline condensed matter, aperiodic and quasi-crystalline networks and especially glass physics and chemistry. Students with an elementary background in thermodynamics and statistical physics will find the book accessible. The physics of glasses is extensively covered, focusing on their thermal and mechanical properties, as well as various models leading to the formation of the glassy states of matter from overcooled liquids. The models of agglomeration and growth are also applied to describe the formation of quasicrystals, fullerenes and, in biology, to describe virus assembly pathways.

  7. Surface streamer propagations on an alumina bead: experimental observation and numerical modeling

    Kang, Woo Seok; Kim, Hyun-Ha; Teramoto, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Atsushi; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Dae-Woong; Hur, Min; Song, Young-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    A surface streamer in a simplified packed-bed reactor has been studied both experimentally (through time-resolved ICCD imaging) and theoretically (through two-dimensional numerical modeling). The propagation of streamers on an alumina spherical bead without catalytic coating shows three distinct phases—the generation and propagation of a primary streamer (PS) with a moderate velocity and electric field, fast PS acceleration with an enhanced electric field, and slow secondary streamer (SS) propagation. The velocity of the streamer is less than that of propagation in a gaseous media. The electric field and velocity at the streamer front are maximized when a PS propagates during the interval from the midpoint of the bead to the bottom electrode. The SS exhibits a much lower velocity and electric field compared with the PS. The PS velocity is affected by an external applied voltage, especially when it approaches the ground electrode. However, that of the SS remains constant regardless of the voltage change. The simulation shows that the PS exhibits a high electric field mainly created by the space charge induced by electrons, whereas the SS relies on ion movement with electron decay in a charge-filled thin streamer body.

  8. Development of neural network models for the prediction of solidification mode, weld bead geometry and sensitisation in austenitic stainless steels

    Vasudevan, M.; Raj, B.; Prasad Rao, K.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative models describing the effect of weld composition on the solidification mode, ferrite content and process parameters on the weld bead geometry are necessary in order to design composition of the welding consumable to ensure primary ferritic solidification mode, proper ferrite content and to ensure right choice of process parameters to achieve good bead geometry. A quantitative model on sensitisation behaviour of austenitic stainless steels is also necessary to optimise the composition of the austenitic stainless steel and to limit the strain on the material in order to enhance the resistance to sensitisation. The present paper discuss the development of quantitative models using artificial neural networks to correlate weld metal composition with solidification mode, process parameter with weld bead geometry and time for sensitisation with composition, strain in the material before welding and the temperature of exposure in austenitic stainless steels. (author)

  9. Model based energy benchmarking for glass furnace

    Sardeshpande, Vishal; Gaitonde, U.N.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2007-01-01

    Energy benchmarking of processes is important for setting energy efficiency targets and planning energy management strategies. Most approaches used for energy benchmarking are based on statistical methods by comparing with a sample of existing plants. This paper presents a model based approach for benchmarking of energy intensive industrial processes and illustrates this approach for industrial glass furnaces. A simulation model for a glass furnace is developed using mass and energy balances, and heat loss equations for the different zones and empirical equations based on operating practices. The model is checked with field data from end fired industrial glass furnaces in India. The simulation model enables calculation of the energy performance of a given furnace design. The model results show the potential for improvement and the impact of different operating and design preferences on specific energy consumption. A case study for a 100 TPD end fired furnace is presented. An achievable minimum energy consumption of about 3830 kJ/kg is estimated for this furnace. The useful heat carried by glass is about 53% of the heat supplied by the fuel. Actual furnaces operating at these production scales have a potential for reduction in energy consumption of about 20-25%

  10. Evaporation experiments and modelling for glass melts

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory test facility has been developed to measure evaporation rates of different volatile components from commercial and model glass compositions. In the set-up the furnace atmosphere, temperature level, gas velocity and batch composition are controlled. Evaporation rates have been measured

  11. Thermochemical modeling of nuclear waste glass

    Spear, K.E.; Besmann, T.M.; Beahm, E.C.

    1998-06-01

    The development of assessed and consistent phase equilibria and thermodynamic data for major glass constituents used to incorporate high-level nuclear waste is discussed in this paper. The initial research has included the binary Na 2 O-SiO 2 , Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 systems. The nuclear waste glass is assumed to be a supercooled liquid containing the constituents in the glass at temperatures of interest for nuclear waste storage. Thermodynamic data for the liquid solutions were derived from mathematical comparisons of phase diagram information and the thermodynamic data available for crystalline solid phases. An associate model is used to describe the liquid solution phases. Utilizing phase diagram information provides very stringent limits on the relative thermodynamic stabilities of all phases which exist in a given system

  12. Ongoing Model Development Analyzing Glass Fracture

    Molnar, G.; Bojtar, I.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements of the ...... an overview of the structure of the research and a summary of current status archived so far.......Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements...... of the residual stress state before failure and high-speed camera recordings of the failure are being performed in order to verify the numerical model. The primary goal of this research is to follow the overall fracture of a structural element – e.g. beam – loaded inplane. Present paper would like to give...

  13. Study on the etched carnelian beads unearthed in China

    Deyun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Etched carnelian beads originated in the Indus Civilization;this kind of ornaments and its manufacturing techniques were spread to the whole Eurasia Continent.The etched carnelian beads unearthed in China can be classified into four types,the comparisons of which to their foreign counterparts may reveal their different sources and diffusion routes.The etched carnelian beads and their glass imitations unearthed in China had influences to the making of the glass "eye beads" in

  14. Mean field models for spin glasses

    Talagrand, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This is a new, completely revised, updated and enlarged edition of the author's Ergebnisse vol. 46: "Spin Glasses: A Challenge for Mathematicians". This new edition will appear in two volumes, the present first volume presents the basic results and methods, the second volume is expected to appear in 2011. In the eighties, a group of theoretical physicists introduced several models for certain disordered systems, called "spin glasses". These models are simple and rather canonical random structures, of considerable interest for several branches of science (statistical physics, neural networks and computer science). The physicists studied them by non-rigorous methods and predicted spectacular behaviors. This book introduces in a rigorous manner this exciting new area to the mathematically minded reader. It requires no knowledge whatsoever of any physics. The first volume of this new and completely rewritten edition presents six fundamental models and the basic techniques to study them.

  15. Thermodynamic model of natural, medieval and nuclear waste glass durability

    Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of glass durability based on hydration of structural units has been applied to natural glass, medieval window glasses, and glasses containing nuclear waste. The relative durability predicted from the calculated thermodynamics correlates directly with the experimentally observed release of structural silicon in the leaching solution in short-term laboratory tests. By choosing natural glasses and ancient glasses whose long-term performance is known, and which bracket the durability of waste glasses, the long-term stability of nuclear waste glasses can be interpolated among these materials. The current Savannah River defense waste glass formulation is as durable as natural basalt from the Hanford Reservation (10 6 years old). The thermodynamic hydration energy is shown to be related to the bond energetics of the glass. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  16. Glass viscosity calculation based on a global statistical modelling approach

    Fluegel, Alex

    2007-02-01

    A global statistical glass viscosity model was developed for predicting the complete viscosity curve, based on more than 2200 composition-property data of silicate glasses from the scientific literature, including soda-lime-silica container and float glasses, TV panel glasses, borosilicate fiber wool and E type glasses, low expansion borosilicate glasses, glasses for nuclear waste vitrification, lead crystal glasses, binary alkali silicates, and various further compositions from over half a century. It is shown that within a measurement series from a specific laboratory the reported viscosity values are often over-estimated at higher temperatures due to alkali and boron oxide evaporation during the measurement and glass preparation, including data by Lakatos et al. (1972) and the recently published High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling by Seward et al. (2005). Similarly, in the glass transition range many experimental data of borosilicate glasses are reported too high due to phase separation effects. The developed global model corrects those errors. The model standard error was 9-17°C, with R^2 = 0.985-0.989. The prediction 95% confidence interval for glass in mass production largely depends on the glass composition of interest, the composition uncertainty, and the viscosity level. New insights in the mixed-alkali effect are provided.

  17. Kovacs effect in solvable model glasses

    Aquino, Gerardo; Leuzzi, Luca; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M

    2006-01-01

    The Kovacs protocol, based on the temperature shift experiment originally conceived by A.J. Kovacs and applied on glassy polymers, is implemented in an exactly solvable model with facilitated dynamics. This model is based on interacting fast and slow modes represented respectively by spherical spins and harmonic oscillator variables. Due to this fundamental property and to slow dynamics, the model reproduces the characteristic nonmonotonic evolution known as the 'Kovacs effect', observed in polymers, spin glasses, in granular materials and models of molecular liquids, when similar experimental protocols are implemented

  18. Kovacs effect in solvable model glasses

    Aquino, Gerardo; Leuzzi, Luca; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2006-05-01

    The Kovacs protocol, based on the temperature shift experiment originally conceived by A.J. Kovacs and applied on glassy polymers [1], is implemented in an exactly solvable model with facilitated dynamics. This model is based on interacting fast and slow modes represented respectively by spherical spins and harmonic oscillator variables. Due to this fundamental property and to slow dynamics, the model reproduces the characteristic nonmonotonic evolution known as the ''Kovacs effect'', observed in polymers, spin glasses, in granular materials and models of molecular liquids, when similar experimental protocols are implemented.

  19. Esterilização em Ortodontia: eficácia do esterilizador com esferas de vidro Sterilization in Orthodontics: effectiveness of glass bead sterilizers

    Sônia Rodrigues Dutra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a efetividade do esterilizador com esferas de vidro Steri® 350, quanto ao controle de infecção das partes ativas dos alicates ortodônticos. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados nove alicates ortodônticos, previamente esterilizados em autoclave à temperatura de 121ºC, durante 20 minutos. Posteriormente, as partes ativas dos alicates foram contaminadas com Bacillus stearothermophilus. Logo após, as pontas dos alicates foram colocadas no Steri® 350, durante os períodos de 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 e 40 segundos, em temperatura de 255ºC, para avaliar a eficácia da esterilização. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o esterilizador com esferas de vidro mostrou-se eficaz no controle do crescimento de Bacillus stearothermophilus nas partes ativas dos alicates ortodônticos, a partir de 10 segundos de exposição à temperatura de 255ºC.AIM: The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of Steri® 350glass bead sterilizer, on the infection control of the active part of the orthodontic pliers. METHODS: Nine orthodontic pliers were sterilized in the steam autoclave at 121ºC in 20 minutes and subsequently the active part of each plier was dipped in a culture for Bacillus stearothermophilus. Later, the active part of each plier was putted into the Steri® 350 in the following periods: 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 seconds at 255ºC to evaluate the efficiency of this method in the infection control. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This sterilization method has been effective to control the presence of Bacillus stearothermophilus on the active part of orthodontic pliers at 255ºC in 10 seconds.

  20. The adsorption of copper in a packed-bed of chitosan beads: modeling, multiple adsorption and regeneration.

    Osifo, Peter O; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Webster, Athena; vd Gun, Marius A

    2009-08-15

    In this study, exoskeletons of Cape rock lobsters were used as raw material in the preparation of chitin that was successively deacetylated to chitosan flakes. The chitosan flakes were modified into chitosan beads and the beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde in order to study copper adsorption and regeneration in a packed-bed column. Five consecutive adsorption and desorption cycles were carried out and a chitosan mass loss of 25% was observed, after the last cycle. Despite the loss of chitosan material, an improved efficiency in the second and third cycles was observed with the adsorbent utilizing 97 and 74% of its adsorbent capacity in the second and third cycles, respectively. The fourth and fifth cycles, however, showed a decreased efficiency, and breakage of the beads was observed after the fifth cycle. In the desorption experiments, 91-99% of the adsorbed copper was regenerated in the first three cycles. It was also observed that the copper can be regenerated at a concentration of about a thousand fold the initial concentration. The first cycle of adsorption could be accurately described with a shrinking core particle model combined with a plug flow column model. The input parameters for this model were determined by batch characterization methods, with as only fitting parameter, the effective diffusion coefficient of copper in the bead.

  1. The adsorption of copper in a packed-bed of chitosan beads: Modeling, multiple adsorption and regeneration

    Osifo, Peter O., E-mail: petero@vut.ac.za [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, P/Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa); Neomagus, Hein W.J.P.; Everson, Raymond C. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North-West University, P/Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Webster, Athena [University of Utah, Chemistry Department, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gun, Marius A. vd [Sulzer Elbar B.V., Spikweien 36, NL-5943 AD Lomm (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    In this study, exoskeletons of Cape rock lobsters were used as raw material in the preparation of chitin that was successively deacetylated to chitosan flakes. The chitosan flakes were modified into chitosan beads and the beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde in order to study copper adsorption and regeneration in a packed-bed column. Five consecutive adsorption and desorption cycles were carried out and a chitosan mass loss of 25% was observed, after the last cycle. Despite the loss of chitosan material, an improved efficiency in the second and third cycles was observed with the adsorbent utilizing 97 and 74% of its adsorbent capacity in the second and third cycles, respectively. The fourth and fifth cycles, however, showed a decreased efficiency, and breakage of the beads was observed after the fifth cycle. In the desorption experiments, 91-99% of the adsorbed copper was regenerated in the first three cycles. It was also observed that the copper can be regenerated at a concentration of about a thousand fold the initial concentration. The first cycle of adsorption could be accurately described with a shrinking core particle model combined with a plug flow column model. The input parameters for this model were determined by batch characterization methods, with as only fitting parameter, the effective diffusion coefficient of copper in the bead.

  2. The adsorption of copper in a packed-bed of chitosan beads: Modeling, multiple adsorption and regeneration

    Osifo, Peter O.; Neomagus, Hein W.J.P.; Everson, Raymond C.; Webster, Athena; Gun, Marius A. vd

    2009-01-01

    In this study, exoskeletons of Cape rock lobsters were used as raw material in the preparation of chitin that was successively deacetylated to chitosan flakes. The chitosan flakes were modified into chitosan beads and the beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde in order to study copper adsorption and regeneration in a packed-bed column. Five consecutive adsorption and desorption cycles were carried out and a chitosan mass loss of 25% was observed, after the last cycle. Despite the loss of chitosan material, an improved efficiency in the second and third cycles was observed with the adsorbent utilizing 97 and 74% of its adsorbent capacity in the second and third cycles, respectively. The fourth and fifth cycles, however, showed a decreased efficiency, and breakage of the beads was observed after the fifth cycle. In the desorption experiments, 91-99% of the adsorbed copper was regenerated in the first three cycles. It was also observed that the copper can be regenerated at a concentration of about a thousand fold the initial concentration. The first cycle of adsorption could be accurately described with a shrinking core particle model combined with a plug flow column model. The input parameters for this model were determined by batch characterization methods, with as only fitting parameter, the effective diffusion coefficient of copper in the bead.

  3. Comparison of a model vapor deposited glass films to equilibrium glass films

    Flenner, Elijah; Berthier, Ludovic; Charbonneau, Patrick; Zamponi, Francesco

    Vapor deposition of particles onto a substrate held at around 85% of the glass transition temperature can create glasses with increased density, enthalpy, kinetic stability, and mechanical stability compared to an ordinary glass created by cooling. It is estimated that an ordinary glass would need to age thousands of years to reach the kinetic stability of a vapor deposited glass, and a natural question is how close to the equilibrium is the vapor deposited glass. To understand the process, algorithms akin to vapor deposition are used to create simulated glasses that have a higher kinetic stability than their annealed counterpart, although these glasses may not be well equilibrated either. Here we use novel models optimized for a swap Monte Carlo algorithm in order to create equilibrium glass films and compare their properties with those of glasses obtained from vapor deposition algorithms. This approach allows us to directly assess the non-equilibrium nature of vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses. Simons Collaboration on Cracking the Glass Problem and NSF Grant No. DMR 1608086.

  4. Outlooks for mathematical modelling of the glass melting process

    Waal, H. de [TNO Institute of Applied Physics, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Mathematical modelling is nowadays a standard tool for major producers of float glass, T.V. glass and fiberglass. Also for container glass furnaces, glass tank modelling proves to be a valuable method to optimize process conditions. Mathematical modelling is no longer just a way to visualize the flow patterns and to provide data on heat transfer. It can also predict glass quality in relation to process parameters, because all chemical and physical phenomena are included in the latest generation of models, based on experimental and theoretical research on these phenomena.

  5. Modelling aqueous corrosion of nuclear waste phosphate glass

    Poluektov, Pavel P.; Schmidt, Olga V.; Kascheev, Vladimir A. [Bochvar All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Ojovan, Michael I., E-mail: m.ojovan@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    A model is presented on nuclear sodium alumina phosphate (NAP) glass aqueous corrosion accounting for dissolution of radioactive glass and formation of corrosion products surface layer on the glass contacting ground water of a disposal environment. Modelling is used to process available experimental data demonstrating the generic inhibiting role of corrosion products on the NAP glass surface. - Highlights: • The radionuclides yield is determined by the transport from the glass through the surface corrosion layer. • Formation of the surface layer is due to the dissolution of the glass network and the formation of insoluble compounds. • The model proposed accounts for glass dissolution, formation of corrosion layer, specie diffusion and chemical reactions. • Analytical solutions are found for corrosion layer growth rate and glass components component leaching rates.

  6. Optimization of bead milling parameters for the cell disruption of microalgae: process modeling and application to Porphyridium cruentum and Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Montalescot, V; Rinaldi, T; Touchard, R; Jubeau, S; Frappart, M; Jaouen, P; Bourseau, P; Marchal, L

    2015-11-01

    A study of cell disruption by bead milling for two microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata and Porphyridium cruentum, was performed. Strains robustness was quantified by high-pressure disruption assays. The hydrodynamics in the bead mill grinding chamber was studied by Residence Time Distribution modeling. Operating parameters effects were analyzed and modeled in terms of stress intensities and stress number. RTD corresponded to a 2 CSTR in series model. First order kinetics cell disruption was modeled in consequence. Continuous bead milling was efficient for both strains disruption. SI-SN modeling was successfully adapted to microalgae. As predicted by high pressure assays, N. oculata was more resistant than P. cruentum. The critical stress intensity was twice more important for N. oculata than for P. cruentum. SI-SN modeling allows the determination of operating parameters minimizing energy consumption and gives a scalable approach to develop and optimize microalgal disruption by bead milling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical Modelling of Insulin and Amyloglucosidase Release from Swelling Ca-Alginate Beads

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Snabe, T.; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup

    2003-01-01

    The release of insulin hexamer (39 kD) and amyloglucosidase (AMG, 97 kD), entrapped in spherical Ca–alginate beads, was investigated. While the release of insulin could be described solely by diffusion this was not the case for the 1.6 (r m /r m) larger AMG protein, where rm is the Stokes....... Although it should be expected that the effective diffusion coefficient of AMG is only slightly lower than that of insulin, the results show that the effective diffusions coefficient of AMG was found to be much smaller. In the case of AMG, it was shown that including bead size changes and the resulting...

  8. A new index for characterizing micro-bead motion in a flow induced by ciliary beating: Part II, modeling.

    Mathieu Bottier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucociliary clearance is one of the major lines of defense of the human respiratory system. The mucus layer coating the airways is constantly moved along and out of the lung by the activity of motile cilia, expelling at the same time particles trapped in it. The efficiency of the cilia motion can experimentally be assessed by measuring the velocity of micro-beads traveling through the fluid surrounding the cilia. Here we present a mathematical model of the fluid flow and of the micro-beads motion. The coordinated movement of the ciliated edge is represented as a continuous envelope imposing a periodic moving velocity boundary condition on the surrounding fluid. Vanishing velocity and vanishing shear stress boundary conditions are applied to the fluid at a finite distance above the ciliated edge. The flow field is expanded in powers of the amplitude of the individual cilium movement. It is found that the continuous component of the horizontal velocity at the ciliated edge generates a 2D fluid velocity field with a parabolic profile in the vertical direction, in agreement with the experimental measurements. Conversely, we show than this model can be used to extract microscopic properties of the cilia motion by extrapolating the micro-bead velocity measurement at the ciliated edge. Finally, we derive from these measurements a scalar index providing a direct assessment of the cilia beating efficiency. This index can easily be measured in patients without any modification of the current clinical procedures.

  9. Critical properties of a simple spin glass model

    Aharony, A.; Imry, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The Mattis spin glass model is described as following from a particular quenched random solid solution picture, and its zero-field properties are discussed. The random field model is reviewed. The application to the spin glass problem is made and the more general scaling theory presented, and the limitations of the model are discussed

  10. Modeling of Viscosity and Thermal Expansion of Bioactive Glasses

    Farid, Saad B. H.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviors of viscosity and thermal expansion for different compositions of bioactive glasses have been studied. The effect of phosphorous pentoxide as a second glass former in addition to silica was investigated. Consequently, the nonlinear behaviors of viscosity and thermal expansion with respect to the oxide composition have been modeled. The modeling uses published data on bioactive glass compositions with viscosity and thermal expansion. -regression optimization technique has been uti...

  11. Parisi function for two spin glass models

    Sibani, P.; Hertz, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The probability distribution function P(q) for the overlap of pairs of metastable states and the associated Parisi order function q(x) are calculated exactly at zero temperature for two simple models. The first is a chain in which each spin interacts randomly with the sum of all the spins between it and one end of the chain; the second is an infinite-range limit of a spin glass version of Dyson's hierarchical model. Both have nontrivial overlap distributions: In the first case the problem reduces to a variable-step-length random walk problem, leading to q(x)=sin(πx). In the second model P(q) can be calculated by a simple recursion relation which generates devil's staircase structure in q(x). If the fraction p of antiferromagnetic bonds is less than 1/√2, the staircase is complete and the fractal dimensionality of the complement of the domain where q(x) is flat is log 2/log (1/p 2 ). In both models the space of metastable states can be described in terms of Cayley trees, which however have a different physical interpretation than in the S.K. model. (orig.)

  12. Beads from Inhumation Rite Burials of Gnezdovo Burial Mound

    Dobrova Olga P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beads from 33 inhumation burials at Gnezdovo burial mound are examined in the article. The beads (total 367 were crafted from stretched tube (258, stretched stick (3, winding (45, press molding (2 pcs., welding (2 pcs., and mosaic beads (9 pcs.. The burial mound contains virtually no broken beads, including the settlement's most common yellow glass beads. Besides glass beads, cornelian, crystal, amber and faience beads have been registered among the burial mound material, as well as beads crafted with metal. Apart from beads, grave inventories contained a series of pendants with a bead strung on a wire ring. The considered complexes contain five pendants of this type. Besides Gnezdovo, similar pendants have been discovered in Kiev, Timerev, Pskov and Vladimir barrows. A comparison between bead sets from Gnezdovo and Kiev burial mounds allows to conclude that the general composition and occurrence frequency of beads is identical for these burials. At the same time, beads crafted with rock crystal, cornelian and metal are more frequently discovered in Kiev inhumations.

  13. Understanding interparticle interactions in dry powder inhalation : glass beads as an innovative model carrier system

    Renner, Niklas Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    Delivery of drugs via the pulmonary route is the most common approach to treat diseases of the respiratory system, e.g. asthma bronchiale. Here, the active pharmaceutical ingredient is generally formulated in a so-called interactive mixture with a coarse and inert carrier. This enhances flowability and therefore dose metering and dispersibility. Interparticle interactions between carrier and drug govern aerosolisation behaviour of the blend and consequently the efficacy of the drug deposition...

  14. Modeling a novel glass immobilization waste treatment process using flow

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    One option for control and disposal of surplus fissile materials is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), a process developed at ORNL for directly converting Pu-bearing material into a durable high-quality glass waste form. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the GMODS process flowsheet using FLOW, a chemical process simulator. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated ion the models has acceptable levels of risks

  15. An empirical modeling tool and glass property database in development of US-DOE radioactive waste glasses

    Muller, I.; Gan, H.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated glass database has been developed at the Vitreous State Laboratory of Catholic University of America. The major objective of this tool was to support glass formulation using the MAWS approach (Minimum Additives Waste Stabilization). An empirical modeling capability, based on the properties of over 1000 glasses in the database, was also developed to help formulate glasses from waste streams under multiple user-imposed constraints. The use of this modeling capability, the performance of resulting models in predicting properties of waste glasses, and the correlation of simple structural theories to glass properties are the subjects of this paper. (authors)

  16. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Glass Lens Molding

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    The required accuracy for the final dimensions of the molded lenses in wafer-based precision glass molding as well as the need for elimination of costly experimental trial and error calls for numerical simulations. This study deals with 3D thermo-mechanical modeling of the wafer-based precision...... glass lens molding process. First, a comprehensive 3D thermo-mechanical model of glass is implemented into a FORTRAN user subroutine (UMAT) in the FE program ABAQUS, and the developed FE model is validated with both a well-known sandwich seal test and experimental results of precision molding of several...... glass rings. Afterward, 3D thermo-mechanical modeling of the wafer-based glass lens manufacturing is performed to suggest a proper molding program (i.e., the proper set of process parameters including preset force-time and temperature-time histories) for molding a wafer to a desired dimension...

  17. A structural bond strength model for glass durability

    Feng, Xiangdong; Metzger, T.B.

    1996-01-01

    A glass durability model, structural bond strength (SBS) model was developed to correlate glass durability with its composition. This model assumes that the strengths of the bonds between cations and oxygens and the structural roles of the individual elements in the glass arc the predominant factors controlling the composition dependence of the chemical durability of glasses. The structural roles of oxides in glass are classified as network formers, network breakers, and intermediates. The structural roles of the oxides depend upon glass composition and the redox state of oxides. Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , and B 2 O 3 are assigned as network formers only when there are sufficient alkalis to bind with these oxides. CaO can also improve durability by sharing non-bridging oxygen with alkalis, relieving SiO 2 from alkalis. The percolation phenomenon in glass is also taken into account. The SBS model is applied to correlate the 7-day product consistency test durability of 42 low-level waste glasses with their composition with an R 2 of 0.87, which is better than 0.81 obtained with an eight-coefficient empirical first-order mixture model on the same data set

  18. Waste glass corrosion modeling: Comparison with experimental results

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1993-11-01

    A chemical model of glass corrosion will be used to predict the rates of release of radionuclides from borosilicate glass waste forms in high-level waste repositories. The model will be used both to calculate the rate of degradation of the glass, and also to predict the effects of chemical interactions between the glass and repository materials such as spent fuel, canister and container materials, backfill, cements, grouts, and others. Coupling between the degradation processes affecting all these materials is expected. Models for borosilicate glass dissolution must account for the processes of (1) kinetically-controlled network dissolution, (2) precipitation of secondary phases, (3) ion exchange, (4) rate-limiting diffusive transport of silica through a hydrous surface reaction layer, and (5) specific glass surface interactions with dissolved cations and anions. Current long-term corrosion models for borosilicate glass employ a rate equation consistent with transition state theory embodied in a geochemical reaction-path modeling program that calculates aqueous phase speciation and mineral precipitation/dissolution. These models are currently under development. Future experimental and modeling work to better quantify the rate-controlling processes and validate these models are necessary before the models can be used in repository performance assessment calculations

  19. Understanding the structural drivers governing glass-water interactions in borosilicate based model bioactive glasses.

    Stone-Weiss, Nicholas; Pierce, Eric M; Youngman, Randall E; Gulbiten, Ozgur; Smith, Nicholas J; Du, Jincheng; Goel, Ashutosh

    2018-01-01

    borosilicate based model melt-quenched bioactive glass system has been studied to depict the impact of thermal history on its molecular structure and dissolution behavior in water. It has been shown that the methodology of quenching of the glass melt impacts the dissolution rate of the studied glasses by 1.5×-3× depending on the changes induced in their molecular structure due to variation in thermal history. Further, a recommendation has been made to study dissolution behavior of bioactive glasses using surface area of the sample - to - volume of solution (SA/V) approach instead of the currently followed mass of sample - to - volume of solution approach. The structural and chemical dissolution data obtained from bioactive glasses following the approach presented in this paper can be used to develop the structural descriptors and potential energy functions over a broad range of bioactive glass compositions. Realizing the goal of designing third generation bioactive glasses requires a thorough understanding of the complex sequence of reactions that control their rate of degradation (in physiological fluids) and the structural drivers that control them. In this article, we have highlighted some major experimental challenges and choices that need to be carefully navigated in order to unearth the mechanisms governing the chemical dissolution behavior of borosilicate based bioactive glasses. The proposed experimental approach allows us to gain a new level of conceptual understanding about the composition-structure-property relationships in these glass systems, which can be applied to attain a significant leap in designing borosilicate based bioactive glasses with controlled dissolution rates tailored for specific patient and disease states. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling the crystallisation of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics

    Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Agersted, Karsten; Holm, Paul Martin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential use of a thermochemical software package (FactSage 6.2), in the design of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics, experimental and modelled results on four glass ceramics were compared. Initially large discrepancies were found. These are described and related...

  1. Rotational Diffusion of Macromolecules and Nanoparticles Modeled as Non-Overlapping Bead Arrays in an Effective Medium

    Umar Twahir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the retarding influence of a gel on the rotational motion of a macromolecule is investigated within the framework of the Effective Medium (EM model. This is an extension of an earlier study that considered the effect of a gel on the translational motion of a macromolecule [Allison, S. et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 5858-5866]. The macromolecule is modeled as an array of non-overlapping spherical beads with no restriction placed on their size or configuration. Specific applications include the rotational motion of right circular cylinders and wormlike chains modeled as strings of identical touching beads. The procedure is then used to examine the electric birefringence decay of a 622 base pair DNA fragment in an agarose gel. At low gel concentration (M £ 0.010 gm/mL, good agreement between theory and experiment is achieved if the persistence length of DNA is taken to be 65 nm and the gel fiber radius of agarose is taken to be 2.5 nm. At higher gel concentrations, the EM model substantially underestimates the rotational relaxation time of DNA and this can be attributed to the onset of direct interactions that become significant when the effective particle size becomes comparable to the mean gel fiber spacing.

  2. Glasses

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  3. Equilibrium modeling of mono and binary sorption of Cu(II and Zn(II onto chitosan gel beads

    Nastaj Józef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work are in-depth experimental studies of Cu(II and Zn(II ion removal on chitosan gel beads from both one- and two-component water solutions at the temperature of 303 K. The optimal process conditions such as: pH value, dose of sorbent and contact time were determined. Based on the optimal process conditions, equilibrium and kinetic studies were carried out. The maximum sorption capacities equaled: 191.25 mg/g and 142.88 mg/g for Cu(II and Zn(II ions respectively, when the sorbent dose was 10 g/L and the pH of a solution was 5.0 for both heavy metal ions. One-component sorption equilibrium data were successfully presented for six of the most useful three-parameter equilibrium models: Langmuir-Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Koble-Corrigan, Hill and Toth. Extended forms of Langmuir-Freundlich, Koble-Corrigan and Sips models were also well fitted to the two-component equilibrium data obtained for different ratios of concentrations of Cu(II and Zn(II ions (1:1, 1:2, 2:1. Experimental sorption data were described by two kinetic models of the pseudo-first and pseudo-second order. Furthermore, an attempt to explain the mechanisms of the divalent metal ion sorption process on chitosan gel beads was undertaken.

  4. Modeling studies: Adsorption of aniline blue by using Prosopis Juliflora carbon/Ca/alginate polymer composite beads.

    Kumar, M; Tamilarasan, R

    2013-02-15

    The research article describes the experimental and modeling study for the adsorptive removal of aniline blue dye (AB dye) from aqueous matrices using a Prosopis Juliflora modified carbon/Ca/alginate polymer bead as a low cost and eco-friendly adsorbent. The rate of adsorption was investigated under various experimental parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, pH and temperature. The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies were assessed to find out the efficiency of the adsorption process. The equilibrium uptake capacity of the adsorption process was found with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations and it was evaluated by dimensionless separation factor (R(L)). The dynamics of adsorption was predicted by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order Lagergren's equation and intra particle diffusion model. Adsorption feasibility was assessed with thermodynamic parameters such as isosteric heat of adsorption (ΔH°), standard entropy (ΔS°) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) using VantHoff plot. The alginate bead was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanistic interpretation of glass reaction: Input to kinetic model development

    Bates, J.K.; Ebert, W.L.; Bradley, J.P.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1991-05-01

    Actinide-doped SRL 165 type glass was reacted in J-13 groundwater at 90 degree C for times up to 278 days. The reaction was characterized by both solution and solid analyses. The glass was seen to react nonstoichiometrically with preferred leaching of alkali metals and boron. High resolution electron microscopy revealed the formation of a complex layer structure which became separated from the underlying glass as the reaction progressed. The formation of the layer and its effect on continued glass reaction are discussed with respect to the current model for glass reaction used in the EQ3/6 computer simulation. It is concluded that the layer formed after 278 days is not protective and may eventually become fractured and generate particulates that may be transported by liquid water. 5 refs., 5 figs. , 3 tabs

  6. Overview of chemical modeling of nuclear waste glass dissolution

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1991-02-01

    Glass dissolution takes place through metal leaching and hydration of the glass surface accompanied by development of alternation layers of varying crystallinity. The reaction which controls the long-term glass dissolution rate appears to be surface layer dissolution. This reaction is reversible because the buildup of dissolved species in solution slows the dissolution rate due to a decreased dissolution affinity. Glass dissolution rates are therefore highly dependent on silica concentrations in solution because silica is the major component of the alteration layer. Chemical modeling of glass dissolution using reaction path computer codes has successfully been applied to short term experimental tests and used to predict long-term repository performance. Current problems and limitations of the models include a poorly defined long-term glass dissolution mechanism, the use of model parameters determined from the same experiments that the model is used to predict, and the lack of sufficient validation of key assumptions in the modeling approach. Work is in progress that addresses these issues. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Heat Transfer Modelling of Glass Media within TPV Systems

    Bauer, Thomas; Forbes, Ian; Penlington, Roger; Pearsall, Nicola

    2004-11-01

    Understanding and optimisation of heat transfer, and in particular radiative heat transfer in terms of spectral, angular and spatial radiation distributions is important to achieve high system efficiencies and high electrical power densities for thermophtovoltaics (TPV). This work reviews heat transfer models and uses the Discrete Ordinates method. Firstly one-dimensional heat transfer in fused silica (quartz glass) shields was examined for the common arrangement, radiator-air-glass-air-PV cell. It has been concluded that an alternative arrangement radiator-glass-air-PV cell with increased thickness of fused silica should have advantages in terms of improved transmission of convertible radiation and enhanced suppression of non-convertible radiation.

  8. Waste glass corrosion modeling: Comparison with experimental results

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Models for borosilicate glass dissolution must account for the processes of (1) kinetically-controlled network dissolution, (2) precipitation of secondary phases, (3) ion exchange, (4) rate-limiting diffusive transport of silica through a hydrous surface reaction layer, and (5) specific glass surface interactions with dissolved cations and anions. Current long-term corrosion models for borosilicate glass employ a rate equation consistent with transition state theory embodied in a geochemical reaction-path modeling program that calculates aqueous phase speciation and mineral precipitation/dissolution. These models are currently under development. Future experimental and modeling work to better quantify the rate-controlling processes and validate these models are necessary before the models can be used in repository performance assessment calculations

  9. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations on wastewater nutrient removal. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The bioreactor containing algal beads (4 mm diameter) with 1.5 x 106 cells bead-1 (cell stocking) at concentration of 10.66 beads ml-1 wastewater (1:3 bead: wastewater, v/v) achieved ...

  10. Fused Bead Analysis of Diogenite Meteorites

    Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Beck, B.W.; McSween, H.Y.; Lee, C.T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk rock chemistry is an essential dataset in meteoritics and planetary science [1]. A common method used to obtain the bulk chemistry of meteorites is ICP-MS. While the accuracy, precision and low detection limits of this process are advantageous [2], the sample size used for analysis (approx.70 mg) can be a problem in a field where small and finite samples are the norm. Fused bead analysis is another bulk rock analytical technique that has been used in meteoritics [3]. This technique involves forming a glass bead from 10 mg of sample and measuring its chemistry using a defocused beam on a microprobe. Though the ICP-MS has lower detection limits than the microprobe, the fused bead method destroys a much smaller sample of the meteorite. Fused bead analysis was initially designed for samples with near-eutectic compositions and low viscosities. Melts generated of this type homogenize at relatively low temperatures and produce primary melts near the sample s bulk composition [3]. The application of fused bead analysis to samples with noneutectic melt compositions has not been validated. The purpose of this study is to test if fused bead analysis can accurately determine the bulk rock chemistry of non-eutectic melt composition meteorites. To determine this, we conduct two examinations of the fused bead. First, we compare ICP-MS and fused bead results of the same samples using statistical analysis. Secondly, we inspect the beads for the presence of crystals and chemical heterogeneity. The presence of either of these would indicate incomplete melting and quenching of the bead.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregate formation in an alginate bead model system exhibits In Vivo-like characteristics

    Sønderholm, Majken; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Koren, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    similar in size to in vivo aggregates observed ex vivo in cystic fibrosis lungs and chronic wounds. Bacterial aggregates primarily grew in the bead periphery and decreased in size and abundance toward the center of the bead. Microsensor measurements showed that the O2 concentration decreased rapidly...... and flexible in vivo-like biofilm model system, wherein bacterial growth exhibits central features of in vivo biofilms. This was observed by the formation of small cell aggregates in a secondary matrix with O2-limited growth, which was alleviated by the addition of NO3− as an alternative electron acceptor...

  12. SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.

    2017-01-01

    -regularized reconstruction. A collection of 48 x-ray CT datasets called SparseBeads was designed for benchmarking SR reconstruction algorithms. Beadpacks comprising glass beads of five different sizes as well as mixtures were scanned in a micro-CT scanner to provide structured datasets with variable image sparsity levels...

  13. A Kondo cluster-glass model for spin glass Cerium alloys

    Zimmer, F M; Magalhaes, S G; Coqblin, B

    2011-01-01

    There are clear indications that the presence of disorder in Ce alloys, such as Ce(Ni,Cu) or Ce(Pd,Rh), is responsible for the existence of a cluster spin glass state which changes continuously into inhomogeneous ferromagnetism at low temperatures. We present a study of the competition between magnetism and Kondo effect in a cluster-glass model composed by a random inter-cluster interaction term and an intra-cluster one, which contains an intra-site Kondo interaction J k and an inter-site ferromagnetic one J 0 . The random interaction is given by the van Hemmen type of randomness which allows to solve the problem without the use of the replica method. The inter-cluster term is solved within the cluster mean-field theory and the remaining intra-cluster interactions can be treated by exact diagonalization. Results show the behavior of the cluster glass order parameter and the Kondo correlation function for several sizes of the clusters, J k , J 0 and values of the ferromagnetic inter-cluster average interaction I 0 . Particularly, for small J k , the magnetic solution is strongly dependent on I 0 and J 0 and a Kondo cluster-glass or a mixed phase can be obtained, while, for large J k , the Kondo effect is still dominant, both in good agreement with experiment in Ce(Ni,Cu) or Ce(Pd,Rh) alloys.

  14. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass to be Produced at Hanford by Implementing Current Advanced Glass Formulation Efforts

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skorski, Daniel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.

  15. A new viscosity model for waste glass formulations

    Sadler, A.L.K.

    1996-01-01

    Waste glass formulation requires prediction, with reasonable accuracy, of properties over much wider ranges of composition than are typically encountered in any single industrial application. Melt viscosity is one such property whose behavior must be predicted in formulating new waste glasses. A model was developed for silicate glasses which relates the Arrhenius activation energy for flow to an open-quotes effectiveclose quotes measure of non-bridging oxygen content in the melt, NBO eff . The NBO eff parameter incorporates the differing effects of modifying cations on the depolymerization of the silicate network. The activation energy-composition relationship implied by the model is in accordance with experimental behavior. The model was validated against two different databases, with satisfactory results

  16. Drilling in tempered glassmodelling and experiments

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    The present paper reports experimentally and numerically obtained results for the process of drilling in tempered glass. The experimental results are drilling depths on the edge in 19mm tempered glass with a known residual stress state measured by a scattered light polariscope. The experiments have...... been modelled using a state-of-the-art model and compared with satisfying result to the performed experiments. The numerical model has been used for a parametric study, investigating the redistribution of residual stresses during the process of drilling. This is done for investigating the possibility...... of applying forces in such holes and thereby being able to mechanically assemble tempered glass without the need of drilling holes before the tempering process. The paper is the result of currently ongoing research and the results should be treated as so....

  17. Modeling the kinetics of volatilization from glass melts

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2001-01-01

    A model description for the evaporation kinetics from glass melts in direct contact with static atmospheres or flowing gas phases is presented. The derived models and equations are based on the solution of the second Ficks' diffusion law and quasi-steady-state mass transfer relations, taking into

  18. Numerical modelling of glass dissolution: gel layer morphology

    Devreux, F. E-mail: fd@pmc.polytechnique.fr; Barboux, P

    2001-09-01

    Numerical simulations of glass dissolution are presented. The glass is modelized as a random binary mixture composed of two species representing silica and soluble oxides, such as boron and alkali oxides. The soluble species are dissolved immediately when they are in contact with the solution. For the species which represents silica, one introduces dissolution and condensation probabilities. It is shown that the morphology and the thickness of the surface hydration layer (the gel) are highly dependent on the dissolution model, especially on the parameter which controls the surface tension. Simulations with different glass surface area to solution volume ratio (S/V) show that this experimental parameter has important effects on both the shrinkage and the gel layer thickness.

  19. An acceptance model for smart glasses based tourism augmented reality

    Obeidy, Waqas Khalid; Arshad, Haslina; Huang, Jiung Yao

    2017-10-01

    Recent mobile technologies have revolutionized the way people experience their environment. Although, there is only limited research on users' acceptance of AR in the cultural tourism context, previous researchers have explored the opportunities of using augmented reality (AR) in order to enhance user experience. Recent AR research lack works that integrates dimensions which are specific to cultural tourism and smart glass specific context. Hence, this work proposes an AR acceptance model in the context of cultural heritage tourism and smart glasses capable of performing augmented reality. Therefore, in this paper we aim to present an AR acceptance model to understand the AR usage behavior and visiting intention for tourists who use Smart Glass based AR at UNESCO cultural heritage destinations in Malaysia. Furthermore, this paper identifies information quality, technology readiness, visual appeal, and facilitating conditions as external variables and key factors influencing visitors' beliefs, attitudes and usage intention.

  20. Kovacs effect in a model for a fragile glass

    Aquino, Gerardo; Leuzzi, Luca; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2006-03-01

    The Kovacs protocol, based on the temperature shift experiment originally conceived by A. J. Kovacs for glassy polymers, is implemented in an exactly solvable dynamical model. This model is characterized by interacting fast and slow modes represented, respectively, by spherical spins and harmonic oscillator variables. Due to this fundamental property, the model reproduces the characteristic nonmonotonic evolution known as the “Kovacs effect,” observed in polymers, spin glasses, granular materials, and molecular liquid models, when similar experimental protocols are implemented.

  1. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.

    2007-01-01

    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  2. Enhancement of the glass corrosion in the presence of clay minerals: testing experimental results with an integrated glass dissolution model

    Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Recent glass dissolution experiments, conducted at 90 deg C in the presence of potential backfill materials, indicate remarkably faster glass corrosion in the presence of clay, compared to tests where the glass is leached either alone or with alternative backfill materials. This effect correlates with the clay content in the backfill, and may be attributed to the removal of silica from solution. Scorpion, or dissolution with reprecipitation of a silica-rich clay, have been proposed as possible mechanisms for the silica consumption. The results of some experiments have been tested against a glass dissolution model, in which a widely used kinetic equation for glass corrosion is coupled with diffusive silica transport through a single porosity, linearly sorbing medium, which represents the backfilling. Because the glass corrosion rates imposed by the kinetic equation are inversely proportional to the silicic acid concentration of the leachant contacting the glass, the model predicts enhanced glass dissolution if silica is sorbed by the porous medium. The experimental data proved to be consistent with the predicted enhancement of the glass dissolution. Moreover, the model-estimated distribution coefficients for silica sorption (K d ) fall within the range of values extracted from available literature data, thus supporting the hypothesis that the observed high corrosion rates are due to sorption of silica on the clay mineral surfaces. (author)

  3. The adsorption of copper in a packed-bed of chitosan beads: Modeling, multiple adsorption and regeneration

    Neomagus, Hein W J P; Osifo, Peter O; Everson, Raymond C; Webster, Athena; Gun, Marius A

    2009-01-01

    In this study, exoskeletons of Cape rock lobsters were used as raw material in the preparation of chitin that was successively deacetylated to chitosan flakes. The chitosan flakes were modified into chitosan beads and the beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde in order to study copper adsorption and regeneration in a packed-bed column. Five consecutive adsorption and desorption cycles were carried out and a chitosan mass loss of 25% was observed, after the last cycle. Despite the loss of...

  4. Glass operational file. Operational models and integration calculations

    Ribet, I.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the operational choices of dominating phenomena, hypotheses, equations and numerical data of the parameters used in the two operational models elaborated for the calculation of the glass source terms with respect to the waste packages considered: existing packages (R7T7, AVM and CEA glasses) and future ones (UOX2, UOX3, UMo, others). The overall operational choices are justified and demonstrated and a critical analysis of the approach is systematically proposed. The use of the operational model (OPM) V 0 → V r , realistic, conservative and robust, is recommended for glasses with a high thermal and radioactive load, which represent the main part of the vitrified wastes. The OPM V 0 S, much more overestimating but faster to parameterize, can be used for the long-term behaviour forecasting of glasses with low thermal and radioactive load, considering today's lack of knowledge for the parameterization of a V 0 → V r type OPM. Efficiency estimations have been made for R7T7 glasses (OPM V 0 → V r ) and AVM glasses (OPM V 0 S), which correspond to more than 99.9% of the vitrified waste packages activity. The very contrasted results obtained, illustrate the importance of the choice of operational models: in conditions representative of a geologic disposal, the estimation of R7T7-type package lifetime exceeds several hundred thousands years. Even if the estimated lifetime of AVM packages is much shorter (because of the overestimating character of the OPM V 0 S), the release potential radiotoxicity is of the same order as the one of R7T7 packages. (J.S.)

  5. Modelling of the glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution in the compounding of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics

    Kloke, P.; Herken, T.; Schöppner, V.; Rudloff, J.; Kretschmer, K.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Walther, Dridger, A.

    2014-05-01

    The use of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for the production of highly stressed parts in the plastics processing industry has experienced an enormous boom in the last few years. The reasons for this are primarily the improvements to the stiffness and strength properties brought about by fiber reinforcement. These positive characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced polymers are governed predominantly by the mean glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution. It is not enough to describe the properties of a plastics component solely as a function of the mean glass fiber length [1]. For this reason, a mathematical-physical model has been developed for describing the glass fiber length distribution in compounding. With this model, it is possible on the one hand to optimize processes for the production of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, and, on the other, to obtain information on the final distribution, on the basis of which much more detailed statements can be made about the subsequent properties of the molded part. Based on experimental tests, it was shown that this model is able to accurately describe the change in glass fiber length distribution in compounding.

  6. Heat transfer modelling in thermophotovoltaic cavities using glass media

    Bauer, T.; Forbes, I.; Penlington, R.; Pearsall, N. [Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Technology

    2005-08-15

    Optimisation of heat transfer, and in particular radiative heat transfer in terms of the spectral, angular and spatial radiation distributions, is required to achieve high efficiencies and high electrical power densities for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion. This work examines heat transfer from the radiator to the PV cell in an infinite plate arrangement using three different arrangements of participating dielectric media. The modelling applies the Discrete Ordinates method and assumes fused silica (quartz glass) as the dielectric medium. The arrangement radiator-glass-PV cell (also termed dielectric photon concentration) was found to be superior in terms of efficiency and power density. (author)

  7. The glass model of Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station

    Kuttruf, H.; Lemke, W.

    1986-01-01

    The glass model represents the nuclear steam generator system of Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station on a scale of 1:25 and in simplified form, so that the thermohydraulic behaviour in both normal operational and fault conditions can be represented. A set-up time of about one hour results in a helpful aid to instruction. (orig.) [de

  8. THERMODYNAMIC MODEL AND VISCOSITY OF SELECTED ZIRCONIA CONTAINING SILICATE GLASSES

    MÁRIA CHROMČÍKOVÁ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The compositional dependence of viscosity, and viscous flow activation energy of glasses with composition xNa2O∙(15-x K2O∙yCaO∙(10-yZnO∙zZrO2∙(75-zSiO2 (x = 0, 7.5, 15; y = 0, 5, 10; z = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 was analyzed. The studied glasses were described by the thermodynamic model of Shakhmatkin and Vedishcheva considering the glass as an equilibrium ideal solution of species with stoichiometry given by the composition of stable crystalline phases of respective glass forming system. Viscosity-composition relationships were described by the regression approach considering the viscous flow activation energy and the particular isokome temperature as multilinear function of equilibrium molar amounts of system components. The classical approach where the mole fractions of individual oxides are considered as independent variables was compared with the thermodynamic model. On the basis of statistical analysis there was proved that the thermodynamic model is able to describe the composition property relationships with higher reliability. Moreover, due its better physical justification, thermodynamic model can be even used for predictive purposes.

  9. Generalization of the normal-exponential model: exploration of a more accurate parametrisation for the signal distribution on Illumina BeadArrays.

    Plancade, Sandra; Rozenholc, Yves; Lund, Eiliv

    2012-12-11

    Illumina BeadArray technology includes non specific negative control features that allow a precise estimation of the background noise. As an alternative to the background subtraction proposed in BeadStudio which leads to an important loss of information by generating negative values, a background correction method modeling the observed intensities as the sum of the exponentially distributed signal and normally distributed noise has been developed. Nevertheless, Wang and Ye (2012) display a kernel-based estimator of the signal distribution on Illumina BeadArrays and suggest that a gamma distribution would represent a better modeling of the signal density. Hence, the normal-exponential modeling may not be appropriate for Illumina data and background corrections derived from this model may lead to wrong estimation. We propose a more flexible modeling based on a gamma distributed signal and a normal distributed background noise and develop the associated background correction, implemented in the R-package NormalGamma. Our model proves to be markedly more accurate to model Illumina BeadArrays: on the one hand, it is shown on two types of Illumina BeadChips that this model offers a more correct fit of the observed intensities. On the other hand, the comparison of the operating characteristics of several background correction procedures on spike-in and on normal-gamma simulated data shows high similarities, reinforcing the validation of the normal-gamma modeling. The performance of the background corrections based on the normal-gamma and normal-exponential models are compared on two dilution data sets, through testing procedures which represent various experimental designs. Surprisingly, we observe that the implementation of a more accurate parametrisation in the model-based background correction does not increase the sensitivity. These results may be explained by the operating characteristics of the estimators: the normal-gamma background correction offers an improvement

  10. First principles process-product models for vitrification of nuclear waste: Relationship of glass composition to glass viscosity, resistivity, liquidus temperature, and durability

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses will be used in the USA and in Europe to immobilize radioactive high level liquid wastes (HLLW) for ultimate geologic disposal. Process and product quality models based on glass composition simplify the fabrication of the borosilicate glass while ensuring glass processability and quality. The process model for glass viscosity is based on a relationship between the glass composition and its structural polymerization. The relationship between glass viscosity and electrical resistivity is also shown to relate to glass polymerization. The process model for glass liquidus temperature calculates the solubility of the liquidus phases based on the free energies of formation of the precipitating species. The durability product quality model is based on the calculation of the thermodynamic hydration free energy from the glass composition

  11. Integrated modelling of the glass-iron-clay system

    Bildstein, O

    2007-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of integrated calculations on the near-field evolution in the VHLW/steel/bentonite/clay system. The calculations of the near-field evolution include different components: the vitrified waste packages, the steel container, the bentonite-based EBS (optional), the EDZ and the geological medium. Coupled reaction-transport (X-T) is used to simulate the corrosion of the steel canister and the glass alteration phase in presence of corrosion products (CPs), looking at mass transfer for chemical elements, especially iron and silica, pH, and porosity change. Calculations as performed give actual parameters for PA calculations: rate of glass alteration (through the calculated pH) as a function of time, extension of altered zone for iron-clay interactions with their own transport parameters, nature of CPs, effect on porosity distribution. According to the operational model currently used at the CEA and the calculations performed on the glass-iron-clay system, the alteration rate of glass and the evolution of the system strongly depend on the timing of CPs saturation with respect to silica sorption. The fate of silica which can be sorbed or precipitate is crucial to the lifetime of glass and to the overall evolution of the system. The other process that might influence the glass is the porosity decrease due to the precipitation of CPs and silica rich phases. However, it is difficult to assign a safety functions to clogging. It is scarcely observed in experiments, either because the conditions are not met for clogging or because the timescale of experiments does not allow for observable clogging. Moreover, the effect of mechanical stress in the NF has to be accounted for in the assessment of the effect of porosity changes. (author)

  12. Integrated modelling of the glass-iron-clay system

    Bildstein, O.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of integrated calculations on the near-field evolution in the VHLW/steel/bentonite/clay system. The calculations of the near-field evolution include different components: the vitrified waste packages, the steel container, the bentonite-based EBS (optional), the EDZ and the geological medium. Coupled reaction-transport (X-T) is used to simulate the corrosion of the steel canister and the glass alteration phase in presence of corrosion products (CPs), looking at mass transfer for chemical elements, especially iron and silica, pH, and porosity change. Calculations as performed give actual parameters for PA calculations: rate of glass alteration (through the calculated pH) as a function of time, extension of altered zone for iron-clay interactions with their own transport parameters, nature of CPs, effect on porosity distribution. According to the operational model currently used at the CEA and the calculations performed on the glass-iron-clay system, the alteration rate of glass and the evolution of the system strongly depend on the timing of CPs saturation with respect to silica sorption. The fate of silica which can be sorbed or precipitate is crucial to the lifetime of glass and to the overall evolution of the system. The other process that might influence the glass is the porosity decrease due to the precipitation of CPs and silica rich phases. However, it is difficult to assign a safety functions to clogging. It is scarcely observed in experiments, either because the conditions are not met for clogging or because the timescale of experiments does not allow for observable clogging. Moreover, the effect of mechanical stress in the NF has to be accounted for in the assessment of the effect of porosity changes. (author)

  13. Three-bead steering microswimmers

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2018-02-01

    The self-propelled microswimmers have recently attracted considerable attention as model systems for biological cell migration as well as artificial micromachines. A simple and well-studied microswimmer model consists of three identical spherical beads joined by two springs in a linear fashion with active oscillatory forces being applied on the beads to generate self-propulsion. We have extended this linear microswimmer configuration to a triangular geometry where the three beads are connected by three identical springs in an equilateral triangular manner. The active forces acting on each spring can lead to autonomous steering motion; i.e., allowing the swimmer to move along arbitrary paths. We explore the microswimmer dynamics analytically and pinpoint its rich character depending on the nature of the active forces. The microswimmers can translate along a straight trajectory, rotate at a fixed location, as well as perform a simultaneous translation and rotation resulting in complex curved trajectories. The sinusoidal active forces on the three springs of the microswimmer contain naturally four operating parameters which are more than required for the steering motion. We identify the minimal operating parameters which are essential for the motion of the microswimmer along any given arbitrary trajectory. Therefore, along with providing insights into the mechanics of the complex motion of the natural and artificial microswimmers, the triangular three-bead microswimmer can be utilized as a model for targeted drug delivery systems and autonomous underwater vehicles where intricate trajectories are involved.

  14. Spin Glass Models of Syntax and Language Evolution

    Siva, Karthik; Tao, Jim; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Using the SSWL database of syntactic parameters of world languages, and the MIT Media Lab data on language interactions, we construct a spin glass model of language evolution. We treat binary syntactic parameters as spin states, with languages as vertices of a graph, and assigned interaction energies along the edges. We study a rough model of syntax evolution, under the assumption that a strong interaction energy tends to cause parameters to align, as in the case of ferromagnetic materials. W...

  15. Influence of chain topology and bond potential on the glass transition of polymer chains simulated with the bond fluctuation model

    Freire, J J

    2008-01-01

    The bond fluctuation model with a bond potential has been applied to investigation of the glass transition of linear chains and chains with a regular disposition of small branches. Cooling and subsequent heating curves are obtained for the chain energies and also for the mean acceptance probability of a bead jump. In order to mimic different trends to vitrification, a factor B gauging the strength of the bond potential with respect to the long-range potential (i.e. the intramolecular or intermolecular potential between indirectly bonded beads) has been introduced. (A higher value of B leads to a preference for the highest bond lengths and a higher total energy, implying a greater tendency to vitrify.) Different cases have been considered for linear chains: no long-range potential, no bond potential and several choices for B. Furthermore, two distinct values of B have been considered for alternate bonds in linear chains. In the case of the branched chains, mixed models with different values of B for bonds in the main chain and in the branches have also been investigated. The possible presence of ordering or crystallization has been characterized by calculating the collective light scattering function of the different samples after annealing at a convenient temperature below the onset of the abrupt change in the curves associated with a thermodynamic transition. It is concluded that ordering is inherited more efficiently in the systems with branched chains and also for higher values of B. The branched molecules with the highest B values in the main chain bonds exhibit two distinct transitions in the heating curves, which may be associated with two glass transitions. This behavior has been detected experimentally for chains with relatively long flexible branches

  16. Influence of chain topology and bond potential on the glass transition of polymer chains simulated with the bond fluctuation model

    Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jfreire@invi.uned.es

    2008-07-16

    The bond fluctuation model with a bond potential has been applied to investigation of the glass transition of linear chains and chains with a regular disposition of small branches. Cooling and subsequent heating curves are obtained for the chain energies and also for the mean acceptance probability of a bead jump. In order to mimic different trends to vitrification, a factor B gauging the strength of the bond potential with respect to the long-range potential (i.e. the intramolecular or intermolecular potential between indirectly bonded beads) has been introduced. (A higher value of B leads to a preference for the highest bond lengths and a higher total energy, implying a greater tendency to vitrify.) Different cases have been considered for linear chains: no long-range potential, no bond potential and several choices for B. Furthermore, two distinct values of B have been considered for alternate bonds in linear chains. In the case of the branched chains, mixed models with different values of B for bonds in the main chain and in the branches have also been investigated. The possible presence of ordering or crystallization has been characterized by calculating the collective light scattering function of the different samples after annealing at a convenient temperature below the onset of the abrupt change in the curves associated with a thermodynamic transition. It is concluded that ordering is inherited more efficiently in the systems with branched chains and also for higher values of B. The branched molecules with the highest B values in the main chain bonds exhibit two distinct transitions in the heating curves, which may be associated with two glass transitions. This behavior has been detected experimentally for chains with relatively long flexible branches.

  17. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  18. Analytical and regression models of glass rod drawing process

    Alekseeva, L. B.

    2018-03-01

    The process of drawing glass rods (light guides) is being studied. The parameters of the process affecting the quality of the light guide have been determined. To solve the problem, mathematical models based on general equations of continuum mechanics are used. The conditions for the stable flow of the drawing process have been found, which are determined by the stability of the motion of the glass mass in the formation zone to small uncontrolled perturbations. The sensitivity of the formation zone to perturbations of the drawing speed and viscosity is estimated. Experimental models of the drawing process, based on the regression analysis methods, have been obtained. These models make it possible to customize a specific production process to obtain light guides of the required quality. They allow one to find the optimum combination of process parameters in the chosen area and to determine the required accuracy of maintaining them at a specified level.

  19. Assessing the Validity of the Simplified Potential Energy Clock Model for Modeling Glass-Ceramics

    Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dai, Steve Xunhu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Glass-ceramic seals may be the future of hermetic connectors at Sandia National Laboratories. They have been shown capable of surviving higher temperatures and pressures than amorphous glass seals. More advanced finite-element material models are required to enable model-based design and provide evidence that the hermetic connectors can meet design requirements. Glass-ceramics are composite materials with both crystalline and amorphous phases. The latter gives rise to (non-linearly) viscoelastic behavior. Given their complex microstructures, glass-ceramics may be thermorheologically complex, a behavior outside the scope of currently implemented constitutive models at Sandia. However, it was desired to assess if the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model is capable of capturing the material response. Available data for SL 16.8 glass-ceramic was used to calibrate the SPEC model. Model accuracy was assessed by comparing model predictions with shear moduli temperature dependence and high temperature 3-point bend creep data. It is shown that the model can predict the temperature dependence of the shear moduli and 3- point bend creep data. Analysis of the results is presented. Suggestions for future experiments and model development are presented. Though further calibration is likely necessary, SPEC has been shown capable of modeling glass-ceramic behavior in the glass transition region but requires further analysis below the transition region.

  20. A String of Beads

    Mead, Kelly C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she designed a math activity she called Beads to use in conjunction with their school's 100th day celebration. Beads has provided her kindergarten class with many opportunities to practice a variety of math skills - counting, patterning, sorting, comparing, making sets, predicting, identifying numerals,…

  1. An approach to thermochemical modeling of nuclear waste glass

    Besmann, T.M.; Beahm, E.C.; Spear, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This initial work is aimed at developing a basic understanding of the phase equilibria and solid solution behavior of the constituents of waste glass. Current, experimentally determined values are less than desirable since they depend on measurement of the leach rate under non-realistic conditions designed to accelerate processes that occur on a geologic time scale. The often-used assumption that the activity of a species is either unity or equal to the overall concentration of the metal can also yield misleading results. The associate species model, a recent development in thermochemical modeling, will be applied to these systems to more accurately predict chemical activities in such complex systems as waste glasses

  2. Measurements and modeling of gain coefficients for neodymium laser glasses

    Linford, G.J.; Saroyan, R.A.; Trenholme, J.B.; Weber, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Small-signal gain coefficients are reported for neodymium in silicate, phosphate, fluorophosphate, and fluoroberyllate laser glasses. Measurements were made in a disk amplifier under identical conditions. Using spectroscopic data as the input, amplifier gain is calculated as a fucntion of flashlamp energy, pumping pulse duration, disk thickness, and Nd-doping. The agreement between predicted and measured gains is generally with ;plus or minus;10 percent, consistent with experimental uncertainties in the model and the parameters used. The operating conditions which optimize amplifier performance and efficiency for a given laser glass may be found using spectroscopic data alone. This process can be extended to derive the most cost-effective staging of amplifier chains for fusion lasers. A discussion of the model and examples of calculations are presented

  3. Experimental Investigation of 2D thermal signature and 3D X-Ray Computed Tomography in contrasting Wettable and Water-Repellent Beads

    Alsih, Abdulkareem; Flavel, Richard; McGrath, Gavan

    2017-04-01

    This study presents experimental results investigating spatial patterns of infiltration and evaporation in heterogeneous water repellent media. Infrared camera measurements and 3D X-ray computed tomography imaging was performed across wet-dry cycles on glass beads with engineered patches of water repellence. The imaging revealed spatial variability in infiltration and the redistribution of water in the media resulting in differences in relative evaporation rates during drying. It appears that the spatial organization of the heterogeneity play a role in the breakdown of water repellence at the interface of the two media. This suggests a potential mechanism for self-organization of repellency spatial patterns in field soils. At the interface between wettable and water repellent beads a lateral drying front propagates towards the wettable beads from the repellent beads. During this drying the relative surface temperatures change from a relatively cooler repellent media surface to a relatively cooler wettable media surface indicating the changes in evaporative water loss between the beads of varying water repellence. The lateral drying front was confirmed using thermography in a small-scale model of glass beads with chemically induced repellence and then subjected to 3D X-ray imaging. Pore-scale imaging identified the hydrology at the interface of the two media and at the drying front giving insights into the physics of water flow in water repellent soil.

  4. 2014 Enhanced LAW Glass Property-Composition Models, Phase 2

    Muller, Isabelle [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Joseph, Innocent [Energy Solutions, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gilbo, Konstantin [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-28

    This report describes the results of testing specified by the Enhanced LAW Glass Property-Composition Models, VSL-13T3050-1, Rev. 0 Test Plan. The work was performed in compliance with the quality assurance requirements specified in the Test Plan. Results required by the Test Plan are reported. The te4st results and this report have been reviewed for correctness, technical adequacy, completeness, and accuracy.

  5. Precision Glass Molding: Validation of an FE Model for Thermo-Mechanical Simulation

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    glass molding process including heating, pressing, and cooling stages. Temperature- dependent viscoelastic and structural relaxation behavior of the glass material are implemented through a FORTRAN material subroutine (UMAT) into the commercial FEM program ABAQUS, and the FE model is validated...

  6. glasses

    thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis and impedance spectroscopy. .... KT ). (2). Figure 4. Cole–cole plot of 60V2O5–5P2O5–33B2O3–2CeO2. ... According to this model, as .... Figure 13 represents the Nyquist plot for the composition.

  7. Thermodynamical modeling of nuclear glasses: coexistence of amorphous phases

    Adjanor, G.

    2007-11-01

    Investigating the stability of borosilicate glasses used in the nuclear industry with respect to phase separation requires to estimate the Gibbs free energies of the various phases appearing in the material. In simulation, using current computational resources, a direct state-sampling of a glassy system with respect to its ensemble statistics is not ergodic and the estimated ensemble averages are not reliable. Our approach consists in generating, at a given cooling rate, a series of quenches, or paths connecting states of the liquid to states of the glass, and then in taking into account the probability to generate the paths leading to the different glassy states in ensembles averages. In this way, we introduce a path ensemble formalism and calculate a Landau free energy associated to a glassy meta-basin. This method was validated by accurately mapping the free energy landscape of a 38-atom glassy cluster. We then applied this approach to the calculation of the Gibbs free energies of binary amorphous Lennard-Jones alloys, and checked the correlation between the observed tendencies to order or to phase separate and the computed Gibbs free energies. We finally computed the driving force to phase separation in a simplified three-oxide nuclear glass modeled by a Born-Mayer-Huggins potential that includes a three-body term, and we compared the estimated quantities to the available experimental data. (author)

  8. In-bead screening

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  9. JSS project phase 4: Experimental and modelling studies of HLW glass dissolution in repository environments

    1987-10-01

    A goal of the JSS project was to develop a scientific basis for understanding the effects of waste package components, groundwater chemistry, and other repository conditions on glass dissolution behaviour, and to develop and refine a model for the processes governing glass dissolution. The fourth phase of the project, which was performed by the Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin, FRG, dealt specifically with model development and application. Phase 4 also adressed whether basaltic glasses could serve as natural analogues for nuclear waste glasses, thus providing a means to test the capability of the model for long-term predictions. Additional experiments were performed in order to complete the data base necessary to model interactions between the glass and bentonite and between glass and steel corrosion products. More data on temperature, S/V, and pH dependence of the glass/water reaction were also collected. In this report, the data acquired during phase 4 are presented and discussed. (orig./DG)

  10. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs

    Li, Tingxiao [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Xin, E-mail: xding@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Tian, Lingling, E-mail: lingling_tian@nus.edu.sg [Center of Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center of Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of CNS Regeneration (GHMICR), Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. - Highlights: • Bead diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was controlled by varying solvent ratio and polymer concentration. • The effect of the addition of particle drugs on BD of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was studied. • The corresponding release behaviors of nanofibers with different BD loading micro-particle drugs were investigated. • Bead-on-string nanofibers with bigger BD could alleviate the initial burst release.

  11. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs

    Li, Tingxiao; Ding, Xin; Tian, Lingling; Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-01-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. - Highlights: • Bead diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was controlled by varying solvent ratio and polymer concentration. • The effect of the addition of particle drugs on BD of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was studied. • The corresponding release behaviors of nanofibers with different BD loading micro-particle drugs were investigated. • Bead-on-string nanofibers with bigger BD could alleviate the initial burst release.

  12. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the unicellular green microalga Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Different cell stockings in beads, different bead sizes and different algal bead concentrations in wastewaters were tested. Significant higher nutrients ...

  13. Stereodynamic insight into the thermal history effects on poly(vinyl chloride) calorimetric sub-glass and glass transitions as a fragile glass model.

    Pin, Jean-Mathieu; Behazin, Ehsan; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar

    2018-05-02

    The dynamic thermal history impact of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) has been explored for a wide range of pre-cooling rates, from 1 to 30 °C min-1. A first macroscopic insight into the dynamic thermal history influence has been highlighted through a decrease in the apparent activation energy (Eapp) in the first stage of the glass transition. The overall glass transition Eapp surface was successfully modeled in a polynomial fashion regarding the pre-cooling range. Raman scattering was used to associate the Eapp variations along the glass transition conversion with the stereochemistry evolution during the polymeric relaxation. Herein, the selection of atactic PVC as the polymer model permits us to monitor the glassy polymer segment stereodynamics during the heating ramp through the C-Cl stretching. The intermolecular H-Cl dipole interactions, as well as intramolecular conformational reorganizations among syndiotactic, isotactic and heterotactic polymer sequences, have been associated with non-cooperative and cooperative motions, i.e. the β- and α-process, respectively. The fruitful comparison of the two extreme values of the pre-cooling rates permits us to propose a thermokinetic scenario that explains the occurrence, intensity, and inter-dependence of β- and α-processes in the glassy state and during the glass transition. This scenario could potentially be generalized to all the other polymeric glass-formers.

  14. Determination of heat conductivity of waste glass feed and its applicability for modeling the batch-to-glass conversion

    Hujová, Miroslava; Pokorný, R.; Kloužek, Jaroslav; Dixon, D.R.; Cutforth, D.A.; Lee, S.; McCarthy, B.P.; Schweiger, M. J.; Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 11 (2017), s. 5096-5106 ISSN 0002-7820 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : foams * glassmelting * modelling/model * thermal conductivity Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 2.841, year: 2016

  15. Column Adsorption Studies for the Removal of Cr(VI Ions by Ethylamine Modified Chitosan Carbonized Rice Husk Composite Beads with Modelling and Optimization

    S. Sugashini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this present study is the optimization of process parameters in adsorption of Cr(VI ions by ethylamine modified chitosan carbonized rice husk composite beads (EAM-CCRCBs using response surface methodology (RSM and continuous adsorption studies of Cr(VI ions by ethylamine modified chitosan carbonized rice husk composite beads (EAM-CCRCBs. The effect of process variables such as initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH were optimized using RSM in order to ensure high adsorption capacity at low adsorbent dosage and high initial metal ion concentration of Cr(VI in batch process. The optimum condition suggested by the model for the process variable such as adsorbent dosage, pH and initial metal ion concentration was 0.14 g, 300 mg/L and pH2 with maximum removal of 99.8% and adsorption capacity of 52.7 mg/g respectively. Continuous adsorption studies were conducted under optimized initial metal ion concentration and pH for the removal of Cr(VI ions using EAM-CCRCBs. The breakthrough curve analysis was determined using the experimental data obtained from the continuous adsorption. Continuous adsorption modelling such as bed depth service model and Thomson model were established by fitting it with experimental data.

  16. Memory Effects in the Two-Level Model for Glasses

    Aquino, Gerardo; Allahverdyan, Armen; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2008-07-01

    We study an ensemble of two-level systems interacting with a thermal bath. This is a well-known model for glasses. The origin of memory effects in this model is a quasistationary but nonequilibrium state of a single two-level system, which is realized due to a finite-rate cooling and slow thermally activated relaxation. We show that single-particle memory effects, such as negativity of the specific heat under reheating, vanish for a sufficiently disordered ensemble. In contrast, a disordered ensemble displays a collective memory effect [similar to the Kovacs effect], where nonequilibrium features of the ensemble are monitored via a macroscopic observable. An experimental realization of the effect can be used to further assess the consistency of the model.

  17. Modeling of evaporation processes in glass melting furnaces

    Limpt, van J.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of glass furnaces worldwide, apply fossil fuel combustion to transfer heat directly by radiation from the combustion processes to the melting batch and glass melt. During these high temperature melting processes, some glass components, such as: sodium, potassium, boron and lead species

  18. Nano-Continuum Modeling of a Nuclear Glass Specimen Altered for 25 Years

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-06

    The purpose of this contribution is to report on preliminary nano-continuum scale modeling of nuclear waste glass corrosion. The focus of the modeling is an experiment involving a French glass SON68 specimen leached for 25 years in a granitic environment. In this report, we focus on capturing the nano-scale concentration profiles. We use a high resolution continuum model with a constant grid spacing of 1 nanometer to investigate the glass corrosion mechanisms.

  19. Physical-chemical model for the mechanism of glass corrosion with particular consideration of simulated radioactive waste glasses

    Grambow, B.

    1985-01-01

    A physical-chemical model for the mechanism of glass corrosion is described. This model can be used for predicting, interpreting, and extrapolating experimental results. In static leaching tests the rate of corrosion generally decreases with time. Some authors assume that the surface layer, which grows during the course of the reaction, protects the underlying glass from further attack by the aqueous phase. Other authors assume that the saturation effects in solution are responsible for reducing the rate of the reaction. It is demonstrated within the scope of this work that examples can be found for both concepts; however, transport processes in the surface layer and/or in solution can be excluded as rate-determining processes within a majority of the examined cases. The location of the corrosion reaction is the boundary surface between the surface layer and the not yet attacked glass (transition zone)

  20. Discrete dipole approximation simulation of bead enhanced diffraction grating biosensor

    Arif, Khalid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    We present the discrete dipole approximation simulation of light scattering from bead enhanced diffraction biosensor and report the effect of bead material, number of beads forming the grating and spatial randomness on the diffraction intensities of 1st and 0th orders. The dipole models of gratings are formed by volume slicing and image processing while the spatial locations of the beads on the substrate surface are randomly computed using discrete probability distribution. The effect of beads reduction on far-field scattering of 632.8 nm incident field, from fully occupied gratings to very coarse gratings, is studied for various bead materials. Our findings give insight into many difficult or experimentally impossible aspects of this genre of biosensors and establish that bead enhanced grating may be used for rapid and precise detection of small amounts of biomolecules. The results of simulations also show excellent qualitative similarities with experimental observations. - Highlights: • DDA was used to study the relationship between the number of beads forming gratings and ratio of first and zeroth order diffraction intensities. • A very flexible modeling program was developed to design complicated objects for DDA. • Material and spatial effects of bead distribution on surfaces were studied. • It has been shown that bead enhanced grating biosensor can be useful for fast detection of small amounts of biomolecules. • Experimental results qualitatively support the simulations and thus open a way to optimize the grating biosensors.

  1. Sangadzhi Kononov, Buddhist Prayer Beads

    Churyumov, Anton; Kovaeva, Bair

    2016-01-01

    Prayer beads have special dividers that divide the beads into 7, 21 and 33. Apart from using in prayers, the Kalmyks also keep beads as amulets that are believed to have strong energy. After prayers, old people often bless their children and grandchildren with their beads. Such beads are also kept in families from one generation to the next. Sangadzhi believes that prayer beads store inside them the energy of mantras that have been read with them. There is an interesting story about the pray...

  2. Molecular modeling of polycarbonate materials: Glass transition and mechanical properties

    Palczynski, Karol; Wilke, Andreas; Paeschke, Manfred; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2017-09-01

    Linking the experimentally accessible macroscopic properties of thermoplastic polymers to their microscopic static and dynamic properties is a key requirement for targeted material design. Classical molecular dynamics simulations enable us to study the structural and dynamic behavior of molecules on microscopic scales, and statistical physics provides a framework for relating these properties to the macroscopic properties. We take a first step toward creating an automated workflow for the theoretical prediction of thermoplastic material properties by developing an expeditious method for parameterizing a simple yet surprisingly powerful coarse-grained bisphenol-A polycarbonate model which goes beyond previous coarse-grained models and successfully reproduces the thermal expansion behavior, the glass transition temperature as a function of the molecular weight, and several elastic properties.

  3. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

    Igor Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels, coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT levels and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  4. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads.

    Rocha, Igor; Lindh, Jonas; Hong, Jaan; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2018-03-07

    Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  5. Half bead welding technique

    Canonico, D.A.; Holz, P.P.

    1978-05-01

    The ORNL has employed the Section XI half-bead procedure for six repair welds. Table 2 identifies the repairs and the components upon which they were accomplished. The weld repairs were performed to permit us to evaluate material properties, residual stresses, weld repair procedures, and structural behavior of repaired pressure vessels. As a consequence of our study we concluded that when the half bead procedure is correctly applied: (1) there is no metallurgical degradation of the base material, (2) residual stresses of yield point magnitude will be present, and (3) the structural integrity of the pressure vessel is not impaired at Charpy V-notch upper shelf temperatures

  6. A comparison of the performance of nuclear waste glasses by modeling

    Grambow, B.; Strachan, D.M.

    1988-12-01

    Through a combination of data collection and computer modeling, the dissolution mechanism of nuclear waste glasses has been investigated and more clearly defined. Glass dissolution can be described as a dissolution/precipitation process in which glass dissolves in aqueous solution and solids precipitate as the solubility products are exceeded. The dissolution process is controlled by activity of the rate-limiting specie H 4 SiO 4 . As a concentration of H 4 SiO 4 increases, the rate of dissolution decreases until a final reaction rate is reached. Between the forward reaction rate (early time) and final reaction rate (very long time), glasses may exhibit an intermediate root time dependence caused by a transport resistance for the diffusion of H 4 SiO 4 within the gel layer on the glass surface. In this report, three glasses are studied: JSS-A, PNL 76-68, and SRL-131. Data from static and dynamic leach tests are assembled, plotted, and successfully modeled. The kinetic parameters for these glasses are reported. With four parameters derived from experiments for each glass, the model can be used to calculate the effects of changes in the initial composition of the water contacting the glass. The effects of convective flow can also be modeled. Furthermore, glasses of different compositions can be readily compared. 49 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Supramolecular structure of methyl cellulose and lambda- and kappa-carrageenan in water: SAXS study using the string-of-beads model.

    Dogsa, Iztok; Cerar, Jure; Jamnik, Andrej; Tomšič, Matija

    2017-09-15

    A detailed data analysis utilizing the string-of-beads model was performed on experimental small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) curves in a targeted structural study of three, very important, industrial polysaccharides. The results demonstrate the quality of performance for this model on three polymers with quite different thermal structural behavior. Furthermore, they show the advantages of the model used by way of excellent fits in the ranges where the classic approach to the small-angle scattering data interpretation fails and an additional 3D visualization of the model's molecular conformations and anticipated polysaccharide supramolecular structure. The importance of this study is twofold: firstly, the methodology used and, secondly, the structural details of important biopolymers that are widely applicable in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation between relaxations and plastic deformation, and elastic model of flow in metallic glasses and glass-forming liquids

    Wang Weihua

    2011-01-01

    We study the similarity and correlations between relaxations and plastic deformation in metallic glasses (MGs) and MG-forming liquids. It is shown that the microscope plastic events, the initiation and formation of shear bands, and the mechanical yield in MGs where the atomic sites are topologically unstable induced by applied stress, can be treated as the glass to supercooled liquid state transition induced by external shear stress. On the other hand, the glass transition, the primary and secondary relaxations, plastic deformation and yield can be attributed to the free volume increase induced flow, and the flow can be modeled as the activated hopping between the inherent states in the potential energy landscape. We then propose an extended elastic model to describe the flow based on the energy landscape theory. That is, the flow activation energy density is linear proportional to the instantaneous elastic moduli, and the activation energy density ρ E is determined to be a simple expression of ρ E =(10/11)G+(1/11)K. The model indicates that both shear and bulk moduli are critical parameters accounting for both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows in MGs and MG-forming liquids. The elastic model is experimentally certified. We show that the elastic perspectives offers a simple scenario for the flow in MGs and MG-forming liquids and are suggestive for understanding the glass transition, plastic deformation, and nature and characteristics of MGs

  9. Validation Assessment of a Glass-to-Metal Seal Finite-Element Model

    Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Emery, John M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Vicente J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Sealing glasses are ubiquitous in high pressure and temperature engineering applications, such as hermetic feed-through electrical connectors. A common connector technology are glass-to-metal seals where a metal shell compresses a sealing glass to create a hermetic seal. Though finite-element analysis has been used to understand and design glass-to-metal seals for many years, there has been little validation of these models. An indentation technique was employed to measure the residual stress on the surface of a simple glass-to-metal seal. Recently developed rate- dependent material models of both Schott 8061 and 304L VAR stainless steel have been applied to a finite-element model of the simple glass-to-metal seal. Model predictions of residual stress based on the evolution of material models are shown. These model predictions are compared to measured data. Validity of the finite- element predictions is discussed. It will be shown that the finite-element model of the glass-to-metal seal accurately predicts the mean residual stress in the glass near the glass-to-metal interface and is valid for this quantity of interest.

  10. Incorporation of defects into the central atoms model of a metallic glass

    Lass, Eric A.; Zhu Aiwu; Shiflet, G.J.; Joseph Poon, S.

    2011-01-01

    The central atoms model (CAM) of a metallic glass is extended to incorporate thermodynamically stable defects, similar to vacancies in a crystalline solid, within the amorphous structure. A bond deficiency (BD), which is the proposed defect present in all metallic glasses, is introduced into the CAM equations. Like vacancies in a crystalline solid, BDs are thermodynamically stable entities because of the increase in entropy associated with their creation, and there is an equilibrium concentration present in the glassy phase. When applied to Cu-Zr and Ni-Zr binary metallic glasses, the concentration of thermally induced BDs surrounding Zr atoms reaches a relatively constant value at the glass transition temperature, regardless of composition within a given glass system. Using this 'critical' defect concentration, the predicted temperatures at which the glass transition is expected to occur are in good agreement with the experimentally determined glass transition temperatures for both alloy systems.

  11. Waterlike glass polyamorphism in a monoatomic isotropic Jagla model.

    Xu, Limei; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-02-14

    We perform discrete-event molecular dynamics simulations of a system of particles interacting with a spherically-symmetric (isotropic) two-scale Jagla pair potential characterized by a hard inner core, a linear repulsion at intermediate separations, and a weak attractive interaction at larger separations. This model system has been extensively studied due to its ability to reproduce many thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalies of liquid water. The model is also interesting because: (i) it is very simple, being composed of isotropically interacting particles, (ii) it exhibits polyamorphism in the liquid phase, and (iii) its slow crystallization kinetics facilitate the study of glassy states. There is interest in the degree to which the known polyamorphism in glassy water may have parallels in liquid water. Motivated by parallels between the properties of the Jagla potential and those of water in the liquid state, we study the metastable phase diagram in the glass state. Specifically, we perform the computational analog of the protocols followed in the experimental studies of glassy water. We find that the Jagla potential calculations reproduce three key experimental features of glassy water: (i) the crystal-to-high-density amorphous solid (HDA) transformation upon isothermal compression, (ii) the low-density amorphous solid (LDA)-to-HDA transformation upon isothermal compression, and (iii) the HDA-to-very-high-density amorphous solid (VHDA) transformation upon isobaric annealing at high pressure. In addition, the HDA-to-LDA transformation upon isobaric heating, observed in water experiments, can only be reproduced in the Jagla model if a free surface is introduced in the simulation box. The HDA configurations obtained in cases (i) and (ii) are structurally indistinguishable, suggesting that both processes result in the same glass. With the present parametrization, the evolution of density with pressure or temperature is remarkably similar to the

  12. Utilizing the non-bridge oxygen model to predict the glass viscosity

    Choi, Kwansik; Sheng, Jiawei; Maeng, Sung Jun; Song, Myung Jae

    1998-01-01

    Viscosity is the most important process property of waste glass. Viscosity measurement is difficult and costs much. Non-bridging Oxygen (NBO) model which relates glass composition to viscosity had been developed for high level waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This research utilized this NBO model to predict the viscosity of KEPRI's 55 glasses. It was found that there was a linear relationship between the measured viscosity and the predicted viscosity. The NBO model could be used to predict glass viscosity in glass formulation development. However the precision of predicted viscosity is out of satisfaction because the composition ranges are very different between the SRS and KEPRI glasses. The modification of NBO calculation, which included modification of alkaline earth elements and TiO 2 , could not strikingly improve the precision of predicted values

  13. Statistics of excitations in the electron glass model

    Palassini, Matteo

    2011-03-01

    We study the statistics of elementary excitations in the classical electron glass model of localized electrons interacting via the unscreened Coulomb interaction in the presence of disorder. We reconsider the long-standing puzzle of the exponential suppression of the single-particle density of states near the Fermi level, by measuring accurately the density of states of charged and electron-hole pair excitations via finite temperature Monte Carlo simulation and zero-temperature relaxation. We also investigate the statistics of large charge rearrangements after a perturbation of the system, which may shed some light on the slow relaxation and glassy phenomena recently observed in a variety of Anderson insulators. In collaboration with Martin Goethe.

  14. Early Diagnosis of Irkut Virus Infection Using Magnetic Bead-Based Serum Peptide Profiling by MALDI-TOF MS in a Mouse Model

    Nan Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis is important for the prompt post-exposure prophylaxis of lyssavirus infections. To diagnose Irkut virus (IRKV infection during incubation in mice, a novel method using magnetic bead-based serum peptide profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS has been established. For this test, serum peptides were concentrated by adsorption to and elution from the magnetic bead-based weak cation ion exchanger. Mass spectrograms obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were analyzed using ClinProTools bioinformatics software. Construction of the diagnostic model was performed using serum samples from mice infected with IRKV and rabies virus (RABV BD06, Flury-LEP, and SRV9 (as controls. The method accurately diagnosed sera 2, 4 and 8 days after IRKV and RABV infections. The sensitivity, specificity, and total accuracy of diagnosis were 86.7%, 95.2%, and 92.9%, respectively. However, IRKV could not be differentiated from RABV 1 day after infection. The results of the present study indicate that serum peptide profiling by MALDI-TOF MS is a promising technique for the early clinical diagnosis of lyssavirus infections and needs to be further tested in humans and farm animals.

  15. An approach to implement virtual channels for flowing magnetic beads

    Tang, Shih-Hao; Chiang, Hung-Wei; Hsieh, Min-Chien; Chang, Yen-Di; Yeh, Po-Fan; Tsai, Jui-che; Shieh, Wung-Yang

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel microfluidic system with virtual channels formed by ‘walls’ of magnetic fields, including collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels. The channels are defined by the nickel patterns. With its own ferromagnetism, nickel can be magnetized using an external magnetic field; the nickel structures then generate magnetic fields that can either guide or trap magnetic beads. A glass substrate is sandwiched between the liquid containing magnetic beads and the chip with nickel structures, preventing the liquid from directly contacting the nickel. In this work, collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels are displayed sequentially. In the collecting channel portion, channels with different shapes are compared. Next, in the transporting channel portion we demonstrate I-, S- and Y-shaped channels can steer magnetic beads smoothly. Finally, in the function channel portion, a switchable trapping channel implemented with a bistable mechanism performs the passing and blocking of a magnetic bead. (paper)

  16. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt

    van Pelt, S.; Frijns, A.J.H.; den Toonder, J.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil

  17. Liquid-liquid phase transition and glass transition in a monoatomic model system.

    Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-01-01

    We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  18. Finite Element Implementation of a Glass Tempering Model in Three Dimensions

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2010-01-01

    The present paper develops and validates a 3D model for the simulation of glass tempering. It is assembled from well-known models of temperature dependent viscoelasticity and structural relaxation and predicts both transient and steady-state stresses in complex 3D glass geometries. The theory and...

  19. Predictive modeling of crystal accumulation in high-level waste glass melters processing radioactive waste

    Matyáš, Josef; Gervasio, Vivianaluxa; Sannoh, Sulaiman E.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of HLW vitrification is limited by precipitation/accumulation of spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr)2O4] in the glass discharge riser of Joule-heated ceramic melters during idling. These crystals do not affect glass durability; however, if accumulated in thick layer, they can clog the melter and prevent discharge of molten glass into canisters. To address this problem, an empirical model was developed that can predict thicknesses of accumulated layers as a function of glass composition. This model predicts well the accumulation of single crystals and/or small-scale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~53.8 ± 3.7 µm/h determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  20. A model for radiative cooling of a semitransparent molten glass jet

    Song, M.; Ball, K.S.; Bergman, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Transfer of molten glass from location to location typically involves a pouring process, during which a stream of glass is driven by gravity and cooled by combined convective and radiative heat transfer. This study of the thermal and fluid mechanics aspects of glass pouring is motivated by the glass casting of vitrified, surplus weapons-grade plutonium. Here, a mathematical model for the radiative cooling of a semitransparent molten glass jet with temperature-dependent viscosity has been developed and is implemented numerically. The axial velocity and jet diameter variations along the length of the jet, the axial bulk mean temperature distributions, and the centerline-to-surface glass temperature distributions are determined for different processing conditions. Comparisons are also made between the semitransparent predictions, which are based on a spectral discrete ordinates model, and predictions for an opaque medium

  1. A comparison of the performance of nuclear waste glasses by modeling

    Grambow, B.; Strachan, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A model selected for the licensing process must be based on a physical and chemical understanding of the glass corrosion mechanism. The purpose of this paper is to show that a dissolution/precipitation model can be used to better understand the effects of various system variables on glass dissolution. The application and validation of this model are also discussed. A dissolution/precipitation model developed appears applicable to experiments with a wide range of solution compositions as well as to more complex systems, such as the bentonite/glass/water system the steel corrosion product/glass/water system, or the dissolution of natural basalt glass in a geologic environment. This model is based on solution chemistry and transition state theory. The theoretical background of this model is discussed elsewhere and is used to describe the dissolution behavior of three nuclear waste glasses. These glasses were selected because they represent a wide range of behavior and, therefore, could be used to illustrate the capabilities of the dissolution/precipitation model. The effects of parameters, such as temperature and starting solution composition, on the dissolution behavior of glass are also discussed. 27 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  2. Double-bond defect modelling in As-S glasses

    Boyko, V; Shpotyuk, O; Hyla, M

    2010-01-01

    Ab initio calculations with the RHF/6-311G* basis set are used for geometrical optimization of regular pyramidal and defect quasi-tetrahedral clusters in binary As-S glasses. It is shown that quasi-tetrahedral S=AsS 3/2 structural units are impossible as main network-building blocks in these glasses.

  3. Double-bond defect modelling in As-S glasses

    Boyko, V; Shpotyuk, O; Hyla, M, E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua

    2010-11-15

    Ab initio calculations with the RHF/6-311G* basis set are used for geometrical optimization of regular pyramidal and defect quasi-tetrahedral clusters in binary As-S glasses. It is shown that quasi-tetrahedral S=AsS{sub 3/2} structural units are impossible as main network-building blocks in these glasses.

  4. Study of archaeological analogs for the validation of nuclear glass long-term behavior models

    Verney-Carron, A.

    2008-10-01

    Fractured archaeological glass blocks collected from a shipwreck discovered in the Mediterranean Sea near Embiez Island (Var) were investigated because of their morphological analogy with vitrified nuclear waste and of a known and stable environment. These glasses are fractured due to a fast cooling after they were melted (like nuclear glass) and have been altered for 1800 years in seawater. This work results in the development and the validation of a geochemical model able to simulate the alteration of a fractured archaeological glass block over 1800 years. The kinetics associated with the different mechanisms (interdiffusion and dissolution) and the thermodynamic parameters of the model were determined by leaching experiments. The model implemented in HYTEC software was used to simulate crack alteration over 1800 years. The consistency between simulated alteration thicknesses and measured data on glass blocks validate the capacity of the model to predict long-term alteration. This model is able to account for the results from the characterization of crack network and its state of alteration. The cracks in the border zone are the most altered due to a fast renewal of the leaching solution, whereas internal cracks are thin because of complex interactions between glass alteration and transport of elements in solution (influence of initial crack aperture and of the crack sealing). The lowest alteration thicknesses, as well as their variability, can be explained. The analog behavior of archaeological and nuclear glasses from leaching experiments makes possible the transposition of the model to nuclear glass in geological repository. (author)

  5. Correlation between acoustical and structural properties of glasses: Extension of Abd El-Moneim model for bioactive silica based glasses

    Abd El-Moneim, Amin, E-mail: aminabdelmoneim@hotmail.com

    2016-04-15

    Correlation between room temperature ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the most significant structural parameters has been studied in the bioactive silica based glasses, for the first time. The correlation has been carried out in the quaternary SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–CaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass system using the two semi-empirical formulas, which have been presented recently by the author. Changes in the elastic properties, related to the substitution of SiO{sub 2} by alkali Na{sub 2}O and alkaline earth CaO oxides, have also been deduced by evaluating the mean atomic volume, packing density, fractal bond connectivity and density of the analogous crystalline structure. Furthermore, values of the theoretical elastic moduli have been calculated on the basis of Makishima-Mackenzie theory and compared with the corresponding observed values. Results show that the correlation between ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the oxygen density, average atomic ring size, first-order stretching force constant and experimental bulk modulus was achieved at 5 MHz frequency. Values of the theoretically calculated shear modulus are in excellent correlation (C. R. ≻95%) with the corresponding experimental ones. The divergence between the theoretical and experimental values of bulk modulus has been discussed. - Highlights: • Abd El-Moneim model was extended for bioactive glasses. • Ultrasonic attenuation was correlated with structural parameters. • Correlation was carried out in Si–Na–Ca–P glasses. • The model is valid for all investigated glass samples. • Agreement between theoretical and experimental elastic moduli was studied.

  6. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  7. Composition models for the viscosity and chemical durability of West Valley related nuclear waste glasses

    Feng, X.; Saad, E.E.; Freeborn, W.P.; Macedo, P.B.; Pegg, I.L.; Sassoon, R.E.; Barkatt, A.; Finger, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    There are two important criteria that must be satisfied by a nuclear waste glass durability and processability. The chemical composition of the glass must be such that it does not dissolve or erode appreciably faster than the decay of the radioactive materials embedded in it. The second criterion, processability, means that the glass must melt with ease, must be easily pourable, and must not crystallize appreciably. This paper summarizes the development of simple models for predicting the durability and viscosity of nuclear waste glasses from their composition

  8. Numerical modelling of an industrial glass-melting furnace

    Hill, S C [Brigham Young Univ., Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center, Provo, UT (United States); Webb, B W; McQuay, M Q [Brigham Young Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Provo, UT (United States); Newbold, J [Lockheed Aerospace, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The predictive capability of two comprehensive combustion codes, PCGC-3 and FLUENT, to simulate local flame structure and combustion characteristics in a industrial gas-fired, flat-glass furnace is investigated. Model predictions are compared with experimental data from the furnace for profiles of velocity, species concentrations, temperatures, and wall-incident radiative heat flux. Predictions from both codes show agreement with the measured mean velocity profiles and incident radiant flux on the crown. However, significant differences between the code predictions and measurements are observed for the flame-ozone temperatures and species concentrations. The observed discrepancies may be explained by (i) uncertainties in the distributions of mean velocity and turbulence in the portneck, (ii) uncertainties in the port-by-port stoichiometry, (iii) different grid-based approximations to the furnace geometry made in the two codes, (iv) the assumption of infinitely fast chemistry made in the chemical reaction model of both codes, and (v) simplifying assumptions made in the simulations regarding the complex coupling between the combustion space, batch blanket, and melt tank. The study illustrates the critical need for accurate boundary conditions (inlet air and fuel flow distributions, boundary surface temperatures, etc.) and the importance of representative furnace geometry in simulating these complex industrial combustion systems. (Author)

  9. Modeling the Structural Response of Reinforced Glass Beams using an SLA Scheme

    Louter, P.C.; Graaf, van de Anne; Rots, J.G.; Bos, Freek; Louter, Pieter Christiaan; Veer, Fred

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether a novel computational sequentially linear analysis (SLA) technique, which is especially developed for modeling brittle material response, is applicable for modeling the structural response of metal reinforced glass beams. To do so, computational SLA results are

  10. Bead-size directed distribution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa results in distinct inflammatory response in a mouse model of chronic lung infection

    Christophersen, L J; Trøstrup, H; Damlund, Dina Silke Malling

    2012-01-01

    or in the peripheral respiratory zone. To study this we produced two distinct sizes of small alginate beads (SB) and large beads (LB) containing P. aeruginosa. In total, 175 BALB/c mice were infected with either SB or LB. At day 1 the quantitative bacteriology was higher in the SB group compared to the LB group (P

  11. Development of Models to Predict the Redox State of Nuclear Waste Containment Glass

    Pinet, O.; Guirat, R.; Advocat, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Departement de Traitement et de Conditionnement des Dechets, Marcoule, BP 71171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Phalippou, J. [Universite de Montpellier II, Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Vitrification is one of the recommended immobilization routes for nuclear waste, and is currently implemented at industrial scale in several countries, notably for high-level waste. To optimize nuclear waste vitrification, research is conducted to specify suitable glass formulations and develop more effective processes. This research is based not only on experiments at laboratory or technological scale, but also on computer models. Vitrified nuclear waste often contains several multi-valent species whose oxidation state can impact the properties of the melt and of the final glass; these include iron, cerium, ruthenium, manganese, chromium and nickel. Cea is therefore also developing models to predict the final glass redox state. Given the raw materials and production conditions, the model predicts the oxygen fugacity at equilibrium in the melt. It can also estimate the ratios between the oxidation states of the multi-valent species contained in the molten glass. The oxidizing or reductive nature of the atmosphere above the glass melt is also taken into account. Unlike the models used in the conventional glass industry based on empirical methods with a limited range of application, the models proposed are based on the thermodynamic properties of the redox species contained in the waste vitrification feed stream. The thermodynamic data on which the model is based concern the relationship between the glass redox state and the oxygen fugacity in the molten glass. The model predictions were compared with oxygen fugacity measurements for some fifty glasses. The experiments carried out at laboratory and industrial scale with a cold crucible melter. The oxygen fugacity of the glass samples was measured by electrochemical methods and compared with the predicted value. The differences between the predicted and measured oxygen fugacity values were generally less than 0.5 Log unit. (authors)

  12. Long-term modeling of glass waste in portland cement- and clay-based matrices

    Stockman, H.W.; Nagy, K.L.; Morris, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    A set of ''templates'' was developed for modeling waste glass interactions with cement-based and clay-based matrices. The templates consist of a modified thermodynamic database, and input files for the EQ3/6 reaction path code, containing embedded rate models and compositions for waste glass, cement, and several pozzolanic materials. Significant modifications were made in the thermodynamic data for Th, Pb, Ra, Ba, cement phases, and aqueous silica species. It was found that the cement-containing matrices could increase glass corrosion rates by several orders of magnitude (over matrixless or clay matrix systems), but they also offered the lowest overall solubility for Pb, Ra, Th and U. Addition of pozzolans to cement decreased calculated glass corrosion rates by up to a factor of 30. It is shown that with current modeling capabilities, the ''affinity effect'' cannot be trusted to passivate glass if nuclei are available for precipitation of secondary phases that reduce silica activity

  13. Anelastic deformation processes in metallic glasses and activation energy spectrum model

    Ocelik, [No Value; Csach, K; Kasardova, A; Bengus, VZ; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The isothermal kinetics of anelastic deformation below the glass transition temperature (so-called 'stress induced ordering' or 'creep recovery' deformation) was investigated in Ni-Si-B metallic glass. The relaxation time spectrum model and two recently developed methods for its calculation from the

  14. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models: Results for the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Best, D. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-03

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  15. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support Enhanced Hanford Waste Glass Models. Results for the Augusta and October 2014 LAW Glasses

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Best, D. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-07

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the August and October 2014 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  16. Progress toward bridging from atomistic to continuum modeling to predict nuclear waste glass dissolution.

    Zapol, Peter (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Bourg, Ian (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Steefel, Carl I. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research performed for the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Subcontinuum and Upscaling Task. The work conducted focused on developing a roadmap to include molecular scale, mechanistic information in continuum-scale models of nuclear waste glass dissolution. This information is derived from molecular-scale modeling efforts that are validated through comparison with experimental data. In addition to developing a master plan to incorporate a subcontinuum mechanistic understanding of glass dissolution into continuum models, methods were developed to generate constitutive dissolution rate expressions from quantum calculations, force field models were selected to generate multicomponent glass structures and gel layers, classical molecular modeling was used to study diffusion through nanopores analogous to those in the interfacial gel layer, and a micro-continuum model (K{mu}C) was developed to study coupled diffusion and reaction at the glass-gel-solution interface.

  17. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  18. Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach

    Mann, Sarita; Rani, Pooja

    2016-05-01

    Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO2 (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO2 has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=-21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.

  19. Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach

    Mann, Sarita, E-mail: saritaiitr2003@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Rani, Pooja [D.A.V. College, Sec-10, Chandigarh-160010 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO{sub 2} (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO{sub 2} has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=−21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.

  20. Linking rigidity transitions with enthalpic changes at the glass transition and fragility: insight from a simple oscillator model.

    Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2010-07-21

    A low temperature Monte Carlo dynamics of a Keating-like oscillator model is used to study the relationship between the nature of network glasses from the viewpoint of rigidity, the thermal reversibility during the glass transition and the strong-fragile behaviour of glass-forming liquids. The model shows that a Phillips optimal glass formation with minimal enthalpic changes is obtained under a cooling/annealing cycle when the system is optimally constrained by the harmonic interactions, i.e. when it is isostatically rigid. For these peculiar systems with a nearly reversible glass transition, the computed activation energy for relaxation time shows also a minimum, which demonstrates that isostatically rigid glasses are strong (Arrhenius-like) glass-forming liquids. Experiments on chalcogenide and oxide glass-forming liquids are discussed under this new perspective and confirm the theoretical prediction for chalcogenide network glasses whereas limitations of the approach appear for weakly interacting (non-covalent, ionic) systems.

  1. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)-Based Models for Predicting the Weld Bead Width and Depth of Penetration from the Infrared Thermal Image of the Weld Pool

    Subashini, L.; Vasudevan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Type 316 LN stainless steel is the major structural material used in the construction of nuclear reactors. Activated flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding has been developed to increase the depth of penetration because the depth of penetration achievable in single-pass TIG welding is limited. Real-time monitoring and control of weld processes is gaining importance because of the requirement of remoter welding process technologies. Hence, it is essential to develop computational methodologies based on an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) or artificial neural network (ANN) for predicting and controlling the depth of penetration and weld bead width during A-TIG welding of type 316 LN stainless steel. In the current work, A-TIG welding experiments have been carried out on 6-mm-thick plates of 316 LN stainless steel by varying the welding current. During welding, infrared (IR) thermal images of the weld pool have been acquired in real time, and the features have been extracted from the IR thermal images of the weld pool. The welding current values, along with the extracted features such as length, width of the hot spot, thermal area determined from the Gaussian fit, and thermal bead width computed from the first derivative curve were used as inputs, whereas the measured depth of penetration and weld bead width were used as output of the respective models. Accurate ANFIS models have been developed for predicting the depth of penetration and the weld bead width during TIG welding of 6-mm-thick 316 LN stainless steel plates. A good correlation between the measured and predicted values of weld bead width and depth of penetration were observed in the developed models. The performance of the ANFIS models are compared with that of the ANN models.

  2. Modeling surface area to volume effects on borosilicate glass dissolution

    Bourcier, W.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Feng, X.

    1992-11-01

    We simulated the reaction of SRL-131 glass with equilibrated J-13 water in order to investigate the effects of surface area to volume ratio (SA/V) on glass dissolution. We show that glass-fluid ion exchange causes solution pH to rise to progressively higher values as SA/V increases. Because the ion exchange is rapid relative to the duration of the glass dissolution experiment, the pH effect does not scale with (SA/V)*time. Experiments compared at the same (SA/V)*time value therefore have different pHs, with higher pHs at higher SA/V ratios. Both experimental data and our simulation results show similar trends of increasing reaction rate as a function of SA/V ratio when scaled to (SA/V)*time. Glasses which react in systems of differing SA/V ratio therefore follow different reaction paths and high SA/V ratios cannot be used to generate data which accurately scales to long time periods unless the ion exchange effect is taken into account. We suggest some simple test designs which enable more reliable high. SA/V accelerated tests

  3. Low frequency elastic properties of glasses at low temperatures - implications on the tunneling model

    Raychaudhuri, A.K.; Hunklinger, S.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the low frequency elastic properties of dielectric, normal conducting and superconducting metallic glasses at audio-frequencies (fapprox.=1 kHz) and temperatures down to 10 mK. Our results are discussed in the framework of the tunneling model of glasses. The major assumption of the tunneling model regarding the tunneling states with long relaxation time has been verified, but discrepancies to high frequency measurements have been found. In addition, our experiments on superconducting metallic glasses seem to indicate that the present treatment of the electron-tunneling state interaction is not sufficient. (orig.)

  4. Effect of the initial stage of annealing on modeling of enthalpy relaxation in a hyperquenched glass

    Zhang, Yanfei; Guo, Xiaoju; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in glass relaxation study is to establish a universal model describing the enthalpy relaxation in both the hyperquenched glass (HQG) (i.e., far from equilibrium) and the partially annealed hyperquenched glass(AHQG). In particular, the detailed features of the enthalpy ...... proposed composite relaxation function [L. Hornboell, et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 1-3 (2010) 37] is a reasonable approach for describing those features. In addition, our modeling results imply that the structural heterogeneity plays a crucial role in relaxation of HQG....

  5. Short range structural models of the glass transition temperatures and densities of 0.5Na2S + 0.5[xGeS2 + (1 - x)PS5/2] mixed glass former glasses.

    Bischoff, Christian; Schuller, Katherine; Martin, Steve W

    2014-04-03

    The 0.5Na2S + 0.5[xGeS2 + (1 - x)PS5/2] mixed glass former (MGF) glass system exhibits a nonlinear and nonadditive negative change in the Na(+) ion conductivity as one glass former, PS5/2, is exchanged for the other, GeS2. This behavior, known as the mixed glass former effect (MGFE), is also manifest in a negative deviation from the linear interpolation of the glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of the binary end-member glasses, x = 0 and x = 1. Interestingly, the composition dependence of the densities of these ternary MGF glasses reveals a slightly positive MGFE deviation from a linear interpolation of the densities of the binary end-member glasses, x = 0 and x = 1. From our previous studies of the structures of these glasses using IR, Raman, and NMR spectroscopies, we find that a disproportionation reaction occurs between PS7/2(4-) and GeS3(2-) units into PS4(3-) and GeS5/2(1-) units. This disproportionation combined with the formation of Ge4S10(4-) anions from GeS5/2(1-) groups leads to the negative MGFE in T(g). A best-fit model of the T(g)s of these glasses was developed to quantify the amount of GeS5/2(1-) units that form Ge4S10(4-) molecular anions in the ternary glasses (∼ 5-10%). This refined structural model was used to develop a short-range structural model of the molar volumes, which shows that the slight densification of the ternary glasses is due to the improved packing efficiency of the germanium sulfide species.

  6. Simplified model for a ventilated glass window under forced air flow conditions

    Ismail, K.A.R.; Henriquez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study on a ventilated window composed of two glass sheets separated by a spacing through which air is forced to flow. The proposed model is one dimensional and unsteady based upon global energy balance over the glass sheets and the flowing fluid. The external glass sheet of the cavity is subjected to variable heat flow due to the solar radiation as well as variable external ambient temperature. The exchange of radiation energy (infrared radiation) between the glass sheets is also included in the formulation. Effects of the spacing between the glass sheets, variation of the forced mass flow rate on the total heat gain and the shading coefficients are investigated. The results show that the effect of the increase of the mass flow rate is found to reduce the mean solar heat gain and the shading coefficients while the increase of the fluid entry temperature is found to deteriorate the window thermal performance

  7. AFM assessment of the surface nano/microstructure on chemically damaged historical and model glasses

    Carmona, Noemi [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kowal, Andrzej [Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, PAN, ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30239 Cracow (Poland); Rincon, Jesus-Maria [Instituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, C. Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Villegas, Maria-Angeles, E-mail: mariangeles.villegas@cchs.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C. Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Surface chemical damage on selected historical glasses from 13th to 19th centuries was evaluated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano- and microstructure, roughness and topography of ancient glass samples have been compared with those of model glasses prepared by conventional melting at the laboratory with similar compositions to those most frequently found in historical glass pieces. The results obtained allow discussing the chemical degradation mechanisms in terms of the acid and/or basic chemical attack carried out by the combination of gaseous pollutants and environmental humidity. Even though deep corrosion features escape to the observation order of magnitude of the AF microscope used, the AFM technique proves to be quite useful for the study and evaluation of the most common surface pathologies of historical glasses with different compositions once submitted to natural weathering.

  8. AFM assessment of the surface nano/microstructure on chemically damaged historical and model glasses

    Carmona, Noemi; Kowal, Andrzej; Rincon, Jesus-Maria; Villegas, Maria-Angeles

    2010-01-01

    Surface chemical damage on selected historical glasses from 13th to 19th centuries was evaluated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano- and microstructure, roughness and topography of ancient glass samples have been compared with those of model glasses prepared by conventional melting at the laboratory with similar compositions to those most frequently found in historical glass pieces. The results obtained allow discussing the chemical degradation mechanisms in terms of the acid and/or basic chemical attack carried out by the combination of gaseous pollutants and environmental humidity. Even though deep corrosion features escape to the observation order of magnitude of the AF microscope used, the AFM technique proves to be quite useful for the study and evaluation of the most common surface pathologies of historical glasses with different compositions once submitted to natural weathering.

  9. Towards optimization of nuclear waste glass: Constraints, property models, and waste loading

    Hrma, P.

    1994-04-01

    Vitrification of both low- and high-level wastes from 177 tanks at Hanford poses a great challenge to glass makers, whose task is to formulate a system of glasses that are acceptable to the federal repository for disposal. The enormous quantity of the waste requires a glass product of the lowest possible volume. The incomplete knowledge of waste composition, its variability, and lack of an appropriate vitrification technology further complicates this difficult task. A simple relationship between the waste loading and the waste glass volume is presented and applied to the predominantly refractory (usually high-activity) and predominantly alkaline (usually low-activity) waste types. Three factors that limit waste loading are discussed, namely product acceptability, melter processing, and model validity. Glass formulation and optimization problems are identified and a broader approach to uncertainties is suggested

  10. Simplified model for a ventilated glass window under forced air flow conditions

    Ismail, K.A.R. [Depto. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos-FEM-UNICAMP CP: 6122 CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Henriquez, J.R. [Depto. de Eng. Mecanica-DEMEC, UFPE Av. Academico Helio Ramos, S/N CEP 50740-530, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a study on a ventilated window composed of two glass sheets separated by a spacing through which air is forced to flow. The proposed model is one dimensional and unsteady based upon global energy balance over the glass sheets and the flowing fluid. The external glass sheet of the cavity is subjected to variable heat flow due to the solar radiation as well as variable external ambient temperature. The exchange of radiation energy (infrared radiation) between the glass sheets is also included in the formulation. Effects of the spacing between the glass sheets, variation of the forced mass flow rate on the total heat gain and the shading coefficients are investigated. The results show that the effect of the increase of the mass flow rate is found to reduce the mean solar heat gain and the shading coefficients while the increase of the fluid entry temperature is found to deteriorate the window thermal performance. (author)

  11. A toy MCT model for multiple glass transitions: Double swallow tail singularity

    Ryzhov, V.N. [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk 142190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tareyeva, E.E. [Institute for High Pressure Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk 142190, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-07

    We propose a toy model to describe in the frame of Mode Coupling Theory multiple glass transitions. The model is based on the postulated simple form for static structure factor as a sum of two delta-functions. This form makes it possible to solve the MCT equations in almost analytical way. The phase diagram is governed by two swallow tails resulting from two A{sub 4} singularities and includes liquid–glass transition and multiple glasses. The diagram has much in common with those of binary and quasibinary systems. - Highlights: • A simple toy model is proposed for description of glass–glass transitions. • The static structure factor of the model has the form of a sum of delta-functions. • The phase diagram contains A{sub 4} bifurcation singularities and A{sub 3} end points. • The results can be applied for the qualitative description of quasibinary systems.

  12. Stability and replica symmetry in the ising spin glass: a toy model

    De Dominicis, C.; Mottishaw, P.

    1986-01-01

    Searching for possible replica symmetric solutions in an Ising spin glass (in the tree approximation) we investigate a toy model whose bond distribution has two non vanishing cumulants (instead of one only as in a gaussian distribution)

  13. Modeling glass transition and aging processes in nanocomposites and polymer thin films

    Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2010-03-01

    We use a lattice kinetic model of glass transition to study the role of confinement and the presence of nano-inclusions. We have studied freely suspended films of glass-formers and its nanocomposites with ``plastifying'' and ``hardening'' nanoparticles. Using our model we determine the thickness and nanoparticle load dependencies of the Kauzmann temperature T0 and the fragility parameter. We found the glass transition temperature increases with the thickness of the film and the volume fraction of ``hardening'' nanoparticles , while Tg decreases with increase in the loading of ``plastifying'' nanoparticles. We found that the isothermal free volume relaxation rate of the nanocomposite thin film, usually referred as an aging, correlates with the glass transition temperature shift. We also studied the relations between our lattice model and Curro's, Kovacs and Struik's phenomenological models of free volume reduction to deduce physical insights into the mechanisms governing aging processes in thin films and nanocomposites.

  14. Chemical analysis of simulated high level waste glasses to support stage III sulfate solubility modeling

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been a limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.

  15. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  16. ARRHENIUS MODEL FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE GLASS VISCOSITY WITH A CONSTANT PRE-EXPONENTIAL FACTOR

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified form of the Arrhenius equation, ln η = A + B(x)/T, where η is the viscosity, T the temperature, x the composition vector, and A and B the Arrhenius coefficients, was fitted to glass-viscosity data for the processing temperature range (the range at which the viscosity is within 1 to 103 Pa.s) while setting A = constant and treating B(x) as a linear function of mass fractions of major components. Fitting the Arrhenius equation to over 550 viscosity data of commercial glasses and approximately 1000 viscosity data of glasses for nuclear-waste glasses resulted in the A values of -11.35 and -11.48, respectively. The R2 value ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 for commercial glasses and was 0.98 for waste glasses. The Arrhenius models estimate viscosities for melts of commercial glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 within the temperature range of 1100 to 1550 C and viscosity range of 5 to 400 Pa.s and for waste glasses containing 32 to 60 mass% SiO2 within the temperature range of 850 to 1450 C and viscosity range of 0.4 to 250 Pa.s

  17. Aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte-Carlo simulations

    Ledieu, A.

    2004-10-01

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  18. Water leaching of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte Carlo simulations

    Ledieu, A.

    2004-10-01

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  19. Modeling relations between the composition and properties of French light water reactor waste containment glass

    Ghaleb, D.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Fillet, C.; Pacaud, F.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-01-01

    Models have been developed to calculate the density, molten-state viscosity and initial corrosion rate according to the chemical composition of glass formulations used to vitrify high-level fission product solutions from reprocessed light water reactor fuel. Developed from other published work, these models have been adapted to allow for the effects of platinoid (Ru, Pd, Rh) inclusions on the molten glass rheology. (authors). 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  20. LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE AND ONE PERCENT CRYSTAL CONTENT MODELS FOR INITIAL HANFORD HLW GLASSES

    Vienna, John D.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Peeler, David K.

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary models for liquidus temperature (TL) and temperature at 1 vol% crystal (T01) applicable to WTP HLW glasses in the spinel primary phase field were developed. A series of literature model forms were evaluated using consistent sets of data form model fitting and validation. For TL, the ion potential and linear mixture models performed best, while for T01 the linear mixture model out performed all other model forms. TL models were able to predict with smaller uncertainty. However, the lower T01 values (even with higher prediction uncertainties) were found to allow for a much broader processing envelope for WTP HLW glasses

  1. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    Fournier, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.fournier@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Department of Applied Quantum Physics & Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Odorico, Michaël [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (S{sub geo}) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (S{sub BET}) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale—contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a S{sub BET}/S{sub geo} ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to S{sub geo} should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to S{sub BET} should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%. - Highlights: • Initial dissolution

  2. Modelling of glass refining kinetics-Part 1. Single bubbles

    Němec, Lubomír; Kloužek, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2003), s. 81-87 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4032103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : glass melt * refining * single bubble Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2003

  3. Thermokinetic model of borosilicate glass dissolution: Contextual affinity

    Advocat, T.; Vernaz, E.; Crovisier, J.L.; Fritz, B.

    1990-01-01

    Short and long-term geochemical interactions of R7T7 nuclear glass with water at 100C were simulated with the DISSOL thermokinetic computer code. Both the dissolved glass quantity and the resulting water composition, saturation states and mineral quantities produced were calculated as a function of time. The rate equation used in the simulation was first proposed by Aagaard and Hegelson: v = k + · S · a( H + ) -n · (1 - e -(A/RT) ). It simulates a gradually diminishing dissolution rate as the reaction affinity diminishes. The best agreement with 1-year experimental data was obtained with a reaction affinity calculated from silica activity (Grambow's hypothesis) rather than taking into account the activity of all the glass components as proposed by Jantzen and Plodinec. The concept of residual affinity was introduced by Grambow to express the fact that the glass dissolution rate does not cease. The authors prefer to replace the term residual affinity by contextual affinity, which expresses the influence on the dissolution rate of three factors: the solution chemistry, the metastability of SiO 2 (m), and the possible precipitation of certain aluminosilicates such as zeolites

  4. Thermokinetic model of borosilicate glass dissolution: contextual affinity

    Advocat, T.; Vernaz, E.; Crovisier, J.L.; Fritz, B.

    1989-01-01

    Short and long-term geochemical interactions of R7T7 nuclear glass with water at 100 0 C were simulated with the DISSOL thermokinetic computer code. Both the dissolved glass quantity and the resulting water composition, saturation states and mineral quantities produced were calculated as a function of time. The rate equation used in the simulation was first proposed by Aagaard and Helgeson. It simulates a gradually diminishing dissolution rate as the reaction affinity diminishes. The best agreement with 1-year experimental data was obtained with a reaction affinity calculated from silica activity (Grambow's hypothesis) rather than taking into account the activity of all the glass components as proposed by Jantzen and Plodinec. The concept of residual affinity was introduced by Grambow to express the fact that the glass dissolution rate does not cease. We prefer to replace the term residual affinity by contextual affinity, which expresses the influence on the dissolution rate of three factors: the solution chemistry, the metastability of SiO 2 (m), and the possible precipitation of certain aluminosilicates such as zeolites. 19 refs

  5. Comprehension and modelling of chromia-forming alloys corrosion mechanisms in nuclear glasses

    Schmucker, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear wastes management consists in the confinement of the radioactive wastes in a glass matrix. This is made by inductive melting in a hot crucible at an operating temperature around 1150 C. These crucibles are constituted of nickel based superalloys with high chromium content. They are submitted to a harsh corrosion by the molten glass, eventually leading to their replacement. The protection of the crucible against corrosion is best provided by the establishment of a protective chromium oxide layer at the surface of the alloy. A binary chromia-forming alloy (Ni-30Cr) is studied in this work. Three different binary and ternary glass compositions are chosen in order to understand the influence of the glass basicity and glass viscosity on the corrosion kinetics. Besides, the de-correlation of the formation and dissolution kinetics of the oxide layer allows the modelling of the overall oxide growth in the molten glass. For that purpose, the oxide formation kinetics in molten glass media is assimilated to the oxidation kinetics of the alloy in gaseous media with oxygen partial pressure that are representative of the redox properties of the glasses. Studies of the oxidation kinetics and of the diffusion mechanisms have shown that the oxidation kinetics is independent on the oxygen pressure in the range of 10"-"1"3 up to 10"-"3 atm O_2 at 1150 C. The present work has shown that the dissolution kinetics of the oxide layer is governed by the diffusion of Cr(III) in the glass melt. This dissolution kinetics has been evaluated from the diffusion coefficient and the solubility limit of Cr(III) in the glass. Finally, the overall growth kinetics of the Cr_2O_3 layer in the glass has been successfully modelled for each glass, thanks to the knowledge of (i) the solubility limit of Cr(III), (ii) its diffusion coefficient in the glasses and (iii) the oxidation kinetics of the alloy. The presented model also allows quantifying the influence of each of these parameters on the

  6. Comparison between simulation and experimentally observed interactions between two magnetic beads in a fluidic system

    Oduwole, Olayinka, E-mail: olayinka.oduwole@eng.ox.ac.uk; Grob, David Tim, E-mail: tim.grob@eng.ox.ac.uk; Sheard, Steve, E-mail: steve.sheard@eng.ox.ac.uk

    2016-06-01

    Continuous flow separation of magnetic particles within a microfluidic device could lead to improved performance of magnetic bead-based assays but the undesirable formation of bead clusters reduces its efficiency; this efficiency refers to the ability to separate bound magnetic beads from a mixture of particles. Such agglomerates are formed due to magnetic binding forces while hydrodynamic interactions strongly influence the particles' movement. This paper presents a model for interactions between a pair of equal sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, we present for the first time a comparison between simulated trajectories and the beads' movement captured on video; the beads were suspended in a stationary fluid placed within a uniform magnetic field. In conclusion, the model is a good approximation for beads interacting with their nearest neighbours and is able to predict the trajectory pattern of these particles in a magnetic bead-based assay. Predicting the magnetically induced interaction of nearby beads will help in determining the density of beads in an assay and in avoiding agglomeration over a fixed time duration. - Highlights: • We modelled the interactions between a pair of super-paramagnetic beads suspended in water within a uniform magnetic field. • We tracked the movement of the bead pair and captured it on video. • We compared the numerical results with the video data and achieved a good agreement. • We predicted the agglomeration time as a function of the separation distance.

  7. Microfabricated Passive Magnetic Bead separators

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Smistrup, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The use and manipulation of functionalized magnetic beads for bioanalysis in lab-on-a-chip systems is receiving growing interest. We have developed microfluidic systems with integrated magnetic structures for the capture and release of magnetic beads. The systems are fabricated in silicon by deep...

  8. Thermodynamic and structural models compared with the initial dissolution rates of SON glass samples

    Tovena, I.; Advocat, T.; Ghaleb, D.; Vernaz, E.

    1993-01-01

    The experimentally determined initial dissolution rate R 0 of nuclear glass was correlated with thermodynamic parameters and structural parameters. The initial corrosion rates of six ''R7T7'' glass samples measured at 100 deg C in a Soxhlet device were correlated with the glass free hydration energy and the glass formation enthalpy. These correlations were then tested with a group of 26 SON glasses selected for their wide diversity of compositions. The thermodynamic models provided a satisfactory approximation of the initial dissolution rate determined under Soxhlet conditions for SON glass samples that include up to 15 wt% of boron and some alumina. Conversely, these models are inaccurate if the boron concentration exceeds 15 wt% and the glass contains no alumina. Possible correlations between R 0 and structural parameters, such as the boron coordination number and the number of nonbridging oxygen atoms, were also investigated. The authors show that R 0 varies inversely with the number of 4-coordinate boron atoms; conversely, the results do not substantiate published reports of a correlation between R 0 and the number of nonbridging oxygen atoms. (authors). 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Property-Composition-Temperature Modeling of Waste Glass Melt Data Subject to a Randomization Restriction

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Properties such as viscosity and electrical conductivity of glass melts are functions of melt temperature as well as glass composition. When measuring such a property for several glasses, the property is typically measured at several temperatures for one glass, then at several temperatures for the next glass, and so on. This data-collection process involves a restriction on randomization, which is referred to as split-plot experiment. The split-plot data structure must be accounted for in developing property-composition-temperature models and the corresponding uncertainty equations for model predictions. Instead of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methods, generalized least squares (GLS) regression methods using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation must be used. This article describes the methodology for developing property-composition-temperature models and corresponding prediction uncertainty equations using the GLS/REML regression approach. Viscosity data collected on 197 simulated nuclear waste glasses are used to illustrate the GLS/REML methods for developing a viscosity-composition-temperature model and corresponding equations for model prediction uncertainties. The correct results using GLS/REML regression are compared to the incorrect results obtained using OLS regression

  10. Heat Transfer Model of a Small-Scale Waste Glass Melter with Cold Cap Layer

    Abboud, Alexander; Guillen, Donna Post; Pokorny, Richard

    2016-09-01

    At the Hanford site in the state of Washington, more than 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is stored in underground tanks. The cleanup plan for this waste is vitrification at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), currently under construction. At the WTP, the waste will be blended with glass-forming materials and heated to 1423K, then poured into stainless steel canisters to cool and solidify. A fundamental understanding of the glass batch melting process is needed to optimize the process to reduce cost and decrease the life cycle of the cleanup effort. The cold cap layer that floats on the surface of the glass melt is the primary reaction zone for the feed-to-glass conversion. The conversion reactions include water release, melting of salts, evolution of batch gases, dissolution of quartz and the formation of molten glass. Obtaining efficient heat transfer to this region is crucial to achieving high rates of glass conversion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is being used to understand the heat transfer dynamics of the system and provide insight to optimize the process. A CFD model was developed to simulate the DM1200, a pilot-scale melter that has been extensively tested by the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL). Electrodes are built into the melter to provide Joule heating to the molten glass. To promote heat transfer from the molten glass into the reactive cold cap layer, bubbling of the molten glass is used to stimulate forced convection within the melt pool. A three-phase volume of fluid approach is utilized to model the system, wherein the molten glass and cold cap regions are modeled as separate liquid phases, and the bubbling gas and plenum regions are modeled as one lumped gas phase. The modeling of the entire system with a volume of fluid model allows for the prescription of physical properties on a per-phase basis. The molten glass phase and the gas phase physical properties are obtained from previous experimental work. Finding representative

  11. Chemistry and petrology of Fe-Ni beads from different types of cosmic spherules: Implication for precursors

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; VijayaKumar, T.

    Fe–Ni beads are observed to occur in all three (Stony, Glass, Iron) types of cosmic spherules collected from deep sea sediments of the Indian Ocean. Fe–Ni beads in cosmic spherules can provide insights for understanding metal segregation mechanisms...

  12. bEADS

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    While there are a great variety of digital musical interfaces available to the working musician, few offer the level of immediate, nuanced and instinctive interaction that one finds in an acoustic shaker. bEADS is a prototype of a digital musical instrument that utilises the gestural vocabulary...... associated with shaken idiophones and expands on the techniques and sonic possibilities associated with them. By using a bespoke physically informed synthesis engine, in conjunction with accelerometer and pressure sensor data, an actuated handheld instrument has been built that allows for quickly switching...... between widely differing percussive sound textures. The prototype has been evaluated by three experts with different levels of involvement in professional music making....

  13. Kinetic model for quartz and spinel dissolution during melting of high-level-waste glass batch

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The dissolution of quartz particles and the growth and dissolution of crystalline phases during the conversion of batch to glass potentially affects both the glass melting process and product quality. Crystals of spinel exiting the cold cap to molten glass below can be troublesome during the vitrification of iron-containing high-level wastes. To estimate the distribution of quartz and spinel fractions within the cold cap, we used kinetic models that relate fractions of these phases to temperature and heating rate. Fitting the model equations to data showed that the heating rate, apart from affecting quartz and spinel behavior directly, also affects them indirectly via concurrent processes, such as the formation and motion of bubbles. Because of these indirect effects, it was necessary to allow one kinetic parameter (the pre-exponential factor) to vary with the heating rate. The resulting kinetic equations are sufficiently simple for the detailed modeling of batch-to-glass conversion as it occurs in glass melters. The estimated fractions and sizes of quartz and spinel particles as they leave the cold cap, determined in this study, will provide the source terms needed for modeling the behavior of these solid particles within the flow of molten glass in the melter

  14. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System

    Nicolas Giovambattista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  15. Do Female Researchers Face a Glass Ceiling in France? A Hazard Model of Promotions

    Sabatier, Mareva

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present article examines whether French female researchers face a glass ceiling, an invisible barrier to promotion. Using an original database from the National Institute for Agricultural Research, we estimate duration models for promotions. The methodology used allowed us to take into account censored observations and unobserved heterogeneity. Our results show a significant gender effect that does not contradict the glass-ceiling hypothesis. In addition, factors that ...

  16. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    Vienna, John D.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Gin, Stephane; Inagaki, Yaohiro

    2013-01-01

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps

  17. Modeling principles applied to the simulation of a joule-heated glass melter

    Routt, K.R.

    1980-05-01

    Three-dimensional conservation equations applicable to the operation of a joule-heated glass melter were rigorously examined and used to develop scaling relationships for modeling purposes. By rigorous application of the conservation equations governing transfer of mass, momentum, energy, and electrical charge in three-dimensional cylindrical coordinates, scaling relationships were derived between a glass melter and a physical model for the following independent and dependent variables: geometrical size (scale), velocity, temperature, pressure, mass input rate, energy input rate, voltage, electrode current, electrode current flux, total power, and electrical resistance. The scaling relationships were then applied to the design and construction of a physical model of the semiworks glass melter for the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The design and construction of such a model using glycerine plus LiCl as a model fluid in a one-half-scale Plexiglas tank is described

  18. Glass Transition Temperature of Saccharide Aqueous Solutions Estimated with the Free Volume/Percolation Model.

    Constantin, Julian Gelman; Schneider, Matthias; Corti, Horacio R

    2016-06-09

    The glass transition temperature of trehalose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose aqueous solutions has been predicted as a function of the water content by using the free volume/percolation model (FVPM). This model only requires the molar volume of water in the liquid and supercooled regimes, the molar volumes of the hypothetical pure liquid sugars at temperatures below their pure glass transition temperatures, and the molar volumes of the mixtures at the glass transition temperature. The model is simplified by assuming that the excess thermal expansion coefficient is negligible for saccharide-water mixtures, and this ideal FVPM becomes identical to the Gordon-Taylor model. It was found that the behavior of the water molar volume in trehalose-water mixtures at low temperatures can be obtained by assuming that the FVPM holds for this mixture. The temperature dependence of the water molar volume in the supercooled region of interest seems to be compatible with the recent hypothesis on the existence of two structure of liquid water, being the high density liquid water the state of water in the sugar solutions. The idealized FVPM describes the measured glass transition temperature of sucrose, glucose, and fructose aqueous solutions, with much better accuracy than both the Gordon-Taylor model based on an empirical kGT constant dependent on the saccharide glass transition temperature and the Couchman-Karasz model using experimental heat capacity changes of the components at the glass transition temperature. Thus, FVPM seems to be an excellent tool to predict the glass transition temperature of other aqueous saccharides and polyols solutions by resorting to volumetric information easily available.

  19. Thermal Diffusivity and Thermal Conductivity of Dispersed Glass Sphere Composites Over a Range of Volume Fractions

    Carson, James K.

    2018-06-01

    Glass spheres are often used as filler materials for composites. Comparatively few articles in the literature have been devoted to the measurement or modelling of thermal properties of composites containing glass spheres, and there does not appear to be any reported data on the measurement of thermal diffusivities over a range of filler volume fractions. In this study, the thermal diffusivities of guar-gel/glass sphere composites were measured using a transient comparative method. The addition of the glass beads to the gel increased the thermal diffusivity of the composite, more than doubling the thermal diffusivity of the composite relative to the diffusivity of the gel at the maximum glass volume fraction of approximately 0.57. Thermal conductivities of the composites were derived from the thermal diffusivity measurements, measured densities and estimated specific heat capacities of the composites. Two approaches to modelling the effective thermal diffusivity were considered.

  20. A model for phosphate glass topology considering the modifying ion sub-network

    Hermansen, Christian; Mauro, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we establish a temperature dependent constraint model of alkali phosphate glasses considering the structural and topological role of the modifying ion sub-network constituted by alkali ions and their non-bonding oxygen coordination spheres. The model is consistent with availa......In the present paper we establish a temperature dependent constraint model of alkali phosphate glasses considering the structural and topological role of the modifying ion sub-network constituted by alkali ions and their non-bonding oxygen coordination spheres. The model is consistent...... with available structural data by NMR and molecular dynamics simulation and dynamic data such glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid fragility (m). Alkali phosphate glasses are exemplary systems for developing constraint model since the modifying cation network plays an important role besides the primary...... phosphate network. The proposed topological model predicts the changing trend of the Tg and m with increasing alkali oxide content for alkali phosphate glasses, including an anomalous minimum at around 20 mol% alkali oxide content. We find that the minimum in Tg and m is caused by increased connectivity...

  1. Bead-bead interaction parameters in dissipative particle dynamics: Relation to bead-size, solubility parameter, and surface tension

    Maiti, Amitesh; McGrother, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is a mesoscale modeling method for simulating equilibrium and dynamical properties of polymers in solution. The basic idea has been around for several decades in the form of bead-spring models. A few years ago, Groot and Warren [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)] established an important link between DPD and the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter theory for polymer solutions. We revisit the Groot-Warren theory and investigate the DPD interaction parameters as a function of bead size. In particular, we show a consistent scheme of computing the interfacial tension in a segregated binary mixture. Results for three systems chosen for illustration are in excellent agreement with experimental results. This opens the door for determining DPD interactions using interfacial tension as a fitting parameter.

  2. Predictive modeling of crystal accumulation in high-level waste glass melters processing radioactive waste

    Matyáš, Josef; Gervasio, Vivianaluxa; Sannoh, Sulaiman E.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-11-01

    The effectiveness of high-level waste vitrification at Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant may be limited by precipitation/accumulation of spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr)2O4] in the glass discharge riser of Joule-heated ceramic melters during idling. These crystals do not affect glass durability; however, if accumulated in thick layers, they can clog the melter and prevent discharge of molten glass into canisters. To address this problem, an empirical model was developed that can predict thicknesses of accumulated layers as a function of glass composition. This model predicts well the accumulation of single crystals and/or small-scale agglomerates, but excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an underprediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsened over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. The accumulation rate of ∼53.8 ± 3.7 μm/h determined for this glass will result in a ∼26 mm-thick layer after 20 days of melter idling.

  3. Multiscale Modeling of Non-crystalline Ceramics (Glass)

    2011-02-01

    4). 5.3 Approach: We will produce high silica glasses with additions of up to 10 wt% of network formers and modifiers using Momentive’s lab scale...Aij , rij , ρ, and Cij are constants, which are provided by van Beest et al. (16); we refer to equation 2 as the BKS potential. 7.2 Generating...Optischer und Elektrostatischer Gitterpotentiale. Ann. Phys. 1921, 369, 253–287. 16. van Beest , B. W. H.; Kramer, G. J.; van Santen, R. A. Force-fields for

  4. Ecohydraulics of Strings and Beads in Bedrock Rivers

    Wohl, E.

    2016-12-01

    Twenty years ago, Jack Stanford and others described rivers in bedrock canyons as resembling beads on a string when viewed in planform. The beads are relatively wide, low gradient river segments with floodplains, whereas the strings are the intervening steep, narrow river segments with minimal floodplain development. This pattern of longitudinal variations in channel and valley morphology along bedrock canyon rivers is very common, from small channels to major rivers such as the Colorado. Basic understanding of river ecosystems, as well as limited studies, indicates that the beads are more retentive and biologically productive. Although both strings and beads can provide habitat for diverse organisms, strings are more likely to serve as migration corridors, whereas beads provide spawning and nursery habitat, facilitate lateral (channel-floodplain) and vertical (channel-hyporheic) exchanges and associated habitat diversity, and retain dissolved and particulate organic matter. Recognition of the different characteristics and functions of strings and beads can be used to identify their spatial distribution along a river or within a river network and the hydraulically driven processes that sustain channel form, water quality, and biota within strings and beads. Diverse modeling approaches can then be used to quantify the fluxes of water and sediment needed to maintain these hydraulically driven processes. This conceptual framework is illustrated using examples from mountain streams in the Southern Rockies and canyon rivers in the southwestern United States.

  5. Long-term behavior of nuclear glass: the r(t) operational model

    Ribet, I.; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Vernaz, E.; Chaix, P.; Do Quang, R.

    2001-01-01

    Predicting the long-term behavior of vitrified waste packages requires the development of models incorporating knowledge of the aqueous alteration mechanisms of nuclear glass. The r(t) model allows for the formation of a protective gel layer during leaching, and is thus able to account for the major drops in the glass alteration rate that are observed experimentally. This article describes the model hypotheses, the methodology implemented to determine its three internal parameters, and the results obtained from about fifty leaching experiments performed under various conditions. The orders of magnitude of the internal parameter values are indicated according to the alteration conditions. (author)

  6. Simple solvable energy-landscape model that shows a thermodynamic phase transition and a glass transition.

    Naumis, Gerardo G

    2012-06-01

    When a liquid melt is cooled, a glass or phase transition can be obtained depending on the cooling rate. Yet, this behavior has not been clearly captured in energy-landscape models. Here, a model is provided in which two key ingredients are considered in the landscape, metastable states and their multiplicity. Metastable states are considered as in two level system models. However, their multiplicity and topology allows a phase transition in the thermodynamic limit for slow cooling, while a transition to the glass is obtained for fast cooling. By solving the corresponding master equation, the minimal speed of cooling required to produce the glass is obtained as a function of the distribution of metastable states.

  7. Modeling the dissolution behavior of defense waste glass in a salt repository environment

    McGrain, B.P.

    1988-02-01

    A mechanistic model describing a dynamic mass balance between the production and consumption of dissolved silica was found to describe the dissolution behavior of SRL-165 defense waste glass in a high-magnesium brine (PBB3) at a temperature of 90 0 C. The synergistic effect of the waste package container on the glass dissolution rate was found to depend on a precipitation reaction for a ferrous silicate mineral. The model predicted that the ferrous silicate precipitate should be variable in composition where the iron/silica stoichiometry depended on the metal/glass surface area ratio used in the experiment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by the variable iron/silica ratios observed in filtered leachates. However, the interaction between dissolved silica and iron corrosion products needs to be much better understood before the model can be used with confidence in predicting radionuclide release rates for a salt repository. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. CORRELATION OF THE GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF PLASTICIZED PVC USING A LATTICE FLUID MODEL

    A model has been developed to describe the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) + plasticizer mixtures. The model is based on Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state and the Gibbs-Di Marzio criterion, which states that th...

  9. Quasi-realistic distribution of interaction fields leading to a variant of Ising spin glass model

    Tanasa, Radu; Enachescu, Cristian; Stancu, Alexandru; Linares, Jorge; Varret, Francois

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of interaction fields of an Ising-like system, obtained by Monte Carlo entropic sampling is used for modeling the hysteretic behavior of patterned media made of magnetic particles with a common anisotropy axis; a variant of the canonical Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass model is introduced

  10. Conversion of Nuclear Waste into Nuclear Waste Glass: Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modeling

    Hrma, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The melter feed, slurry, or calcine charged on the top of a pool of molten glass forms a floating layer of reacting material called the cold cap. Between the cold-cap top, which is covered with boiling slurry, and its bottom, where bubbles separate it from molten glass, the temperature changes by up to 1000 K. The processes that occur over this temperature interval within the cold cap include liberation of gases, conduction and consumption of heat, dissolution of quartz particles, formation and dissolution of intermediate crystalline phases, and generation of foam and gas cavities. These processes have been investigated using thermal analyses, optical and electronic microscopies, x-ray diffraction, as well as other techniques. Properties of the reacting feed, such as heat conductivity and density, were measured as functions of temperature. Investigating the structure of quenched cold caps produced in a laboratory-scale melter complemented the crucible studies. The cold cap consists of two main layers. The top layer contains solid particles dissolving in the glass-forming melt and open pores through which gases are escaping. The bottom layer contains bubbly melt or foam where bubbles coalesce into larger cavities that move sideways and release the gas to the atmosphere. The feed-to-glass conversion became sufficiently understood for representing the cold-cap processes via mathematical models. These models, which comprise heat transfer, mass transfer, and reaction kinetics models, have been developed with the final goal to relate feed parameters to the rate of glass melting

  11. A general model for the dissolution of nuclear waste glasses in salt brine

    McGrail, B.P.; Strachan, D.M.

    1988-07-01

    A mechanistic model describing a dynamic mass balance between the production and consumption of dissolved silica was found to describe the dissolution of SRL-165 defense waste glass in a high-magnesium (PBB3) brine at a temperature of 90/degree/C. The synergetic effect of the waste package container on the glass dissolution rate was found to depend on a precipitation reaction for a ferrous silicate mineral. The model predicted that the ferrous silicate precipitate should be variable in composition where the iron-silica ratio depended on the metal-to-glass surface area ratio used in the experiment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by the variable iron-silica ratios observed in filtered leachates. However, the interaction between dissolved silica and iron corrosion products needs to be much better understood before the model could be used with confidence in predicting radionuclide release rates for a salt repository. If the deleterious effects of the iron corrosion products can be shown to be transient, and the fracturing of the glass can be minimized, it appears that the performance of SRL-165 defense waste glass will be near the NRC regulatory criterion for fraction release of one part in 100,000 in PBB3 brine at 90/degree/C under silica-saturated conditions. 47 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. A kinetic model for borosilicate glass dissolution based on the dissolution affinity of a surface alteration layer

    Bourcier, W.L.; Peiffer, D.W.; Knauss, K.G.; McKeegan, K.D.; Smith, D.K.

    1989-11-01

    A kinetic model for the dissolution of borosilicate glass is used to predict the dissolution rate of a nuclear waste glass. In the model, the glass dissolution rate is controlled by the rate of dissolution of an alkali-depleted amorphous surface (gel) layer. Our model predicts that all components concentrated in the surface layer, affect glass dissolution rates. The good agreement between predicted and observed elemental dissolution rates suggests that the dissolution rate of the gel layer limits the overall rate of glass dissolution. The model predicts that the long-term rate of glass dissolution will depend mainly on ion concentrations in solution, and therefore on the secondary phases which precipitate and control ion concentrations. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Acoustic Trapping in Glass Capillaries

    Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Bruus, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic traps are used to capture and handle suspended microparticles and cells in microfluidic applications. A particular simple and much-used acoustic trap consists of a commercially available, millimeter-sized, liquid-filled straight glass capillary actuated by a piezoelectric transducer. Here......, we present a three-dimensional numerical model of the acoustic pressure field in the liquid coupled to the displacement field of the glass wall, taking into account mixed standing and traveling waves as well as absorption. The model explains the dynamical mechanism that leads to the formation...

  14. Spin glasses

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  15. Exploration and Modeling of Structural changes in Waste Glass Under Corrosion

    Pantano, Carlos; Ryan, Joseph; Strachan, Denis

    2013-11-10

    Vitrification is currently the world-wide treatment of choice for the disposition of high-level nuclear wastes. In glasses, radionuclides are atomistically bonded into the solid, resulting in a highly durable product, with borosilicate glasses exhibiting particularly excellent durability in water. Considering that waste glass is designed to retain the radionuclides within the waste form for long periods, it is important to understand the long-term stability of these materials when they react in the environment, especially in the presence of water. Based on a number of previous studies, there is general consensus regarding the mechanisms controlling the initial rate of nuclear waste glass dissolution. Agreement regarding the cause of the observed decrease in dissolution rate at extended times, however, has been elusive. Two general models have been proposed to explain this behavior, and it has been concluded that both concepts are valid and must be taken into account when considering the decrease in dissolution rate. Furthermore, other processes such as water diffusion, ion exchange, and precipitation of mineral phases onto the glass surface may occur in parallel with dissolution of the glass and can influence long-term performance. Our proposed research will address these issues through a combination of aqueous-phase dissolution/reaction experiments and probing of the resulting surface layers with state-of-the-art analytical methods. These methods include solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The resulting datasets will then be coupled with computational chemistry and reaction-rate modeling to address the most persistent uncertainties in the understanding of glass corrosion, which indeed have limited the performance of the best corrosion models to date. With an improved understanding of corrosion mechanisms, models can be developed and improved that, while still conservative, take advantage of

  16. Free volume model: High-temperature deformation of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    Bletry, M.; Guyot, P.; Blandin, J.J.; Soubeyroux, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The homogeneous deformation of a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass is investigated in the glass transition region. Compression tests at different temperatures and strain rates have been conducted. The mechanical behavior is analyzed in the framework of the free volume model, taking into account the dependence of the flow defect concentration on deformation. The activation volume is evaluated and allows one to gather the viscosity data (for the different strain rates and temperatures) on a unique master curve. It is also shown that, due to the relation between flow defect concentration and free volume, it is not possible to deduce the equilibrium flow defect concentration directly from mechanical measurements. However, if this parameter is arbitrarily chosen, mechanical measurements give access to the other parameters of the model, these parameters for the alloy under investigation being of the same order of magnitude as those for other metallic glasses

  17. Modeling the Losses of Dissolved CO(2) from Laser-Etched Champagne Glasses.

    Liger-Belair, Gérard

    2016-04-21

    Under standard champagne tasting conditions, the complex interplay between the level of dissolved CO2 found in champagne, its temperature, the glass shape, and the bubbling rate definitely impacts champagne tasting by modifying the neuro-physicochemical mechanisms responsible for aroma release and flavor perception. On the basis of theoretical principles combining heterogeneous bubble nucleation, ascending bubble dynamics, and mass transfer equations, a global model is proposed, depending on various parameters of both the wine and the glass itself, which quantitatively provides the progressive losses of dissolved CO2 from laser-etched champagne glasses. The question of champagne temperature was closely examined, and its role on the modeled losses of dissolved CO2 was corroborated by a set of experimental data.

  18. Dissolution model for a glass having an adherent insoluble surface layer

    Harvey, K.B.; Larocque, C.A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Waste form glasses that contain substantial quantities of iron, manganese, and aluminum oxides, such as the Savannah River SRL TDS-131 glass, form a thick, hydrated surface layer when placed in contact with water. The dissolution of such a glass has been modeled with the Savannah River Model. The authors showed previously that the equations of the Savannah River Model could be fitted to published experimental data if a time-dependent diffusion coefficient was assumed for species of diffusing through the surface layer. The Savannah River Model assumes that all of the material dissolved from the glass enters solution, whereas it was observed that substantial quantities of material were retained in the surface layer. An alternative model, presented contains a mass balance equation that allows material either to enter solution or to be retained in the surface layer. It is shown that the equations derived using this model can be fitted to the published experimental data assuming a constant diffusion coefficient for species diffusing through the surface layer

  19. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  20. Effects of glass composition on the residual rate of alteration and modelling parameters

    Fleury, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis deals with the long-term behavior of the French nuclear glasses R7T7. An experiment plan (based on 27 glass compositions) is developed for studying the effect of glass composition on the residual rate of alteration. The impact of Mg-phase precipitation on glass alteration is also studied and several modelling exercises are performed. There is one order of magnitude between the different measurements (rate or pH...) associated with the different glass compositions. The statistical treatment of these measurements results in predictive equations and several observable trends are valid for all materials with a composition complying with the experiment plan conditions. The effect of Si, Na, B and Al on alteration (.i.e, gel and secondary phase's formation, pH) is confirmed, the influence of Zn, Zr and Ni-Co is evidenced. The role of Cr has to be clarified. Experiments show that glass alteration rate in underground water, which contains high level of Ca and Mg, is one order of magnitude higher than in the case of pure water. The glass composition plays the same role for the alteration in the two types of solution. During alteration, the late addition of Mg introduces a time lag in the resumption response because silicon is first provided from partial dissolution of the previously-formed alteration gel. The nucleation process does not limit Mg-silicate precipitation whereas a pH above 8-8.5 is necessary for Mg-silicate precipitation. The glass alteration rate can be a limiting factor if the quantity of Mg supplied to the reaction is enough. The Mg silicate phase seems to have systematically a molar ratio Mg/Si between 0.2 and 0.4. It is also shown that the air tightness of the reactor influences the rate of dissolution of CO 2 in the solution leading to a decrease of pH. Finally, modelling exercises with GRAAL show promising results. Such modelling is required in order to extend the prediction of the long-term alteration behavior to different glass

  1. Thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass - long term behavior modeling

    Orlhac, X.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass was investigated experimentally and by modeling to predict its long-term evolution at low temperature. The crystallization mechanisms were analyzed by studying devitrification in the supercooled liquid. Three main crystalline phases were characterized (CaMoO 4 , CeCO 2 , ZnCr 2 O 4 ). Their crystallisation was TO 4.24 wt%, due to the low concentration of the constituent elements. The nucleation and growth curves showed that platinoid elements catalysed nucleation but did not affect growth, which was governed by volume diffusion. The criteria of classic nucleation theory were applied to determine the thermodynamic and diffusional activation energies. Viscosity measurements illustrate the analogy between the activation energy of viscous flow and diffusion, indicating control of crystallization by viscous flow phenomena. The combined action of nucleation and growth was assessed by TTT plots, revealing a crystallization equilibrium line that enables the crystallized fractions to be predicted over the long term. The authors show that hetero-genetics catalyze the transformation without modifying the maximum crystallized fraction. A kinetic model was developed to describe devitrification in the glass based on the nucleation and growth curves alone. The authors show that the low-temperature growth exhibits scale behavior (between time and temperature) similar to thermo-rheological simplicity. The analogy between the resulting activation energy and that of the viscosity was used to model growth on the basis of viscosity. After validation with a simplified (BaO 2 SiO 2 ) glass, the model was applied to the containment glass. The result indicated that the glass remained completely vitreous after a cooling scenario with the one measured at the glass core. Under isothermal conditions, several million years would be required to reach the maximum theoretical crystallization fraction. (author)

  2. Modelling and experimental contrast of the mechanical behaviour of structural laminated glass

    Sanz-Ablanedo, E.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of laminated glass plates (glass- PVB-glass and its experimental verification. The viscoelastic characterization of the intermediate layer of PVB has been done by means of stress relaxation tests at various temperatures. The consideration of PVB as a viscoelastic material permits to analyze the real response of the structural element of laminated glass under time variations of temperature, of application of loading, of stress state, etc. Displacements obtained with the numerical analysis have been verified experimentally with laminated glass plates under lateral load using close range photogrammetry and dial gauges indicators. The analysis of results confirms the time dependent behaviour of the glass-PVB-glass laminate and suggests the validity of the proposed model.

    Este trabajo presenta la simulación numérica del comportamiento mecánico de placas de vidrio laminado (vidrio-PVB-vidrio y su comprobación experimental. La caracterización viscoelástica de la lámina intermedia de PVB se ha realizado mediante ensayos de relajación de tensiones a diversas temperaturas. La consideración del PVB como material viscoelástico permite analizar la respuesta real del elemento estructural de vidrio laminado ante variaciones en el tiempo de la temperatura, de la velocidad de aplicación de las cargas, del estado tensional, etc. Los desplazamientos obtenidos numéricamente han sido contrastados experimentalmente en placas de vidrio laminado sometidas a carga lateral mediante fotogrametría de objeto cercano y relojes comparadores. Del análisis de los resultados se confirma el comportamiento variable en el tiempo del conjunto vidrio-PVB-vidrio y se deduce la validez de la modelización propuesta.

  3. Glass Composition Constraint Recommendations for Use in Life-Cycle Mission Modeling

    McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-05-03

    The component concentration limits that most influence the predicted Hanford life-cycle HLW glass volume by HTWOS were re-evaluated. It was assumed that additional research and development work in glass formulation and melter testing would be performed to improve the understanding of component effects on the processability and product quality of these HLW glasses. Recommendations were made to better estimate the potential component concentration limits that could be applied today while technology development is underway to best estimate the volume of HLW glass that will eventually be produced at Hanford. The limits for concentrations of P2O5, Bi2O3, and SO3 were evaluated along with the constraint used to avoid nepheline formation in glass. Recommended concentration limits were made based on the current HLW glass property models being used by HTWOS (Vienna et al. 2009). These revised limits are: 1) The current ND should be augmented by the OB limit of OB ≤ 0.575 so that either the normalized silica (NSi) is less that the 62% limit or the OB is below the 0.575 limit. 2) The mass fraction of P2O5 limit should be revised to allow for up to 4.5 wt%, depending on CaO concentrations. 3) A Bi2O3 concentration limit of 7 wt% should be used. 4) The salt accumulation limit of 0.5 wt% SO3 may be increased to 0.6 wt%. Again, these revised limits do not obviate the need for further testing, but make it possible to more accurately predict the impact of that testing on ultimate HLW glass volumes.

  4. Understanding the effects of alpha self-irradiation on the glass structure by coupling spectroscopic studies and atomistic modeling

    Bureau, G.

    2008-12-01

    Our objective was to assess irradiation effects on nuclear containment glass in order to guarantee glass performance when subjected to high alpha decay doses. Experimental studies and molecular dynamics modeling provided a better understanding of the impact of cumulative alpha decay on the structural behavior of complex nuclear glass formulations and of simplified glass models. A mechanism typical of sodium borosilicate glass was identified in response to nuclear interactions or ballistic collisions. The glass local order is slightly modified by the conversion of a fraction of the boron atoms from coordination number IV to III, releasing charge-compensating alkali ions that become available as network modifiers, and resulting in a slight increase in the number of non bridging oxygen atoms. The medium-range order shifts toward increasing disorder in the glass as indicated by broadening of the angular, radial, and size distributions. A model of accumulated quasi-thermal quenching is proposed to account for these changes, based on the two steps describing the reaction of the glass to the alpha decay recoil nucleus: a cascade generates a ballistic phase that completely destabilizes the glass structure with no short and medium-range order, resulting in the loss of the initial structure; glass reconstruction is controlled only by the 'quenching rate' in the displacement cascade, i.e. by its thermal history and the corresponding relaxation options. From this standpoint the final glass structure is the consequence of the ballistic changes and the regenerative capacity of the glass structure, resulting in a higher fictive-temperature glass corresponding to the structural changes identified in this study. (author)

  5. Determination of heat conductivity of waste glass feed and its applicability for modeling the batch-to-glass conversion

    Hujova, Miroslava [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Joint Workplace of the University of Chemistry and Technology Prague and the Institute, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the ASCR, Prague Czech Republic; Pokorny, Richard [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Joint Workplace of the University of Chemistry and Technology Prague and the Institute, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the ASCR, Prague Czech Republic; Klouzek, Jaroslav [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Joint Workplace of the University of Chemistry and Technology Prague and the Institute, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the ASCR, Prague Czech Republic; Dixon, Derek R. [Radiological Materials & Detection Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Cutforth, Derek A. [Radiological Materials & Detection Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Lee, Seungmin [Radiological Materials & Detection Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; McCarthy, Benjamin P. [Radiological Materials & Detection Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Schweiger, Michael J. [Radiological Materials & Detection Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland Washington; Hrma, Pavel [Radiological Materials & Detection Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington

    2017-07-10

    The heat conductivity of reacting melter feed affects the heat transfer and conversion process in the cold cap (the reacting feed floating on molten glass). To investigate it, we simulated the feed conditions and morphology in the cold-cap by preparing “fast-dried slurry blocks”, formed by rapidly evaporating water from feed slurry poured onto a 200°C surface. A heat conductivity meter was used to measure heat conductivity of samples cut from the fast-dried slurry blocks, samples of a cold cap retrieved from a laboratory-scale melter, and loose dry powder feed samples. Our study indicates that the heat conductivity of the feed in the cold cap is significantly higher than that of loose dry powder feed, resulting from the feed solidification during the water evaporation from the feed slurry. To assess the heat transfer at higher temperatures when feed turns into foam, we developed a theoretical model that predicts the foam heat conductivity based on morphology data from in-situ X-ray computed tomography. The implications for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap are discussed.

  6. On-site Raman analysis of ancient glasses and stained-glass windows: modeling, procedure, lixiviation and characterization

    Tournie, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the possibilities of Raman spectrometry to identify on site old glasses (objects, stained-glass windows...) whatever been their preserving state. The efficiency of Raman analysis depends strongly of the structural organization of glasses and then of their technological history. In order to differentiate the great silicate family compounds from their Raman analysis, a methodology has been developed: data acquisition and spectrum processing, Raman parameters extraction and classification of these glasses. This approach has then been extended to crystalline phosphates and silicates. Beforehand, correlations between crystallo-chemical parameters and vibrational signatures have been considered. The old glasses are often recovered by a corrosion layer which induces important changes on the Raman signature. Four layers have been identified and characterized by a multi-scale study: leached porous layer, transition zone, cracked zone and sound glass. The results show that only an analytical chemistry approach (databases of Raman signatures) is not sufficient and that a solid chemistry and physics approach is required to explain the spectral answers and extract the relevant parameters from glasses preserving [fr

  7. A novel approach to modelling non-exponential spin glass relaxation

    Pickup, R.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.cywinski@leeds.ac.uk; Cywinski, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Pappas, C. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    A probabilistic cluster model, originally proposed by Weron to explain the universal power law of dielectric relaxation, is shown to account for the non-exponential relaxation in spin glasses above T {sub g}. Neutron spin echo spectra measured for the cluster glass compound Co{sub 55}Ga{sub 45} are well described by the Weron relaxation function, {phi}(t)={phi} {sub o}(1+k(t/{tau}) {sup {beta}}){sup -1/k}, with the interaction parameter k scaling linearly with the non-Curie-Weiss susceptibility.

  8. Use of molecular dynamics to model the structure of nuclear glasses

    Delaye, J.M.; Ghaleb, D.

    1997-01-01

    Born-Mayer-Huggins potentials (BMH) are generally used to model oxides glasses. In this article we show how they can be used, if they can be completed by three body terms, to reproduce correctly structures of alumino-borosilicate glasses. Taking into account the parameters adjusted for the basic matrix (SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, ZrO 2 , Al 2 O 3 ) of French light water reactor waste containment glass, we have analyzed equally the structure evolutions reproduced by BMH potentials according to the modification of the composition of the glass. The principal objective of this study being the appreciation of the capability of this potentials to simulate structure evolutions in the glass; this potentials representing neither the nature of chemical bonds nor the electronic state modifications that accompany changes of coordination numbers. Globally BHM potentials, despite their limited representativeness, reproduce some experimental observations. For example: - the gradual incorporation of the boron in the silicate network; - the shorter distances between network formers and non-bridging oxygen atoms; - the visualization of boron-enriched segregation zones in a high content boron composition without aluminum. (authors)

  9. The glass-forming ability of model metal-metalloid alloys

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shattuck, Mark D. [Department of Physics and Benjamin Levich Institute, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); O’Hern, Corey S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are amorphous alloys with desirable mechanical properties and processing capabilities. To date, the design of new BMGs has largely employed empirical rules and trial-and-error experimental approaches. Ab initio computational methods are currently prohibitively slow to be practically used in searching the vast space of possible atomic combinations for bulk glass formers. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained, anisotropic potential, which mimics interatomic covalent bonding, to measure the critical cooling rates for metal-metalloid alloys as a function of the atomic size ratio σ{sub S}/σ{sub L} and number fraction x{sub S} of the metalloid species. We show that the regime in the space of σ{sub S}/σ{sub L} and x{sub S} where well-mixed, optimal glass formers occur for patchy and LJ particle mixtures, coincides with that for experimentally observed metal-metalloid glass formers. Thus, our simple computational model provides the capability to perform combinatorial searches to identify novel glass-forming alloys.

  10. Mathematical modeling of photoinitiated coating degradation: Effects of coating glass transition temperature and light stabilizers

    Kiil, Søren; G.de With, R.A.T.M.Van Benthem

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model, describing coating degradation mechanisms of thermoset coatings exposed to ultraviolet radiation and humidity at constant temperature, was extended to simulate the behavior of a coating with a low glass transition temperature. The effects of adding light stabilizers (a UV...

  11. Modeling of the fringe shift in multiple beam interference for glass ...

    A quadratic model is suggested to describe the fringe shift occurred due to the phase variations of uncladded glass fiber introduced between the two plates of the liquid wedge interferometer. The fringe shift of the phase object is represented in the harmonic term which appears in the denominator of the Airy distribution ...

  12. Modeling interfacial glass-water reactions: recent advances and current limitations

    Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; Kwon, Kideok D.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-01-01

    Describing the reactions that occur at the glass-water interface and control the development of the altered layer constitutes one of the main scientific challenges impeding existing models from providing accurate radionuclide release estimates. Radionuclide release estimates are a critical component of the safety basis for geologic repositories. The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products) represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries-pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most interface. Computational models, spanning different length and timescales, are currently being developed to improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the mesoscale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include geochemical simulations (i.e., classical reaction path simulations and glass reactivity in allowance for alteration layer simulations), Monte Carlo simulations, and molecular dynamics methods. Discussed in this manuscript are the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass-water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers. New results are presented as examples of each approach. (authors)

  13. Local elastic expansion model for viscous-flow activation energies of glass-forming molecular liquids

    Dyre, Jeppe; Olsen, Niels Boye; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1996-01-01

    A model for the viscosity of glass-forming molecular liquids is proposed in which a "flow event" requires a local volume increase. The activation energy for a flow event is identified with the work done in shoving aside the surrounding liquid; this work is proportional to the high-frequency shear...

  14. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    Reddy, M Mohan; Gorin, Alexander [School of Engineering and Science, Curtin University of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia); Abou-El-Hossein, K A, E-mail: mohan.m@curtin.edu.my [Mechanical and Aeronautical Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elegebeth, 6031 (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  15. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    Reddy, M Mohan; Gorin, Alexander; Abou-El-Hossein, K A

    2011-01-01

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  16. Impact of Spherical Frit Beads on Simulated DWPF Slurries

    SMITH, MICHAEL

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that the rheological properties of simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed with the glass former frit as mostly (90 weight percent) solid spherical particles (referred to as beads) were improved as the feed was less viscous as compared to DWPF melter feed that contained the normal irregular shaped frit particles. Because the physical design of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), Melter Feed Tank (MFT), and melter feed loop are fixed, the impact of changing the rheology might be very beneficial. Most importantly, higher weight percent total solids feed might be processed by reducing the rheological properties (specifically yield stress) of the feed. Additionally, if there are processing problems, such as air entrainment or pumping, these problems might be alleviated by reducing the rheological properties, while maintaining targeted throughputs. Rheology modifiers are chemical, physical, or a combination of the two and can either thin or thicken the rheology of the targeted slurry. The beads are classified as a physical rheological modifier in this case. Even though the improved rheological properties of the feed in the above mentioned DWPF tanks could be quite beneficial, it is the possibility of increased melt rate that is the main driver for the use of beaded glass formers. By improving the rheological properties of the feed, the weight percent solids of the feed could be increased. This higher weight percent solids (less water) feed could be processed faster by the melter as less energy would be required to evaporate the water, and more would be available for the actual melting of the waste and the frit. In addition, the use of beads to thin the feed could possibly allow for the use of a lower targeted acid stoichiometry in the feed preparation process (if in fact acid stoichiometry is being driven by feed rheology as opposed to feed chemistry). Previous work by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with the lab

  17. Development of models and software for liquidus temperatures of glasses of HWVP products. Final report

    Hrma, P.R.; Vienna, J.D.; Pelton, A.D.

    1996-03-01

    In an earlier report [92 Pel] was described the development of software and thermodynamic databases for the calculation of liquidus temperatures of glasses of HWVP products containing the components SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -Na 2 O-Li 2 O-CaO-MgO-Fe 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 -open-quotes othersclose quotes. The software package developed at that time consisted of the EQUILIB program of the F*A*C*T computer system with special input/output routines. Since then, Battelle has purchased the entire F*A*C*T computer system, and this fully replaces the earlier package. Furthermore, with the entire F*A*C*T system, additional calculations can be performed such as calculations at fixed O 2 , SO 2 etc. pressures, or graphing of output. Furthermore, the public F*A*C*T database of over 5000 gaseous species and condensed phases is now accessible. The private databases for the glass and crystalline phases were developed for Battelle by optimization of thermodynamic and phase diagram data. That is, all available data for 2- and 3-component sub-systems of the 9-component oxide system were collected, and parameters of model equations for the thermodynamic properties were found which best reproduce all the data. For representing the thermodynamic properties of the glass as a function of composition and temperature, the modified quasichemical model was used. This model was described in the earlier report [92 Pel] along with all the optimizations. With the model, it was possible to predict the thermodynamic properties of the 9-component glass, and thereby to calculate liquidus temperatures. Liquidus temperatures measured by Battelle for 123 CVS glass compositions were used to test the model and to refine the model by the addition of further parameters

  18. Physical modeling of joule heated ceramic glass melters for high level waste immobilization

    Quigley, M.S.; Kreid, D.K.

    1979-03-01

    This study developed physical modeling techniques and apparatus suitable for experimental analysis of joule heated ceramic glass melters designed for immobilizing high level waste. The physical modeling experiments can give qualitative insight into the design and operation of prototype furnaces and, if properly verified with prototype data, the physical models could be used for quantitative analysis of specific furnaces. Based on evaluation of the results of this study, it is recommended that the following actions and investigations be undertaken: It was not shown that the isothermal boundary conditions imposed by this study established prototypic heat losses through the boundaries of the model. Prototype wall temperatures and heat fluxes should be measured to provide better verification of the accuracy of the physical model. The VECTRA computer code is a two-dimensional analytical model. Physical model runs which are isothermal in the Y direction should be made to provide two-dimensional data for more direct comparison to the VECTRA predictions. The ability of the physical model to accurately predict prototype operating conditions should be proven before the model can become a reliable design tool. This will require significantly more prototype operating and glass property data than were available at the time of this study. A complete set of measurements covering power input, heat balances, wall temperatures, glass temperatures, and glass properties should be attempted for at least one prototype run. The information could be used to verify both physical and analytical models. Particle settling and/or sludge buildup should be studied directly by observing the accumulation of the appropriate size and density particles during feeding in the physical model. New designs should be formulated and modeled to minimize the potential problems with melter operation identifed by this study

  19. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  20. Hydrodynamic Torques and Rotations of Superparamagnetic Bead Dimers

    Pease, Christopher; Etheridge, J.; Wijesinghe, H. S.; Pierce, C. J.; Prikockis, M. V.; Sooryakumar, R.

    Chains of micro-magnetic particles are often rotated with external magnetic fields for many lab-on-a-chip technologies such as transporting beads or mixing fluids. These applications benefit from faster responses of the actuated particles. In a rotating magnetic field, the magnetization of superparamagnetic beads, created from embedded magnetic nano-particles within a polymer matrix, is largely characterized by induced dipoles mip along the direction of the field. In addition there is often a weak dipole mop that orients out-of-phase with the external rotating field. On a two-bead dimer, the simplest chain of beads, mop contributes a torque Γm in addition to the torque from mip. For dimers with beads unbound to each other, mop rotates individual beads which generate an additional hydrodynamic torque on the dimer. Whereas, mop directly torques bound dimers. Our results show that Γm significantly alters the average frequency-dependent dimer rotation rate for both bound and unbound monomers and, when mop exceeds a critical value, increases the maximum dimer rotation frequency. Models that include magnetic and hydrodynamics torques provide good agreement with the experimental findings over a range of field frequencies.

  1. Development of basic data for modelling the residual alteration rate in aqueous media of AVM nuclear glasses

    Thien, B.

    2010-01-01

    During their aqueous alteration, AVM French nuclear glasses exhibit a large range of behaviour, in spite of a small range of composition. AVM glasses alteration rates are controlled by two phenomena: (i) precipitation of secondary phases, mostly aluminous hectorites, and (ii) diffusion of water across a more or less protective gel. The magnesium contained in these glasses increases the precipitation of these secondary phases, leading to a partial or total dissolution of the gel layer. This dissolution increases the glass alteration rates. On the other hand, Mg also incorporates in the gel, increasing his passivation properties. The predominance of one of these two phenomena depends on the initial composition of the glass, the pH of the solution, and the alteration conditions. In presence of Bure geological disposal site water (Mg and Ca rich), AVM glasses undergo less alteration than in initially pure water, in spite of larger amounts of secondary phase precipitates. This results from incorporation of calcium in the gel instead of sodium and magnesium, improving its passivating properties. We have adapted the geochemical GRAAL model for AVM glasses. In spite of its limitations, this model allows us to describe the differences of behaviour between these glasses, in function of their composition. Moreover, GRAAL can be proposed as a basis of a future operational model for predicting the alteration of AVM glasses. (author) [fr

  2. New Insight in Understanding the mechanical responses of polymer glasses using molecular dynamic simulation

    Zheng, Yexin; Wang, Shi-Qing; Tsige, Mesfin

    The Kremer-Grest bead-spring model has been the standard model in molecular dynamics simulation of polymer glasses. However, due to current computational limitations in accessing relevant time scales in polymer glasses in a reasonable amount of CPU time, simulation of mechanical response of polymer glasses in molecular dynamic simulations requires a much higher quenching rate and deformation rate than used in experiments. Despite several orders of magnitude difference in time scale between simulation and experiment, previous studies have shown that simulations can produce meaningful results that can be directly compared with experimental results. In this work we show that by tuning the quenching rate and deformation rate relative to the segmental relaxation times, a reasonable mechanical response shows up in the glassy state. Specifically, we show a younger glass prepared with a faster quenching rate shows glassy responses only when the imposed deformation rate is proportionally higher. the National Science Foundation (DMR-1444859 and DMR-1609977).

  3. Boiling phenomenon and heat transfer in bead-packed porous structure

    Zhang Xiaojie; ZHu Yanlei; Bai Bofeng; Yan Xiao; Xiao Zejun

    2009-01-01

    A visual study on pool boiling behavior and phase distribution was conducted on the porous structures made of staggered glass beads at atmospheric pressure. The bead-packed structure was heated on the bottom. The investigations were carried out respectively at different glass bead diameters which were 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm. The results show that during subcooled boiling, small isolated bubbles are formed on the heated surface and combine into main-bubbles, the dispersion frequency of the main-bubbles is low and the small bubbles scatter in the bead-packed porous structures. At the initial stage of saturated boiling, the bubble growth rate, the volume of main-bubbles and the range of continuous vapor phase increase. The dispersion frequency of main-bubbles increases with the increasing of heat flux. During film boiling, the heated surface is absolutely covered with vapor film and the porous structure is full of liquid. The larger the diameter of beads is, the higher heat flux is needed for the same phenomenon, and the higher maximum value of heat transfer coefficient will be. During the whole saturated boiling, and the heat transfer enhanced firstly and then weakened. Being opposite to that of the diameters of 4 mm and 8 mm, the heat transfer coefficient in the 6 mm-bead-packed porous structure decreases with the increasing of the heat flux. (authors)

  4. Collision of the glass shards with the eye: A computational fluid-structure interaction model.

    Karimi, Alireza; Razaghi, Reza; Biglari, Hasan; Sera, Toshihiro; Kudo, Susumu

    2017-12-27

    The main stream of blunt trauma injuries has been reported to be related to the automobile crashes, sporting activities, and military operations. Glass shards, which can be induced due to car accident, earthquake, gunshot, etc., might collide with the eye and trigger substantial scarring and, consequently, permanently affect the vision. The complications as a result of the collision with the eye and its following injuries on each component of the eye are difficult to be diagnosed. The objective of this study was to employ a Three-Dimensional (3D) computational Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) model of the human eye to assess the results of the glass shards collision with the eye. To do this, a rigid steel-based object hit a Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) glass wall at the velocities of 100, 150, and 200 m/s and, subsequently, the resultant glass shards moved toward the eye. The amount of injury, then, quantified in terms of the stresses and strains. The results revealed the highest amount of stress in the cornea while the lowest one was observed in the vitreous body. It was also found that increasing the speed of the glass shards amplifies the amount of the stress in the components which are located in the central anterior zone of the eye, such as the cornea, aqueous body, and iris. However, regarding those components located in the peripheral/posterior side of the eye, especially the optic nerve, by increasing the amount of velocity a reduction in the stresses was observed and the optic nerve is hardly damaged. These findings have associations not only for understanding the amount of stresses/strains in the eye components at three different velocities, but also for providing preliminary information for the ophthalmologists to have a better diagnosis after glass shards (small objects impact) injuries to the eye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Haw-glass dissolution and radionuclide release: mechanism - modelling - source term

    Grambow, B [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fur Nukleare, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Important release controlling processes are: 1) kinetics of glass matrix dissolution (leaching), 2) formation of secondary alteration products (controlling thermodynamic solubility), 3) sorption on surfaces in the engineered barrier system and 4) formation of mobile species. Quantification of these processes requires assessment of the energetics and dynamics of the various reversible and irreversible processes within an overall open non-equilibrium system. Corrosion/dissolution of the waste matrices is not necessarily associated with a proportional release of radionuclides. The formation of new secondary phases, such as silicates, molybdates, uranates, carbonates... establishes a new geochemical barrier for re-immobilization of radionuclides dissolved from the waste matrices. The presence of iron (corroding canisters during glass alteration) reduces the solution concentration of redox sensitive radionuclides. Consequently, the container, after being corroded, constitutes an important geochemical barrier for radionuclide re-immobilization. Geochemical modelling of the long-term behaviour of glasses must be performed in an integrated way, considering simultaneous reactions of the glass, of container corrosion, of repository rock and of backfill material. Until now, only few attempts were made for integral systems modelling. (A.C.)

  6. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  7. Bubble removal and sand dissolution in an electrically heated glass melting channel with defined melt flow examined by mathematical modelling

    Hrbek, L.; Kocourková, P.; Jebavá, Marcela; Cincibusová, P.; Němec, Lubomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 456, JAN 15 (2017), s. 101-113 ISSN 0022-3093 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt flow * mathematical modelling * energy distribution * space utilization * melting performance Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 2.124, year: 2016

  8. Modelling of the controlled melt flow in a glass melting space – Its melting performance and heat losses

    Jebavá, Marcela; Dyrčíková, Petra; Němec, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 430, DEC 15 (2015), s. 52-63 ISSN 0022-3093 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt flow * mathematical modelling * energy distribution * space utilizatios * melting performance Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2015

  9. Analysis of surface properties of fixed and live cells using derivatized agarose beads.

    Navarro, Vanessa M; Walker, Sherri L; Badali, Oliver; Abundis, Maria I; Ngo, Lylla L; Weerasinghe, Gayani; Barajas, Marcela; Zem, Gregory; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2002-01-01

    A novel assay has been developed for the histochemical characterization of surface properties of cells based on their adhesion to agarose beads derivatized with more than 100 types of molecules, including sugars, lectins and other proteins, and amino acids. The assay simply involves mixing small quantities of washed cells and beads in droplets on glass microscope slides and determining to which beads various cell types adhere. Distilled water was found to be the best medium for this assay because added ions or molecules in other media inhibit adhesion in some cases. Many cells, however, cannot tolerate distilled water. Here we show that cells fixed with either of two fixatives (1% formaldehyde or Prefer fixative) displayed similar bead-binding properties as did live cells. Specificity of cell-bead binding was tested by including specific free molecules in the test suspensions in hapten-type inhibition experiments. If a hapten compound inhibited live-cell adhesion to a specific bead, it also inhibited fixed-cell adhesion to a specific bead. The results of these experiments suggest that fixed cells display authentic surface properties, opening the door for the use of this assay with many cell types that cannot tolerate distilled water.

  10. Model of electron capture in low-temperature glasses

    Bartczak, W.M.; Swiatla, D.; Kroh, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new model of electron capture by a statistical variety of traps in glassy matrices is proposed. The electron capture is interpreted as the radiationless transition (assisted by multiphonon emission) of the mobile electron to the localized state in the trap. The conception of 'unfair' and 'fair' traps is introduced. The 'unfair' trap captures the mobile electron by the shallow excited state. In contrast, the 'fair' trap captures the electron by the ground state. The model calculations of the statistical distributions of the occupied electron traps are presented and discussed with respect to experimental results. (author)

  11. Multi-step cure kinetic model of ultra-thin glass fiber epoxy prepreg exhibiting both autocatalytic and diffusion-controlled regimes under isothermal and dynamic-heating conditions

    Kim, Ye Chan; Min, Hyunsung; Hong, Sungyong; Wang, Mei; Sun, Hanna; Park, In-Kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Moon, Hyungpil; Kim, Kwang J.; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-08-01

    As packaging technologies are demanded that reduce the assembly area of substrate, thin composite laminate substrates require the utmost high performance in such material properties as the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and stiffness. Accordingly, thermosetting resin systems, which consist of multiple fillers, monomers and/or catalysts in thermoset-based glass fiber prepregs, are extremely complicated and closely associated with rheological properties, which depend on the temperature cycles for cure. For the process control of these complex systems, it is usually required to obtain a reliable kinetic model that could be used for the complex thermal cycles, which usually includes both the isothermal and dynamic-heating segments. In this study, an ultra-thin prepreg with highly loaded silica beads and glass fibers in the epoxy/amine resin system was investigated as a model system by isothermal/dynamic heating experiments. The maximum degree of cure was obtained as a function of temperature. The curing kinetics of the model prepreg system exhibited a multi-step reaction and a limited conversion as a function of isothermal curing temperatures, which are often observed in epoxy cure system because of the rate-determining diffusion of polymer chain growth. The modified kinetic equation accurately described the isothermal behavior and the beginning of the dynamic-heating behavior by integrating the obtained maximum degree of cure into the kinetic model development.

  12. Quantitative model of super-Arrhenian behavior in glass forming materials

    Caruthers, J. M.; Medvedev, G. A.

    2018-05-01

    The key feature of glass forming liquids is the super-Arrhenian temperature dependence of the mobility, where the mobility can increase by ten orders of magnitude or more as the temperature is decreased if crystallization does not intervene. A fundamental description of the super-Arrhenian behavior has been developed; specifically, the logarithm of the relaxation time is a linear function of 1 /U¯x , where U¯x is the independently determined excess molar internal energy and B is a material constant. This one-parameter mobility model quantitatively describes data for 21 glass forming materials, which are all the materials where there are sufficient experimental data for analysis. The effect of pressure on the loga mobility is also described using the same U¯x(T ,p ) function determined from the difference between the liquid and crystalline internal energies. It is also shown that B is well correlated with the heat of fusion. The prediction of the B /U¯x model is compared to the Adam and Gibbs 1 /T S¯x model, where the B /U¯x model is significantly better in unifying the full complement of mobility data. The implications of the B /U¯x model for the development of a fundamental description of glass are discussed.

  13. THE ANALYSIS OF FLAT GLASS EXPORTS FOR ROMANIA USING THE GRAVITY MODEL

    Draghescu Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The intense international competition and reduced rates of economics growth force the companies at dynamic and appropriate strategies to address internal and external market. The manufacturing industry from Romania has competitive advantages defined by tradition, qualified labour force, indigenous raw materials, and its products serve various industries – construction, automotive, food – that is expected to experience a future sustained development. With approximately 2,500 employees, the glassware sector from Romania is part of the manufacturing industry which has constantly decreased in the last 25 years. Romania has a long tradition in the glassware sector and remains a strategic player in the region being integrated in the global flows from the industry. Geographical orientation of Romanian trade of flat glass for export is analyzed using the gravity model. The purpose of this article is to determine the essential factors of flat glass export level from Romania to states with which has commercial partnerships using both a gravity static model, but also a gravity dynamic model – a common model in the literature, used to analyze the trade flows between world countries or polarization strength of cities and commercial centres. The empirical results of both models have shown that the gravity attraction of local and destination economies, transport costs – measured by the distances between capitals and lack of common border –, language interconnectivity, and also belonging to the BSEC (Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation are the most important factors affecting the Romanian exports of the flat glass.

  14. Modelling of the draining of a molten glass heated by induction

    Lima-Da-Silva, Marcio

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is part of the development of a new technology of oxides melting in a furnace heated by induction. The technology studied involves strong interactions between electromagnetic, thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena in a flow with physical properties strongly dependents of the temperature. The aim of the thesis is the modelling of the process by coupling closely the Joule heating, the mechanical stirring and the draining of the furnace. The modeling of the time evolution of the interface between glass and air during the emptying of the cold crucible was performed. Regarding the methodology, we chose to combine two scientific codes: Flux for the electromagnetic calculation and Fluent for thermal-hydraulics. The evolution of the free surface was treated by the multiphasic method 'Volume-Of-Fluid - VOF' and the mechanical stirring by the 'Moving Reference Frame' and the 'Sliding Mesh'. First of all, we considered the draining of a tank filled with a silicon oil of high-viscosity without mechanical stirring. This initial model took into account studies of hydraulic similarity between the silicon oil and the glass. Then we superimposed the forced flow creates by the mechanical stirrer, the thermal and the electromagnetic phenomena in order to model the flow of the molten glass. The final model can provide various parameters, including the time needed to drain the furnace, the heat transfer flux and the time evolution of the mass flow rate and of the temperature inside de furnace. (author) [fr

  15. Ab Initio Modeling of Structure and Properties of Single and Mixed Alkali Silicate Glasses.

    Baral, Khagendra; Li, Aize; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2017-10-12

    A density functional theory (DFT)-based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) has been applied to simulate models of single and mixed alkali silicate glasses with two different molar concentrations of alkali oxides. The structural environments and spatial distributions of alkali ions in the 10 simulated models with 20% and 30% of Li, Na, K and equal proportions of Li-Na and Na-K are studied in detail for subtle variations among the models. Quantum mechanical calculations of electronic structures, interatomic bonding, and mechanical and optical properties are carried out for each of the models, and the results are compared with available experimental observation and other simulations. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. We have used the novel concept of using the total bond order density (TBOD), a quantum mechanical metric, to characterize internal cohesion in these glass models. The mixed alkali effect (MAE) is visible in the bulk mechanical properties but not obvious in other physical properties studied in this paper. We show that Li doping deviates from expected trend due to the much stronger Li-O bonding than those of Na and K doping. The approach used in this study is in contrast with current studies in alkali-doped silicate glasses based only on geometric characterizations.

  16. Modeling size effects on fatigue life of a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass under bending

    Yuan Tao; Wang Gongyao; Feng Qingming; Liaw, Peter K.; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Akihisa

    2013-01-01

    A size effect on the fatigue-life cycles of a Zr 50 Cu 30 Al 10 Ni 10 (at.%) bulk metallic glass has been observed in the four-point-bending fatigue experiment. Under the same bending-stress condition, large-sized samples tend to exhibit longer fatigue lives than small-sized samples. This size effect on the fatigue life cannot be satisfactorily explained by the flaw-based Weibull theories. Based on the experimental results, this study explores possible approaches to modeling the size effects on the bending-fatigue life of bulk metallic glasses, and proposes two fatigue-life models based on the Weibull distribution. The first model assumes, empirically, log-linear effects of the sample thickness on the Weibull parameters. The second model incorporates the mechanistic knowledge of the fatigue behavior of metallic glasses, and assumes that the shear-band density, instead of the flaw density, has significant influence on the bending fatigue-life cycles. Promising predictive results provide evidence of the potential validity of the models and their assumptions.

  17. Synthesis of zinc-crosslinked thiolated alginic acid beads and their in vitro evaluation as potential enteric delivery system with folic acid as model drug.

    Taha, M O; Aiedeh, K M; Al-Hiari, Y; Al-Khatib, H

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the potential of synthetic modifications of alginic acid as a method to enhance the stability of its complexes with divalent cations under physiological conditions. A fraction of algin's carboxylic acid moieties was substituted with thiol groups to different substitution degrees through conjugating alginate to cysteine to produce alginate-cysteine (AC) conjugates. Infrared spectrophotometry and iodometry were used to characterize the resulting polymeric conjugates in terms of structure and degree of substitution. Moreover, zinc ions were used to crosslink the resulting AC polymers. Folic acid loaded beads were prepared from Zinc-crosslinked AC polymers (AC-Zn) of different cysteine substitution degrees. The generated beads were then investigated in vitro for their capacity to modify folic acid release. AC-Zn polymeric beads resisted drug release under acidic conditions (pH 1.0). However, upon transfer to a phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0) they released most of their contents almost immediately. This change in drug release behavior is most probably due to the sequestering of zinc cations by phosphate ions within the buffer solution to form insoluble chelates and, to a lesser extent, the ionization of the carboxylic acid and thiol moieties. Removal of zinc ions from the polymeric matrix seems to promote polymeric disintegration and subsequent drug release. A similar behavior is expected in vivo due to the presence of natural zinc sequestering agents in the intestinal fluids. AC-Zn polymers provided a novel approach for enteric drug delivery as drug release from these matrices complied with the USP specifications for enteric dosage forms.

  18. First-order model for durability of Hanford waste glasses as a function of composition

    Hrma, P.; Piepel, G.F.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

    1992-04-01

    Two standard chemical durability tests, the static leach test MCC-1 and product consistency test PCT, were conducted on simulated borosilicate glasses that encompass the expected range of compositions to be produced in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). A first-order empirical model was fitted to the data from each test method. The results indicate that glass durability is increased by addition of Al 2 O 3 , moderately increased by addition of ZrO 2 and SiO 2 , and decreased by addition of Li 2 O, Na 2 O, B 2 O 3 , and MgO. Addition of Fe 2 O 3 and CaO produce an indifferent or reducing effect on durability according to the test method. This behavior and a statistically significant lack of fit are attributed to the effects of multiple chemical reactions occurring during glass-water interaction. Liquid-liquid immiscibility is suspected to be responsible for extremely low durability of some glasses

  19. Glass transition temperature of polymer nano-composites with polymer and filler interactions

    Hagita, Katsumi; Takano, Hiroshi; Doi, Masao; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied versatile coarse-grained model (bead spring model) to describe filled polymer nano-composites for coarse-grained (Kremer-Grest model) molecular dynamics simulations. This model consists of long polymers, crosslink, and fillers. We used the hollow structure as the filler to describe rigid spherical fillers with small computing costs. Our filler model consists of surface particles of icosahedra fullerene structure C320 and a repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the surface particles in order to make a sphere and rigid. The filler's diameter is 12 times of beads of the polymers. As the first test of our model, we study temperature dependence of volumes of periodic boundary conditions under constant pressures through NPT constant Andersen algorithm. It is found that Glass transition temperature (Tg) decrease with increasing filler's volume fraction for the case of repulsive interaction between polymer and fillers and Tg weakly increase for attractive interaction.

  20. String model for the dynamics of glass-forming liquids.

    Pazmiño Betancourt, Beatriz A; Douglas, Jack F; Starr, Francis W

    2014-05-28

    We test the applicability of a living polymerization theory to describe cooperative string-like particle rearrangement clusters (strings) observed in simulations of a coarse-grained polymer melt. The theory quantitatively describes the interrelation between the average string length L, configurational entropy Sconf, and the order parameter for string assembly Φ without free parameters. Combining this theory with the Adam-Gibbs model allows us to predict the relaxation time τ in a lower temperature T range than accessible by current simulations. In particular, the combined theories suggest a return to Arrhenius behavior near Tg and a low T residual entropy, thus avoiding a Kauzmann "entropy crisis."

  1. Spin-glass-like transition in the majority-vote model with anticonformists

    Krawiecki, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    Majority-vote model on scale-free networks and random graphs is investigated in which a randomly chosen fraction p of agents (called anticonformists) follows an antiferromagnetic update rule, i.e., they assume, with probability governed by a parameter q (0 transition from a disordered (paramagnetic) state to a spin-glass-like state, characterized by a non-zero value of the spin-glass order parameter measuring the overlap of agents' opinions in two replicas of the system, and simultaneously by the magnetization close to zero. In the case of the model on scale-free networks the critical value of the parameter q weakly depends on the details of the degree distribution. As p is decreased, the critical value of q falls quickly to zero and only the disordered phase is observed. On the other hand, for p close to zero for decreasing q the usual ferromagnetic transition is observed.

  2. Environment overwhelms both nature and nurture in a model spin glass

    Middleton, A. Alan; Yang, Jie

    We are interested in exploring what information determines the particular history of the glassy long term dynamics in a disordered material. We study the effect of initial configurations and the realization of stochastic dynamics on the long time evolution of configurations in a two-dimensional Ising spin glass model. The evolution of nearest neighbor correlations is computed using patchwork dynamics, a coarse-grained numerical heuristic for temporal evolution. The dependence of the nearest neighbor spin correlations at long time on both initial spin configurations and noise histories are studied through cross-correlations of long-time configurations and the spin correlations are found to be independent of both. We investigate how effectively rigid bond clusters coarsen. Scaling laws are used to study the convergence of configurations and the distribution of sizes of nearly rigid clusters. The implications of the computational results on simulations and phenomenological models of spin glasses are discussed. We acknowledge NSF support under DMR-1410937 (CMMT program).

  3. Multiscale probabilistic modeling of a crack bridge in glass fiber reinforced concrete

    Rypla R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a probabilistic approach to simulating the crack bridging effects of chopped glass strands in cement-based matrices and compares it to a discrete rigid body spring network model with semi-discrete representation of the chopped strands. The glass strands exhibit random features at various scales, which are taken into account by both models. Fiber strength and interface stress are considered as random variables at the scale of a single fiber bundle while the orientation and position of individual bundles with respect to a crack plane are considered as random variables at the crack bridge scale. At the scale of the whole composite domain, the distribution of fibers and the resulting number of crack-bridging fibers is considered. All the above random effects contribute to the variability of the crack bridge performance and result in size-dependent behavior of a multiply cracked composite.

  4. Two Contrasting Failure Modes of Enteric Coated Beads.

    Shi, Galen H; Dong, Xia; Lytle, Michelle; Kemp, Craig A J; Behme, Robert J; Hinds, Jeremy; Xiao, Zhicheng

    2018-04-09

    This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms and kinetics of coating failure for enteric coated beads exposed to high-humidity conditions at different storage temperatures. Enteric coated beads were placed on high-humidity conditions (75 to 98% relative humidity (RH)) in the temperature range of 5 to 40°C. These stability samples of beads were tested for acid dissolution and water activity and also analyzed with SEM, X-ray CT, and DMA. Exposure of enteric coated beads to high humidity led to increased gastric release of drug which eventually failed the dissolution specification. SEM showed visible cracks on the surface of beads exposed to 5°C/high humidity and fusion of enteric beads into agglomerates at 40°C/high humidity. In a non-destructive time elapse study, X-ray CT demonstrated swelling of microcrystalline cellulose cores, crack initiation, and propagation through the API layer within days under 5°C/98% RH storage conditions and ultimately fracture through the enteric coating. DMA data showed a marked reduction in T g of the enteric coating materials after exposure to humidity. At 5°C/high humidity, the hygroscopic microcrystalline cellulose core absorbed moisture leading to core swelling and consequent fracture through the brittle API and enteric layers. At 40°C (high humidity) which is above the T g of the enteric polymer, enteric coated beads coalesced into agglomerates due to melt flow of the enteric coating. We believe it is the first report on two distinct failure models of enteric coated dosage forms.

  5. Non-covalent association of protein and capsular polysaccharide on bacteria-sized latex beads as a model for polysaccharide-specific humoral immunity to intact Gram-positive extracellular bacteria1

    Colino, Jesus; Duke, Leah; Snapper, Clifford M.

    2013-01-01

    Intact Streptococcus pneumoniae, expressing type 14 capsular polysaccharide (PPS14) and type III Streptococcus agalactiae containing a PPS14 core capsule identical to PPS14, exhibit non-covalent associations of PPS14 and bacterial protein, in contrast to soluble covalent conjugates of these respective antigens. Both bacteria and conjugates induce murine PPS14-specific IgG responses dependent on CD4+ T cells. Further, secondary immunization with conjugate and S. agalactiae, although not S. pneumoniae, results in a boosted response. However, in contrast to conjugate, PPS14-specific IgG responses to bacteria lack affinity maturation, utilize the 44.1-idiotype and are dependent on marginal zone B cells. To better understand the mechanism underlying this dichotomy we developed a minimal model of intact bacteria in which PPS14 and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) were stably attached to 1 μm (bacteria-sized) latex beads, but not directly linked to each other, in contrast to PPS14-PspA conjugate. PPS14+[PspA] beads, similar to conjugate, induced in mice boosted PPS14-specific IgG secondary responses, dependent on T cells and ICOS-dependent costimulation, and in which priming could be achieved with PspA alone. In contrast to conjugate, but similar to intact bacteria, the primary PPS14-specific IgG response to PPS14+[PspA] beads peaked rapidly, with the secondary response highly enriched for the 44.1-idiotype and lacking affinity maturation. These results demonstrate that non-covalent association in a particle, of polysaccharide and protein, recapitulates essential immunologic characteristics of intact bacteria that are distinct from soluble covalent conjugates of these respective antigens. PMID:23926322

  6. Microstructural Study on Oxygen Permeated Arc Beads

    Kuan-Heng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated short circuit of loaded copper wire at ambient atmosphere and successfully identified various phases of the arc bead. A cuprous oxide flake was formed on the surface of the arc bead in the rapid solidification process, and there were two microstructural constituents, namely, Cu-κ eutectic structure and solutal dendrites. Due to the arc bead formed at atmosphere during the local equilibrium solidification process, the phase of arc bead has segregated to the cuprous oxide flake, Cu-κ eutectic, and Cu phase solutal dendrites, which are the fingerprints of the arc bead permeated by oxygen.

  7. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers

    Kim, Hyung Kwon; Ahn, Doyeol [Institute of Quantum Information Processing and Systems, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong, Dongdaemun, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo, E-mail: dahn@uos.ac.kr [Research Center for Time-domain Nano-functional Devices and School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam, Sungbuk, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-19

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  8. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers.

    Kim, Hyung Kwon; Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyeol

    2010-11-19

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  9. Removal of Uranium from Aqueous Solution by Alginate Beads

    Jing Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of uranium (VI by calcium alginate beads was examined by batch experiments. The effects of environmental conditions on U (VI adsorption were studied, including contact time, pH, initial concentration of U (VI, and temperature. The alginate beads were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that hydroxyl and alkoxy groups are present at the surface of the beads. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of U (VI by alginate beads was strongly dependent on pH, the adsorption increased at pH 3∼7, then decreased at pH 7∼9. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 2 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of U (VI onto alginate beads can be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 237.15 mg/g. The sorption process is spontaneous and has an exothermic reaction.

  10. Removal of uranium from aqueous solution by aliginate beads

    Yu, Jing; Wang, Jian Long [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Jiang, Yizhou [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xian (China)

    2017-04-15

    The adsorption of uranium (VI) by calcium alginate beads was examined by batch experiments. The effects of environmental conditions on U (VI) adsorption were studied, including contact time, pH, initial concentration of U (VI), and temperature. The alginate beads were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that hydroxyl and alkoxy groups are present at the surface of the beads. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of U (VI) by alginate beads was strongly dependent on pH, the adsorption increased at pH 3∼7, then decreased at pH 7∼9. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 2 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of U (VI) onto alginate beads can be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 237.15 mg/g. The sorption process is spontaneous and has an exothermic reaction.

  11. On modeling of statistical properties of classical 3D spin glasses

    Gevorkyan, A.S.; Abajyan, H.G.; Ayryan, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    We study statistical properties of 3D classical spin glass layer of certain width and infinite length. The 3D spin glass is represented as an ensemble of disordered 1D spatial spin chains (SSC) where interactions are random between spin chains (nonideal ensemble of 1D SSCs). It is proved that in the limit of Birkhoff's ergodic hypothesis performance, 3D spin glasses can be generated by Hamiltonian of disordered 1D SSC with random environment. Disordered 1D SSC is defined on a regular lattice where one randomly oriented spin is put on each node of lattice. Also, it is supposed that each spin randomly interacts with six nearest-neighboring spins (two spins on lattice and four in the environment). The recurrent transcendental equations are obtained on the nodes of spin-chain lattice. These equations, combined with the Silvester conditions, allow step-by-step construction of spin chain in the ground state of energy where all spins are in the minimal energy of a classical Hamiltonian. On the basis of these equations an original high-performance parallel algorithm is developed for 3D spin glasses simulation. Distributions of different parameters of unperturbed spin glass are calculated. In particular, it is analytically proved and numerical calculations show that the distribution of spin-spin interaction constant in Heisenberg nearest-neighboring Hamiltonian model, as opposed to widely used Gauss-Edwards-Anderson distribution, satisfies the Levy alpha-stable distribution law which does not have variance. A new formula is proposed for construction of partition function in the form of a one-dimensional integral on the energy distribution of 1D SSCs

  12. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    The application of draw beads in sheet metal stamping ensures controlled drawing-in of flange parts. Lubrication conditions in draw beads are severe due to sliding under simultaneous bending. Based on the original draw bead test design by Nine [1] comprehensive studies of friction in draw beads...... have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build...

  13. MGMT methylation analysis of glioblastoma on the Infinium methylation BeadChip identifies two distinct CpG regions associated with gene silencing and outcome, yielding a prediction model for comparisons across datasets, tumor grades, and CIMP-status.

    Bady, Pierre; Sciuscio, Davide; Diserens, Annie-Claire; Bloch, Jocelyne; van den Bent, Martin J; Marosi, Christine; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Weller, Michael; Mariani, Luigi; Heppner, Frank L; Mcdonald, David R; Lacombe, Denis; Stupp, Roger; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika E

    2012-10-01

    The methylation status of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene is an important predictive biomarker for benefit from alkylating agent therapy in glioblastoma. Recent studies in anaplastic glioma suggest a prognostic value for MGMT methylation. Investigation of pathogenetic and epigenetic features of this intriguingly distinct behavior requires accurate MGMT classification to assess high throughput molecular databases. Promoter methylation-mediated gene silencing is strongly dependent on the location of the methylated CpGs, complicating classification. Using the HumanMethylation450 (HM-450K) BeadChip interrogating 176 CpGs annotated for the MGMT gene, with 14 located in the promoter, two distinct regions in the CpG island of the promoter were identified with high importance for gene silencing and outcome prediction. A logistic regression model (MGMT-STP27) comprising probes cg12434587 [corrected] and cg12981137 provided good classification properties and prognostic value (kappa = 0.85; log-rank p CIMP) positive tumors was found in glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas than in low grade and anaplastic glioma cohorts, while in CIMP-negative gliomas MGMT was classified as methylated in approximately 50 % regardless of tumor grade. The proposed MGMT-STP27 prediction model allows mining of datasets derived on the HM-450K or HM-27K BeadChip to explore effects of distinct epigenetic context of MGMT methylation suspected to modulate treatment resistance in different tumor types.

  14. Developement of Spherical Polyurethane Beads

    K. Maeda; H. Ohmori; H. Gyotoku

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion We established a new method to produce the spherical polyurethane beads which have narrower distribution of particle size. This narrower distribution was achieved by the polyurethane prepolymer which contains ketimine as a blocked chain-extending agent. Firstly, the prepolymer is dispersed into the aqueous solution containing surfactant. Secondaly, water comes into the inside of prepolymer as oil phase. Thirdly, ketimine is hydrolyzed to amine, and amine reacts with prepolymer immediately to be polyurethane.Our spherical polyurethane beads are very suitable for automotive interior parts especially for instrument panel cover sheet producing under the slush molding method, because of good process ability, excellent durability to the sunlight and mechanical properties at low temperature. See Fig. 1 ,Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 (Page 820).

  15. Miniaturized bead-beating device to automate full DNA sample preparation processes for gram-positive bacteria.

    Hwang, Kyu-Youn; Kwon, Sung Hong; Jung, Sun-Ok; Lim, Hee-Kyun; Jung, Won-Jong; Park, Chin-Sung; Kim, Joon-Ho; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Huh, Nam

    2011-11-07

    We have developed a miniaturized bead-beating device to automate nucleic acids extraction from Gram-positive bacteria for molecular diagnostics. The microfluidic device was fabricated by sandwiching a monolithic flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane between two glass wafers (i.e., glass-PDMS-glass), which acted as an actuator for bead collision via its pneumatic vibration without additional lysis equipment. The Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, were captured on surface-modified glass beads from 1 mL of initial sample solution and in situ lyzed by bead-beating operation. Then, 10 μL or 20 μL of bacterial DNA solution was eluted and amplified successfully by real-time PCR. It was found that liquid volume fraction played a crucial role in determining the cell lysis efficiency in a confined chamber by facilitating membrane deflection and bead motion. The miniaturized bead-beating operation disrupted most of S. aureus within 3 min, which turned out to be as efficient as the conventional benchtop vortexing machine or the enzyme-based lysis technique. The effective cell concentration was significantly enhanced with the reduction of initial sample volume by 50 or 100 times. Combination of such analyte enrichment and in situ bead-beating lysis provided an excellent PCR detection sensitivity amounting to ca. 46 CFU even for the Gram-positive bacteria. The proposed bead-beating microdevice is potentially useful as a nucleic acid extraction method toward a PCR-based sample-to-answer system. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  16. Design of a day tank glass furnace using a transient model and steady-state computation fluid dynamics

    Díaz-Ibarra, Oscar; Abad, Pablo; Molina, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    To design day tanks with energy efficiency and good operation standards, a detailed transient model that considers the melting, refining, cooling and working stages of the glass production process was developed. With the model, the required power input was determined, with glass coverage with batch (β) as parameter, for a furnace with a daily production of 1130 kg of soda-lime glass and 14 h for melting/refining. A detailed analysis of the energy balance with the model showed that during the daily cycle about 70% of the energy input is released with the flue gas. During the working stage most of the energy escapes through the doors. As the peak of energy consumption is during the refining process, the power requirement for this stage defines the global power requirement. Calculated energy efficiencies vary between 13% and 16% for β = 70% and 30% respectively. A steady state CFD simulation of the combustion chamber and glass tank shows that a side-fired burner configuration allows for lower gas velocities and temperatures close to the glass and the furnace walls while guaranteeing the same heat transfer characteristics to the glass than the more traditional end-fired (U-type) furnaces. -- Highlights: ► A transient model of a day tank glass furnace captures main process characteristics. ► Heat loss through doors during working stage impacts thermal efficiency. ► A side-fired burner configuration should be preferred to an end-fired approach

  17. Fluctuations of cytoskeleton-bound microbeads-the effect of bead-receptor binding dynamics

    Metzner, C; Raupach, C; Mierke, C T; Fabry, B

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton (CSK) of living cells is a crosslinked fiber network, subject to ongoing biochemical remodeling processes that can be visualized by tracking the spontaneous motion of CSK-bound microbeads. The bead motion is characterized by anomalous diffusion with a power-law time evolution of the mean square displacement (MSD), and can be described as a stochastic transport process with apparent diffusivity D and power-law exponent β: MSD ∼ D (t/t 0 ) β . Here we studied whether D and β change with the time that has passed after the initial bead-cell contact, and whether they are sensitive to bead coating (fibronectin, integrin antibodies, poly-L-lysine, albumin) and bead size (0.5-4.5 μm). The measurements are interpreted in the framework of a simple model that describes the bead as an overdamped particle coupled to the fluctuating CSK network by an elastic spring. The viscous damping coefficient characterizes the degree of bead internalization into the cell, and the spring constant characterizes the strength of the binding of the bead to the CSK. The model predicts distinctive signatures of the MSD that change with time as the bead couples more tightly to the CSK and becomes internalized. Experimental data show that the transition from the unbound to the tightly bound state occurs in an all-or-nothing manner. The time point of this transition shows considerable variability between individual cells (2-30 min) and depends on the bead size and bead coating. On average, this transition occurs later for smaller beads and beads coated with ligands that trigger the formation of adhesion complexes (fibronectin, integrin antibodies). Once the bead is linked to the CSK, however, the ligand type and bead size have little effect on the MSD. On longer timescales of several hours after bead addition, smaller beads are internalized into the cell more readily, leading to characteristic changes in the MSD that are consistent with increased viscous damping by the

  18. Predicting of bead undercut defects in high-speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

    Wen-jing XU; Chuan-song WU; De-gang ZOU

    2008-01-01

    In the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process, when the welding speed reaches a certain threshold, there will be an onset of weld bead undercut defects which limit the further increase of the welding speed. Establishing a mathematical model for high-speed GMAW to predict the tendency of bead undercuts is of great significance to pre-vent such defects. Under the action of various forces, the transferred metal from filler wire to the weld pool, and the geometry and dimension of the pool itself decide if the bead undercut occurs or not. The previous model simpli-fied the pool shape too much. In this paper, based on the actual weld pool geometry and dimension calculated from a numerical model, a hydrostatic model for liquid metal surface is used to study the onset of bead undercut defects in the high-speed welding process and the effects of dif-ferent welding parameters on the bead undercut tendency.

  19. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation vs. concentration of 40nm magnetic beads

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present on-chip Brownian relaxation measurements on a logarithmic dilution series of 40 nm beads dispersed in water with bead concentrations between 16 mu g/ml and 4000 mu g/ml. The measurements are performed using a planar Hall effect bridge sensor at frequencies up to 1 MHz. No external fields...... are needed as the beads are magnetized by the field generated by the applied sensor bias current. We show that the Brownian relaxation frequency can be extracted from fitting the Cole-Cole model to measurements for bead concentrations of 64 mu g/ml or higher and that the measured dynamic magnetic response...... is proportional to the bead concentration. For bead concentrations higher than or equal to 500 mu g/ml, we extract a hydrodynamic diameter of 47(1) nm for the beads, which is close to the nominal bead size of 40 nm. Furthermore, we study the signal vs. bead concentration at a fixed frequency close to the Brownian...

  20. Alteration of 'R7T7' type nuclear glasses: statistical approach, experimental validation, local evolution model

    Thierry, F.

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an evolution of nuclear (R7T7-type) glass alteration modeling. The first part of this thesis is about development and validation of the 'r(t)' model. This model which predicts the decrease of alteration rates in confined conditions is based upon a coupling between a first-order dissolution law and a diffusion barrier effect of the alteration gel layer. The values and the uncertainties regarding the main adjustable parameters of the model (α, Dg and C*) have been determined from a systematic study of the available experimental data. A program called INVERSION has been written for this purpose. This work lead to characterize the validity domain of the 'r(t)' model and to parametrize it. Validation experiments have been undertaken, confirming the validity of the parametrization over 200 days. A new model is proposed in the second part of this thesis. It is based on an inhibition of glass dissolution reaction by silicon coupled with a local description of silicon retention in the alteration gel layer. This model predicts the evolutions of boron and silicon concentrations in solution as well as the concentrations and retention profiles in the gel layer. These predictions have been compared to measurements of retention profiles by the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) method. The model has been validated on fractions of gel layer which reactivity present low or moderate disparities. (author)

  1. Density-temperature scaling of the fragility in a model glass-former

    Schrøder, Thomas; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sastry, Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    . Such a scaling, referred to as density-temperature (DT) scaling, is exact for liquids with inverse power law (IPL) interactions but has also been found to be approximately valid in many non-IPL liquids. We have analyzed the consequences of DT scaling on the density dependence of the fragility in a model glass......Dynamical quantities e.g. diffusivity and relaxation time for some glass-formers may depend on density and temperature through a specific combination, rather than independently, allowing the representation of data over ranges of density and temperature as a function of a single scaling variable......-former. We find the density dependence of kinetic fragility to be weak, and show that it can be understood in terms of DT scaling and deviations of DT scaling at low densities. We also show that the Adam-Gibbs relation exhibits DT scaling and the scaling exponent computed from the density dependence...

  2. Effects of alpha decays on nuclear waste glasses, simulation through atomistic models

    Ghaleb, D.; Delaye, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In a simplified (SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) nuclear glass we have simulated, by Molecular Dynamics simulations, the effects of displacement cascades created by the slowing-down of the recoil nucleus. The methodology employed to construct and validate the used Molecular Dynamics model representing the basis matrix of the 'light-water' French nuclear glass (R77) and the manner which are simulated atomic displacements are described. Although the energies given to recoil nucleus were relatively low (≤ 1/10 of actual energies) the study has yielded a number of interesting results. Notably we have: - identified the main mechanisms responsible for the depolymerization of the network; - observed, at the atomic level, the kinetic of the structure evolution; - detailed the behavior and displacement mechanisms of every atomic species during the cascade sequences; - made a link with the experimentation through the calculation of some physical properties. (authors)

  3. Cold-cap reactions in vitrification of nuclear waste glass: experiments and modeling

    Chun, Jaehun; Pierce, David A.; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-01-01

    Cold-cap reactions are multiple overlapping reactions that occur in the waste-glass melter during the vitrification process when the melter feed is being converted to molten glass. In this study, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate cold-cap reactions in a high-alumina high-level waste melter feed. To separate the reaction heat from both sensible heat and experimental instability, we employed the run/rerun method, which enabled us to define the degree of conversion based on the reaction heat and to estimate the heat capacity of the reacting feed. Assuming that the reactions are nearly independent and can be approximated by the nth order kinetics, we obtained the kinetic parameters using the Kissinger method combined with least squares analysis. The resulting mathematical simulation of the cold-cap reactions provides a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model

  4. Modelling the dissolution of borosilicate glasses for radioactive waste disposal with the PHREEQE/GLASSOL code: theory and practice

    Curti, E.

    1991-02-01

    A model describing the corrosion kinetics of silicate glasses has been developed by Grambow in recent years. In this report, the theoretical background of the model is thoroughly discussed, and its practical use demonstrated. The main objectives were: 1) to test the validity of the basic assumptions on which the model relies, and 2) to assess whether it can be applied to the safety analysis of a Swiss final repository for high-level radioactive waste. Transition State Theory, a tool based on quantum mechanical principles, has been used by Grambow to derive a general kinetic equation for the corrosion of silicate glasses. This equation predicts successfully the observed dependence of the corrosion rate on the silicic acid concentration in solution according to a first order kinetics law. However, some parameters required by this equation are determined on the base of questionable assumptions. In particular, the simplistic surface complexation model used for the calculation of the free energy of the glass-water reaction yields, for the protonation of silicon on the glass surface, results which are not consistent with the experimental findings. Further, although the model predicts a unique value, common to all silicate glasses, for the activation energy of the rate-determining elementary reaction, leaching experiments conducted on a wide variety of glasses suggest that this quantity may vary by a factor 2. In its present form, the model is judged to be unsuitable for the safety analysis of the Swiss final repository. The reasons include: 1) the model neglects the potential effects of diffusive transport and silica sorption in a bentonite backfill on the glass corrosion kinetics, 2) the release of radionuclides can be only modelled assuming congruent dissolution, and 3) the magnitude of the final rates of corrosion, the parameter defining the maximal lifetime of the glass matrix, is still not known with sufficient precision. (author) figs., tabs., 27 refs

  5. PALS investigations of matrix Vycor glass doped with molecules of luminescent dye and silver nanoparticles. Discrepancies from the ETE model

    Gorgol Marek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A thermal stability of three materials: undoped reference Vycor glass, glass filled with ROT-305 red dye, and silver nanoparticles was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS in a broad temperature range (from 93 to 473 K. The attempt of pore size calculations from the ortho-positronium lifetime data was performed using the extended Tao-Eldrup (ETE model. Below room temperature, a significant decrease in lifetime values of the longest-lived component was found for all the samples. This effect could not be explained by thermal shrinkage of the material and is probably caused by interaction of o-Ps with a Vycor glass matrix. The greatest discrepancy from the ETE model predictions was observed for the reference glass. Doping the base material with dye molecules and silver nanoparticles resulted in similar small decrease in this discrepancy. After reheating the samples to the room temperature, the PALS components returned to the initial values. In the temperature range of 293–473 K, quite good agreement between PALS results and the ETE model predictions was observed for the reference glass and the glass incorporated with dye molecules. The observed small discrepancy in this range could possibly be partly explained by thermal expansion of the material. For the glass doped with silver nanoparticles, a significant change in PALS parameters was observed in the temperature range from 403 to 473 K.

  6. Composition effects on chemical durability and viscosity of nuclear waste glasses - systematic studies and structural thermodynamic models

    Feng, X.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the primary criteria for the acceptability of nuclear waste glasses are their durability, i.e. chemical resistance to aqueous attack for 10 4 to 10 5 years, and processability, which requires their viscosity at the desired melt temperature to be sufficiently low. Chapter 3 presents the results of systematic composition variation studies around the preliminary reference glass composition WV205 and an atomistic interpretation of the effects of individual oxides. Chapter 4 is concerned with modifications of the Jantzen-Plodinec hydration model which takes into account formation of complex aluminosilicate compounds in the glass. Chapter 5 is devoted to the development and validation of the structural-thermodynamic model for both durability and viscosity. This model assumes the strength of bonds between atoms to be the controlling factor in the composition dependence of these glass properties. The binding strengths are derived from the known heats of formation and the structural roles of constituent oxides. Since the coordination state of various oxides in the glass is temperature dependent and cation size has opposite effects on the two properties, the correlation between melt viscosity and rate of corrosion at low temperature is not simply linear. Chapter 6 surveys the effects of aqueous phase composition on the leach behavior of glasses. These studies provide a comprehensive view of the effects of both glass composition and leachant composition on leaching. The models developed correlate both durability and viscosity with glass composition. A major implication is that these findings can be used in the systematic optimization of the properties of complex oxide glasses

  7. Development of multifunctional chitosan beads for fluoride removal

    Viswanathan, Natrayasamy [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Sairam Sundaram, C. [Department of Science and Humanities, Karaikal Polytechnic College, Karaikal 609 609, Puducherry (India); Meenakshi, S., E-mail: drs_meena@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-08-15

    Chitosan beads (CB) which have negligible defluoridation capacity (DC) have been chemically modified by introducing multifunctional groups, viz., NH{sub 3}{sup +} and COOH groups by means of protonation and carboxylation in order to utilize both amine and hydroxyl groups for fluoride removal. The protonated cum carboxylated chitosan beads (PCCB) showed a maximum DC of 1800 mg F{sup -}/kg whereas raw chitosan beads displayed only 52 mg F{sup -}/kg. Sorption process was found to be independent of pH and slightly influenced in the presence of other common anions. The fluoride sorption on modified forms was reasonably explained by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The sorbents were characterised by FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. The sorption process follows pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The suitability of PCCB has been tested with field sample collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area.

  8. Element analysis on Japanese ancient glass by PIXE method

    Koizumi, Y.; Kobayashi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The authors analyzed ancient glasses using PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) method associated with the accelerator used for the trace analysis of environments and organisms. They examined whether the material properties of the glasses made by ancient technology have correlation with those of each era or each region both in and out of Japan. The alkali lime glasses excavated from Japanese ancient ruins are classified as soda lime glasses and potash lime glasses, and intermediate glasses containing both are also detected. As for the glasses between the late Yayoi period and the early Tumulus period in eastern Japan, glass beads were mostly classified as potash lime glasses. In the mid and late Tumulus periods, soda lime glasses and the glasses with an intermediate composition increased in addition to potash lime glasses. In the analysis of the glass beads excavated from the ruins of the late Yayoi period to the early Tumult period in Tsushima, potash lime glasses and soda lime glasses coexisted in the same period. Most of the coloring components of deep-blue system mostly found in eastern Japan were manganese and iron, and the coloring components such as blue, green, sky blue, etc. were copper. Yellow was the color expressed with lead or lead - iron. The coloring materials were common regardless of the classification of glasses based on main components. (A.O.)

  9. Replica analysis of partition-function zeros in spin-glass models

    Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2011-01-01

    We study the partition-function zeros in mean-field spin-glass models. We show that the replica method is useful to find the locations of zeros in a complex parameter plane. For the random energy model, we obtain the phase diagram in the plane and find that there are two types of distributions of zeros: two-dimensional distribution within a phase and one-dimensional one on a phase boundary. Phases with a two-dimensional distribution are characterized by a novel order parameter defined in the present replica analysis. We also discuss possible patterns of distributions by studying several systems.

  10. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters - Part 5: Modeling of complex redox effects

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Computerized thermodynamic computations are useful in predicting the sequence and products of redox reactions and in assessing process variations. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Continuous melter test results have been compared to this improved staged-thermodynamic model of redox behavior

  11. A dynamic mean-field glass model with reversible mode coupling and a trivial Hamiltonian

    Kawasaki, Kyozi; Kim, Bongsoo

    2002-01-01

    Often the current mode coupling theory (MCT) of glass transitions is compared with mean field theories. We explore this possible correspondence. After showing a simple-minded derivation of MCT with some difficulties we give a concise account of our toy model developed to gain more insight into MCT. We then reduce this toy model by adiabatically eliminating rapidly varying velocity-like variables to obtain a Fokker-Planck equation for the slowly varying density-like variables where the diffusion matrix can be singular. This gives room for non-ergodic stationary solutions of the above equation. (author)

  12. Thermodynamic and structural models compared with the initial dissolution rates of open-quotes SONclose quotes glass samples

    Tovena, I.; Advocat, T.; Ghaleb, D.; Vernaz, E.; Larche, F.

    1994-01-01

    The experimentally determined initial dissolution rate R 0 of nuclear glass was correlated with thermodynamic parameters and structural parameters. The initial corrosion rates of six open-quotes R7T7close quotes glass samples measured at 100 degrees C in a Soxhlet device were correlated with the glass free hydration energy and the glass formation enthalpy. These correlations were then tested with a group of 26 SON glasses selected for their wide diversity of compositions. The thermodynamic models provided a satisfactory approximation of the initial dissolution rate determined under Soxhlet conditions for SON glass samples that include up to 15 wt% of boron and some alumina. Conversely, these models are inaccurate if the boron concentration exceeds 15 wt% and the glass contains no alumina. Possible correlations between R 0 and structural parameters, such as the boron coordination number and the number of nonbridging oxygen atoms, were also investigated. The authors show that R 0 varies inversely with the number of 4-coordinate boron atoms; conversely, the results do not substantiate published reports of a correlation between R 0 and the number of nonbridging oxygen atoms

  13. Modeling of excimer laser radiation induced defect generation in fluoride phosphate glasses

    Natura, U.; Ehrt, D.

    2001-01-01

    Fluoride phosphate (FP) glasses with low phosphate content are high-transparent in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range and attractive candidates for UV-optics. Their optical properties are complementary to fluoride crystals. The anomalous partial dispersion makes them desirable for optical lens designs to reduce the secondary spectrum. Their UV transmission is limited by trace impurities introduced by raw materials and decreases when exposed to UV-radiation (lamps, lasers). The experiments of the paper published previously in this journal were used in order to separate radiation induced absorption bands in the fluoride phosphate glass FP10. In this paper the generation mechanism of the phosphorus-oxygen related hole center POHC 2 is investigated in detail in glasses of various compositions (various phosphate and impurity contents) in order to predict the transmission loss in case of long-time irradiation. Experiments were carried out using ArF- and KrF-excimer lasers (ns-pulses). POHC 2 generation strongly depends on the phosphate content and on the content of Pb 2+ . A model was developed on these terms. Rate equations are formulated, incorporating the influence of the Pb 2+ -content on the defect generation, a two-step creation term including an energy transfer process and a one-photon bleaching term. This results in a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Absorption coefficients and lifetimes of the excited states were calculated as well. Experimental results compared well with the numerical analysis of the theoretical rate equations

  14. PREPRARATION OF CoPcS/TiO2/BEADS AND THEIR PHOTOCATALYTIC REACTIVITY FOR PHOTODEGRADATION OF VEGETABLE OIL FLOATING ON WATER

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces the preparation of floating TiO2/beads photocalyst attached to the hollow glass micro-beads surface by sol-gel technique using tetrabutyl titanate as material and the preparation of floating CoPcS/TiO2/beads by dip-coatig technique. The optimal factor of degradation of vegetable oil floating on water using CoPcS/TiO2/beads was studied. The result showed that the removal rate of vegetable oil floating on water can highly reach 90% at the optimal condition (acidity or neutrality, 375W medium-pressure mercury vapour lamp, illumination 2h~3h, 1g CoPcS/TiO2/beads). The photocatalytic removal efficiency causing by CoPcS/TiO2/beads was increased rapidly by adding a trace amount of H2O2.

  15. PREPRARATION OF CoPcS/TiO2/BEADS AND THEIR PHOTOCATALYTIC REACTIVITY FOR PHOTODEGRADATION OF VEGETABLE OIL FLOATING ON WATER

    ZHANG Xiaoye; YAN Yongsheng; KONG Feng; WANG Yun

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces the preparation of floating TiO2/beads photocalyst attached to the hollow glass micro-beads surface by sol-gel technique using tetrabutyl titanate as material and the preparation of floating CoPcS/TiO2/beads by dip-coatig technique. The optimal factor of degradation of vegetable oil floating on water using CoPcS/TiO2/beads was studied. The result showed that the removal rate of vegetable oil floating on water can highly reach 90% at the optimal condition (acidity or neutrality, 375W medium-pressure mercury vapour lamp, illumination 2h~3h, 1g CoPcS/TiO2/beads). The photocatalytic removal efficiency causing by CoPcS/TiO2/beads was increased rapidly by adding a trace amount of H2O2.

  16. Sound velocity and compressibility for lunar rocks 17 and 46 and for glass spheres from the lunar soil.

    Schreiber, E; Anderson, O L; Sogat, N; Warren, N; Scholz, C

    1970-01-30

    Four experiments on lunar materials are reported: (i) resonance on glass spheres from the soil; (ii) compressibility of rock 10017; (iii) sound velocities of rocks 10046 and 10017; (iv) sound velocity of the lunar fines. The data overlap and are mutually consistent. The glass beads and rock 10017 have mechanical properties which correspond to terrestrial materials. Results of (iv) are consistent with low seismic travel times in the lunar maria. Results of analysis of the microbreccia (10046) agreed with the soil during the first pressure cycle, but after overpressure the rock changed, and it then resembled rock 10017. Three models of the lunar surface were constructed giving density and velocity profiles.

  17. Adsorption of ochratoxin A from grape juice by yeast cells immobilised in calcium alginate beads.

    Farbo, Maria Grazia; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Fiori, Stefano; Marceddu, Salvatore; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2016-01-18

    Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20 μg/kg OTA and after 48 h of incubation a significant reduction (>80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120 h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. Biosorption properties of alginate-yeast beads were tested in a prototype bioreactor consisting in a glass chromatography column packed with beads, where juice amended with OTA was slowly flowed downstream. The adoption of an interconnected scaled-up bioreactor as an efficient and safe tool to remove traces of OTA from liquid matrices is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A dedicated on-line system for the preparation and validation of standard beads in XRF analysis

    Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Ogasawara, Noriko; Nakata, Akio; Shoji, Shizuko.

    1995-01-01

    A dedicated on-line system in X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis with glass-bead method was developed in which preparation of standard beads was automated including proper choice of reagents, assignment of bead compositions and validation of the prepared beads. This system features: a. Fundamental Parameter (FP) Method for validation of standard beads. b. An original database of high purity reagents for standards. c. Automatic calculation of suitable composition for each standard bead, by giving a range for each element and the number of standard beads. 1) The calculation is based on random numbers, and makes a random assignment of composition for each bead. 2) The calculation results are automatically stored in a computer as a condition file for quantitative analysis. 3) An amount of a material for a standard mixture is corrected if a valence or a chemical compound for an analysis element is different from that of the standard material in the database. In order to realize these features, many high purity reagents were examined for their purities and other characteristics to test a suitability to use for a standard material, and a software for on-line processings was originally developed. (author)

  19. Near-field performance assessment for a low-activity waste glass disposal system: laboratory testing to modeling results

    McGrail, B.P.; Bacon, D.H.; Icenhower, J.P.; Mann, F.M.; Puigh, R.J.; Schaef, H.T.; Mattigod, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Reactive chemical transport simulations of glass corrosion and radionuclide release from a low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system were conducted out to times in excess of 20 000 yr with the subsurface transport over reactive multiphases (STORM) code. Time and spatial dependence of glass corrosion rate, secondary phase formation, pH, and radionuclide concentration were evaluated. The results show low release rates overall for the LAW glasses such that performance objectives for the site will be met by a factor of 20 or more. Parameterization of the computer model was accomplished by combining direct laboratory measurements, literature data (principally thermodynamic data), and parameter estimation methods

  20. Polymerized serum albumin beads for use as slow-release adjuvants

    Martin, M.E.D.

    1987-02-01

    Experimental vaccines have been made by covalently bonding virus particles into polymerized rabbit serum albumin beads. Using Nodamura virus as a model antigen, these model vaccines induced specific humoral antibody production, comparable with that achieved using Freund's adjuvants. Virus specific antibodies were also induced when Nodamura virus was covalently attached to the bead surface using different crosslinkers. However, when poliovirus type 2 (Sabin strain) was polymerized into beads, the levels of neutralizing antibodies were insignificant compared with control aqueous vaccines. The synthetic immunostimulator, muramyl dipeptide, was included with bead vaccines in an attempt to potentiate the immune response. Immunostimulation is achieved by a slow release of antigen coinciding with the gradual breakdown of bead structure. Methods used include radio-iodination and radioimmunoassay. 65 figs., 6 tabs., 173 refs

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bubbling in a Viscous Fluid for Validation of Waste Glass Melter Modeling

    Abboud, Alexander William [Idaho National Laboratory; Guillen, Donna Post [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    At the Hanford site, radioactive waste stored in underground tanks is slated for vitrification for final disposal. A comprehensive knowledge of the glass batch melting process will be useful in optimizing the process, which could potentially reduce the cost and duration of this multi-billion dollar cleanup effort. We are developing a high-fidelity heat transfer model of a Joule-heated ceramic lined melter to improve the understanding of the complex, inter-related processes occurring with the melter. The glass conversion rates in the cold cap layer are dependent on promoting efficient heat transfer. In practice, heat transfer is augmented by inserting air bubblers into the molten glass. However, the computational simulations must be validated to provide confidence in the solutions. As part of a larger validation procedure, it is beneficial to split the physics of the melter into smaller systems to validate individually. The substitution of molten glass for a simulant liquid with similar density and viscosity at room temperature provides a way to study mixing through bubbling as an isolated effect without considering the heat transfer dynamics. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained by the Vitreous State Laboratory at the Catholic University of America using bubblers placed within a large acrylic tank that is similar in scale to a pilot glass waste melter. Comparisons are made for surface area of the rising air bubbles between experiments and CFD simulations for a variety of air flow rates and bubble injection depths. Also, computed bubble rise velocity is compared to a well-accepted expression for bubble terminal velocity.

  2. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rigid bead arrays at low shear: accounting for the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the bead surfaces.

    Allison, Stuart A; Pei, Hongxia

    2009-06-11

    In this work, we examine the viscosity of a dilute suspension of irregularly shaped particles at low shear. A particle is modeled as a rigid array of nonoverlapping beads of variable size and geometry. Starting from a boundary element formalism, approximate account is taken of the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the surface of the individual beads. For a touching dimer of two identical beads, the predicted viscosity is lower than the exact value by 5.2%. The methodology is then applied to several other model systems including tetramers of variable conformation and linear strings of touching beads. An analysis is also carried out of the viscosity and translational diffusion of several dilute amino acids and diglycine in water. It is concluded that continuum hydrodynamic modeling with stick boundary conditions is unable to account for the experimental viscosity and diffusion data simultaneously. A model intermediate between "stick" and "slip" could possibly reconcile theory and experiment.

  3. Structure of Se-Te glasses studied using neutron, X-ray diffraction and reverse Monte Carlo modelling

    Itoh, Keiji, E-mail: itoh@okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Education, Okayama University, Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Pulsed neutron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on Se{sub 100-x}Te{sub x} bulk glasses with x=10, 20, 30 and 40. The coordination numbers obtained from the diffraction results demonstrate that Se and Te atoms are twofold coordinated and the glass structure is formed by the chain network. The three-dimensional structure model for Se{sub 60}Te{sub 40} glass obtained by using reverse Monte Carlo modelling shows that the alternating arrangements of Se and Te atoms compose the major part of the chain clusters but several other fragments such as Se{sub n} chains and Te-Te dimers are also present in large numbers. The chain clusters have geometrically disordered forms and the interchain atomic order is different from those in the crystal structures of trigonal Se and trigonal Te. - Graphical abstract: Coordination environment in Se{sub 60}Te{sub 40} glass.

  4. Immobilization of Chloroperoxidase on Aminopropyl-Glass

    Kadima, Tenshuk A.; Pickard, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Chloroperoxidase (CPO) purified from Caldariomyces fumago CMI 89362 was covalently bound to aminopropyl-glass by using a modification of an established method. Acid-washed glass was derivatized by using aminopropyltriethoxysilane, and the enzyme was ionically bound at low ionic strength. Further treatment with glutaraldehyde covalently linked the enzyme to the glass beads in an active form. No elution of bound activity from glass beads could be detected with a variety of washings. The loading of enzyme protein to the glass beads was highest, 100 mg of CPO per g of glass, at high reaction ratios of CPO to glass, but the specific activity of the immobilized enzyme was highest, 36% of theoretical, at low enzyme-to-carrier ratios. No differences in the properties of the soluble and immobilized enzymes could be detected by a number of criteria: their pH-activity and pH-stability profiles were similar, as were their thermal stabilities. After five uses, the immobilized enzyme retained full activity between pH 6.0 and 6.7. PMID:16348352

  5. Blast Analysis of Laminated Glass Curtain Walls Equipped by Viscoelastic Dissipative Devices

    Chiara Bedon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear numerical simulations are reported for a conventional unitized laminated glass curtain wall subjected to high- and low-level air blast loading. The studied curtain wall, spanning floor to floor, consisted of a laminated glass panel, a continuous bead of structural silicone sealant, a split screw spline frame and four rigid brackets. Firstly, a linear elastic FE-model (M01 is presented to investigate dynamic stresses and deflections due to explosion, by taking into account geometrical nonlinearities. Since, in similar glazing systems, it is important to take into account the possible cracking of glass lites, a second model (M02, calibrated to previous experimental data, is proposed. In it, glass behaves as a brittle-elastic material, whereas an elastoplastic characteristic curve is assumed for mullions. As a result, the design explosion seriously affects the main components of the curtain wall, especially the bead of silicone. To address these criticalities, additional viscoelastic (VE devices are installed at the frame corners (M03. Their effectiveness explains the additional deformability provided to the conventional curtain wall, as well as the obvious dissipation of the incoming energy due to blast loading. Structural and energy capabilities provided by devices are highlighted by means of numerical simulations.

  6. Two kinds of ketoprofen enteric gel beads (CA and CS-SA using biopolymer alginate

    Bingchao Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain expected rapid-release and sustained-release of ketoprofen gel beads, this paper adopted biopolymer alginate to prepare alginate beads and chitosan-alginate gel beads. Formulation factors were investigated and optimized by the single factor test. The release of ketoprofen from calcium alginate gel beads in pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution was less than 10% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 95% during 45 min, which met the requirements of rapid-release preparations. However, the drug release of chitosan-alginate gel beads in pH1.0 was less than 5% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 50% during 6 h and reached more than 95% during 12 h, which had a good sustained-release behavior. In addition, the release kinetics of keteprofen from the calcium alginate gel beads fitted well with the Korsmeyer–Peppas model and followed a case-II transport mechanism. However, the release of keteprofen from the chitosan-alginate gel beads exhibited a non-Fickian mechanism and based on the mixed mechanisms of diffusion and polymer relaxation from chitosan-alginate beads. In a word, alginate gel beads of ketoprofen were instant analgesic, while chitosan-alginate gel beads could control the release of ketoprofen during gastro-intestinal tract and prolong the drug's action time. Keywords: Gel beads, Enteric rapid-release, Enteric sustained-release, Ketoprofen

  7. Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic beads

    Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.

    2010-04-30

    Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic beads are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  8. SON68 nuclear glass dissolution kinetics: Current state of knowledge and basis of the new GRAAL model

    Frugier, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)], E-mail: pierre.frugier@cea.fr; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Chave, T. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Bonin, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DIR/DS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Godon, N.; Lartigue, J.-E.; Jollivet, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Ayral, A. [IEM/CNRS-ENSCM Universite Montpellier 2, CC 047, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); De Windt, L. [ENSMP, CG, 35 rue St Honore, 77305 Fontainebleau cedex (France); Santarini, G. [CEA Saclay HC/CAB, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2008-10-15

    This article summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning aqueous alteration of R7T7-type nuclear containment glasses, represented mainly by the inactive reference glass designated SON68. Based on this review, we propose to describe the glass alteration kinetics up to and including the final residual rate regime by means of a new mechanistic model known as GRAAL (glassreactivitywithallowanceforthealterationlayer). Phenomenological analysis findings are reviewed for the various glass alteration regimes: interdiffusion, initial rate, rate drop, residual rate and, under very particular circumstances, resumption of alteration. These alteration regimes are associated with predominant mechanisms. Published work interpreting and modeling these mechanisms was examined in detail. There is a broad consensus on the general mechanisms of the initial rate and even the interdiffusion regime, whereas the mechanisms controlling the rate drop remain a subject of dispute not only with regard to nuclear glasses but also for the dissolution of silicate minerals. The reaction affinity responsible for the rate drop is expressed differently by different authors and depending on the underlying theories. The disagreement concerns the nature of the phase (glass or gel) or the activated complex controlling the rate drop, which in turn determines the elements that must be taken into account in the overall affinity term. Progress in recent years, especially in identifying the mechanisms responsible for the residual rate, has shed new light on these issues, allowing us to propose new theoretical foundations for modeling the different kinetic regimes of SON68 nuclear glass dissolution. The GRAAL model considers that water diffusion in the passivating reaction zone (the gel formed under saturation conditions) is a rate-limiting step in the overall glass dissolution kinetics. Moreover, this passivation zone is a soluble phase whose stability is directly dependent on the nature of the

  9. Ionic and Wigner Glasses, Superionic Conductors, and Spinodal Electrostatic Gels: Dynamically Arrested Phases of the Primitive Model

    Sanchez-Diaz, L. E.; Juarez-Maldonado, R.; Vizcarra-Rendon, A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the recently proposed self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of dynamic arrest, in this letter we show that the ergodic-nonergodic phase diagram of a classical mixture of charged hard spheres (the so-called 'primitive model' of ionic solutions and molten salts) includes arrested phases corresponding to nonconducting ionic glasses, partially arrested states that represent solid electrolytes (or 'superionic' conductors), low-density colloidal Wigner glasses, and low-density electrostatic gels associated with arrested spinodal decomposition.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  11. [Evaluation of TB-beads assay utilizing the technique of magnetic beads--an innovative assay method for detection of acid fast bacilli].

    Ohkuma, Masanori; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Obayashi, Konen; Ando, Yukio; Koriyama, Toyoyasu; Kimu, Minhi; Hirose, Nobuyuki; Nagasawa, Zenzo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The centrifuge method with the use of Semi-Alkalin Proteinase (SAP) and NALC-NaOH, recommended by the "2007 edition of the assay guideline for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis," has significantly contributed to improving the sensitivities and specificities of both smear and culture tests for detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, this method poses some challenges in terms of its cumbersome and time-consuming assay protocol. "TB-beads (Kyokuto Pharmaceutical Industrial Co., Ltd.)" is a newly-developed method for detection of AFB utilizing magnetic beads. We evaluated the quality of this method in comparison with the centrifuge method, focusing on the results of smear and culture tests. This evaluation study was conducted using both 5 positive and 5 negative sputum samples. The sensitivity of TB-beads for fluorescent smear tests, conducted using "Acri-stain," was almost the same as that of the centrifuge method. One advantage of TB-beads, however, was that it was very convenient to practice microscopic observation due to the clear background of the smeared glass slides. The comparison of the contamination rates between the two methods showed that TB-beads suggested significantly lower contamination rates. The centrifuge method resulted in 50% and 60% of contamination rates for HK Semisolid Isolation Medium and BacT/ALERT MP, respectively. On the other hand, the contamination rates of TB-beads for both of the culture methods were only 10%. With regard to the 5 positive sputum samples, the comparison of the detection rates between the centrifuge and TB-Beads method was made utilizing Myco Acid, Ogawa K, and BacT/ALERT MP. The TB-Beads method suggested higher detection rates for Myco Acid and Ogawa K, while there were no significant differences between the two methods for BacT/ALERT MP (16-23 days). TB-beads is an easy method that allows to simplify the process of smear tests, and contributes to significantly reducing the contamination rate of culture

  12. Local variation of fragility and glass transition temperature of ultra-thin supported polymer films.

    Hanakata, Paul Z; Douglas, Jack F; Starr, Francis W

    2012-12-28

    Despite extensive efforts, a definitive picture of the glass transition of ultra-thin polymer films has yet to emerge. The effect of film thickness h on the glass transition temperature T(g) has been widely examined, but this characterization does not account for the fragility of glass-formation, which quantifies how rapidly relaxation times vary with temperature T. Accordingly, we simulate supported polymer films of a bead-spring model and determine both T(g) and fragility, both as a function of h and film depth. We contrast changes in the relaxation dynamics with density ρ and demonstrate the limitations of the commonly invoked free-volume layer model. As opposed to bulk polymer materials, we find that the fragility and T(g) do not generally vary proportionately. Consequently, the determination of the fragility profile--both locally and for the film as a whole--is essential for the characterization of changes in film dynamics with confinement.

  13. Comparison of non-magnetic and magnetic beads in bead-based assays

    Hansenová Maňásková, S.; van Belkum, A.; Endtz, H.P.; Bikker, F.J.; Veerman, E.C.I.; van Wamel, W.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex bead-based flow cytometry is an attractive way for simultaneous, rapid and cost-effective analysis of multiple analytes in a single sample. Previously, we developed various bead-based assays using non-magnetic beads coated with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens

  14. Beautiful Beads: A Lesson in Making Beads with Friendly Clay. AMACO[R] Lesson.

    Gamble, Harriet; Gamble, David

    This lesson resource includes a brief summary of the history of bead making and historic fascination with beads as adornment. A focus on design elements, color theory, craftsmanship, and technical skill in bead making is encouraged. The plan includes lesson goals and objectives; background preparation; a glossary of terms; a list of supplies; and…

  15. Early stage of weathering of medieval-like potash-lime model glass: evaluation of key factors.

    Gentaz, Lucile; Lombardo, Tiziana; Loisel, Claudine; Chabas, Anne; Vallotto, Marta

    2011-02-01

    Throughout history, a consequent part of the medieval stained glass windows have been lost, mostly because of deliberate or accidental mechanic destruction during war or revolution, but, in some cases, did not withstand the test of time simply because of their low durability. Indeed, the glasses that remain nowadays are for many in a poor state of conservation and are heavily deteriorated. Under general exposure conditions, stained glass windows undergo different kinds of weathering processes that modify their optical properties, chemistry, and structure: congruent dissolution, leaching, and particle deposition (the combination of those two leading together to the formation of neocrystallisations and eventually crusts). Previous research has studied the weathering forms and the mechanisms from which they are originated, some others identified the main environmental parameters responsible for the deterioration and highlighted that both intrinsic (glass composition) and extrinsic (environmental parameters) factors influence glass degradation. Nevertheless, a clear quantification of the impact of the different deterioration extrinsic factors has not been performed. By analysing the results obtained with model glass (durable and nondurable) exposed in the field, this paper proposes a simple mathematical computation evaluating the contribution of the different weathering factors for the early stages of exposure of the stained glasses. In the case of non durable glass, water runoff was identified as the main factor inducing the leaching (83.4 ± 2.6% contribution), followed by gas (6.4 ± 1.5%) and particle deposition (6.8 ± 2.2%) and adsorbed water (3.4 ± 0.6%). Moreover, it was shown that the extrinsic stimuli superimposes with the impact of glass composition to the weathering. Those results show that the role played by dry deposition, even if less important than that of the wet deposition, cannot be neglected.

  16. Elastase-coupled beads as a tool for characterizing localized alveolar tissue destruction associated with the onset of emphysema

    Craig, J. M.; Scott, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Intratracheal elastase challenge of laboratory animals has long been established as a model for observing the physiological and morphological changes that result from alveolar destruction, the hallmark of emphysema. However, instillation of elastase suspended in buffer results in widespread inflammation and variable emphysematous lesions, which has made the identification of specific cellular and molecular events associated with the onset of emphysema difficult to define. Here we establish a bead-based elastase delivery system that induces localized tissue destruction, a key event in the initiation of emphysema. Elastase was coupled to bisacrylamide beads, which were shown to retain enzymatic activity prior to intratracheal administration in mice. C57BL/6 mice were given a single dose of 40,000 beads, which became distributed throughout the small airways and parenchyma of the lung. Elastase-coupled beads resulted in a quantifiable loss of alveolar tissue immediately surrounding the beads, an effect that was not observed with beads that lacked protein altogether or with beads containing elastase inactivated by an irreversible inhibitor. Furthermore, beads bound with active elastase elicited local recruitment of mononuclear cells, including macrophages, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils to the site of bead deposition, a feature consistent with the cellular infiltration observed following conventional solubilized elastase challenges. This work identifies a novel bead-based enzyme delivery system that also extends the elastase model of emphysema to permit the characterization of mechanisms that drive alveolar surface area loss following elastin degradation in focal emphysematous lesions. PMID:23558388

  17. Relaxations in spin glasses: Similarities and differences from ordinary glasses

    Ngai, K.L.; Rajagopal, A.K.; Huang, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Relaxation phenomena have become a major concern in the physics of spin glasses. There are certain resemblances of these relaxation properties to those of ordinary glasses. In this work, we compare the relaxation properties of spin glasses near the freezing temperature with those of glasses near the glass transition temperature. There are similarities between the two types of glasses. Moreover, the relaxation properties of many glasses and spin glasses are in conformity with two coupled ''universality'' relations predicted by a recent model of relaxations in condensed matter

  18. Hierarchically templated beads with tailored pore structure for phosphopeptide capture and phosphoproteomics

    Wierzbicka, Celina; Torsetnes, Silje B.; Jensen, Ole N.

    2017-01-01

    Two templating approaches to produce imprinted phosphotyrosine capture beads with a controllable pore structure are reported and compared with respect to their ability to enrich phosphopeptides from a tryptic peptide mixture. The beads were prepared by the polymerization of urea-based host monomers...... and crosslinkers inside the pores of macroporous silica beads with both free and immobilized template. In the final step the silica was removed by fluoride etching resulting in mesoporous polymer replicas with narrow pore size distributions, pore diameters ≈ 10 nm and surface area > 260 m2 g-1. The beads displayed...... pronounced phosphotyrosine affinity and selectivity in binding tests using model peptides in acetonitrile rich solutions with a performance surpassing solution polymerized bulk imprinted materials. Tests of the beads for the enrichment of phosphopeptides from tryptic digests of twelve proteins revealed both...

  19. Concanavalin A immobilized magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) beads for prostate specific antigen binding.

    Idil, Neslihan; Perçin, Işık; Karakoç, Veyis; Yavuz, Handan; Aksöz, Nilüfer; Denizli, Adil

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare Concanavalin A (Con A) immobilized magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (mPGMA) beads for prostate specific antigen (PSA) binding and to study binding capacities of the beads using lectin-glycoprotein interactions. Firstly, iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method and then, beads were synthesized by dispersion polymerization in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles. Con A molecules were both covalently immobilized onto the beads directly and through the spacer arm (1,6-diaminohexane-HDMA). The total PSA and free PSA binding onto the mPGMA-HDMA-Con A beads were higher than that of the mPGMA-Con A beads. Maximum PSA binding capacity was observed as 91.2 ng/g. Approximately 45% of the bound PSA was eluted by using 0.1 M mannose as elution agent. The mPGMA-HDMA-Con A beads could be reused without a remarkable decrease in the binding capacities after 5 binding-desorption cycles. Serum fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The mPGMA-HDMA-Con A beads could be useful for the detection of PSA and suggested as a model system for other glycoprotein biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metallic gold beads in hyaluronic acid

    Pedersen, Dan Sonne; Tran, Thao Phuong; Smidt, Kamille

    2013-01-01

    . In conclusion, our findings support that bio-liberation of gold from metallic gold surfaces have anti-inflammatory properties similar to classic gold compounds, warranting further studies into the pharmacological potential of this novel gold-treatment and the possible synergistic effects of hyaluronic acid....... by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study...... investigates the anti-inflammatory properties of metallic gold/HA on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf-α), Interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, Il-10, Colony-stimulating factor (Csf)-v2, Metallothionein (Mt)-1/2, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 in cultured J774 macrophages...

  1. Crossover to potential energy landscape dominated dynamics in a model glass-forming liquid

    Schrøder, Thomas; Sastry, S.; Dyre, Jeppe

    2000-01-01

    An equilibrated model glass-forming liquid is studied by mapping successive configurations produced by molecular dynamics simulation onto a time series of inherent structures (local minima in the potential energy). Using this "inherent dynamics" approach we find direct numerical evidence for the ......An equilibrated model glass-forming liquid is studied by mapping successive configurations produced by molecular dynamics simulation onto a time series of inherent structures (local minima in the potential energy). Using this "inherent dynamics" approach we find direct numerical evidence...... for the long held view that below a crossover temperature, Tx, the liquid's dynamics can be separated into (i) vibrations around inherent structures and (ii) transitions between inherent structures [M. Goldstein, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3728 (1969)], i.e., the dynamics become "dominated" by the potential energy...... landscape. In agreement with previous proposals, we find that Tx is within the vicinity of the mode-coupling critical temperature Tc. We further find that near Tx, transitions between inherent structures occur via cooperative, stringlike rearrangements of groups of particles moving distances substantially...

  2. Modeling of nuclear glasses by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics

    Ganster, P.

    2004-01-01

    A calcium aluminosilicate glass of molar composition 67 % SiO 2 - 12 % Al 2 O 3 - 21 % CaO was modelled by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. The size effect study in classical MD shows that the systems of 100 atoms are more ordered than the larger ones. These effects are mainly due to the 3-body terms in the empirical potentials. Nevertheless, these effects are small and the structures generated are in agreement with experimental data. In such kind of glass, we denote an aluminium avoidance and an excess of non bridging oxygens which can be compensated by tri-coordinated oxygens. When the dynamics of systems of 100 and 200 atoms is followed by ab initio MD, some local arrangements occurs (bond length, angular distributions). Thus, more realistic vibrational properties are obtained in ab initio MD. The modelling of thin films shows that aluminum atoms extend to the most external part of the surface and they are all tri-coordinated. Calcium atoms are set in the sub layer part of the surface and they produce a depolymerization of the network. In classical MD, tri-coordinated aluminium atoms produce an important electric field above the surface. With non bridging oxygens, they constitute attractive sites for single water molecules. (author) [fr

  3. Modelling of nuclear glasses by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics

    Ganster, P.

    2004-10-01

    A calcium aluminosilicate glass of molar composition 67 % SiO 2 - 12 % Al 2 O 3 - 21 % CaO was modelled by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. The size effect study in classical MD shows that the systems of 100 atoms are more ordered than the larger ones. These effects are mainly due to the 3-body terms in the empirical potentials. Nevertheless, these effects are small and the structures generated are in agreement with experimental data. In such kind of glass, we denote an aluminium avoidance and an excess of non bridging oxygens which can be compensated by tri coordinated oxygens. When the dynamics of systems of 100 and 200 atoms is followed by ab initio MD, some local arrangements occurs (bond length, angular distributions). Thus, more realistic vibrational properties are obtained in ab initio MD. The modelling of thin films shows that aluminium atoms extend to the most external part of the surface and they are all tri-coordinated. Calcium atoms are set in the sub layer part of the surface and they produce a depolymerization of the network. In classical MD, tri-coordinated aluminium atoms produce an important electric field above the surface. With non bridging oxygens, they constitute attractive sites for single water molecules. (author)

  4. A model for the stabilization of atomic hydrogen centers in borate glasses

    Pontuschka, W.M.; Isotani, S.; Furtado, W.W.; Piccini, A.; Rabbani, S.R.

    1989-04-01

    A model describing the trapping site of the interstitial atomic hydrogen (H sup(0) sub(i) in borate glasses x-irradiated at 77 K is proposed. The hydrogen atom is stabilized at the centers of oxygen polygons belonging to B-O ring structures in the glass network by van der Waals forces. The previously reported H sup(0) sub(i) isothermal decay experimental data are discussed in the light of this microscopic model. A coupled differential equation system describing the possible reactions was numerically solved by means of Runge-Kutta's method. The parameter best fit was found by trial and error. The untrapping parameter provided an activation energy of 0.7 x 10 sup(-19) J, in good agreement with the calculated results for dispersion interactions between the stabilized atomic hydrogen and the neighbouring oxygen atoms at the vertices of hexagonal and heptagonal structures. The retrapping and recombination parameters were found to be correlated to (T sup1/2) - T sup(1/2) sub(0)) where t sub(0)=179 K is a cutoff temperature for the kinetics process. (author)

  5. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-01

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH 4 H 2 O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H 2 O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH) 4 are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components

  6. Size effect model for the edge strength of glass with cut and ground edge finishing

    Vandebroek, M.; Louter, C.; Caspeele, R.; Ensslen, F.; Belis, J.L.I.F.

    2014-01-01

    The edge strength of glass is influenced by the size of the surface (near the edge) which is subjected to tensile stresses. To quantify this size effect, 8 series of single layer annealed glass beam specimens (as-received glass) were subjected to in-plane four-point bending with linearly increased

  7. Engineering sodium alginate-based cross-linked beads with high removal ability of toxic metal ions and cationic dyes.

    Shao, Zi-Jian; Huang, Xue-Lian; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Xin-Zhi; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) beads with ultrahigh adsorption capacity were prepared via hydrogen bonds between SA and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropa-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and the AMPS was then post-cross-linked to manufacture SA/PAMPS beads. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of methylene blue (MB) and Pb 2+ for the SA/PAMPS10 beads were 2977 and 2042 mg/g, respectively. Although the SA beads exhibited higher equilibrium adsorption capacities of MB and Pb 2+ than those of the SA/PAMPS10 beads, the SA/PAMPS10 beads had better mechanical property and higher stability. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption processes of the SA/PAMPS10 beads for MB well. In addition, the SA/PAMPS10 beads could be reused with stable adsorption capacity for at least three cycles. The beads also had excellent performances on absorbing methylene violet and other heavy metal ions (Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Ni 2+ ). Therefore, the SA-based beads with high adsorption capacity might be good candidates for industrial pollutant treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of the mechanisms underlying resumptions of alteration. Modeling and evaluation of the impact on nuclear waste glasses

    Fournier, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    A sudden and still poorly understood phenomenon, the resumption of alteration results in a sudden acceleration of the glass alteration rate due to the destabilization of the amorphous passivating layer formed on the glass surface. Understanding the origin and the consequences of this phenomenon is a major issue for the prediction of nuclear glass long-term behavior. This study quantitatively links the alteration degree of a six-oxide reference glass and the formation mechanisms of zeolites and C-S-H that control the solution chemistry. The role played by the decrease in aluminum concentration as an indicator of resumption is highlighted. It appears that the resumption occurrence and rate are correlated to the couple (T, pH), but even in the most adverse situations the resumption rate is lower than the initial alteration rate, which remains the fastest kinetic regime. Previously limited to alkaline pH, the characterization of alteration resumptions was extended to conditions more representative of those found in a geological repository. This approach required the development of a new tool: seeding, that reduces or eliminates the latency period preceding a resumption. The results obtained demonstrate its usefulness in understanding the role of zeolites in amorphous layer destabilization and for modeling alteration resumptions. A geochemical modeling approach to alteration resumption is proposed, based on the formalism of the GRAAL glass alteration model. It is based on the calculation of zeolite thermodynamic constants, on the implementation of their nucleation and growth kinetics, and on assumptions related to the solubility of the amorphous layer. When zeolite precipitation consumes alkali, glass alteration - driven by zeolite precipitation - releases alkali. The model highlights the importance of such chemical couplings and shows that, in the stoichiometry of French nuclear reference glass, their cumulative effects are the cause of a pH decrease which limits

  9. Effect of Heat Input on Geometry of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Bead on Low Carbon Steel

    Saha, Manas Kumar; Hazra, Ritesh; Mondal, Ajit; Das, Santanu

    2018-05-01

    Among different weld cladding processes, gas metal arc welding (GMAW) cladding becomes a cost effective, user friendly, versatile method for protecting the surface of relatively lower grade structural steels from corrosion and/or erosion wear by depositing high grade stainless steels onto them. The quality of cladding largely depends upon the bead geometry of the weldment deposited. Weld bead geometry parameters, like bead width, reinforcement height, depth of penetration, and ratios like reinforcement form factor (RFF) and penetration shape factor (PSF) determine the quality of the weld bead geometry. Various process parameters of gas metal arc welding like heat input, current, voltage, arc travel speed, mode of metal transfer, etc. influence formation of bead geometry. In the current experimental investigation, austenite stainless steel (316) weld beads are formed on low alloy structural steel (E350) by GMAW using 100% CO2 as the shielding gas. Different combinations of current, voltage and arc travel speed are chosen so that heat input increases from 0.35 to 0.75 kJ/mm. Nine number of weld beads are deposited and replicated twice. The observations show that weld bead width increases linearly with increase in heat input, whereas reinforcement height and depth of penetration do not increase with increase in heat input. Regression analysis is done to establish the relationship between heat input and different geometrical parameters of weld bead. The regression models developed agrees well with the experimental data. Within the domain of the present experiment, it is observed that at higher heat input, the weld bead gets wider having little change in penetration and reinforcement; therefore, higher heat input may be recommended for austenitic stainless steel cladding on low alloy steel.

  10. Two-state model of light induced activation and thermal bleaching of photochromic glasses: theory and experiments

    Ferrari, Jose A.; Perciante, Cesar D.

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of photochromic glasses during activation and bleaching is investigated. A two-state phenomenological model describing light-induced activation (darkening) and thermal bleaching is presented. The proposed model is based on first-order kinetics. We demonstrate that the time behavior in the activation process (acting simultaneously with the thermal fading) can be characterized by two relaxation times that depend on the intensity of the activating light. These characteristic times are lower than the decay times of the pure thermal bleaching process. We study the temporal evolution of the glass optical density and its dependence on the activating intensity. We also present a series of activation and bleaching experiments that validate the proposed model. Our approach may be used to gain more insight into the transmittance behavior of photosensitive glasses, which could be potentially relevant in a broad range of applications, e.g., real-time holography and reconfigurable optical memories

  11. Parametrization in models of subcritical glass fracture: Activation offset and concerted activation

    Rodrigues, Bruno Poletto; Hühn, Carolin; Erlebach, Andreas; Mey, Dorothea; Sierka, Marek; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2017-08-01

    There are two established but fundamentally different empirical approaches to parametrize the rate of subcritical fracture in brittle materials. While both are relying on a thermally activated reaction of bond rupture, the difference lies in the way as to how the externally applied stresses affect the local energy landscape. In the consideration of inorganic glasses, the strain energy is typically taken as an off-set on the activation barrier. As an alternative interpretation, the system’s volumetric strain-energy is added to its thermal energy. Such an interpretation is consistent with the democratic fiber bundle model. Here, we test this approach of concerted activation against macroscopic data of bond cleavage activation energy, and also against ab initio quantum chemical simulation of the energy barrier for cracking in silica. The fact that both models are able to reproduce experimental observation to a remarkable degree highlights the importance of a holistic consideration towards non-empirical understanding.

  12. The dissolution rate of silicate glasses and minerals: an alternative model based on several activated complexes

    Berger, G.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the mineral reactions in natural water-rock systems progress at conditions close to the chemical equilibrium. The kinetics of these reactions, in particular the dissolution rate of the primary minerals, is a major constrain for the numerical modelling of diagenetic and hydrothermal processes. In the case of silicates, recent experimental studies have pointed out the necessity to better understand the elementary reactions which control the dissolution process. This article presents several models that have been proposed to account for the observed dissolution rate/chemical affinity relationships. The case of glasses (R7T7), feldspars and clays, in water, in near neutral pH aqueous solutions and in acid/basic media, are reviewed. (A.C.)

  13. Modeling of glass fusion furnaces; Modelisation des fours de fusion de verre

    Mechitoua, N. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Plard, C. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    The furnaces used for glass melting are industrial installations inside which complex and coupled physical and chemical phenomena occur. Thermal engineering plays a major role and numerical simulation is a precious tool for the analysis of the different coupling, of their interaction and of the influence of the different parameters. In order to optimize the functioning of glass furnaces and to improve the quality of the glass produced, Electricite de France (EdF) has developed a specialized version of the ESTET fluid mechanics code, called `Joule`. This paper describes the functioning principle of glass furnaces, the interactions between heat transfers and flows inside the melted glass, the interactions between heat transfers and the thermal regulation of the furnace, the interactions between heat transfers and glass quality and the heat transfer interactions between the melted glass, the furnace walls and the combustion area. (J.S.)

  14. Impact, runoff and drying of wind-driven rain on a window glass surface: numerical modelling based on experimental validation

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a combination of two models to study both the impingement and the contact and surface phenomena of rainwater on a glass window surface: a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for the calculation of the distribution of the wind-driven rain (WDR) across the building facade and

  15. Effect of instantaneous and continuous quenches on the density of vibrational modes in model glasses

    Lerner, Edan; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2017-08-01

    Computational studies of supercooled liquids often focus on various analyses of their "underlying inherent states"—the glassy configurations at zero temperature obtained by an infinitely fast (instantaneous) quench from equilibrium supercooled states. Similar protocols are also regularly employed in investigations of the unjamming transition at which the rigidity of decompressed soft-sphere packings is lost. Here we investigate the statistics and localization properties of low-frequency vibrational modes of glassy configurations obtained by such instantaneous quenches. We show that the density of vibrational modes grows as ωβ with β depending on the parent temperature T0 from which the glassy configurations were instantaneously quenched. For quenches from high temperature liquid states we find β ≈3 , whereas β appears to approach the previously observed value β =4 as T0 approaches the glass transition temperature. We discuss the consistency of our findings with the theoretical framework of the soft potential model, and contrast them with similar measurements performed on configurations obtained by continuous quenches at finite cooling rates. Our results suggest that any physical quench at rates sufficiently slower than the inverse vibrational time scale—including all physically realistic quenching rates of molecular or atomistic glasses—would result in a glass whose density of vibrational modes is universally characterized by β =4 .

  16. Micro-CT based finite element models for elastic properties of glass-ceramic scaffolds.

    Tagliabue, Stefano; Rossi, Erica; Baino, Francesco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Gastaldi, Dario; Vena, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of porous glass-ceramic scaffolds are investigated by means of three-dimensional finite element models based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan data. In particular, the quantitative relationship between the morpho-architectural features of the obtained scaffolds, such as macroscopic porosity and strut thickness, and elastic properties, is sought. The macroscopic elastic properties of the scaffolds have been obtained through numerical homogenization approaches using the mechanical characteristics of the solid walls of the scaffolds (assessed through nanoindentation) as input parameters for the numerical simulations. Anisotropic mechanical properties of the produced scaffolds have also been investigated by defining a suitable anisotropy index. A comparison with morphological data obtained through the micro-CT scans is also presented. The proposed study shows that the produced glass-ceramic scaffolds exhibited a macroscopic porosity ranging between 29% and 97% which corresponds to an average stiffness ranging between 42.4GPa and 36MPa. A quantitative estimation of the isotropy of the macroscopic elastic properties has been performed showing that the samples with higher solid fractions were those closest to an isotropic material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elementary excitations and the phase transition in the bimodal Ising spin glass model

    Jinuntuya, N; Poulter, J

    2012-01-01

    We show how the nature of the phase transition in the two-dimensional bimodal Ising spin glass model can be understood in terms of elementary excitations. Although the energy gap with the ground state is expected to be 4J in the ferromagnetic phase, a gap 2J is in fact found if the finite lattice is wound around a cylinder of odd circumference L. This 2J gap is really a finite size effect that should not occur in the thermodynamic limit of the ferromagnet. The spatial influence of the frustration must be limited and not wrap around the system if L is large enough. In essence, the absence of 2J excitations defines the ferromagnetic phase without recourse to calculating the magnetization or investigating the system response to domain wall defects. This study directly investigates the response to temperature. We also estimate the defect concentration where the phase transition to the spin glass state occurs. The value p c = 0.1045(11) is in reasonable agreement with the literature

  18. Application of the GRAAL model to leaching experiments with SON68 nuclear glass in initially pure water

    Frugier, P.; Chave, T.; Gin, S.; Lartigue, J.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a review of the current state of knowledge concerning the aqueous alteration of SON68 nuclear glass we have proposed a mechanistic model, GRAAL (Glass Reactivity with Allowance for the Alteration Layer) [P. Frugier, S. Gin, Y. Minet, T. Chave, B. Bonin, N. Godon, J.E. Lartigue, P. Jollivet, A. Ayral, L. De Windt, G. Santarini, J. Nucl. Mater. 380 (2008) 8]. This article describes how the GRAAL model hypotheses are solved using a calculation code coupling chemistry and transport. The geochemical solution of this model combines three major phenomena: chemical equilibria in solution, water and ion transport by convection or diffusion, and element diffusion through the passivating reactive interphase. The model results are compared with experimental data for SON68 glass leached in initially pure water both in a closed system and in renewed media. The comparison shows the model very satisfactorily accounts for variations in the pH and the element concentrations in solution as a function of time, the glass surface area in contact with solution, and the solution renewal rate. This success is due to the fact that the diffusion of elements through the alteration gel is taken into account in the model. This mechanism cannot be disregarded under most experimental conditions - if only to predict the solution pH - and must therefore be an integral part of the geochemical model.

  19. Modelling the local atomic structure of molybdenum in nuclear waste glasses with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Sushko, Peter V; Duffy, Dorothy M

    2016-09-21

    The nature of chemical bonding of molybdenum in high level nuclear waste glasses has been elucidated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Two compositions, (SiO 2 ) 57.5 -(B 2 O 3 ) 10 -(Na 2 O) 15 -(CaO) 15 -(MoO 3 ) 2.5 and (SiO 2 ) 57.3 -(B 2 O 3 ) 20 -(Na 2 O) 6.8 -(Li 2 O) 13.4 -(MoO 3 ) 2.5 , were considered in order to investigate the effect of ionic and covalent components on the glass structure and the formation of the crystallisation precursors (Na 2 MoO 4 and CaMoO 4 ). The coordination environments of Mo cations and the corresponding bond lengths calculated from our model are in excellent agreement with experimental observations. The analysis of the first coordination shell reveals two different types of molybdenum host matrix bonds in the lithium sodium borosilicate glass. Based on the structural data and the bond valence model, we demonstrate that the Mo cation can be found in a redox state and the molybdate tetrahedron can be connected with the borosilicate network in a way that inhibits the formation of crystalline molybdates. These results significantly extend our understanding of bonding in Mo-containing nuclear waste glasses and demonstrate that tailoring the glass composition to specific heavy metal constituents can facilitate incorporation of heavy metals at high concentrations.

  20. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles embedded into reduced graphene oxide-alginate beads for efficient chromium (VI) removal.

    Lv, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Yuling; Fu, Wenyang; Cao, Jiazhen; Zhang, Jiao; Ma, Hanbo; Jiang, Guangming

    2017-11-15

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe 0 NPs) technologies are often challenged by poor dispersibility, chemical instability to oxidation, and mobility during processing, storage and use. This work reports a facile approach to synthesize Fe 0 NPs embedded reduced graphene oxide-alginate beads (Fe@GA beads) via the immobilization of pre-synthesized Fe 0 NPs into graphene oxide modified alginate gel followed by a modelling and in-situ reduction process. The structure/composition characterization of the beads finds that the graphene sheets and the Fe 0 NPs (a shape of ellipsoid and a size of beads. We demonstrate that these Fe@GA beads show a robust performance in aqueous Cr(VI) removal. With a optimized Fe and alginate content, Fe@GA bead can achieve a high Cr(VI) removal efficiency and an excellent mechanical strength. The initial Cr(VI) concentration, ionic strength, temperature and especially solution pH are all critical factors to control the Fe@GA beads performance in Cr(VI) removal. Fitness of the pseudo second-order adsorption model with data suggests adsorption is the rate-controlling step, and both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm are suitable to describe the removal behavior. The possible Cr(VI) removal path by Fe@GA beads is put forward, and the synergistic effect in this ternary system implies the potentials of Fe@GA beads in pollutant removal from water body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical reactivity of precursor materials during synthesis of glasses used for conditioning high-level radioactive waste: Experiments and models

    Monteiro, A.

    2012-01-01

    The glass used to store high-level radioactive waste is produced by reaction of a solid waste residue and a glassy precursor (glass frit). The waste residue is first dried and calcined (to lose water and nitrogen respectively), then mixed with the glass frit to enable vitrification at high temperature. In order to obtain a good quality glass of constant composition upon cooling, the chemical reactions between the solid precursors must be complete while in the liquid state, to enable incorporation of the radioactive elements into the glassy matrix. The physical and chemical conditions during glass synthesis (e.g. temperature, relative proportions of frit and calcine, amount of radioactive charge) are typically empirically adjusted to obtain a satisfactory final product. The aim of this work is to provide new insights into the chemical and physical interactions that take place during vitrification and to provide data for a mathematical model that has been developed to simulate the chemical reactions. The consequences of the different chemical reactions that involve solid, liquid and gaseous phases are described (thermal effects, changes in crystal morphology and composition, variations in melt properties and structure). In a first series of experiments, a simplified analogue of the calcine (NaNO 3 -Al 2 O 3 ± MoO 3 /Nd 2 O 3 ) has been studied. In a second series of experiments, the simplified calcines have been reacted with a simplified glass frit (SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 ) at high temperature. The results show that crystallization of the calcine may take place before interaction with the glass frit, but that the reactivity with the glass at high temperature is a function of the nature and stoichiometry of the crystalline phases which form at low temperature. The results also highlight how the mixing of the starting materials, the physical properties of the frit (viscosity, glass transition temperature) and the Na 2 O/Al 2 O 3 of the calcine but also its

  2. Simple Theory for the Dynamics of Mean-Field-Like Models of Glass-Forming Fluids

    Szamel, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    We propose a simple theory for the dynamics of model glass-forming fluids, which should be solvable using a mean-field-like approach. The theory is based on transparent physical assumptions, which can be tested in computer simulations. The theory predicts an ergodicity-breaking transition that is identical to the so-called dynamic transition predicted within the replica approach. Thus, it can provide the missing dynamic component of the random first order transition framework. In the large-dimensional limit the theory reproduces the result of a recent exact calculation of Maimbourg et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 015902 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.015902]. Our approach provides an alternative, physically motivated derivation of this result.

  3. Modeling of Metallic Glass Matrix Composites Under Compression: Microstructure Effect on Shear Band Evolution

    Jiang, Yunpeng; Qiu, Kun; Sun, Longgang; Wu, Qingqing

    2018-01-01

    The relationship among processing, microstructure, and mechanical performance is the most important for metallic glass matrix composites (MGCs). Numerical modeling was performed on the shear banding in MGCs, and the impacts of particle concentration, morphology, agglomerate, size, and thermal residual stress were revealed. Based on the shear damage criterion, the equivalent plastic strain acted as an internal state variable to depict the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of shear bands. The element deletion technique was employed to describe the process of transformation from shear band to micro-crack. The impedance effect of particle morphology on the propagation of shear bands was discussed, whereby the toughening mechanism was clearly interpreted. The present work contributes to the subsequent strengthening and toughening design of MGCs.

  4. Modeling of large aperture third harmonic frequency conversion of high power Nd:glass laser systems

    Henesian, M.A.; Wegner, P.J.; Speck, D.R.; Bibeau, C.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Laumann, C.W.; Lawson, J.K.; Weiland, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    To provide high-energy, high-power beams at short wavelengths for inertial-confinement-fusion experiments, we routinely convert the 1.053-μm output of the Nova, Nd:phosphate-glass, laser system to its third-harmonic wavelength. We describe performance and conversion efficiency modeling of the 3 x 3 arrays potassium-dihydrogen-phosphate crystal plates used for type II/type II phase-matched harmonic conversion of Nova 0.74-m diameter beams, and an alternate type I/type II phase-matching configuration that improves the third-harmonic conversion efficiency. These arrays provide energy conversion of up to 65% and intensity conversion to 70%. 19 refs., 11 figs

  5. Micromechanical modeling of tungsten-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Li Hao [Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Li Ke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, TAMU 3123, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)]. E-mail: keli@tamu.edu; Subhash, Ghatu [Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Kecskes, Laszlo J. [Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Dowding, Robert J. [Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Micromechanics models are developed for tungsten (W)-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) matrix composites employing the Voronoi tessellation technique and the finite element (FE) method. The simulation results indicate that the computed elastic moduli are close to those measured in the experiments. The predicted stress-strain curves agree well with their experimentally obtained counterparts in the early stage of the plastic deformation. An increase in the W volume fraction leads to a decrease in the yield stress and an increase in the Young's modulus of the composite. In addition, contours of equivalent plastic strain for increasing applied strains provide an explanation why shear bands were observed in the glassy phase, along the W/BMG interface, and in the W phase of failed W/BMG composite specimens.

  6. SparseBeads data: benchmarking sparsity-regularized computed tomography

    Jørgensen, Jakob S.; Coban, Sophia B.; Lionheart, William R. B.; McDonald, Samuel A.; Withers, Philip J.

    2017-12-01

    Sparsity regularization (SR) such as total variation (TV) minimization allows accurate image reconstruction in x-ray computed tomography (CT) from fewer projections than analytical methods. Exactly how few projections suffice and how this number may depend on the image remain poorly understood. Compressive sensing connects the critical number of projections to the image sparsity, but does not cover CT, however empirical results suggest a similar connection. The present work establishes for real CT data a connection between gradient sparsity and the sufficient number of projections for accurate TV-regularized reconstruction. A collection of 48 x-ray CT datasets called SparseBeads was designed for benchmarking SR reconstruction algorithms. Beadpacks comprising glass beads of five different sizes as well as mixtures were scanned in a micro-CT scanner to provide structured datasets with variable image sparsity levels, number of projections and noise levels to allow the systematic assessment of parameters affecting performance of SR reconstruction algorithms6. Using the SparseBeads data, TV-regularized reconstruction quality was assessed as a function of numbers of projections and gradient sparsity. The critical number of projections for satisfactory TV-regularized reconstruction increased almost linearly with the gradient sparsity. This establishes a quantitative guideline from which one may predict how few projections to acquire based on expected sample sparsity level as an aid in planning of dose- or time-critical experiments. The results are expected to hold for samples of similar characteristics, i.e. consisting of few, distinct phases with relatively simple structure. Such cases are plentiful in porous media, composite materials, foams, as well as non-destructive testing and metrology. For samples of other characteristics the proposed methodology may be used to investigate similar relations.

  7. Effect of welding current and speed on occurrence of humping bead in high-speed GMAW

    Chen Ji; Wu Chuansong

    2009-01-01

    The developed mathematical model of humping formation mechanism in high-speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is used to analyze the effects of welding current and welding speed on the occurrence of humping bead. It considers both the momentum and heat content of backward flowing molten jet inside weld pool. Three-dimensional geometry of weld pool, the spacing between two adjacent humps and hump height along humping weld bead are calculated under different levels of welding current and welding speed. It shows that wire feeding rate, power intensity and the moment of backward flowing molten jet are the major factors on humping bead formation.

  8. Micromechanical modeling of short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics-Isotropic damage of pseudograins

    Kammoun, S.; Brassart, L.; Doghri, I.; Delannay, L.; Robert, G.

    2011-01-01

    A micromechanical damage modeling approach is presented to predict the overall elasto-plastic behavior and damage evolution in short fiber reinforced composite materials. The practical use of the approach is for injection molded thermoplastic parts reinforced with short glass fibers. The modeling is proceeded as follows. The representative volume element is decomposed into a set of pseudograins, the damage of which affects progressively the overall stiffness and strength up to total failure. Each pseudograin is a two-phase composite with aligned inclusions having same aspect ratio. A two-step mean-field homogenization procedure is adopted. In the first step, the pseudograins are homogenized individually according to the Mori-Tanaka scheme. The second step consists in a self-consistent homogenization of homogenized pseudograins. An isotropic damage model is applied at the pseudograin level. The model is implemented as a UMAT in the finite element code ABAQUS. Model is shown to reproduce the strength and the anisotropy (Lankford coefficient) during uniaxial tensile tests on samples cut under different directions relative to the injection flow direction.

  9. Constraints on the affinity term for modeling long-term glass dissolution rates

    Bourcier, W.L.; Carroll, S.A.; Phillips, B.L.

    1993-11-01

    Predictions of long-term glass dissolution rates are highly dependent on the form of the affinity term in the rate expression. Analysis of the quantitative effect of saturation state on glass dissolution rate for CSG glass (a simple analog of SRL-165 glass), shows that a simple (1-Q/K) affinity term does not match experimental results. Our data at 100 degree C show that the data is better fit by an affinity term having the form (1 - (Q/K) 1 /σ) where σ = 10

  10. 77 FR 40255 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 737-800; Large Non-Structural Glass in the Passenger Compartment

    2012-07-09

    ...: Glass partitions. Glass attached to the ceiling. Wall/door mounted mirrors/glass panels. Discussion The... monitor screens such as liquid crystal display (LCD) or plasma displays. These glass items may be...

  11. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  12. Modeling of solution renewal with the Kindis code: example of R7T7 glass dissolution at 90 deg C

    Advocat, T.; Vernaz, E.; Crovisier, J.L.; Clement, A.; Gerard, F.

    1994-01-01

    The deep underground environment that would correspond to a geological repository is a system open to fluid flow. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effects of solution renewal on the long-term behavior of glass in contact with water. These effects can now be simulated using the new version of the geochemical KINDIS model (thermodynamic and kinetic model). We tested the model at 90 deg C with an SA/V ratio of 400 m -1 at twelve renewal rates of pure water ranging from 200 to 0 vol% per day. With renewal rates between 200 and 0.065 vol% per day, steady-state conditions were obtained in the reaction system: i.e. the glass corrosion rate remained constant as did the concentrations of the dissolved species in solution (although at different values depending on the renewal rate). The ionic strength never exceeded 1 (the validity limit for the DEBYE-HUCKEL law) and long term predictions of the dissolved glass mass, the solution composition and the potential secondary mineral sequence are possible. For simulated renewal rates of less than 0.065 vol% per day (27% per year), the ionic strength rose above 1 (as in a closed system) before steady-state conditions were reached, making it critical to calculate long-term rates; A constant and empirical long-term rate, derived from laboratory measurement, have to be extrapolated. These calculations were based on a first order equation to describe the glass dissolution kinetic. The results obtained with the KINDIS code show discrepancies with some major experimental kinetic data (the long term rate must decrease with the ''glass-water'' reaction progress, under silica saturation conditions). This clearly indicates that a more refine kinetic relation is needed for the glass matrix. (authors). 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Sustainable Innovation of Glass Design and Craft

    Sparre-Petersen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    but an ongoing process of re-directing the way we design our world and thereby our future. This approach along with further research into sustainable development within the field of design and combined with material specific methodologies may reveal new possibilities for sustainable as well as aesthetic...... windows to beads. Glass is a natural material and can be found in nature in the form of i.e. obsidian and fulgurites. Glass in itself does not impact the environment negatively, but mining and transportation of raw materials and production of new glass products contributes to CO2 emission. Therefore...

  14. A mechanistic model for long-term nuclear waste glass dissolution integrating chemical affinity and interfacial diffusion barrier

    Ma, Teqi [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China); Mechanics and Physics of Solids Research Group, Modelling and Simulation Centre, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jivkov, Andrey P., E-mail: andrey.jivkov@manchester.ac.uk [Mechanics and Physics of Solids Research Group, Modelling and Simulation Centre, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Li, Weiping; Liang, Wei; Wang, Yu; Xu, Hui [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China); Han, Xiaoyuan, E-mail: xyhan_nint@sina.cn [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the alteration of nuclear waste glass in geological repository conditions is critical element of the analysis of repository retention function. Experimental observations of glass alterations provide a general agreement on the following regimes: inter-diffusion, hydrolysis process, rate drop, residual rate and, under very particular conditions, resumption of alteration. Of these, the mechanisms controlling the rate drop and the residual rate remain a subject of dispute. This paper offers a critical review of the two most competitive models related to these regimes: affinity–limited dissolution and diffusion barrier. The limitations of these models are highlighted by comparison of their predictions with available experimental evidence. Based on the comprehensive discussion of the existing models, a new mechanistic model is proposed as a combination of the chemical affinity and diffusion barrier concepts. It is demonstrated how the model can explain experimental phenomena and data, for which the existing models are shown to be not fully adequate.

  15. Dealing with correlated choices: how a spin-glass model can help political parties select their policies.

    Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2014-10-01

    Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.

  16. Atomistic modeling to investigate the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the Ca-Mg-Ni ternary system.

    Zhao, S; Li, J H; An, S M; Li, S N; Liu, B X

    2017-05-17

    A realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Ca-Mg-Ni system and then applied to Monte Carlo simulations to predict the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the ternary system. The simulations not only predict a hexagonal composition region, within which the Ca-Mg-Ni metallic glass formation is energetically favored, but also pinpoint an optimized sub-region within which the amorphization driving force, i.e. the energy difference between the solid solution and disordered phase, is larger than that outside. The simulations further reveal that the physical origin of glass formation is the solid solution collapsing when the solute atom exceeds the critical solid solubility. Further structural analysis indicates that the pentagonal bi-pyramids dominate in the optimized sub-region. The large atomic size difference between Ca, Mg and Ni extends the short-range landscape and facilitates the development of a hybridized packing model in the medium-range, and eventually enhancing the glass formation in the system. The predictions are well supported by the experimental observations reported so far, and could be of help for designing the ternary glass formation.

  17. A novel Deep Reactive Ion Etched (DRIE) glass micro-model for two-phase flow experiments

    Karadimitriou, N.K.; Joekar-Niasar, V.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Pyrak-Nolte, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, micro-models have become popular experimental tools for two-phase flow studies. In this work, the design and fabrication of an innovative, elongated, glass-etched micromodel with dimensions of 5 6 35 mm2 and constant depth of 43 microns is described. This is the

  18. Preparation of ionic-crosslinked chitosan-based gel beads and effect of reaction conditions on drug release behaviors.

    Chen, Shilan; Liu, Mingzhu; Jin, Shuping; Wang, Bin

    2008-02-12

    Drug-loaded chitosan (CS) beads were prepared under simple and mild condition using trisodium citrate as ionic crosslinker. The beads were further coated with poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) by dipping the beads in PMAA aqueous solution. The surface and cross-section morphology of these beads were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the observation showed that the coating beads had core-shell structure. In vitro release of model drug from these beads obtained under different reaction conditions was investigated in buffer medium (pH 1.8). The results showed that the rapid drug release was restrained by PMAA coating and the optimum conditions for preparing CS-based drug-loaded beads were decided through the effect of reaction conditions on the drug release behaviors. In addition, the drug release mechanism of CS-based drug-loaded beads was analyzed by Peppa's potential equation. According to this study, the ionic-crosslinked CS beads coated by PMAA could serve as suitable candidate for drug site-specific carrier in stomach.

  19. An enriched finite element model with q-refinement for radiative boundary layers in glass cooling

    Mohamed, M. Shadi [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Laghrouche, Omar [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    Radiative cooling in glass manufacturing is simulated using the partition of unity finite element method. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary simplified P{sub 1} approximation for the radiation in non-grey semitransparent media. To integrate the coupled equations in time we consider a linearly implicit scheme in the finite element framework. A class of hyperbolic enrichment functions is proposed to resolve boundary layers near the enclosure walls. Using an industrial electromagnetic spectrum, the proposed method shows an immense reduction in the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a certain accuracy compared to the conventional h-version finite element method. Furthermore the method shows a stable behaviour in treating the boundary layers which is shown by studying the solution close to the domain boundaries. The time integration choice is essential to implement a q-refinement procedure introduced in the current study. The enrichment is refined with respect to the steepness of the solution gradient near the domain boundary in the first few time steps and is shown to lead to a further significant reduction on top of what is already achieved with the enrichment. The performance of the proposed method is analysed for glass annealing in two enclosures where the simplified P{sub 1} approximation solution with the partition of unity method, the conventional finite element method and the finite difference method are compared to each other and to the full radiative heat transfer as well as the canonical Rosseland model.

  20. Modelling the evaporation of boron species. Part 1: Alkali-free borosilicate glass melts

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Cook, S.; O'Connor, R.; Simon, J.

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory test facility has been used to measure the boron evaporation rates from borosilicate glass melts. The impact of furnace atmosphere composition and glass melt composition on the temperature dependent boron evaporation rates has been investigated experimentally. In Part 1 of this paper

  1. Numerical modeling of the conduction and radiation heating in precision glass moulding

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    wafer, heating can be performed by either conduction or radiation. The numerical simulation of these two heating mechanisms in the wafer based glass moulding process is the topic of the present paper. First, the transient heating of the glass wafer is simulated by the FEM software ABAQUS. Temperature...

  2. Entropic vs. elastic models of fragility of glass-forming liquids: Two sides of the same coin?

    Sen, Sabyasachi

    2012-10-01

    The two most influential atomistic models that have been proposed in the literature to explain the temperature dependent activation energy of viscous flow of a glass-forming liquid, i.e., its fragility, are the configurational entropy model of Adam and Gibbs [J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965), 10.1063/1.1696442] and the elastic "shoving" model of Dyre et al. [J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 4635 (2006), 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2006.02.173]. Here we demonstrate a qualitative equivalence between these two models starting from the well-established general relationships between the interatomic potentials, elastic constants, structural rearrangement, and entropy in amorphous materials. The unification of these two models provides important predictions that are consistent with experimental observations and shed new light into the problem of glass transition.

  3. Thermo-hydrodynamic and inductive modelling of a glass melt elaborated in cold inductive crucible

    Sauvage, E.

    2009-11-01

    Within the context of a search for a new vitrification process for nuclear wastes with a replacement of the presently used metallic pot by an inductive cold crucible, this research thesis deals with the numerical modelling of this technology. After having recalled the interest of nuclear waste vitrification, this report presents the new process based on the use of a cold crucible, describing principles and objectives of this method, and the characteristic physical phenomena associated with the flow and the thermodynamics of the glassy melt in such a crucible. It also recalls and comments the existing works on modelling. The main objective of this research is then to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D thermo-hydraulic and inductive simulations. He describes and analyses the glass physical properties (electrical properties, viscosity, thermal properties), the electromagnetic, hydrodynamic and thermal phenomena. He presents in detail the bubbling mixing modelling, reports 3D induction and fluid mechanical coupling calculations, and specific thermal investigations (radiating transfers, thermal limit conditions)

  4. Role of fluctuations in the phase transitions of coupled plaquette spin models of glasses

    Giulio Biroli, Charlotte Rulquin, Gilles Tarjus, Marco Tarzia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the role of fluctuations on the thermodynamic glassy properties of plaquette spin models, more specifically on the transition involving an overlap order parameter in the presence of an attractive coupling between different replicas of the system. We consider both short-range fluctuations associated with the local environment on Bethe lattices and long-range fluctuations that distinguish Euclidean from Bethe lattices with the same local environment. We find that the phase diagram in the temperature-coupling plane is very sensitive to the former but, at least for the $3$-dimensional (square pyramid model, appears qualitatively or semi-quantitatively unchanged by the latter. This surprising result suggests that the mean-field theory of glasses provides a reasonable account of the glassy thermodynamics of models otherwise described in terms of the kinetically constrained motion of localized defects and taken as a paradigm for the theory of dynamic facilitation. We discuss the possible implications for the dynamical behavior.

  5. Spin glass behavior of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on scale free network

    Surungan, Tasrief; Zen, Freddy P; Williams, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    Randomness and frustration are considered to be the key ingredients for the existence of spin glass (SG) phase. In a canonical system, these ingredients are realized by the random mixture of ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) couplings. The study by Bartolozzi et al. [Phys. Rev. B73, 224419 (2006)] who observed the presence of SG phase on the AF Ising model on scale free network (SFN) is stimulating. It is a new type of SG system where randomness and frustration are not caused by the presence of FM and AF couplings. To further elaborate this type of system, here we study Heisenberg model on AF SFN and search for the SG phase. The canonical SG Heisenberg model is not observed in d-dimensional regular lattices for (d ≤ 3). We can make an analogy for the connectivity density (m) of SFN with the dimensionality of the regular lattice. It should be plausible to find the critical value of m for the existence of SG behaviour, analogous to the lower critical dimension (d l ) for the canonical SG systems. Here we study system with m = 2, 3, 4 and 5. We used Replica Exchange algorithm of Monte Carlo Method and calculated the SG order parameter. We observed SG phase for each value of m and estimated its corersponding critical temperature. (paper)

  6. Glass sealing

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  7. A novel deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) glass micro-model for two-phase flow experiments.

    Karadimitriou, N K; Joekar-Niasar, V; Hassanizadeh, S M; Kleingeld, P J; Pyrak-Nolte, L J

    2012-09-21

    In the last few decades, micro-models have become popular experimental tools for two-phase flow studies. In this work, the design and fabrication of an innovative, elongated, glass-etched micro-model with dimensions of 5 × 35 mm(2) and constant depth of 43 microns is described. This is the first time that a micro-model with such depth and dimensions has been etched in glass by using a dry etching technique. The micro-model was visualized by a novel setup that allowed us to monitor and record the distribution of fluids throughout the length of the micro-model continuously. Quasi-static drainage experiments were conducted in order to obtain equilibrium data points that relate capillary pressure to phase saturation. By measuring the flow rate of water through the flow network for known pressure gradients, the intrinsic permeability of the micro-model's flow network was also calculated. The experimental results were used to calibrate a pore-network model and test its validity. Finally, we show that glass-etched micro-models can be valuable tools in single and/or multi-phase flow studies and their applications.

  8. Electrochromic Glasses.

    1980-07-31

    this glass and that dipole-dipole correlations contribute to the "ferroelectric-like" character of this amorphous system. The TeO2 -W03 glasses can only...shows the dielectric constant and Fig. I(b) glass from pure TeO2 ot pure WO. In addition, glass the tan 8 of the WO glass as a function of temperature... glasses containing WO, in various glass forming nitworks of LifO-B1O0, Na:O-BzO,, and TeO2 were prepared from reagent grade oxides at 800 C - 9SO C in

  9. Evaluation of an injectable bioactive borate glass cement to heal bone defects in a rabbit femoral condyle model

    Cui, Xu [Institute of Bioengineering and Information Technology Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for Human Tissues and Organs Degeneration, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Huang, Wenhai [Institute of Bioengineering and Information Technology Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Yadong, E-mail: zhangyadong6@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200120 (China); Huang, Chengcheng; Yu, Zunxiong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Wenlong; Wang, Ting [Center for Human Tissues and Organs Degeneration, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhou, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Nai; Wang, Deping [Institute of Bioengineering and Information Technology Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Pan, Haobo, E-mail: hb.pan@siat.ac.cn [Center for Human Tissues and Organs Degeneration, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Rahaman, Mohamed N., E-mail: rahaman@mst.edu [Department of Spine Surgery, Shanghai East Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200120 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409-0340 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    There is a need for synthetic biomaterials to heal bone defects using minimal invasive surgery. In the present study, an injectable cement composed of bioactive borate glass particles and a chitosan bonding solution was developed and evaluated for its capacity to heal bone defects in a rabbit femoral condyle model. The injectability and setting time of the cement in vitro decreased but the compressive strength increased (8 ± 2 MPa to 31 ± 2 MPa) as the ratio of glass particles to chitosan solution increased (from 1.0 g ml{sup −1} to 2.5 g ml{sup −1}). Upon immersing the cement in phosphate-buffered saline, the glass particles reacted and converted to hydroxyapatite, imparting bioactivity to the cement. Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells showed enhanced proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity when incubated in media containing the soluble ionic product of the cement. The bioactive glass cement showed a better capacity to stimulate bone formation in rabbit femoral condyle defects at 12 weeks postimplantation when compared to a commercial calcium sulfate cement. The injectable bioactive borate glass cement developed in this study could provide a promising biomaterial to heal bone defects by minimal invasive surgery. - Highlights: • New class of injectable bone cement composed of bioactive borate glass particles and chitosan bonding phase was created. • The cement is biocompatible and bioactive, and has a much lower temperature increase during setting than PMMA cement. • The cement has a more controllable degradation rate and higher strength over a longer time than calcium sulfate cement. • The cement showed a better ability to heal bone defects than calcium sulfate over a twelve-week implantation period.

  10. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Model Nuclear Waste Glasses: A Solid-State Double-Resonance NMR Study

    Martineau, Ch.; Michaelis, V.K.; Kroeker, S. [Univ Manitoba, Dept Chem, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Schuller, S. [CEA Valrho Marcoule, LDMC, SECM, DTCD, DEN, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    Double-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used in addition to single-resonance NMR experiments to probe the degree of mixing between network-forming cations Si and B, along with the modifier cations Cs{sup +} and Na{sup +} in two molybdenum-bearing model nuclear waste glasses. The double-resonance experiments involving {sup 29}Si in natural abundance are made possible by the implementation of a CPMG pulse-train during the acquisition period of the usual REDOR experiments. For the glass with lower Mo content, the NMR results show a high degree of Si-B mixing, as well as an homogeneous distribution of the cations within the borosilicate network, characteristic of a non-phase-separated glass. For the higher-Mo glass, a decrease of B-Si(Q{sup 4}) mixing is observed, indicating phase separation. {sup 23}Na and {sup 133}Cs NMR results show that although the Cs{sup +} cations, which do not seem to be influenced by the molybdenum content, are spread within the borate network, there is a clustering of the Na{sup +} cations, very likely around the molybdate units. The segregation of a Mo-rich region with Na{sup +} cations appears to shift the bulk borosilicate glass composition toward the metastable liquid liquid immiscibility region and induce additional phase separation. Although no crystallization is observed in the present case, this liquid liquid phase separation is likely to be the first stage of crystallization that can occur at higher Mo loadings or be driven by heat treatment. From this study emerges a consistent picture of the nature and extent of such phase separation phenomena in Mo-bearing glasses, and demonstrates the potential of double-resonance NMR methods for the investigation of phase separation in amorphous materials. (authors)

  11. Chitosan and chemically modified chitosan beads for acid dyes sorption

    AZLAN Kamari; WAN SAIME Wan Ngah; LAI KEN Liew

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of chitosan and chitosan-EGDE (ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) beads for removing Acid Red 37 (AR 37) and Acid Blue 25 (AB 25) from aqueous solution were examined. Chitosan beads were cross-linked with EGDE to enhance its chemical resistance and mechanical strength. Experiments were performed as a function of pH, agitation period and concentration of AR 37 and AB 25. It was shown that the adsorption capacities of chitosan were comparatively higher than chitosan-EGDE for both acid dyes. This is mainly because cross-linking using EGDE reduces the major adsorption sites -NH3+ on chitosan. Langmuir isotherm model showed best conformity compared to Freundlich and BET. The kinetic experimental data agreed very well to the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The desorption study revealed that after three cycles of adsorption and desorption by NaOH and HCl, both adsorbents retained their promising adsorption abilities. FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of acid dyes onto chitosan-based adsorbents was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that chitosan and chitosan-EGDE beads were favourable adsorbers and could be employed as low-cost alternatives for the removal of acid dyes in wastewater treatment.

  12. Cylindrical magnetization model for glass-coated microwires with circular anisotropy: Statics

    Torrejon, J.; Thiaville, A.; Adenot-Engelvin, A.L.; Vazquez, M.; Acher, O.

    2011-01-01

    The static magnetization profile of glass-coated microwires with effective circular anisotropy is investigated using micromagnetics. In this family of microwires, the ferromagnetic nucleus with an amorphous character presents a magnetic structure composed of an inner region with axial domains and an outer region with circular domains, due to magnetoelastic anisotropy. A one-dimensional micromagnetic model is developed, taking into account both the exchange and magnetoelastic anisotropy energies, and solved quasi analytically. The total energy, magnetization profiles and magnetization curves are investigated as a function of radius and anisotropy constant of the nucleus. This work represents a fundamental study of the magnetization process in these amorphous microwires and provides guidelines for the production of microwires with tailored magnetic properties. En passant, the nucleation problem in an infinite cylinder, introduced by W.F. Brown, is revisited. - Research highlights: → Magnetic microwires with circular anisotropy are studied by micromagnetic model. → The ratio R/Δ is a fundamental quantity to determine the magnetic structure. → Reduction of diameter and anisotropy favours the growth of axial core.

  13. Investigation the influence of dietary fiber on the rheological properties of alginate beads

    Z. Manev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During the current investigation experiments for the preparation of alginate beads with aqueous solutions of sodium alginate, calcium lactate or calcium dichloride and dietary fiber in different concentrations: inulin with varying degrees of polymerization, wheat bran and amidated apple pectin were carried out. The sodium alginate solutions were at constant concentration 3%, while calcium salts in 7% were applied for bead formation. It was proven that the rupture force of alginate beads was always higher than the pure model system regardless of the chemical structure of dietary fibers used. In the result of the carried research the dependence at a certain concentration was established at which the rupture force and deformation of the beads increased gradually.

  14. Tumour metastasis-associated gene profiling using one-dimensional microfluidic beads array

    2007-01-01

    Great efforts have been made on the early diagnosis and molecular mechanism research of tumour metastasis in recent years. In this paper, based on the one-dimensional microfluidic beads array, a novel platform for tumour metastasis-associated genes profiling has been developed by depositing nucleic acids functional beads in the microchannel. This platform is sensitive (limit of detection: 0.02 nmol/L) and can perform mRNAs analysis without PCR. Two human colon cancer cell lines (primary and metastatic) from the same patient were used as a model, and transcriptional expression profiling of multiple tumour metastasis-associated genes in these two cell lines was successfully achieved. Furthermore, the results obtained on the beads array were validated by RT-PCR. This novel beads array has advantages of high sensitivity, little sample consumption, short assay time, low cost and high throughput capability. It holds the potential in early diagnosis and mechanism research of tumour metastasis.

  15. Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Weld Bead Geometry in Cladding

    2007-01-01

    The effect of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) variables on the dilution and weld bead geometry in cladding X65 pipeline steel with 316L stainless steel was studied. Using a full factorial method, a series of experiments were carried out to know the effect of wire feed rate, welding speed, distance between gas nozzle and plate, and the vertical angle of welding on dilution and weld bead geometry. The findings indicate that the dilution of weld metal and its dimension i.e. width, height and depth increase with the feed rate, but the contact angle of the bead decreases first and then increases. Meantime, welding speed has an opposite effect except for dilution. There is an interaction effect between welding parameters at the contact angle. The results also show forehand welding or decreasing electrode extension decrease the angle of contact. Finally,a mathematical model is contrived to highlight the relationship between welding variables with dilution and weld bead geometry.

  16. Study of The Effect of Draw-bead Geometry on Stretch Flange Formability

    Orlov, O. S.; Winkler, S. L.; Worswick, M. J.; Lloyd, D. J.; Finn, M. J.

    2004-06-01

    A fully instrumented stretch flange press equipped with a back-up punch and draw-beads near the specimen cutout area is simulated. The utilization of different draw-bead geometries is examined numerically to determine the restraining forces, strains and amount of damage generated in stretch flanges during forming. Simulations of the forming process are conducted for 1mm AA5182 sheets with circular cutouts. The damage evolution with the deformed specimens is investigated using the explicit dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, with a modified Gurson-based material model. It was found that double draw-beads can provide the same amount of restraining force as single draw-beads, but at reduced levels of damage.

  17. Lead isotope ratios of ancient Chinese and Japanese glasses

    Yamasaki, Kazuo; Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Yuasa, Mitsuaki; Watarai, Motohiko.

    1980-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios of 29 archaeological glass samples (5 samples excavated in China, 10 samples excavated in Japan, and 14 samples made in Japan) were determined by surface ionization mass spectrometry with a HITACHI RMU-6 spectrometer. Of these glass samples, 28 were made of high lead glass, and one, of alkali-lime glass. Glass samples were decomposed in a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids, and lead was separated from other elements by extraction with dithizone-chloroform. The lead nitrate solution thus prepared (corresponding to 0.5 μg Pb) was loaded on the rhenium single filament. The coefficients of variation of the determined ratios, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, were 0.1 -- 0.3%. Among the glasses excavated in Japan, some samples of the Yayoi period (ca. 3 rd C. B.C. -- ca. 3 rd C. A.D.) contained a large amount of barium in addition to lead, and resembled closely Chinese pre-Han glasses not only in chemical compositions, but also in lead isotope ratios. This means that pre-Han glasses were brought to Japan and then re-cast into glass beads characteristic of Japan. The lead isotope ratios of the glasses were compared with those of Chinese (2 samples), Korean (2) and Japanese (17) galena orea, and it was found that 12 glass beads made in the 8th century at Nara and 2 fine glass tubes made at Saga in the 18 th -- 19 th centuries showed similar lead isotope ratios with those of the Japanese galena ores. Consequently it is considered that the Japanese galena ores were already used as one of raw materials at manufacturing of these glass beads in ancient centuries. (author)

  18. The Beads of Translation: Using Beads to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet

    Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During this activity, by making beaded bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (beads). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…

  19. Glass and vitrification

    Barton, J.L.; Vacher, R.; Moncouyoux, J.P.; Vernaz, E.

    1997-01-01

    Most glasses used as materials are oxides glasses that are produced by a quick quench of a liquid. Glasses are characterized by the absence of periodicity in the atomic arrangements, they do not have symmetries and do not present order over a long distance. This series of 4 short articles present: 1) the properties of glass and its industrial story, 2) the glass structure, 3) a forty years long story of glass as dies used to confine wastes and 4) the methodology used to study the behaviour of glass over very long periods of time. This methodology is based on 5 steps: 1) define and specify the material to study (the prediction of long term alteration of a material is nonsense unless you know well its initial properties), 2) identify all the alteration processes that are likely to happen, determine their kinetics and the influence of environmental parameters, 3) develop mathematical models in order to simulate long-term behaviour of glasses, 4) determine the release rates of the radionuclides confined in the glass, and 5) validate data and models, it is not possible to expect a complete validation of a model that will be extrapolated over tens of thousands of years, nevertheless some ways of validation can lead to a satisfactory level of confidence taking into account reasonable uncertainties. (A.C.)

  20. Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer...

  1. Arsenate removal by layered double hydroxides embedded into spherical polymer beads: Batch and column studies.

    Nhat Ha, Ho Nguyen; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Boi An, Tran; Mai Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ngoc Thang, Tran; Quang Minh, Bui; Van Du, Cao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance of poly(layered double hydroxides) [poly(LDHs)] beads as an adsorbent for arsenate removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The poly(LDHs) beads were prepared by immobilizing LDHs into spherical alginate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-glutaraldehyde beads (spherical polymer beads). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to assess the effect of contact time, solution pH, initial arsenate concentrations and co-existing anions on arsenate removal performance. The potential reuse of these poly(LDHs) beads was also investigated. Approximately 79.1 to 91.2% of arsenic was removed from an arsenate solution (50 mg As L(-1)) by poly(LDHs). The adsorption data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption capacities of these poly(LDHs) beads at pH 8 were from 1.64 to 1.73 mg As g(-1), as calculated from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption ability of the poly(LDHs) beads decreased by approximately 5-6% after 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. Phosphates markedly decreased arsenate removal. The effect of co-existing anions on the adsorption capacity declined in the following order: HPO4 (2-) > HCO3 (-) > SO4 (2-) > Cl(-). A fixed-bed column study was conducted with real-life arsenic-containing water. The breakthrough time was found to be from 7 to 10 h. Under optimized conditions, the poly(LDHs) removed more than 82% of total arsenic. The results obtained in this study will be useful for further extending the adsorbents to the field scale or for designing pilot plants in future studies. From the viewpoint of environmental friendliness, the poly(LDHs) beads are a potential cost-effective adsorbent for arsenate removal in water treatment.

  2. Removal of diethyl phthalate from aqueous phase using magnetic poly(EGDMA-VP) beads

    Tuemay Oezer, Elif [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Osman, Bilgen, E-mail: bilgeno@uludag.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Kara, Ali; Besirli, Necati; Guecer, Seref [Department of Chemistry, Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey); Soezeri, Hueseyin [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54 TR-41470, Gebze/Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic beads were prepared for removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total capacity of the beads was determined as 98.9 mg DEP per gram polymer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic beads were regenerated easily and reused for DEP adsorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics were elucidated. - Abstract: The barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) containing magnetic poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-vinyl pyridine), (mag-poly(EGDMA-VP)) beads (average diameter = 53-212 {mu}m) were synthesized and characterized. Their use as an adsorbent in the removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP) from an aqueous solution was investigated. The mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads were prepared by copolymerizing of 4-vinyl pyridine (VP) with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. At a fixed solid/solution ratio, the various factors affecting the adsorption of DEP from aqueous solutions such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were analyzed. The maximum DEP adsorption capacity of the mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads was determined as 98.9 mg/g at pH 3.0, 25 Degree-Sign C. All the isotherm data can be fitted with both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the adsorption kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters obtained indicated the exothermic nature of the adsorption. The DEP adsorption capacity did not change after 10 batch successive reactions, demonstrating the usefulness of the magnetic beads in applications.

  3. Sequestering HMGB1 via DNA-Conjugated Beads Ameliorates Murine Colitis

    Antoine, Daniel J.; Dancho, Meghan; Tsaava, Teá; Li, Jianhua; Lu, Ben; Levine, Yaakov A.; Stiegler, Andrew; Tamari, Yehuda; Al-Abed, Yousef; Roth, Jesse; Tracey, Kevin J.; Yang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that affects millions of people worldwide. Although the etiology of IBD is not clear, it is known that products from stressed cells and enteric microbes promote intestinal inflammation. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), originally identified as a nuclear DNA binding protein, is a cytokine-like protein mediator implicated in infection, sterile injury, autoimmune disease, and IBD. Elevated levels of HMGB1 have been detected in inflamed human intestinal tissues and in feces of IBD patients and mouse models of colitis. Neutralizing HMGB1 activity by administration of anti-HMGB1 antibodies or HMGB1-specific antagonist improves clinical outcomes in animal models of colitis. Since HMGB1 binds to DNA with high affinity, here we developed a novel strategy to sequester HMGB1 using DNA immobilized on sepharose beads. Screening of DNA-bead constructs revealed that B2 beads, one linear form of DNA conjugated beads, bind HMGB1 with high affinity, capture HMGB1 ex vivo from endotoxin-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell supernatant and from feces of mice with colitis. Oral administration of B2 DNA beads significantly improved body weight, reduced colon injury, and suppressed colonic and circulating cytokine levels in mice with spontaneous colitis (IL-10 knockout) and with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Thus, DNA beads reduce inflammation by sequestering HMGB1 and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of IBD. PMID:25127031

  4. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading

  5. Interpreting the nonlinear dielectric response of glass-formers in terms of the coupling model

    Ngai, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear dielectric measurements at high electric fields of glass-forming glycerol and propylene carbonate initially were carried out to elucidate the dynamic heterogeneous nature of the structural α-relaxation. Recently, the measurements were extended to sufficiently high frequencies to investigate the nonlinear dielectric response of faster processes including the so-called excess wing (EW), appearing as a second power law at high frequencies in the loss spectra of many glass formers without a resolved secondary relaxation. While a strong increase of dielectric constant and loss is found in the nonlinear dielectric response of the α-relaxation, there is a lack of significant change in the EW. A surprise to the experimentalists finding it, this difference in the nonlinear dielectric properties between the EW and the α-relaxation is explained in the framework of the coupling model by identifying the EW investigated with the nearly constant loss (NCL) of caged molecules, originating from the anharmonicity of the intermolecular potential. The NCL is terminated at longer times (lower frequencies) by the onset of the primitive relaxation, which is followed sequentially by relaxation processes involving increasing number of molecules until the terminal Kohlrausch α-relaxation is reached. These intermediate faster relaxations, combined to form the so-called Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation, are spatially and dynamically heterogeneous, and hence exhibit nonlinear dielectric effects, as found in glycerol and propylene carbonate, where the JG β-relaxation is not resolved and in D-sorbitol where it is resolved. Like the linear susceptibility, χ 1 (f), the frequency dispersion of the third-order dielectric susceptibility, χ 3 (f), was found to depend primarily on the α-relaxation time, and independent of temperature T and pressure P. I show this property of the frequency dispersions of χ 1 (f) and χ 3 (f) is the characteristic of the many-body relaxation

  6. Modelling and Characterization of Effective Thermal Conductivity of Single Hollow Glass Microsphere and Its Powder.

    Liu, Bing; Wang, Hui; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2018-01-14

    Tiny hollow glass microsphere (HGM) can be applied for designing new light-weighted and thermal-insulated composites as high strength core, owing to its hollow structure. However, little work has been found for studying its own overall thermal conductivity independent of any matrix, which generally cannot be measured or evaluated directly. In this study, the overall thermal conductivity of HGM is investigated experimentally and numerically. The experimental investigation of thermal conductivity of HGM powder is performed by the transient plane source (TPS) technique to provide a reference to numerical results, which are obtained by a developed three-dimensional two-step hierarchical computational method. In the present method, three heterogeneous HGM stacking elements representing different distributions of HGMs in the powder are assumed. Each stacking element and its equivalent homogeneous solid counterpart are, respectively, embedded into a fictitious matrix material as fillers to form two equivalent composite systems at different levels, and then the overall thermal conductivity of each stacking element can be numerically determined through the equivalence of the two systems. The comparison of experimental and computational results indicates the present computational modeling can be used for effectively predicting the overall thermal conductivity of single HGM and its powder in a flexible way. Besides, it is necessary to note that the influence of thermal interfacial resistance cannot be removed from the experimental results in the TPS measurement.

  7. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam System as a Model for Glasses

    Carati, A.; Maiocchi, A.; Galgani, L.; Amati, G.

    2015-12-01

    We show that the standard Fermi-Pasta-Ulam system, with a suitable choice for the interparticle potential, constitutes a model for glasses, and indeed an extremely simple and manageable one. Indeed, it allows one to describe the landscape of the minima of the potential energy and to deal concretely with any one of them, determining the spectrum of frequencies and the normal modes. A relevant role is played by the harmonic energy {E} relative to a given minimum, i.e., the expansion of the Hamiltonian about the minimum up to second order. Indeed we find that there exists an energy threshold in {E} such that below it the harmonic energy {E} appears to be an approximate integral of motion for the whole observation time. Consequently, the system remains trapped near the minimum, in what may be called a vitreous or glassy state. Instead, for larger values of {E} the system rather quickly relaxes to a final equilibrium state. Moreover we find that the vitreous states present peculiar statistical behaviors, still involving the harmonic energy {E}. Indeed, the vitreous states are described by a Gibbs distribution with an effective Hamiltonian close to {E} and with a suitable effective inverse temperature. The final equilibrium state presents instead statistical properties which are in very good agreement with the Gibbs distribution relative to the full Hamiltonian of the system.

  8. Low-temperature bonded glass-membrane microfluidic device for in vitro organ-on-a-chip cell culture models

    Pocock, Kyall J.; Gao, Xiaofang; Wang, Chenxi; Priest, Craig; Prestidge, Clive A.; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The integration of microfluidics with living biological systems has paved the way to the exciting concept of "organson- a-chip", which aims at the development of advanced in vitro models that replicate the key features of human organs. Glass based devices have long been utilised in the field of microfluidics but the integration of alternative functional elements within multi-layered glass microdevices, such as polymeric membranes, remains a challenge. To this end, we have extended a previously reported approach for the low-temperature bonding of glass devices that enables the integration of a functional polycarbonate porous membrane. The process was initially developed and optimised on specialty low-temperature bonding equipment (μTAS2001, Bondtech, Japan) and subsequently adapted to more widely accessible hot embosser units (EVG520HE Hot Embosser, EVG, Austria). The key aspect of this method is the use of low temperatures compatible with polymeric membranes. Compared to borosilicate glass bonding (650 °C) and quartz/fused silica bonding (1050 °C) processes, this method maintains the integrity and functionality of the membrane (Tg 150 °C for polycarbonate). Leak tests performed showed no damage or loss of integrity of the membrane for up to 150 hours, indicating sufficient bond strength for long term cell culture. A feasibility study confirmed the growth of dense and functional monolayers of Caco-2 cells within 5 days.

  9. Homogeneous-inhomogeneous models of Ag x (Ge0.25Se0.75)100-x bulk glasses

    Arcondo, B.; Urena, M.A.; Piarristeguy, A.; Pradel, A.; Fontana, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ge-Se system presents an extensive glass forming composition range even when different metals (Ag, Sb, Bi) are added. In spite that the addition of Ag (up to 30 at%) to Ge-Se does not affect substantially the glass forming tendency, it impacts significantly on the transport properties. (Ge 0.25 Se 0.75 ) 100- x Ag x is a fast ionic conductor with x≥8 at% whereas it is a semiconductor for x 0.25 Se 0.75 ) 100- x Ag x bulk samples. These results appear to sustain this model. However previous structural and thermal studies oppose it. Moessbauer spectrometry on samples (0≤x≤25) containing 0.5 at% of 57 Fe is performed at T≤300 K. The main contribution to the glasses spectra correspond to low spin Fe 2+ in octahedral coordination and high spin Fe 2+ in distorted octahedral environments. The relative population of both sites changes continuously as Ag concentration varies denoting that the change in the transport behavior obeys to a percolation phenomenon. The low temperature results are discussed with the aim to throw light on the controversy about the homogeneity-inhomogeneity of the studied bulk glasses

  10. Structure of AgxNa1-xPO3 glasses by neutron diffraction and reverse Monte Carlo modelling

    Hall, Andreas; Swenson, Jan; Karlsson, Christian; Adams, Stefan; Bowron, Daniel T

    2007-01-01

    We have performed structural studies of mixed mobile ion phosphate glasses Ag x Na 1-x PO 3 using diffraction experiments and reverse Monte Carlo simulations. This glass system is particularly interesting as a model system for investigations of the mixed mobile ion effect, due to its anomalously low magnitude in the system. As for previously studied mixed alkali phosphate glasses, with a much more pronounced mixed mobile ion effect, we find no substantial structural alterations of the phosphorous-oxygen network and the local coordination of the mobile cations. Furthermore, the mobile Ag + and Na + ions are randomly mixed with no detectable preference for either similar or dissimilar pairs of cations. However, in contrast to mixed mobile ion systems with a very pronounced mixed mobile ion effect, the two types of mobile ions have, in this case, very similar local environments. For all the studied glass compositions the average Ag-O and Na-O distances in the first coordination shell are determined to be 2.5 ± 0.1 and 2.5 ± 0.1 A, and the corresponding average coordination numbers are approximately 3.2 and 3.7, respectively. The similar local coordinations of the two types of mobile ions suggests that the energy mismatch for a Na + ion to occupy a site that previously has been occupied by a Ag + ion (and vice versa) is low, and that this low energy mismatch is responsible for the anomalously weak mixed mobile ion effect

  11. Study of nuclear glasses alteration gel and synthesis of some model gels

    Ricol, S.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the general problem of alteration of the reference nuclear glass R7T7. Attention is paid particularly to the altered layer formed at the glass surface during alteration process. In opposition to previous works, related essentially to glass dissolution kinetics based on chemical analyses of lixiviated elements, this thesis deals with alteration problems through structural studies of the reference glass and derived gel. This approach allows the determination of mechanisms for the gel formation and a better understanding of the behaviour of glasses towards lixiviation. Both approaches appeared complementary. Based on several spectroscopic techniques, this work showed the particular role of cations such as calcium, zirconium and iron. Studies of silica-based synthetic gels showed the synergic effect of formers cation and of one highly coordinated cation. The variation of the wavenumber related to Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching vibration can be correlated to O/Si ratio for ternary systems Si/Na/Zr. On the contrary, the Si losses of the materials depend on the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms. In the perspective of long-term behaviour, the alteration gel presents better characteristics than initial glass. It is therefore a highly stable material in static conditions. In the same way, synthetic gels are materials with very low solubilities (much lower than the alteration gel) and could be used as confining matrices. (authors). refs., 71 figs., 37 tabs

  12. Calculation of glass forming ranges in Al-Ni-RE (Ce, La, Y) ternary alloys and their sub-binaries based on Miedema's model

    Sun, S.P.; Yi, D.Q.; Liu, H.Q.; Zang, B.; Jiang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → A method based on semi-empirical Miedema's and Toop's model for predicting glass forming range of ternary alloy system has been systematically described. → The method is superior to conventional models by considering the effect of the thermodynamic asymmetric component when dealing with a ternary alloy system. → The glass forming ranges of Al-Ni-RE (Al-Ni-Ce, Al-Ni-Y and Al-Ni-La) systems and their sub-binaries have been successfully calculated. → The present calculations using the method are in well agreement with experiments. → This model is especially useful for predicting the glass forming range of ternary alloy system because the calculations do not require experimental data. - Abstract: A method based on the semi-empirical Miedema's and Toop's model for calculating the glass forming range of a ternary alloy system was systematically described. The method is superior to conventional models by considering the effect of the thermodynamic asymmetric component when dealing with a ternary alloy system. Using this method, the glass forming ranges of Al-Ni-RE (Ce, La, Y) systems and their sub-binaries were successfully predicted. The mixing enthalpy and mismatch entropy were calculated, and their effects on the glass forming abilities of Al-Ni-RE (Ce, La, Y) systems were also discussed. The glass forming abilities of Al-Ni-Ce, Al-Ni-La and Al-Ni-Y are found to be close. The calculated glass forming ranges agree with experiments well. Meanwhile, the enthalpy change from amorphous phase to solid solution in the glass forming ranges was calculated, and the results suggest that those alloys close to the Ni-RE sub-binary system have higher glass forming abilities.

  13. ADSORPTION AND RELEASING PROPERTIES OF BEAD CELLULOSE

    A. Morales; E. Bordallo; V. Leon; J. Rieumont

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of some dyes on samples of bead cellulose obtained in the Unit of Research-Production "Cuba 9"was studied. Methylene blue, alizarin red and congo red fitted the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir. Adsorption kinetics at pH = 6 was linear with the square root of time indicating the diffusion is the controlling step. At pH = 12 a non-Fickian trend was observed and adsorption was higher for the first two dyes. Experiments carried out to release the methylene blue occluded in the cellulose beads gave a kinetic behavior of zero order. The study of cytochrome C adsorption was included to test a proteinic material. Crosslinking of bead cellulose was performed with epichlorohydrin decreasing its adsorption capacity in acidic or alkaline solution.

  14. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  15. Isolation and characterization of Linum usitatisimum polysaccharide to prepare mucoadhesive beads of diclofenac sodium.

    Saquib Hasnain, M; Rishishwar, Poonam; Rishishwar, Sanjay; Ali, Sadath; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The present research deals with the usefulness of isolated linseed polysaccharide (LP) as polymeric-blends with an anionic polymer, sodium alginate to prepare ionotropically cross-linking gelled mucoadhesive beads for controlled drug release. From the mature and ripe linseeds (Linum usitatisimum; family Liliaceae), LP was isolated and its colour, odour, taste, solubility in water, pH and viscosity were studied. Isolated LP was also characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and 1 H NMR analyses. LP‑calcium alginate beads loaded with diclofenac sodium were formulated via ionotropically crosslinking gelation method using calcium chloride as ionotropic crosslinker. These ionotropically crosslinked beads showed diclofenac sodium encapsulation efficiencies in these newly prepared beads were 60.78 ± 2.47 to 93.16 ± 4.08% and average bead-sizes of 1.17 ± 0.10 to 1.33 ± 0.12 mm. All LP‑calcium alginate beads loaded with diclofenac sodium demonstrated a sustained drug releasing profile over 8 h with a zero-order model of drug releasing (controlled drug releasing pattern). The LP‑calcium alginate beads loaded with diclofenac sodium displayed a pH responsive swelling and excellent biomucoadhesivity prospective with the intestinal mucosal tissue in both the acidic and alkaline pH (pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively). These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells.

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  17. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Isabel Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1 specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  18. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires. PMID:29628923

  19. Ion exchange for glass strengthening

    Gy, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a short overview of silicate glass strengthening by exchange of alkali ions in a molten salt, below the glass transition temperature (chemical tempering). The physics of alkali inter-diffusion is briefly explained and the main parameters of the process, which control the glass reinforcement, are reviewed. Methods for characterizing the obtained residual stress state and the strengthening are described, along with the simplified modelling of the stress build-up. The fragmentation of chemically tempered glass is discussed. The concept of engineered stress profile glass is presented, and finally, the effect of glass and salt compositions is overviewed

  20. Bead Capture on Magnetic Sensors in a Microfluidic System

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of magnetic beads by gravitational sedimentation and magnetic capture on a planar Hall-effect sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel is studied systematically as a function of the bead concentration, the fluid flow rate, and the sensor bias current. It is demonstrated...... that the sedimentation flux is proportional to the bead concentration and has a power law relation to the fluid flow rate. The mechanisms for the bead accumulation are investigated and it is found that gravitational sedimentation dominates the bead accumulation, whereas the stability of the sedimented beads against...

  1. Tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate.

    Biswas, Nikhil; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to develop tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for the intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT). The beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride as crosslinker and gas forming calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as floating inducer. The alginate gel beads having 51-58% entrapped MT showed 90% release within 45 min in gastric medium (pH 1.2). Tapioca starch blending markedly improved the entrapment efficiency (88%) and sustained the release for 3-4 h. A 12% w/w HPMC coating on these beads extended the release upto 9-11 h. In vitro wash off and buoyancy test in gastric media revealed that the beads containing CaCO3 has gastric residence of more than 12 h. In vitro optimized multi-unit formulation consisting of immediate and sustained release mucoadhesive-floating beads (40:60) showed good initial release of 42% MT within 1h followed by a sustained release of over 90% for 11 h. Pharmacokinetic study performed in rabbit model showed that the relative oral bioavailability of MT after administration of oral solution, sustain release and optimized formulation was 51%, 67% and 87%, respectively. Optimized formulation showed a higher percent inhibition of isoprenaline induced heart rate in rabbits for almost 12 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ketorolac tromethamine floating beads for oral application: Characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Abou el Ela, Amal El Sayeh F.; Hassan, Maha A.; El- Maraghy, Dalia A.

    2013-01-01

    The floating beads have been employed to make a sustained release of the drug in the stomach and to decrease the dose of the drug and hence overcome its side effects. The common benefits of the floating beads were it is easy preparation, without the need of a high temperature, and high percentage of the drug entrapment. In the present work, the Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) floating beads were prepared by extrusion congealing method utilizing calcium carbonate as a gas forming agent. The physical characters of the produced beads were investigated such as KT yield, KT loading, and entrapment efficiency of the drug. In addition, floating behavior, swelling, particle size, morphology and KT stability were also evaluated. In vitro drug release study was carried out, and the kinetics of the release was evaluated using the linear regression method. Furthermore, the in vivo analgesic effect of KT after oral administration of the selected formula of floating beads (F10) was carried out using hot plate and tail flick methods. Oral commercial KT tablets and KT solution were used for the comparison. The prepared beads remained floated for more than 8 h. The optimized formulation (F10) exhibited prolonged drug release (more than 8 h) and the drug release follows the Higuchi kinetic model, with a Fickian diffusion mechanism according to Korsmeyer-Peppas (n = 0.466). Moreover, F10 showed a sustained analgesic effect as compared to the commercial tablet. PMID:25161380

  3. “Nanofiltration” Enabled by Super-Absorbent Polymer Beads for Concentrating Microorganisms in Water Samples

    Xie, Xing; Bahnemann, Janina; Wang, Siwen; Yang, Yang; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of pathogens in water is critical for the protection of human health and for drinking water safety and security. When the pathogen concentrations are low, large sample volumes (several liters) are needed to achieve reliable quantitative results. However, most microbial identification methods utilize relatively small sample volumes. As a consequence, a concentration step is often required to detect pathogens in natural waters. Herein, we introduce a novel water sample concentration method based on superabsorbent polymer (SAP) beads. When SAP beads swell with water, small molecules can be sorbed within the beads, but larger particles are excluded and, thus, concentrated in the residual non-sorbed water. To illustrate this approach, millimeter-sized poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) (P(AM-co-IA)) beads are synthesized and successfully applied to concentrate water samples containing two model microorganisms: Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Experimental results indicate that the size of the water channel within water swollen P(AM-co-IA) hydrogel beads is on the order of several nanometers. The millimeter size coupled with a negative surface charge of the beads are shown to be critical in order to achieve high levels of concentration. This new concentration procedure is very fast, effective, scalable, and low-cost with no need for complex instrumentation. PMID:26876979

  4. 77 FR 28533 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 737-800; Large Non-Structural Glass in the Passenger Compartment

    2012-05-15

    ... following items: Glass partitions. Glass attached to the ceiling. Wall/door mounted mirrors/glass panels... indicator protective transparencies, or monitor screens such as liquid crystal display (LCD) or plasma...

  5. Glass consistency and glass performance

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  6. Time-Dependent Deformation Modelling for a Chopped-Glass Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria; FINAL

    Ren, W

    2001-01-01

    Time-dependent deformation behavior of a polymeric composite with chopped-glass-fiber reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications, The material under stress was exposed to representative automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on time-dependent deformation behavior of the material. The data were analyzed and experimentally-based models developed for the time-dependent deformation behavior as a basis for automotive structural durability design criteria

  7. Time-Dependent Deformation Modelling for a Chopped-Glass Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria

    Ren, W

    2001-08-24

    Time-dependent deformation behavior of a polymeric composite with chopped-glass-fiber reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications, The material under stress was exposed to representative automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on time-dependent deformation behavior of the material. The data were analyzed and experimentally-based models developed for the time-dependent deformation behavior as a basis for automotive structural durability design criteria.

  8. Colloidal glasses

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Colloidal glasses. Glassy state is attained when system fails to reach equilibrium due to crowding of constituent particles. In molecular glasses, glassy state is reached by rapidly lowering the temperature. In colloidal glasses, glassy state is reached by increasing the ...

  9. Constitutive modelling of creep in a long fiber random glass mat thermoplastic composite

    Dasappa, Prasad

    The primary objective of this proposed research is to characterize and model the creep behaviour of Glass Mat Thermoplastic (GMT) composites under thermo-mechanical loads. In addition, tensile testing has been performed to study the variability in mechanical properties. The thermo-physical properties of the polypropylene matrix including crystallinity level, transitions and the variation of the stiffness with temperature have also been determined. In this work, the creep of a long fibre GMT composite has been investigated for a relatively wide range of stresses from 5 to 80 MPa and temperatures from 25 to 90°C. The higher limit for stress is approximately 90% of the nominal tensile strength of the material. A Design of Experiments (ANOVA) statistical method was applied to determine the effects of stress and temperature in the random mat material which is known for wild experimental scatter. Two sets of creep tests were conducted. First, preliminary short-term creep tests consisting of 30 minutes creep followed by recovery were carried out over a wide range of stresses and temperatures. These tests were carried out to determine the linear viscoelastic region of the material. From these tests, the material was found to be linear viscoelastic up-to 20 MPa at room temperature and considerable non-linearities were observed with both stress and temperature. Using Time-Temperature superposition (TTS) a long term master curve for creep compliance for up-to 185 years at room temperature has been obtained. Further, viscoplastic strains were developed in these tests indicating the need for a non-linear viscoelastic viscoplastic constitutive model. The second set of creep tests was performed to develop a general non-linear viscoelastic viscoplastic constitutive model. Long term creep-recovery tests consisting of 1 day creep followed by recovery has been conducted over the stress range between 20 and 70 MPa at four temperatures: 25°C, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. Findley's model

  10. Intra-arterial therapy of neuroendocrine tumour liver metastases: comparing conventional TACE, drug-eluting beads TACE and yttrium-90 radioembolisation as treatment options using a propensity score analysis model

    Minh, Duc Do; Gorodetski, Boris; Smolka, Susanne; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Wainstejn, David [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Chapiro, Julius; Schlachter, Todd [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Huang, Qiang [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Capital Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Cuihong [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, The Ultrasound Department, Jinan (China); Lin, MingDe [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Philips Research North America, U/S Imaging and Interventions (UII), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gebauer, Bernhard [Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Geschwind, Jean-Francois [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-12-15

    To compare efficacy, survival outcome and prognostic factors of conventional transarterial chemoembolisation (cTACE), drug-eluting beads TACE (DEB-TACE) and yttrium-90 radioembolisation (Y90) for the treatment of liver metastases from gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NELM). This retrospective analysis included 192 patients (58.6 years mean age, 56% men) with NELM treated with cTACE (N = 122), DEB-TACE (N = 26) or Y90 (N = 44) between 2000 and 2014. Radiologic response to therapy was assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria using periprocedural MR imaging. Survival analysis included propensity score analysis (PSA), median overall survival (MOS), hepatic progression-free survival, Kaplan-Meier using log-rank test and the uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model (MVA). MOS of the entire study population was 28.8 months. As for cTACE, DEB-TACE and Y90, MOS was 33.8 months, 21.7 months and 23.6 months, respectively. According to the MVA, cTACE demonstrated a significantly longer MOS as compared to DEB-TACE (p <.01) or Y90 (p =.02). The 5-year survival rate after initial cTACE, DEB-TACE and Y90 was 28.2%, 10.3% and 18.5%, respectively. Upon PSA, our study suggests significant survival benefits for patients treated with cTACE as compared to DEB-TACE and Y90. This data supports the therapeutic decision for cTACE as the primary intra-arterial therapy option in patients with unresectable NELM until proven otherwise. (orig.)

  11. Low-Li2O Frits: Selecting Glasses that Support the Melt Rate Studies and Challenge the Current Durability Model

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    During the progressive development of the cold cap model (as it applies to a potential melt rate predictive tool), the formation of an Al-Li-silicate phase was identified as an intermediate reaction phase that could possibly hinder melt rate for SB4. To test this theory, six glasses were designed (using Frit 320's composition as the baseline) to maintain a constant 20 wt% sum of alkali content (in frit) by varying Na 2 O to Li 2 O ratios. The Li 2 O concentration ranged from 8 wt% down to 0% in either 2% or 1% increments with the differences being accounted for by an increase in Na 2 O concentration. Although the primary objective of the ''lower Li 2 O'' frits was to evaluate the potential for melt rate improvements, assessments of durability (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) were also performed. The results suggest that durable glasses can be produced with these ''lower Li 2 O'' frits should it be necessary to pursue this option for improving melt rate. In addition to the series of glasses to support melt rate assessments, a series of frits were also developed to challenge the current durability model based on the limits proposed by Edwards et al. (2004). Although the ''new'' limits allow access into compositional regions of interest (i.e., higher alkali systems) which can improve melt rate and/or waste loading, there may still be ''additional'' conservatism. In this report, two series of glasses were developed to challenge the ''new'' durability limits for the SB4 system. In the first series, the total alkali of the Frit 320-based glasses (designed to support the melt rate program) was increased from 20 wt% to 21 wt% (in the frit), but the series also evaluated the possible impact of various Na 2 O and Li 2 O mass ratio differences. The second series pushed the alkali limit in the frit even further with frits containing either 22 or 24 wt% total alkali as well as various Na 2 O and Li 2 O mass ratios. The results of the PCT evaluation indicated

  12. Cross-craft interactions between metal and glass working: slag additions to early Anglo-Saxon red glass

    Peake, James R. N.; Freestone, Ian C.

    Opaque red glass has been extensively studied over the years, but its compositional complexity and variability means that the way in which it was manufactured is still not fully understood. Previous studies have suggested the use of metallurgical by-products in its manufacture, but until now the evidence has been limited. SEM-EDS analysis of glass beads from the early Anglo-Saxon cemetery complex at Eriswell, southeast England, has provided further insights into the production and technology of opaque red glass, which could only have been possible through invasive sampling. The matrix of the red glasses contains angular particles of slag, the main phases of which typically correspond to either fayalite (Fe2SiO4) or kirschsteinite (CaFeSiO4), orthosilicate (olivine-type) minerals characteristic of some copper- and iron-smelting slags. This material appears to have been added in part as a reducing agent, to promote the precipitation of sub-micrometer particles of the colorant phase, copper metal. Its use represents a sophisticated, if empirical, understanding of materials and can only have resulted through deliberate experimentation with metallurgical by-products by early glass workers. Slag also seems to have been added as a source of iron to colour `black' glass. The compositions of the opaque red glasses appear to be strongly paralleled by Merovingian beads from northern Europe and Anglo-Saxon beads from elsewhere in England, suggesting that this technology is likely to have been quite widespread.

  13. Local topological modeling of glass structure and radiation-induced rearrangements in connected networks

    Hobbs, L.W.; Jesurum, C.E.; Pulim, V.

    1997-01-01

    Topology is shown to govern the arrangement of connected structural elements in network glasses such as silica and related radiation-amorphized network compounds: A topological description of such topologically-disordered arrangements is possible which utilizes a characteristic unit of structure--the local cluster--not far in scale from the unit cells in crystalline arrangements. Construction of credible glass network structures and their aberration during cascade disordering events during irradiation can be effected using local assembly rules based on modification of connectivity-based assembly rules derived for crystalline analogues. These topological approaches may provide useful complementary information to that supplied by molecular dynamics about re-ordering routes and final configurations in irradiated glasses. (authors)

  14. Local topological modeling of glass structure and radiation-induced rearrangements in connected networks

    Hobbs, L.W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Cambridge, MA (United States); Jesurum, C.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mathematics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pulim, V. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lab. for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Topology is shown to govern the arrangement of connected structural elements in network glasses such as silica and related radiation-amorphized network compounds: A topological description of such topologically-disordered arrangements is possible which utilizes a characteristic unit of structure--the local cluster--not far in scale from the unit cells in crystalline arrangements. Construction of credible glass network structures and their aberration during cascade disordering events during irradiation can be effected using local assembly rules based on modification of connectivity-based assembly rules derived for crystalline analogues. These topological approaches may provide useful complementary information to that supplied by molecular dynamics about re-ordering routes and final configurations in irradiated glasses. (authors)

  15. Numerical modelling of coupled phenomena within molten glass heated by induction and mechanically stirred

    Jacoutot, L.

    2006-11-01

    This study reports on a new vitrification process developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA, Marcoule). This process is used for the treatment of high activity nuclear waste. It is characterized by the cooling of all the metal walls and by currents directly induced inside the molten glass. In addition, a mechanical stirring device is used to homogenize the molten glass. The goal of this study is to develop numerical tools to understand phenomena which take place within the bath and which involve thermal, hydrodynamic and electromagnetic aspects. The numerical studies are validated using experimental results obtained from pilot vitrification facilities. (author)

  16. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model: Revisions for Processing High TiO2 Containing Glasses

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Radioactive high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository. The DWPF SPC system is known as the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The DWPF will soon be receiving wastes from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) containing increased concentrations of TiO2, Na2O, and Cs2O . The SWPF is being built to pretreat the high-curie fraction of the salt waste to be removed from the HLW tanks in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms at the SRS. In order to process TiO2 concentrations >2.0 wt% in the DWPF, new viscosity data were developed over the range of 1.90 to 6.09 wt% TiO2 and evaluated against the 2005 viscosity model. An alternate viscosity model is also derived for potential future use, should the DWPF ever need to process other titanate-containing ion exchange materials. The ultimate limit on the amount of TiO2 that can be accommodated from SWPF will be determined by the three PCCS models, the waste composition of a given sludge

  17. Silicate glasses

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    Vitrification of liquid high-level radioactive wastes has received the greatest attention, world-wide, compared to any other HLW solidification process. The waste form is a borosilicate-based glass. The production of phosphate-based glass has been abandoned in the western world. Only in the Soviet Union are phosphate-based glasses still being developed. Vitrification techniques, equipment and processes and their remote operation have been developed and studied for almost thirty years and have reached a high degree of technical maturity. Industrial demonstration of the vitrification process has been in progress since 1978. This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e., borosilicate glasses

  18. Aqueous corrosion of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte-Carlo simulations; Alteration par l'eau des verres borosilicates: experiences, modelisation et simulations Monte-Carlo

    Ledieu, A

    2004-10-01

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  19. Water leaching of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte Carlo simulations; Alteration par l'eau des verres borosilicates: experiences, modelisation et simulations Monte Carlo

    Ledieu, A

    2004-10-15

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  20. Water leaching of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte Carlo simulations; Alteration par l'eau des verres borosilicates: experiences, modelisation et simulations Monte Carlo

    Ledieu, A

    2004-10-15

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms