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Sample records for glasgow scotland uk

  1. First solar radio spectrometer deployed in Scotland, UK

    Monstein, Christian

    2012-10-01

    A new Callisto solar radio spectrometer system has recently been installed and set into operation at Acre Road Observatory, a facility of University of Glasgow, Scotland UK. There has been an Observatory associated with Glasgow University since 1757, and they presently occupy two different sites. The main observatory ('Acre Road') is close to the Garscube Estate on the outskirts of the city of Glasgow. The outstation ('Cochno', housing the big 20 inch Grubb Parsons telescope) is located farther out at a darker site in the Kilpatrick Hills. The Acre Road Observatory comprises teaching and research labs, a workshop, the main dome housing the 16 inch Meade, the solar dome, presently housing the 12 inch Meade, a transit house containing the transit telescope, a 3m HI radio telescope and a 408 MHz pulsar telescope. They also have 10 and 8 inch Meade telescopes and several 5 inch Celestron instruments. There is a small planetarium beneath the solar dome. The new Callisto instrument is mainly foreseen for scientific solar burst observations as well as for student projects and for 'bad-weather' outreach activities.

  2. Street connectivity and obesity in Glasgow, Scotland: impact of age, sex and socioeconomic position.

    Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen; Travaglini, Noemi; Ellaway, Anne

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated associations of street connectivity with body mass index (BMI), and whether these associations varied by sex, age and socioeconomic position, amongst adults in Glasgow, Scotland. Data on socio-demographic variables, height and weight were collected from 1062 participants in the Greater Glasgow Health and Well-being Study, and linked with neighbourhood-level census and geo-referenced data on area level deprivation and street connectivity. Results of multilevel models showed that, after adjustment for individual level covariates, street connectivity was not significantly associated with either BMI or BMI category; nor were there any significant interactions between age, sex or socioeconomic position and street connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is proximity to a food retail store associated with diet and BMI in Glasgow, Scotland?

    Ball Kylie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to healthy food is often seen as a potentially important contributor to diet. Policy documents in many countries suggest that variations in access contribute to inequalities in diet and in health. Some studies, mostly in the USA, have found that proximity to food stores is associated with dietary patterns, body weight and socio-economic differences in diet and obesity, whilst others have found no such relationships. We aim to investigate whether proximity to food retail stores is associated with dietary patterns or Body Mass Index in Glasgow, a large city in the UK. Methods We mapped data from a 'Health and Well-Being Survey' (n = 991, and a list of food stores (n = 741 in Glasgow City, using ArcGIS, and undertook network analysis to find the distance from respondents' home addresses to the nearest fruit and vegetable store, small general store, and supermarket. Results We found few statistically significant associations between proximity to food retail outlets and diet or obesity, for unadjusted or adjusted models, or when stratifying by gender, car ownership or employment. Conclusions The findings suggest that in urban settings in the UK the distribution of retail food stores may not be a major influence on diet and weight, possibly because most urban residents have reasonable access to food stores.

  4. "And afterwards your body to be given for public dissection": a history of the murderers dissected in Glasgow and the west of Scotland.

    Kennedy, S S; McLeod, K J; McDonald, S W

    2001-02-01

    Between 1752 and 1832, the bodies of hanged murderers were dissected or gibbeted. During this period, 38 murderers were executed in the West of Scotland. The bodies of at least 23 were dissected in Glasgow. The stories of these murders are recounted. Insight is also given into the attitudes of the public and the anatomists to dissection of executed murderers.

  5. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK.

    Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally

    2009-08-06

    It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK.We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones) into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens).The most deprived quintile (of areas) had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived) had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p retailer was within quintile 3 while the furthest distance was within quintile 1, and this was also statistically significant (Chi-square p types of food retailers, and access to amenities depended upon the type of food retailer studied and whether proximity or density was measured. Overall the findings suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within the City of Glasgow did not necessarily have fewer food retail outlets.

  6. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  7. The impact of smokefree legislation in Scotland: results from the Scottish ITC Scotland/UK longitudinal surveys

    Hassan, Louise M.; Higbee, Cheryl; Boudreau, Christian; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K. Michael; Yan, Mi; Thompson, Mary E.; Hastings, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Background: To evaluate how Scotland's smokefree law impacted self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues, workplaces and in people's homes. In addition, we examine changes in support for the law, pub and restaurant patronage, smoking cessation indicators and whether any observed changes varied by socioeconomic status. Methods: A quasi-experimental longitudinal telephone survey of nationally representative samples of smokers and non-smokers interviewed before the Scottish law (February to March 2006) and 1 year later after the law (March 2007) in Scotland (n = 705 smokers and n = 417 non-smokers) and the rest of the UK (n = 1027 smokers and n = 447 non-smokers) where smoking in public places was not regulated at the time. Results: Dramatic declines in the observance of smoking in pubs, restaurants and workplaces were found in Scotland relative to the rest of the UK. The change in the percent of smokers reporting a smokefree home and number of cigarettes smoked inside the home in the evening was comparable in Scotland and the rest of the UK. Support for smokefree policies increased to a greater extent in Scotland than in the rest of the UK. Self-reported frequency of going to pubs and restaurants was generally comparable between Scotland and the rest of the UK; however, non-smokers in Scotland were more likely to frequent pubs more often. No differences in smoking cessation indicators were observed between countries. Conclusion: The Scottish smokefree law has been successful in decreasing secondhand smoke exposure while causing none of the hypothesized negative outcomes. PMID:19151105

  8. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK

    Macintyre Sally

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK. We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens. The most deprived quintile (of areas had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p

  9. 11th February 2011 - Member of the Parliament for Glasgow North and Shadow Secretary of State for Scotland A. McKechin MP signing the geust book with Adviser J. Ellis, University of Glasgow Principal A. Muscatelli and Engineering Department Head R. Saban.

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2011-01-01

    11th February 2011 - Member of the Parliament for Glasgow North and Shadow Secretary of State for Scotland A. McKechin MP signing the geust book with Adviser J. Ellis, University of Glasgow Principal A. Muscatelli and Engineering Department Head R. Saban.

  10. A lead isotopic study of the human bioaccessibility of lead in urban soils from Glasgow, Scotland

    Farmer, John G.; Broadway, Andrew; Cave, Mark R.; Wragg, Joanna; Fordyce, Fiona M.; Graham, Margaret C.; Ngwenya, Bryne T.; Bewley, Richard J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The human bioaccessibility of lead (Pb) in Pb-contaminated soils from the Glasgow area was determined by the Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE) Method (UBM), an in vitro physiologically based extraction scheme that mimics the chemical environment of the human gastrointestinal system and contains both stomach and intestine compartments. For 27 soils ranging in total Pb concentration from 126 to 2160 mg kg -1 (median 539 mg kg -1 ), bioaccessibility as determined by the 'stomach' simulation (pH ∼ 1.5) was 46-1580 mg kg -1 , equivalent to 23-77% (mean 52%) of soil total Pb concentration. The corresponding bioaccessibility data for the 'stomach + intestine' simulation (pH ∼ 6.3) were 6-623 mg kg -1 and 2-42% (mean 22%) of soil Pb concentration. The soil 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios ranged from 1.057 to 1.175. Three-isotope plots of 208 Pb/ 206 Pb against 206 Pb/ 207 Pb demonstrated that 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios were intermediate between values for source end-member extremes of imported Australian Pb ore (1.04) - used in the manufacture of alkyl Pb compounds (1.06-1.10) formerly added to petrol - and indigenous Pb ores/coal (1.17-1.19). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios of the UBM 'stomach' extracts were similar ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio was discernible in the UBM. However, the source of Pb appeared to be less important in determining the extent of UBM-bioaccessible Pb than the overall soil total Pb concentration and the soil phases with which the Pb was associated. The significant phases identified in a subset of samples were carbonates, manganese oxides, iron-aluminium oxyhydroxides and clays. - Highlights: → We determined the human bioaccessibility of Pb in urban soils by in vitro extraction. → We determined the isotopic composition of Pb in soils and simulated stomach extracts. → Soil stable Pb isotope ratios (e.g. 206 Pb/ 207 Pb) indicated a range of sources of Pb. → 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in soils and their simulated stomach extracts were very similar

  11. A lead isotopic study of the human bioaccessibility of lead in urban soils from Glasgow, Scotland

    Farmer, John G., E-mail: J.G.Farmer@ed.ac.uk [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); Broadway, Andrew [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); Cave, Mark R.; Wragg, Joanna [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, England (United Kingdom); Fordyce, Fiona M. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh, EH9 3LA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Graham, Margaret C.; Ngwenya, Bryne T. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bewley, Richard J.F. [URS Corporation Ltd, Manchester, M1 6HS, England (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-01

    The human bioaccessibility of lead (Pb) in Pb-contaminated soils from the Glasgow area was determined by the Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE) Method (UBM), an in vitro physiologically based extraction scheme that mimics the chemical environment of the human gastrointestinal system and contains both stomach and intestine compartments. For 27 soils ranging in total Pb concentration from 126 to 2160 mg kg{sup -1} (median 539 mg kg{sup -1}), bioaccessibility as determined by the 'stomach' simulation (pH {approx} 1.5) was 46-1580 mg kg{sup -1}, equivalent to 23-77% (mean 52%) of soil total Pb concentration. The corresponding bioaccessibility data for the 'stomach + intestine' simulation (pH {approx} 6.3) were 6-623 mg kg{sup -1} and 2-42% (mean 22%) of soil Pb concentration. The soil {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios ranged from 1.057 to 1.175. Three-isotope plots of {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb against {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb demonstrated that {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios were intermediate between values for source end-member extremes of imported Australian Pb ore (1.04) - used in the manufacture of alkyl Pb compounds (1.06-1.10) formerly added to petrol - and indigenous Pb ores/coal (1.17-1.19). The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios of the UBM 'stomach' extracts were similar (< 0.01 difference) to those of the soil for 26 of the 27 samples (r = 0.993, p < 0.001) and lower in 24 of them. A slight preference for lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio was discernible in the UBM. However, the source of Pb appeared to be less important in determining the extent of UBM-bioaccessible Pb than the overall soil total Pb concentration and the soil phases with which the Pb was associated. The significant phases identified in a subset of samples were carbonates, manganese oxides, iron-aluminium oxyhydroxides and clays. - Highlights: {yields} We determined the human bioaccessibility of Pb in urban soils by in vitro extraction. {yields} We

  12. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK

    Appleton, J.D.; Cave, M.R.; Wragg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible Pb and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed for the Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea urban areas in order to assess the potential for developing a national urban bioaccessible Pb dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total Pb is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating the bioaccessibility of Pb. Bootstrap resampling shows that the relationship between total Pb and bioaccessible Pb is broadly the same in the four urban areas. The median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38% in Northampton to 68% in London and Swansea. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study. - Highlights: ► Total Pb is the only significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in UK urban topsoils. ► Bootstrap resampling confirms relationship similar in four urban areas. ► Median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38 to 68%. ► Results can be used for initial risk assessment in UK urban areas. - Total Pb is the only significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in topsoils from four urban areas in the UK.

  13. Assessment of daytime outdoor comfort levels in and outside the urban area of Glasgow, UK.

    Krüger, Eduardo; Drach, Patricia; Emmanuel, Rohinton; Corbella, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    To understand thermal preferences and to define a preliminary outdoor comfort range for the local population of Glasgow, UK, an extensive series of measurements and surveys was carried out during 19 monitoring campaigns from winter through summer 2011 at six different monitoring points in pedestrian areas of downtown Glasgow. For data collection, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station equipped with temperature and humidity sensors, cup anemometer with wind vane, silicon pyranometer and globe thermometer was employed. Predictions of the outdoor thermal index PET (physiologically equivalent temperature) correlated closely to the actual thermal votes of respondents. Using concurrent measurements from a second Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station placed in a rural setting approximately 15 km from the urban area, comparisons were drawn with regard to daytime thermal comfort levels and urban-rural temperature differences (∆T(u-r)) for the various sites. The urban sites exhibited a consistent lower level of thermal discomfort during daytime. No discernible effect of urban form attributes in terms of the sky-view factor were observed on ∆Tu-r or on the relative difference of the adjusted predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD*).

  14. Out-of-home food outlets and area deprivation: case study in Glasgow, UK

    Cummins Steven

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a popular belief that out-of-home eating outlets, which typically serve energy dense food, may be more commonly found in more deprived areas and that this may contribute to higher rates of obesity and related diseases in such areas. Methods We obtained a list of all 1301 out-of-home eating outlets in Glasgow, UK, in 2003 and mapped these at unit postcode level. We categorised them into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2004 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and computed mean density of types of outlet (restaurants, fast food restaurants, cafes and takeaways, and all types combined, per 1000 population. We also estimated odds ratios for the presence of any outlets in small areas within the quintiles. Results The density of outlets, and the likelihood of having any outlets, was highest in the second most affluent quintile (Q2 and lowest in the second most deprived quintile (Q4. Mean outlets per 1,000 were 4.02 in Q2, 1.20 in Q4 and 2.03 in Q5. With Q2 as the reference, Odds Ratios for having any outlets were 0.52 (CI 0.32–0.84 in Q1, 0.50 (CI 0.31 – 0.80 in Q4 and 0.61 (CI 0.38 – 0.98 in Q5. Outlets were located in the City Centre, West End, and along arterial roads. Conclusion In Glasgow those living in poorer areas are not more likely to be exposed to out-of-home eating outlets in their neighbourhoods. Health improvement policies need to be based on empirical evidence about the location of fast food outlets in specific national and local contexts, rather than on popular 'factoids'.

  15. ‘At-risk’ places: inequities in the distribution of environmental stressors and prescription rates of mental health medications in Glasgow, Scotland

    Maantay, Juliana; Maroko, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Using geospatial analytical methods, this study examines the association between one aspect of the built environment, namely, the concentration of vacant and derelict land (VDL), and the prevalence of mental health disorders (using the proxy variable of mental health medication prescription rates) in Glasgow, Scotland. This study builds on our previous research, which demonstrated the spatial correspondence between the locations of VDL in Glasgow and several physical health outcomes. Numerous studies of other locales have found similar correspondence between different elements of the built environment and various health outcomes. This is the first study of its kind to look at the spatial concentration of vacant and derelict land in relation to mental health, socio-economic indicators, environmental justice, and health inequities. The findings of this study demonstrate an inequity with respect to the distribution of vacant and derelict land, as confirmed by Pearson correlations between VDL density and deprivation (r = .521, p depression, or psychosis and the density of vacant and derelict land while adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. This indicates that areas with higher VDL densities tend to exhibit higher rates of mental health issues. Based on these findings, strategies for constructive re-use of VDL are proposed.

  16. Bicycle and Car Share Schemes as Inclusive Modes of Travel? A Socio-Spatial Analysis in Glasgow, UK

    Julie Clark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle and car sharing schemes have proliferated in recent years and are increasingly part of the urban transport landscape. Shared transport options have the potential to support social inclusion by improving accessibility: these initiatives could remove some of the barriers to car ownership or bicycle usage such as upfront costs, maintenance and storage. However, the existing evidence base indicates that, in reality, users are most likely to be white, male and middle class. This paper argues that there is a need to consider the social inclusivity of sharing schemes and to develop appropriate evaluation frameworks accordingly. We therefore open by considering ways in which shared transport schemes might be inclusive or not, using a framework developed from accessibility planning. In the second part of the paper, we use the case study of Glasgow in Scotland to undertake a spatial equity analysis of such schemes. We examine how well they serve different population groups across the city, using the locations of bicycle stations and car club parking spaces in Glasgow, comparing and contrasting bike and car. An apparent failure to deliver benefits across the demographic spectrum raises important questions about the socially inclusive nature of public investment in similar schemes.

  17. Seven key investments for health equity across the lifecourse: Scotland versus the rest of the UK

    Frank, John; Bromley, Catherine; Doi, Larry; Estrade, Michelle; Jepson, Ruth; McAteer, John; Robertson, Tony; Treanor, Morag; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While widespread lip service is given in the UK to the social determinants of health (SDoH), there are few published comparisons of how the UK's devolved jurisdictions ‘stack up’, in terms of implementing SDoH-based policies and programmes, to improve health equity over the life-course. Based on recent SDoH publications, seven key societal-level investments are suggested, across the life-course, for increasing health equity by socioeconomic position (SEP). We present hard-to-find comparable analyses of routinely collected data to gauge the relative extent to which these investments have been pursued and achieved expected goals in Scotland, as compared with England and Wales, in recent decades. Despite Scotland's longstanding explicit goal of reducing health inequalities, it has recently been doing slightly better than England and Wales on only one broad indicator of health-equity-related investments: childhood poverty. However, on the following indicators of other ‘best investments for health equity’, Scotland has not achieved demonstrably more equitable outcomes by SEP than the rest of the UK: infant mortality and teenage pregnancy rates; early childhood education implementation; standardised educational attainment after primary/secondary school; health care system access and performance; protection of the population from potentially hazardous patterns of food, drink and gambling use; unemployment. Although Scotland did not choose independence on September 18th, 2014, it could still (under the planned increased devolution of powers from Westminster) choose to increase investments in the underperforming categories of interventions for health equity listed above. However, such discussion is largely absent from the current post-referendum debate. Without further significant investments in such policies and programmes, Scotland is unlikely to achieve the ‘healthier, fairer society’ referred to in the current Scottish Government's official aspirations for

  18. Seven key investments for health equity across the lifecourse: Scotland versus the rest of the UK.

    Frank, John; Bromley, Catherine; Doi, Larry; Estrade, Michelle; Jepson, Ruth; McAteer, John; Robertson, Tony; Treanor, Morag; Williams, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    While widespread lip service is given in the UK to the social determinants of health (SDoH), there are few published comparisons of how the UK's devolved jurisdictions 'stack up', in terms of implementing SDoH-based policies and programmes, to improve health equity over the life-course. Based on recent SDoH publications, seven key societal-level investments are suggested, across the life-course, for increasing health equity by socioeconomic position (SEP). We present hard-to-find comparable analyses of routinely collected data to gauge the relative extent to which these investments have been pursued and achieved expected goals in Scotland, as compared with England and Wales, in recent decades. Despite Scotland's longstanding explicit goal of reducing health inequalities, it has recently been doing slightly better than England and Wales on only one broad indicator of health-equity-related investments: childhood poverty. However, on the following indicators of other 'best investments for health equity', Scotland has not achieved demonstrably more equitable outcomes by SEP than the rest of the UK: infant mortality and teenage pregnancy rates; early childhood education implementation; standardised educational attainment after primary/secondary school; health care system access and performance; protection of the population from potentially hazardous patterns of food, drink and gambling use; unemployment. Although Scotland did not choose independence on September 18th, 2014, it could still (under the planned increased devolution of powers from Westminster) choose to increase investments in the underperforming categories of interventions for health equity listed above. However, such discussion is largely absent from the current post-referendum debate. Without further significant investments in such policies and programmes, Scotland is unlikely to achieve the 'healthier, fairer society' referred to in the current Scottish Government's official aspirations for the nation

  19. [EDRP public local inquiry] Radioactive waste management policy in the UK (with particular reference to Scotland) (Revised statement)

    Robinson, R.E.S.

    1986-03-01

    The U.K. Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes with reference to Scotland, taking account of the latest developments, is set out. Areas covered include responsible bodies, environmental monitoring, discharges from UK reprocessing sites, waste from reprocessing of spent fuel from overseas. (U.K.)

  20. An outbreak of hepatitis A virus associated with a multi-national inner-city nursery in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Li, Kathy K; Penrice, Glillian M; Gunson, Rory N

    2015-08-01

    This report describes an outbreak of hepatitis A virus linked to a nursery which affected a total of 10 individuals. Active case finding, using oral fluid testing, helped identify asymptomatic cases. Nucleotide sequencing showed that all cases were caused by the same virus, which was most similar to HAV strains circulating Zimbabwe. Interestingly, an asymptomatic child had recently returned from visiting family in that country. Standard infection control procedures and vaccination of contacts successfully contained the outbreak. Only one patient developed hepatitis A despite having been vaccinated a week before symptoms began. This hepatitis A outbreak scenario may become more common as the numbers of international travellers and immigrants increase in the UK. It highlights the importance of recommending HAV vaccination to foreign nationals and their families who are travelling to countries endemic for hepatitis A. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Invasive fish species in the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England: the collective U.K. experience

    Winfield, I.J.; Fletcher, J.M.; James, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    An invasive species is defined as an alien (or introduced or non-native) species whose establishment and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats or species with harm. Such threats to UK lake fish communities have long been appreciated and this review assembles case histories, including new data, from the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England to examine the hypothesis that at least some of these introductions have become invasive. Loch Lomond in Scotland has experienced s...

  2. Effects of new motorway infrastructure on active travel in the local population: a retrospective repeat cross-sectional study in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Mitchell, Richard; Ogilvie, David

    2016-07-07

    Promoting active travel is an important part of increasing population physical activity, which has both physical and mental health benefits. A key benefit described by the then Scottish Government of the five-mile M74 motorway extension, which opened during June 2011 in the south of Glasgow, was that the forecast reduction in motor traffic on local streets would make these streets safer for walking and cycling, thus increasing active travel by the local population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of new motorway infrastructure on the proportion of journey stages made actively (cycling or on foot) by individuals travelling in and out of the local area. Data for the periods 2009-10 and 2012-13 were extracted from the Scottish Household Survey (SHS) travel diaries, which record each journey stage made during the previous day by a representative sample of the Scottish population aged 16 and over. Each individual journey stage was assigned to one of the following study areas surrounding existing and new transport infrastructure: (1) an area surrounding the new M74 motorway extension (n = 435 (2009-10), 543 (2012-13)), (2) a comparator area surrounding an existing motorway (n = 477 (2009-10), 560 (2012-13)), and (3) a control area containing no comparable motorway infrastructure (n = 541 (2009-10), 593 (2012-13)). Multivariable, multi-level regression analysis was performed to determine any between-area differences in change in active travel over time, which might indicate an intervention effect. Reference populations were defined using two alternative definitions, (1) Glasgow City and (2) Glasgow and surrounding local authorities. The results showed an increase in the proportion of journey stages using active travel in all study areas compared to both reference populations. However, there were no significant between-area differences to suggest an effect attributable the M74 motorway extension. There was no clear evidence that the M74 motorway

  3. Luminescence of Strontianite (SrCO3) from Strontian (Scotland, UK)

    Garcia-Guinea, J.; Crespo-Feo, E.; Correcher, V.; Cremades, A.; Rubio, J.; Tormo, L.; Townsend, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    An historic Strontianite-type specimen from Strontian, Scotland, UK, was characterized to broaden our knowledge on luminescence properties of common carbonates. These fibrous aggregates are Strontianite (Sr x Ca 1-x CO 3 ) with circa 6% of CaO, interfacial water, hydrosilicate anions and substitutional divalent cations, e.g., Ca 2+ , Mn 2+ , Fe 2+ in structural Sr 2+ positions. The specimen was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS) probe, Spatially-resolved Cathodoluminescence under the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-CL), Differential-Thermal Analyses (DTA), Thermogravimetry (TG), Thermoluminescence (TL), Radioluminescence (RL) and High Resolution Spectra Thermoluminescence (3DTL), to gain an overview of the spectral emissions, the defect linkages were modified by heating from room temperature (RT) up to 500 deg. C. Substitutional transition elements are probably responsible for the spectral emission bands from 500 nm to 800 nm and hydrous molecules from 300 nm to 400 nm. DTA-TG analyses performed on little chips, to preserve the fiber interfaces coherence, exhibit minor endothermic peaks attributed to outflow of water groups in fiber interfaces. Both, CL and RL curves show common spectral positions but UV-blue and red emission intensities are counterbalanced since electron irradiation reduces the UV-blue emissions while X-irradiation increases them. The TL curves show a top thermal limit at ∼300 deg. C for the 300-400 nm TL emissions which become irreversibly destroyed, whereas the longer wavelength region emits at higher temperature. The non-reversible changes observed in the 320 nm and 360 nm bands during the spectra 3DTL emission could be linked with non-bridging oxygen defects, protons and hydroxyl groups and the red emissions to the 4 G ( 4 T 1g )- 6 S Mn 2+ ion transition. Following assignations and similar spectral CL patterns of

  4. Provision of hormonal and long-acting reversible contraceptive services by general practices in Scotland, UK (2004-2009).

    Reddy, Anusha; Watson, Margaret; Hannaford, Philip; Lefevre, Karen; Ayansina, Dolapo

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, a large proportion of contraceptive services are provided from general practice. However, little is known about which contraceptive services are provided and to whom. Descriptive serial cross-sectional study of women aged 12-55 years, registered with 191 general practices in Scotland, UK between 2004 and 2009. Annual incidence of provision of hormonal and long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) increased from 27.7% in 2004 to 30.1% in 2009. Amongst those women registered with a general practice for the full 5-year period the provision of LARCs increased from 8.8% to 12.5% (pemergency hormonal contraception (EHC) decreased from 5.2% to 2.6% (pcontraceptives and LARCs from general practices. It is important that a full range of contraceptive options remains easily available to women.

  5. International trends in health science librarianship Part 9: the UK - Scotland and Wales.

    Wales, Ann; Bruch, Sarah; Foster, Wendy; Gorman, Meg; Peters, Janet

    2014-03-01

    This is the 9th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. The previous article in this series looked at Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In this issue the focus is Scotland and Wales. There will be three or four more articles this year tracking trends in the Far East, Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. JM. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  6. The state of radiological protection; views of the radiation protection profession: IRPA13, Glasgow, May 2012

    Lazo, Edward; Smith, Rachel; Coates, Roger; Andersen, Ralph; Asano, Yoshihiro; Chapple, Claire-Louise; Faulkner, Keith; Hefner, Alfred; Hill, Marion; Jones, Rick; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Liebenberg, Gert; Visage, Abrie; Liland, Astrid; McKinlay, Alastair; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Perks, Christopher; Rodriguez, Manuel; Schieber, Caroline; Shaw, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The IRPA13 Congress took place from 14–18 May 2012 in Glasgow, Scotland, UK, and was attended by almost 1500 radiological protection professionals. The scientific programme of the Congress was designed to capture a snapshot of the profession’s views of the current state of knowledge, and of the challenges seen for the coming years. This paper provides a summary of these results of the Congress in twelve key scientific areas that served as the structural backbone of IRPA13. (memorandum)

  7. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  8. Occupant Interactions and Effectiveness of Natural Ventilation Strategies in Contemporary New Housing in Scotland, UK.

    Sharpe, Tim; Farren, Paul; Howieson, Stirling; Tuohy, Paul; McQuillan, Jonathan

    2015-07-21

    The need to reduce carbon emissions and fuel poverty has led to increased building envelope air tightness, intended to reduce uncontrolled ventilation heat losses. Ventilation strategies in dwellings still allow the use of trickle ventilators in window frames for background ventilation. The extent to which this results in "healthy" Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in recently constructed dwellings was a concern of regulators in Scotland. This paper describes research to explore this. First a review of literature was conducted, then data on occupant interactions with ventilation provisions (windows, doors, trickle vents) gathered through an interview-based survey of 200 recently constructed dwellings, and measurements made on a sample of 40 of these. The main measured parameter discussed here is CO2 concentration. It was concluded after the literature review that 1000 ppm absolute was a reasonable threshold to use for "adequate" ventilation. The occupant survey found that there was very little occupant interaction with the trickle ventilators e.g., in bedrooms 63% were always closed, 28% always open, and in only 9% of cases occupants intervened to make occasional adjustments. In the measured dwellings average bedroom CO2 levels of 1520 ppm during occupied (night time) hours were observed. Where windows were open the average bedroom CO2 levels were 972 ppm. With windows closed, the combination of "trickle ventilators open plus doors open" gave an average of 1021 ppm. "Trickle ventilators open" gave an average of 1571 ppm. All other combinations gave averages of 1550 to 2000 ppm. Ventilation rates and air change rates were estimated from measured CO2 levels, for all dwellings calculated ventilation rate was less than 8 L/s/p, in 42% of cases calculated air change rate was less than 0.5 ach. It was concluded that trickle ventilation as installed and used is ineffective in meeting desired ventilation rates, evidenced by high CO2 levels reported across the sampled dwellings

  9. Recovery from acidification of lochs in Galloway, south-west Scotland, UK: 1979-1998

    R. C. Ferrier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galloway region of south-west Scotland has historically been subject to long-term deposition of acidic precipitation which has resulted in acidification of soils and surface waters and subsequent damage to aquatic ecology. Since the end of the 1970s, however, acidic deposition has decreased substantially. The general pattern is for a rapid decline in non-marine sulphate in rainwater over the period 1978-1988 followed by stable concentrations to the mid-1990s. Concentrations of nitrate and ammonium in deposition have remained constant between 1980 and 1998. Seven water quality surveys of 48 lochs in the Galloway region have been conducted between 1979 and 1998. During the first 10 years, from 1979, there was a major decline in regional sulphate concentrations in the lochs, which was expected to have produced a decline in base cations and an increase in the acid neutralising capacity. But sea-salt levels (as indicated by chloride concentrations were approximately 25% higher in 1988 than in 1979 and thus short-term acidification due to sea-salts offset much of the long-term recovery trend expected in the lochs. During the next 10 years, however, the chloride concentrations returned to 1979 levels and the lochs showed large increases in acid neutralising capacity despite little change in sulphate concentrations. From the observed decline in sulphate deposition and concentrations of sulphate in the lochs, it appears that approximately 75% of the possible improvement in acid neutralising capacity has already occurred over the 20-year period (1979-1998. The role of acid deposition as a driving factor for change in water chemistry in the Galloway lochs is confounded by concurrent changes in other driving variables, most notably, factors related to episodic and year-to-year variations in climate. In addition to inputs of sea-salts, climate probably also influences other chemical signals such as peaks in regional nitrate concentrations and the sharp

  10. Occupant Interactions and Effectiveness of Natural Ventilation Strategies in Contemporary New Housing in Scotland, UK

    Tim Sharpe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce carbon emissions and fuel poverty has led to increased building envelope air tightness, intended to reduce uncontrolled ventilation heat losses. Ventilation strategies in dwellings still allow the use of trickle ventilators in window frames for background ventilation. The extent to which this results in “healthy” Indoor Air Quality (IAQ in recently constructed dwellings was a concern of regulators in Scotland. This paper describes research to explore this. First a review of literature was conducted, then data on occupant interactions with ventilation provisions (windows, doors, trickle vents gathered through an interview-based survey of 200 recently constructed dwellings, and measurements made on a sample of 40 of these. The main measured parameter discussed here is CO2 concentration. It was concluded after the literature review that 1000 ppm absolute was a reasonable threshold to use for “adequate” ventilation. The occupant survey found that there was very little occupant interaction with the trickle ventilators e.g., in bedrooms 63% were always closed, 28% always open, and in only 9% of cases occupants intervened to make occasional adjustments. In the measured dwellings average bedroom CO2 levels of 1520 ppm during occupied (night time hours were observed. Where windows were open the average bedroom CO2 levels were 972 ppm. With windows closed, the combination of “trickle ventilators open plus doors open” gave an average of 1021 ppm. “Trickle ventilators open” gave an average of 1571 ppm. All other combinations gave averages of 1550 to 2000 ppm. Ventilation rates and air change rates were estimated from measured CO2 levels, for all dwellings calculated ventilation rate was less than 8 L/s/p, in 42% of cases calculated air change rate was less than 0.5 ach. It was concluded that trickle ventilation as installed and used is ineffective in meeting desired ventilation rates, evidenced by high CO2 levels reported

  11. The seabed geomorphology and geological structure of the Firth of Lorn, western Scotland, UK

    Howe, John; Arosio, Riccardo; Dove, Dayton; Anderton, Roger; Bradwell, Tom

    2014-05-01

    We present recently collected swath bathymetry from the Firth of Lorn. 553km2 of data were collected during 2012-2013 as part of the INIS Hydro project (Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland Hydrographic Survey). The inshore waters covered by this survey represent a priority area for the renewable industry, shipping and tourism and encompass a number of Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) including for rocky reef habitat. Surprisingly, given this interest, this project is the first comprehensive bathymetric survey of the area. This region of near shore continental shelf is revealed as a predominantly bedrock-dominated seabed, characterised by a series of narrow, stratigraphically constrained basins eroded into the Proterozoic and Palaeozoic-age bedrock. The principal basement of the region is composed of deformed Dalradian-age metasediments overlain unconformably by ?Silurian-age Old Red Sandstones and lavas. The resistant, uneroded igneous extrusives have formed raised rock platforms. Most strikingly the central region of the Firth of Lorn is dominated by an up to 150m high vertical cliff extending for approximately 20km. The origin of this prominent feature, here termed the Insh Fault, is not well understood however it may have resulted from a combination of Dalradian-age faulting and erosion of exposed softer metasediments in the central basin. Extensive seabed faulting also occurs; possibly as Dalradian-age syn-sedimentary faults. Carboniferous and Tertiary-age minor intrusives are common throughout the region in particular the Tertiary-age dolerite dyke swarms can be traced for many kilometres, exposed on the sediment-free bedrock surfaces. The survey region includes the Corryvreckan Whirlpool and Great Race, beneath the tidal flows of which there are active submarine sand dunes. Evidence for past glaciation is widespread and well preserved in the Firth of Lorn with preserved moraines and over-deepened basins common across the area. Initial geological and

  12. News media representations of electronic cigarettes: an analysis of newspaper coverage in the UK and Scotland.

    Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) have recently been attracting interest for their potential as a less harmful alternative to smoking, their rising popularity and the regulatory issues they raise. The news media can play an important role in shaping public perceptions of new technologies. It is, therefore, important to understand the ways the news media present ENDS. This paper examines how ENDS are represented in the UK and in the Scottish press. Twelve national UK and Scottish newspapers and the three most popular online news sources were searched between 2007 and 2012. A thematic analysis was conducted to explore how the meanings, uses and users of ENDS are presented, and whether and how this has changed. Newspaper coverage of ENDS increased substantially over this period. Five key themes emerged from the analysis: getting around smokefree legislation; risk and uncertainty; healthier choice; celebrity use; price. Drawing on the diffusion of innovations theory, we suggest that newspaper constructions of ENDS provide readers with important information about what ENDS are for, how they work, and their relative advantages. These themes, and dominance of more positive meanings, raise a number of issues for tobacco control, including concerns around celebrity use and promotion; the impact of increasing ENDS use on social norms around smoking; their potential to undermine smokefree legislation; and their promotion as effective cessation aids. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Lithostratigraphy does not always equal lithology: lessons learned in communicating uncertainty from stochastic modelling glacial and post glacial deposits in Glasgow U.K.

    Kearsey, Tim; Williams, John; Finlayson, Andrew; Williamson, Paul; Dobbs, Marcus; Kingdon, Andrew; Campbell, Diarmad

    2014-05-01

    Geological maps and 3D models usually depict lithostragraphic units which can comprise of many different types of sediment (lithologies). The lithostratigraphic units shown on maps and 3D models of glacial and post glacial deposits in Glasgow are substantially defined by the method of the formation and age of the unit rather than its lithological composition. Therefore, a simple assumption that the dominant lithology is the most common constituent of any stratigraphic unit is erroneous and is only 58% predictive of the actual sediment types seen in a borehole. This is problematic for non-geologist such as planners, regulators and engineers attempting to use these models to inform their decisions and can lead to such users viewing maps and models as of limited use in such decision making. We explore the extent to which stochastic modelling can help to make geological models more predictive of lithology in heterolithic units. Stochastic modelling techniques are commonly used to model facies variations in oil field models. The techniques have been applied to an area containing >4000 coded boreholes to investigate the glacial and fluvial deposits in the centre of the city of Glasgow. We test the predictions from this method by deleting percentages of the control data and re-running the simulations to determine how predictability varies with data density. We also explore the best way of displaying such stochastic models to and suggest that displaying the data as probability maps rather than a single definitive answer better illustrates the uncertainties inherent in the input data. Finally we address whether is it possible truly to be able to predict lithology in such geological facies. The innovative Accessing Subsurface Knowledge (ASK) network was recently established in the Glasgow are by the British Geological Survey and Glasgow City Council to deliver and exchange subsurface data and knowledge. This provides an idea opportunity to communicate and test a range of

  14. On the Long-term Behaviour of Wind-Wave Climatology over the West Region of Scotland, UK

    Tarek M El-Geziry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using 38 years (January 1973-December 2010 of hourly wind records, the present paper aims at drawing the possible long-term trends of winds and ten surface wave parameters over the west region of Scotland using the quadratic regression approach. Four dominant wind components were determined: the southern, the western, the south-western and the north-western. Two opposite groups of oscillations were proven: one for the southern groups and one for the western groups.The examined wave parameters were: the wave frequency, the wave angular frequency, the peak angular frequency, the wave spectral density, the significant wave height, the peak period, both the peak and group velocities and lastly the wave energy and the wave power. Results revealed that every examined parameter tended to have a cyclic behaviour except the wave spectral density, which appeared to be linearly decreasing. All wave frequencies were in an inverse correlation to the mean monthly wind speed. All other wave parameters appeared to be highly correlated to the mean monthly wind speed with correlation factors exceeding 0.95 except the wave power, which had a correlation factor of 0.89.In conclusion, the general behaviours of the dominant wind components over the west region of Scotland, and of the different wave parameters tend to be cyclic. A longer time series, than that presently used, will be advantageous in order to strengthen this outcome with more robust investigation. This concluded cyclic behaviour may positively impact on the engineering work within the wave energy resource off the western coasts of Scotland.

  15. The ATLAS Glasgow Overview Week

    Richard Hawkings

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS Overview Weeks always provide a good opportunity to see the status and progress throughout the experiment, and the July week at Glasgow University was no exception. The setting, amidst the traditional buildings of one of the UK's oldest universities, provided a nice counterpoint to all the cutting-edge research and technology being discussed. And despite predictions to the contrary, the weather at these northern latitudes was actually a great improvement on the previous few weeks in Geneva. The meeting sessions comprehensively covered the whole ATLAS project, from the subdetector and TDAQ systems and their commissioning, through to offline computing, analysis and physics. As a long-time ATLAS member who remembers plenary meetings in 1991 with 30 people drawing detector layouts on a whiteboard, the hardware and installation sessions were particularly impressive - to see how these dreams have been translated into 7000 tons of reality (and with attendant cabling, supports and services, which certainly...

  16. Silica research in Glasgow

    Barr, B W; Cagnoli, G; Casey, M M; Clubley, D; Crooks, D R M; Danzmann, K; Elliffe, E J; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Grote, H; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Jennrich, O; Lueck, H; McIntosh, S A; Newton, G P; Palmer, D A; Plissi, M V; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Rowan, S; Skeldon, K D; Sneddon, P; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willems, P A; Willke, B; Winkler, W

    2002-01-01

    The Glasgow group is involved in the construction of the GEO600 interferometer as well as in R and D activity on technology for advanced gravitational wave detectors. GEO600 will be the first GW detector using quasi-monolithic silica suspensions in order to decrease thermal noise significantly with respect to steel wire suspensions. The results concerning GEO600 suspension mounting and performance will be shown in the first section. Section 2 is devoted to the present results from the direct measurement of thermal noise in mirrors mounted in the 10 m interferometer in Glasgow which has a sensitivity limit of 4 x 10 -19 m Hz -1/2 above 1 kHz. Section 3 presents results on the measurements of coating losses. R and D activity has been carried out to understand better how thermal noise in the suspensions affects the detector sensitivity, and in section 4 a discussion on the non-linear thermoelastic effect is presented

  17. Perspectives on differing health outcomes by city: accounting for Glasgow's excess mortality.

    Fraser, Simon Ds; George, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Several health outcomes (including mortality) and health-related behaviors are known to be worse in Scotland than in comparable areas of Europe and the United Kingdom. Within Scotland, Greater Glasgow (in West Central Scotland) experiences disproportionately poorer outcomes independent of measurable variation in socioeconomic status and other important determinants. Many reasons for this have been proposed, particularly related to deprivation, inequalities, and variation in health behaviors. The use of models (such as the application of Bradford Hill's viewpoints on causality to the different hypotheses) has provided useful insights on potentially causal mechanisms, with health behaviors and inequalities likely to represent the strongest individual candidates. This review describes the evolution of our understanding of Glasgow's excess mortality, summarizes some of the key work in this area, and provides some suggestions for future areas of exploration. In the context of demographic change, the experience in Glasgow is an important example of the complexity that frequently lies behind observed variations in health outcomes within and between populations. A comprehensive explanation of Glasgow's excess mortality may continue to remain elusive, but is likely to lie in a complex and difficult-to-measure interplay of health determinants acting at different levels in society throughout the life course. Lessons learned from the detailed examination of different potentially causative determinants in Scotland may provide useful methodological insights that may be applied in other settings. Ongoing efforts to unravel the causal mechanisms are needed to inform public health efforts to reduce health inequalities and improve outcomes in Scotland.

  18. Learning from history: The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack.

    Crichton, Gillies

    Glasgow Airport was the target of a terrorist attack on 30th June, 2007. Many people within Scotland had come to believe that Scotland was immune from terrorism. This perception was in large part informed by Scotland's experience during the protracted Troubles in Northern Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army's mainland bombing campaign focused on targets in England, sparing both Scotland and Wales. While Glasgow Airport did not expect such an attack to take place, meticulous planning, organising and testing of plans had taken place to mitigate the unlikely event of such an attack. The attack stands up as a shining example of robust business continuity management, where the airport reopened for business as usual in less than 24 hours from the time of the attack. Little is known about how the airport handled the situation in conjunction with other responding agencies as people tend to want to focus on high-profile disasters only. Yet countless such incidents are happening worldwide on a daily basis, in which there are excellent learning opportunities, and, taken in the spirit of converting hindsight into foresight, the likelihood of similar incidents could potentially be reduced in the future.

  19. Silica research in Glasgow

    Barr, B W; Casey, M M; Clubley, D; Crooks, D R M; Danzmann, K; Elliffe, E J; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Grote, H; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Jennrich, O; Lück, H B; McIntosh, S A; Newton, G P; Palmer, D A; Plissi, M V; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Rowan, S; Skeldon, K D; Sneddon, P; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willems, P A; Willke, B; Winkler, W

    2002-01-01

    The Glasgow group is involved in the construction of the GEO600 interferometer as well as in R and D activity on technology for advanced gravitational wave detectors. GEO600 will be the first GW detector using quasi-monolithic silica suspensions in order to decrease thermal noise significantly with respect to steel wire suspensions. The results concerning GEO600 suspension mounting and performance will be shown in the first section. Section 2 is devoted to the present results from the direct measurement of thermal noise in mirrors mounted in the 10 m interferometer in Glasgow which has a sensitivity limit of 4 x 10 sup - sup 1 sup 9 m Hz sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 above 1 kHz. Section 3 presents results on the measurements of coating losses. R and D activity has been carried out to understand better how thermal noise in the suspensions affects the detector sensitivity, and in section 4 a discussion on the non-linear thermoelastic effect is presented.

  20. Haplotype-based association analysis of general cognitive ability in Generation Scotland, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and UK Biobank [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    David M. Howard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive ability is a heritable trait with a polygenic architecture, for which several associated variants have been identified using genotype-based and candidate gene approaches. Haplotype-based analyses are a complementary technique that take phased genotype data into account, and potentially provide greater statistical power to detect lower frequency variants. Methods: In the present analysis, three cohort studies (ntotal = 48,002 were utilised: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA, and the UK Biobank. A genome-wide haplotype-based meta-analysis of cognitive ability was performed, as well as a targeted meta-analysis of several gene coding regions. Results: None of the assessed haplotypes provided evidence of a statistically significant association with cognitive ability in either the individual cohorts or the meta-analysis. Within the meta-analysis, the haplotype with the lowest observed P-value overlapped with the D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA gene coding region. This coding region has previously been associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease, which have all been shown to impact upon cognitive ability. Another potentially interesting region highlighted within the current genome-wide association analysis (GS:SFHS: P = 4.09 x 10-7, was the butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE gene coding region. The protein encoded by BCHE has been shown to influence the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and its role in cognitive ability merits further investigation. Conclusions: Although no evidence was found for any haplotypes with a statistically significant association with cognitive ability, our results did provide further evidence that the genetic variants contributing to the variance of cognitive ability are likely to be of small effect.

  1. Seismic texture and amplitude analysis of large scale fluid escape pipes using time lapses seismic surveys: examples from the Loyal Field (Scotland, UK)

    Maestrelli, Daniele; Jihad, Ali; Iacopini, David; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Fluid escape pipes are key features of primary interest for the analysis of vertical fluid flow and secondary hydrocarbon migration in sedimentary basin. Identified worldwide (Løset et al., 2009), they acquired more and more importance as they represent critical pathways for supply of methane and potential structure for leakage into the storage reservoir (Cartwright & Santamarina, 2015). Therefore, understanding their genesis, internal characteristics and seismic expression, is of great significance for the exploration industry. Here we propose a detailed characterization of the internal seismic texture of some seal bypass system (e.g fluid escape pipes) from a 4D seismic survey (released by the BP) recently acquired in the Loyal Field. The seal by pass structure are characterized by big-scale fluid escape pipes affecting the Upper Paleogene/Neogene stratigraphic succession in the Loyal Field, Scotland (UK). The Loyal field, is located on the edge of the Faroe-Shetland Channel slope, about 130 km west of Shetland (Quadrants 204/205 of the UKCS) and has been recently re-appraised and re developed by a consortium led by BP. The 3D detailed mapping analysis of the full and partial stack survey (processed using amplitude preservation workflows) shows a complex system of fluid pipe structure rooted in the pre Lista formation and developed across the paleogene and Neogene Units. Geometrical analysis show that pipes got diameter varying between 100-300 m and a length of 500 m to 2 km. Most pipes seem to terminate abruptly at discrete subsurface horizons or in diffuse termination suggesting multiple overpressured events and lateral fluid migration (through Darcy flows) across the overburden units. The internal texture analysis of the large pipes, (across both the root and main conduit zones), using near, medium and far offset stack dataset (processed through an amplitude preserved PSTM workflow) shows a tendency of up-bending of reflection (rather than pulls up artefacts

  2. The medical collections at the University of Glasgow.

    Reilly, Maggie; McDonald, Stuart W

    2009-01-01

    The medical and other collections in the University of Glasgow have at their core the generous bequest of Dr William Hunter (1718 - 1783), a local man who rose to become an internationally renowned anatomist and obstetrician. The University does not have a Medical Museum as such but an Anatomy Museum, a Zoology Museum, a Pathology Collection, medical displays in the main halls of the Hunterian Museum in the Gilbert Scott Building and a rich collection of antiquarian medical books and archives as well as contemporary libraries. The Hunterian Collection, since its inauguration at the University of Glasgow in 1807, has engendered a spirit of diversity and scholarship that embraces many disciplines across the campus. The Hunterian Museum was the first public museum in Scotland and service to the local, national and international communities and response to their academic needs is very much at heart of its function today.

  3. Glasgow physics conference (Preliminary report)

    Anon.

    1994-09-15

    The third and heaviest pair of quarks, 'beauty' (b) and 'top' (t), were the stars of the International Conference on High Energy Physics, held in Glasgow from 20-27 July, the 27th in the series of traditional biennial 'Rochester' meetings which dominate the particle physics calendar. With all major new results in agreement, in recent years these meetings have also become a festival for the 'Standard Model' of particle physics, and Glasgow was no exception.

  4. Glasgow physics conference (Preliminary report)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The third and heaviest pair of quarks, 'beauty' (b) and 'top' (t), were the stars of the International Conference on High Energy Physics, held in Glasgow from 20-27 July, the 27th in the series of traditional biennial 'Rochester' meetings which dominate the particle physics calendar. With all major new results in agreement, in recent years these meetings have also become a festival for the 'Standard Model' of particle physics, and Glasgow was no exception

  5. Managing radioactive waste safely. Engaging Scotland

    Elrick, D.; Boyes, L.; McCormick, J.

    2002-01-01

    Between January and May 2002 the Scottish Council Foundation undertook a research project to assess 1 the level of public awareness about and interest in engaging the public in decision-making on managing radioactive waste safely in Scotland. This paper presents the main findings from the research that involved 70 people from across Scotland, aged between 14 and over 65 years old, and a literature review of Scottish, UK and international experience in engaging the public

  6. What are the costs of Scotland's climate and renewable policies?

    Anandarajah, Gabrial; McDowall, Will

    2012-01-01

    The UK government has established ambitious policies to address climate change and promote renewable energy, and has set targets both for reducing carbon emissions and for deploying renewables. Scotland, a constituent nation of the UK, has also set its own targets for climate change mitigation and renewable electricity. This paper analyses the energy, economic and environmental implications of carbon and renewable electricity targets in Scotland and the UK using a newly developed two-region UK MARKAL energy system model, where Scotland (SCT) and rest of the UK (RUK) are the two regions. The paper shows that meeting Scotland's carbon targets does not require additional decarbonisation effort if the UK meets its own targets at least cost; and that Scotland's renewable energy ambitions do imply additional costs above the least cost path to the meeting the UK's obligations under the EU renewable energy directive. Meeting Scottish renewable electricity targets diverts investment and deployment in renewables from rest of the UK to Scotland. In addition to increased energy system cost, Scottish renewable electricity targets may also require early investment in new electricity transmission capacity between Scotland and rest of the UK. - Highlights: ► Scottish climate policy is less stringent than UK policy. ► Scottish targets would complement UK targets if UK policies fail to meet UK targets. ► The possible conclusion here is that Scottish carbon targets are unnecessary. ► Scottish renewable policy is more stringent than UK policy. ► As expected, this increased stringency leads to additional costs.

  7. Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study; a new resource for researching genes and heritability

    Ralston Stuart H

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study aims to identify genetic variants accounting for variation in levels of quantitative traits underlying the major common complex diseases (such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, mental illness in Scotland. Methods/Design Generation Scotland will recruit a family-based cohort of up to 50,000 individuals (comprising siblings and parent-offspring groups across Scotland. It will be a six-year programme, beginning in Glasgow and Tayside in the first two years (Phase 1 before extending to other parts of Scotland in the remaining four years (Phase 2. In Phase 1, individuals aged between 35 and 55 years, living in the East and West of Scotland will be invited to participate, along with at least one (and preferably more siblings and any other first degree relatives aged 18 or over. The total initial sample size will be 15,000 and it is planned that this will increase to 50,000 in Phase 2. All participants will be asked to contribute blood samples from which DNA will be extracted and stored for future investigation. The information from the DNA, along with answers to a life-style and medical history questionnaire, clinical and biochemical measurements taken at the time of donation, and subsequent health developments over the life course (traced through electronic health records will be stored and used for research purposes. In addition, a detailed public consultation process will begin that will allow respondents' views to shape and develop the study. This is an important aspect to the research, and forms the continuation of a long-term parallel engagement process. Discussion As well as gene identification, the family-based study design will allow measurement of the heritability and familial aggregation of relevant quantitative traits, and the study of how genetic effects may vary by parent-of-origin. Long-term potential outcomes of this research include the targeting of

  8. Comparing Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale across three UK post-industrial cities.

    Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; McCullough, Sarah; Buchanan, Duncan; Jones, Russell

    2014-11-25

    High levels of 'excess' mortality (ie, that seemingly not explained by deprivation) have been shown for Scotland compared to England and Wales and, especially, for its largest city, Glasgow, compared to the similarly deprived English cities of Liverpool and Manchester. It has been suggested that this excess may be related to differences in 'Sense of Coherence' (SoC) between the populations. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether levels of SoC differed between these cities and whether, therefore, this could be a plausible explanation for the 'excess'. Three post-industrial UK cities: Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. A representative sample of more than 3700 adults (over 1200 in each city). SoC was measured using Antonovsky's 13-item scale (SOC-13). Multivariate linear regression was used to compare SoC between the cities while controlling for characteristics (age, gender, SES etc) of the samples. Additional modelling explored whether differences in SoC moderated city differences in levels of self-assessed health (SAH). SoC was higher, not lower, among the Glasgow sample. Fully adjusted mean SoC scores for residents of Liverpool and Manchester were, respectively, 5.1 (-5.1 (95% CI -6.0 to -4.1)) and 8.1 (-8.1 (-9.1 to -7.2)) lower than those in Glasgow. The additional modelling confirmed the relationship between SoC and SAH: a 1 unit increase in SoC predicted approximately 3% lower likelihood of reporting bad/very bad health (OR=0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.98)): given the slightly worse SAH in Glasgow, this resulted in slightly lower odds of reporting bad/very bad health for the Liverpool and Manchester samples compared to Glasgow. The reasons for the high levels of 'excess' mortality seen in Scotland and particularly Glasgow remain unclear. However, on the basis of these analyses, it appears unlikely that a low SoC provides any explanation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  9. An overview of atmospheric mercury monitoring at Auchencorth Moss, the UK EMEP Supersite in southern Scotland: trends, patterns and a source analysis

    Kentisbeer J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury has been measures semi-continuously at the Auchencorth Moss field site in southern Scotland since 2004. Here we present an analysis of the data from 2009 to 2011 for the three species: elemental, gaseous oxidized (GOM and particulate bound (PBM mercury. Measurements of elemental mercury were made using the Tekran 2537A analyser and the Tekran 1130 and 1135 speciation units were used to collect GOM and PBM respectively. The data shows no upward or downward trend for elemental mercury, with yearly average concentrations between 1.3 and 1.5 ng m-3. We will continue the work started in Kentisbeer et al, 2010 to analyse the effect of wind direction on the mercury species, making further of air mass back trajectories and introducing cluster analysis to investigate the effects of longer rangetransport to the site.

  10. Always looking on the bright side of life? Exploring optimism and health in three UK post-industrial urban settings.

    Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; McCullough, Sarah; van der Pol, Marjon; Buchanan, Duncan; Jones, Russell

    2015-09-01

    Many theories have been proposed to explain the high levels of 'excess' mortality (i.e. higher mortality over and above that explained by differences in socio-economic circumstances) shown in Scotland-and, especially, in its largest city, Glasgow-compared with elsewhere in the UK. One such proposal relates to differences in optimism, given previously reported evidence of the health benefits of an optimistic outlook. A representative survey of Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester was undertaken in 2011. Optimism was measured by the Life Orientation Test (Revised) (LOT-R), and compared between the cities by means of multiple linear regression models, adjusting for any differences in sample characteristics. Unadjusted analyses showed LOT-R scores to be similar in Glasgow and Liverpool (mean score (SD): 14.7 (4.0) for both), but lower in Manchester (13.9 (3.8)). This was consistent in analyses by age, gender and social class. Multiple regression confirmed the city results: compared with Glasgow, optimism was either similar (Liverpool: adjusted difference in mean score: -0.16 (95% CI -0.45 to 0.13)) or lower (Manchester: -0.85 (-1.14 to -0.56)). The reasons for high levels of Scottish 'excess' mortality remain unclear. However, differences in psychological outlook such as optimism appear to be an unlikely explanation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Barriers to uptake and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among communities most affected by HIV in the UK: findings from a qualitative study in Scotland.

    Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa M

    2014-11-20

    To explore the acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among gay, bisexual and men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrant African communities in Scotland, UK. Consecutive mixed qualitative methods consisting of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) explored PrEP acceptability. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically to identify anticipated and emerging themes. Participants were recruited through community sexual health and outreach support services, and from non-sexual health settings across Scotland. Inclusion criteria included identification as either MSM and/or from migrant African communities; 18 years and older; living in Scotland at the time of participation. 7 FGs were conducted (n=33): 5 with MSM (n=22) and 2 mixed-sex groups with African participants (n=11, women=8), aged 18-75 years. 34 IDIs were conducted with MSM (n=20) and African participants (n=14, women=10), aged 19-60 years. The sample included participants who were HIV-positive and HIV-negative or untested (HIV-positive FG participants, n=22; HIV-positive IDI participants, n=17). Understandings of PrEP effectiveness and concerns about maintaining regular adherence were identified as barriers to potential PrEP uptake and use. Low perception of HIV risk due to existing risk management strategies meant few participants saw themselves as PrEP candidates. Participants identified risk of other sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy as a concern which PrEP did not address for either themselves or their sexual partners. PrEP emerged as a contentious issue because of the potentially negative implications it had for HIV prevention. Many participants viewed PrEP as problematic because they perceived that others would stop using condoms if PrEP was to become available. PrEP implementation needs to identify appropriate communication methods in the context of diverse HIV literacy; address risk-reduction concerns and; demonstrate how PrEP can be part of a

  12. Comparing early years and childhood experiences and outcomes in Scotland, England and three city-regions: a plausible explanation for Scottish 'excess' mortality?

    Taulbut, Martin; Walsh, David; O'Dowd, John

    2014-10-10

    Negative early years and childhood experiences (EYCE), including socio-economic circumstances, parental health and parenting style, are associated with poor health outcomes both in childhood and adulthood. It has also been proposed that EYCE were historically worse in Scottish areas, especially Glasgow and the Clyde Valley, compared to elsewhere in the UK and that this variation can provide a partial explanation for the excess of ill health and mortality observed among those Scottish populations. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to two large, representative, British birth cohorts (the NCDS58 and the BCS70), to test the independent association of area of residence at ages 7 and 5 with risk of behavioural problems, respiratory problems and reading/vocabulary problems at the same age. Cohort members resident in Scotland were compared with those who were resident in England, while those resident in Glasgow and the Clyde Valley were compared with those resident in Merseyside and Greater Manchester. After adjustment for a range of relevant variables, the risk of adverse childhood outcomes was found to be either no different, or lower, in the Scottish areas. At a national level, the study reinforces the combined association of socio-economic circumstances, parental health (especially maternal mental health) and parenting with child health outcomes. Based on these samples, the study does not support the hypothesis that EYCE were worse in Scotland and Glasgow and the Clyde Valley. It seems, therefore (based on these data), less likely that the roots of the excess mortality observed in the Scottish areas can be explained by these factors.

  13. Biodiversity characterisation and hydrodynamic consequences of marine fouling communities on marine renewable energy infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK.

    Want, Andrew; Crawford, Rebecca; Kakkonen, Jenni; Kiddie, Greg; Miller, Susan; Harris, Robert E; Porter, Joanne S

    2017-08-01

    As part of ongoing commitments to produce electricity from renewable energy sources in Scotland, Orkney waters have been targeted for potential large-scale deployment of wave and tidal energy converting devices. Orkney has a well-developed infrastructure supporting the marine energy industry; recently enhanced by the construction of additional piers. A major concern to marine industries is biofouling on submerged structures, including energy converters and measurement instrumentation. In this study, the marine energy infrastructure and instrumentation were surveyed to characterise the biofouling. Fouling communities varied between deployment habitats; key species were identified allowing recommendations for scheduling device maintenance and preventing spread of invasive organisms. A method to measure the impact of biofouling on hydrodynamic response is described and applied to data from a wave-monitoring buoy deployed at a test site in Orkney. The results are discussed in relation to the accuracy of the measurement resources for power generation. Further applications are suggested for future testing in other scenarios, including tidal energy.

  14. Promoting breast screening in Glasgow.

    Cohen, L; Dobson, H; McGuire, F

    2000-03-01

    To establish whether there is a role for advertising in the promotion of the Breast Screening Programme and what the role of advertising might be. Four hundred and sixty questionnaires were completed by women attending their breast screening appointment. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the static unit at Calder Street and the mobile unit in Govan. The advertising (budget 30,000 Pounds) campaign ran over an eight week period in the Govan, Paisley Road West and Cardonald areas of Glasgow. Media used included press advertising, The Glasgow Underground, adshells, bus advertising (interiors) and poster distribution via local outlets. Forty-two per cent of the sample were aware of the campaign. Ninety-seven per cent liked the campaign images. Eighty eight per cent felt that breast screening should be advertised more. Screening uptake increased in the areas covered by the advertising campaign. Govan -58%-71% and Ibrox (Paisley Road West and Cardonald) -59%-61%. Women were very supportive of the role of advertising for the Breast Screening Programme. In particular they found the campaign images and messages reassuring, supportive and credible. Their views suggest that the role of advertising should be: To raise awareness of the service To make women more conscious of the benefits of screening To change public perceptions of the screening process However, it is recognised that a fully integrated approach is required for the promotion of the service to account for the improvement in uptake, as advertising cannot be expected to work in isolation.

  15. Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis

    Leyland Alastair H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

  16. Windfarms and telecommunications towers (Scotland)

    Munro, Hector; Kellett-Bowman, Elaine; Harris, David

    1996-01-01

    A debate in the United Kingdom House of Commons on the environmental impact of windfarms and telecommunications towers in Scotland is reported. Concern was expressed over the adverse visual impact of such structures in rural areas which are often of considerable natural beauty. Counter arguments were based on the positive effects of new technology. The need to reconcile environmental protection with technological innovation was expressed. A Government spokesman described the comprehensive planning policy framework which has been put in place to secure sound planning decisions on renewable energy developments and the conditions on amenity protection in the regulations governing the erection of telecommunications towers. (UK)

  17. Windfarms and telecommunications towers (Scotland)

    Munro, Hector; Kellett-Bowman, Elaine; Harris, David [and others

    1996-10-30

    A debate in the United Kingdom House of Commons on the environmental impact of windfarms and telecommunications towers in Scotland is reported. Concern was expressed over the adverse visual impact of such structures in rural areas which are often of considerable natural beauty. Counter arguments were based on the positive effects of new technology. The need to reconcile environmental protection with technological innovation was expressed. A Government spokesman described the comprehensive planning policy framework which has been put in place to secure sound planning decisions on renewable energy developments and the conditions on amenity protection in the regulations governing the erection of telecommunications towers. (UK)

  18. Law and forensic medicine in Scotland.

    Pounder, D J

    1993-12-01

    Scotland was an independent nation state until 1707 when it became the most northerly part of the United Kingdom. Today Scotland, constitutionally, is less than a state or a province in a federal union, but retains vestiges of its ancient sovereignty by having its own legal system and separate administration. English law and Scots law are two quite separate systems--a unique constitutional phenomenon within a unitary state. Scots law is a "mixed" legal system embodying aspects of both the Romano-Germanic and Anglo-American families of legal systems. A central feature is the public prosecution of crimes under the control of the Lord Advocate and the Crown Office in Edinburgh. The hierarchy of criminal courts comprises the High Court of Justiciary, the Sheriff court, and the District court. For serious offences, criminal trial is by "solemn procedure" before a judge sitting with a jury of 15 persons whose verdict of "guility", "not guilty", or "not proven" may be reached by majority. The prosecution must prove its case beyond reasonable doubt on corroborated evidence. The essential requirement for corroboration means that two pathologists must perform and sign the report on any autopsy related to criminal proceedings. The writ of habeus corpus is not operative in Scotland, but there are strict rules to prevent an accused person from languishing in prison without trial. Under solemn procedure the trial must begin within 110 days or the accused is freed with immunity from further prosecution for the crime charged. Procurators fiscal are the public prosecutors whose responsibilities include the investigation of crime and all sudden, suspicious, or unexplained deaths. There are no coroners in Scotland. Investigations are performed in private and it is uncommon for a public inquiry ("a Fatal Accident Inquiry") to be held. A Fatal Accident Inquiry is an inquisitorial proceeding heard before a sheriff sitting without a jury. In Scotland, unlike in England, the more serious

  19. Reflections on the astronomy of Glasgow

    Clarke, David

    2013-01-01

    How Astronomy contributed to the educational enlightenment of Glasgow, to its society and to its commerce. The words 'Astronomy' and 'Glasgow' seem an incongruous juxtaposition, and yet the two are closely linked over 500 years of history. This is a tale of enlightenment and scientific progress at both institutional and public levels. Combined with the ambitions of civic commerce, it is a story populated with noteworthy personalities and intense rivalries.It is remarkable to realise that the first Astronomy teaching in the Glasgow 'Colledge' presented an Earth-centred Universe, prior to the Co

  20. Walkability around primary schools and area deprivation across Scotland.

    Macdonald, Laura; McCrorie, Paul; Nicholls, Natalie; Ellaway, Anne

    2016-04-14

    A number of studies based in the US, Canada, and Australia, have found evidence of associations between the built environment (BE) and mode of transport to school, and links between active travel and deprivation. Limited research in the UK compares potential BE supports for walking to school by area deprivation. Within this study, we gathered data on BE attributes previously linked to active travel, i.e., street/path connectivity, and dwelling density, created a composite 'walkability score' (WS) for areas around primary schools across urban Scotland, and explored whether poorer areas exhibit lower scores than more affluent areas, or vice versa. We consider this to be a novel approach as few studies have compared BE features by deprivation across a whole country. Address and road/path maps were obtained and primary schools (N = 937) across mainland Scotland were mapped. Schools were attributed income deprivation scores (scores divided into quintiles (Q1: least deprived, Q5: most deprived)). Catchment area (CA) boundaries, i.e., the geographic area representing eligibility for local school attendance, were drawn around schools, and WS calculated for each CA. We compared mean WS by income quintile (ANOVA), for all local authorities (LAs) combined (N = 29), and separately for the four LAs with the greatest number of schools included in the analysis. For all LAs combined, the least deprived quintile (Q1) showed a significantly lower WS (-0.61), than quintiles 3, 4 and 5 (Q2: -0.04 (non-sig), Q3: 0.38, Q4: 0.09, Q5: 0.18); while for Glasgow the second least deprived quintile (Q2) showed significantly higher WS (Q1: 1.35, Q2: 1.73), than middling (Q3: 0.18) and most deprived quintiles (Q4: 0.06, Q5: -0.10). WS differ by deprivation with patterns varying depending on the spatial scale of the analysis. It is essential that less walkable areas are provided with the resources to improve opportunities to engage in active travel.

  1. Performance of New Thresholds of the Glasgow Blatchford Score in Managing Patients With Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Laursen, Stig B; Dalton, Harry R; Murray, Iain A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) is a common cause of hospital admission. The Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS) is an accurate determinant of patients' risk for hospital-based intervention or death. Patients with a GBS of 0 are at low risk for poor outcome and could....... METHODS: We performed an observational study of 2305 consecutive patients presenting with UGIH at 4 centers (Scotland, England, Denmark, and New Zealand). The performance of each threshold and modification was evaluated based on sensitivity and specificity analyses, the proportion of low-risk patients...

  2. Filmmaking in Scotland

    Archibald, David

    2014-01-01

    In this short paper, I attempt to lay out the current state of film-making in Scotland before addressing four separate but connected issues: film funding, a film studio, the \\ud filmmaking community’s attitude towards Creative Scotland, and film education.

  3. Quality in general practice consultations; a qualitative study of the views of patients living in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Scotland

    Bikker Annemieke P

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequality in health and health care services is an important policy issue internationally as well as in the UK, and is closely linked to socio-economic deprivation, which in Scotland is concentrated in and around Glasgow. Patients views on primary care in deprived areas are not well documented. In the present study we explore the views of patients living in a high deprivation area on the quality of consultations in general practice. Methods Qualitative focus group study set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in a large peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 11 focus groups were conducted; 8 with local community groups and 3 with other local residents. In total 72 patients took part. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. Results Patients' perceptions of the quality of the consultation with GPs consisted of two broad, inter-relating themes; (1 the GPs' competence, and (2 the GPs empathy or ' caring'. Competence was often assumed but many factors coloured this assumption, in particular whether patients had experienced (directly or indirectly with a close family member 'successful' outcomes with that doctor previously or not. 'Caring' related to patients feeling (a listened to by the doctor and being able to talk; (b valued as an individual by the doctor (c that the doctor understood 'the bigger picture', and (d the doctors' explanations were clear and understandable. Relational continuity of care (being able to see the same GP and having a good relationship, and having sufficient time in the consultation were closely linked with perceptions of consultation quality. Conclusion Patients from deprived areas want holistic GPs who understand the realities of life in such areas and whom they can trust as both competent and genuinely caring. Without this, they may judge doctors as socially distant and emotionally detached. Relational continuity, empathy and sufficient time in consultations are key factors

  4. The "Spirit of New Orleans": translating a model of intervention with maltreated children and their families for the Glasgow context.

    Minnis, Helen; Bryce, Graham; Phin, Louise; Wilson, Phil

    2010-10-01

    Children in care have higher rates of mental health problems than the general population and placement instability contributes to this. Children are both most vulnerable to the effects of poor quality care and most responsive to treatment in the early weeks and months of life yet, in the UK, permanency decisions are generally not in place until around the age of four. We aimed to understand the components of an innovative system for assessing and intervening with maltreated children and their families developed in New Orleans and to consider how it might be implemented in Glasgow, UK. During and after a visit to New Orleans by a team of Glasgow practitioners, eight key interviews and meetings with New Orleans and Glasgow staff were audio-recorded. Qualitative analysis of verbatim transcripts identified key themes. Themes highlighted shared aspects of the context and attitudes of the two teams, identified gaps in the Glasgow service and steps that would be needed to implement a version of the New Orleans model in Glasgow. Our discussions with the New Orleans team have highlighted concrete steps we can take, in Glasgow, to make better decision-making for vulnerable children a reality.

  5. Ideals of ITE students at Glasgow University

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Conroy, J.C.; Lappin, M.; McKinney, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of a questionnaire completed by initial teacher education (ITE) students at the University of Glasgow shows a clear divergence between their personal and professional ideals. The students define their own ideals predominantly in terms of situations, like being married, having children or

  6. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  7. Wind power in Scotland - a critique of recent resource assessments

    Twidell, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A critical analysis of 4 recent UK official reports relating to the renewable energy resources of Scotland, particularly the large wind resource, and including institutional and economic factors. Key points are listed with comments for use in supporting wind power developments. (Author)

  8. Designing a culture of resilience: Embedding innovation in health and social care integration in Scotland

    Raman, Sneha; French, Tara

    2017-01-01

    As part of the work within the Digital Health and Care Institute Innovation Centre, which the Glasgow School of Art is a founding partner, our research has involved a number of collaborative sessions engaging with decision-makers, strategy teams and stakeholders in government, NHS, social care and third sector. The focus of this work has explored a participatory design approach to strategy and policy design, in line with the strategic health and social care agenda in Scotland, developing pers...

  9. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil

    Farmer, J G [Univ. of Glasgow; Lyon, T D.B.

    1977-07-01

    The levels of lead in city street dirt and in soil from various locations in Glasgow were investigated during spring 1976. Lead concentrations in street dirt ranged from 150 to 2300 ppM, mean 960 ppM, and were significantly elevated with respect to the observed ''natural'' level of 78 ppM. Lead derived from anti-knock compounds in petrol and introduced to the environment via automobile exhausts was clearly implicated as the main source of lead pollution in a series of soil lead measurements at the centre and periphery of eight Glasgow parks. Various chemical leaching techniques were employed and compared. Less than 5 percent of street dirt and soil lead was found to be associated with the organic phase.

  10. Teacher Education in Scotland

    Munn, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Using the notion of travelling global policy, this paper discusses the ways in which teacher education in Scotland has responded to world-wide demands on school systems. It highlights the embedded practices which have resisted an unequivocal move to a market-based approach in initial teacher education and contrasts this with approaches to…

  11. Nuclear prospects in the UK

    Hawley, Robert

    1993-01-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s the UK government decided to privatise the UK electricity supply industry. In order to introduce competition into the generation side of the business it was decided that the large generating boards - the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and in Scotland, the South of Scotland Electricity Board and North of Scotland Hydro Board, - should be split up into smaller companies. In England and Wales two companies were proposed. The larger company National Power would include the nuclear generating business in England and Wales, the smaller company, Power Gen would use fossil generation only. Scotland was also to have two companies, Scottish Power - including Scotland's nuclear stations - and Scottish Hydro. But these were troubled times for the UK nuclear industry. A lot of misinformation was being issued by its opponents, in particular about decommissioning and fuel reprocessing costs. Looking back I can see there were reasons for that. Both National Power and Scottish Power wanted to be absolutely certain that they got the best possible deal and that every imaginable, and unimaginable, cost that may ever arise would be taken care of. This attitude resulted in the estimate of huge liabilities and 'unprecedented guarantees' that the then Secretary of State for Energy in the UK, could not accept

  12. SCOTLAND AND EUROPE, OR: ROOM AT THE TOP FOR 'CONSTITUTIONAL REGIONS'?

    Eberhard Bort

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Scotland, it is sometimes said, is more Euro-friendly than the rest of Britain. And, yes, some opinion polls would support that. Scotland is slightly more favourably disposed towards the Euro. And outright Euro-scepticism is not as thick on the ground as in the southern parts of England. But the differences are pretty marginal. Scotland's love for Europe might be more fiction than fact. And yet, as is often the case with myths, it is an important factor in Scottish politics. But the real issue for Scotland and Europe in the immediate future is its representation and participation in the governance of the European Union. With devolution in the UK, Scotland – with its own Parliament and Executive – has been firmly put on the political map of Europe. Together with similarly powered 'regions', Scotland's Parliament and Executive are making their case for an input of the 'third level' into a multi-level system of European governance. Is there room at the top for Scotland and the 'constitutional regions' of Europe? The answer to this question may play a significant role in determining Scotland's future: either as an integrated part of both the UK and Europe, or as an 'independent' state in the European Union.

  13. Dietary manganese in the Glasgow area

    Cross, J.D.; Dale, I.M.; Raie, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The manganese content of the diet and human tissue (adult and infant) in the Glasgow area is established. The total manganese intake by a breast fed infant (6 μg/day) is very much lower than that of an adult (5 mg/day). This does not appear to cause any upset in the infant's metabolism and the tissue levels of both groups are similar. This indicates that the human system can obtain its required manganese from both levels of intake. Tea is the major source of manganese in the diet: tobacco, which is rich in manganese, does not contribute a significant amount when smoked. (author)

  14. Developing ECEC Services in Regionalised Administrations: Scotland's Post-Devolution Experience

    Cohen, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Devolution within the United Kingdom (UK) forms part of increased regionalisation in the European Union (EU). The post-devolution history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Scotland illustrates problems arising from split responsibilities and nation-state policies that fail to take adequate account of devolved administrations. UK-led…

  15. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  16. Wheat Prices, Bread Consumption and Health in Scotland

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Leat, Philip M.K.; Toma, Luiza; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The relative recent rise in food prices has increased concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has revived interest in food price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical forms of cereals use in the UK. Moreover, nutritionists recommend the consu...

  17. Dietary selenium in the Glasgow area

    Cross, J.D.; Raie, R.M.; Smith, H.

    1978-01-01

    A typical diet for people in the Glasgow area is analysed and an estimate is made of the daily intake of selenium for the average person (234 μg). Meat, poultry and bread products contribute 65% of the total selenium consumed. There is a significant loss of selenium on cooking but the concentration in the diet is high compared with the estimated requirement. Selenium levels in prepared infant foods, artificial milk and natural milk are reported. Those infants on artificial milk feeds have a selenium intake equivalent to that of adults (3 μg/kg) while those on natural milk or prepared infant foods have an intake of 6 μg/kg. Adult and infant tissue selenium levels are established and are shown to be in equilibrium with the diet. There is no concentration in man as a result of his position at the top of the food chain. Sudden infant death cannot be related to selenium levels in human tissue or diet. (author)

  18. Perceptions of smoking cessation among Glasgow's Chinese community

    William Spence

    2017-10-01

    Smoking-cessation services should consider the culture of this ethnic minority population to improve cessation uptake. Further investigation of this community’s needs and expectations is needed to tailor smoking-cessation interventions for Chinese immigrants in Glasgow.

  19. Does the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale add value to the conventional Glasgow Outcome Scale?

    Weir, James; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Butcher, Isabella; Lu, Juan; Lingsma, Hester F; McHugh, Gillian S; Roozenbeek, Bob; Maas, Andrew I R; Murray, Gordon D

    2012-01-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is firmly established as the primary outcome measure for use in Phase III trials of interventions in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the GOS has been criticized for its lack of sensitivity to detect small but clinically relevant changes in outcome. The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) potentially addresses this criticism, and in this study we estimate the efficiency gain associated with using the GOSE in place of the GOS in ordinal analysis of 6-month outcome. The study uses both simulation and the reanalysis of existing data from two completed TBI studies, one an observational cohort study and the other a randomized controlled trial. As expected, the results show that using an ordinal technique to analyze the GOS gives a substantial gain in efficiency relative to the conventional analysis, which collapses the GOS onto a binary scale (favorable versus unfavorable outcome). We also found that using the GOSE gave a modest but consistent increase in efficiency relative to the GOS in both studies, corresponding to a reduction in the required sample size of the order of 3-5%. We recommend that the GOSE be used in place of the GOS as the primary outcome measure in trials of TBI, with an appropriate ordinal approach being taken to the statistical analysis.

  20. Acanthamoeba keratitis in Scotland: risk factors for contact lens wearers.

    Seal, D V; Kirkness, C M; Bennett, H G; Peterson, M

    1999-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for Acanthamoeba keratitis amongst contact lens wearers in Scotland. Patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis in the Scottish study, all of whom wore contact lenses, were compared with 46 healthy asymptomatic contact lens-wearing controls. They were all visited at home for contact lens and environmental microbiological sampling. In addition, all 288 optical practices in the West of Scotland were polled for contact lens types and disinfecting solutions sold in 1995, and a sample, each of whom fitted more than 500 contact lenses per year, were polled for a second time. Independently, a poll was commissioned by the Eyecare Information Service in July/August 1995 to estimate the numbers of contact lens wearers in Scotland and the UK. Industry was polled for numbers of each contact lens disinfecting regimen sold in Scotland in 1995. West of Scotland, UK. All contact lens wearers among the 3 million population of the West of Scotland Health Board Areas. Risk factors for Acanthamoeba infection and recommendations for its prevention. When Acanthamoeba infection occurred, patients' home water systems were frequently (54%) found to be colonised by this amoeba. Patients more frequently washed their storage cases in tap water than controls (Pmethods (chlorine tablets or no disinfection). However further investigation showed that these methods were associated with an increased probability of rinsing the storage case in tap water, so that these two behaviours are confounded in the group studied. Failure to disinfect contact lenses, non-compliant use of chlorine tablets and/or introduction of tap water rinsing of storage cases were associated with increased risk of Acanthamoeba infection. New multipurpose solutions and hydrogen peroxide gave the lowest risk of Acanthamoeba infection, with no statistically significant difference between them. Ionic high-water content (FDA group 4) contact lenses were at increased risk of being associated with Acanthamoeba

  1. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  2. Regional geochemical maps of uranium in Northern Scotland. Environmental and economic considerations

    Plant, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Institute of Geological Studies geochemical mapping programme is outlined. The natural levels of uranium in rocks, soils and waters are discussed. Some practical details of geochemical mapping are given. Applications of geochemical maps of uranium in Scotland are considered: economic applications and medical geography and agriculture. A list of 38 references is appended. (U.K.)

  3. Plus C'est La Même Chose: Joinery Apprenticeship Arrangements in Scotland

    Anderson, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines recent changes in the Scottish apprenticeship system of skill formation for joiners through an occupational skill ecosystem lens. Building trade apprenticeships in Scotland are based around a social partnership model more akin to "dual systems" than typical arrangements elsewhere in the UK. Drawing on in-depth…

  4. The trivial round, the common task: minutes of the Missionary Board of the Glasgow Missionary Society (1838-1843

    J. S. Ross

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to bring to attention a hitherto little-known account of missionary life among the Xhosa people in the Cape Colony during the period 1838-1843 as contained in “The minute book of the Missionary Board of the Glasgow Missionary Society, adhering to the principles of the Church of Scotland, in Caffraria, and in the neighbouring Colony” (MBGMS. The Missionary Board was responsible for providing adequate material infrastructure and logistical support to enable the accomplishment of the aspirations of the Society. The author argues that such mundane work is often neglected in modern missiological historiography, which focuses rather on the more “‘spiritual” aspects of mission work. The historiographic approach adopted in this article is that of modern narrative history. By focusing on some of the themes, trends and struc- tures presenting themselves in the record, the MBGMS is permitted to speak for itself with relatively little retrospective interpretation. It is demonstrated that the Board made an important contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Glasgow Missionary Society, as seen in the rise of a Xhosa middle class and the emergence of a significant group of black intellectuals, whose voice and influence are being recovered after years of enforced neglect.

  5. Real-time forecasts of flood hazard and impact: some UK experiences

    Cole Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Major UK floods over the last decade have motivated significant technological and scientific advances in operational flood forecasting and warning. New joint forecasting centres between the national hydrological and meteorological operating agencies have been formed that issue a daily, national Flood Guidance Statement (FGS to the emergency response community. The FGS is based on a Flood Risk Matrix approach that is a function of potential impact severity and likelihood. It has driven an increased demand for robust, accurate and timely forecast and alert information on fluvial and surface water flooding along with impact assessments. The Grid-to-Grid (G2G distributed hydrological model has been employed across Britain at a 1km resolution to support the FGS. Novel methods for linking dynamic gridded estimates of river flow and surface runoff with more detailed offline flood risk maps have been developed to obtain real-time probabilistic forecasts of potential impacts, leading to operational trials. Examples of the national-scale G2G application are provided along with case studies of forecast flood impact from (i an operational Surface Water Flooding (SWF trial during the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games, (ii SWF developments under the Natural Hazards Partnership over England & Wales, and (iii fluvial applications in Scotland.

  6. Mortality in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde employees: 2007-2009.

    Freer, K; Waclawski, E

    2013-09-01

    Just over a fifth of all deaths in Scotland occur in those under the age of 65. This study examined deaths in service in employees of the National Health Service Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHS GG&C) Health Board over a 3-year period. To assess crude death rates by occupational group, the main causes of death and evidence of causes that could have been prevented or modified by lifestyle changes. Demographic details, occupational grouping and death certificate data were obtained for all NHS GG&C employees who died in service between 2007 and 2009. A total of 138 employees died in this period. The occupational groups in which most deaths occurred were support services (porters, domestic and catering staff; 35%) and nurses (34%). The commonest causes of death were lung cancer (15%), ischaemic heart disease (9%) and suicide (9%). The overall crude death rate was 1.2/1000 persons/year (females 1.0 and males 1.7) and was highest among support services employees (2.4) and lowest among medical staff (0.5). The relative risk of death in support services was significantly greater than the majority of occupational groups. These findings suggest health inequality within this workforce. The main causes of death identified in the support services group could potentially be modified through workplace risk factor screening and health promotion.

  7. UK nuclear power: gone but not forgotten

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in Britain will not now be privatised. The future of nuclear power in the UK is discussed. In Scotland the South of Scotland Electricity Board will be expecting to sell some of its electricity to Britain. The structure of the new electricity supply industry in Scotland will also be unusual with most of the country's electricity being produced by a state-run company, while two private companies produce the rest and sell it on to customers. The situation in England is uncertain mainly because of the policy and potential costs involved in decommissioning of the Magnox stations as they are shutdown at the end of their service life. The privatisation of the electricity industry has highlighted the problems of decommissioning. It has also shown that the nuclear industry assumed itself to be immortal and has also assumed that money is not important, an attitude which has alarmed the City financiers. (UK)

  8. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  9. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  10. Improving Scotland's health: time for a fresh approach?

    Stone, D H

    2012-05-01

    Scotland's health remains the worst in the UK. There are several probable reasons for this. Of those that are amenable to change, health improvement policy has been excessively preoccupied with targeting individuals perceived to be 'at risk' rather than adopting a whole population perspective. Environmental as opposed to behavioural approaches to health improvement have been relatively neglected. To meet the challenge of Scotland's poor health more effectively in the future, new strategic thinking is necessary. Three initial steps are required: recognize that current approaches are inadequate and that fresh ideas are needed; identify the principles that should underlie future strategy development; translate these principles into achievable operational objectives. Five principles of a revitalized strategy to improve the health of Scotland in the future are proposed. These are start early and sustain effort; create a healthy and safe environment; reduce geographical as well as social inequalities in health; adopt an evidence-based approach to public health interventions; use epidemiology to assess need, plan interventions and monitor progress. These principles may then be translated into achievable operational policy and practice objectives.

  11. The comparison of modified early warning score and Glasgow coma ...

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the discriminatory ability of the Glasgow coma scale (GCS)‑age‑systolic blood pressure (GAP) score and modified early warning scoring system (mEWS) score for 4‑week mortality, for the patients being in the triage category 1 and 2 who refer to Emergency ...

  12. Assessment of physicians' knowledge of Glasgow Coma Score ...

    Background: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most commonly used tool in assessing comatose patients. It is simple, easily communicable, and useful in prognostication and determination of the treatment modality in head injury. Unfortunately, a high percentage of clinicians who are not in the emergency or neurological ...

  13. Spiderman enlisted to help with glasgow child abuse problems.

    1987-11-14

    When Spiderman admitted in a comic that he had been abused as a boy, then children realised they could share their own painful experiences, said a speaker at a conference on Incest and Rape, staged by the Royal College of Nursing Greater Glasgow branch.

  14. 78 FR 67024 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Glasgow, MT

    2013-11-08

    ... aid, Glasgow, MT. A favorable comment from the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) was.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History The FAA published a final rule in the Federal Register establishing Class E..., pursuant to the authority delegated to me, the description under the History heading, as published in the...

  15. Environmental engineering at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow

    Clarke, J.A.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Johnstone, C.M.; McLean, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the recently revised curriculum for the Environmental Engineering course at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow. This is done in relation to course content and scope, design and research projects, the role of experimentation and the deployment of advanced computing in terms

  16. Tellurium Enrichment in Jurassic Coal, Brora, Scotland

    Liam Bullock

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mid-Jurassic pyritic coals exposed at the village of Brora, northern Scotland, UK, contain a marked enrichment of tellurium (Te relative to crustal mean, average world coal compositions and British Isles Carboniferous coals. The Te content of Brora coal pyrite is more than one order of magnitude higher than in sampled pyrite of Carboniferous coals. The Te enrichment coincides with selenium (Se and mercury (Hg enrichment in the rims of pyrite, and Se/Te is much lower than in pyrites of Carboniferous coals. Initial pyrite formation is attributed to early burial (syn-diagenesis, with incorporation of Te, Se, Hg and lead (Pb during later pyrite formation. The source of Te may have been a local hydrothermal system which was responsible for alluvial gold (Au in the region, with some Au in Brora headwaters occurring as tellurides. Anomalous Te is not ubiquitous in coal, but may occur locally, and is detectable by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS.

  17. Imported malaria in Scotland--an overview of surveillance, reporting and trends.

    Unger, Holger W; McCallum, Andrew D; Ukachukwu, Vincent; McGoldrick, Claire; Perrow, Kali; Latin, Gareth; Norrie, Gillian; Morris, Sheila; Smith, Catherine C; Jones, Michael E

    2011-11-01

    Imported malaria cases continue to occur and are often underreported. This study assessed reporting of malaria cases and their characteristics in Scotland. Cases were identified at the study sites of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow and Inverness. The number of cases identified in the period 2003-2008 was compared to surveillance databases from Health Protection Scotland (HPS) and the Malaria Reference Laboratory (MRL). Case characteristics were recorded and analysed. Of 252 cases of malaria diagnosed and treated, an estimated 235 (93.3%) were reported to the MRL. Between 2006 and 2008, 114 of 126 cases (90.5%) were reported to HPS. Plasmodium falciparum caused 173 cases (68.7%). Business and professional travel accounted for 35.3% of cases (higher in Aberdeen), followed by visiting friends and relatives (33.1%) and holiday makers (25.5%). The majority of infections were imported from West Africa and 65.7% of patients for whom data on prophylaxis was available had taken no or inappropriate prophylaxis. Reporting of malaria in Scotland can be improved. There is a continued need to optimise preventive measures and adherence to chemoprophylaxis amongst business travellers, those visiting friends and relatives, and holiday makers in endemic countries in order to reduce imported malaria cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Stones and the Stars Building Scotland's Newest Megalith

    Lunan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    There are at least 48 identified prehistoric stone circles in Scotland.  In truth, very little is known about the people who erected them, and ultimately about what the stone circles were for.  Most stone circles are astronomically aligned, which has led to the modern debate over the significance of the alignments.  The megaliths certainly represented an enormous cooperative effort, would at the very least have demonstrated power and wealth, and being set away from any dwellings probably served a ceremonial, or perhaps religious, purpose. Observations at the site of the stone circles, of solar, lunar, and stellar events, have already cast light on some of the questions about the construction and use of ancient megalithic observatories. In his capacity as manager of the Glasgow Parks Department Astronomy Project, author Duncan Lunan designed and built in the late 1970s Sighthill, the first astronomically aligned stone circle in Britain in over 3,000 years.  The Stones and the Stars examines the case for as...

  19. Greenhouse gas inventories for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990 and 1995. A scoping study

    Salway, A.G.; Dore, C.; Watterson, J.; Murrells, T.

    1999-11-01

    This report presents the results of a scoping study to develop a methodology to produce desegregated greenhouse gas emission inventories for the devoved administrations of the UK. Separate greenhouse gas emission inventories were estimated for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland for the years 1990 and 1995. The gases reported are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and SF{sub 6}. The estimates are consistent with the 1997 UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory and hence the UNFCCC reporting guidelines. Some emissions mainly mobile and offshore sources could not be allocated to any region, so an extra unallocated category was used to report these. Where possible the same methodology was used to calculate the regional emissions as for the UK Inventory. The study showed that the distribution of regional greenhouse gas emissions expressed as global warming potentials in 1995 were: England 75.5%, Scotland, 11.4%; Wales 6.4%; Northern Ireland 3.1%: unallocated, 4%. Following this scoping study, it is intended to publish annually disaggregated inventories for each year from 1990 for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, in addition to the UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory. 50 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs., 2 apps.

  20. Community Business in Scotland: An Alternative Vision of 'Enterprise Culture', 1979-97.

    Murray, Gillian

    2018-06-09

    The force and coherency with which Margaret Thatcher and her inner circle outlined their vision for 'enterprise culture', like so many aspects of Thatcherism, have masked the complexity of its origins and the histories of alternative responses. This article provides a history of an alternative vision for enterprise culture by examining the community business movement in Scotland, the largest experiment of its kind in the UK in the 1980s and a forerunner of social enterprise. Working across Scotland, but with a hub of activity in the Strathclyde region, practitioners worked with local people to find ways to develop their neighbourhood economy while improving their environment, creating jobs, and developing services needed in their area. This article outlines the origins of the movement, the shared values of its founding members, and how their training in community development informed the community business model. It analyses how practitioners put their ideas into practice and the reasons behind the fragmentation of the movement in the 1990s. It argues that although at face value the concept of community business may appear to chime with the dominant political rhetoric of Thatcher's 'enterprise culture', the history of the movement provides a signpost to an alternative, if unrealised, vision for Scotland's recovery from social and economic depression. Where previous historical research has focused on the political consequences of Thatcher's policies in Scotland, this research connects this discussion to the transformation of Scotland's civic society in the wake of deindustrialization.

  1. Performance of new thresholds of the Glasgow Blatchford score in managing patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Laursen, Stig B; Dalton, Harry R; Murray, Iain A; Michell, Nick; Johnston, Matt R; Schultz, Michael; Hansen, Jane M; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B; Blatchford, Oliver; Stanley, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) is a common cause of hospital admission. The Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS) is an accurate determinant of patients' risk for hospital-based intervention or death. Patients with a GBS of 0 are at low risk for poor outcome and could be managed as outpatients. Some investigators therefore have proposed extending the definition of low-risk patients by using a higher GBS cut-off value, possibly with an age adjustment. We compared 3 thresholds of the GBS and 2 age-adjusted modifications to identify the optimal cut-off value or modification. We performed an observational study of 2305 consecutive patients presenting with UGIH at 4 centers (Scotland, England, Denmark, and New Zealand). The performance of each threshold and modification was evaluated based on sensitivity and specificity analyses, the proportion of low-risk patients identified, and outcomes of patients classified as low risk. There were differences in age (P = .0001), need for intervention (P 97%). The GBS at cut-off values of ≤1 and ≤2, and both modifications, identified low-risk patients with higher levels of specificity (40%-49%) than the GBS with a cut-off value of 0 (22% specificity; P < .001). The GBS at a cut-off value of ≤2 had the highest specificity, but 3% of patients classified as low-risk patients had adverse outcomes. All GBS cut-off values, and score modifications, had low levels of specificity when tested in New Zealand (2.5%-11%). A GBS cut-off value of ≤1 and both GBS modifications identify almost twice as many low-risk patients with UGIH as a GBS at a cut-off value of 0. Implementing a protocol for outpatient management, based on one of these scores, could reduce hospital admissions by 15% to 20%. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The potential for biodiesel production in the UK

    Walker, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    Scottish Agricultural Colleges have recently completed an investigation into the potential of biodiesel and other uses of oilseed rape (traditional food use and specialist oils), funded by Scottish Enterprise. The study began as a result of the closure of the Glasgow crusher, which led to either the seed being transported to Liverpool at Pound 10-15/t or exported to Hamburg or Rotterdam - 50% of United Kingdom oilseed exports are out of Scotland. The advantages of Rape Methyl Ester (RME) production have already been spelt out, but the disadvantages are that the costs of production are high and the energy balance can be marginal under some circumstances. (Author)

  3. The wave and tidal resource of Scotland

    Neill, Simon; Vogler, Arne; Lewis, Matt; Goward-Brown, Alice

    2017-04-01

    As the marine renewable energy industry evolves, in parallel with an increase in the quantity of available data and improvements in validated numerical simulations, it is occasionally appropriate to re-assess the wave and tidal resource of a region. This is particularly true for Scotland - a leading nation that the international community monitors for developments in the marine renewable energy industry, and which has witnessed much progress in the sector over the last decade. With 7 leased wave and 17 leased tidal sites, Scotland is well poised to generate significant levels of electricity from its abundant natural marine resources. In this review of Scotland's wave and tidal resource, I present the theoretical and technical resource, and provide an overview of commercial progress. I also discuss issues that affect future development of the marine energy seascape in Scotland, applicable to other regions of the world, including the potential for developing lower energy sites, and grid connectivity.

  4. Measuring the impact of a public awareness campaign to increase Welfare Power of Attorney registrations in Scotland.

    Levin, Kate A; Carson, Jill; Crighton, Emilia

    2017-07-01

    to measure the impact of the 'My Power of Attorney' media campaign on the number of new power of attorney (POA) registrations in Scotland. POA registrations in Scotland processed by the Office of the Public Guardian during January 2010 to June 2015. multilevel Poisson models for POA registrations nested by council and annual quarter were run using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, adjusting for time, campaign (variable ranging between 0 and 5 dependent on intensity of campaign measured by the number of media platforms received) and offset term mid-year population estimate for those aged 25 years+/65 years+. POA registrations saw a reduction between 2010 and 2011 but overall, increased between 2010 and 2015. POA registrations rose by 33.3% in Glasgow City between 2013 and 2014, when the campaign began, while the rest of Scotland saw a rise of 17.3%. When the data were modelled, Relative Risk (RR) of a POA registration increased with increasing intensity of campaign, so that in an area in receipt of the full campaign was RR = 1.31 (1.28, 1.34) that of an area with no campaign. Between council variation persisted after adjustment for campaign (Variance = 0.041 (0.011)). during the period of the campaign, area-level increases in POA registrations were observed associated with the 'My Power of Attorney' timing and location, in an approximate dose-response relationship with campaign intensity, suggesting that this is likely to be due to the campaign that began in Glasgow City. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Proceedings of the international photovoltaic solar energy conference held in Glasgow 1-5 May 2000

    Anon.

    2001-02-01

    The European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conferences are dedicated to accelerating the impetus towards sustainable development of global PV markets. The 16th in the series, held in Glasgow UK, brought together more than 1500 delegates from 72 countries, and provided an important and vital forum for information exchange in the field. The Conference Proceedings place on record a new phase of market development and scientific endeavour in the PV industry, representing current and innovative thinking in all aspects of the science, technology, markets and business of photovoltaics. In three volumes, the Proceedings present some 790 papers selected for presentation by the scientific review committee of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. The Comprehensive range of topics covered comprises: Fundamentals, Novel Devices and New Materials. Thin Film Cells and Technologies. Space Cells and Systems. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Technologies. PV Integration in Buildings. PV Modules and Components of PV Systems. Implementation, Strategies, National Programs and Financing Schemes. Market Deployment in Developing Countries. (author)

  6. Distribution of physical activity facilities in Scotland by small area measures of deprivation and urbanicity

    Ogilvie David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physical activity facilities by area-level deprivation in Scotland, adjusting for differences in urbanicity, and exploring differences between and within the four largest Scottish cities. Methods We obtained a list of all recreational physical activity facilities in Scotland. These were mapped and assigned to datazones. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities relative to population size and quintile of area-level deprivation. Results The results showed that prior to adjustment for urbanicity, the density of all facilities lessened with increasing deprivation from quintiles 2 to 5. After adjustment for urbanicity and local authority, the effect of deprivation remained significant but the pattern altered, with datazones in quintile 3 having the highest estimated mean density of facilities. Within-city associations were identified between the number of physical activity facilities and area-level deprivation in Aberdeen and Dundee, but not in Edinburgh or Glasgow. Conclusions In conclusion, area-level deprivation appears to have a significant association with the density of physical activity facilities and although overall no clear pattern was observed, affluent areas had fewer publicly owned facilities than more deprived areas but a greater number of privately owned facilities.

  7. Tailoring the Glasgow University diagnostic aid for the product storage facilities at TRP

    Howell, J.; Miller, E

    2001-02-01

    This report concludes the work carried out under Task D2(d)/UK D00912: Development of Anomaly Diagnosis Algorithms for a Plutonium Tank Monitoring System, which was the companion to Task D2(c)/UK D00913: Analysis and Diagnosis of Anomalies at Bulk-Handling Nuclear Materials Facilities: Benchmarking and Optimisation. Between them these tasks produced a computer software package that could diagnose anomalies in plant data pertaining to solutions of nuclear materials stored and transported around reprocessing plants. The final goal of Task UK D00912 was to demonstrate to the Agency that the software could be applied to the product storage area at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in Japan. The University of Glasgow does not produce software to any recognisable standard, so this was not an acceptance trial, but a demonstration. It was recognised that further software development would be required before the package could be accepted as a safeguards tool. Being the final report, the report focuses on the issues that are still outstanding so those who choose to continue with this work have a clear understanding of the status of the software. It is taken for granted that the reader appreciates that the package should be able to explain relatively small anomalies (> 0.1 SQ) and has numerous features to estimate evaporation rates, pipe hold-up and so on. Here the focus is on the minor gremlins that are still to be resolved. The report first explains how the software package would be tailored so that it could be implemented at TRP. Of key importance is the fact that the plant uses scanivalves, which multiplex pressure lines from various dip-tubes onto the same pressure transducer. Although suitable for the measurement of a number of signals that are always steady, these devices are less suited to situations where tanks are frequently sparged and where the anomalies of interest inherently relate to changes in data and hence to non-steady operation. This affects the way the data

  8. Regional geochemical maps of uranium in Northern Scotland: Environmental and economic considerations

    Plant, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Institute of Geological Sciences began to prepare a series of regional geochemical maps at a scale of 1:250000, showing the surface distribution of those trace elements which are of economic and environmental significance. Particular interest was shown in uranium, important both for a nuclear fuel, and also for fundamental studies of geological processes. The first series of maps was prepared for the northern Highlands of Scotland. Natural levels of uranium in rocks, soils and water are reviewed. The reasons for selecting Northern Scotland and the effect of the environment on the methods of sampling are discussed. A brief summary is given of some of the main applications of these maps, the most important being to economic geology, agriculture, and medical geography. The maps should make it possible to ensure that development of mineral resources and environmental planning are soundly based. (U.K.)

  9. Women in Eighteenth-century Scotland

    he eighteenth century looms large in the Scottish imagination. It is a century that saw the doubling of the population, rapid urbanisation, industrial growth, the political Union of 1707, the Jacobite Rebellions and the Enlightenment - events that were intrinsic to the creation of the modern nation...... and to putting Scotland on the international map. The impact of the era on modern Scotland can be seen in the numerous buildings named after the luminaries of the period - Adam Smith, David Hume, William Robertson - the endorsement of Robert Burns as the national poet/hero, the preservation of the Culloden...... battlefield as a tourist attraction, and the physical geographies of its major towns. Yet, while it is a century that remains central to modern constructions of national identity, it is a period associated with men. Until recently, the history of women in eighteenth-century Scotland, with perhaps...

  10. Surgery in remote and rural Scotland.

    Sim, Andrew J W; Grant, Fiona; Ingram, Annie K

    2009-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, rural surgery in Scotland has emerged from the backwaters of the Scottish Health service to a recognized and important part of overall health care provision in Scotland. No longer is the rural surgeon regarded by his city colleague as the eccentric poor relation of the urban specialist. The rural surgeon is now more likely to have the skills and experience necessary for the work that must be done. Training pathways are defined to ensure succession planning. The support of the Scottish Government, Health Boards, and the Royal Colleges has been essential; their continued involvement will ensure safe surgery for those who dwell in the more isolated areas of Scotland.

  11. Foundation Year 2 doctors’ reasons for leaving UK medicine: an in-depth analysis of decision-making using semistructured interviews

    Smith, Samantha E.; Tallentire, Victoria R.; Pope, Lindsey M.; Laidlaw, Anita H.; Morrison, Jill

    2018-01-01

    This work was funded by a Scottish Medical Education Research Consortium grant. Objectives:  To explore the reasons that doctors choose to leave UK medicine after their foundation year two posts. Setting : All four regions of Scotland. Participants:  Foundation year two doctors (F2s) working throughout Scotland who were considering leaving UK medicine after foundation training were recruited on a volunteer basis. Maximum variation between participants was sought. Primary and secondary outc...

  12. An Examination of the Association between Seeing Smoking in Films and Tobacco Use in Young Adults in the West of Scotland: Cross-Sectional Study

    Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Sargent, James; Lewars, Heather; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to examine the association between the amount of smoking seen in films and current smoking in young adults living in the west of Scotland in the UK. Cross-sectional analyses (using multivariable logistic regression) of data collected at age 19 (2002-04) from a longitudinal cohort originally surveyed at age 11 (1994-95) were…

  13. Nueva terminal del aeropuerto de Glasgow (Abbotsinch, Inglaterra

    Spence, Basil

    1968-12-01

    Full Text Available This airport substitutes the one at Renfrew, which had become inadequate for the modern volume of traffic. The new airport will handle the intense passenger traffic on the Glasgow London route, which by 1970 it is estimated will reach 970 passengers per hour. Arrangements have been made for a possible enlargement to double the present air traffic capacity of the airport, namely, a maximum of 32 aircraft per hour. The airport building houses everything related to the passengers and offices in the top part, and it has highly modern installations of all types, of which the following are outstanding: the electronic information desks, the bar which is fully air conditioned, and the hall. The general structure is of reinforced concrete, with precast flooring frameworks. The baggage hall has metallic loading tables. The building has a highly impressive external appearance, and is faced with slabs of concrete, whose fine texture has been the result of using carefully chosen formwork of specially grained timber. White slabs and dark brick have also been utilised.Se hizo en sustitución del de Renfrew, que había quedado inadecuado, y dirigirá el intenso movimiento de viajeros y transporte de la ruta Glasgow-Londres, que se calcula, para 1970, en 970 pasajeros a la hora. Por ello, se ha previsto una posible ampliación al doble, con capacidad para un máximo de 33 aviones. El edificio alberga todo lo relacionado con los pasajeros y las oficinas en la parte superior, disponiendo de modernísimas instalaciones de todo tipo, entre las que destacan: los tableros electrónicos y puestos de información, bar y restaurante con climatización total, etc. La estructura general es de hormigón armado con forjados prefabricados; en los muelles es metálica. El aspecto exterior, de una gran elegancia, está conseguido a base de placas de hormigón visto —con bella textura lograda con encofrados muy cuidados de madera rayada—, plaquetas prefabricadas blancas y

  14. The social metabolism of Scotland: An environmental perspective

    Viglia, S.; Matthews, K.B.; Miller, D.G.; Wardell-Johnson, D.; Rivington, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study that developed and applied social metabolism methods to assess the sustainability of a regional economy, particularly the dynamics related to changes in the production and use of energy. The first objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of using existing secondary data sources as a basis for sub-nation state and regional analysis (with the regions in this case differentiating the area based on rurality). The second was to structure the outputs of the analysis in ways that provided comprehensive yet succinct and interpretable assessments of the balance of flows of material, energy and money that underpin the economy, with the intention that ultimately these assessments would be used to inform policymaking. The paper provides an introduction to the key concepts used within social metabolism analysis particularly the use of emergy (a measure of the cumulative environmental support provided to a social-ecological system). This is a unifying metric into which the myriad flows within an economy can be translated and combined in meaningful ways. It does so by, preserving information on both the quantity and quality of flows and so avoiding the need for arbitrary weightings. The paper presents a range of options for the use of emergy-based metrics that could be used to inform policy making. Comparisons for the years 2001 and 2010 are made at country level for Scotland and for three degrees of rurality. The analysis highlights how decisions on the share of the offshore energy sector attributed to Scotland and on the share of services (particularly those imported from beyond U.K.) have profound effects on the sustainability trajectory of the economy and the conclusions that might be drawn for policy. The paper concludes that the methods have the potential to add value to existing administrative datasets, and provide new perspectives that may be of value to policy making, but acknowledges that challenges remain in

  15. Relating quality of life to Glasgow outcome scale health states.

    Kosty, Jennifer; Macyszyn, Luke; Lai, Kevin; McCroskery, James; Park, Hae-Ran; Stein, Sherman C

    2012-05-01

    There has recently been a call for the adoption of comparative effectiveness research (CER) and related research approaches for studying traumatic brain injury (TBI). These methods allow researchers to compare the effectiveness of different therapies in producing patient-oriented outcomes of interest. Heretofore, the only measures by which to compare such therapies have been mortality and rate of poor outcome. Better comparisons can be made if parametric, preference-based quality-of-life (QOL) values are available for intermediate outcomes, such as those described by the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). Our objective was therefore to determine QOL for the health states described by the GOSE. We interviewed community members at least 18 years of age using the standard gamble method to assess QOL for descriptions of GOSE scores of 2-7 derived from the structured interview. Linear regression analysis was also performed to assess the effect of age, gender, and years of education on QOL. One hundred and one participants between the ages of 18 and 83 were interviewed (mean age 40 ± 19 years), including 55 men and 46 women. Functional impairment and QOL showed a strong inverse relationship, as assessed by both linear regression and the Spearman rank order coefficient. No consistent effect or age, gender, or years of education was seen. As expected, QOL decreased with functional outcome as described by the GOSE. The results of this study will provide the groundwork for future groups seeking to apply CER methods to clinical studies of TBI.

  16. Some studies of maternal and infant lead exposure in Glasgow

    Moore, M.R.; Goldberg, A.; Pocock, S.J.; Meredith, A.; Stewart, I.M.; MacAnespie, H.; Lees, R.; Low, A.

    1982-04-01

    In two studies in the city of Glasgow, 236 mothers and their newly born infants and 117 mothers and their 6-weeks old children's environmental lead exposure were examined. In both studies blood lead concentrations were found to correlate significantly with the cube root of the domestic water lead concentrations. In the first study, multiple regression analyses of maternal blood lead and cord blood lead concentrations on other variables showed a significant negative correlation with gestational age. It was also noted that there was an annual fluctuation in maternal blood lead concentration with highest values in the autumn. In the second study, similar relationships were found. Although there was no association between blood lead and sex, age, place of birth or feeding method, as in the previous study, a significant association between social class and blood lead was found. This could be explained on the basis of the significant correlation between water lead and social class. In those mothers who breast fed, breast milk lead concentrations were found to correlate significantly with blood lead concentrations where breast milk lead was around one tenth of blood lead concentration. These studies emphasise the importance of water lead in the economy of environmental lead exposure to mothers and their unborn and newly born infants.

  17. Initial Teacher Education for Minority Medium-of-Instruction Teaching: The Case Study of Scottish Gaelic in Scotland

    Milligan Dombrowski, Lindsay; Danson, Eilidh; Danson, Mike; Chalmers, Douglas; Neil, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gaelic medium education (GME) was established in Scotland in 1985, with 24 students enrolled in that year [Bòrd na Gàidhlig. (n.d.). "Gaelic education." Retrieved May 20, 2013, from http://www.gaidhlig.org.uk/bord/en/our-work/education/index.php (Bòrd na Gàidhlig website)]. Since this time, growth within GME has been incremental, and in…

  18. Modularisation and Vocational Education in Scotland.

    Thomson, Sandy

    In Scotland, vocational education at the professional level takes place in colleges and universities and at the craft and technician level, in further education colleges. Most of the further education/higher education curriculum has been modularized. The following benefits of modularization are claimed: rationalization of resource provision;…

  19. Use of Supermarket Scanner Data to Measure Bread Consumption and Nutrition Choice in Scotland

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Toma, Luiza; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Leat, Philip M.K.; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The recent rise in food prices has increased the concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the discussion around the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has brought back the interest in the price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical ways of cereals use in the UK and nutritionists re...

  20. Bread Prices, Consumption and Nutrition Implications for Scotland: A Regional Analysis Using Supermarket Scanner Data

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Toma, Luiza; Leat, Philip M.K.; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The recent rise in food prices has increased the concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the discussion around the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has brought back the interest in the price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical ways of cereals use in the UK and nutritionists re...

  1. Libraries as 'everyday' settings: the Glasgow MCISS project.

    Whitelaw, Sandy; Coburn, Jonathan; Lacey, Marion; McKee, Martin J; Hill, Carol

    2017-10-01

    A settings-based approach is now well-established in health promotion, initially undertaken in conventional places like schools and workplaces, but more recently being expressed in a wider range of what Torp et al. call 'everyday' settings. In this context, libraries have emerged as another potential setting whose ubiquity and accessibility suggests that they may be particularly effective in addressing health inequalities. Drawing on a case study-the Glasgow Macmillan Cancer Information and Support Services Library project-this paper reports on the potential for seeing 'libraries as settings' and in the context of a set of associated theoretical resources, specifically scrutinizes the nature of initiative implementation. Data were drawn from multiple sources: semi-structured interviews and focus groups with strategic partners and stakeholders, operational staff, project volunteers, service users and members of the general public. Qualitative data were complemented by quantitative insights from surveys with members of the partnership, libraries staff and volunteers. Despite some concerns associated with potentially hostile cultural and financial contexts that might threaten longer term sustainability, insights suggested that in pragmatic terms, the project was attracting sizable 'footfall' and successfully addressing a range of needs. Additionally, the formal implementation processes associated with project implementation were considered to have been highly successful in embedding the model into the library culture. In summary, there is evidence that libraries have the potential to be considered as supportive settings and could act as a model for an emergent vision of what libraries do. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Assessment of physicians' knowledge of Glasgow coma score.

    Emejulu, Jkc; Nkwerem, Spu; Ekweogwu, O C

    2014-01-01

    Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most commonly used tool in assessing comatose patients. It is simple, easily communicable, and useful in prognostication and determination of the treatment modality in head injury. Unfortunately, a high percentage of clinicians who are not in the emergency or neurological services are not conversant with this life-saving tool. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of GCS among physicians practicing in a tertiary institution in South-East Nigeria, and to evaluate the call for a new and simpler scoring system. This study was carried out using the instrument of a structured-questionnaire in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, a federal government tertiary health institution in South-East Zone of Nigeria, which is a 350-bed facility employing about 550 medical doctors of different cadres. A total of 139 questionnaires were distributed to the doctors practicing in the institution who consented to participating in the study. The questionnaires were completed at the point of their administration and completed questionnaires were retrieved on the spot, and data were collated, and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, SPSS version 17.0. Statistical significance was calculated with the chi square, P ≤ 0.5. The modal age group was 20-30 years 66 (48%), and most were resident doctors 99 (66.2%). One week prior to the questionnaire distribution, 56 (42.1%) had been actively involved in emergency care of patients, and 41 (30%) could not recall what GCS stood for. Medical and house officers showed a better knowledge of GCS. There was a poor knowledge of GCS among a good number of physicians practicing in our setting and hence, continuing medical education on GCS is strongly advocated.

  3. The reliability of the Glasgow Coma Scale: a systematic review.

    Reith, Florence C M; Van den Brande, Ruben; Synnot, Anneliese; Gruen, Russell; Maas, Andrew I R

    2016-01-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) provides a structured method for assessment of the level of consciousness. Its derived sum score is applied in research and adopted in intensive care unit scoring systems. Controversy exists on the reliability of the GCS. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize evidence on the reliability of the GCS. A literature search was undertaken in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL. Observational studies that assessed the reliability of the GCS, expressed by a statistical measure, were included. Methodological quality was evaluated with the consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments checklist and its influence on results considered. Reliability estimates were synthesized narratively. We identified 52 relevant studies that showed significant heterogeneity in the type of reliability estimates used, patients studied, setting and characteristics of observers. Methodological quality was good (n = 7), fair (n = 18) or poor (n = 27). In good quality studies, kappa values were ≥0.6 in 85%, and all intraclass correlation coefficients indicated excellent reliability. Poor quality studies showed lower reliability estimates. Reliability for the GCS components was higher than for the sum score. Factors that may influence reliability include education and training, the level of consciousness and type of stimuli used. Only 13% of studies were of good quality and inconsistency in reported reliability estimates was found. Although the reliability was adequate in good quality studies, further improvement is desirable. From a methodological perspective, the quality of reliability studies needs to be improved. From a clinical perspective, a renewed focus on training/education and standardization of assessment is required.

  4. An Exploration of Smoking Behavior of African Male Immigrants Living in Glasgow

    Ezika, Ejiofor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this research study was to explore the smoking behavior of adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow to inform and contribute to primary health promotion frameworks. METHODS 25 adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow were recruited via consecutive sampling by soliciting for participation through the use of flyers, posters and word of mouth. Data collection occurred via semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interviews were audio taped, after which verbatim transcription was carried out and the data analyzed thematically. RESULTS The participants’ smoking habits were influenced by cold weather environment as well as societal norms that appear to make the smoking habit more acceptable in Glasgow than Africa. It appears the more educated the participants were, the fewer cigarettes they smoked. However, there was only a slight difference in the number of cigarettes smoked between participants with a degree and those with a postgraduate degree. CONCLUSION The participants’ smoking habits in Glasgow appear to have increased because of environmental variables associated with living in Glasgow, specifically the cold weather environment and high acceptability of smoking habits in Glasgow. PMID:25741179

  5. Negative stereotypes of the Scottish diet: A qualitative analysis of deep-fried Mars bar references in bestselling newspapers in Scotland, 2011-14.

    Knight, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The Scottish diet is associated in the UK media and popular discourse with unhealthy deep-fried foods. In addition to the stereotype's negative effects on perceptions of Scottish food, culture and people, there is evidence that the stereotype of the Scottish diet has negative effects on food behaviour and public health in Scotland, having been shown to encourage consumption of deep-fried foods and discourage positive dietary change. The most notorious deep-fried food associated with Scotland is the deep-fried Mars bar (DFMB), arguably invented in Stonehaven (near Aberdeen), and first reported in the Scottish and UK press in 1995. This article reports findings from an analysis of newspaper references to the DFMB in the two highest selling newspapers in Scotland, the Scottish Sun and the Daily Record, between 2011 and 2014. A keyword search ("deep fried Mars bar") using the online media database Lexis Library generated 97 unique records, and the resulting dataset was analysed thematically and discursively. Analysis showed that both newspapers clearly associated the DFMB with Scotland. Further, both newspapers portrayed the DFMB and the broader "deep-fried" Scottish diet stereotype ambivalently (mixed positive and negative associations). However, the Daily Record actively criticised the DFMB stereotype much more often than did the Scottish Sun. These findings suggest that the Scottish population encounters different messages in the press about food and nutrition from people elsewhere in the UK, and that these messages vary depending on choice of media in Scotland. Given the known negative effects of the stereotype, differences in Scottish media discourse should be considered a potential factor in persistent health inequalities affecting Scotland. Educational efforts, and opening discussion with journalists and amongst the Scottish public, may be helpful. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating the contribution of rural land uses to greenhouse gas emissions: A case study of North East Scotland

    Feliciano, Diana; Slee, Bill; Hunter, Colin; Smith, Pete

    2013-01-01

    Challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets were set in Scotland by the Climate Change (Scotland) Act in June 2009. The national objective is to reduce GHG emissions by 42% by 2020 and 80% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The GHG emission reduction targets apply both to the traded and non-traded sectors, thus including the rural land use sector. In North East Scotland, rural land uses cover the majority of the land area, with agriculture and forestry representing about 86% and sporting land about 10% of the total area. The objectives of this study were to provide guidance for the development of a regional GHG inventory to estimate methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from rural land uses in North East of Scotland, to compare with that of the United Kingdom (UK), and discuss the advantages of regional GHG inventories for rural land uses. The study mainly followed the guidance of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and adapts these to the region level. Data available for North East Scotland allowed an assessment of annual GHG emissions from livestock and grassland, cropland management and sporting land, as well as carbon sequestered by forests, between 1999 and 2010. Estimated GHG emissions of 1420 ktCO 2 e from livestock, grassland and cropland management obtained in this study for 2009 compare well with estimates for the same region from larger-scale inventories. The methodology described, including the steps undertaken for data collection, the shortcomings found and strategies to overcome these, could be applied to other UK or European regions.

  7. Studies of leukaemia incidence in Scotland

    Urquhart, J.

    1989-01-01

    Scottish Cancer Registration Data and the Small Area Population Data provided by the General Register Office for Scotland offer unique opportunities for carrying out analyses of the incidence of cancer in precisely defined areas. The paper will explore some of the problems of drawing conclusions about the distribution of a rare disease such as childhood cancer and of interpreting results relating to specific sites. Scottish Cancer Registration Data will be used to provide specific examples to illuminate these problems. (author)

  8. Validation of the modified Ranson versus Glasgow score for pancreatitis in a Singaporean population.

    Tan, Yong Hui Alvin; Rafi, Shumaila; Tyebally Fang, Mirriam; Hwang, Stephen; Lim, Ee Wen; Ngu, James; Tan, Su-Ming

    2017-09-01

    The characteristics of patients with acute pancreatitis in multi-ethnic Singapore differ from that of the populations used in formulating the modified Ranson and Glasgow scores. The use of these scoring systems has not previously been validated in the Singaporean setting. This study aims to validate and compare the prognostic use of the modified Ranson and Glasgow scores, and to determine the superiority of one score over the other in predicting the outcome for acute pancreatitis in the Singaporean population. This is a 3-year retrospective study of patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis at our centre. Patients with chronic pancreatitis, acute on chronic pancreatitis, iatrogenic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer as well as those with incomplete Ranson or Glasgow scores were excluded from the study. Case notes and computer records were reviewed for local complications of pancreatitis and organ failure. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves of the Ranson and Glasgow scores were plotted for the prediction of severity and mortality. Between January 2010 and December 2012, 230 cases were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. A majority of the patients had mild pancreatitis (n = 194, 84.3%), and the overall 30-day mortality rate was 3.5% (n = 8). ROC of the Ranson and Glasgow scoring systems for mortality showed an area under curve (AUC) of 0.854 (P = 0.001) and 0.776 (P = 0.008), respectively. For severity, the AUC for the modified Ranson and Glasgow score was calculated to be 0.694 and 0.668, respectively. The ROC curves of Ranson and Glasgow scores for mortality are comparable with that published in earlier studies. In a Singaporean population, the Ranson score is more accurate in the prediction of mortality. However, both scoring systems are poor predictors for severity of acute pancreatitis. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Distribution of optometric practices relative to deprivation index in Scotland.

    Legge, Robin; Strang, Niall C; Loffler, Gunter

    2017-07-19

    The UK National Health Service aims to provide universal availability of healthcare, and eye-care availability was a primary driver in the development of the Scottish General Ophthalmic Services (GOS) model. Accordingly, a relatively equal distribution of optometry practices across socio-economic areas is required. We examined practice distribution relative to deprivation. 672 practices were sampled from nine Health Boards within Scotland. Practices were assigned a deprivation ranking by referencing their postcode with the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) tool (Scottish Executive National Statistics: General Report. 2016). Averaged across Health Boards, the share of practices for the five deprivation quintiles was 25, 33, 18, 14 and 11% from most to least deprived area, respectively. Although there was some variation of relative practice distribution in individual Health Boards, 17 of the 45 regions (nine Health Boards, five quintiles) had a close balance between population and share of practices. There was no clear pattern of practice distribution as a function of deprivation rank. Analysis revealed good correlation between practice and population share for each Health Board, and for the combined data (R2 = 0.898, P Distribution of optometry practices is relatively balanced across socio-economic areas, suggesting that differences in eye-examination uptake across social strata are unrelated to service availability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  10. Euthyroid sick syndrome in head injury patients compared with Glasgow Coma and Outcome Scales

    Palugniok, R.; Kochanska-Dziurowicz, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of the role of euthyroid sick syndrome and pituitary gland hormonal changes and the prognosis of patient mortality after severe brain injury. METHODS: The research was conducted on 65 patients with isolated severe brain injury. Blood samples were obtained as soon as possible after the injury and on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th day after the injury. Blood concentrations of T3, rT3, T4, FT4, TSH, and PRL were estimated. The patients' state of health was evaluated in the sixth hour after the injury, using Glasgow Coma Scale, and after 180 days, using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Multidirectional correlation was sought between the concentrations of the estimated hormones and the score obtained in the Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS: Cluster analysis showed that concentrations of the hormones in the patients who died are grouped in different clusters from those in the patients who survived. This proves that hormonal patterns are different in these groups. Statistically significant lower T3 concentrations were observed on the 3rd day in comparison with the 0 day. Cumulative proportion surviving was lower for the OP group in comparison with the NOP group and amounted to 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: In all patients covered by the research euthyroid sick syndrome was diagnosed. T3 concentration on the 3rd day after the injury together with the evaluation in Glasgow Coma Scale allows for more precise prognosis. (author)

  11. Analysis of suspected wildlife crimes submitted for forensic examinations in Scotland.

    Millins, Caroline; Howie, Fiona; Everitt, Charles; Shand, Michael; Lamm, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the occurrence of suspected wildlife crimes submitted for forensic examination in Scotland in 2010. The study aims were to determine which types of crimes were committed, which species were targeted, and the outcome of investigations, in order to assess the contribution of forensic examinations in the prosecution of wildlife crimes. Information on suspected wildlife crimes submitted between January 1 and December 31, 2010 to the SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services Disease Surveillance Centers, Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture, and to the University of Glasgow, was used. The location of suspected crimes, the species targeted, cause of death, and types of the 188 submitted wildlife crimes were summarized. More information regarding cases involving birds were submitted than cases involving mammals, and included 114 raptors, 14 waterfowl, and 22 "other bird species." Mammal cases (n = 38) included 12 badgers, 8 foxes, 7 deer, 4 hares, and 7 "other mammals." The cause of death was determined in 124 suspected crimes; malicious or accidental trauma was the most likely cause of death in 72, and 33 were poisoned. Forensic evidence supporting criminal activity was found in 53 cases, and poisoning was the most frequent crime recorded. At least five individuals were successfully prosecuted, representing 2.7 % of submissions. It was challenging to track cases from submission through to prosecution and laboratories conducting forensic investigations were often not informed of the outcome of prosecutions or court decisions.

  12. For Sale--Scotland's Most Famous Mountain Range: Land "Ownership" in Scotland

    Slattery, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    The nature of land ownership is infrequently discussed by practitioners of outdoor education, though it is often central to the way they work. The recent controversy over the proposed sale of the Cuillin mountain range on the Isle of Skye in Scotland provoked heated discussion over rights to and benefits of this important place. The main point at…

  13. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    Allardice, R.; Harris, D.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK

  14. Lunar tides in Loch Ness, Scotland

    Pugh, David T.; Woodworth, Philip L.; Bos, Machiel S.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the astronomical tide in Loch Ness, Scotland, which is not directly connected to marine tides. Our measurements of the loch tide are, so far as we know, the first in a European lake where the tide originates primarily from ocean tide loading. Loch Ness is a readily accessible lake and is in a region for which the neighboring ocean tides are large and described well by modern global ocean tide models. The principal tidal constituent, M2, was observed to have an a...

  15. New Models for Initial Teacher Education in Scotland

    Kibble, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the recent article by Lynne Bianchi commenting on the Donaldson report, "Teaching Scotland's future" (Donaldson, 2011). He agrees that the Donaldson report has indeed been a catalyst to drive change across the entire landscape of initial teacher education (ITE) in Scotland. In fact, not only ITE:…

  16. Policy and Practice of Holocaust Education in Scotland

    Cowan, Paula; Maitles, Henry

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the situation in England and Wales, Holocaust education in Scotland is not mandatory and is not delivered to every school student. Still, it is offered frequently. In this article we show how Scotland's changing curriculum, the introduction of Holocaust Memorial Day, and the Lessons from Auschwitz Project have contributed to the…

  17. Urban-rural differences in adolescent eating behaviour: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15-year-olds in Scotland.

    Levin, Kate A

    2014-08-01

    Improving the diet of the Scottish population has been a government focus in recent years. Population health is known to vary between geographies; therefore alongside trends and socio-economic inequalities in eating behaviour, geographic differences should also be monitored. Eating behaviour data from the 2010 Scotland Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey were modelled using multilevel linear and logistic modelling. Data were collected in schools across urban and rural Scotland. Schoolchildren aged 15 years. Adolescents living in remote rural Scotland had the highest consumption frequency of vegetables (on average consumed on 6·68 d/week) and the lowest consumption frequency of sweets and crisps (on 4·27 and 3·02 d/week, respectively). However, it was not in the major four cities of Scotland (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen) but in the geography described by the classification 'other urban' areas (large towns of between 10 000 and 125 000 residents) that adolescents had the poorest diet. Deprivation and rurality were independently associated with food consumption for all but fruit consumption. Sharing a family meal, dieting behaviour, food poverty and breakfast consumption did not differ by rurality. Variance at the school level was significant for fruit and vegetable consumption frequencies and for irregular breakfast consumption, regardless of rurality. Young people from rural areas have a healthier diet than those living in urban areas. The eating behaviours examined did not explain these differences. Future research should investigate why urban-rural differences exist for consumption frequencies of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' foods.

  18. Peat drainage conditions assessment in Scotland

    Poggio, Laura; Artz, Rebekka; Donaldson-Selby, Gillian; Aitkenhead, Matt; Donnelly, David; Gimona, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Large areas of Scotland are covered in peat, providing an important sink of carbon but also a notable source of emission where peatlands are not in good condition. However, despite data from designated sites that peat degradation is common, a detailed spatial assessment of the condition of most peatlands across the whole of Scotland is missing. An assessment of peatland drainage was carried out at >600 random sampling locations with an expert-based estimation of presence or absence of drainage ditches within a 500 metre block using 25 cm resolution aerial imagery. The resulting dataset was modelled using a scorpan-kriging approach, in particular using Generalised Additive Models for the description of the trend. Remote sensing images from different sensors (i.e. MODIS, Landsat and Sentinel 1 and 2) were used. In particular we used indices describing vegetation greenness (Enhanced Vegetation Index), water availability (Normalised Water Difference index), Land Surface Temperature and vegetation productivity. When considering MODIS indices we used time series and phenological summaries. The model provides also uncertainty of the estimations. The derived dataset can then be used in the decision making process for the selection of sites for restoration, emissions estimation and accounting.

  19. Religion, social mobility and education in Scotland.

    Paterson, Lindsay; Iannelli, Cristina

    2006-09-01

    The relationship among religion, education and social mobility in Scotland is analysed statistically using the Scottish Household Survey of 2001. The large sample size allows much greater statistical power for this purpose than any previous source, and thus allows a more reliable assessment of claims that the stratifying effect of religion in Scotland may have declined. The questions investigated are as follows. What are the religious differences in the distributions of class origins and class destinations, in the movement between these (absolute mobility), and in the association of these (relative mobility, or social fluidity)? Do changes in social fluidity across cohorts vary among people with different religious affiliation? Are there religious differences in the association of origins and education, in the association of education and destinations, or in the role of education in social fluidity, and do any of these vary over cohorts? The conclusions are that, in younger cohorts, there is no religious difference in social status, and that in older cohorts Catholics are generally of lower status than Protestants and the non-religious. Social fluidity does not, however, vary among religious groups, even for older cohorts, and does not change over time. The reason for convergence in social status of religious groups over time is probably the equalizing of educational attainment among the groups: there is no evidence for any of the cohorts that the labour-market rewards to education differ by religion.

  20. A case report on near manual strangulation and glasgow coma scale.

    Abstract. Background: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is considered as a gold standard in estimating the prognosis of the comatose patient. The management of the patient relies heavily on this scale. The mechanism of injury must also be included in scor- ing of the GCS. Survival from strangulation is uncommon, and if it ...

  1. Education in nuclear decommissioning in the north of Scotland

    Catlow, F.; Reeves, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the work covered and experience gained in the first two years of operation of DERC, a Centre for Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation in the Highlands of Scotland. The Centre is a unique development which was set up to teach nuclear decommissioning as a separate discipline, address the problem of a declining skills base in the field of nuclear technologies and to take advantage of the unique and exceptional innovative, technical and research opportunities offered through the decommissioning of Britain's fast reactor site at Dounreay. The Centre is an offshoot from North Highland College which is a member of UHI, the University in embryo of the Highlands and Islands. The Centre currently supports ten PhD students completing various diverse projects mainly in the field of nuclear environmental remediation. In addition there area number of full and part time MSc students who participate in NTEC (Nuclear Technology Education Consortium) a consortium of British Universities set up specifically to engender interest and skills in nuclear technology at postgraduate level. At undergraduate level, courses are offered in Nuclear Decommissioning and related subjects as part of Electrical and Mechanical degree courses. In addition to our relationship with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) the Dounreay site licensee, we have links with Rolls-Royce and the Ministry of Defence who also share the Dounreay site and with other stakeholders such as, the UK regulator (HSE/NII), the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), local and international contractors and we liaise with the newly formed Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), who provide some sponsorship and support. We possess our own equipment and laboratories for taking and analysing soil samples and for conducting environmental surveys. Recently we commissioned an aerial survey of contamination in the locality from natural sources, other background levels such as

  2. Urban versus rural populations' views of health care in Scotland.

    Farmer, Jane; Hinds, Kerstin; Richards, Helen; Godden, David

    2005-10-01

    To compare satisfaction with, and expectations of, health care of people in rural and urban areas of Scotland. Questions were included in the 2002 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey (SSAS). The Scottish House-hold Survey urban-rural classification was used to categorize locations. A random sample of 2707 people was contacted to participate in a face-to-face interview and a self-completion questionnaire survey. SPSS (v.10) was used to analyse the data. Relationships between location category and responses were explored using logistic regression analysis. In all, 1665 (61.5%) interviews were conducted and 1507 (56.0%) respondents returned self-completion questionnaires. Satisfaction with local doctors and hospital services was higher in rural locations. While around 40% of those living in remote areas thought A&E services too distant, this did not rank as a top priority for health service improvement. This could be due to expectations that general practitioners would assist in out-of-hours emergencies. Most Scots thought services should be good in rural areas even if this was costly, and that older people should not be discouraged from moving to rural areas because of their likely health care needs. In all, 79% of respondents thought that care should be as good in rural as urban areas. Responses to many questions were independently significantly affected by rural/urban location. Most Scots want rural health care to continue to be good, but the new UK National Health Service (NHS) general practitioner contract and service redesign will impact on provision. Current high satisfaction, likely to be due to access and expectations about local help, could be affected. This study provides baseline data on attitudes and expectations before potential service redesign, which should be monitored at intervals in future.

  3. Slow pace of dietary change in Scotland: 2001-9.

    Wrieden, Wendy L; Armstrong, Julie; Sherriff, Andrea; Anderson, Annie S; Barton, Karen L

    2013-05-28

    Monitoring changes in the food and nutrient intake of a nation is important for informing the design and evaluation of policy. Surveys of household food consumption have been carried out annually in the UK since 1940 and, despite some changes over the years 1940-2000, the method used for the Expenditure and Food Survey (Living Costs and Food Survey from 2008) has been fundamentally the same since 2001. Using these surveys an analytical procedure was devised to compare food consumption and nutrient intake in Scotland with the Scottish dietary targets, and monitor change. This method takes into account contributions to composite foods and losses due to food preparation, as well as inedible and edible waste. There were few consistent improvements in consumption of foods or nutrients targeted for change over the period 2001-9. A significant but small increase was seen in mean fruit and vegetable consumption (259 g/d in 2001, 279 g/d in 2009, equating to an increase of less than 3 g/person per year). There was also a significant decrease in the percentage of food energy from SFA (15·5 % in 2001, 15·1 % in 2009) and from non-milk extrinsic sugars (15·5 % in 2001, 14·8 % in 2009), concurrent with a reduction in whole milk consumption and soft drink consumption, respectively. These small changes are encouraging, but highlight the time taken for even modest changes in diet to occur. To achieve a significant impact on the health of the present Scottish population, the improvements in diet will need to be greater and more rapid.

  4. A comparison of health inequalities in urban and rural Scotland.

    Levin, Kate A; Leyland, Alastair H

    2006-03-01

    Previous research suggests that there are significant differences in health between urban and rural areas. Health inequalities between the deprived and affluent in Scotland have been rising over time. The aim of this study was to examine health inequalities between deprived and affluent areas of Scotland for differing ruralities and look at how these have changed over time. Postcode sectors in Scotland were ranked by deprivation and the 20% most affluent and 20% most deprived areas were found using the Carstairs indicator and male unemployment. Scotland was then split into 4 rurality types. Ratios of health status between the most deprived and most affluent areas were investigated using all cause mortality for the Scottish population, 1979-2001. These were calculated over time for 1979-1983, 1989-1993, 1998-2001. Multilevel Poisson modelling was carried out for all of Scotland excluding Grampian to assess inequalities in the population. There was an increase in inequalities between 1981 and 2001, which was greatest in remote rural Scotland for both males and females; however, male health inequalities remained higher in urban areas throughout this period. In 2001 female health inequalities were higher in remote rural areas than urban areas. Health inequalities amongst the elderly (age 65+) in 2001 were greater in remote rural Scotland than urban areas for both males and females.

  5. Scotland's GP paediatric scholarship: an evaluation.

    MacVicar, Ronald; Borland, Lyndsey; McHale, Sharon; Goh, Dayeel; Potter, Alex

    2018-05-01

    In a previous publication we described the implementation and early evaluation of general practice paediatric scholarships in Scotland. We suggested that it was too early to be able to determine whether this significant investment will produce a return for Scotland in terms of enhanced roles in providing, leading or developing children's services in primary care or at the primary care/secondary care interface. This paper presents the results of a survey of the impact of the scholarship for the first six cohorts of the scholarship (119 General Practitioners). The response rate was 76%. Of the 90 respondents, almost half (44) have developed roles or areas of special paediatric interest either within or out with the practice, or in three cases both within and out with the practice. A total of 37 (43%) of those that continue to work within general practice reported that they have developed areas of special interest of benefit to the practice. Qualitative analysis of free text questions suggested that scholars had benefited from their experience in terms of increased confidence in dealing with child health problems, developing links with secondary care colleagues, and personal gain with respect to role development. What is already known in this area: Changes in GP Training have been suggested in order to provide a workforce that can meet the needs of infants, children and young people. Studies have shown a positive impact of paediatric trainees and GP trainees learning together. Little attention has however been given to the potential to support trained GPs to develop their expertise in child health. What this work adds: Early evaluation of the Scottish Paediatric Scholarship suggested a high degree of satisfaction. This more robust evaluation suggests that almost half (44/90 respondents) have developed roles or areas of special paediatric interest either within or out with the practice, or in three cases both within and out with the practice. Suggestions for future

  6. Joint inspection of services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland: compliance or commitment?

    Martin Campbell

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article describes the development of a practical model of joint, integrated inspection of managed care services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland. The model will give a reliable measure of the impact services are making to people's lives and the quality of service that individuals are actually receiving. Context of case: At present health, social services and education services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland are inspected separately, by up to nine different agencies. The first joint, integrated inspections of all services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland will take place in 2006. This is the first inspection of its kind in the UK, and the first to involve carers and people with learning disabilities on the inspection team. Data sources: Quality Outcome Indicators were developed in 21 different areas, or domains. Evidence based best practice, and evaluative data from previous inspections were the primary sources of data. Case description: This paper reviews the background and rationale for the integrated, joint inspection process. Strengths and constraints of this approach to inspection are discussed, including the crucial importance of commitment from services and from inspectors, rather than mere compliance with demands. Some guidance on how to fully involve staff, carers and services users in the inspection process is given. Conclusions and discussion: The model will produce data to inform decision-making for managers in integrated services and give services users clear information about how well local needs are being met, what areas need development, and what capacity the organisations have to improve. The model of inspection may be of interest to practitioners in a national and international context. The model will be evaluated, following the first joint inspection.

  7. Highlights from Faraday Discussion FDSERS17: Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering - SERS, Glasgow, UK, 30th August-1st September 2017.

    Di Martino, G; Fleming, H; Kamp, M; Lussier, F

    2017-11-28

    The 2017 Faraday Discussion on Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) attracted more than a hundred delegates from a broad spectrum of backgrounds and experience levels, bringing together leading scientists involved in the long living field of SERS. The meeting gave an overview of the liveliness of the topic, characterised by open questions and fascinating science still to discover. In the following, we discuss the topics covered during this meeting and briefly highlight the content of each presentation.

  8. An outbreak of mumps with genetic strain variation in a highly vaccinated student population in Scotland.

    Willocks, L J; Guerendiain, D; Austin, H I; Morrison, K E; Cameron, R L; Templeton, K E; DE Lima, V R F; Ewing, R; Donovan, W; Pollock, K G J

    2017-11-01

    An outbreak of mumps within a student population in Scotland was investigated to assess the effect of previous vaccination on infection and clinical presentation, and any genotypic variation. Of the 341 cases, 79% were aged 18-24. Vaccination status was available for 278 cases of whom 84% had received at least one dose of mumps containing vaccine and 62% had received two. The complication rate was 5·3% (mainly orchitis), and 1·2% were admitted to hospital. Genetic sequencing of mumps virus isolated from cases across Scotland classified 97% of the samples as genotype G. Two distinct clusters of genotype G were identified, one circulating before the outbreak and the other thereafter, suggesting the virus that caused this outbreak was genetically different from the previously circulating virus. Whilst the poor vaccine effectiveness we found may be due to waning immunity over time, a contributing factor may be that the current mumps vaccine is less effective against some genotypes. Although the general benefits of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine should continue to be promoted, there may be value in reassessing the UK vaccination schedule and the current mumps component of the MMR vaccine.

  9. Is there a "Scottish effect" for self reports of health? Individual level analysis of the 2001 UK census

    Popham Frank

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scotland's overall health record is comparatively poor for a Western European country, particularly amongst people of working age. A number of previous studies have explored why this might be the case by comparing mortality in Scotland with England and Wales. A study in the 1980s showed that the higher prevalence of deprivation in Scotland accounted for Scotland's excess mortality risk. However, more recent studies suggest that deprivation now explains less of this excess. This has led to the suggestion that there is a yet unidentified "Scottish effect" contributing to Scotland's mortality excess. Recent research has also suggested that there could be an unidentified effect influencing Scotland's higher rate of heart disease. This paper explores whether there is also an unexplained Scottish excess, relative to England, in self reports of poor health. Methods Data came from the individual Sample of Anonymised Records, a 3% random sample of the 2001 UK census. Using logistic regression models, self reports of health (limiting illness and general health from the working age populations (aged 25 to 64 of Scotland and England were compared. Account was taken of people's country of birth. Stratified analysis by employment status allowed further exploration of Scotland's excess. Results People born and living in Scotland reported higher levels of poor general health and limiting illness compared to people born and living in England. Adjustment for socioeconomic position and employment status largely explained the higher rates. In the stratified analysis a Scottish excess was seen only amongst the economically inactive born and living in Scotland. For those in employment, people born and living in Scotland actually had slightly lower odds of reporting poor general health and limiting illness than people born and living in England. Conclusion This analysis suggests that higher rates of poor self reported health in Scotland can be

  10. Core competencies in teaching and training for doctors in Scotland: a review of the literature and stakeholder survey.

    Ross, Michael T; Macrae, Claire; Scott, Jayne; Renwick, Lynne; Moffat, Mandy; Needham, Gillian; Scott, Hazel; Shippey, Ben; Jackson, Catherine; Edgar, Simon; Aitken, Debbie; Evans, Phillip; Irvine, Stewart

    2014-06-01

    The UK General Medical Council requires all registered doctors to be competent in all areas of their work, including teaching and training. The current research sought consensus on core competencies for all consultants and GPs involved in teaching and training in Scotland. A draft list of 80 competencies was developed from the literature and made available as a survey to all consultants and GPs with teaching roles and all final year speciality trainees working in Scotland. Respondents rated the importance of each competency and provided free text comments. There were 1026 responses. Eighteen competencies were rated as "high priority", and are recommended as a baseline for all doctors involved in teaching and training; 55 were rated as "medium priority", and are recommended in relation to specific teaching and training roles; and 7 were rated as "low priority". Free text responses suggested the topic was controversial and emotive, and emphasised the importance of further work to engage trainers. The findings appeared to have face validity, and it was felt these could be used as the basis for developing a "Scottish Trainer Framework" for doctors and others involved in teaching and training in Scotland.

  11. Public health implications of 4 decades of neoliberal policy: a qualitative case study from post-industrial west central Scotland.

    Garnham, L M

    2017-12-01

    The UK has long had a strong commitment to neoliberal policy, the risks of which for population health are well researched. Within Europe, Scotland demonstrates especially poor health outcomes, much of which is driven by high levels of deprivation, wide inequalities and the persistent impacts of deindustrialisation. The processes through which neoliberalism has contributed to this poor health record are the subject of significant research interest. Qualitative case study of a post-industrial town in west central Scotland. Primary data were collected using photovoice (11) and oral history (9) interviews, supplemented by qualitative and quantitative secondary source data. For those who fared poorly after the initial introduction of neoliberal policy in the 1970s, subsequent policy decisions have served to deepen and entrench negative impacts on the determinants of health. Neoliberalism has constituted a suite of rapidly and concurrently implemented policies, cross-cutting a variety of domains, which have reached into every part of people's lives. In formerly industrial parts of west central Scotland, policy developments since the 1970s have generated multiple and sustained forms of deprivation. This case study suggests that a turn away from neoliberal policy is required to improve quality of life and health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Masonic Song in Scotland: Folk Tunes and Community

    Katherine Campbell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the place of Masonic songs historically in Scotland, assessing the oral culture surrounding the genre. The article further shows that folk tunes were commonly used and investigates aspects of the group performance that was central to the Lodges. Finally, the study concludes with an examination of a Masonic procession in Northeast Scotland that survives to the present day, focusing especially on the role of music and song within it.

  13. Promoting weight management services in community pharmacy: perspectives of the pharmacy team in Scotland.

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; MacLure, Katie; Marshall, Sarah; Gray, Gwen; Stewart, Derek

    2015-08-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels with more than 1.4 billion adults affected worldwide. While there is a need to systematically develop and evaluate community pharmacy based models of weight management, it is imperative to describe and understand the perspectives of pharmacy staff. In the UK, trained and accredited community pharmacy medicines counter assistants (MCAs) are commonly the front line staff involved in patient consultations and sale of over-the-counter medicines. To explore the beliefs and experiences of pharmacists and MCAs in the North-East of Scotland on community pharmacy weight management. All 135 community pharmacies in the North-East of Scotland. A qualitative approach of semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 pharmacists and 20 MCAs in the North-East of Scotland. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to key domains describing professional practice (i.e. awareness and knowledge, skills, practicalities, motivation, acceptance and beliefs) and contextualised with policy documents and published research on community pharmacy based weight management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Pharmacists' and MCAs' beliefs and experiences with delivering weight management services in community pharmacy. There were mixed responses from pharmacists and MCAs around pharmacy based weight management services from positive views of providing the service in community pharmacy to those more reticent who would always favour patients visiting their physician. While all described similar services e.g. measurement of weight, healthy eating advice, supply of products, they acknowledged that support was often opportunistic at the request of customers, with little integration of other providers. Roles described varied from pharmacist only functions to any staff member. While pharmacists generally felt comfortable and confident, MCAs gave more diverse responses. Both Pharmacist and MCAs highlighted

  14. Renewables (Energy): A Subject-Based Aspect Report by Education Scotland on Provision in Scotland's Colleges on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council. Transforming Lives through Learning

    Education Scotland, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Education Scotland publication, "External Quality Arrangements for Scotland's Colleges, Updated August 2013," specifies that Education Scotland will produce a number of subject-based aspect reports each year. These reports complement, in a subject-specific context, the generic evaluations of learning and teaching in Education…

  15. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    Latimer, Karen

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales.

  16. A Method for Reducing Misclassification in the Extended Glasgow Outcome Score

    Lu, Juan; Marmarou, Anthony; Lapane, Kate; Turf, Elizabeth; Wilson, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    The eight-point extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) is commonly used as the primary outcome measure in traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinical trials. The outcome is conventionally collected through a structured interview with the patient alone or together with a caretaker. Despite the fact that using the structured interview questionnaires helps reach agreement in GOSE assessment between raters, significant variation remains among different raters. We introduce an alternate GOSE rating syste...

  17. Understanding the co-production of public services: the case of asylum seekers in Glasgow

    Strokosch, Kirsty

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the co-production of public services in the case of asylum seekers in Glasgow. It makes contributions on the theoretical and empirical levels. First, it integrates two theoretical standpoints on co-production from the public administration/management and services management literatures. This integration forms the basis for the development of an original conceptual framework which differentiates three modes of co-production at the level of the individual ser...

  18. Neither Shoreditch nor Manhattan: Post-politics, 'soft austerity urbanism' and real abstraction in Glasgow North

    Gray, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Speirs Locks is being re-constructed as a new cultural quarter in Glasgow North, with urban boosters envisioning the unlikely, rundown and de-populated light industrial estate as a key site in the city's ongoing cultural regeneration strategy. Yet this creative place-making initiative, I argue, masks a post-political conjuncture based on urban speculation, displacement and the foreclosure of dissent. Post-politics at Speirs Locks is characterised by what I term ‘soft austerity urbanism’: seem...

  19. Interconnected synchronicities: the production of Bombay and Glasgow as modern global ports c.1850–1880

    Hazareesingh, Sandip

    2009-01-01

    Cain and Hopkins' influential theory of British imperialism opted for a metropolitan-based model of explanation, rooted in the interests of a City-of-London-based class of ‘gentlemanly capitalists’, and discounting in the process events and experiences in the colonies and the significance of industrialization. By focusing on the simultaneous emergence of Bombay and Glasgow as modern, global ports in the second half of the nineteenth century, this article argues, in diametrical opposition, for...

  20. A case report on near manual strangulation and glasgow coma scale.

    Meel Banwari, L

    2015-09-01

    Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is considered as a gold standard in estimating the prognosis of the comatose patient. The management of the patient relies heavily on this scale. The mechanism of injury must also be included in scoring of the GCS. Survival from strangulation is uncommon, and if it occurs, it is often associated with various complications such as neurological consequences. To highlight a poor correlation with low GCS and ultimate outcome in cases of manual strangulation. This is a case report of young female adult who was raped and manually strangulated by a colleague during a training course for traditional healers. She was admitted with very low (3/15) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and presumed to have a poor prognosis. She was rigorously ventilated in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and was discharged from hospital after a week without any complications. The neck and genital injuries are described. This report discusses. A low Glasgow Coma Scale is not a predictive of poor prognosis in cases of manual strangulation.

  1. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury☆

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  2. Extreme river flow dependence in Northern Scotland

    Villoria, M. Franco; Scott, M.; Hoey, T.; Fischbacher-Smith, D.

    2012-04-01

    Various methods for the spatial analysis of hydrologic data have been developed recently. Here we present results using the conditional probability approach proposed by Keef et al. [Appl. Stat. (2009): 58,601-18] to investigate spatial interdependence in extreme river flows in Scotland. This approach does not require the specification of a correlation function, being mostly suitable for relatively small geographical areas. The work is motivated by the Flood Risk Management Act (Scotland (2009)) which requires maps of flood risk that take account of spatial dependence in extreme river flow. The method is based on two conditional measures of spatial flood risk: firstly the conditional probability PC(p) that a set of sites Y = (Y 1,...,Y d) within a region C of interest exceed a flow threshold Qp at time t (or any lag of t), given that in the specified conditioning site X > Qp; and, secondly the expected number of sites within C that will exceed a flow Qp on average (given that X > Qp). The conditional probabilities are estimated using the conditional distribution of Y |X = x (for large x), which can be modeled using a semi-parametric approach (Heffernan and Tawn [Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B (2004): 66,497-546]). Once the model is fitted, pseudo-samples can be generated to estimate functionals of the joint tails of the distribution of (Y,X). Conditional return level plots were directly compared to traditional return level plots thus improving our understanding of the dependence structure of extreme river flow events. Confidence intervals were calculated using block bootstrapping methods (100 replicates). We report results from applying this approach to a set of four rivers (Dulnain, Lossie, Ewe and Ness) in Northern Scotland. These sites were chosen based on data quality, spatial location and catchment characteristics. The river Ness, being the largest (catchment size 1839.1km2) was chosen as the conditioning river. Both the Ewe (441.1km2) and Ness catchments have

  3. The UK nuclear power industry

    Collier, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, nuclear power plants are operated by three companies: Nuclear Electric (NE), Scottish Nuclear (SN), and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). The state-operated power industry was privatized in 1989 with the exception of nuclear power generation activities, which were made part of the newly founded (state-owned) NE and SN. At the same time, a moratorium on the construction of new nuclear power plants was agreed. Only Sizewell B, the first plant in the UK to be equipped with a pressurized water reactor, was to be completed. That unit was first synchronized with the power grid on February 14, 1995. Another decision in 1989 provided for a review to be conducted in 1994 of the future of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in the country. The results of the review were presented by the government in a white paper on May 9, 1995. Accordingly, NE and SN will be merged and privatized in 1996; the headquarters of the new holding company will be in Scotland. The review does not foresee the construction of more nuclear power plants. However, NE hopes to gain a competitive edge over other sources of primary energy as a result of this privatization, and advocates construction of a dual-unit plant identical with Sizewell B so as to avoid recurrent design and development costs. Outside the UK, the company plans to act jointly with the reactor vendor, Westinghouse, especially in the Pacific region; a bid submitted by the consortium has been shortisted by the future operator of the Lungmen nuclear power plant project in Taiwan. In upgrading the safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe, the new company will be able to work through existing contacts of SN. (orig.) [de

  4. The furniture of the library of the Glasgow School of Art by Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) [dissertation

    Bell, John; Bell, Simon

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation, which encompasses the set of furniture and light fittings designed for use in Glasgow School of Art library has been produced in response to the desire for the complete recording and analysis of that space.

  5. Lateglacial geomorphology in the Tweedsmuir Hills, Scotland - Implications for retreat patterns, glacier reconstruction and chronology.

    Pearce, D.; Rea, B.; McDougall, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Tweedsmuir Hills, Southern Uplands, Scotland, contain excellent assemblages of glacial landforms, including hummocky moraine, classically associated with a Lateglacial deglaciation (c. 14.7 - 11.7 cal. ka BP) in the UK. Although initially documented in 1855, a detailed systematic geomorphological investigation has never been undertaken in the region, meaning reconstructions are patchy, outdated and lacking chronological control. This has resulted in conflicting styles of glaciation being inferred, with both plateau icefield and valley glaciers reconstructed in the Tweedsmuir Hills. Importantly, comprehensive numerical modelling experiments for the period, c. 38 -10.4 ka BP, predict a significant body of ice for the Tweedsmuir Hills at the onset and throughout the Younger Dryas (c. 12.9 - 11.7 cal. ka. BP). Field data, which at present, are missing means that the numerical modelling remains untested. Given the emerging evidence that ice-masses survived, during or throughout the Lateglacial in a number of regions in Scotland, the glacial geomorphology and reconstructions for this area will provide a key input of palaeo-glacier data for subsequent investigation of wider patterns of Lateglacial ice-mass distribution and climate gradients across the UK and NW Europe. Geomorphological mapping followed a morphostratigraphic approach using a combination of aerial photos, NEXTMapTM and mapping in the field using a ruggedized tablet PC, with built in GPS and ArcGIS 9.3. The glacial landforms indicate two separate landsystems. The first is characterised by elongate subglacial bedforms overriding the topography, trending SW to NE, suggested to be attributable to the Devensian glaciation. The second landsystem is characterised by closely spaced sharp crested moraines, oblique to the valley axis and confined by the topography, meltwater channels and single terrace systems, which are likely to have formed in a subsequent period of renewed glaciation i.e. Lateglacial. The

  6. Integrated inspection of services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland: the way forward?

    Martin Campbell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article summarises the process and the results of the first, integrated inspection of managed care services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland. The multi-agency model used was developed to be congruent with the existing performance inspection models, used by single agency inspection. The inspection activities and main outcomes are described, and suggestions are made for improvements. Context of case: In 2006 an inspection model was devised to assess the quality of health, social services and education services for people with learning disabilities in one geographical area of Scotland, as a precursor to a programme of inspections nationally. The first joint, integrated inspection of all services for people with learning disabilities in Scotland took place in June 2006, and the report was published in March 2007. This was the first multi-agency inspection of its kind in the UK, and the first to involve carers and people with learning disabilities on the inspection team. Data sources: A number of data sources were used to check existing practice against agreed Quality Outcome indicators. Primary sources of data were social work records, health records, education records, staff surveys, carer surveys, interviews with staff, family carers and people with learning disabilities, and self evaluations completed by the services being inspected. Eleven different domains, each with sub-indicators were investigated. Case description: This paper summarises the process of an integrated, multi-agency inspection, how the inspection activities were conducted and the main findings of this inspection. Practical improvements to the process are suggested, and these may be of use to other services and inspectorates. Conclusions and discussion: The integrated inspection was a qualified success. Most major objectives were achieved. The sharing of data amongst inspection agencies, establishing the level of commitment to integrated inspection

  7. Precipitation observations for operational flood forecasting in Scotland: Data availability, limitations and the impact of observational uncertainty

    Parry, Louise; Neely, Ryan, III; Bennett, Lindsay; Collier, Chris; Dufton, David

    2017-04-01

    The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) has a statutory responsibility to provide flood warning across Scotland. It achieves this through an operational partnership with the UK Met Office wherein meteorological forecasts are applied to a national distributed hydrological model, Grid- to- Grid (G2G), and catchment specific lumped PDM models. Both of these model types rely on observed precipitation input for model development and calibration, and operationally for historical runs to generate initial conditions. Scotland has an average annual precipitation of 1430mm per annum (1971-2000), but the spatial variability in totals is high, predominantly in relation to the topography and prevailing winds, which poses different challenges to both radar and point measurement methods of observation. In addition, the high elevations mean that in winter a significant proportion of precipitation falls as snow. For the operational forecasting models, observed rainfall data is provided in Near Real Time (NRT) from SEPA's network of approximately 260 telemetered TBR gauges and 4 UK Met Office C-band radars. Both data sources have their strengths and weaknesses, particularly in relation to the orography and spatial representativeness, but estimates of rainfall from the two methods can vary greatly. Northern Scotland, particularly near Inverness, is a comparatively sparse part of the radar network. Rainfall totals and distribution in this area are determined by the Northern Western Highlands and Cairngorms mountain ranges, which also have a negative impact on radar observations. In recognition of this issue, the NCAS mobile X-band weather radar (MXWR) was deployed in this area between February and August 2016. This study presents a comparison of rainfall estimates for the Inverness and Moray Firth region generated from the operational radar network, the TBR network, and the MXWR. Quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) from both sources of radar data were compared to

  8. Effects of new urban motorway infrastructure on road traffic accidents in the local area: a retrospective longitudinal study in Scotland.

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Mitchell, Richard; Mackay, Daniel F; Humphreys, David K; Ogilvie, David

    2016-11-01

    The M74 motorway extension, Glasgow, opened in June 2011. One justification for construction was an expectation that it would reduce road traffic accidents (RTAs) on local non-motorway roads. This study evaluated the impact of the extension on the number of RTAs, stratifying by accident severity. Data for the period 1997-2014 were extracted from a UK database of reported RTAs involving a personal injury. RTA severity was defined by the level of injury: minor, severe or fatal. RTAs were assigned to (1) the local area surrounding the motorway extension, (2) a comparator area surrounding an existing motorway or (3) a control area elsewhere in the conurbation. Interrupted time-series regression with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors was used to determine longitudinal between-area differences in change in the number of RTAs, which might indicate an intervention effect. Glasgow and surrounding local authorities saw a 50.6% reduction in annual RTAs (n: 5901 to 2914) between 1997 and 2014. In the intervention area, the number of recorded RTAs decreased by 50.7% (n: 758 to 374), and that of fatal/severe RTAs by 57.4% (n: 129 to 55), with similar reductions in the comparator/control areas. The interrupted time-series analysis showed no significant between-area differences in temporal trends. The reduction of pedestrian casualties was attenuated in the intervention area relative to Glasgow and surrounding authorities. Reduction in RTAs was not associated with the motorway extension. Our findings suggest that in planning future investment, it should not be taken for granted that new road infrastructure alone will reduce RTAs in local areas. Urbanisation is proceeding rapidly worldwide, and evidence of infrastructure changes is lacking; this novel study provides important findings for future developments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. DSM for soil erosion risk in Scotland

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro; McLeaod, Jim; Castellazzi, Marie; Baggio Compagnucci, Andrea; Irvine, Justin

    2017-04-01

    Soils play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, and modelling its risk of degradation is fundamental, especially in the context of climate change. In this work we used continuous 3D soil information derived from digital soil mapping (DSM) approaches to map sediment erosion and deposition patterns due to rainfall. The test area covers the whole of mainland Scotland, excluding the Northern Islands. Soil profiles data were interpolated using a geo-statistical hybrid Generalised Additive Models method for a range of soil properties such as organic matter, texture, soil depth and peat presence. The same method was used to interpolate climatic data and management information. Remote sensing data were integrated in the process and land use data included. Information on grazing (sheep and deer) pressure was taken into account in the modelling. The uncertainty was accounted and propagated across the whole process. The Scottish test case highlights the differences in roles between mineral and organic soils with an assessment adapted to each of them. The results and intermediate steps were compared with available continental scale results. The results show the importance of the use of DSM approaches for modeling soils and ecosystem functions and assessing uncertainty propagation.

  10. Lunar tides in Loch Ness, Scotland

    Pugh, David T.; Woodworth, Philip L.; Bos, Machiel S.

    2011-11-01

    Measurements have been made of the astronomical tide in Loch Ness, Scotland, which is not directly connected to marine tides. Our measurements of the loch tide are, so far as we know, the first in a European lake where the tide originates primarily from ocean tide loading. Loch Ness is a readily accessible lake and is in a region for which the neighboring ocean tides are large and described well by modern global ocean tide models. The principal tidal constituent, M2, was observed to have an amplitude of approximately 1.5 mm, and to be in antiphase, at each end of the loch. These values are in close agreement with the theoretical combined effects of the direct gravitational tide (body tide) and the tilt effects due to ocean tide loading, computed using Green's functions based on conventional elastic-Earth models. By analyzing over long periods for coherent tidal signals, we are able to significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the tilt values compared with values obtained by direct level differencing. Our tilt accuracy of better than 10-8, measured over 35 km, demonstrates Loch Ness as one the world's longest and most accurate tiltmeters. Despite this unprecedented accuracy, Earth tidal models are still at least as accurate as our ability to measure them.

  11. UK strategy for nuclear industry LLW - 16393

    Clark, Matthew; Fisher, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the UK Government and devolved administrations (for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, from here on referred to as 'Government') published their policy for the management of solid low level waste ('the Policy'). The Policy sets out a number of core principles for the management of low level waste (LLW) and charges the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority with developing a UK-wide strategy in the case of LLW from nuclear sites. The UK Nuclear Industry LLW Strategy has been developed within the framework of the principles set out in the policy. A key factor in the development of this strategy has been the strategic partnership the NDA shares with the Low Level Waste Repository near Drigg (LLWR), who now have a role in developing strategy as well as delivering an optimised waste management service at the LLWR. The strategy aims to support continued hazard reduction and decommissioning by ensuring uninterrupted capability and capacity for the management and disposal of LLW in the UK. The continued availability of a disposal route for LLW is considered vital by both the nuclear industry and non-nuclear industry low level waste producers. Given that the UK will generate significantly more low level waste (∼ 3.1 million m 3 ) than there is capacity at the LLWR (∼0.75 million m 3 ), developing alternative effective ways to manage LLW is critical. The waste management hierarchy is central to the strategy, which includes strategic goals at all levels of the hierarchy to improve its application across the industry. (authors)

  12. Glasgow conference

    Fraser, Gordon

    1994-10-15

    The biennial 'Rochester' International Conferences on High Energy Physics which tick the rhythm of high energy physics progress reflect the dominance of the 'Standard Model' - the picture of electroweak and quark/gluon interactions in a simple framework of six weaklyinteracting particles (leptons) and six quarks. Despite its limited intellectual appeal, after a decade of intense probing the Standard Model still refuses to budge.

  13. Glasgow conference

    Fraser, Gordon

    1994-01-01

    The biennial 'Rochester' International Conferences on High Energy Physics which tick the rhythm of high energy physics progress reflect the dominance of the 'Standard Model' - the picture of electroweak and quark/gluon interactions in a simple framework of six weaklyinteracting particles (leptons) and six quarks. Despite its limited intellectual appeal, after a decade of intense probing the Standard Model still refuses to budge

  14. IMatter: validation of the NHS Scotland Employee Engagement Index.

    Snowden, Austyn; MacArthur, Ewan

    2014-11-08

    Employee engagement is a fundamental component of quality healthcare. In order to provide empirical data of engagement in NHS Scotland an Employee Engagement Index was co-constructed with staff. 'iMatter' consists of 25 Likert questions developed iteratively from the literature and a series of validation events with NHS Scotland staff. The aim of this study was to test the face, content and construct validity of iMatter. Cross sectional survey of NHS Scotland staff. In January 2013 iMatter was sent to 2300 staff across all disciplines in NHS Scotland. 1280 staff completed it. Demographic data were collected. Internal consistency of the scale was calculated. Construct validity consisted of concurrent application of factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Face and content validity were checked using 3 focus groups. The sample was representative of the NHSScotland population. iMatter showed very strong reliability (α = 0.958). Factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure consistent with the following interpretation: iMatter showed evidence of high reliability and validity. It is a popular measure of staff engagement in NHS Scotland. Implications for practice focus on the importance of coproduction in psychometric development.

  15. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI), Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems. PMID:21569633

  16. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Sturdy Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI, Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems.

  17. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK

    Lyness, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. Methods: The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Results: Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. Conclusion: This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. PMID:24913316

  18. Data analysis and review of radiology services at Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games.

    Bethapudi, Sarath; Ritchie, David; Bongale, Santosh; Gordon, Jonny; MacLean, John; Mendl, Liz

    2015-10-01

    Medical services at the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games (CWG) were provided though a purpose-built medical polyclinic, which had a fully equipped radiology department along with other services, set up within the main Games Village. Data analysis of radiology services offered at CWG has not been published before. Imaging services within the polyclinic, Athletes Village, Glasgow 2014 CWG. The aim of the paper is to analyse data on radiological investigations and assess the demand and distribution of workload on imaging services at CWG 2014. Data on radiology investigations at the CWG 2014 was retrieved from the Carestream picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and Pharmasys (CWG official centralised electronic database system) and analysed. Six hundred ninety-seven diagnostic and interventional procedures were performed. Of these 37.9% were magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 22% were diagnostic ultrasound (US) examinations, 33.1% were radiographs, 4.3% were computed tomography (CT) scans and 2.7% were imaging-guided interventional procedures. 88% of imaging was performed on athletes and the remainder were performed on team officials and workforce. Demand on radiology services gradually picked up through the pre-competition period and peaked half way through the CWG. Radiology played a vital role in the successful provision of medical services at the Glasgow 2014 CWG. High demand on imaging services can be expected at major international sporting events and therefore pre-event planning is vital. Having back-up facilities in case of technical failure should be given due importance when planning radiology services at future CWG events.

  19. Data analysis and review of radiology services at Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games

    Bethapudi, Sarath; Ritchie, David; Bongale, Santosh; Gordon, Jonny; MacLean, John; Mendl, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Medical services at the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games (CWG) were provided though a purpose-built medical polyclinic, which had a fully equipped radiology department along with other services, set up within the main Games Village. Data analysis of radiology services offered at CWG has not been published before. Imaging services within the polyclinic, Athletes Village, Glasgow 2014 CWG. The aim of the paper is to analyse data on radiological investigations and assess the demand and distribution of workload on imaging services at CWG 2014. Data on radiology investigations at the CWG 2014 was retrieved from the Carestream picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and Pharmasys (CWG official centralised electronic database system) and analysed. Six hundred ninety-seven diagnostic and interventional procedures were performed. Of these 37.9 % were magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 22 % were diagnostic ultrasound (US) examinations, 33.1 % were radiographs, 4.3 % were computed tomography (CT) scans and 2.7 % were imaging-guided interventional procedures. 88 % of imaging was performed on athletes and the remainder were performed on team officials and workforce. Demand on radiology services gradually picked up through the pre-competition period and peaked half way through the CWG. Radiology played a vital role in the successful provision of medical services at the Glasgow 2014 CWG. High demand on imaging services can be expected at major international sporting events and therefore pre-event planning is vital. Having back-up facilities in case of technical failure should be given due importance when planning radiology services at future CWG events. (orig.)

  20. Data analysis and review of radiology services at Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games

    Bethapudi, Sarath [County Durham Darlington Foundation NHS Trust, Durham (United Kingdom); Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ritchie, David [Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Greater Glasgow and Clyde Hospitals NHS Trust, Western Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bongale, Santosh [Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games, Immediate Care Department, Glasgow (United Kingdom); NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Paisley (United Kingdom); Gordon, Jonny [Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games, Glasgow (United Kingdom); NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); MacLean, John [Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games, Glasgow (United Kingdom); National Stadium Sports Medicine Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Mendl, Liz [Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Medical services at the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games (CWG) were provided though a purpose-built medical polyclinic, which had a fully equipped radiology department along with other services, set up within the main Games Village. Data analysis of radiology services offered at CWG has not been published before. Imaging services within the polyclinic, Athletes Village, Glasgow 2014 CWG. The aim of the paper is to analyse data on radiological investigations and assess the demand and distribution of workload on imaging services at CWG 2014. Data on radiology investigations at the CWG 2014 was retrieved from the Carestream picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and Pharmasys (CWG official centralised electronic database system) and analysed. Six hundred ninety-seven diagnostic and interventional procedures were performed. Of these 37.9 % were magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 22 % were diagnostic ultrasound (US) examinations, 33.1 % were radiographs, 4.3 % were computed tomography (CT) scans and 2.7 % were imaging-guided interventional procedures. 88 % of imaging was performed on athletes and the remainder were performed on team officials and workforce. Demand on radiology services gradually picked up through the pre-competition period and peaked half way through the CWG. Radiology played a vital role in the successful provision of medical services at the Glasgow 2014 CWG. High demand on imaging services can be expected at major international sporting events and therefore pre-event planning is vital. Having back-up facilities in case of technical failure should be given due importance when planning radiology services at future CWG events. (orig.)

  1. Scotland's knowledge network: a progress report on Knowledge into Action.

    Wales, Ann; Boyle, Derek

    2015-11-01

    Launched in 2012, Knowledge into Action is the national knowledge management strategy for the health and social care workforce in Scotland. It is transforming the role of the national digital knowledge service--NHS Education for Scotlands' Knowledge Network--and the NHSS librarian role to offer more active, tailored support for translating knowledge into frontline clinical practice. This includes the development of a national evidence search and summary service, help with converting knowledge into practical and usable formats for easy use at point of care and with using digital tools to share clinicians' learning, experience and expertise. Through this practical support, Knowledge into Action is contributing to quality and safety outcomes across NHS Scotland, building clinicians' capacity and capability in applying knowledge in frontline practice and service improvement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Validity of a Pediatric Version of the Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended

    Beers, Sue R.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Tian, Ye; Hahner, Thomas; Berger, Rachel P.; Bell, Michael J.; Adelson, P. David

    2012-01-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and its most recent revision, the GOS–Extended (GOS-E), provide the gold standard for measuring traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome. The GOS-E exhibits validity when used with adults and some adolescents, but validity with younger children is not established. Because the GOS-E lacks the developmental specificity necessary to evaluate children, toddlers, and infants, we modified the original version to create the GOS-E Pediatric Revision (GOS-E Peds), a develop...

  3. The medline UK filter: development and validation of a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline.

    Ayiku, Lynda; Levay, Paul; Hudson, Tom; Craven, Jenny; Barrett, Elizabeth; Finnegan, Amy; Adams, Rachel

    2017-07-13

    A validated geographic search filter for the retrieval of research about the United Kingdom (UK) from bibliographic databases had not previously been published. To develop and validate a geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK from OVID medline with high recall and precision. Three gold standard sets of references were generated using the relative recall method. The sets contained references to studies about the UK which had informed National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance. The first and second sets were used to develop and refine the medline UK filter. The third set was used to validate the filter. Recall, precision and number-needed-to-read (NNR) were calculated using a case study. The validated medline UK filter demonstrated 87.6% relative recall against the third gold standard set. In the case study, the medline UK filter demonstrated 100% recall, 11.4% precision and a NNR of nine. A validated geographic search filter to retrieve research about the UK with high recall and precision has been developed. The medline UK filter can be applied to systematic literature searches in OVID medline for topics with a UK focus. © 2017 Crown copyright. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2017 Health Libraries GroupThis article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  4. 2H and 18O Freshwater Isoscapes of Scotland

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Kemp, Helen; Frew, Danny

    2013-04-01

    Scotland's freshwater lochs and reservoirs provide a vital resource for sustaining biodiversity, agriculture, food production as well as for human consumption. Regular monitoring of freshwaters by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) fulfils legislative requirements with regards to water quality but new scientific methods involving stable isotope analysis present an opportunity combining these mandatory monitoring schemes with fundamental research to inform and deliver on current and nascent government policies [1] through gaining a greater understanding of Scottish waters and their importance in the context of climate change, environmental sustainability and food security. For example, 2H and 18O isoscapes of Scottish freshwater could be used to underpin research and its applications in: • Climate change - Using longitudinal changes in the characteristic isotope composition of freshwater lochs and reservoirs as proxy, isoscapes will provide a means to assess if and how changes in temperature and weather patterns might impact on precipitation patterns and amount. • Scottish branding - Location specific stable isotope signatures of Scottish freshwater have the potential to be used as a tool for provenancing and thus protecting premium Scottish produce such as Scottish beef, Scottish soft fruit and Scottish Whisky. During 2011 and 2012, with the support of SEPA more than 110 samples from freshwater lochs and reservoirs were collected from 127 different locations across Scotland including the Highlands and Islands. Here we present the results of this sampling and analysis exercise isotope analyses in form of 2H and 18O isoscapes with an unprecedented grid resolution of 26.5 × 26.5 km (or 16.4 × 16.4 miles). [1] Adaptation Framework - Adapting Our Ways: Managing Scotland's Climate Risk (2009): Scotland's Biodiversity: It's in Your Hands - A strategy for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland (2005); Recipe For Success - Scotland

  5. The enigma of 'harmful' alcohol consumption: evidence from a mixed methods study involving female drinkers in Scotland.

    Gill, Jan S; Rush, Robert; Black, Heather; O'May, Fiona P; Chick, Jonathan; Rees, Cheryl; McPake, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    An appreciation of the drinking patterns of population subgroups may usefully inform tailored interventions. For this purpose, research has highlighted a need to better describe the drinking behaviour of UK women. This study aims to characterise the purchasing and consumption behaviour of female heavy, harmed, drinkers in contact with Scottish health services in two cities and to explore the factors that influence the link to harm. Mixed methods study involving cross-sectional survey questionnaires and one-to-one interviews (5). The questionnaires documented (1) demographic data (including derived deprivation score), last week's (or 'typical' weekly) consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase), self-reported illnesses, and (2) Alcohol-Related Problem Questionnaire score. A total of 181 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol were recruited within National Health Service (NHS) hospital clinics (in- and outpatient settings), in two Scottish cities during 2012. Median consumption was 157.6 UK units for the recorded week, with almost exclusive purchase from 'off-sale' retail outlets. Preferred drinks were white cider, vodka and white wine. Increasing problems was positively associated with drinking more in the week, being younger and belonging to Glasgow. For Scottish women, the current definition of 'harmful' consumption likely captures a fourfold variation in alcohol intake, with gender differences less apparent. While current alcohol-related harm is positively associated with dose and being younger, there is clear evidence of an influence of the less tangible 'Glasgow effect'. Future harm concerns are warranted by data relating to pattern, alcohol dose and cigarette use. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  6. Stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    Ikin, N.P. (University Coll., Cardiff (UK)); Harmon, R.S. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1983-02-01

    D/H and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members.

  7. A stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    Ikin, N.P.; Harmon, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members. (author)

  8. Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models and medical education at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen.

    Olszewski, Margaret Maria

    2011-09-01

    In the 1860s, Dr. Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux introduced a set of papier-mâché teaching models intended for use in the botanical classroom. These botanical models quickly made their way into the educational curricula of institutions around the world. Within these institutions, Auzoux's models were principally used to fulfil educational goals, but their incorporation into diverse curricula also suggests they were used to implement agendas beyond botanical instruction. This essay examines the various uses and meanings of Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in the nineteenth century. The two main conclusions of this analysis are: (1) investing in prestigious scientific collections was a way for these universities to attract fee-paying students so that better medical accommodation could be provided and (2) models were used to transmit different kinds of botanical knowledge at both universities. The style of botany at the University of Glasgow was offensive and the department there actively embraced and incorporated ideas of the emerging new botany. At Aberdeen, the style of botany was defensive and there was some hesitancy when confronting new botanical ideas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between pneumonia and Glasgow coma scale assessment on acute stroke patients

    Ritarwan, K.; Batubara, C. A.; Dhanu, R.

    2018-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the most frequent medical complications of a stroke. Despite the well-documented association of a stroke associated infections with increased mortality and worse long-term outcome, on the other hand, the limited data available on independent predictors of pneumonia in acute stroke patients in an emergency unit. To determine the independentrelationship between pneumonia and Glasgow Coma Scale assessment on acute stroke patients. The cohort retrospective study observed 55 acute stroke patients who stayed in intensive care unit Adam Malik General Hospital from January until August 2017. Pneumonia was more frequent in patients with Ischemic stroke (OR 5.40; 95% CI: 1.28 – 6.40, p=0.003), higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (p=0.014) and lower Glasgow Coma Scale (p=0.0001). Analysis multivariate logistic regression identified NIHSS as an independent of predictors of pneumonia (95% CI : 1.047 – 1.326, p=0.001). Pneumonia was associated with severity and type of stroke and length of hospital stay. The severity of the deficits evaluated by the NIHSS was shown to be the only independent risk factor for pneumonia in acute stroke patients.

  10. [French version of structured interviews for the Glasgow Outcome Scale: guidelines and first studies of validation].

    Fayol, P; Carrière, H; Habonimana, D; Preux, P-M; Dumond, J-J

    2004-05-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is the most widely used outcome measure after traumatic brain injury. The GOS's reliability is improved by a structured interview. The two aims of this paper were to present a French version of the structured interview for the five-point Glasgow Outcome Scale and the extended eight-point GOS (GOSE) and to study their validity. The French version was developed using back-translation. Concurrent validity was studied by comparison with GOS/GOSE without structured interview. Inter-rater reliability was studied by comparison between assignments made by untrained head injury observers and trained head injury observers. Strength of agreement between ratings was assessed using the Kappa statistic. The French version and the guidelines for their use are given in the Appendix. Ratings were made for 25 brain injured patients and 25 relatives. Concurrent validity was good and inter-rater reliability was excellent. Using the structured interview for the GOS will give a more reliable assessment of the outcome of brain injured patients by French-speaking rehabilitation teams and a more precise assessment with the extended GOS.

  11. Scenario Testing of the Energy and Environmental Performance of “The Glasgow House”

    Tim Sharpe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a 12-month study of two prototype low energy dwellings built for Glasgow Housing Association (GHA. The houses are intended for mainstream and social tenure within Glasgow and contain a range of energy reducing features including one house with a thermally heavy clay block wall and one house using a conventional timber frame and both houses have sunspaces, Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery (MVHR, solar thermal system and low energy lighting. The dwellings have been subject to an innovative monitoring strategy by MEARU, whereby test occupants (students recruited from the School of Architecture have been asked to inhabit the buildings for six two-week periods using occupancy ‘scripts’ that determine their internal behaviour. The scenarios thus simulate varying patterns of occupancy in both houses simultaneously and the performance of the houses can then been compared. Indications are that although the clay block house had a poorer thermal performance, it did have other qualitative advantages, and consumption differences could be eliminated by exploiting the thermal mass. The performance of the active systems, including the MVHR system, was found to be problematic, and specific scenarios were undertaken to explore the implications of this.

  12. A review of ethylphenidate in deaths in east and west Scotland.

    Parks, Claire; McKeown, Denise; Torrance, Hazel J

    2015-12-01

    Ethylphenidate is a psychostimulant and analogue of methylphenidate. Interestingly it is also produced as a metabolite from the co-ingestion of methylphenidate and alcohol (ethanol). In the UK, between April and June 2015, ethylphenidate and 6 other methylphenidate based novel psychoactive substances (NPS) were subjected to a temporary class drug order under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Ethylphenidate is being abused by both novel and habitual drug users, more prominently in the East of Scotland. What is unknown in the literature is the contribution of ethylphenidate in deaths. A search was conducted for an 18 month period (July 2013 to December 2014) to identify cases where ethylphenidate was detected during post-mortem toxicological analysis. Nineteen cases were identified and these cases were examined with regards to case circumstances, pathology findings, toxicology results and adverse effects. The individuals ranged in age from 20 to 54 (median 37) and the majority were male (n=14) and from the East of Scotland (n=16), more specifically Edinburgh and surrounding area. Current or previous heroin abuse was a common theme in these cases (n=16) and injection was a common route of administration of "legal highs" or "burst". The concentration of ethylphenidate in the cases ranged from 0.008 mg/L to over 2 mg/L in post-mortem femoral blood (median 0.25 mg/L, average 0.39 mg/L). Other drugs commonly detected were benzodiazepines (n=15), followed by opiates (n=11, 4 of which were positive for 6-monoacetylmorphine) and then methadone (n=8). All 19 cases received a full post-mortem examination and there were 10 cases where drug toxicity was the sole or potentially contributory factor to the cause of death. Ethylphenidate was specifically mentioned in the cause of death for 5 cases, chronic intravenous (IV) drug use was named as part of the cause of death for 2 cases and in 6 cases there was evidence of complications and infections through IV drug use. As far as it is

  13. Could Scotland really be seen as a northern nation

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Faced with the uncertainty of Brexit and many other challenges, Scotland seems to be looking towards the Arctic region for new opportunities. Faced with the prospect of no longer being an EU member state and perpetually questioning its place in the United Kingdom, it now seems to be seeking to de...

  14. No Lack of Principles: Leadership Development in England and Scotland

    MacBeath, John

    2011-01-01

    While there are significant differences between England and Scotland in the politics, the policy environment and the management of schools, leadership development both north and south of the border is charged with addressing what has been termed a recruitment and retention "crisis". An emerging phenomenon in both jurisdictions is that of…

  15. ScotlandsPlaces XML: Bespoke XML or XML Mapping?

    Beamer, Ashley; Gillick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate web services (in the form of parameterised URLs), specifically in the context of the ScotlandsPlaces project. This involves cross-domain querying, data retrieval and display via the development of a bespoke XML standard rather than existing XML formats and mapping between them.…

  16. Inequalities in Toothbrushing among Adolescents in Scotland 1998-2006

    Levin, K. A.; Currie, C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine trends in toothbrushing and inequalities in toothbrushing among girls and boys in Scotland between 1998 and 2006. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between the health promoting school (HPS) initiative and toothbrushing. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 1998, 2002 and 2006…

  17. The Diverse Geographies of Rural Gentrification in Scotland

    Stockdale, Aileen

    2010-01-01

    Gentrification has for too long been investigated as an urban phenomenon. Only relatively recently has it been viewed as an avenue for fruitful rural research. This paper focuses on the repopulation of rural Scotland. Using survey and interview data it examines evidence of gentrification among in-migration flows and seeks to explore both the…

  18. Modern Languages in Scotland: Social Capital out on a Limb

    Doughty, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This article critically examines the state (extent of provision) and status (public esteem) of modern language education in Scotland, which as a constituent part of the United Kingdom has its own independent education system. The notion of social capital, as conceptualized by Putnam and others, is used to show how attempts by language…

  19. The changing epidemiology of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Scotland.

    Sommerfield, T; Chalmers, J; Youngson, G; Heeley, C; Fleming, M; Thomson, G

    2008-12-01

    The aetiology of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) has not been fully elucidated. Since the 1990s, a sharp decline in IHPS has been reported in various countries. Recent research from Sweden reported a correlation between falling rates of IHPS and of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This was attributed to a reduction in the number of infants sleeping in the prone position following the "Back to Sleep" campaign. To describe the changing epidemiology of IHPS in Scotland, to examine the relationship between IHPS and SIDS rates and to examine trends in other factors that may explain the observed reduction in IHPS incidence. Incidence rates of IHPS and SIDS were derived from routine data and their relationship analysed. Trends in mean maternal age, maternal smoking, mean birth weight and breastfeeding rates were also examined. The whole of Scotland between 1981 and 2004. IHPS incidence fell from 4.4 to 1.4 per 1000 live births in Scotland between 1981 and 2004. Rates were consistently higher in males, although the overall incidence patterns in males and females were similar. Rates showed a positive relationship with deprivation. The fall in the incidence of IHPS preceded the fall in SIDS by 2 years and the incidence of SIDS displayed less variability than that of IHPS. Significant temporal trends were also observed in other maternal and infant characteristics. There has been a marked reduction in Scotland's IHPS incidence, but this is unlikely to be a consequence of a change in infant sleeping position.

  20. Misrepresentation of UK homicide characteristics in popular culture.

    Brown, J; Hughes, N S; McGlen, M C; Crichton, J H M

    2014-03-01

    The homicide statistics of a popular UK television fictional crime series and the former Lothian & Borders police force region, Scotland were compared. This comparison was used to consider the implications for public attitudes which may influence the adoption of public health interventions to reduce homicide. 217 homicides were identified by 105 perpetrators in the television series 'Midsomer Murders' between 1997 and 2011; these were compared to 55 homicides by 53 perpetrators in the regional sample between 2006 and 2011. The numbers of serial killings (p homicides, female perpetrators (p homicide by kitchen knives (p homicide rates. If the popular perception of UK homicides is influenced by popular culture, the importance of such a public health intervention may not be apparent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    Allardice, R.H.; Harris, D.W.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK. (author)

  2. Changing demographics of spinal cord injury over a 20-year period: a longitudinal population-based study in Scotland.

    McCaughey, E J; Purcell, M; McLean, A N; Fraser, M H; Bewick, A; Borotkanics, R J; Allan, D B

    2016-04-01

    A retrospective cohort study. To review demographic trends in traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) and non-traumatic spinal cord injury (NTSCI). The Queen Elizabeth National Spinal Injuries Unit (QENSIU), sole provider of treatment for TSCI in Scotland; a devolved region of the UK National Health Service. A retrospective review of the QENSIU database was performed between 1994 and 2013. This database includes demographic and clinical data from all new TSCI patients in Scotland, as well as patients with severe NTSCI. Over this 20-year period there were 1638 new cases of TSCI in Scotland; 75.2% occurring in males. TSCI incidence increased non-significantly (13.3 per million population to 17.0), while there were significant increases in mean age at time of TSCI (44.1-52.6 years), the proportion of TSCIs caused by falls (41-60%), the proportion of TSCIs resulting in an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale score of C and D on admission (19.7-28.6% and 34.5-39.5%, respectively) and the proportion of cervical TSCIs (58.4-66.3%). The increase in cervical TSCI was specifically due to an increase in C1-C4 lesions (21.7-31.2%). NTSCI patients (n=292) were 5 years older at injury, more likely to be female (68.1% male) and had a range of diagnoses. This study supports the suggestion that demographic profiles in SCI are subject to change. In this population, of particular concern is the increasing number of older patients and those with high level tetraplegia, due to their increased care needs. Prevention programmes, treatment pathways and service provision need to be adjusted for optimum impact, improved outcome and long-term care for their target population.

  3. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland.

    Levin, K A; Dundas, R; Miller, M; McCartney, G

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the study was to present socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Scotland. The international literature suggests there is no obvious pattern in the geography of adolescent smoking, with rural areas having a higher prevalence than urban areas in some countries, and a lower prevalence in others. These differences are most likely due to substantive differences in rurality between countries in terms of their social, built and cultural geography. Previous studies in the UK have shown an association between lower socioeconomic status and smoking. The Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 15 year olds in schools across Scotland between March and June of 2010. We ran multilevel logistic regressions using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and adjusting for age, school type, family affluence, area level deprivation and rurality. We imputed missing rurality and deprivation data using multivariate imputation by chained equations, and re-analysed the data (N = 3577), comparing findings. Among boys, smoking was associated only with area-level deprivation. This relationship appeared to have a quadratic S-shape, with those living in the second most deprived quintile having highest odds of smoking. Among girls, however, odds of smoking increased with deprivation at individual and area-level, with an approximate dose-response relationship for both. Odds of smoking were higher for girls living in remote and rural parts of Scotland than for those living in urban areas. Schools in rural areas were no more or less homogenous than schools in urban areas in terms of smoking prevalence. We discuss possible social and cultural explanations for the high prevalence of boys' and girls' smoking in low SES neighbourhoods and of girls' smoking in rural areas. We consider possible differences in the impact of recent tobacco policy changes, primary socialization, access and availability, retail outlet density and the home

  4. Pilot study protocol to inform a future longitudinal study of ageing using linked administrative data: Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS).

    Douglas, Elaine; Rutherford, Alasdair; Bell, David

    2018-01-10

    Population ageing is a welcome testament to improvements in the social, economic and health circumstances over the life course. However, these successes necessitate that we understand more about the pathways of ageing to plan and cost our health and social care services, to support our ageing population to live healthier for longer and to make adequate provisions for retirement. Longitudinal studies of ageing facilitate such understanding in many countries around the world. Scotland presently does not have a longitudinal study of ageing, despite dramatic increases to its ageing population and its poor health record. Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS) constitutes the launch of Scotland's first comprehensive longitudinal study of ageing. A sample of 1000 people aged 50+ years will be invited to take part in a household social survey. The innovative sampling procedure used administrative data to identify eligible households. Anonymised survey responses will be linked to administrative data. Ethics approval was obtained from the host institution for the study design and from the Public Benefits and Privacy Panel for administrative data linkage. Anonymised survey data will be deposited with the UK Data Service. A subset of survey data, harmonised with other global ageing studies, will be available via the Gateway to Global Aging platform. These data will enable powerful cross-country comparisons across the social, economic and health domains that will be relevant for national and international research.Research publications from the HAGIS team will be disseminated through journal articles and national and international conferences. The findings will support current and future research and policy debate on ageing populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. English for Speakers of Other Languages in Scotland's Colleges: A Subject-Based Aspect Report on Provision in Scotland's Colleges by Education Scotland on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council. Transforming Lives through Learning

    Education Scotland, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education Scotland's publication, "External Quality Arrangements for Scotland's Colleges, Updated August 2013", specifies that HM Inspectors (HMI) will produce a number of subject aspect reports over the four-year period 2012-16. Colleges should act on the recommendations contained in these reports. College inspectors will monitor action…

  6. Cost‐effectiveness of implementing automated grading within the national screening programme for diabetic retinopathy in Scotland

    Scotland, G S; McNamee, P; Philip, S; Fleming, A D; Goatman, K A; Prescott, G J; Fonseca, S; Sharp, P F; Olson, J A

    2007-01-01

    Aims National screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy using digital photography and multi‐level manual grading systems are currently being implemented in the UK. Here, we assess the cost‐effectiveness of replacing first level manual grading in the National Screening Programme in Scotland with an automated system developed to assess image quality and detect the presence of any retinopathy. Methods A decision tree model was developed and populated using sensitivity/specificity and cost data based on a study of 6722 patients in the Grampian region. Costs to the NHS, and the number of appropriate screening outcomes and true referable cases detected in 1 year were assessed. Results For the diabetic population of Scotland (approximately 160 000), with prevalence of referable retinopathy at 4% (6400 true cases), the automated strategy would be expected to identify 5560 cases (86.9%) and the manual strategy 5610 cases (87.7%). However, the automated system led to savings in grading and quality assurance costs to the NHS of £201 600 per year. The additional cost per additional referable case detected (manual vs automated) totalled £4088 and the additional cost per additional appropriate screening outcome (manual vs automated) was £1990. Conclusions Given that automated grading is less costly and of similar effectiveness, it is likely to be considered a cost‐effective alternative to manual grading. PMID:17585001

  7. Cost-effectiveness of implementing automated grading within the national screening programme for diabetic retinopathy in Scotland.

    Scotland, G S; McNamee, P; Philip, S; Fleming, A D; Goatman, K A; Prescott, G J; Fonseca, S; Sharp, P F; Olson, J A

    2007-11-01

    National screening programmes for diabetic retinopathy using digital photography and multi-level manual grading systems are currently being implemented in the UK. Here, we assess the cost-effectiveness of replacing first level manual grading in the National Screening Programme in Scotland with an automated system developed to assess image quality and detect the presence of any retinopathy. A decision tree model was developed and populated using sensitivity/specificity and cost data based on a study of 6722 patients in the Grampian region. Costs to the NHS, and the number of appropriate screening outcomes and true referable cases detected in 1 year were assessed. For the diabetic population of Scotland (approximately 160,000), with prevalence of referable retinopathy at 4% (6400 true cases), the automated strategy would be expected to identify 5560 cases (86.9%) and the manual strategy 5610 cases (87.7%). However, the automated system led to savings in grading and quality assurance costs to the NHS of 201,600 pounds per year. The additional cost per additional referable case detected (manual vs automated) totalled 4088 pounds and the additional cost per additional appropriate screening outcome (manual vs automated) was 1990 pounds. Given that automated grading is less costly and of similar effectiveness, it is likely to be considered a cost-effective alternative to manual grading.

  8. Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Prediction of Mortality From Clinical Presentation and Glasgow Aneurysm Score.

    Weingarten, Toby N; Thompson, Lauren T; Licatino, Lauren K; Bailey, Christopher H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Sprung, Juraj

    2016-04-01

    To examine association of presenting clinical acuity and Glasgow Aneurysm Score (GAS) with perioperative and 1-year mortality. Retrospective chart review. Major tertiary care facility. Patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) from 2003 through 2013. Emergency repair of rAAA. The authors reviewed outcomes after stable versus unstable presentation and by GAS. Unstable presentation included hypotension, cardiac arrest, loss of consciousness, and preoperative tracheal intubation. In total, 125 patients (40 stable) underwent repair. Perioperative mortality rates were 41% and 12% in unstable and stable patients, respectively (pClinical presentation and GAS identified patients with rAAA who were likely to have a poor surgical outcome. GAS≥96 was associated with poor long-term survival, but>20% of these patients survived 1 year. Thus, neither clinical presentation nor GAS provided reliable guidance for decisions regarding futility of surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Audit of the Forensic Psychiatry Liaison Service to Glasgow Sheriff Court 1994 to 1998.

    White, T; Ramsay, L; Morrison, R

    2002-01-01

    This study seeks to describe the demographic, offence, and diagnostic details of subjects referred by the Procurator Fiscal at Glasgow Sheriff Court to the Forensic Psychiatry Liaison between 1994 and 1997. The initial outcome of the assessment and an assessment of medical time involved is presented. This study is a retrospective review of audit forms completed between 1993 and 1994 and once more in 1997. The referral criteria, age structure and offence pattern was broadly similar to that reported in court diversion schemes in England. A primary diagnosis of alcohol and/or drug dependence was seen in one third of referrals during both years of the audit. A marked increase (250%) in referrals between 1994 and 1997 resulted in a marked reduction of those admitted to hospital, and an increase in the percentage who had 'no psychiatric diagnosis'. The need for ongoing liaison between the Procurators Fiscal and the Forensic Psychiatrists involved would appear important in modifying referral criteria.

  10. Potential for solar space heating in Scotland

    Macgregor, A W.K.

    1980-07-01

    This paper investigates the relative effectiveness of passive-type solar-assisted space heating systems at various latitudes within the British Isles. A comparison is made of the useful solar gain of the same system linked to the same house at four different locations. Month-by-month energy balances indicate that the annual useful solar contribution at the highest latitude (Lerwick, 60 deg N) is about 35% higher than at the lowest latitude (Kew, 53 deg N). The main reason for this difference is the higher heating loads in the north, particularly outside the winter months. The estimated available irradiation on south-facing vertical surfaces was almost the same at all four locations. Previous work in the UK indicates that, contrary to the conclusions in this paper, more southerly latitudes were the most favorable for solar space heating. The reasons for the disparity are discussed. It is recommended that research and development of passive solar-assisted space heating systems should be most vigorously pursued in the more northerly latitudes of the British Isles, where both the potential benefit and the need are greatest.

  11. Variations of the entrepreneurial city: Goals, roles visions in Rotterdam’s Kop van Zuid and the Glasgow Harbour megaprojects

    Doucet, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Both Rotterdam’s Kop van Zuid and the Glasgow Harbour waterfront developments are examples of different forms of European urban entrepreneurial megaprojects. They are both situated on formerly vacant land in older industrial cities. In Rotterdam, the municipality has taken the initiative in

  12. Quality of life and well-being of people receiving haemodialysis treatment in Scotland: a cross-sectional survey.

    Alshraifeen, Ali; McCreaddie, May; Evans, Josie M M

    2014-10-01

    End-stage renal disease is a complex, progressive and debilitating illness that affects patients' quality of life, physical and mental health, well-being, social functioning and emotional health. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in renal dialysis centres in Scotland to assess patients' health status and the impact of haemodialysis treatment on quality of life and well-being. Participants scored considerably lower than the UK general population in all domains of health-related quality of life, although mental health components were nearer to general population norms than physical health components. However, nearly half of the participants achieved a score on a general well-being questionnaire that was indicative of stress and anxiety. Increasing age was associated with better overall mental health but worse physical functioning. Increasing levels of hope and support were associated with improved general well-being. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Combination of Glasgow Coma Scale, Age, and Systolic Blood Pressure in Assessing Patients’ Outcomes with Decreased Consciousness

    Amir S Madjid

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS is commonly used to assess outcomes of patients with loss of consciousness, but it is insufficient in predicting the outcome of some cases. This study aimed to assess the combination of GCS, systolic blood pressure and age to predict the outcome of patients with decreased consciousness. This was a retrospective cohort observational study of 76 loss of consciousness patients that comes into the Emergency Department of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital in June-August 2014. Data was obtained from the medical records . GCS, systolic blood pressure and age were recorded when patients were admitted to the triage. Outcome was assessed two weeks after admission in the emergency department. Bivariate analysis on the GCS and age showed significant different between patients with poor outcome group with good outcome group (p<0.05 and no significant different of the systolic blood pressure between both groups (p>0.05. Multivariate analysis on the GCS and age showed good probability equation based on the calibration test and discrimination. The combination of Glasgow Coma Scale and age was accurate in assessing the outcomes of patients with loss of consciousness. Keywords. Glasgow Coma Scale, systolic, age, outcomes     Gabungan Glasgow Coma Scale, Umur, dan Tekanan Darah Sistolik Sebagai Penilai Luaran Pasien Penurunan Kesadaran   Abstrak Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS telah menjadi salah satu penilaian yang digunakan untuk menilai luaran pasien penurunan kesadaran, tetapi dinilai masih belum mampu memprediksi luaran yang terjadi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menilai gabungan GCS, tekanan darah sistolik dan umur untuk memprediksi luaran pasien dengan penurunan kesadaran. Penelitian ini merupakan studi observasional kohort retrospektif yang melibatkan 76 pasien dengan penurunan kesadaran yang datang ke IGD RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo selama bulan Juni-Agustus 2014. Data diambil dari rekam medik. GCS, tekanan darah sistolik dan

  14. Alcohol and drug use during unprotected anal intercourse among gay and bisexual men in Scotland: what are the implications for HIV prevention?

    Li, Jessica; McDaid, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine alcohol and drug use during unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and whether use is associated with HIV-related risk behaviours among gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 17 gay commercial venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh in May 2011 (n=1515, 65.2% response rate); 639 men reporting UAI are included. Results 14.4% were always and 63.4% were sometimes drunk during UAI in the previous 12 months; 36.3% always/sometimes used poppers; 22.2% always/sometimes used stimulant or other recreational/illicit drugs; and 14.1% always/sometimes used Viagra. All were significantly correlated and, in multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds of having UAI with 2+ partners in the previous 12 months were significantly higher for men who reported stimulant or recreational/illicit drug use during UAI (AOR=2.75, 95% CI 1.74 to 4.34) and the adjusted odds of UAI with casual partners were higher for men who reported poppers use (AOR=1.50, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.17). Men who reported always being drunk during UAI were more likely to report UAI with 2+ partners (AOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.81), casual partners (AOR=2.18, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.73), and partners of unknown/discordant HIV status (AOR=2.14, 95% CI 1.29 to 3.53), than men who were not. Conclusions Our study suggests alcohol and drug use may be relatively common during UAI among gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Brief alcohol or drug interventions, particularly in clinical settings, are justified, but should be properly evaluated and take into account the potential influence of broader, situational and social factors on sexual risk. PMID:24345556

  15. Awareness and willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis amongst gay and bisexual men in Scotland: implications for biomedical HIV prevention.

    Ingrid Young

    Full Text Available To investigate the awareness of, and willingness to use, HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP, and willingness to take part in a PrEP study among gay and bisexual men in Scotland.Cross-sectional survey of 17 gay commercial venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh in May 2011 (N = 1515, 65.2% response rate; 1393 are included in the analyses.Just under one-third of participants had heard of PrEP (n = 434; 31.2%, with awareness associated with being aged older than 35 years, talking to UAI partners about HIV, and with having had an HIV or STI test in the previous 12 months. Around half were willing to take part in a PrEP study (n = 695; 49.9% or to take PrEP on a daily basis (n = 756; 54.3%. In multivariate analysis, willingness to take PrEP was associated with lower levels of education, regular gay scene attendance, 'high-risk' unprotected anal intercourse (UAI and testing for HIV or STI in the previous 12 months. Reasons for not wanting to participate in a PrEP study or take PrEP included perceptions of low personal risk of HIV and concerns with using medication as an HIV prevention method.There is a willingness to engage in new forms of HIV prevention and research amongst a significant number of gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Future biomedical HIV interventions need to consider the links between sexual risk behaviour, testing, and potential PrEP use.

  16. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    Scandrett, Eurig

    2007-01-01

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development

  17. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    Scandrett, Eurig [Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development.

  18. Environmental monitoring for radioactivity in Scotland: 1981 to 1985

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A bulletin, prepared by Her Majesty's Industrial Pollution Inspectorate (HMIPI) of the Scottish Development Department (SDD), contains a summary of the environmental monitoring for radioactivity carried out in Scotland as part of the statutory procedure for ensuring the safety of radioactive waste disposals from nuclear facilities. The monitoring results for discharges to both the atmosphere and the sea over the period 1981 to 1985 are presented for BNFL's Chapelcross and Sellafield Works, UKAEA Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment, SSEB Hunterston Power Station and MOD Naval Installations. It is concluded that public radiation exposure in Scotland from environmental radioactivity arising from radioactive waste disposal has been well within the internationally recommended limits.

  19. Juggling work and motherhood: the impact of employment and maternity leave on breastfeeding duration: a survival analysis on Growing Up in Scotland data.

    Skafida, Valeria

    2012-02-01

    In 2005, Scotland became the first nation to make breastfeeding in public a legal right, but current breastfeeding targets and maternity leave allowance do not acknowledge the conflicting demands women face when juggling employment and motherhood. This paper explores how employment and maternity leave relate to breastfeeding duration among mothers in Scotland. The Growing Up in Scotland national longitudinal cohort study of 5,217 babies born in 2004-2005 was used. Multivariate proportional hazards regression models were specified using one cross-sectional wave of data to predict breastfeeding duration. Mothers working as employees, full-time (Hazard Ratio 1.6) or part-time (HR1.3), had a higher risk of earlier breastfeeding cessation than non-working mothers. However, self-employed mothers did not differ significantly from non-working mothers in their breastfeeding patterns. Mothers who took longer maternity leave breastfed for longer. The relationships between employment, maternity leave and breastfeeding duration were significant when controlling for known predictors of breastfeeding. Younger mothers, those with less formal education, single mothers, those of white ethnic background, and first-time mothers were more likely to stop breastfeeding sooner, as has been noted in previous research. Employment and early return to work are both factors associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding. More flexible working conditions and more generous employment leave could help to prolong breastfeeding among working mothers. Current health and employment policy in Scotland and the UK could be better coordinated so that working mothers have the adequate support to meet the conflicting demands of employment and motherhood.

  20. Givetian (Middle Devonian) cladoxylopsid 'ferns' from Orkney, Northern Scotland

    Berry, Christopher Mark; Hilton, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Two large fossil plants are described from the Givetian (Middle Devonian) Eday\\ud Flags, South Ronaldsay, Orkney Isles, northern Scotland. Fossils with branches joined to stems of\\ud this age are rare. Each specimen comprises a robust and tapering main trunk from which numerous\\ud closely spaced branches arise distally. Although poorly preserved such that generic identifications are\\ud not possible, both specimens display the characteristic architecture of the plant order Pseudosporochnales\\u...

  1. A small mesolithic site at Fife Ness, Fife, Scotland

    Caroline R. Wickham-Jones

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 1996 work to build a new golf course on the coast at Crail in Fife, Scotland, uncovered a small patch of dark soil associated with microliths. Excavation revealed an arc of seven pits or post-holes, a hearth site and several other pit-like features. There was a small lithic assemblage, and also a quantity of carbonised hazelnut shell, samples of which were sent off for radiocarbon assay. The site was remarkable for several reasons: ◦Size ◦Its size (75m2 was unusual in that most mesolithic sites in Scotland (and elsewhere are often much larger. Small sites have played an important role in theoretical interpretations of the mesolithic way of life, but few have been excavated. ◦Lithic assemblage ◦The lithic assemblage was small, even for such a small site, and comprised solely of flint, which is very rare in Scotland. There was relatively little knapping debris, but several retouched tools, over half of which were narrow blade microliths. The microliths were very interesting because they were dominated by crescentic microliths, while more common types such as scalene triangles were absent. ◦Dates ◦A series of fourteen radiocarbon dates were obtained for the site and all centred round the same period: between 7400 and 7600 BC, calibrated. This was earlier than had been expected, and is an interesting addition to knowledge of the early settlement of eastern Scotland since most other early dates have been from west coast sites. The similarity of the dates adds weight to the argument that the site represents a single occupation which, in view of its size, is likely to have been of short duration. This, and the nature of the lithic assemblage, have lead us to the interpretation that the site was a specialised camp site, probably making use of coastal resources.

  2. Between Christianity and secularity: counselling and psychotherapy provision in Scotland

    Bondi, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Counselling and psychotherapy services have become increasingly prominent within modern urban welfare. Although often perceived to be intrinsically secular, since psychoanalytic thinking and practice arrived in Scotland it has been shaped by the Christian culture it encountered. Early Scottish-born contributors to psychoanalytic theory, including Ian Suttie and W.R.D. Fairbairn, reframed Freud’s ideas in ways that incorporated Scottish Presbyterian understandings of what it is to be human. A ...

  3. Referendum in Scotland in 2014: history and implications

    Kulikov N. A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to the analysis of the referendum in Scotland in 2014 as a peaceful way of people's self-determination of this historical part of the United Kingdom. The author believes that the referendum is able to resolve the issue of sovereignty, and to prevent secession only if it is conducted legally and with the approval of the central authorities of states that are under the burden of separatism.

  4. Mine water pollution in Scotland. Nature, extent and preventative strategies

    Younger, P.L. [Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle, NE1 7RU Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have<50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations>100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings.

  5. The Caledonian tectonomagmatic evolution of the Orkney Islands, Scotland

    Bjerga, Audun Dalene

    2017-01-01

    The geology of the Orkney Islands is dominated by well-studied Devonian sedimentary rocks deposited in the Orcadian basin. However, on the islands of Mainland Orkney and Graemsay there are small, relatively poorly studied outcrops of the underlying basement. Based on comparison with rocks in mainland Scotland this basement has been suggested to comprise pre-Caledonian para-gneisses and Caledonian granites. This has, however, never been documented. Here the contact relationships in the basemen...

  6. How should we go about jury research in Scotland?

    Chalmers, James; Leverick, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Considers why jury research is needed in Scotland, and the methods that could be used. Discusses the justifications for research into jury reasoning and decision-making advanced by the Post-Corroboration Safeguards Review, and its proposals on issues such as simple majority verdicts. Examines options for research with real or mock juries, the possible research questions, and whether reform of the Contempt of Court Act 1981 would be necessary.

  7. Comparison of family nursing in Slovenia and Scotland: integrative review.

    Ljubič, A; Clark, D J; Štemberger Kolnik, T

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and compare the advantages and disadvantages of two systems of community nursing through the history of their development, and to compare these systems with the World Health Organization model of the Family Health Nurse. In Slovenia, the family/community nursing service is designed according to the World Health Organization policies and is performed by the generalist family/community nurse. In contrast, across Scotland there is no universal model and the current system comprises several different specialist-nursing pathways. The study aimed to describe each model and to understand why the family health nurse model was preferred in Slovenia but rejected in Scotland. This study was based on integrative review method conducted from August 2013 to September 2015 using national and international specialized databases. While the published literature on this topic is very limited, this review also includes unpublished material. For data analysis, the Walker and Avant's concept analysis model was used. Three main themes were identified through the process of the literature search; the Family Health Nurse concept, family/community nursing development in Slovenia, and community nursing development in Scotland. Findings related specifically to the different roles of nurses in the community in Slovenia and Scotland are reported. It is clear that the WHO guidelines and recommendations are not suitable for implementation in all member countries. Both models have advantages and disadvantages. In developing community nursing services, it would be wise to look for systems that represent the best solutions for treatment of the individual, the family and the community. The findings should be used when designing new models applied in different healthcare systems within each country, with a focus on strategy aimed at the welfare of the patient and his family. Findings give a possible solution for financially restricted healthcare systems, regarding

  8. Demographic and Geographical Characteristics of Pediatric Trauma in Scotland

    2013-01-01

    the 8-fold Scottish Urban/ Rural Classifi- cation [20], which is based on settlement size and drive time to major conurbations. Social deprivation was...distribution, but with some exceptions. Scotland has an eccentrically distributed population, with 69.5% living in urban areas ( Scottish urban/ rural ...high rate of mortality and prehospital death. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2003;47:153-6. [20] Scottish Government: Scottish government urban/ rural

  9. Predictive Utility of the Total Glasgow Coma Scale Versus the Motor Component of the Glasgow Coma Scale for Identification of Patients With Serious Traumatic Injuries.

    Chou, Roger; Totten, Annette M; Carney, Nancy; Dandy, Spencer; Fu, Rongwei; Grusing, Sara; Pappas, Miranda; Wasson, Ngoc; Newgard, Craig D

    2017-08-01

    The motor component of the Glasgow Coma Scale (mGCS) has been proposed as an easier-to-use alternative to the total GCS (tGCS) for field assessment of trauma patients by emergency medical services. We perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the predictive utility of the tGCS versus the mGCS or Simplified Motor Scale in field triage of trauma for identifying patients with adverse outcomes (inhospital mortality or severe brain injury) or who underwent procedures (neurosurgical intervention or emergency intubation) indicating need for high-level trauma care. Ovid MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, and the Cochrane databases were searched through June 2016 for English-language cohort studies. We included studies that compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the tGCS versus the mGCS or Simplified Motor Scale assessed in the field or shortly after arrival in the emergency department for predicting the outcomes described above. Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effects model, and subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. We included 18 head-to-head studies of predictive utility (n=1,703,388). For inhospital mortality, the tGCS was associated with slightly greater discrimination than the mGCS (pooled mean difference in [AUROC] 0.015; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.009 to 0.022; I 2 =85%; 12 studies) or the Simplified Motor Scale (pooled mean difference in AUROC 0.030; 95% CI 0.024 to 0.036; I 2 =0%; 5 studies). The tGCS was also associated with greater discrimination than the mGCS or Simplified Motor Scale for nonmortality outcomes (differences in AUROC from 0.03 to 0.05). Findings were robust in subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The tGCS is associated with slightly greater discrimination than the mGCS or Simplified Motor Scale for identifying severe trauma. The small differences in discrimination are likely to be

  10. Rural and urban distribution of trauma incidents in Scotland.

    Morrison, J J; McConnell, N J; Orman, J A; Egan, G; Jansen, J O

    2013-02-01

    Trauma systems reduce mortality and improve functional outcomes from injury. Regional trauma networks have been established in several European regions to address longstanding deficiencies in trauma care. A perception of the geography and population distribution as challenging has delayed the introduction of a trauma system in Scotland. The characteristics of trauma incidents attended by the Scottish Ambulance Service were analysed, to gain a better understanding of the geospatial characteristics of trauma in Scotland. Data on trauma incidents collected by the Scottish Ambulance Service between November 2008 and October 2010 were obtained. Incident location was analysed by health board region, rurality and social deprivation. The results are presented as number of patients, average annual incidence rates and relative risks. Of the 141,668 incidents identified, 72·1 per cent occurred in urban regions. The risk of being involved in an incident was similar across the most populous regions, and decreased slightly with increasing rurality. Social deprivation was associated with greater numbers and risk. A total of 53·1 per cent of patients were taken to a large general hospital, and 38·6 per cent to a teaching hospital; the distribution was similar for the subset of incidents involving patients with physiological derangements. The majority of trauma incidents in Scotland occur in urban and deprived areas. A regionalized system of trauma care appears plausible, although the precise configuration of such a system requires further study. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Scotland's Knowledge Network: translating knowledge into action to improve quality of care.

    Wales, A; Graham, S; Rooney, K; Crawford, A

    2012-11-01

    The Knowledge Network (www.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk) is Scotland's online knowledge service for health and social care. It is designed to support practitioners to apply knowledge in frontline delivery of care, helping to translate knowledge into better health-care outcomes through safe, effective, person-centred care. The Knowledge Network helps to combine the worlds of evidence-based practice and quality improvement by providing access to knowledge about the effectiveness of clinical interventions ('know-what') and knowledge about how to implement this knowledge to support individual patients in working health-care environments ('know-how'). An 'evidence and guidance' search enables clinicians to quickly access quality-assured evidence and best practice, while point of care and mobile solutions provide knowledge in actionable formats to embed in clinical workflow. This research-based knowledge is complemented by social networking services and improvement tools which support the capture and exchange of knowledge from experience, facilitating practice change and systems improvement. In these cases, the Knowledge Network supports key components of the knowledge-to-action cycle--acquiring, creating, sharing and disseminating knowledge to improve performance and innovate. It provides a vehicle for implementing the recommendations of the national Knowledge into Action review, which outlines a new national approach to embedding knowledge in frontline practice and systems improvement.

  12. Mussels and Yachts in Loch Fyne, Scotland: a Case Study of the Science-Policy Interface

    Paul Tett

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an application of the Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment (SPICOSA Systems Approach Framework (SAF to Loch Fyne, a fjord in western Scotland. The issue was the potential for conflict between shellfish aquaculture and recreational use for yachting. This was investigated by building an ecological-economic model to simulate: (1 release of modern anti-fouling compounds by recreational boats; (2 dilution of these in the upper layers of the loch by exchange with the sea; (3 their effects on photosynthesis by phytoplankton; (4 the role of phytoplankton (along with non-algal particulate matter in providing food for mussels; (5 the growth of seeded mussels to harvest, determining (6 the cash input to farms, offset by their costs and allowing (7 the farm revenue to be compared with that from marinas used to berth the yachts. It was concluded from simulations that no noticeable effect on mussel harvest would occur (from this route for any likely number of yachts berthed in the loch. The application took place in consultation with a local environmental forum and a small reference group of public officials; we reflect on it in the context of a 3-component schema for the science-policy interface and changes in the culture of UK science.

  13. The UK biomass industry

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  14. A UK guide to intake fish-screening regulations, policy and best practice with particular reference to hydroelectric power schemes

    Turnpenny, A W.H.; Struthers, G; Hanson, P

    1998-07-01

    A review of fish screening regulations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland is presented, and a summary of findings on screening legislation is given. The views of hydroelectric scheme developers, owners and operators are considered, and recommendations including the development of a risk assessment procedure are discussed. Fish screening technology, bypasses and other escape routes, and common fault in screen design and operation are examined, and guidance to Best Practice is given. (UK)

  15. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    Latimer, Karen; Lawton, Aoife

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Assessment of nurse's knowledge about Glasgow coma scale at a university hospital.

    Santos, Wesley Cajaíba; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-01-01

    To assess knowledge of nurses of emergency services and intensive care units about Glasgow Coma Scale. This cross-sectional analytical study included 127 nurses of critical units of an university hospital. We used structured interview with 12 questions to evaluate their knowledge about the scale. Association of Knowledge with professionals' sociodemographic variables were verified by the Fisher-test, χ2 and likelihood ratio. Most of participants were women mean aged 31.1 years, they had graduated more than 5 years previously, and had 1 to 3 years of work experience. In the assessment of best score possible for Glasgow scale (question 3) nurses who had graduate more than 5 years ago presented a lower percentage success rate (p=0.0476). However, in the question 7, which evaluated what interval of the scale indicated moderate severity of brain trauma injury, those with more years of experience had higher percentage of correct answers (p=0.0251). In addition, nurses from emergency service had more correct answers than nurses from intensive care unit (p=0.0143) in the same question. Nurses graduated for more than 5 years ago had a lower percentage of correct answers in question 7 (p=0.0161). Nurses with more work experience had a better score (p=0.0119) to identify how assessment of motor response should be started. Number of year since graduation, experience, and work at critical care units interfered in nurses' knowledge about the scale, which indicates the need of training. Avaliar o conhecimento de enfermeiros de unidades críticas, serviços de emergência e unidades de terapia intensiva em relação à escala de coma de Glasgow. Estudo transversal e analítico com 127 enfermeiros de unidades críticas de um hospital universitário. Utilizou-se entrevista estruturada com 12 questões que avaliaram conhecimento sobre a escala. Associação do conhecimento com variáveis sociodemográficas dos profissionais foi verificada pelo teste de Fisher, teste χ2 e razão de

  17. Cost comparison of orthopaedic fracture pathways using discrete event simulation in a Glasgow hospital

    Jenkins, Paul J; McDonald, David A; Van Der Meer, Robert; Morton, Alec; Nugent, Margaret; Rymaszewski, Lech A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Healthcare faces the continual challenge of improving outcome while aiming to reduce cost. The aim of this study was to determine the micro cost differences of the Glasgow non-operative trauma virtual pathway in comparison to a traditional pathway. Design Discrete event simulation was used to model and analyse cost and resource utilisation with an activity-based costing approach. Data for a full comparison before the process change was unavailable so we used a modelling approach, comparing a virtual fracture clinic (VFC) with a simulated traditional fracture clinic (TFC). Setting The orthopaedic unit VFC pathway pioneered at Glasgow Royal Infirmary has attracted significant attention and interest and is the focus of this cost study. Outcome measures Our study focused exclusively on patients with non-operative trauma attending emergency department or the minor injuries unit and the subsequent step in the patient pathway. Retrospective studies of patient outcomes as a result of the protocol introductions for specific injuries are presented in association with activity costs from the models. Results Patients are satisfied with the new pathway, the information provided and the outcome of their injuries (Evidence Level IV). There was a 65% reduction in the number of first outpatient face-to-face (f2f) attendances in orthopaedics. In the VFC pathway, the resources required per day were significantly lower for all staff groups (p≤0.001). The overall cost per patient of the VFC pathway was £22.84 (95% CI 21.74 to 23.92) per patient compared with £36.81 (95% CI 35.65 to 37.97) for the TFC pathway. Conclusions Our results give a clearer picture of the cost comparison of the virtual pathway over a wholly traditional f2f clinic system. The use of simulation-based stochastic costings in healthcare economic analysis has been limited to date, but this study provides evidence for adoption of this method as a basis for its application in other healthcare settings

  18. Cost comparison of orthopaedic fracture pathways using discrete event simulation in a Glasgow hospital.

    Anderson, Gillian H; Jenkins, Paul J; McDonald, David A; Van Der Meer, Robert; Morton, Alec; Nugent, Margaret; Rymaszewski, Lech A

    2017-09-07

    Healthcare faces the continual challenge of improving outcome while aiming to reduce cost. The aim of this study was to determine the micro cost differences of the Glasgow non-operative trauma virtual pathway in comparison to a traditional pathway. Discrete event simulation was used to model and analyse cost and resource utilisation with an activity-based costing approach. Data for a full comparison before the process change was unavailable so we used a modelling approach, comparing a virtual fracture clinic (VFC) with a simulated traditional fracture clinic (TFC). The orthopaedic unit VFC pathway pioneered at Glasgow Royal Infirmary has attracted significant attention and interest and is the focus of this cost study. Our study focused exclusively on patients with non-operative trauma attending emergency department or the minor injuries unit and the subsequent step in the patient pathway. Retrospective studies of patient outcomes as a result of the protocol introductions for specific injuries are presented in association with activity costs from the models. Patients are satisfied with the new pathway, the information provided and the outcome of their injuries (Evidence Level IV). There was a 65% reduction in the number of first outpatient face-to-face (f2f) attendances in orthopaedics. In the VFC pathway, the resources required per day were significantly lower for all staff groups (p≤0.001). The overall cost per patient of the VFC pathway was £22.84 (95% CI 21.74 to 23.92) per patient compared with £36.81 (95% CI 35.65 to 37.97) for the TFC pathway. Our results give a clearer picture of the cost comparison of the virtual pathway over a wholly traditional f2f clinic system. The use of simulation-based stochastic costings in healthcare economic analysis has been limited to date, but this study provides evidence for adoption of this method as a basis for its application in other healthcare settings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  19. Item-Level Psychometrics of the Glasgow Outcome Scale: Extended Structured Interviews.

    Hong, Ickpyo; Li, Chih-Ying; Velozo, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) structured interview captures critical components of activities and participation, including home, shopping, work, leisure, and family/friend relationships. Eighty-nine community dwelling adults with mild-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) were recruited (average = 2.7 year post injury). Nine items of the 19 items were used for the psychometrics analysis purpose. Factor analysis and item-level psychometrics were investigated using the Rasch partial-credit model. Although the principal components analysis of residuals suggests that a single measurement factor dominates the measure, the instrument did not meet the factor analysis criteria. Five items met the rating scale criteria. Eight items fit the Rasch model. The instrument demonstrated low person reliability (0.63), low person strata (2.07), and a slight ceiling effect. The GOSE demonstrated limitations in precisely measuring activities/participation for individuals after TBI. Future studies should examine the impact of the low precision of the GOSE on effect size. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. A study of issues in administering library services to nursing studies students at Glasgow Caledonian University.

    Crawford, John

    2002-06-01

    Glasgow Caledonian University has had a Scottish Office pre-registration nursing and midwifery contract since 1996. Nursing studies students seemed dissatisfied with the library service and there were frequent complaints. A major study was undertaken during 2000 consisting of: an initial lis-link enquiry, separate analysis of returns from nursing studies students of the Library's annual general satisfaction survey (conducted every February), separate analysis of returns from nursing studies students of the Library's opening hours planning survey, and four focus groups held in October 2000. These studies showed the concerns of nursing studies students to be similar to other students but more strongly felt. The four main issues were textbook availability, journal availability, opening hours and staff helpfulness. Working conditions, placement requirements, study requirements and domestic circumstances were all found to be important factors. IT skill levels tended to be low but there is a growing appreciation of the need for training in this area. Concluded that: Library's services to nursing studies students have become enmeshed with the problems of delivery and assessment of education for nurses. Greatly extended opening hours are essential including evening opening during vacations. The problem of access to textbooks is so severe that conventional solutions are not going to work. Programmes of core text digitization and the promotion of e-books are needed. Reciprocal access programmes with local hospital libraries is essential.

  1. Tracheostomy decannulation at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Glasgow: Predictors of success and failure.

    Beaton, Fiona; Baird, Tracy-Anne; Clement, W Andrew; Kubba, Haytham

    2016-11-01

    Tracheostomy techniques, indications and care are extensively covered in the literature. However, little is written about the process of removing the tracheostomy tube. At the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Glasgow we use a stepwise ward-based protocol for safe tracheostomy decannulation. Our aim therefore was to review all the paediatric tracheostomy decannulations that we attempted over the last 3 years to evaluate our protocol, to determine our success rate and to see whether any modifications to the protocol are required. We reviewed all patients who had undergone ward decannulation between January 2012 and May 2015. We extracted data from clinical records including patient characteristics, indications for tracheostomy, timing of decannulation and success or failure of the process. The 45 children in the study underwent 57 attempts at decannulation during the study period. 25 were male (56%) and 20 were female (44%), and they were aged between 1 day and 16 years 6 months at the time of the original tracheostomy operation. 33 attempts were successful (58%). 10 children had more than one attempt at decannulation. Children were found to fail at every stage of the protocol, with the commonest point of failure being day 2 when the tracheostomy tube was capped. We have demonstrated that our current protocol for ward decannulation is effective and safe, and that all five days of the protocol are required. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between nutritional status and the Glasgow Prognostic Score in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Maurício, Sílvia Fernandes; da Silva, Jacqueline Braga; Bering, Tatiana; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson

    2013-04-01

    The association between nutritional status and inflammation was assessed in patients with colorectal cancer and to verify their association with complications during anticancer treatment. The agreement between the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and different nutritional assessment methods was also evaluated. A cross-sectional, prospective, and descriptive study was performed. The nutritional status was defined by the SGA and the severity of inflammation was defined by the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS). The complications were classified using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3. Anthropometric measurements such as body mass index, triceps skinfold, midarm circumference, midarm muscle area, and adductor pollicis muscle thickness were also performed, as were handgrip strength and phase angle. The chi-square test, Fisher exact test, Spearman correlation coefficient, independent t test, analysis of variance, Gabriel test, and κ index were used for the statistical analysis. P cancer (60.4 ± 14.3 y old) were included. The nutritional status according to the SGA was associated with the GPS (P nutritional assessment methods with the SGA, there were statistically significant differences. Malnutrition is highly prevalent in patients with colorectal cancer. The nutritional status was associated with the GPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prognostic significance of Glasgow prognostic score in patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Feng, Ji-Feng; Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Qi-Xun

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score, is inversely related to prognosis in a variety of cancers; high levels of GPS is associated with poor prognosis. However, few studies regarding GPS in esophageal cancer (EC) are available. The aim of this study was to determine whether the GPS is useful for predicting cancer-specific survival (CSS) of patients for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The GPS was calculated on the basis of admission data as follows: Patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level (>10 mg/L) and hypoalbuminemia (L) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0, respectively. Our study showed that GPS was associated with tumor size, depth of invasion, and nodal metastasis (PGPS0, GPS1, and GPS2 were 60.8%, 34.7% and 10.7%, respectively (PGPS was a significant predictor of CSS. GPS1-2 had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.399 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.805-3.190] for 1-year CSS (PGPS is associated with tumor progression. GPS can be considered as an independent prognostic factor in patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC.

  4. The inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score predicts survival in patients with cervical cancer.

    Polterauer, Stephan; Grimm, Christoph; Seebacher, Veronika; Rahhal, Jasmin; Tempfer, Clemens; Reinthaller, Alexander; Hefler, Lukas

    2010-08-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) is known to reflect the degree of tumor-associated cachexia and inflammation and is associated with survival in various malignancies. We investigated the value of the GPS in patients with cervical cancer. We included 244 consecutive patients with cervical cancer in our study. The pretherapeutic GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein serum levels (>10 mg/L) and hypoalbuminemia (L) were allocated a score of 2, and patients with 1 or no abnormal value were allocated a score of 1 or 0, respectively. The association between GPS and survival was evaluated by univariate log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression models. The GPS was correlated with clinicopathologic parameters as shown by performing chi2 tests. In univariate analyses, GPS (P GPS (P = 0.03, P = 0.04), FIGO stage (P = 0.006, P = 0.006), and lymph node involvement (P = 0.003, P = 0.002), but not patients' age (P = 0.5, P = 0.5), histological grade (P = 0.7, P = 0.6), and histological type (P = 0.4, P = 0.6) were associated with disease-free and overall survival, respectively. The GPS was associated with FIGO stage (P GPS can be used as an inflammation-based predictor for survival in patients with cervical cancer.

  5. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot.

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; Tørholm, Søren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Segmented CT data from one healthy subject was used to create a template Glasgow-Maastricht foot model (GM-model). Following this, the template was scaled to produce subject-specific models for five additional healthy participants using a surface scan of the foot and ankle. Forty-three skin mounted markers, mainly positioned around the foot and ankle, were used to capture the stance phase of the right foot of the six healthy participants during walking. The GM-model was then applied to calculate the intrinsic foot kinematics. Distinct motion patterns where found for all joints. The variability in outcome depended on the location of the joint, with reasonable results for sagittal plane motions and poor results for transverse plane motions. The results of the GM-model were comparable with existing literature, including bone pin studies, with respect to the range of motion, motion pattern and timing of the motion in the studied joints. This novel model is the most complete kinematic model to date. Further evaluation of the model is warranted.

  6. How commercial and non-commercial swine producers move pigs in Scotland: a detailed descriptive analysis.

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Boden, Lisa A; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Auty, Harriet K; Gunn, George J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-06-25

    companies provide insights into the structure of the Scottish swine industry, but also highlight different features that may increase the risk of infectious diseases spread in both Scotland and the UK. Such knowledge is critical for developing more robust biosecurity and surveillance plans and better preparing Scotland against incursions of emerging swine diseases.

  7. UK ignores treaty obligations

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  8. UK nuclear installations

    Gronow, W.S.

    Regulations and conditions for the commissioning of nuclear power plants in the UK, their siting, licence conditions, design safety assessment, inspection during construction and conditions for safety in operation are listed. (J.P.)

  9. UK victims of trafficking

    Bob Burgoyne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of court cases shows how hard it is forvictims of trafficking to win the right to remain in the UK. Case law is inconsistent and more research and data collection are urgently needed.

  10. The evolution of green jobs in Scotland: A hybrid approach

    Connolly, Kevin; Allan, Grant J; McIntyre, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    In support of its ambitious target to reduce CO_2 emissions the Scottish Government is aiming to have the equivalent of 100% of Scottish electricity consumption generated from renewable sources by 2020. This is, at least in part, motivated by an expectation of subsequent employment growth in low carbon and renewable energy technologies; however there is no official data source to track employment in these areas. This has led to a variety of definitions, methodologies and alternative estimates being produced. Building on a recent study (Bishop and Brand, 2013) we develop a “hybrid” approach which combines the detail of “bottom-up” surveys with “top-down” trend data to produce estimates on employment in Low Carbon Environmental Goods and Services (LCEGS). We demonstrate this methodology to produce estimates for such employment in Scotland between 2004 and 2012. Our approach shows how survey and official sources can combine to produce a more timely measure of employment in LCEGS activities, assisting policymakers in tracking, consistently, developments. Applying our approach, we find that over this period employment in LCEGS in Scotland grew, but that this was more volatile than aggregate employment, and in particular that employment in this sector was particularly badly hit during the great recession. - Highlights: • A “hybrid” approach estimates green jobs from bottom-up detail and top-down data. • Illustrative results show the evolution of such jobs in Scotland from 2004 to 2012. • Method provides policymakers a timely measure of the jobs success of energy policy.

  11. Control of blood pressure in Scotland: the rule of halves.

    Smith, W C; Lee, A J; Crombie, I K; Tunstall-Pedoe, H

    1990-04-14

    Audit of detection, treatment, and control of hypertension in adults in Scotland. Cross sectional survey with random population sampling. General practice centres in 22 Scottish districts. 5123 Men and 5236 women aged 40-59 in the Scottish heart health study, randomly selected from 22 districts throughout Scotland, of whom 1262 men and 1061 women had hypertension (defined as receiving antihypertensive treatment or with blood pressure above defined cut off points). Hypertension (assessed by standardised recording, questionnaire on diagnosis, and antihypertensive drug treatment) according to criteria of the World Health Organisation (receiving antihypertensive treatment or blood pressure greater than or equal to 160/95 mm Hg, or both) and to modified criteria of the British Hypertension Society. In half the men with blood pressure greater than or equal to 160/95 mm Hg hypertension was undetected (670/1262, 53%), in half of those in whom it had been detected it was untreated (250/592, 42%), and in half of those receiving treatment it was not controlled (172/342, 50%). In women the numbers were: 486/1061, 46%; 188/575, 33%; and 155/387, 40% respectively. Assessment of blood pressure according to the British Hypertension Society's recommendations showed an improvement, but in only a quarter of men and 42% of women was hypertension detected and treated satisfactorily (142/561, 215/514 respectively). The detection and control of hypertension in Scotland is unsatisfactory, affecting management of this and other conditions, such as high blood cholesterol concentration, whose measurement is opportunistic and selective and depends on recognition of other risk factors.

  12. The Glasgow 'Deep End' Links Worker Study Protocol: a quasi-experimental evaluation of a social prescribing intervention for patients with complex needs in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation.

    Mercer, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Grant, Lesley; Chng, Nai Rui; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mackenzie, Mhairi; McConnachie, Alex; Bakhshi, Andisheh; Wyke, Sally

    2017-01-01

    'Social prescribing' can be used to link patients with complex needs to local (non-medical) community resources. The 'Deep End' Links Worker Programme is being tested in general practices serving deprived populations in Glasgow, Scotland. To assess the implementation and impact of the intervention at patient and practice levels. Study design : Quasi-experimental outcome evaluation with embedded theory-driven process evaluation in 15 practices randomized to receive the intervention or not. Complex intervention : Comprising a practice development fund, a practice-based community links practitioner (CLP), and management support. It aims to link patients to local community organizations and enhance practices' social prescribing capacity. Study population : For intervention practices, staff and adult patients involved in referral to a CLP, and a sample of community organization staff. For comparison practices, all staff and a random sample of adult patients. Sample size : 286 intervention and 484 comparator patients. Outcomes : Primary patient outcome is health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). Secondary patient outcomes include capacity, depression/anxiety, self-esteem, and healthcare utilization. Practice outcome measures include team climate, job satisfaction, morale, and burnout. Outcomes measured at baseline and 9 months. Processes : Barriers and facilitators to implementation of the programme and possible mechanisms through which outcomes are achieved. Analysis plan : For outcome, intention-to-treat analysis with differences between groups tested using mixed-effects regression models. For process, case-study approach with thematic analysis. This evaluation will provide new evidence about the implementation and impact of social prescribing by general practices serving patients with complex needs living in areas of high deprivation.

  13. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    Folkesson, J.; Engholm, G.; Ehrnrooth, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates four patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based oil cancer register data. differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries ill...... Europe. Variation ill the distribution of stage at diagnosis. initial therapy including surgical technique, and comorbidity are possible explanatory factors. Adenocarcinomas in the rectum. diagnosed in 1997 and identified in the national cancer registries in the Nordic countries and Scotland were...

  14. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    Folkesson, Joakim; Engholm, Gerda; Ehrnrooth, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates for patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based on cancer register data, differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries...... in Europe. Variation in the distribution of stage at diagnosis, initial therapy including surgical technique, and comorbidity are possible explanatory factors. Adenocarcinomas in the rectum, diagnosed in 1997 and identified in the national cancer registries in the Nordic countries and Scotland were included...

  15. Adoption and perception of electronic clinical communications in Scotland

    Claudia Pagliari

    2005-06-01

    Conclusions Significant progress was observed in the implementation of ECCI facilities across Scotland. Users reported that these improved communication and were beneficial, but system reliability, incompatibility and duplication of data hindered more widespread uptake. Data were collected at a transitional phase of the programme. Whilst, among users of ECCI facilities, perceptions of the programme and its potential benefits were generally positive, its full impact will not become evident until the new electronic tools are implemented nationally and have been more fully integrated into normal work routines.

  16. Reconciling the Perspective of Practitioner and Service User: Findings from The Aphasia in Scotland Study

    Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. Aims: This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to…

  17. A Barking Dog That Never Bites? The British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the pathway to the British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill and the strategies used to reach it. Data collection has been done by means of interviews with key players, analysis of official documents, and participant observation. The article discusses the bill in relation to the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005…

  18. Relational Study of Technical Education in Scotland and Nigeria for Sustainable Skill Development

    Umunadi, E. Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    This paper was designed to look at technical education curriculum and mode of implementation in Scotland in order to adopt the advantageous attributes of the Scottish technical education in Nigeria. The paper x-rayed the staff perceptions of technical education and its roles in Scotland; history of technical education before the advent of British…

  19. Young male Offenders, Spiritual Journeys and Criminal Desistance In Denmark and Scotland

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Deuchar, Ross; Matemba, Yonah,

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on a recent (2014) research in two remand prisons in Copenhagen, Denmark and one young offenders’ institution in Scotland. Based on in-depth life history interviews with 5 offenders in Denmark (age 23-37) and 9 in Scotland (age 16-21), the findings suggest that working with int......-religious and spiritual journeys....

  20. Landslide barriers at A83 Rest and be Thankful in Scotland and their first event 2015

    Wendeler, Corinna; Volkwein, Axel; Luis, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    the loading approach and the system itself were developed. The maintenance work at the barrier itself will now be to clean up, and to re-install the energy absorbers. Then the barrier is ready again for new events. References Winter M G, Macgregor F, Shack-man L (2008) Scottish Road Network Landslides Study Edinburgh. Gibson D (2010) Landslide Victory, the UK's first flexible debris flow barrier being installed at the landslide prone Rest and be Thankful site in Scotland, Ground Engineering April 2010. Bugnion L, McArdell B, Bartelt P, Wendeler C (2011) Measurements of Hillslope Debris Flow Impact Pressure on Obstacles. Landslides, 9, 179-187. Bugnion L, Wendeler C (2010) Shallow landslide full-scale experiments in combination with testing of flexible barrier. Debris Flow 2010 Milano, Italy. Bugnion L, Boetticher A v, Wendeler C (2012) Large scale field Testing of hill slope debris flows resulting in The Design of Flexible Protection Barriers, Abstract of 12th Interprevent Conference 2012 Grenoble, France.

  1. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory: a systematic review of the use and value of an otorhinolaryngological generic patient-recorded outcome measure

    Hendry, J.; Chin, A.; Swan, I.R.C.; Akeroyd, M.A.; Browning, G.G.

    2018-01-01

    Background The Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) is a validated, generic patient-recorded outcome measure widely used in otolaryngology to report change in quality of life post-intervention. Objectives of review To date, no systematic review has made (i) a quality assessment of reporting of Glasgow Benefit Inventory outcomes; (ii) a comparison between Glasgow Benefit Inventory outcomes for different interventions and objectives; (iii) an evaluation of subscales in describing the area of benefit; (iv) commented on its value in clinical practice and research. Type of review Systematic review. Search strategy ‘Glasgow Benefit Inventory’ and ‘GBI’ were used as keywords to search for published, unpublished and ongoing trials in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Google in addition to an ISI citation search for the original validating Glasgow Benefit Inventory paper between 1996 and January 2015. Evaluation method Papers were assessed for study type and quality graded by a predesigned scale, by two authors independently. Papers with sufficient quality Glasgow Benefit Inventory data were identified for statistical comparisons. Papers with 50% and gave sufficient Glasgow Benefit Inventory total and subscales for meta-analysis. For five of the 11 operation categories (vestibular schwannoma, tonsillectomy, cochlear implant, middle ear implant and stapes surgery) that were most likely to have a single clear clinical objective, score data had low-to-moderate heterogeneity. The value in the Glasgow Benefit Inventory having both positive and negative scores was shown by an overall negative score for the management of vestibular schwannoma. The other six operations gave considerable heterogeneity with rhinoplasty and septoplasty giving the greatest percentages (98% and 99%) most likely because of the considerable variations in patient selection. The data from these operations should not be used for comparative purposes. Five papers also reported the number of patients that had no

  2. Explaining trends in alcohol-related harms in Scotland 1991-2011 (II): policy, social norms, the alcohol market, clinical changes and a synthesis.

    McCartney, G; Bouttell, J; Craig, N; Craig, P; Graham, L; Lakha, F; Lewsey, J; McAdams, R; MacPherson, M; Minton, J; Parkinson, J; Robinson, M; Shipton, D; Taulbut, M; Walsh, D; Beeston, C

    2016-03-01

    To provide a basis for evaluating post-2007 alcohol policy in Scotland, this paper tests the extent to which pre-2007 policy, the alcohol market, culture or clinical changes might explain differences in the magnitude and trends in alcohol-related mortality outcomes in Scotland compared to England & Wales (E&W). Rapid literature reviews, descriptive analysis of routine data and narrative synthesis. We assessed the impact of pre-2007 Scottish policy and policy in the comparison areas in relation to the literature on effective alcohol policy. Rapid literature reviews were conducted to assess cultural changes and the potential role of substitution effects between alcohol and illicit drugs. The availability of alcohol was assessed by examining the trends in the number of alcohol outlets over time. The impact of clinical changes was assessed in consultation with key informants. The impact of all the identified factors were then summarised and synthesised narratively. The companion paper showed that part of the rise and fall in alcohol-related mortality in Scotland, and part of the differing trend to E&W, were predicted by a model linking income trends and alcohol-related mortality. Lagged effects from historical deindustrialisation and socio-economic changes exposures also remain plausible from the available data. This paper shows that policy differences or changes prior to 2007 are unlikely to have been important in explaining the trends. There is some evidence that aspects of alcohol culture in Scotland may be different (more concentrated and home drinking) but it seems unlikely that this has been an important driver of the trends or the differences with E&W other than through interaction with changing incomes and lagged socio-economic effects. Substitution effects with illicit drugs and clinical changes are unlikely to have substantially changed alcohol-related harms: however, the increase in alcohol availability across the UK is likely to partly explain the rise in

  3. Validation of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a hospital of Lima, Peru (June 2012-December 2013)

    Cassana, Alessandra; Scialom, Silvia; Segura, Eddy R.; Chacaltana, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a major cause of hospitalization and the most prevalent emergency worldwide, with a mortality rate of up to 14%. In Peru, there have not been any studies on the use of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of this study is to perform an external validation of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System and to establish the best cutoff for predicting mortality in upper gastrointest...

  4. The Influence of Deaf People's Dual Category Status on Sign Language Planning: The British Sign Language (Scotland) Act (2015)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2017-01-01

    Through the British Sign Language (Scotland) Act, British Sign Language (BSL) was given legal status in Scotland. The main motives for the Act were a desire to put BSL on a similar footing with Gaelic and the fact that in Scotland, BSL signers are the only group whose first language is not English who must rely on disability discrimination…

  5. The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper)

    Bongs, K.; Boyer, V.; Cruise, M. A.; Freise, A.; Holynski, M.; Hughes, J.; Kaushik, A.; Lien, Y.-H.; Niggebaum, A.; Perea-Ortiz, M.; Petrov, P.; Plant, S.; Singh, Y.; Stabrawa, A.; Paul, D. J.; Sorel, M.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Marsh, J. H.; Bowtell, R. W.; Bason, M. G.; Beardsley, R. P.; Campion, R. P.; Brookes, M. J.; Fernholz, T.; Fromhold, T. M.; Hackermuller, L.; Krüger, P.; Li, X.; Maclean, J. O.; Mellor, C. J.; Novikov, S. V.; Orucevic, F.; Rushforth, A. W.; Welch, N.; Benson, T. M.; Wildman, R. D.; Freegarde, T.; Himsworth, M.; Ruostekoski, J.; Smith, P.; Tropper, A.; Griffin, P. F.; Arnold, A. S.; Riis, E.; Hastie, J. E.; Paboeuf, D.; Parrotta, D. C.; Garraway, B. M.; Pasquazi, A.; Peccianti, M.; Hensinger, W.; Potter, E.; Nizamani, A. H.; Bostock, H.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Sinuco-Leon, G.; Hill, I. R.; Williams, R. A.; Gill, P.; Hempler, N.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Cross, T.; Kock, B. O.; Maddox, S.; John, P.

    2016-04-01

    The UK National Quantum Technology Hub in Sensors and Metrology is one of four flagship initiatives in the UK National of Quantum Technology Program. As part of a 20-year vision it translates laboratory demonstrations to deployable practical devices, with game-changing miniaturized components and prototypes that transform the state-of-the-art for quantum sensors and metrology. It brings together experts from the Universities of Birmingham, Glasgow, Nottingham, Southampton, Strathclyde and Sussex, NPL and currently links to over 15 leading international academic institutions and over 70 companies to build the supply chains and routes to market needed to bring 10-1000x improvements in sensing applications. It seeks, and is open to, additional partners for new application development and creates a point of easy open access to the facilities and supply chains that it stimulates or nurtures.

  6. Protocol for a mixed-methods longitudinal study to identify factors influencing return to work in the over 50s participating in the UK Work Programme: Supporting Older People into Employment (SOPIE).

    Brown, Judith; Neary, Joanne; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Thomson, Hilary; McQuaid, Ronald W; Leyland, Alastair H; Frank, John; Jeavons, Luke; de Pellette, Paul; Kiran, Sibel; Macdonald, Ewan B

    2015-12-16

    Increasing employment among older workers is a policy priority given the increase in life expectancy and the drop in labour force participation after the age of 50. Reasons for this drop are complex but include poor health, age discrimination, inadequate skills/qualifications and caring roles; however, limited evidence exists on how best to support this group back to work. The Work Programme is the UK Government's flagship policy to facilitate return to work (RTW) among those at risk of long-term unemployment. 'Supporting Older People Into Employment' (SOPIE) is a mixed-methods longitudinal study involving a collaboration between academics and a major Work Programme provider (Ingeus). The study will investigate the relationship between health, worklessness and the RTW process for the over 50s. There are three main study components. Embedded fieldwork will document the data routinely collected by Ingeus and the key interventions/activities delivered. The quantitative study investigates approximately 14,000 individuals (aged 16-64 years, with 20% aged over 50) who entered the Ingeus Work Programme (referred to as 'clients') in a 16-month period in Scotland and were followed up for 2 years. Employment outcomes (including progression towards work) and how they differ by client characteristics (including health), intervention components received and external factors will be investigated. The qualitative component will explore the experiences of clients and Ingeus staff, to better understand the interactions between health and (un)employment, Work Programme delivery, and how employment services can be better tailored to the needs of the over 50s. Ethical approval was received from the University of Glasgow College of Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee (application number 400140186). Results will be disseminated through journal articles, national and international conferences. Findings will inform current and future welfare-to-work and job retention initiatives to

  7. IQ AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACROSS REGIONS OF THE UK.

    Carl, Noah

    2016-05-01

    Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socioeconomic development have been documented in many different countries. This paper presents new IQ estimates for the twelve regions of the UK. These are weakly correlated (r=0.24) with the regional IQs assembled by Lynn (1979). Assuming the two sets of estimates are accurate and comparable, this finding suggests that the relative IQs of different UK regions have changed since the 1950s, most likely due to differentials in the magnitude of the Flynn effect, the selectivity of external migration, the selectivity of internal migration or the strength of the relationship between IQ and fertility. The paper provides evidence for the validity of the regional IQs by showing that IQ estimates for UK nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) derived from the same data are strongly correlated with national PISA scores (r=0.99). It finds that regional IQ is positively related to income, longevity and technological accomplishment; and is negatively related to poverty, deprivation and unemployment. A general factor of socioeconomic development is correlated with regional IQ at r=0.72.

  8. Systemic inflammation predicts all-cause mortality: a glasgow inflammation outcome study.

    Michael J Proctor

    Full Text Available Markers of the systemic inflammatory response, including C-reactive protein and albumin (combined to form the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts have been shown to be prognostic of survival in patients with cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the prognostic relationship between these markers of the systemic inflammatory response and all-cause, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in a large incidentally sampled cohort.Patients (n = 160 481 who had an incidental blood sample taken between 2000 and 2008 were studied for the prognostic value of C-reactive protein (>10mg/l, albumin (>35mg/l, neutrophil (>7.5×109/l lymphocyte and platelet counts. Also, patients (n = 52 091 sampled following the introduction of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (>3mg/l measurements were studied. A combination of these markers, to make cumulative inflammation-based scores, were investigated.In all patients (n = 160 481 C-reactive protein (>10mg/l (HR 2.71, p35mg/l (HR 3.68, p3mg/l (n = 52 091. A combination of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (>3mg/l, albumin and neutrophil count predicted all-cause (HR 7.37, p<0.001, AUC 0.723, cancer (HR 9.32, p<0.001, AUC 0.731, cardiovascular (HR 4.03, p<0.001, AUC 0.650 and cerebrovascular (HR 3.10, p<0.001, AUC 0.623 mortality.The results of the present study showed that an inflammation-based prognostic score, combining high sensitivity C-reactive protein, albumin and neutrophil count is prognostic of all-cause mortality.

  9. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Glasgow NTMS quadrangle, Montana

    1982-06-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Glasgow NTMS quadrangle, Montana. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through C describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, stream-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  10. Prognostic value of the Glasgow Prognostic Score for glioblastoma multiforme patients treated with radiotherapy and temozolomide.

    Topkan, Erkan; Selek, Ugur; Ozdemir, Yurday; Yildirim, Berna A; Guler, Ozan C; Ciner, Fuat; Mertsoylu, Huseyin; Tufan, Kadir

    2018-04-25

    To evaluate the prognostic value of the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), the combination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin, in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) and concurrent plus adjuvant temozolomide (GPS). Data of newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with partial brain RT and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were grouped into three according to the GPS criteria: GPS-0: CRP L and albumin > 35 g/L; GPS-1: CRP L and albumin L or CRP > 10 mg/L and albumin > 35 g/L; and GPS-2: CRP > 10 mg/L and albumin L. Primary end-point was the association between the GPS groups and the overall survival (OS) outcomes. A total of 142 patients were analyzed (median age: 58 years, 66.2% male). There were 64 (45.1%), 40 (28.2%), and 38 (26.7%) patients in GPS-0, GPS-1, and GPS-2 groups, respectively. At median 15.7 months follow-up, the respective median and 5-year OS rates for the whole cohort were 16.2 months (95% CI 12.7-19.7) and 9.5%. In multivariate analyses GPS grouping emerged independently associated with the median OS (P GPS grouping and the RTOG RPA classification were found to be strongly correlated in prognostic stratification of GBM patients (correlation coefficient: 0.42; P GPS appeared to be useful in prognostic stratification of GBM patients into three groups with significantly different survival durations resembling the RTOG RPA classification.

  11. The Glasgow Prognostic Score Predicts Response to Chemotherapy in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Wang, Dexing; Duan, Li; Tu, Zhiquan; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Cuicui; Li, Xu; Cao, Yuzhu; Wen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death in women worldwide. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), a cumulative prognostic score based on C-reactive protein and albumin, indicates the presence of a systemic inflammatory response. The GPS has been adopted as a powerful prognostic tool for patients with various types of malignant tumors, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the value of the GPS in predicting the response and toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Patients with metastatic breast cancers in a progressive stage for consideration of chemotherapy were eligible. The clinical characteristics and demographics were recorded. The GPS was calculated before the onset of chemotherapy. Data on the response to chemotherapy and progression-free survival (PFS) were also collected. Objective tumor responses were evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Toxicities were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTC) version 3.0 throughout therapy. In total, 106 breast cancer patients were recruited. The GPS was associated with the response rate (p = 0.05), the clinical benefit rate (p = 0.03), and PFS (p = 0.005). The GPS was the only independent predictor of PFS (p = 0.005). The GPS was significantly associated with neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and mucositis (p = 0.05-0.001). Our data demonstrate that GPS assessment is associated with poor clinical outcomes and severe chemotherapy-related toxicities in patients with metastatic breast cancer who have undergone chemotherapy, without any specific indication regarding the type of chemotherapy applied. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Factors Influencing the Reliability of the Glasgow Coma Scale: A Systematic Review.

    Reith, Florence Cm; Synnot, Anneliese; van den Brande, Ruben; Gruen, Russell L; Maas, Andrew Ir

    2017-06-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) characterizes patients with diminished consciousness. In a recent systematic review, we found overall adequate reliability across different clinical settings, but reliability estimates varied considerably between studies, and methodological quality of studies was overall poor. Identifying and understanding factors that can affect its reliability is important, in order to promote high standards for clinical use of the GCS. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that influence reliability and to provide an evidence base for promoting consistent and reliable application of the GCS. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from 1974 to July 2016. Studies assessing the reliability of the GCS in adults or describing any factor that influences reliability were included. Two reviewers independently screened citations, selected full texts, and undertook data extraction and critical appraisal. Methodological quality of studies was evaluated with the consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments checklist. Data were synthesized narratively and presented in tables. Forty-one studies were included for analysis. Factors identified that may influence reliability are education and training, the level of consciousness, and type of stimuli used. Conflicting results were found for experience of the observer, the pathology causing the reduced consciousness, and intubation/sedation. No clear influence was found for the professional background of observers. Reliability of the GCS is influenced by multiple factors and as such is context dependent. This review points to the potential for improvement from training and education and standardization of assessment methods, for which recommendations are presented. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  13. Environmental monitoring for radioactivity in Scotland, 1983 to 1987

    1989-01-01

    This bulletin, which has been prepared by Her Majesty's Industrial Pollution Inspectorate (HMIPI) of the Scottish Development Department (SDD), contains a summary of the environmental monitoring for radioactivity carried out in Scotland as part of the statutory procedure for ensuring the safety of radioactive waste disposals from nuclear facilities. The results presented cover the period 1983 to 1987. The first section of the bulletin draws together the results of the monitoring and presents the principal conclusions; the second section summarises the procedures underlying the monitoring; and the remaining sections present detailed monitoring results. The principal conclusions of this bulletin are that: public radiation exposure in Scotland from environmental radioactivity arising from radioactive waste disposal has been well within the internationally recommended limits including the ICRP's recommended principal limit of 1 millisievert per year; the levels of radiation exposure have been consistent with the recommendation of the NRPB that procedures leading to exposure of the public should be controlled so that the life-time effective dose equivalent does not exceed 70 millisieverts; any doses received have been small and correspond to negligible levels of risk to individuals; and the effects of waste disposals have been limited in accordance with the national standards of radiological safety, which are designed to protect the population from the harmful effects of radiation. (author)

  14. Resourcefulness, Desperation, Shame, Gratitude and Powerlessness: Common Themes Emerging from A Study of Food Bank Use in Northeast Scotland.

    Douglas, Flora; Sapko, Jennifer; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Kyle, Janet

    2015-01-01

    There is growing policy maker and public concern about current trends in food bank use in Scotland. Yet little is known about the experiences of those seeking help from food banks in this country. This research aimed to address this issue by studying the use and operation of a food bank situated in a rich northeast city during January and June 2014. The study aimed to establish who was seeking help from the food bank, their reasons for doing so, and what those who did thought of, and dealt with the food they received from it. Consequently, an audit of the food bank's client database, four months of participant observation based in the food bank, and seven face-to-face interviews with current and former food bank clients were conducted. The audit revealed that clients came from a range of socio-economic backgrounds, with men more likely to access it compared to women. Debt and social security benefit delays were cited as the main reasons for doing so. Qualitative data confirmed that sudden and unanticipated loss of income was a key driver of use. Resourcefulness in making donated food last as long as possible, keeping fuel costs low, and concern to minimise food waste were commonly described by participants. Desperation, gratitude, shame and powerlessness were also prevalent themes. Furthermore, clients were reluctant to ask for food they normally ate, as they were acutely aware that the food bank had little control over what it was able offer. Insights from this study suggest that recent UK policy proposals to address food poverty may have limited impact, without concomitant effort to address material disadvantage. Research is urgently required to determine the precise nature and extent of household level food insecurity in Scotland, and to consider monitoring for adverse physical and mental health outcomes for those affected by it.

  15. Resourcefulness, Desperation, Shame, Gratitude and Powerlessness: Common Themes Emerging from A Study of Food Bank Use in Northeast Scotland

    Flora Douglas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing policy maker and public concern about current trends in food bank use in Scotland. Yet little is known about the experiences of those seeking help from food banks in this country. This research aimed to address this issue by studying the use and operation of a food bank situated in a rich northeast city during January and June 2014. The study aimed to establish who was seeking help from the food bank, their reasons for doing so, and what those who did thought of, and dealt with the food they received from it. Consequently, an audit of the food bank's client database, four months of participant observation based in the food bank, and seven face-to-face interviews with current and former food bank clients were conducted. The audit revealed that clients came from a range of socio-economic backgrounds, with men more likely to access it compared to women. Debt and social security benefit delays were cited as the main reasons for doing so. Qualitative data confirmed that sudden and unanticipated loss of income was a key driver of use. Resourcefulness in making donated food last as long as possible, keeping fuel costs low, and concern to minimise food waste were commonly described by participants. Desperation, gratitude, shame and powerlessness were also prevalent themes. Furthermore, clients were reluctant to ask for food they normally ate, as they were acutely aware that the food bank had little control over what it was able offer. Insights from this study suggest that recent UK policy proposals to address food poverty may have limited impact, without concomitant effort to address material disadvantage. Research is urgently required to determine the precise nature and extent of household level food insecurity in Scotland, and to consider monitoring for adverse physical and mental health outcomes for those affected by it.

  16. Organising a World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE): reflections and lessons from the XIX WCE, Scotland.

    Bhopal, R S; Smith, W C; McEwen, J; MacFarlane, G; McCallum, A; Pattison, D; Bhala, N; Peto, R; Pell, J P

    2012-03-01

    The 3-yearly World Congress of Epidemiology is the premier, international, scientific conference organised under the auspices of the International Epidemiological Association (in open competition). This paper explores the justification for seeking to host the Congress and reflects on the structures and processes adopted in making the XIXth Congress in Scotland happen. Preparing the bid was invaluable for forming collaborations, generating scientific ideas, and garnering opinion. After the bid was accepted, we formed a local organising committee, named the Management Executive Committee to signal its decision making authority; and scientific, fundraising, marketing, international and social subcommittees. There was uncertainty about critical matters such as delegate numbers, costs and the total budget. Early decisions had to be made on, for example, the fee and fundraising target (£250,000), despite financial risks. Development of the scientific programme was a critical step that underpinned fundraising and marketing and permitted involvement of the international committee. Overall the 2011 WCE succeeded. The key ingredients to success were: a large collaboration of institutions and individuals; early pledges of financial support mostly from the UK; the valuable and relevant experience of the professional conference organisers; unstinting support and advice from IEA; and the effectiveness of the committee structure. The educational and professional development benefits of this WCE will reach a worldwide community and not just delegates, because of video, PowerPoint and textual accounts being open access on the Internet. This reach is unprecedented for IEA's World Congresses. We anticipate that the Congress will translate into better public health practice, better future Congresses, advances in epidemiology and improved population health. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A survey of imaging services for children in England, Wales and Scotland

    Mathers, Sandra A.; Anderson, Helen; McDonald, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Children are major users of imaging services but little is known about the provision made for them. The objectives of this survey were to: determine the extent to which children are imaged in primarily adult departments and the nature of procedures performed; establish the availability of child friendly environments and investigate the extent to which children are involved in service development. Methods: An 18 item questionnaire was sent to all hospitals with imaging facilities in the UK. Two versions were produced, one for adult departments and another for children's hospitals. Quantitative data were entered into SPSS-PC. Results: Three hundred and fifty two questionnaires were returned including 17 from the 20 children's hospitals, representing a 70% response rate. Children were imaged in 84% of adult hospitals from which responses were obtained and estimates provided by respondents indicated that more children were imaged in adult than children's hospitals. In 89% of adult hospitals responses indicated that infants were imaged and in two thirds of English hospitals advanced procedures, such as MRI, were available for children. In 47%, 32% and 30% of adult hospitals in England, Wales and Scotland children's requirements were said to be considered when purchasing equipment. In 34%, 11% and 8% of English, Welsh and Scottish adult hospitals some separate provision for children (for example waiting rooms or toilets) was indicated. Overall 32% of adult hospitals (92 of the 95 were in England) reported having a lead radiographer, who specialised in a paediatric imaging. Responses indicated that in 60% of adult hospitals staff attended paediatric training courses. Children's views on hospital services were seldom sought in either the adult or children's hospitals. Conclusions: The survey indicates that the recommendations of the Children's National Service Framework and the Health Care Commission have not been implemented fully in many imaging departments.

  18. A method for reducing misclassification in the extended Glasgow Outcome Score.

    Lu, Juan; Marmarou, Anthony; Lapane, Kate; Turf, Elizabeth; Wilson, Lindsay

    2010-05-01

    The eight-point extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) is commonly used as the primary outcome measure in traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinical trials. The outcome is conventionally collected through a structured interview with the patient alone or together with a caretaker. Despite the fact that using the structured interview questionnaires helps reach agreement in GOSE assessment between raters, significant variation remains among different raters. We introduce an alternate GOSE rating system as an aid in determining GOSE scores, with the objective of reducing inter-rater variation in the primary outcome assessment in TBI trials. Forty-five trauma centers were randomly assigned to three groups to assess GOSE scores on sample cases, using the alternative GOSE rating system coupled with central quality control (Group 1), the alternative system alone (Group 2), or conventional structured interviews (Group 3). The inter-rater variation between an expert and untrained raters was assessed for each group and reported through raw agreement and with weighted kappa (kappa) statistics. Groups 2 and 3 without central review yielded inter-rater agreements of 83% (weighted kappa = 0.81; 95% CI 0.69, 0.92) and 83% (weighted kappa = 0.76, 95% CI 0.63, 0.89), respectively, in GOS scores. In GOSE, the groups had an agreement of 76% (weighted kappa = 0.79; 95% CI 0.69, 0.89), and 63% (weighted kappa = 0.70; 95% CI 0.60, 0.81), respectively. The group using the alternative rating system coupled with central monitoring yielded the highest inter-rater agreement among the three groups in rating GOS (97%; weighted kappa = 0.95; 95% CI 0.89, 1.00), and GOSE (97%; weighted kappa = 0.97; 95% CI 0.91, 1.00). The alternate system is an improved GOSE rating method that reduces inter-rater variations and provides for the first time, source documentation and structured narratives that allow a thorough central review of information. The data suggest that a collective effort can be made to

  19. Glasgow Prognostic Score as a Prognostic Clinical Marker in T4 Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Ohira, Masaichi; Kubo, Naoshi; Masuda, Go; Yamashita, Yoshito; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-09-01

    Patients with clinical T4 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have an unfavorable prognosis, mainly indicated by the response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT), crucial to estimating long-term survival. Other prognostic measures include systemic inflammatory or immunonutritional indices such as the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) that have not been sufficiently documented. This study retrospectively evaluated 91 patients with T4 ESCC treated at our Hospital between 2000 and 2013. All patients initially received CRT, including 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and cisplatin or nedaplatin with concurrent 2-Gy/fraction radiation (total dose, 40-60 Gy). Curative tumor resection was undertaken in suitable patients on completing CRT. Patients were classified as GPS0, GPS1, or GPS2 based on C-reactive protein (CRP) ≤ 10 mg/l and albumin ≥ 35 g/l, CRP >10 mg/l or albumin l, or CRP >10 mg/l and albumin l, respectively. PNI was calculated as 10-times the serum albumin (g/dl)+0.005 × total lymphocyte count (/mm(3)). The impact of the pre-treatment GPS and PNI on the prognosis of patients with T4 ESCC was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Sixty (67%) patients responded to CRT (9 complete responses and 51 partial responses). Forty-one (45%) patients also underwent surgical resection of the residual tumor. The overall 5-year survival rate and median survival time were 27.0% and 11.8 months, respectively. In the cohort of CRT-plus-surgical resection, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher than in the groups treated with CRT-alone (51.1% vs. 6.5%; p GPS1/2 (HR=2.151, p=0.015), and surgical resection (HR=0.282, pGPS is a useful, simple survival marker for patients with T4 ESCC undergoing multimodal therapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. What is the role of the centre for educational scholarship?

    Evans, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    The role of the Centre for Educational Scholarship is to promote scholarship, in terms of teacher education, teacher accreditation, and teacher collaboration. The strategy adopted by the University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK, is outlined, and a way of estimating effectiveness is suggested.

  1. Interactions between land use, climate and hydropower in Scotland

    Sample, James

    2015-04-01

    To promote the transition towards a low carbon economy, the Scottish Government has adopted ambitious energy targets, including generating all electricity from renewable sources by 2020. To achieve this, continued investment will be required across a range of sustainable technologies. Hydropower has a long history in Scotland and the present-day operational capacity of ~1.5 GW makes a substantial contribution to the national energy budget. In addition, there remains potential for ~500 MW of further development, mostly in the form of small to medium size run-of-river schemes. Climate change is expected to lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle, leading to changes in both the magnitude and seasonality of river flows. There may also be indirect effects, such as changing land use, enhanced evapotranspiration rates and an increased demand for irrigation, all of which could affect the water available for energy generation. Preliminary assessments of hydropower commonly use flow duration curves (FDCs) to estimate the power generation potential at proposed new sites. In this study, we use spatially distributed modelling to generate daily and monthly FDCs on a 1 km by 1 km grid across Scotland, using a variety of future land use and climate change scenarios. Parameter-related uncertainty in the model has been constrained using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to derive posterior probability distributions for key model parameters. Our results give an indication of the sensitivity and vulnerability of Scotland's run-of-river hydropower resources to possible changes in climate and land use. The effects are spatially variable and the range of uncertainty is sometimes large, but consistent patterns do emerge. For example, many locations are predicted to experience enhanced seasonality, with significantly lower power generation potential in the summer months and greater potential during the autumn and winter. Some sites may require

  2. Comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting mortality in critically ill patients*.

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Kramer, Andrew A; Rohs, Thomas; Hanna, Susan; Sadaka, Farid; O'Brien, Jacklyn; Bible, Shonna; Dickess, Stacy M; Foss, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Impaired consciousness has been incorporated in prediction models that are used in the ICU. The Glasgow Coma Scale has value but is incomplete and cannot be assessed in intubated patients accurately. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score may be a better predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. Thirteen ICUs at five U.S. hospitals. One thousand six hundred ninety-five consecutive unselected ICU admissions during a six-month period in 2012. Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score were recorded within 1 hour of admission. Baseline characteristics and physiologic components of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system, as well as mortality were linked to Glasgow Coma Scale/Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score information. None. We recruited 1,695 critically ill patients, of which 1,645 with complete data could be linked to data in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of predicting ICU mortality using the Glasgow Coma Scale was 0.715 (95% CI, 0.663-0.768) and using the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was 0.742 (95% CI, 0.694-0.790), statistically different (p = 0.001). A similar but nonsignificant difference was found for predicting hospital mortality (p = 0.078). The respiratory and brainstem reflex components of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score showed a much wider range of mortality than the verbal component of Glasgow Coma Scale. In multivariable models, the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was more useful than the Glasgow Coma Scale for predicting mortality. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score might be a better prognostic tool of ICU mortality than the Glasgow Coma Scale in critically ill patients, most likely a result of incorporating brainstem reflexes and respiration into the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score.

  3. Inpatient costs for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Scotland: a study from the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group.

    Govan, L; Wu, O; Briggs, A; Colhoun, H M; McKnight, J A; Morris, A D; Pearson, D W M; Petrie, J R; Sattar, N; Wild, S H; Lindsay, R S

    2011-08-01

    The rising prevalence of diabetes worldwide has increased interest in the cost of diabetes. Inpatient costs for all people with diabetes in Scotland were investigated. The Scottish Care Information-Diabetes Collaboration (SCI-DC), a real-time clinical information system of almost all diagnosed cases of diabetes in Scotland, UK, was linked to data on all hospital admissions for people with diabetes. Inpatient stay costs were estimated using the 2007-2008 Scottish National Tariff. The probability of hospital admission and total annual cost of admissions were estimated in relation to age, sex, type of diabetes, history of vascular admission, HbA(1c), creatinine, body mass index and diabetes duration. In Scotland during 2005-2007, 24,750 people with type 1 and 195,433 people with type 2 diabetes were identified, accounting for approximately 4.3% of the total Scottish population (5.1 million). The estimated total annual cost of admissions for all people diagnosed with type 1 and type 2 diabetes was £26 million and £275 million, respectively, approximately 12% of the total Scottish inpatient expenditure (£2.4 billion). Sex, increasing age, serum creatinine, previous vascular history and HbA(1c) (the latter differentially in type 1 and type 2) were all associated with likelihood and total annual cost of admission. Diabetes inpatient expenditure accounted for 12% of the total Scottish inpatient expenditure, whilst people with diabetes account for 4.3% of the population. Of the modifiable risk factors, HbA(1c) was the most important driver of cost in type 1 diabetes.

  4. Leith Davis, Ian Duncan, & Janet Sorensen, eds. Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism

    Yann THOLONIAT

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism is a collection of essays written by scholars from Scotland, England, Canada and the United States which seeks to rehabilitate eighteenth-century Scottish literature within the wider canon of British literature. With this aim in view, the introduction, co-signed by the three editors, is legitimately polemical. The editors emphasise the role of Scotland in bodying forth not only Romanticism, but also major Victorian poetics (4. After having studied “Sco...

  5. Physical aspects of arc welding : Proceedings of seminar in honour of J.F. Lancaster, 1 September 1993, Glasgow (U.K.)

    Den Ouden, G.

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at a seminar held in honour of Prof. J.F. Lancaster on 1 September 1993 in order to mark the occasion of his retirement as Chairman of Study Group 212 (Physics of Welding) of the International Institute of Welding. Prof. Lancaster was Chairman of Study Group

  6. UK Mission to CERN

    2004-01-01

    At the end of June, nine experts from UK industry visited CERN to study techniques for developing distributed computing systems and to look at some specific applications. In a packed three-day programme, almost 40 CERN experts presented a comprehensive survey of achievements.

  7. Monitoring the Achievement of Deaf Pupils in Sweden and Scotland

    Hendar, Nils Ola Ebbe; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been major developments in deaf education in many countries. Medical and technical advances have made it possible for more deaf children to hear and speak successfully. Most deaf pupils learn in ordinary classes in mainstream schools. In this article we explore...... patterns of achievements of deaf pupils to see if these reforms had improved attainment outcomes. International surveys such as PISA do not include deaf pupils. This article describes two independent large-scale surveys about deaf pupils in Sweden and Scotland. The similar results from both countries show...... that deaf children, after two decades of social reform and technical advances, still lag behind their hearing peers. The results also show how large-scale surveys can contribute to a greater understanding of educational outcomes in a small, vulnerable group and make it possible to continue to reform...

  8. Sexual and Nonsexual Homicide in Scotland: Is There a Difference?

    Skott, Sara; Beauregard, Eric; Darjee, Rajan

    2018-05-01

    While a number of previous studies have compared sexual homicides to nonlethal sexual offenses, there have been few studies comparing sexual and nonsexual homicides. This study examines whether sexual homicide offenders differ from nonsexual homicide offenders in Scotland regarding characteristics of the offender, the victim, and the homicide incident. Unlike previous studies, only homicides committed by males against females were examined. Data from a national police database were used to compare 89 male sexual homicide offenders who killed adult females with 306 male nonsexual homicide offenders who had also killed adult females using bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses. The findings revealed not only some similarities between the two groups, particularly regarding some victim variables, but also significant bivariate and multivariate differences. Sexual homicides appeared to be associated with indicators of instrumentality and sexual deviance. We conclude that sexual homicide offenders might be considered a distinct group of homicide offenders, more similar to sexual offenders than to other homicide offenders.

  9. Impact of Scotland's comprehensive, smoke-free legislation on stroke.

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported a reduction in acute coronary events following smoke-free legislation. Evidence is lacking on whether stroke is also reduced. The aim was to determine whether the incidence of stroke, overall and by sub-type, fell following introduction of smoke-free legislation across Scotland on 26 March 2006.A negative binomial regression model was used to determine whether the introduction of smoke-free legislation resulted in a step and/or slope change in stroke incidence. The model was adjusted for age-group, sex, socioeconomic deprivation quintile, urban/rural residence and month. Interaction tests were also performed. Routine hospital administrative data and death certificates were used to identify all hospital admissions and pre-hospital deaths due to stroke (ICD10 codes I61, I63 and I64 in Scotland between 2000 and 2010 inclusive. Prior to the legislation, rates of all stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage and unspecified stroke were decreasing, whilst cerebral infarction was increasing at 0.97% per annum. Following the legislation, there was a dramatic fall in cerebral infarctions that persisted for around 20 months. No visible effect was observed for other types of stroke. The model confirmed an 8.90% (95% CI 4.85, 12.77, p<0.001 stepwise reduction in cerebral infarction at the time the legislation was implemented, after adjustment for potential confounders.Following introduction of national, comprehensive smoke-free legislation there was a selective reduction in cerebral infarction that was not apparent in other types of stroke.

  10. Working Health Services Scotland: a 4-year evaluation

    Hanson, M; Bakhshi, A; Kennedy, M; Macdonald, E B

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Working Health Service Scotland (WHSS) supports the self-employed and employees of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Scotland with a health condition affecting their ability to work, who are either absent or at risk of becoming absent due to it. Aims To evaluate the impact on health and work outcomes of WHSS clients over a 4-year period. Methods Data were collected at enrolment, entry, discharge and follow-up at 3 and 6 months after discharge. Clients completed up to three validated health questionnaires at entry and discharge—EuroQol five dimensions (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (VAS); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Results A total of 13463 referrals occurred in the 4-year period; 11748 (87%) were eligible and completed entry assessment and 60% of the latter completed discharge paperwork. The majority of referrals were due to musculoskeletal conditions (84%) while 12% were referred with mental health conditions. Almost a fifth (18%) of cases were absent at entry and back at work at discharge. Work days lost while in WHSS was associated with age, length of absence prior to entering WHSS, primary health condition and time in programme. All health measures showed significant improvements from entry to discharge. Improvement in general health was sustained at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Conclusions The WHSS evaluation findings indicate that participation was associated with positive changes to health and return-to-work. The extent of the positive change in health measures and work ability can be highly important economically for employees and employers. PMID:29390161

  11. The mutuality metaphor: understanding healthcare provision in NHS Scotland.

    Howieson, Brian

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Better Health, Better Care Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2007) sets out how the Scottish Government intends to strengthen public ownership of the National Health Service in Scotland. The purpose of this paper is to advance extant knowledge by understanding how a state-led mutual health policy may be interpreted, and importantly, communicated. Design/methodology/approach - The definitional problem of mutuality will be discussed and analysed in terms of how it is (or perhaps should be) communicated? will be offered. Findings - It actually may be more instructive to think of, and communicate, mutuality as a metaphor to aid understanding of the openness and fluidity found in NHS Scotland. Research limitations/implications - The existence of paradox and ambiguity does not, however, negate the usefulness of the term "mutuality". Quite the opposite in fact: it is precisely by examining healthcare and its delivery through the lens of mutuality (rather than rejecting its complexity as a failure) that this amorphousness can be better appreciated. Practical implications - There is a need for more public, professional, and academic debate to explore and clarify its implementation, and how it is to be led. This must be provided whilst recognising the daily imperatives that NHS leaders must face. This would suggest, therefore, that a dual development path may help. Originality/value - Although Better Health, Better Care Action Plan was published in 2007, some eight years on there is still confusion and misunderstanding as to what mutuality in healthcare is, not only in policy and theory, but also in practice. It is hoped that this analysis will help address, in part, some of this confusion and misunderstanding.

  12. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  13. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  14. Does the choice of neighbourhood supermarket access measure influence associations with individual-level fruit and vegetable consumption? A case study from Glasgow.

    Thornton, Lukar E; Pearce, Jamie R; Macdonald, Laura; Lamb, Karen E; Ellaway, Anne

    2012-07-27

    Previous studies have provided mixed evidence with regards to associations between food store access and dietary outcomes. This study examines the most commonly applied measures of locational access to assess whether associations between supermarket access and fruit and vegetable consumption are affected by the choice of access measure and scale. Supermarket location data from Glasgow, UK (n = 119), and fruit and vegetable intake data from the 'Health and Well-Being' Survey (n = 1041) were used to compare various measures of locational access. These exposure variables included proximity estimates (with different points-of-origin used to vary levels of aggregation) and density measures using three approaches (Euclidean and road network buffers and Kernel density estimation) at distances ranging from 0.4 km to 5 km. Further analysis was conducted to assess the impact of using smaller buffer sizes for individuals who did not own a car. Associations between these multiple access measures and fruit and vegetable consumption were estimated using linear regression models. Levels of spatial aggregation did not impact on the proximity estimates. Counts of supermarkets within Euclidean buffers were associated with fruit and vegetable consumption at 1 km, 2 km and 3 km, and for our road network buffers at 2 km, 3 km, and 4 km. Kernel density estimates provided the strongest associations and were significant at a distance of 2 km, 3 km, 4 km and 5 km. Presence of a supermarket within 0.4 km of road network distance from where people lived was positively associated with fruit consumption amongst those without a car (coef. 0.657; s.e. 0.247; p0.008). The associations between locational access to supermarkets and individual-level dietary behaviour are sensitive to the method by which the food environment variable is captured. Care needs to be taken to ensure robust and conceptually appropriate measures of access are used and these should be

  15. Integrating Appreciative Inquiry (AI into architectural pedagogy: An assessment experiment of three retrofitted buildings in the city of Glasgow

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a growing trend to encourage learning outside the classrooms, so-called ‘universities without walls.’ To this end, mechanisms for learning beyond the boundaries of classroom settings can provide enhanced and challenging learning opportunities. This paper introduces Appreciative Inquiry (AI as a mechanism that integrates various forms of inquiry into learning. AI is operationalized as a Walking Tour assessment project which was introduced as part of the class Cultural and Behavioural Factors in Architecture and Urbanism delivered at the Department of Architecture, University of Strathclyde – Glasgow where thirty-two Master of Architecture students were enrolled. The Walking Tour assessment involved the exploration of 6 factors that delineate key design characteristics in three retrofitted buildings in Glasgow: Theatre Royal, Reid Building, and The Lighthouse. Working in groups, students assessed factors that included context, massing, interface, wayfinding, socio-spatial, and comfort. Findings reveal that students were able to focus on critical issues that go beyond those adopted in traditional teaching practices while accentuating the value of introducing AI and utilizing the built environment as an educational medium. Conclusions are drawn to emphasize the need for structured learning experiences that enable making judgments about building qualities while effectively interrogating various characteristics.

  16. The Glasgow Prognostic Score. An useful tool to predict survival in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Henry, Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda; Lerco, Mauro Masson; de Oliveira, Walmar Kerche; Guerra, Anderson Roberto; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) in patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC). A total of 50 patients with EC were analyzed for GPS, nutritional and clinicopathologic parameters. Patients with CRP ≤ 1.0mg/L and albumin ≥ 3.5mg/L were considered as GPS = 0. Patients with only CRP increased or albumin decreased were classified as GPS = 1 and patients with CRP > 1.0mg/L and albumin L were considered as GPS = 2. GPS of 0, 1 and 2 were observed in seven, 23 and 20 patients, respectively. A significant inverse relationship was observed between GPS scores and the survival rate. The survival rate was greatest in patients with GPS = 0 and significantly higher than those from patients with GPS = 1 and GPS = 2. Minimum 12-month survival was observed in 71% patients with GPS = 0 and in 30% patients with GPS = 1. None of the patients with GPS = 2 survived for 12 months. A significant relationship between CRP or albumin individually and the survival rate was observed. No significant relationship among nutritional, clinic pathological parameters and survival was found. Glasgow Prognostic Score is an useful tool to predict survival in patients with esophageal carcinoma.

  17. Who's keeping the code? Compliance with the international code for the marketing of breast-milk substitutes in Greater Glasgow.

    McInnes, Rhona J; Wright, Charlotte; Haq, Shogufta; McGranachan, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate compliance with the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in primary care, after the introduction of strict local infant feeding guidelines. An audit form was sent to all community-based health professionals with an infant feeding remit. Walking tours were conducted in a random sample of community care facilities. Greater Glasgow Primary Care Division. (1) Primary-care staff with an infant feeding remit; (2) community health-care facilities. Contact with manufacturers of breast-milk substitutes (BMS) and BMS company personnel, free samples or incentives, and advertising of BMS. Contact with company personnel was minimal, usually unsolicited and was mainly to provide product information. Free samples of BMS or feeding equipment were rare but childcare or parenting literature was more prevalent. Staff voiced concerns about the lack of relevant information for bottle-feeding mothers and the need to support the mother's feeding choice. One-third of facilities were still displaying materials non-compliant with the Code, with the most common materials being weight conversion charts and posters. Contact between personnel from primary care and BMS companies was minimal and generally unsolicited. The presence of materials from BMS companies in health-care premises was more common. Due to the high level of bottle-feeding in Glasgow, primary-care staff stated a need for information about BMS.

  18. Making inferences about patterns in wildlife tourism activities in Scotland using social media

    Mancini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The Power Point file contains the slides of my talk for the BES 2016 annual meeting. The title of the talk is: "Making inferences about patterns in wildlife tourism activities in Scotland using social media".

  19. Identifying the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers in Scotland by utilising Porter’s generic competitive strategy model and the marketing mix

    Nicola O’HARE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El mismo texto del Independent retailers in the fashion sector make a substantial contribution to the UK economy at the time of significant change on the high street due to financial pressures and the growth of online trade. They provide an element of creativity and innovation to a homogenous retail landscape. The independent fashion retailer creates a destination and individual identity by presenting a unique offering and differentiated experience. Whilst independent retailers are important to the future of our high street, research is limited, particularly in the area of fashion independents. Therefore this research examines and identifies the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers within Scotland. The research adopts a case study approach, qualitative methods of data collection in order to fulfil the aim and objectives of the study. Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies and the marketing mix were utilised as a means of drawing out the individual aspects and unique characteristics of the independent fashion retailer.

  20. The UK electricity market and the wind industry - a perspective of 1998 proposals

    Batley, S.L.; Twidell, J.W.; Gibbons, C.

    1997-01-01

    After April 1st 1998, the Public Electricity Supplier monopoly ( in England, Wales and Scotland) over their local franchise market will cease and all customers, regardless of size, will be able to choose their supplier. These changes will have a major impact on the UK wind energy industry. An increased number of Second Tier Suppliers will compete with existing market players for electricity purchase from generators and sale of electricity to consumers. Market changes should improve possibilities for wind generators to obtain a Second Tier Supplier licence and serve the domestic, small demand, market. There may also be market opportunities to sell to specialist 'green' suppliers. The post 1998 changes are of importance to the European Union 'Guarantee of Result' project, which aims to promote small scale wind systems through guaranteed quality and performance of systems. For the Guarantee of Results to be utilised in the UK, all markets for the generated electricity from a wind system must be considered and evaluated. (Author)

  1. Data science for mental health: a UK perspective on a global challenge.

    McIntosh, Andrew M; Stewart, Robert; John, Ann; Smith, Daniel J; Davis, Katrina; Sudlow, Cathie; Corvin, Aiden; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Kingdon, David; Hassan, Lamiece; Hotopf, Matthew; Lawrie, Stephen M; Russ, Tom C; Geddes, John R; Wolpert, Miranda; Wölbert, Eva; Porteous, David J

    2016-10-01

    Data science uses computer science and statistics to extract new knowledge from high-dimensional datasets (ie, those with many different variables and data types). Mental health research, diagnosis, and treatment could benefit from data science that uses cohort studies, genomics, and routine health-care and administrative data. The UK is well placed to trial these approaches through robust NHS-linked data science projects, such as the UK Biobank, Generation Scotland, and the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) programme. Data science has great potential as a low-cost, high-return catalyst for improved mental health recognition, understanding, support, and outcomes. Lessons learnt from such studies could have global implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sizewell: UK power demand

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  3. UK Tax Update

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  4. Is Continuous Glucose Monitoring Underappreciated in the UK?

    Parkin, Christopher G; Holloway, Melissa; Truesdell, Jeffrey; C Walker, Tomas

    2017-08-01

    Information about continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use in the UK is limited. We conducted an online survey of a representative sample of current CGM users in England, Scotland and Wales to address this deficit. The 29-item online survey was conducted between 29 December 2016 and 25 January 2017. Persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and caregivers of T1D children/adolescents were recruited from mailing lists, using Nielsen and Harris Polling databases. 315 patients and caregivers responded to the survey - 170 adult patients and 145 caregivers. Among respondents, 144 received full funding for CGM use, 72 received partial funding and 83 received no funding. Most reported improvements in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (67.0%), fewer hypoglycaemia episodes (70.2%), improved hypoglycaemia awareness (77.5%) and better diabetes management (92.4%). Self-funders reported significantly higher CGM use (76.1%) than those who were fully funded (58.9%) and/or partially funded (65.9%), p=0.0008. Fewer than 50% of all respondents reported receiving guidance in interpreting CGM data from their diabetes care team; 30.1% of self-funders reported receiving no CGM support from their diabetes team compared with fully funded (2.8%) and partially funded (1.4%) respondents, p<0.0001. Patients with T1D and their caregivers are realising benefits from CGM use but are largely unsupported by the UK healthcare system.

  5. Malnutrition in the UK: policies to address the problem.

    Elia, M; Russell, C A; Stratton, R J

    2010-11-01

    In 2007, the estimated cost of disease-related malnutrition in the UK was in excess of £13×109. At any point in time, only about 2% of over 3 million individuals at risk of malnutrition were in hospital, 5% in care homes and the remainder in the community (2-3% in sheltered housing). Some government statistics (England) grossly underestimated the prevalence of malnutrition on admission and discharge from hospital (1000-3000 annually between 1998 and 2008), which is less than 1% of the prevalence (about 3 million in 2007-2008) established by national surveys using criteria based on the 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' ('MUST'). The incidence of malnutrition-related deaths in hospitals, according to government statistics (242 deaths in England in 2007), was also policies have reduced the number of hospital and care home beds and encouraged care closer to home. Such policies have raised issues about education and training of the homecare workforce, including 6 million insufficiently supported informal carers (10% of the population), the commissioning process, and difficulties in implementing nutritional policies in a widely distributed population. The four devolved nations in the UK (England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales) have developed their own healthcare polices to deal with malnutrition. These generally aim to span across all care settings and various government departments in a co-ordinated manner, but their effectiveness remains to be properly evaluated.

  6. Provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology services in Scotland

    Zealley, I.A.; Gordon, T.J.; Robertson, I.; Moss, J.G.; Gillespie, I.N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the availability of out-of-hours (OOH) interventional radiology (IR) services in Scotland and discuss implications for service redesign. Materials and methods: Data were gathered via a survey conducted by telephone/e-mail interview. The setting was hospitals in Scotland with acute medical and/or surgical beds. The interviewees were consultant interventional radiologists representing each of the 14 geographical Health Boards in Scotland. Results: Three of the 14 geographical Health Boards provided a formal, prospectively planned OOH IR service in at least one hospital. Fourteen of the 34 acute hospitals provided an in-hours IR service, which includes endovascular haemorrhage control. Eight of the 34 acute hospitals had formal, prospectively planned on-call IR arrangements, 12 had an ad-hoc service, and 20 transferred patients to other facilities. Thirty-eight of the 223 consultant radiologists in Scotland were able to perform endovascular haemorrhage control procedures: only 18 of these 38 (47%) were included in on-call rotas. A further 42 radiologists were able to perform nephrostomy and a further 61 were able to perform abscess drainage. Eighty-two radiologists did not perform any interventional procedures. Conclusions: The provision of OOH IR services in Scotland is limited and available resources, both skills and equipment, are being underutilized. These data will be used to inform a process of OOH IR service redesign in Scotland.

  7. Identifying dietary differences between Scotland and England: a rapid review of the literature.

    Chambers, Stephanie; Barton, Karen L; Albani, Viviana; Anderson, Annie S; Wrieden, Wendy L

    2017-10-01

    Rates of premature mortality have been higher in Scotland than in England since the 1970s. Given the known association of diet with chronic disease, the study objective was to identify and synthesise evidence on current and historical differences in food and nutrient intakes in Scotland and England. A rapid review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was carried out. After an initial scoping search, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Relevant grey literature was also included. Inclusion criteria were: any date; measures of dietary intake; representative populations; cross-sectional or observational cohort studies; and English-language publications. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted information was conducted. Fifty publications and reports were included in the review. Results indicated that children and adults in Scotland had lower intakes of vegetables and vitamins compared with those living in England. Higher intakes of salt in Scotland were also identified. Data were limited by small Scottish samples, difficulty in finding England-level data, lack of statistical testing and adjustment for key confounders. Further investigation of adequately powered and analysed surveys is required to examine more fully dietary differences between Scotland and England. This would provide greater insight into potential causes of excess mortality in Scotland compared with England and suitable policy recommendations to address these inequalities.

  8. Unemployment and inflammatory markers in England, Wales and Scotland, 1998-2012: Meta-analysis of results from 12 studies.

    Hughes, Amanda; Kumari, Meena; McMunn, Anne; Bartley, Mel

    2017-08-01

    Unemployment represents for many affected individuals a substantial source of psychosocial stress, and is linked to both increased risk of morbidity and mortality and adverse health-related behaviours. Few studies have examined the association of unemployment with systemic inflammation, a plausible mediator of the associations of psychosocial stress and health, and results are mixed and context dependent. This study examines the association of unemployment with C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, two markers of systemic inflammation. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed using a multilevel modelling approach, including 12 national UK surveys of working-age participants in which CRP and fibrinogen were measured between 1998 and 2012 (N=30,037 economically active participants). The moderating impact of participant age and UK country was explored. CRP and fibrinogen were elevated in unemployed compared to employed participants; jobseekers were also more likely (Odds Ratio: 1.39, p3mg/L), after adjustment for age, gender, education, long-term illness, smoking, and body mass index. Associations were not explained by mental health. Associations peaked in middle-age, and were stronger in Scotland and Wales than in England. Our study demonstrates that systemic inflammation is associated with an important but little-studied aspect of the social environment, as it is elevated in unemployed compared to employed survey participants. Modifications suggest the association of unemployment and inflammation is substantially influenced by contextual factors, and may be especially strong in Wales, where further investigation of this relationship is needed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Public attitudes towards alcohol control policies in Scotland and England: Results from a mixed-methods study.

    Li, Jessica; Lovatt, Melanie; Eadie, Douglas; Dobbie, Fiona; Meier, Petra; Holmes, John; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The harmful effects of heavy drinking on health have been widely reported, yet public opinion on governmental responsibility for alcohol control remains divided. This study examines UK public attitudes towards alcohol policies, identifies underlying dimensions that inform these, and relationships with perceived effectiveness. A cross-sectional mixed methods study involving a telephone survey of 3477 adult drinkers aged 16-65 and sixteen focus groups with 89 adult drinkers in Scotland and England was conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to reduce twelve policy statements into underlying dimensions. These dimensions were used in linear regression models examining alcohol policy support by demographics, drinking behaviour and perceptions of UK drinking and government responsibility. Findings were supplemented with a thematic analysis of focus group transcripts. A majority of survey respondents supported all alcohol policies, although the level of support varied by type of policy. Greater enforcement of laws on under-age sales and more police patrolling the streets were strongly supported while support for pricing policies and restricting access to alcohol was more divided. PCA identified four main dimensions underlying support on policies: alcohol availability, provision of health information and treatment services, alcohol pricing, and greater law enforcement. Being female, older, a moderate drinker, and holding a belief that government should do more to reduce alcohol harms were associated with higher support on all policy dimensions. Focus group data revealed findings from the survey may have presented an overly positive level of support on all policies due to differences in perceived policy effectiveness. Perceived effectiveness can help inform underlying patterns of policy support and should be considered in conjunction with standard measures of support in future research on alcohol control policies

  10. Hydrofracturing water boreholes in hard rock aquifers in Scotland

    Cobbing, J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available rural areas of the UK, low-productivity aquifers are an important resource for small public water supplies. Where a borehole in low-productivity crystalline rocks proves too low yielding for its designed purpose, hydrofracturing is a cost-effective means...

  11. First report to the Secretary of State for the Environment, Secretary of State for Scotland, Secretary of State for Wales

    1983-01-01

    This report covers the first year of existence of NIREX, the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive. NIREX was established, with the Government's agreement, by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd, the Central Electricity Generating Board, the South of Scotland Electricity Board and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The Executive's responsibilities do not encompass high-level wastes. NIREX seeks to develop a fully integrated system for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level wastes, including the standardisation of the waste packages which will be passed to NIREX for disposal, appropriate transport arrangements and the development of facilities for storage and disposal. The overwhelming weight of scientific evidence continues to confirm that the present practice of disposing of solidified wastes in the deep ocean causes no harm to Man or the environment. NIREX will, therefore pursue deep-ocean disposal of wastes within the limits laid down by the UK regulatory authorities and internationally. Shallow and deep land-based repositories are being planned. NIREX is initiating research, where needed, to demonstrate in any proposal put to the relevant authorities how the public will be safeguarded. NIREX recognises the widespread public interest in radioactive waste management issues and welcomes a well-informed public scrutiny of its plans and proposals.

  12. Evaluation and treatment of low and anxious mood in Chinese-speaking international students studying in Scotland: study protocol of a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Zheng, Mengyi; McClay, Carrie-Anne; Wilson, Sarah; Williams, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Low mood is a common mental health problem affecting up to 121 million people worldwide and is common in students, particularly international students. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is known to be effective as a treatment for low mood and anxiety when delivered one to one by an expert practitioner, however this can be expensive and many services have waiting lists and delayed access. A range of additional ways of increasing access to services includes the offer of online courses such as computerised CBT as a possible additional pathway for care. This project aims to test the feasibility of a pilot randomised controlled trial of an online CBT-based life skills course with Chinese-speaking international students experiencing low mood and anxiety. Chinese-speaking international students with symptoms of low mood and/or anxiety will be recruited from the University of Glasgow, Scotland. Participants will be remotely randomised to receive either immediate access (IA) or delayed access (DA) to a guided/supported online CBT-based life skills package, the "Living Life" package (Chinese version). Participants will be randomly assigned to IA or DA to the intervention. The primary end point will be at 3 months when the delayed group will be offered the intervention. Levels of depression, anxiety, social functioning and satisfaction will be assessed. This pilot study will test the trial design, ability to recruit, gather completed questionnaires, test drop-out rates and investigate completion and acceptability of the package. The study aims to reduce uncertainties about the delivery of a future substantive study and will also inform a sample size calculation for that subsequent substantive randomised controlled trial (RCT) which will be carried out to determine the effectiveness of the online package in improving low mood and anxiety in the Chinese-speaking student population. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN30816908.

  13. UK Transfusion Laboratory Collaborative: minimum standards for staff qualifications, training, competency and the use of information technology in hospital transfusion laboratories 2014.

    Chaffe, B; Glencross, H; Jones, J; Staves, J; Capps-Jenner, A; Mistry, H; Bolton-Maggs, P; McQuade, M; Asher, D

    2014-12-01

    The SHOT Adverse Incident Reporting Scheme has consistently reported an unacceptably high level of errors originating in the laboratory setting. In 2006 an initiative was launched in conjunction with the IBMS, SHOT, RCPath, BBTS, UK NEQAS, the NHSE NBTC and the equivalents in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland that led to the formation of the UK TLC. The UK TLC in considering the nature and spread of the errors documented by SHOT concluded that a significant proportion of these errors were most likely to be related to either the use of information technology or staff education, staffing levels, skill mix, training and competency issues. In the absence of any formal guidance on these matters, the UK TLC developed a series of recommendations using the results of two laboratory surveys conducted in 2007 and 2008.

  14. Governmental Developments To Support The Uptake Of Online Technologies: EU, UK & Scotland from early 1990s to around 2005

    Harwood, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Online technologies (e.g. transaction enabled websites) are a relatively new innovation,which offers many possibilities for both more efficient and new practices. Where theyhave been accessible (e.g. within more developed economies) they have been rapidlytaken up by both individuals and organisations. Moreover, these new technologies havebeen viewed by institutions (i.e. governmental organisations) as an opportunity to provideinternational competitive edge, about which they have taken the lea...

  15. Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK

    Hart Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Methods Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. Results 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men. Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019; fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p Conclusions Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection.

  16. Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK.

    Lorimer, Karen; Hart, Graham J

    2010-12-30

    Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men). Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019); fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p participation in the study. Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection.

  17. Massive recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides in the Clyde Sea (Scotland, UK) in the spring of 2000

    Hansson, L.J.; Hudson, I.R.; Seddon, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    In April 2000 a massive recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides was observed in the Clyde Sea. At one location 700 cyprids l(-1) of this species were recorded. This is similar to3500 times more abundant than previously recorded, and resulted in metamorphosis of some cyprids whilst still...

  18. Legal Crisis and Artistic Innovation in Thirteenth-Century Scotland

    Jessica Barker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Weathered, damaged, and largely forgotten, the thirteenth-century effigies of Walter and Mary Stewart lie amid the evocative ruins of Inchmahome Priory on an island in the Lake of Menteith, Stirlingshire (Scotland. This tomb has been overlooked by art historians, yet it is the earliest surviving example in the British Isles of effigies of husband and wife lying side-by-side on the same tomb, the forerunner of a trend for commemorating marriage which would not become widespread for almost another hundred years. The intimacy of Walter and Mary’s relationship is expressed through a complex exchange of gestures, unparalleled in medieval funerary sculpture: both figures stretch out an arm to embrace one another around the shoulder, while Walter reaches across with his other hand to pull the folds of Mary’s cloak over her body. The following article considers the possible connection between this remarkable instance of artistic innovation and Walter and Mary’s involvement in a long-running dispute over their possession of the earldom of Menteith. Examining the gestures of the figures, the decision to place the monument at Inchmahome, and the probable identity of Walter as patron, I argue that the effigies were intended as an enduring witness to the legitimacy of Walter and Mary’s possession of their title and lands.

  19. Determinants of passive smoking in children in Edinburgh, Scotland.

    Jarvis, M J; Strachan, D P; Feyerabend, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using saliva cotinine as a quantitative marker, we examined the contribution of factors other than parental smoking to children's passive exposure to tobacco smoke. METHODS. Saliva specimens from a random sample of 734 7-year-old schoolchildren in Edinburgh, Scotland, were analyzed for cotinine. Their parents completed a questionnaire covering smoking habits and conditions in the home. RESULTS. A number of independent predictors of cotinine were identified in addition to the main one of smoking by household members. These predictors included home ownership, social class, day of the week, season of the year, number of parents present, crowding in the home, the number of children in the household, and sex. Cotinine was higher in children from less advantaged backgrounds, during winter, on Mondays, in girls, and when fewer other children were present. The effects were similar between children from nonsmoking and smoking homes. CONCLUSIONS. Questionnaire measures of parental smoking are insufficient to fully characterize young children's exposure to passive smoking. Because socioeconomic variables contribute to measured exposure, passive-smoking studies that treat class as a confounder and control for it may be overcontrolling. PMID:1503162

  20. Water Institutional Reforms in Scotland: Contested Objectives and Hidden Disputes

    Antonio A.R. Ioris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental limitation of the contemporary debate over water institutional reforms has been the excessive concentration on scientific assessments and management techniques, with insufficient consideration of the underlying politics of decision-making and socio-economic asymmetries. This article examines the 'sociology of water regulation' to demonstrate how the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD in Scotland is profoundly influenced by broader political and economic circumstances. The ongoing reforms of regulatory institutions became entangled in the reorganisation of a devolved Scottish Administration in the late 1990s, which has directly influenced the channels of representation and the overall decision-making processes. It is claimed here that, despite a discursive construction around sustainability and public participation, the new institutional landscape has so far failed to improve long-term patterns of water use and conservation. The article also analyses how the exacerbation of the economic dimension of water management has permeated the entire experience, serving as a political filter for the assessment of impacts and formulation of solutions. The ultimate conclusion is that formal changes in the legislation created a positive space for institutional reforms, but the effective improvement of water policy and catchment management has been curtailed by political inertia and the hidden balance of power.

  1. Radiologist perceptions of radiographer role development in Scotland

    Forsyth, Lesley J. [School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Garthdee Road, Garthdee, Aberdeen AB10 7QG (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.forsyth@rgu.ac.uk; Robertson, Elizabeth M. [Department of Radiology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: e.m.robertson@arh.grampian.scot.nhs.uk

    2007-02-15

    Aim: To survey the perceptions of the Scottish radiology community in relation to radiographer role development. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to all consultant radiologists recorded on the NHS Scotland database of consultants. Results: Response rate was 63%. (i) Respondents considered increased professional standing of radiographers, best use of manpower resources, reduced pressure on the service and improved recruitment and retention, as positive advantages of radiographer development. (ii) The potential impact on radiology specialist registrar training, lack of clear medico-legal responsibilities and radiographers recognising the limitations of their abilities were identified as the main areas of radiologist anxiety. (iii) Fifty-seven percent did not consider current post-registration radiography education and training resources adequate to underpin the requirement of developed roles. (iv) Barriers to radiographer development were identified as lack of radiography and radiology staff, suitable education, financial constraints, traditional views and resistance to change. (v) Eighty-two percent reported support for radiographer role development and willingness to participate actively in developments. Conclusion: Despite reservations Scottish radiologists are supportive of the development of radiography colleagues, however, guidance is required on the medico-legal and accountability aspects of radiographers assuming new roles. Radiologist involvement in education and training for new roles may increase their confidence and trust in radiographers to work within the limitations of their competency and training.

  2. Accounting for the Assimilative Capacity of Water Systems in Scotland

    Paula Novo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A key methodological challenge in understanding the relationship between the economy and the underlying ecosystem base resides in how to account for the ecosystem’s degradation and the decline of associated ecosystem services. In this study, we use information on nutrients and metals concentrations from the Environmental Change Network (ECN database and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA for the period 2000–2010 in order to assess the assimilation capacity of water systems. The research covers five upstream sites and 17 downstream sites in northeast Scotland. Our results highlight the relevance of considering a number of pollutants, and suggest that elements such as arsenic, lead and mercury can pose a threat to ecosystems’ sustainability and health. However, little research has been done in terms of their assimilation capacity and their impact on grey water footprint assessments. In addition, the results indicate that background conditions might be relevant when performing sustainability analysis at different spatial scales. The study also poses relevant questions in relation to land management approaches versus traditional ‘end-of-pipe’ water treatment approaches, and the definition of maximum and background concentrations. In this regard, further studies will be required to understand the trade-offs between different ecosystem services depending on how these concentrations are defined.

  3. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    McKay, W.A.; Bonnett, P.J.P.; Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 μSv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  4. Stroke outcomes in Northern Scotland: does rurality really matter?

    O'Neill, N P; Godden, D J

    2003-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in Scotland after coronary heart disease and cancer and is a major cause of long-term disability. There is evidence in other clinical conditions such as asthma, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer that rural residents may have poorer outcomes, due to relative inaccessibility of health-service provision or because the disease is at a more advanced stage at diagnosis. However, the evidence-base for stroke care and outcomes in remote and rural areas is small and the subject matter is under-researched. This study was designed to examine, over a one-year period, the incidence and outcome of stroke occurring in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, a large geographical area with many rural and remote settlements. The study explored whether stroke care and outcome was affected by remoteness and rurality. The study was a prospective, community-based, observational survey. Patients in Highland and the Islands (Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles) suffering first-ever stroke during a 12-month period (from 1 May 2001 to 30 April 2002) were included. All practitioners from health and social care sectors, residential homes, voluntary and charitable organisations were encouraged to notify the researchers of any individual they suspected or knew had a first-ever stroke within the designated time period. Data on 'limitation in activities' (formerly 'level of disability') and service provision were collected using questionnaires and proformas at 1, 3 and 6 months post-stroke from several sources. These included individual patients and carers, health and social care professionals, residential homes, voluntary organisations, and charitable organisations. The analysis focused on location at time of follow up, limitation in activities and service provision. Outcomes were compared across different settlement categories. Settlements were classified as urban/accessible, remote rural and very remote, based on the Scottish Household Survey. In all

  5. The economics of petroleum exploration and development west of Scotland

    Kemp, A.G.; Stephen, L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the economics of oil and gas exploration and development in the West of Scotland region. A considerable exploration effort has resulted in some discoveries but the overall success rate has been quite low. The region is comprised of several distinct geological basins. To date the Judd Basin has experienced the best discovery rate. Expected returns as measured by expected monetary values are generally low, confirming the high-risk nature of the region. The most economical field development concept depends to a large extent on a combination of field size and water depth which vary markedly from basin to basin. In typical cost conditions at an $18 price returns to investors in medium and large-sized fields at the development phase are positive, but at $14 only when costs are relatively low are positive returns in prospect. Stand-alone gas developments are very unlikely to be viable in current market conditions. The fuller exploitation of the whole region requires higher oil and gas prices and /or significant innovation and technological progress. (Author)

  6. Radiologist perceptions of radiographer role development in Scotland

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Robertson, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To survey the perceptions of the Scottish radiology community in relation to radiographer role development. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to all consultant radiologists recorded on the NHS Scotland database of consultants. Results: Response rate was 63%. (i) Respondents considered increased professional standing of radiographers, best use of manpower resources, reduced pressure on the service and improved recruitment and retention, as positive advantages of radiographer development. (ii) The potential impact on radiology specialist registrar training, lack of clear medico-legal responsibilities and radiographers recognising the limitations of their abilities were identified as the main areas of radiologist anxiety. (iii) Fifty-seven percent did not consider current post-registration radiography education and training resources adequate to underpin the requirement of developed roles. (iv) Barriers to radiographer development were identified as lack of radiography and radiology staff, suitable education, financial constraints, traditional views and resistance to change. (v) Eighty-two percent reported support for radiographer role development and willingness to participate actively in developments. Conclusion: Despite reservations Scottish radiologists are supportive of the development of radiography colleagues, however, guidance is required on the medico-legal and accountability aspects of radiographers assuming new roles. Radiologist involvement in education and training for new roles may increase their confidence and trust in radiographers to work within the limitations of their competency and training

  7. Managing UK nuclear liabilities

    Sadnicki, Mike; MacKerron, Gordon.

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)

  8. Evaluation of a pilot peer observation of teaching scheme for chair-side tutors at Glasgow University Dental School.

    Cairns, A M; Bissell, V; Bovill, C

    2013-06-01

    To introduce and examine a pilot peer observation of teaching (POT) scheme within the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at Glasgow Dental School and its associated outreach centres. All tutors teaching paediatric dentistry were invited to be involved in evaluation of the POT scheme. Participants were randomly paired with a peer, who then observed their teaching and provided constructive feedback. For those consenting to be involved in the evaluation of the scheme, semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were carried out by the principal investigator. POT was found by all participants to be a beneficial process, reassuring those of their teaching styles and giving them ideas to adapt their teaching. POT is an effective method for engaging chair-side tutors in the reflection and development of their teaching practice via observations and scholarly discussion.

  9. Improving patient access to prevent sight loss: ophthalmic electronic referrals and communication (Scotland).

    Khan, A A; Mustafa, M Z; Sanders, R

    2015-02-01

    With the number of people with sight loss predicted to double to four million people in the UK by the year 2050, preventable visual loss is a significant public health issue. Sight loss is associated with an increased risk of falls, accidents and depression and evidence suggests that 50% of sight loss can be avoided. Timely diagnosis is central to the prevention of sight loss. Access to care can be a limiting factor in preventable cases. By improving referrals and access to hospital eye services it is possible to treat and minimise the number of patients with preventable sight loss and the impact this has on wider society. In 2005, NHS Fife took part in a flagship pilot funded by the Scottish government e-health department to evaluate the feasibility, safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost of electronic referral with images of patients directly from community optometrists to Hospital Eye Service (HES). The pilot study showed that electronic referral was feasible, fast, safe, and obviated the need for outpatient appointments in 128 (37%) patients with a high patient satisfaction. The results of the pilot study were presented and in May 2007, the electronic referral system was rolled out regionally in southeast Scotland. Referrals were accepted at a single site with vetting by a trained team and appointments were allocated within 48 hours. Following the implementation of electronic referral, waiting times were reduced from a median of 14 to 4 weeks. Significantly fewer new patients were seen (7462 vs 8714 [p electronic communication between community optometry practices and hospital eye departments. Five electronic forms were specifically designed for cataract, glaucoma, macula, paediatric and general ophthalmic disease. A Virtual Private Network was created which enabled optometrists to connect to the Scottish clinical information gateway system and send referrals to hospital and receive referral status feedback. Numerous hurdles have been encountered and overcome

  10. Geology and climatic indicators in the Westphalian A New Glasgow formation, Nova Scotia, Canada: implications for the genesis of coal and of sandstone-hosted lead deposits

    Chandler, F.W. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-03-01

    Disagreement exists on whether the early Pennsylvanian climate of the Euramerican coal province was everwet or seasonal. Abundant paleopedological evidence, including calcrete-bearing vertisols, shows that during formation of Westphalian C to Stephanian coals in Nova Scotia, the climate was tropical and seasonal with a pronounced by dry season; but interpretation of Westphalian A-B coal-bearing sequences lacks this form of evidence. Development of calcrete-bearing vertisols in alluvial fan deposits of the Westphalian A New Glasgow formation indicate that a tropical climate with a pronounced dry season was already in force by early Westphalian time. During the dry season, the coal swamps of the early Westphalian Joggins and Springhill Mines formations were fed by groundwater from coeval alluvial fan deposits of the Polly Brook Formation at the basin margin. Sedimentological evidence indicates that, similarly, groundwater flowed northward from the toe of the New Glasgow alluvial fan, but correlative palustrine sediments have not been found on land in the New Glasgow area. The possibility remains of an early Westphalian coalfield associated with the New Glasgow formation to the north under the Northumberland Strait and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Formation of the Yava sandstone-hosted lead deposit in the fluvial Silver Mine Formation of Cape Breton Island, a stratigraphic equivalent of the Cumberland Basin coal swamps, indicates that such deposits can form in fluvial strata deposited under a tropical seasonal climate with a pronounced dry season.

  11. UK retail marketing survey 94

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)

  12. The management of change in BNFL's UK group with particular reference to the restructuring of the health and safety functions

    Brandwood, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    BNFL's UK group business involves reprocessing of uranium metal (Magnox) fuel, storage and dismantling of advanced gas rector (ceramic UO 2 ) fuel, waste treatment and storage, decommissioning and electricity generation. These activities are carried out at three sites in the North West corner of England and Southern Scotland: Sellafield - all activities, Chapelcross -electricity generation, Drigg - waste storage. Achieving fundamental change in a well established nuclear business which is highly regulated is possible and can bring large benefits. The keys to success are leadership and commitment from all senior managers, involvement of all stakeholders and communication. It is essential to involve the regulator as a stakeholder. (author)

  13. Contact with HIV prevention services highest in gay and bisexual men at greatest risk: cross-sectional survey in Scotland

    Hart Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV in the UK and new HIV prevention strategies are needed. In this paper, we examine what contact MSM currently have with HIV prevention activities and assess the extent to which these could be utilised further. Methods Anonymous, self-complete questionnaires and Orasure™ oral fluid collection kits were distributed to men visiting the commercial gay scenes in Glasgow and Edinburgh in April/May 2008. 1508 men completed questionnaires (70.5% response rate and 1277 provided oral fluid samples (59.7% response rate; 1318 men were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. Results 82.5% reported some contact with HIV prevention activities in the past 12 months, 73.1% obtained free condoms from a gay venue or the Internet, 51.1% reported accessing sexual health information (from either leaflets in gay venues or via the Internet, 13.5% reported talking to an outreach worker and 8.0% reported participating in counselling on sexual health or HIV prevention. Contact with HIV prevention activities was associated with frequency of gay scene use and either HIV or other STI testing in the past 12 months, but not with sexual risk behaviours. Utilising counselling was also more likely among men who reported having had an STI in the past 12 months and HIV-positive men. Conclusions Men at highest risk, and those likely to be in contact with sexual health services, are those who report most contact with a range of current HIV prevention activities. Offering combination prevention, including outreach by peer health workers, increased uptake of sexual health services delivering behavioural and biomedical interventions, and supported by social marketing to ensure continued community engagement and support, could be the way forward. Focused investment in the needs of those at highest risk, including those diagnosed HIV-positive, may generate a prevention dividend in the long

  14. McDonald's restaurants and neighborhood deprivation in Scotland and England.

    Cummins, Steven C J; McKay, Laura; MacIntyre, Sally

    2005-11-01

    Features of the local fast food environment have been hypothesized to contribute to the greater prevalence of obesity in deprived neighborhoods. However, few studies have investigated whether fast food outlets are more likely to be found in poorer areas, and those that have are local case studies. In this paper, using national-level data, we examine the association between neighborhood deprivation and the density of McDonald's restaurants in small census areas (neighborhoods) in Scotland and England. Data on population, deprivation, and the location of McDonald's Restaurants were obtained for 38,987 small areas in Scotland and England (6505 "data zones" in Scotland, and 32,482 "super output areas" in England) in January 2005. Measures of McDonald's restaurants per 1000 people for each area were calculated, and areas were divided into quintiles of deprivation. Associations between neighborhood deprivation and outlet density were examined during February 2005, using one-way analysis of variance in Scotland, England, and both countries combined. Statistically significant positive associations were found between neighborhood deprivation and the mean number of McDonald's outlets per 1000 people for Scotland (p<0.001), England (p<0.001), and both countries combined (p<0.001). These associations were broadly linear with greater mean numbers of outlets per 1000 people occurring as deprivation levels increased. Observed associations between presence or absence of fast food outlets and neighborhood deprivation may provide support for environmental explanations for the higher prevalence of obesity in poor neighborhoods.

  15. Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: applicability and relation with the Glasgow Coma Scale Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidad y relación con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: aplicabilidade e relação com a Escala de Coma de Glasgow

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Restrictions in the application of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test and questionings about the relationship between conscience and post-traumatic amnesia motivated this study, which aims to identify, through the Glasgow Coma Scale scores, when to initiate the application of this amnesia test, as well to verify the relationship between the results of these two indicators. The longitudinal prospective study was carried at a referral center for trauma care in São Paulo - Brazil. The sample consisted of 73 victims of blunt traumatic brain injury, admitted at this institution between January 03rd and May 03rd 2001. Regarding the applicability, the test could be applied in patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score > 12; however, the end of post traumatic amnesia was verified in patients who scored > 14 on the scale. A significant relationship (r s = 0.65 was verified between these measures, although different kinds of relationship between the end of the amnesia and changes in consciousness were observed.Restricciones en la aplicación del Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test y los cuestionamientos sobre la relación entre conciencia y amnesia post-traumática motivaron este estudio que visa identificar, a través de la puntuación de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow, el periodo más adecuado para la aplicación de la prueba de amnesia, y observar la relación entre los resultados de esos dos indicadores. El estudio prospectivo y longitudinal fue realizado en un centro de referencia para traumas en São Paulo - Brasil. El número fue de 73 victimas de trauma craneoencefálico contuso, internadas en esta institución en el periodo de 03/01 a 03/05/2001. Con relación a la aplicabilidad, la prueba puede ser aplicada en los pacientes con la Escala de Coma de Glasgow > 12, pero el término de la amnesia post-traumática fue observado en los pacientes con puntuación > 14 en la escala. Correlación significativa (rs = 0,65 fue observada entre esas

  16. [Validation of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a hospital of Lima, Peru (June 2012-December 2013)].

    Cassana, Alessandra; Scialom, Silvia; Segura, Eddy R; Chacaltana, Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a major cause of hospitalization and the most prevalent emergency worldwide, with a mortality rate of up to 14%. In Peru, there have not been any studies on the use of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of this study is to perform an external validation of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System and to establish the best cutoff for predicting mortality in upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a hospital of Lima, Peru. This was a longitudinal, retrospective, analytical validation study, with data from patients with a clinical and endoscopic diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding treated at the Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins between June 2012 and December 2013. We calculated the area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality with a 95% confidence interval. A total of 339 records were analyzed. 57.5% were male and the mean age (standard deviation) was 67.0 (15.7) years. The median of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System obtained in the population was 12. The ROC analysis for death gave an area under the curve of 0.59 (95% CI 0.5-0.7). Stratifying by type of upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulted in an area under the curve of 0.66 (95% CI 0.53-0.78) for non-variceal type. In this population, the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System has no diagnostic validity for predicting mortality.

  17. Validation of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a hospital of Lima, Peru (June 2012-December 2013

    Alessandra Cassana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a major cause of hospitalization and the most prevalent emergency worldwide, with a mortality rate of up to 14%. In Peru, there have not been any studies on the use of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of this study is to perform an external validation of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System and to establish the best cutoff for predicting mortality in upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a hospital of Lima, Peru. Methods: This was a longitudinal, retrospective, analytical validation study, with data from patients with a clinical and endoscopic diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding treated at the Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins between June 2012 and December 2013. We calculated the area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System to predict mortality with a 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 339 records were analyzed. 57.5% were male and the mean age (standard deviation was 67.0 (15.7 years. The median of the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System obtained in the population was 12. The ROC analysis for death gave an area under the curve of 0.59 (95% CI 0.5-0.7. Stratifying by type of upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulted in an area under the curve of 0.66 (95% CI 0.53-0.78 for non-variceal type. Conclusions: In this population, the Glasgow-Blatchford Scoring System has no diagnostic validity for predicting mortality.

  18. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  19. UK manufacturers construction joint venture

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the legal and commercial framework for UK manufacturers to collaborate in a construction venture for a small combustion/steam cycle power plant fueled with biomass. The integration of technology and project plan, the working capital and capitalisation, financial aspects, the market plan, turnkey packages, joint venture entities, and collaboration are discussed. (UK)

  20. Do children with Glasgow 13/14 could be identified as mild traumatic brain injury? Pacientes pediátricos com Glasgow 13 ou 14 podem ser identificados como traumatismo craniano leve?

    José Roberto Tude Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify in mild head injured children the major differences between those with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS 15 and GCS 13/14. METHOD: Cross-sectional study accomplished through information derived from medical records of mild head injured children presented in the emergency room of a Pediatric Trauma Centre level I, between May 2007 and May 2008. RESULTS: 1888 patients were included. The mean age was 7.6±5.4 years; 93.7% had GCS 15; among children with GCS 13/14, 46.2% (pOBJETIVO: Identificar as principais diferenças entre os pacientes com Escala de Coma de Glasgow (GCS 15 e aqueles com escore 13/14. MÉTODO: Estudo realizado por meio da revisão de prontuários médicos de crianças vítimas de traumatismo craniencefálico leve, admitidas em Centro de Urgências Pediátricas nível I, durante um ano. RESULTADOS: Incluídas 1888 vítimas; idade média de 7,6±5,4 anos; 93,7% apresentaram pontuação 15 na GCS. Naqueles com pontuação 13/14, 46,2% (p<0,001 sofreram traumas múltiplos e 52,1% (p<0,001 apresentaram alterações na tomografia de crânio. Tratamento neurocirúrgico foi necessário em 6,7% dos pacientes com GCS 13/14 e 9,2% (p=0,001 apresentaram seqüelas neurológicas no momento da alta hospitalar. CONCLUSÃO: Crianças com escore 13/14 apresentam maior prevalência de traumas múltiplos, alterações na tomografia de crânio, necessidade de tratamento neurocirúrgico e internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Devemos ser cautelosos ao classificar crianças com pontuação 13/14 na GCS como vítimas de traumatismo craniano leve.

  1. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  2. The First Detailed 2H and 18O Isoscapes of Freshwater in Scotland

    Meier-Augenstein, W.; Hoogewerff, J.; Kemp, H. F.; Frew, D.

    2012-04-01

    Scotland's freshwater lochs and reservoirs provide a vital resource for sustaining biodiversity, agriculture, food production as well as for human consumption. Regular monitoring of freshwater quality by the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) fulfils the legislative requirements but new scientific methods involving stable isotope analysis present an opportunity for delivering on current and nascent government policies [1] and gaining a greater understanding of Scottish waters and their importance in the context of climate change, environmental sustainability and the aforementioned functions. In brief, 2H and 18O isoscapes of Scottish freshwater could be used to support fundamental and applied research in: • Climate change - These first ever isoscapes will provide a baseline against which future environmental impact can be assessed due to changes in the characteristic isotope composition of freshwater lochs and reservoirs. • Scottish branding - Location specific stable isotope signatures of Scottish freshwater have the potential to be used as a tool for provenancing and thus protecting premium Scottish produce such as Scottish beef, Scottish berries and Scottish Whisky. During 2011, freshwater samples were collected with the support of SEPA from more than 80 freshwater lochs and reservoirs across Scotland. Here we present the result of the 2H and 18O stable isotope analyses of these water samples together with the first isoscapes generated based on these data. [1] Adaptation Framework - Adapting Our Ways: Managing Scotland's Climate Risk (2009): Scotland's Biodiversity: It's in Your Hands - A strategy for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland (2005); Recipe For Success - Scotland's National Food and Drink Policy (2009); Scottish Planning Policy Environmental Report (2009); Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 15 Planning for Rural Development (2005); National Planning Policy Guideline (NPPG) 14: Natural Heritage (1999).

  3. Students' attitudes to learning physics at school and university levels in Scotland

    Skryabina, Elena

    The department of Physics of the University of Glasgow was concerned about losing students after the end of the level 1 Physics course. The current research project started as an attempt to find out the reasons for this, but moved to investigate attitudes towards Physics at several stages during secondary school and attitudes towards science with primary pupils. Analyses of factors, which influence students' intentions towards studying Physics, were performed against the background of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, which interprets people's behaviour by considering three factors: attitude towards behaviour (advantages or disadvantages of being involved in the behaviour, e.g. studying Physics for Honours); subjective norm (approval or disapproval of important people towards engaging in the behaviour, e.g. parents, teacher, general norms of the society); perceived behavioural control (skills, knowledge, cooperation of others, abilities, efforts required to perform the behaviour). Analysis of these factors revealed some reasons for students' withdrawal from Physics after level 1 and pointed to factors which may facilitate students' persistence in the subject. A general analysis of level 1 and level 2 students' attitudes towards different aspects of the university Physics course revealed that the level 1 students' attitudes towards their university course of lectures and course of laboratories tended to be negatively polarised. Recommendations were suggested on the basis of the gathered evidence about how to make students' experience in university Physics more satisfactory for them. The data obtained from the separate analyses of females' and males' attitudes towards university Physics course have showed that attitudes of females and males were similar. The only significant difference between level 1 females and males was found to be the perceived behavioural control factor (students' attitudes towards course difficulty, attitudes towards work load in the course

  4. Prevention of poultry-borne salmonellosis by irradiation: Costs and benefits in Scotland

    Yule, B.F; Forbes, G.I.; MacLeod, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Poultry-borne salmonellosis is the most common foodborne infection in Scotland for which the vehicle can be identified. The cost of the disease to society in terms of health service use, absence from work, morbidity, and mortality is substantial. The study estimates the total cost of poultry-borne salmonellosis in Scotland and compares it with the cost of a single preventive measure: the irradiation of poultry meat. The results suggest that the public health benefits exceed irradiation costs. This conclusion is, however, sensitive to assumptions made in the analysis, particularly those related to the cost of unreported cases of salmonellosis. 19 refs, 3 tabs

  5. Innovative UK Approaches to Acquisition Management

    2009-05-01

    Financial and Operational Imperatives Size of UK armed forces UK Industry ? Political influence PFI / PPP Increased Scrutiny - NAO “ Commercialisation “ of the...acquisition KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE – Lessons learned) KNOWLEDGE (Training) KNOWLEDGE ( Education ) OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Operational Capability UK

  6. Association between pretreatment Glasgow prognostic score and gastric cancer survival and clinicopathological features: a meta-analysis

    Zhang CX

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Xiao Zhang,* Shu-Yi Wang,* Shuang-Qian Chen, Shuai-Long Yang, Lu Wan, Bin Xiong Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors and Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Glasgow prognostic score (GPS is widely known as a systemic inflammatory-based marker. The relationship between pretreatment GPS and gastric cancer (GC survival and clinicopathological features remains controversial. The aim of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the association between pretreatment GPS and survival and clinicopathological features in GC patients. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and BioMed databases for relevant studies. Combined analyses were used to assess the association between pretreatment GPS and overall survival, disease-free survival, and clinicopathological parameters by Stata Version 12.0. Results: A total of 14 studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 5,579 GC patients. The results indicated that pretreatment high GPS (HGPS predicted poor overall survival (hazard ratio =1.51, 95% CI: 1.37–1.66, P<0.01 and disease-free survival (hazard ratio =1.45, 95% CI: 1.26–1.68, P<0.01 in GC patients. Pretreatment HGPS was also significantly associated with advanced tumor–node–metastasis stage (odds ratio [OR] =3.09, 95% CI: 2.11–4.53, P<0.01, lymph node metastasis (OR =4.60, 95% CI: 3.23–6.56, P<0.01, lymphatic invasion (OR =3.04, 95% CI: 2.00–4.62, P<0.01, and venous invasion (OR =3.56, 95% CI: 1.81–6.99, P<0.01. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicated that pretreatment HGPS could be a predicative factor of poor survival outcome and clinicopathological features for GC patients. Keywords: Glasgow prognostic score, gastric cancer, survival, clinicopathological feature

  7. MyCity: Glasgow – how can a mobile app based game increase physical activity in the context of a mass spectator sporting event?

    Cindy Gray

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are many mobile applications being developed to promote healthy lifestyles. Some use gamification as well as psychological behaviour change techniques (BCTs to increase engagement and potential impact on health behaviours. Despite growing research in this area, there is little evidence of game-based apps being rigorously evaluated ‘in the wild’ to explore the mechanisms through which they can achieve widespread user-engagement and health behaviour change. MyCity: Glasgow is a mobile app-based game that aims to use BCTs (self-monitoring of physical activity with daily goal setting and feedback, gamification principles (self-expression, achievement (e.g., quizzes, status and competition and GPS-based features (e.g., challenge trails to encourage users to physically visit locations around Glasgow to increase physical activity (PA and engagement with Glasgow during the period of the 2014 Commonwealth Games. Aim: To use an ‘in the wild’ evaluation to explore the potential and mechanisms of action of a mobile app-based game to increase users’ PA and engagement with their local area. Methods: MyCity: Glasgow was released on Google Play and Apple App Stores in early summer 2014, and real-time usage data logged for 3 months. A mixed-methods approach used quantitative android phone-logged data, an online user experience survey (N=56 and qualitative user interviews (n=11 to investigate uptake, use of behaviour change and gamification features, and impact on physical activity. Results: The app was downloaded 1096 times (android N=673; iOS N=423. Most users were aged 12-25 years (43.1% or 26-40 years (32.6%, with uptake declining with age; over half (51.5% described themselves as physically inactive at baseline. Almost a quarter (24.3% of daily activity goals were achieved; 3,907 quiz questions were attempted, over 72% of which were answered correctly. Survey respondents and interview participants endorsed the self-monitoring and

  8. Estratégias de ensino-aprendizagem na enfermagem: análise pela Escala de Coma de Glasgow Estrategias de enseñanza y aprendizaje en enfermería: análisis por la Escala de coma de Glasgow Teaching-learning strategies in nursing: analysis using the Glasgow Coma Scale

    Ana Beatriz Pinto da Silva Morita

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Usando como tema a Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl, este estudo objetivou analisar e verificar a retenção do conhecimento frente às estratégias de ensino-aprendizagem e autoaprendizado oferecidas, e verificar o grau de conhecimento adquirido neste processo e a possível associação entre ser ou não aluno que trabalha na enfermagem. Estudo descritivo de abordagem quantitativa. Participaram 62 alunos regularmente matriculados no primeiro semestre do 4º ano de enfermagem. As estratégias de ensino-aprendizagem utilizadas foram: aula expositiva com diapositivos e videoteipe e texto-base. Dos participantes, 41,9% eram trabalhadores na enfermagem; 61,3% informaram ter cuidado de pacientes com alteração do nível de consciência, com predomínio no grupo em que trabalha. Houve incremento estatisticamente significante no percentual de acerto após a aula expositiva e o videoteipe, não havendo alteração no resultado após o autoaprendizado. Não houve diferença no grau de conhecimento adquirido entre os grupos.Usando como tema la Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl, este estudio objetivó analizar y verificar la retención del conocimiento frente a las estrategias de enseñanza aprendizaje y auto aprendizaje ofrecidas; y, verificar el grado de conocimiento adquirido en ese proceso y la posible asociación entre ser o no alumno que trabaja en enfermería. Estudio descriptivo de abordaje cuantitativo. Participaron 62 alumnos regularmente matriculados en el primer semestre del 4ºaño de enfermería. Las estrategias de enseñanza aprendizaje utilizadas fueron: clase expositiva con diapositivas y videotape y texto base. De los participantes, 41,9% eran trabajadores de enfermería; 61,3% informaron haber cuidado de pacientes con alteración del nivel de conciencia, con predominio en el grupo que trabaja. Hubo un incremento estadísticamente significativo en el porcentaje de aciertos después de la clase expositiva e videotape, no hubo alteración en

  9. Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland.

    Stone, Jack; Martin, Natasha K; Hickman, Matthew; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Aspinall, Esther; Taylor, Avril; Munro, Alison; Dunleavy, Karen; Peters, Erica; Bramley, Peter; Hayes, Peter C; Goldberg, David J; Vickerman, Peter

    2017-07-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) experience high incarceration rates, and previous incarceration is associated with elevated hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk. In Scotland, national survey data indicate lower HCV incidence in prison than the community (4.3 versus 7.3 per 100 person-years), but a 2.3-fold elevated transmission risk among recently released (prison-related prevention interventions, including scaling-up direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in prison. Dynamic mathematical modelling of incarceration and HCV transmission, using approximate Bayesian computation for model calibration. Scotland, UK. A simulated population of PWID. Population-attributable fraction (PAF) of incarceration to HCV transmission among PWID. Decrease in HCV incidence and chronic prevalence due to current levels of prison opiate substitution therapy (OST; 57% coverage) and HCV treatment, as well as scaling-up DAAs in prison and/or preventing the elevated risk associated with prison release. Incarceration contributes 27.7% [PAF; 95% credible interval (CrI) -3.1 to 51.1%] of HCV transmission among PWID in Scotland. During the next 15 years, current HCV treatment rates (10.4/6.8 per 1000 incarcerated/community PWID annually), with existing prison OST, could reduce incidence and chronic prevalence among all PWID by a relative 10.7% (95% CrI = 8.4-13.3%) and 9.7% (95% CrI = 7.7-12.1%), respectively. Conversely, without prison OST, HCV incidence and chronic prevalence would decrease by 3.1% (95% CrI = -28.5 to 18.0%) and 4.7% (95% CrI = -11.3 to 14.5%). Additionally, preventing the heightened risk among recently released PWID could reduce incidence and chronic prevalence by 45.0% (95% CrI = 19.7-57.5%) and 33.3% (95% CrI = 15.6-43.6%) or scaling-up prison HCV treatments to 80% of chronic PWID prison entrants with sufficient sentences (>16 weeks) could reduce incidence and prevalence by 45.6% (95% CrI = 38.0-51.3%) and 45.5% (95% CrI = 39.3-51.0%), respectively

  10. Predictive Value of Glasgow Coma Score and Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Score on the Outcome of Multiple Trauma Patients.

    Baratloo, Alireza; Shokravi, Masumeh; Safari, Saeed; Aziz, Awat Kamal

    2016-03-01

    The Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score was developed to compensate for the limitations of Glasgow coma score (GCS) in recent years. This study aimed to assess the predictive value of GCS and FOUR score on the outcome of multiple trauma patients admitted to the emergency department. The present prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on multiple trauma patients admitted to the emergency department. GCS and FOUR scores were evaluated at the time of admission and at the sixth and twelfth hours after admission. Then the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive value of GCS and FOUR score were evaluated to predict patients' outcome. Patients' outcome was divided into discharge with and without a medical injury (motor deficit, coma or death). Finally, 89 patients were studied. Sensitivity and specificity of GCS in predicting adverse outcome (motor deficit, coma or death) were 84.2% and 88.6% at the time of admission, 89.5% and 95.4% at the sixth hour and 89.5% and 91.5% at the twelfth hour, respectively. These values for the FOUR score were 86.9% and 88.4% at the time of admission, 89.5% and 100% at the sixth hour and 89.5% and 94.4% at the twelfth hour, respectively. Findings of this study indicate that the predictive value of FOUR score and GCS on the outcome of multiple trauma patients admitted to the emergency department is similar.

  11. Procalcitonin Improves the Glasgow Prognostic Score for Outcome Prediction in Emergency Patients with Cancer: A Cohort Study

    Anna Christina Rast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS is useful for predicting long-term mortality in cancer patients. Our aim was to validate the GPS in ED patients with different cancer-related urgency and investigate whether biomarkers would improve its accuracy. We followed consecutive medical patients presenting with a cancer-related medical urgency to a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. Upon admission, we measured procalcitonin (PCT, white blood cell count, urea, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, corrected calcium, C-reactive protein, and albumin and calculated the GPS. Of 341 included patients (median age 68 years, 61% males, 81 (23.8% died within 30 days after admission. The GPS showed moderate prognostic accuracy (AUC 0.67 for mortality. Among the different biomarkers, PCT provided the highest prognostic accuracy (odds ratio 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 1.9, P<0.001, AUC 0.69 and significantly improved the GPS to a combined AUC of 0.74 (P=0.007. Considering all investigated biomarkers, the AUC increased to 0.76 (P<0.001. The GPS performance was significantly improved by the addition of PCT and other biomarkers for risk stratification in ED cancer patients. The benefit of early risk stratification by the GPS in combination with biomarkers from different pathways should be investigated in further interventional trials.

  12. Determinants of Glasgow outcome scale in patients with severe traumatic brain injury for better quality of life

    Dharmajaya, R.; Sari, D. K.; Ganie, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Primary and secondary brain injury may occur with severe traumatic brain injury. Secondary traumatic brain injury results in a more severe effect compared to primary traumatic brain injury. Therefore, prevention of secondary traumatic brain injury is necessary to obtain maximum therapeutic results and accurate determination of prognosis and better quality of life. This study aimed to determine accurate and noninvasive prognostic factors in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. It was a cohort study on 16 subjects. Intracranial pressure was monitored within the first 24 hours after traumatic brain injury. Examination of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and S100B protein were conducted four times. The severity of outcome was evaluated using Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) three months after traumatic brain injury. Intracranial pressure measurement performed 24 hours after traumatic brain injury, low S100B protein (6.16pg/ml) 48 hours after injury indicate good prognosis and were shown to be significant predictors (p<0.05) for determining the quality of GOS. The conclusion is patient with a moderate increase in intracranial pressure Intracranial pressure S100B protein, being inexpensive and non-invasive, can substitute BDNF and intracranial pressure measurements as a tool for determining prognosis 120 hours following traumatic brain injury.

  13. Glasgow Prognostic Score is superior to ECOG PS as a prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer with peritoneal seeding.

    Yuan, Shu-Qiang; Nie, Run-Cong; Chen, Yong-Ming; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Li, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Jiang; Xu, Li-Pu; Yang, Li-Fang; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Fang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Shi; Chen, Ying-Bo

    2018-04-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) has been shown to be associated with survival rates in patients with advanced cancer. The present study aimed to compare the GPS with the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) in patients with gastric cancer with peritoneal seeding. For the investigation, a total of 384 gastric patients with peritoneal metastasis were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP; >10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (l) were assigned a score of 2. Patients were assigned a score of 1 if presenting with only one of these abnormalities, and a score of 0 if neither of these abnormalities were present. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with peritoneal seeding were analyzed. The results showed that the median overall survival (OS) of patients in the GPS 0 group was longer, compared with that in the GPS 1 and GPS 2 groups (15.50, vs. 10.07 and 7.97 months, respectively; PGPS 0 group was significantly longer, compared with that in the GPS 1 and GPS 2 groups, for the patients receiving palliative chemotherapy and patients without palliative chemotherapy. Multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that CA19-9, palliative gastrectomy, first-line chemotherapy and GPS were the prognostic factors predicting OS. In conclusion, the GPS was superior to the subjective assessment of ECOG PS as a prognostic factor in predicting the outcome of gastric cancer with peritoneal seeding.

  14. The Glasgow Parallel Reduction Machine: Programming Shared-memory Many-core Systems using Parallel Task Composition

    Ashkan Tousimojarad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the Glasgow Parallel Reduction Machine (GPRM, a novel, flexible framework for parallel task-composition based many-core programming. We allow the programmer to structure programs into task code, written as C++ classes, and communication code, written in a restricted subset of C++ with functional semantics and parallel evaluation. In this paper we discuss the GPRM, the virtual machine framework that enables the parallel task composition approach. We focus the discussion on GPIR, the functional language used as the intermediate representation of the bytecode running on the GPRM. Using examples in this language we show the flexibility and power of our task composition framework. We demonstrate the potential using an implementation of a merge sort algorithm on a 64-core Tilera processor, as well as on a conventional Intel quad-core processor and an AMD 48-core processor system. We also compare our framework with OpenMP tasks in a parallel pointer chasing algorithm running on the Tilera processor. Our results show that the GPRM programs outperform the corresponding OpenMP codes on all test platforms, and can greatly facilitate writing of parallel programs, in particular non-data parallel algorithms such as reductions.

  15. Meeting the UK renewables target : the role of the regions

    Watson, J.; Tetteh, A. [Sussex Univ., Brighton, East Sussex (United Kingdom); Jenkins, N.; Wu, X. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-31

    In 2003, the government in the United Kingdom tried to expand the amount of electricity generated from renewable sources. In addition to its longstanding target that 10 per cent of electricity should be supplied by renewables by 2010, the government's current goal is to achieve a target of 20 per cent by 2020. A number of policies and initiatives are now in place to help increase the present renewable electricity level of 3 per cent. These include the Renewables Obligation; the formulation of new approaches to electricity network regulation; modifications to the wholesale electricity market; and working to reduce barriers to renewables within the planning system. The impact of the 2010 targets on the UK's electricity system was assessed with a specific focus on regional approaches to renewable energy. A summary was presented of regional renewable energy assessments conducted in England and the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The impact of regional targets on the national electricity transmission system were examined, as well approaches to implementation by newly established government bodies. A brief analysis of the geographical spread of renewable energy generation was presented. The South East of England was used as a case study to illustrate some the challenges faced by institutions. It was concluded that many barriers are still in place to renewable energy deployment, particularly within land-use planning, electricity market rules, and electricity market regulations. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. A national survey of health service infrastructure and policy impacts on access to computerised CBT in Scotland

    Kenicer David

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NICE recommends computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT for the treatment of several mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. cCBT may be one way that services can reduce waiting lists and improve capacity and efficiency. However, there is some doubt about the extent to which the National Health Service (NHS in the UK is embracing this new health technology in practice. This study aimed to investigate Scottish health service infrastructure and policies that promote or impede the implementation of cCBT in the NHS. Methods A telephone survey of lead IT staff at all health board areas across Scotland to systematically enquire about the ability of local IT infrastructure and IT policies to support delivery of cCBT. Results Overall, most of the health boards possess the required software to use cCBT programmes. However, the majority of NHS health boards reported that they lack dedicated computers for patient use, hence access to cCBT at NHS sites is limited. Additionally, local policy in the majority of boards prevent staff from routinely contacting patients via email, skype or instant messenger, making the delivery of short, efficient support sessions difficult. Conclusions Conclusions: Overall most of the infrastructure is in place but is not utilised in ways that allow effective delivery. For cCBT to be successfully delivered within a guided support model, as recommended by national guidelines, dedicated patient computers should be provided to allow access to online interventions. Additionally, policy should allow staff to support patients in convenient ways such as via email or live chat. These measures would increase the likelihood of achieving Scottish health service targets to reduce waiting time for psychological therapies to 18 weeks.

  17. Why are rates of sterilization in decline? A pilot study designed to explore reasons for declining female sterilization in Scotland.

    Chen, Zhong E; Glasier, Anna; Warner, Pamela

    2008-10-01

    In the last decade, female sterilization had been in decline throughout the UK. It is not clear whether fewer women are requesting sterilization or whether the universal enthusiasm for long-acting reversible methods is leading health professionals to discourage women from being sterilized. Since correct and consistent use of alternative, reversible contraceptive methods depends somewhat on their acceptability, it is important to determine whether women are being refused sterilization or whether they are freely choosing other methods. This study aims to explore whether female sterilization is being widely considered as a contraceptive method, the reasons for choosing or rejecting it, and whether women are being discouraged by health professionals from being sterilized. A self-completed questionnaire survey among 205 women aged 30 to 50 years who felt that their family was complete attending a family planning clinic in Scotland. Of the 203 women included in the study, 151 (74.4%) had heard of female sterilization, 90 had discussed it with someone (60%) and 87 (58%) had considered it as a contraceptive option. Of the 56 women who consulted their family doctor about sterilization, almost half (27; 48%) were not referred to a hospital and fewer than one (17, 30.4%) in three of them was eventually sterilized or had arrangements in place to get it done. Free-text comments from the women revealed a variety of reasons for not choosing female sterilization and suggested that some women are being deterred from sterilization. The study suggests that some women are being actively encouraged by health professionals to use long-acting reversible contraceptive methods and discouraged from choosing sterilization. However, other women recognize for themselves the wisdom of keeping their fertility options open.

  18. Equine grass sickness in Scotland: a case-control study of signalment- and meteorology-related risk factors.

    Wylie, C E; Shaw, D J; Fordyce, F M; Lilly, A; McGorum, B C

    2014-01-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) remains a frequently fatal disease of equids in Britain. Since previous investigations of signalment- and meteorology-related risk factors for EGS have yielded some conflicting data, further investigation is warranted. To identify signalment- and meteorology-related risk factors for EGS in Scotland. Retrospective time-matched case-control study. This study was undertaken using data for 455 EGS cases and 910 time-matched controls that were referred to the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, and average UK Meteorological Office weather station meteorological values from the month of admission of the animal, from the 3, 6 and 12 months prior to admission, and for the entire 1990-2006 period. Signalment-related risk factors associated with an increased risk of EGS were native Scottish pure breeds compared with crossbreeds (odds ratio [OR] = 3.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.43-5.43) and animals living on premises located further north within the study region (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.06-1.10). There was a decreased risk of EGS in animals aged 11-20 years compared with animals 2-10 years (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.45), non-native Scottish pure breeds compared with crossbreeds (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.94), and stallions compared with mares (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.22-0.86). Meteorology-related risk factors associated with an increased risk of EGS were (if Ordnance Survey northing is excluded) more sun hours (OR>1.43) and more frost days (OR>1.13), while there was a decreased risk of EGS with higher average maximum temperature (ORmeteorological risk factors may assist studies on the aetiology of EGS. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora ramorum in nursery trade and managed environment in Scotland

    Alexandra Schlenzig; David Cook

    2013-01-01

    in Scotland were genotyped using seven microsatellite markers as described by Vercauteren et al. (2010). Thirty multilocus genotypes were identified within the Scottish population, with 51 percent of the isolates belonging to the main European genotype EU1MG1 and 13 unique detected genotypes. Ten of those genotypes were site specific, often represented by...

  20. Five key recommendations for the implementation of Hospital Electronic Prescribing and Medicines Administration systems in Scotland

    Kathrin Cresswell

    2017-01-01

    Our five recommendations will, we hope, provide a starting point for the strategic deliberations of policy makers. Throughout this journey, it is important to view the deployment of HEPMA as part of a wider strategic goal of creating integrated digital infrastructures across Scotland.

  1. Identification, Assessment and Intervention--Implications of an Audit on Dyslexia Policy and Practice in Scotland

    Reid, Gavin; Deponio, Pamela; Petch, Louise Davidson

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on research commissioned by the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED). It aimed to establish the range and extent of policy and provision in the area of specific learning difficulties (SpLD) and dyslexia throughout Scotland. The research was conducted between January and June 2004 by a team from the University of…

  2. Facilitating the Evaluation of Complexity in the Public Sector: Learning from the NHS in Scotland

    Connolly, John; Reid, Garth; Mooney, Allan

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary for public managers to be able to evaluate programmes in the context of complexity. This article offers key learning and reflections based on the experience of facilitating the evaluation of complexity with a range of public sector partners in Scotland. There have been several articles that consider evaluating complexity and…

  3. Salmonella montevideo infection in sheep and cattle in Scotland, 1970-81.

    Sharp, J C; Reilly, W J; Linklater, K A; Inglis, D M; Johnston, W S; Miller, J K

    1983-04-01

    Outbreaks of abortion associated with infection by Salmonella montevideo have affected sheep in the east, especially the south-east, of Scotland each year since 1972. Disease in the north and north-east was usually less severe. Between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1981, a total of 67 incidents affecting sheep were reported by veterinary laboratories to the Communicable Diseases (Scotland) Unit, 87% of which presented during the main lambing months of February, March and April. Twenty-one episodes of bovine infection were also recorded over the same period, 17 of which involved single animals only, usually an aborted cow or a scouring calf. Despite intensive investigations, neither the origin nor the mode of spread of S. montevideo infection among sheep and cattle in Scotland have been established with any certainty, although there has been considerable evidence indicating the role of scavenging wild birds, particularly seagulls, as vectors transmitting infection to other farms in the same district. Also largely unexplained are the differences in the epidemiology and clinical pattern of disease in the south-east compared to the north and north-east, while sheep in the west of Scotland have remained virtually unaffected throughout.

  4. The Urgent Need for New Approaches in School Evaluation to Enable Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence

    MacKinnon, Niall

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents observations on the nature of school audit methods in light of the implementation of Scotland's incoming Curriculum for Excellence and the major normative, technological, and cultural changes affecting schools. It points to a mismatch between the concepts and structures of the incoming curriculum and that of the universalistic…

  5. Draft genome sequences of Phytophthora kernoviae and Phytophthora ramorum lineage EU2 from Scotland

    Christine Sambles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Newly discovered Phytophthora species include invasive pathogens that threaten trees and shrubs. We present draft genome assemblies for three isolates of Phytophthora kernoviae and one isolate of the EU2 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum, collected from outbreak sites in Scotland.

  6. Discourses, Decisions, Designs: "Special" Education Policy-Making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative analysis investigates the influence of neo-liberal and inclusive discourses in "special" education policy-making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia. The centrality of competition, selectivity and accountability in the discourses used in New South Wales and Malaysia suggests a system preference for…

  7. Gaelic language erosion and revitalization on the Isle of Skye, Scotland.

    Smakman, D.; Smith-Christmas, C.; Graaf, de T.; Ostler, N.; Salverda, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the language loss of three generations of a Gaelic-speaking family located on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. Participants' linguistic skills were assessed via language ability tests. We focused on plurals, passives, and tense, and we examined synthetic forms. The results confirmed

  8. Pathogenic Potential to Humans of Bovine Escherichia coli O26, Scotland

    Rosser, Tracy; Allison, Lesley J.; Courcier, Emily; Evans, Judith; McKendrick, Iain J.; Pearce, Michael C.; Handel, Ian; Caprioli, Alfredo; Karch, Helge; Hanson, Mary F.; Pollock, Kevin G.J.; Locking, Mary E.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.; Matthews, Louise; Low, J. Chris; Gally, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O26 and O157 have similar overall prevalences in cattle in Scotland, but in humans, Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O26 infections are fewer and clinically less severe than E. coli O157 infections. To investigate this discrepancy, we genotyped E. coli O26 isolates from cattle and humans in Scotland and continental Europe. The genetic background of some strains from Scotland was closely related to that of strains causing severe infections in Europe. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling found an association between hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and multilocus sequence type 21 strains and confirmed the role of stx2 in severe human disease. Although the prevalences of E. coli O26 and O157 on cattle farms in Scotland are equivalent, prevalence of more virulent strains is low, reducing human infection risk. However, new data on E. coli O26–associated HUS in humans highlight the need for surveillance of non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli and for understanding stx2 phage acquisition. PMID:22377426

  9. James Hutton's Geological Tours of Scotland: Romanticism, Literary Strategies, and the Scientific Quest

    Furniss, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Rather than focussing on the relationship between science and literature, this article attempts to read scientific writing as literature. It explores a somewhat neglected element of the story of the emergence of geology in the late eighteenth century--James Hutton's unpublished accounts of the tours of Scotland that he undertook in the years…

  10. Attitudes of Scottish abortion care providers towards provision of abortion after 16 weeks' gestation within Scotland.

    Cochrane, Rosemary A; Cameron, Sharon T

    2013-06-01

    In Scotland, in contrast to the rest of Great Britain, abortion at gestations over 20 weeks is not provided, and provision of procedures above 16 weeks varies considerably between regions. Women at varying gestations above 16 weeks must travel outside Scotland, usually to England, for the procedure. To determine the views of professionals working within Scottish abortion care about a Scottish late abortion service. Delegates at a meeting for abortion providers in Scotland completed a questionnaire about their views on abortion provision over 16 weeks and their perceived barriers to service provision. Of 95 distributed questionnaires, 70 (76%) were analysed. Fifty-six respondents (80%) supported a Scottish late abortion service, ten (14%) would maintain current service arrangements, and five (7%) were undecided. Forty (57%) of the supporters of a Scottish service would prefer a single national service, and 16 (22%) several regional services. Perceived barriers included lack of trained staff (n = 39; 56%), accommodation for the service (n = 34; 48%), and perception of lack of support among senior management (n = 28; 40%). The majority of health professionals surveyed who work in Scottish abortion services support provision of abortion beyond 16 weeks within Scotland, and most favour a single national service. Further work on the feasibility of providing this service is required.

  11. Spring production of Calanus finmarchicus at the Iceland-Scotland Ridge

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Richardson, K.; Heath, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution and reproduction activity of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus were studied in the waters between Scotland and Iceland in April 1997 during the expected time of the animals' ascent to surface waters following diapause. Ascent was taking place on both sides of the Iceland-Scot...

  12. The epidemiology of Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae at two historic gardens in Scotland

    M. Elliot; T.R. Meagher; C. Harris; K. Searle; B.V. Purse; A. Schlenzig

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at the factors that facilitated the spread of Phytophthora ramorum andP. kernoviae at two locations in the west of Scotland. Spore traps, river baiting, bait plants, and soil sampling were used to both confirm the presence of, and measure the amount of, inoculum in the environment in order...

  13. Alasdair Macintyre's Idea of an Educated Public and "Informal" Adult Education in Scotland

    Hammond, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Scotland has a particular history, that moves around the unique public experiences of the Enlightenment and the Act of Union as defining moments that could have developed differently. For complex reasons, public thinking moved more and more towards the fractured moral and political conditions that we know now. But, following the work of Alasdair…

  14. The Development of Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence: Amnesia and Deja Vu

    Priestley, Mark; Humes, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Scotland's new "Curriculum for Excellence" (CfE) has been widely acknowledged as the most significant educational development in a generation, with the potential to transform learning and teaching in Scottish schools. In common with recent developments elsewhere, CfE seeks to re-engage teachers with processes of curriculum development,…

  15. Development of a Cross-Cultural HPV Community Engagement Model within Scotland

    Carnegie, Elaine; Whittaker, Anne; Gray Brunton, Carol; Hogg, Rhona; Kennedy, Catriona; Hilton, Shona; Harding, Seeromanie; Pollock, Kevin G.; Pow, Janette

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine cultural barriers and participant solutions regarding acceptance and uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine from the perspective of Black African, White-Caribbean, Arab, Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani young people. Methods: In total, 40 young people from minority ethnic communities in Scotland took part in a…

  16. Aspirations and Actions: Early Childhood from Policy to Practice in Scotland

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores early childhood experience in Scotland in terms of how readily the aspirations of policy convert to day-to-day practices. Ambitions to improve the lives of children and families have been high on the political agenda. Policy may be understood as a tool that aims to influence childhood experience in positive ways. If this is to…

  17. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    MacKerron, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  18. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  19. Analysis of uncertainties in the estimates of nitrous oxide and methane emissions in the UK's greenhouse gas inventory for agriculture

    Milne, Alice E.; Glendining, Margaret J.; Bellamy, Pat; Misselbrook, Tom; Gilhespy, Sarah; Rivas Casado, Monica; Hulin, Adele; van Oijen, Marcel; Whitmore, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's greenhouse gas inventory for agriculture uses a model based on the IPCC Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods to estimate the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from agriculture. The inventory calculations are disaggregated at country level (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland). Before now, no detailed assessment of the uncertainties in the estimates of emissions had been done. We used Monte Carlo simulation to do such an analysis. We collated information on the uncertainties of each of the model inputs. The uncertainties propagate through the model and result in uncertainties in the estimated emissions. Using a sensitivity analysis, we found that in England and Scotland the uncertainty in the emission factor for emissions from N inputs (EF1) affected uncertainty the most, but that in Wales and Northern Ireland, the emission factor for N leaching and runoff (EF5) had greater influence. We showed that if the uncertainty in any one of these emission factors is reduced by 50%, the uncertainty in emissions of nitrous oxide reduces by 10%. The uncertainty in the estimate for the emissions of methane emission factors for enteric fermentation in cows and sheep most affected the uncertainty in methane emissions. When inventories are disaggregated (as that for the UK is) correlation between separate instances of each emission factor will affect the uncertainty in emissions. As more countries move towards inventory models with disaggregation, it is important that the IPCC give firm guidance on this topic.

  20. Evaluating the impact of the alcohol act on off-trade alcohol sales: a natural experiment in Scotland.

    Robinson, Mark; Geue, Claudia; Lewsey, James; Mackay, Daniel; McCartney, Gerry; Curnock, Esther; Beeston, Clare

    2014-12-01

    A ban on multi-buy discounts of off-trade alcohol was introduced as part of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in October 2011. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of this legislation on alcohol sales, which provide the best indicator of population consumption. Interrupted time-series regression was used to assess the impact of the Alcohol Act on alcohol sales among off-trade retailers in Scotland. Models accounted for underlying seasonal and secular trends and were adjusted for disposable income, alcohol prices and substitution effects. Data for off-trade retailers in England and Wales combined (EW) provided a control group. Weekly data on the volume of pure alcohol sold by off-trade retailers in Scotland and EW between January 2009 and September 2012. The introduction of the legislation was associated with a 2.6% (95% CI = -5.3 to 0.2%, P = 0.07) decrease in off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, but not in EW (-0.5%, 95% CI = -4.6 to 3.9%, P = 0.83). A statistically significant reduction was observed in Scotland when EW sales were adjusted for in the analysis (-1.7%, 95% CI = -3.1 to -0.3%, P = 0.02). The decline in Scotland was driven by reduced off-trade sales of wine (-4.0%, 95% CI = -5.4 to -2.6%, P types in Scotland, or in sales of any drink type in EW. The introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in 2011 was associated with a decrease in total off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, largely driven by reduced off-trade wine sales. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men living in Scotland: a qualitative study

    Nicola Boydell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18–29 in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men’s accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: ‘habitual’, ‘reactive’ and ‘ ad hoc’. Results This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and ‘community’ in shaping young men’s approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and ‘community’ responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with ‘transitional moments’ such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase

  2. Patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men living in Scotland: a qualitative study.

    Boydell, Nicola; Buston, Katie; McDaid, Lisa Margaret

    2017-08-17

    Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18-29) in Scotland. Thematic analysis of men's accounts of their approach to HIV testing identified three overarching patterns of testing: 'habitual', 'reactive' and ' ad hoc'. This qualitative study, the first to explore patterns of HIV testing practices among young gay and bisexual men in the UK, contributes novel findings around the role of social support and 'community' in shaping young men's approaches to HIV testing. The findings suggest that social support can play an important role in encouraging and facilitating HIV testing among young gay men, however, social norms of non-testing also have the potential to act as a barrier to development of a regular routine. Men with habitual testing practices framed HIV testing as both a personal and 'community' responsibility, and more effective than testing in response to risk events or emergent symptoms. Men who reported reactive testing practices described testing for HIV primarily in response to perceived exposure to sexual risk, along with 'transitional moments' such as starting, ending or changes to a relationship. Among young men who reported testing on an ad hoc basis, inconvenience and disruptions to HIV testing practices, particularly where men lacked social support, acted as a barrier to developing a routine of regular testing. Our findings suggest that interventions which seek to increase rates of HIV testing and testing frequency among young gay and bisexual men should include a

  3. Recent studies of time variations of natural electromagnetic fields in Scotland

    Hutton, V. R. S.; Dawes, G.; Ingham, M.; Kirkwood, S.; Mbipom, E. W.; Sik, J.

    1981-01-01

    A series of geomagnetic induction studies has been undertaken in Scotland since 1973. It includes the operation of two geomagnetic arrays, one over northern Scotland and the other over southern Scotland, subsequent individual station and small-scale geomagnetic array studies, and three sets of magnetotelluric soundings which traverse Scotland from the Lewisian Foreland to the English border. The problems associated with the interpretation of induction data from an island located in the subauroral region are discussed qualitatively and the manner in which both coast and source field effects can be accounted for, is described. The geomagnetic deep sounding data (GDS) from all the observation sites have been collated, and examples of hypothetical event contour maps and traverses across the Great Glen and of individual events from the northern array are presented. They indicate that significant lateral variations in electrical conductivity structure within the crust and upper mantle are associated with the major geological faults in the region. Examples of the results of the magnetotelluric soundings are also presented, together with an outline of the procedure used for one- and two-dimensional modelling. Models of the geo-electric structure in both northern and southern Scotland have been obtained. These show distinctive features which are compatible with the qualitative interpretation of the magnetovariational data. For example, the major granitic blocks are highly resistive while regions of relatively low resistivity exist at upper crustal depths near the Great Glen, Highland boundary and Southern Uplands faults. A zone of low resistivity exists at lower crust-uppermost mantle depths throughout much of the region, the lowest value occurring under the Southern Uplands.

  4. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  5. Trends of radioactive waste management policy and disposal of LLW/ILW in the UK

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the UK program for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was stopped with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive, Ltd. (Nirex) to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterization Facility (RCF) at Sellafield, seen as the precursor of an underground repository for LLW/ILW. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the Developed Administrations published a white paper 'Managing Radioactive Waste Safety' Proposal for developing a policy for managing solid radioactive waste in the UK on 12 September 2001. The paper set out five-stage program of action for reaching decisions until 2007. It suggests their view can be sought via opinion polls, the Internet, workshops, citizens, juries, consensus conferences, stakeholder, local authority and community groups and research panels. With the exception of a disposal facility associated with the operation of the Dounreay site on the north coast of Scotland, essentially all LLW in the UK is disposed of at the Drigg site, near Sellafield. The site has been in operation since 1959. Until 1988, disposals were solely in trenches, cut into the glacial tills underlying the site. In 1988, an engineered concrete vault was brought into operation and is currently in use. Drigg only has a finite capacity in the currently area and may be full by about 2050, hence new arrangements will have to examine. This report describes the trends of radioactive waste management policy and disposal of LLW/ILW in the UK. These include: NDA(Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) organization plan, Feb. 2003; Encapsulation of LLW/ILW and safe store for ILW; Summary of LLW repository at the Drigg site; Nirex concept for underground storage/disposal of LLW/ILW. This information and new approach of the safe management of radioactive waste in the UK will prove helpful to the planning for future management and disposal of LLW in Japan. (author)

  6. Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score is Associated With Risk of Recurrence in Bladder Cancer Patients After Radical Cystectomy

    Ferro, Matteo; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Capece, Marco; Bruzzese, Dario; Autorino, Riccardo; Bottero, Danilo; Cioffi, Antonio; Matei, Deliu Victor; Caraglia, Michele; Borghesi, Marco; De Berardinis, Ettore; Busetto, Gian Maria; Giovannone, Riccardo; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Ditonno, Pasquale; Perdonà, Sisto; Bove, Pierluigi; Castaldo, Luigi; Hurle, Rodolfo; Musi, Gennaro; Brescia, Antonio; Olivieri, Michele; Cimmino, Amelia; Altieri, Vincenzo; Damiano, Rocco; Cantiello, Francesco; Serretta, Vincenzo; De Placido, Sabino; Mirone, Vincenzo; Sonpavde, Guru; Terracciano, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recently, many studies explored the role of inflammation parameters in the prognosis of urinary cancers, but the results were not consistent. The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), a systemic inflammation marker, is a prognostic marker in various types of cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the preoperative mGPS as predictor of recurrence-free (RFS), overall (OS), and cancer-specific (CSS) survivals in a large cohort of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients. A total of 1037 patients with UBC were included in this study with a median follow-up of 22 months (range 3–60 months). An mGPS = 0 was observed in 646 patients (62.3%), mGPS = 1 in 297 patients (28.6 %), and mGPS = 2 in 94 patients (9.1%). In our study cohort, subjects with an mGPS equal to 2 had a significantly shorter median RFS compared with subjects with mGPS equal to 1 (16 vs 19 months, hazard ratio [HR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.31–1.81, P < 0.001) or with subjects with mGPS equal to 0 (16 vs 29 months, HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.86–3.05, P < 0.001). The association between mGPS and RFS was confirmed by weighted multivariate Cox model. Although in univariate analysis higher mGPS was associated with lower OS and CSS, this association disappeared in multivariate analysis where only the presence of lymph node-positive bladder cancer and T4 stage were predictors of worse prognosis for OS and CSS. In conclusion, the mGPS is an easily measured and inexpensive prognostic marker that was significantly associated with RFS in UBC patients. PMID:26496339

  7. Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score is Associated With Risk of Recurrence in Bladder Cancer Patients After Radical Cystectomy: A Multicenter Experience.

    Ferro, Matteo; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Capece, Marco; Bruzzese, Dario; Autorino, Riccardo; Bottero, Danilo; Cioffi, Antonio; Matei, Deliu Victor; Caraglia, Michele; Borghesi, Marco; De Berardinis, Ettore; Busetto, Gian Maria; Giovannone, Riccardo; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Ditonno, Pasquale; Perdonà, Sisto; Bove, Pierluigi; Castaldo, Luigi; Hurle, Rodolfo; Musi, Gennaro; Brescia, Antonio; Olivieri, Michele; Cimmino, Amelia; Altieri, Vincenzo; Damiano, Rocco; Cantiello, Francesco; Serretta, Vincenzo; De Placido, Sabino; Mirone, Vincenzo; Sonpavde, Guru; Terracciano, Daniela

    2015-10-01

    Recently, many studies explored the role of inflammation parameters in the prognosis of urinary cancers, but the results were not consistent. The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), a systemic inflammation marker, is a prognostic marker in various types of cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the preoperative mGPS as predictor of recurrence-free (RFS), overall (OS), and cancer-specific (CSS) survivals in a large cohort of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients.A total of 1037 patients with UBC were included in this study with a median follow-up of 22 months (range 3-60 months). An mGPS = 0 was observed in 646 patients (62.3%), mGPS = 1 in 297 patients (28.6 %), and mGPS = 2 in 94 patients (9.1%).In our study cohort, subjects with an mGPS equal to 2 had a significantly shorter median RFS compared with subjects with mGPS equal to 1 (16 vs 19 months, hazard ratio [HR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.31-1.81, P < 0.001) or with subjects with mGPS equal to 0 (16 vs 29 months, HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.86-3.05, P < 0.001). The association between mGPS and RFS was confirmed by weighted multivariate Cox model. Although in univariate analysis higher mGPS was associated with lower OS and CSS, this association disappeared in multivariate analysis where only the presence of lymph node-positive bladder cancer and T4 stage were predictors of worse prognosis for OS and CSS.In conclusion, the mGPS is an easily measured and inexpensive prognostic marker that was significantly associated with RFS in UBC patients.

  8. The Glasgow antipsychotic side-effects scale for clozapine in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Ignjatović Ristić, Dragana; Cohen, Dan; Obradović, Andrea; Nikić-Đuričić, Katarina; Drašković, Marija; Hinić, Darko

    2018-02-01

    The inconsistency in clinician and patient ratings of clozapine-induced side effects underscore the need to supplement clinician-based estimates of side effects with patient-reported ones. The main aims of the study are validation of the Glasgow antipsychotic side-effects scale for clozapine (GASS-C) in Serbian inpatients/outpatients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder and recommendations for its future use, based on common and rare clozapine-associated side-effects. The GASS-C was administered to 95 outpatients/inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or chronic psychotic disorder. The scale showed good overall reliability, with an internal consistency coefficient of α = 0.84, an average retest coefficient of rho = 0.76, and a Spearman-Brown coefficient of validity of 0.81. Side effects were absent or mild in 64.2% of the patients, moderate in 31.6%, severe in 4.2%; 14% of the subjects considered their symptoms distressing. The most commonly reported side-effects were drowsiness, thirst, frequent urination, and dry mouth. Women reported more side effects than men, and patients not in a relationship reported significantly fewer side effects than patients in a relationship. Results indicate a weak positive correlation (rho = 0.231; p = .025) between severity of side effects and clozapine dose. The GASS-C showed good psychometric characteristics in clinical population of patients on clozapine. In future studies, clozapine serum concentrations should be measured when using the GASS-C to monitor side effects.

  9. Comparison of Glasgow prognostic score and prognostic index in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Jiang, Ai-Gui; Chen, Hong-Lin; Lu, Hui-Yu

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and prognostic index (PI) are also powerful prognostic tool for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic value between GPS and PI. We enrolled consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC in this prospective cohort. GPS and PI were calculated before the onset of chemotherapy. The prognosis outcomes included 1-, 3-, and 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). The performance of two scores in predicting prognosis was analyzed regarding discrimination and calibration. 138 patients were included in the study. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for GPS predicting 1-year DFS was 0.62 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.68, P statistic showed good fit of the predicted 1-year DFS to the actual 1-year DFS by GPS (χ(2) = 4.326, P = 0.462), while no fit was found between the predicted 1-year DFS and the actual 1-year DFS by PI (χ(2) = 15.234, P = 0.091). Similar results of calibration power were found for predicting 3-year DFS, 5-year DFS, 1-year OS, 3-year OS, and 5-year OS by GPS and PI. GPS is more accurate than PI in predicting prognosis for patients with advanced NSCLC. GPS can be used as a useful and simple tool for predicting prognosis in patients with NSCLC. However, GPS only can be used for preliminary assessment because of low predicting accuracy.

  10. A cost comparison of traditional drainage and SUDS in Scotland.

    Duffy, A; Jefferies, C; Waddell, G; Shanks, G; Blackwood, D; Watkins, A

    2008-01-01

    The Dunfermline Eastern Expansion (DEX) is a 350 ha mixed development which commenced in 1996. Downstream water quality and flooding issues necessitated a holistic approach to drainage planning and the site has become a European showcase for the application of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). However, there is minimal data available regarding the real costs of operating and maintaining SUDS to ensure they continue to perform as per their design function. This remains one of the primary barriers to the uptake and adoption of SUDS. This paper reports on what is understood to be the only study in the UK where actual costs of constructing and maintaining SUDS have been compared to an equivalent traditional drainage solution. To compare SUDS costs with traditional drainage, capital and maintenance costs of underground storage chambers of analogous storage volumes were estimated. A whole life costing methodology was then applied to data gathered. The main objective was to produce a reliable and robust cost comparison between SUDS and traditional drainage. The cost analysis is supportive of SUDS and indicates that well designed and maintained SUDS are more cost effective to construct, and cost less to maintain than traditional drainage solutions which are unable to meet the environmental requirements of current legislation. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. Nuclear power and the UK

    Murphy, St.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides describes the policy of the UK government concerning nuclear power. In January 2008 the UK Government published the White Paper on the Future of Nuclear Power. The White Paper concluded that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in this country's future energy mix. The role of the Government is neither to build nuclear power plants nor to finance them. The White Paper set out the facilitative actions the Government planned to take to reduce regulatory and planning risks associated with investing in new nuclear power stations. The White Paper followed a lengthy period of consultation where the UK Government sought a wide variety of views from stakeholders and the public across the country on the future of nuclear power. In total energy companies will need to invest in around 30-35 GW of new electricity generating capacity over the next two decades. This is equivalent to about one-third of our existing capacity. The first plants are expected to enter into service by 2018 or sooner. The Office for Nuclear Development (OND) has been created to facilitate new nuclear investment in the UK while the Nuclear Development Forum (NDF) has been established to lock in momentum to secure the long-term future of nuclear power generation in the UK. (A.C.)

  12. Fighting lung cancer in the developed world - a model of care in a UK hospital

    Baig, I.M.; Milroy, R.

    2010-01-01

    To highlight the initial management approach for Lung Cancer in a UK Hospital with the aim of translating the principles of such methodology to a developing country, such as Pakistan. A descriptive observational study was carried out at Stobhill Hospital , Glasgow, UK. The investigator (IMB) observed the Lung Cancer Service, attending the weekly 'New patients Clinic', 'Results Clinic', and 'Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings'. The process observations and the factual data describing the details of the service were recorded on a pre designed proforma. Observations relating to two aspects of this service (Results Clinic and MDT) are included in this report. The methodology of communicating results of lung cancer investigations to patients in a pre-planned and staged manner at a dedicated 'Results Clinic' was identified as a useful approach. A format of communication was consistently followed. The MDT consisted of a Respiratory Physician, Clinical Oncologist, Thoracic Surgeon, Radiologist, Pathologist and Palliative Care Specialist. Each patient's case was discussed on an individual basis and the team developed a consensus regarding diagnosis, staging of the disease, further need for diagnostic procedures and treatment options, bearing in mind the patient's performance status, co-morbidity and their wishes. This approach has improved the initial part of the lung cancer patient journey and components of this approach could easily be transferred to a developing country (JPMA 60:93; 2010). (author)

  13. Ammonia Emission and Deposition in Scotland and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    M.A. Sutton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3 in Scotland is livestock agriculture, which accounts for 85% of emissions. The local magnitude of emissions therefore depends on livestock density, type, and management, with major differences occurring in various parts of Scotland. Local differences in agricultural activities therefore result in a wide range of NH3 emissions, ranging from less than 0.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 in remote areas of the Scottish Highlands to over 100 kg N ha−1 year−1 in areas with intensive poultry farming. Scotland can be divided loosely into upland and lowland areas, with NH3 emission being less than and more than 5 kg N ha−1 year−1, respectively.Many semi-natural ecosystems in Scotland are vulnerable to nitrogen deposition, including bogs, moorlands, and the woodland ground flora. Because NH3 emissions occur in the rural environment, the local deposition to sensitive ecosystems may be large, making it essential to assess the spatial distribution of NH3 emissions and deposition. A spatial model is applied here to map NH3 emissions and these estimates are applied in atmospheric dispersion and deposition models to estimate atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NH4+, dry deposition of NH3, and wet deposition of NHx. Although there is a high level of local variability, modelled NH3 concentrations show good agreement with the National Ammonia Monitoring Network, while wet deposition is largest at high altitude sites in the south and west of Scotland. Comparison of the modelled NHx deposition fields with estimated thresholds for environmental effects (“critical loads” shows that thresholds are exceeded across most of lowland Scotland and the Southern Uplands. Only in the cleanest parts of the north and west is nitrogen deposition not a cause for concern. Given that the most intense effects occur within a few kilometres of sources, it is suggested that local spatial abatement policies would be a useful complement to

  14. The example of the UK SHOT haemovigilance system

    Perla Eleftheriou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SHOT (Serious Hazards of Transfusion scheme is the UK’s National confidential haemovigilance system, and was set up in 1996. It is an independent, confidential, professionally led haemovigilance scheme. Initially the reporting was voluntary but now required by several professional bodies. SHOT publishes annual reports with recommendations and circulates to all relevant organizations including the 4 UK Blood services, Departments of Health in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, all relevant professional bodies and reporting hospitals. Over the 17 years of reporting, the evidence gathered has prompted changes in transfusion practice from the selection and management of donors to changes in hospital practice, better education and training. Acute transfusion reactions and transfusion-associated circulatory overload carry the highest risk for morbidity and death. Greatest risk to patients remain errors in the process at the point of blood sampling, in the laboratory and at bedside administration. SHOT’s objectives are to use findings to improve standards of hospital transfusion practice, to educate users on transfusion hazards and prevention, to aid production of clinical guidelines in blood transfusion and to inform national policy on transfusion safety. MHRA is the UK competent authority to which serious adverse reactions and events have to be reported annually. Overall the most common adverse incidents are caused by errors, resulting in the transfusion of an incorrect component or one that does not meet the specific requirements of the patient (e.g. not irradiated or not appropriately antigen matched. TACO (transfusion associated circulatory overload accounts for most deaths and major morbidity reported to SHOT but is overall underreported. Transfusions are not always given appropriately. This may be due to wrong haemoglobin results, failure to assess patients appropriately, or avoidable use of emergency O RhD negative units because

  15. Escala de Coma de Glasgow: subestimação em pacientes com respostas verbais impedidas Escala de Coma de Glasgow: subestimación en pacientes con respuestas verbales impedidas Glasgow Coma Scale: underestimation in patients with verbal responses impeded

    Maria Sumie Koizumi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Questão freqüente no uso da Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl, na fase aguda, em pacientes internados devido ao trauma crânio-encefálico (TCE é a subestimação decorrente de situações impeditivas como intubação endotraqueal/traqueostomia, sedação e edema palpebral. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e determinar a subestimação na pontuação total da ECGl quando se utiliza a pontuação 1 nas situações de impedimento para a sua avaliação. A amostra estudada foi de 76 pacientes internados com TCE no Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP. Em 42 (55,3% pacientes, não havia impedimentos e foram realizadas 136 avaliações. Em 34 (44,7%, havia impedimentos caracterizados por intubação ou traqueostomia, podendo estar ou não associados com edema palpebral e sedação, e o total de avaliações foi de 310. A pontuação nesses pacientes total variou de 3 a 11, com os escores mais freqüentes de 3 e 6. Pelos valores estimados pela regressão linear, a partir das pontuações obtidas em AO e MRM foram obtidas as seguintes subestimações: média=1,03 ±1,36, mediana=0,54 (intubação ou traqueostomia; média=0,40 ±0,79, mediana=0,00 (intubação ou traqueostomia + sedação; média=0,57 ±0,96, mediana=0,27 (intubação ou traqueostomia + sedação + edema palpebral. Conclui-se que, no TCE grave, a pontuação total da ECGl fixando a MRV em 1, embora subestimada, encontra-se próxima da real.Cuestionamiento frecuente en el uso de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG, en la fase aguda, en pacientes internados debido al trauma craneoencefalico es la subestimación decorrient de situaciones impeditivas como intubación endotraqueal/traqueostomía, sedación y edema palpebral. El objetivo de ese estudio fue identificar y determinar la subestimación en la puntuación total de la ECG cuando es utilizada la puntuación 1 en las situaciones de impedimiento para su avaliación. La muestra estudiada fue de 76 pacientes internados por TEC en el

  16. Using the braden and glasgow scales to predict pressure ulcer risk in patients hospitalized at intensive care units Uso de la escala de braden y de glasgow para identificar el riesgo de úlceras de presión en pacientes internados en un centro de terapia intensiva Uso da escala de braden e de glasgow para identificação do risco para úlceras de pressão em pacientes internados em centro de terapia intensiva

    Luciana Magnani Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers remain a major health issue for critical patients. The purpose of this descriptive and exploratory study was to analyze the risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers in patients hospitalized at an intensive care unit of a university hospital. Patients were assessed through the Braden scale to determine the risk for the development of pressure ulcers and to identify individual risks, and the Glasgow scale was used to assess their consciousness. It was found that the risks associated with pressure ulcer development were: low scores on the Braden Scale on the first hospitalization day and low scores on the Glasgow scale. The results showed that these tools can help nurses to identify patients at risk, with a view to nursing care planning.Las ulceras de presión todavía representan un gran problema de salud en pacientes críticos. Este estudio, descriptivo y exploratorio, tuvo como objetivo evaluar los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de la úlcera de presión presentes en pacientes internados en un centro de terapia intensiva de un hospital universitario. Los pacientes fueron evaluados utilizando la escala de Braden para determinar el riesgo de desarrollo de úlceras de presión e identificación de factores de riesgo individuales y con la escala de Glasgow para evaluar el nivel de conciencia. Se encontró que los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de úlcera de presión fueron: las bajas puntuaciones de la Escala de Braden en el primer día de internación y las bajas puntuaciones de la escala de Glasgow. Los resultados confirmaron que estos instrumentos pueden ayudar al enfermero a identificar pacientes en riesgo y a planificar la asistencia.Úlceras de pressão ainda representam grande problema de saúde em pacientes críticos. Este estudo, descritivo e exploratório, objetivou avaliar os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de úlcera de pressão presentes em pacientes internados em um centro de

  17. Toxoplasma gondii coinfection with diseases and parasites in wild rabbits in Scotland.

    Mason, Sam; Dubey, J P; Smith, Judith E; Boag, Brian

    2015-09-01

    In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3·3%). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. Toxoplasma gondii was associated with female sex (P myxomatosis caused by the virus Myxomatosis cuniculi, the intensity of roundworm eggs, the year or season, rabbit age or distance from farm buildings. Coinfections could have been affected by gestational down regulation of type 1 T helper cells. A sudden influx or release of T. gondii oocysts might have occurred. This is the first report of T. gondii in any wild herbivore in Scotland and also the first report of lapine T. gondii as a coinfection with E. stiedae, M. cuniculi and helminths.

  18. Teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian context

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India’s current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are two ways to proceed in this direction. First, making an internal review and assessment of present scenario of teacher education and suggesting need-based measures. The second one is to learn from those countries that have recently reviewed their teacher education systems and are continuously working for the betterment of teacher education. Following second approach, present paper analyzes teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland, argues that concerns and commitments to reform teacher education in India and Scotland are similar, and suggests implications of Scottish experiences in the Indian context.

  19. Can health feasibly be considered as part of the planning process in Scotland?

    Higgins, Martin; Douglas, Margaret; Muirie, Jill

    2005-01-01

    The planning system is significant because of its capacity to determine the quality of the built environment as well as the health, well-being and quality of life of the individuals and communities therein. Development planning is especially important because of the long-term impact of the decisions. This paper was developed in response to increasing recognition amongst HIA practitioners in Scotland of the importance of planning for health. It focuses on the relationship between the planning system in Scotland, specifically the Development Planning element of it, and population health and considers how the health impact assessment (HIA) approach can facilitate and support joint working with planners. In particular, consideration is given to the potential impact of the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) on the linkages between health, HIA and planning

  20. An assessment of the potential for business use of wind turbines on farms in Scotland

    Hunter, A.G.M.; Graham, R.; Morgan, O.W.

    1998-01-01

    High wind speeds on farms in Scotland, coupled with on-site demands for electricity, suggest there is potential for installing single wind turbines on these farms to generate electricity. The benefit of avoided costs for on-site supplies will help to lower the effective generating costs of surplus electricity for sale. Using a sensitivity analysis to examine a range of parameter settings for financial costs, wind speeds, and farm grants, it is shown that a turbine can be viable on a farm. The key to viability is to have correct and accurate matching between turbine and farm business, there being a place for both large turbines and small turbines under separate circumstances. There are scenarios where a wind turbine is viable on half the farms in Scotland. (Author)

  1. Financing of the National Churches in the Nordic Countries, England and Scotland

    Kjems, Sidsel; Bille, Trine

    This article analyses the financing of seven national churches in a large comparative study. The national churches in the Nordic countries and in England and Scotland are compared. They have many similarities in terms of history, intertwinement with the state, type and level of religiosity...... of the population, public role and public responsibilities, but the level of financing differs greatly. The purpose of the article is to discuss possible explanations for the differences in the level of financing. Adjusting for cost of public service tasks and for GDP leaves a large difference in financing among...... the seven national churches. We suggest that the source of finance is a determinant factor for the level of finance of national churches. Comparing the sources and level of financing of seven national churches in the Nordic countries, England and Scotland shows that financing by a taxation right yields...

  2. Inclusion of Highest Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Component Score in Mortality Risk Adjustment for Benchmarking of Trauma Center Performance.

    Gomez, David; Byrne, James P; Alali, Aziz S; Xiong, Wei; Hoeft, Chris; Neal, Melanie; Subacius, Harris; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used measure of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity. Currently, the arrival GCS motor component (mGCS) score is used in risk-adjustment models for external benchmarking of mortality. However, there is evidence that the highest mGCS score in the first 24 hours after injury might be a better predictor of death. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of including the highest mGCS score on the performance of risk-adjustment models and subsequent external benchmarking results. Data were derived from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program analytic dataset (January 2014 through March 2015) and were limited to the severe TBI cohort (16 years or older, isolated head injury, GCS ≤8). Risk-adjustment models were created that varied in the mGCS covariates only (initial score, highest score, or both initial and highest mGCS scores). Model performance and fit, as well as external benchmarking results, were compared. There were 6,553 patients with severe TBI across 231 trauma centers included. Initial and highest mGCS scores were different in 47% of patients (n = 3,097). Model performance and fit improved when both initial and highest mGCS scores were included, as evidenced by improved C-statistic, Akaike Information Criterion, and adjusted R-squared values. Three-quarters of centers changed their adjusted odds ratio decile, 2.6% of centers changed outlier status, and 45% of centers exhibited a ≥0.5-SD change in the odds ratio of death after including highest mGCS score in the model. This study supports the concept that additional clinical information has the potential to not only improve the performance of current risk-adjustment models, but can also have a meaningful impact on external benchmarking strategies. Highest mGCS score is a good potential candidate for inclusion in additional models. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between Glasgow Prognostic Score and serum tumor markers in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Jiang, Ai-Gui; Chen, Hong-Lin; Lu, Hui-Yu

    2015-05-10

    Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) has been reported as a powerful prognostic tool for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between GPS and prognosis related tumor markers in patients with advanced NSCLC. We included 138 advanced NSCLC patients and twenty healthy controls in the study. GPS was calculated by combined serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin. Three serum tumor markers, which included cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GPS and tumor markers were all assessed before chemotherapy. All patients received at least 2 courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. After that, 2 to 5 years follow-up was conducted. Median levels of CYFRA21-1 were 1.5 ng/ml (0.1-3.1 ng/ml) in healthy controls, and 4.6 ng/ml (0.7-35.2 ng/ml) in GPS 0 advanced NSCLC, 11.2 ng/ml (0.4-89.2) ng/ml in GPS 1 advanced NSCLC, and 15.7 ng/ml (2.9-134.6 ng/ml) in GPS 2 advanced NSCLC, respectively. Median levels of CYFRA21-1 were higher in NSCLC patients than in healthy controls, and CYFRA21-1 increased gradually according to GPS category in NSCLC patients (PGPS, CEA and GPS, TPS and GPS. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were 0.67 (P GPS was an independent prognostic factor for advanced NSCLC. CYFRA21-1(>3.3 ng/ml) and TPS (>80 U/l) were related with the prognosis of advanced NSCLC by univariate analyses, but multivariate analyses showed CYFRA21-1, TPS and CEA were not the independent prognostic factors for advanced NSCLC. Our results showed GPS were positive correlated with CYFRA21-1, CEA and TPS in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, GPS was more efficient in predicting prognosis of advanced NSCLC than these three single prognosis related tumor markers.

  4. The relationship between glasgow prognostic score and serum tumor markers in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Jiang, Ai-Gui; Chen, Hong-Lin; Lu, Hui-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) has been reported as a powerful prognostic tool for patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between GPS and prognosis related tumor markers in patients with advanced NSCLC. We included 138 advanced NSCLC patients and twenty healthy controls in the study. GPS was calculated by combined serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin. Three serum tumor markers, which included cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21–1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GPS and tumor markers were all assessed before chemotherapy. All patients received at least 2 courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. After that, 2 to 5 years follow-up was conducted. Median levels of CYFRA21–1 were 1.5 ng/ml (0.1–3.1 ng/ml) in healthy controls, and 4.6 ng/ml (0.7–35.2 ng/ml) in GPS 0 advanced NSCLC, 11.2 ng/ml (0.4–89.2) ng/ml in GPS 1 advanced NSCLC, and 15.7 ng/ml (2.9–134.6 ng/ml) in GPS 2 advanced NSCLC, respectively. Median levels of CYFRA21-1 were higher in NSCLC patients than in healthy controls, and CYFRA21-1 increased gradually according to GPS category in NSCLC patients (P < 0.05). Similar results were found for median levels of CEA and TPS in healthy controls and NSCLC patients (P < 0.05). In NSCLC patients, positive correlations were found between CYFRA21-1 and GPS, CEA and GPS, TPS and GPS. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were 0.67 (P < 0.05), 0.61 (P < 0.05) and 0.55 (P < 0.05), respectively. Survival analyses showed GPS was an independent prognostic factor for advanced NSCLC. CYFRA21-1(>3.3 ng/ml) and TPS (>80 U/l) were related with the prognosis of advanced NSCLC by univariate analyses, but multivariate analyses showed CYFRA21-1, TPS and CEA were not the independent prognostic factors for advanced NSCLC. Our results showed GPS were positive correlated

  5. Ethnic differences in glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in Scotland

    Negandhi, Preeti H; Ghouri, Nazim; Colhoun, Helen M; Fischbacher, Colin M; Lindsay, Robert S; McKnight, John A; Petrie, John; Philip, Sam; Sattar, Naveed; Wild, Sarah H; Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims:\\ud \\ud Previous studies have investigated the association between ethnicity and processes of care and intermediate outcomes of diabetes, but there are limited population-based studies available. The aim of this study was to use population-based data to investigate the relationships between ethnicity and glycaemic control in men and women with diabetes mellitus living in Scotland.\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud \\ud We used a 2008 extract from the population-based national electronic d...

  6. Museum, exhibition, object : artefactual narratives and their dilemmas in the National Museum of Scotland

    Bucciantini, Alima Maria

    2009-01-01

    National museums are spaces where stories of the past are told through the display and interpretation of material culture. The narratives that are created in this way reflect the ways in which the nation wants to be seen at that particular moment, and are often embedded in the larger political and social contexts of that time. This thesis looks at the National Museum of Scotland as having three levels of narrative: that of the museum as a physical space and national institution...

  7. Kilts, tanks, and aeroplanes: Scotland, cinema, and the First World War

    David Archibald; Maria Velez-Serna

    2015-01-01

    This article charts commercial cinema’s role in promoting the war effort in Scotland during the First World War, outlining three aspects of the relationship between cinema and the war as observed in Scottish non-fiction short films produced between 1914 and 1918. The existing practice of local topical filmmaking, made or commissioned by cinema managers, created a particular form of engagement between cinema and war that was substantially different from the national newsreels or official fi...

  8. Poverty and social justice in the devolved Scotland: Neoliberalism meets social democracy

    Scott, Gill; Mooney, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on current debates in social policy, this paper considers the extent to which social justice has and is informing social policy making in devolved Scotland. Relating to the work of social justice theorists Young, Fraser and Lister in particular, it critically examines some key Scottish social policy measures since 1999, considering some of the ways in which these have been constructed in terms of social justice and which make claims to the Scottish national. Through a focus on the iss...

  9. The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Scotland: inferences from hospital admissions.

    Adam E Handel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder with a highly characteristic disease distribution. Prevalence and incidence in general increase with increasing distance from the equator. Similarly the female to male sex ratio increases with increasing latitude. Multiple possible risk factors have been hypothesised for this epidemiological trend, including human leukocyte antigen allele frequencies, ultraviolet exposure and subsequent vitamin D levels, smoking and Epstein-Barr virus. In this study we undertook a study of medical records across Scotland on an NHS health board level of resolution to examine the epidemiology of MS in this region.We calculated the number and rate of patient-linked hospital admissions throughout Scotland between 1997 and 2009 from the Scottish Morbidity Records. We used weighted-regression to examine correlations between these measures of MS, and latitude and smoking prevalence. We found a highly significant relationship between MS patient-linked admissions and latitude (r weighted by standard error (r(sw = 0.75, p = 0.002. There was no significant relationship between smoking prevalence and MS patient-linked admissions.There is a definite latitudinal effect on MS risk across Scotland, arising primarily from an excess of female MS patients at more Northerly latitudes. Whether this is a true gradient or whether a threshold effect may apply at particular latitude will be revealed only by further research. A number of genetic and environmental factors may underlie this effect.

  10. Distribution and presentation of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland - analysis of data from a national testing laboratory.

    Mavin, S; Watson, E J; Evans, R

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the distribution of laboratory-confirmed cases of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland and the clinical spectrum of presentations within NHS Highland. Methods General demographic data (age/sex/referring Health Board) from all cases of Lyme borreliosis serologically confirmed by the National Lyme Borreliosis Testing Laboratory from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2013 were analysed. Clinical features of confirmed cases were ascertained from questionnaires sent to referring clinicians within NHS Highland during the study period. Results The number of laboratory-confirmed cases of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland peaked at 440 in 2010. From 2008 to 2013 the estimated average annual incidence was 6.8 per 100,000 (44.1 per 100,000 in NHS Highland). Of 594 questionnaires from NHS Highland patients: 76% had clinically confirmed Lyme borreliosis; 48% erythema migrans; 17% rash, 25% joint, 15% neurological and 1% cardiac symptoms. Only 61% could recall a tick bite. Conclusion The incidence of Lyme borreliosis may be stabilising in Scotland but NHS Highland remains an area of high incidence. Lyme borreliosis should be considered in symptomatic patients that have had exposure to ticks and not just those with a definite tick bite.

  11. The impact of different prioritisation policies on waiting times: case studies of Norway and Scotland.

    Januleviciute, Jurgita; Askildsen, Jan Erik; Kaarboe, Oddvar; Holmås, Tor Helge; Sutton, Matt

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the distributional consequences of two different waiting times initiatives, one in Norway, and one in Scotland. The primary focus of Scotland's recent waiting time reforms, introduced in 2003, and modified in 2005 and 2007, has been on reducing maximum waiting times through the imposition of high profile national targets accompanied by increases in resources. In Norway, the focus of the reform introduced in September 2004, has been on assigning patients referred to hospital a maximum waiting time based on disease severity, the expected benefit and the cost-effectiveness of the treatment. We use large, national administrative datasets from before and after each of these reforms and assign priority groups based on the maximum waiting times stipulated in medical guidelines. The analysis shows that the lowest priority patients benefited most from both reforms. This was at the cost of longer waiting times for patients that should have been given higher priority in Norway, while Scotland's high priority patients remained unaffected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Legislation on smoking in enclosed public places in Scotland: how will we evaluate the impact?

    Haw, Sally J; Gruer, Laurence; Amos, Amanda; Currie, Candace; Fischbacher, Colin; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hastings, Gerard; Malam, Sally; Pell, Jill; Scott, Calum; Semple, Sean

    2006-03-01

    From 26 March 2006, smoking will be prohibited in wholly and substantially enclosed public places in Scotland, and it will be an offence to permit smoking or to smoke in no-smoking premises. We anticipate that implementation of the smoke-free legislation will result in significant health gains associated with reductions in exposure to both environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and personal tobacco consumption as well as other social and economic impacts. Health Scotland in conjunction with the Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland and the Scottish Executive have developed a comprehensive evaluation strategy to assess the expected short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes. Using routine health, behavioural and economic data and commissioned research, we will assess the impact of the smoke-free legislation in eight key outcome areas--knowledge and attitudes, ETS exposure, compliance, culture, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, economic impacts on the hospitality sector and health inequalities. The findings from this evaluation will make a significant contribution to the international understanding of the health effects of exposure to ETS and the broader social, cultural and economic impacts of smoke-free legislation.

  13. Caseload of NHS plastic surgeons in Scotland, 2005-2006: analysis of Scottish hospital activity data.

    Brewster, Colin T; Shoaib, Taimur

    2009-04-01

    To assess the contemporary caseload of NHS plastic surgeons. Descriptive study. Scotland. Analysis of routinely collected NHS hospital activity data relating to the financial year 2005-2006. Number of inpatient/day-case episodes and bed-days by principal diagnosis and main operative procedure. During the study period, 12,844 inpatient and 9439 day-case episodes were recorded in 19,166 patients, accounting for 36,300 bed-days. There were more female patients, especially among middle-age groups. Socioeconomic deprivation was more common than expected (P accounted for a higher proportion of bed-days (37.3%) than neoplasms (23.8%). Only approximately half of all surgical procedures were assigned to the skin chapter of the OPCS-4 classification. Despite some limitations, this study provides an insight into the current caseload of NHS plastic surgeons working in Scotland. The data suggest that cosmetic surgery for purely aesthetic reasons represents a relatively small part of NHS plastic surgery activity in Scotland, and that the majority of caseload is in reconstructive plastic surgery.

  14. Glaucoma-service provision in Scotland: introduction and need for Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines.

    Syrogiannis, Andreas; Rotchford, Alan P; Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Kumarasamy, Manjula; Montgomery, Donald; Burr, Jennifer; Sanders, Roshini

    2015-01-01

    To describe the pattern of glaucoma-service delivery in Scotland and identify areas for improvement, taking into account Scottish General Ophthalmic Services (GOS) arrangements and the Eye Care Integration project, and to design Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidelines to refine the primary and secondary interface of glaucoma care. A glaucoma-survey questionnaire was sent to all consultant glaucomatologists in Scotland. The design of SIGN guidelines was based on the results of the questionnaire using SIGN methodology. Over 90% of Scottish glaucoma care is triaged and delivered within hospital services. Despite GOS referral, information is variable. There are no consistent discharge practices to the community. These results led to defined research questions that were answered, thus formulating the content of the SIGN guidelines. The guideline covers the assessment of patients in primary care, referral criteria to hospital, discharge criteria from hospital to community, and monitoring of patients at risk of glaucoma. With increasing age and limitations to hospital resources, refining glaucoma pathways between primary and secondary care has become a necessity. Scotland has unique eye care arrangements with both the GOS and Eye Care Integration project. It is hoped that implementation of SIGN guidelines will identify glaucoma at the earliest opportunity and reduce the rate of false-positive referrals to hospital.

  15. XML-based clinical data standardisation in the National Health Service Scotland

    Raluca Bunduchi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to clarify the role that socio-economic factors played in shaping the development of XML-based clinical data standards in the National Health Service in Scotland from 2000 to 2004. The paper discusses the NHS Scotland approach to clinical data standardisation, emphasising the actors involved, their choices during the standard development process and the factors that have shaped these choices. The case suggests that the NHS Scotland approach to clinical data standardisation is shaped by strong political pressures for fast development of an integrated electronic patient care system, economic pressures for high efficiency and cost reductions, and organisational requirements for strong clinical support. Such economic, political and organisational pressures explain the informal approach to standard development, the emphasis on fast system development and strong clinical involvement. At the same time, market factors explain the low commitment of the IT vendors, which might have otherwise put significant pressure onNHSScotland to pursue a more formalised standardisation approach within an internationally recognised standard-setting body.

  16. National planning guidelines for environment ally sustainable development in Scotland and lessons learnt for Pakistan

    Qamar-ul-Islam; Anjum, G.A.; Shahzad, M.

    2005-01-01

    This piece of research work reflects the researcher's academic as well as the practical experiences of Scottish planning about the concept, issues and policy formulations. It is in the context of National Planning Policy Guidelines, originated in Scotland with particular reference to it's Fife Region. The first part reflects the general overview of Scotland followed by brief description of the region. Another part deals with the existing strategic issues in the region which are related to land and the environment notably rural planning priorities, agricultural scarce land, conservation of recreational and tourist areas, forest land potentials, landscape resources, national scenic areas, petro-chemical, industrial zones, river pollution and future land use for housing. This study has suggested National Planning Policy Guidelines to these issues. Last section deals with the lessons learnt from Scotland and appropriate application of these guidelines in case of Pakistan. The establishment of the relevant National Planning Guidelines according to our local environmental and socio-economic conditions can also play a significant role to safe guard our rural and urban landscapes and their respective environments. These broad guidelines must therefore be recommended in the broader spectrum in spatial linkage. Moreover these guidelines must therefore synthesize and articulated specifically at structure plans, master plans at district, sub district or local plans and planning processes which can lead Pakistan towards environmentally sustainable development. (author)

  17. Long-term impacts of peatland restoration on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of blanket bogs in Northern Scotland.

    Hambley, Graham; Hill, Timothy; Saunders, Matthew; Arn Teh, Yit

    2016-04-01

    Unmanaged peatlands represent an important long-term C sink and thus play an important part of the global C cycle. Despite covering only 12 % of the UK land area, peatlands are estimated to store approximately 20 times more carbon than the UK's forests, which cover 13% of the land area. The Flow Country of Northern Scotland is the largest area of contiguous blanket bog in the UK, and one of the biggest in Europe, covering an area in excess of 4000 km2 and plays a key role in mediating regional atmospheric exchanges of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapour (H2O). However, these peatlands underwent significant afforestation in the 1980s, when over 670 km2 of blanket bog were drained and planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). This resulted in modifications to hydrology, micro-topography, vegetation and soil properties all of which are known to influence the production, emission and sequestration of key GHGs. Since the late 1990s restoration work has been carried out to remove forest plantations and raise water tables, by drain blocking, to encourage the recolonisation of Sphagnum species and restore ecosystem functioning. Here, we report findings of NEE and its constituent fluxes, GPP and Reco, from a study investigating the impacts of restoration on C dynamics over a chronosequence of restored peatlands. The research explored the role of environmental variables and microtopography in modulating land-atmosphere exchanges, using a multi-scale sampling approach that incorporated eddy covariance measurements with dynamic flux chambers. Key age classes sampled included an undrained peatland; an older restored peatland (17 years old); and a more recently restored site (12 years old). The oldest restored site showed the strongest uptake of C, with an annual assimilation rate of 858 g C m-2 yr-1 compared to assimilation rates of 501g C m-2 yr-1 and 575g C m-2 yr-1 from the younger restored site and

  18. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  19. Maturing safety in the UK

    Debenham, A.; Kovan, D.

    1994-01-01

    AEA Technology provides UK nuclear industry with technical services and R+D support, concentrating on plant performance, safety and environmental issues. Today, safety has a new set of priorities, reflected by a more demanding regulatory regime which takes account of concerns such as human factors, severe accidents, risks during plant outages, the need for improving safety culture, etc

  20. Country report for the UK

    Abram, T.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the status of the UK nuclear industry, activities concerning fast reactor are reviewed. There is no government funded program except for decommissioning work at Dounrey. Major activities are concerned with knowledge preservation, fuel cycle modelling and scenario studies, and gas-cooled fast reactor feasibility studies. European, international and BNFL collaboration are also reviewed

  1. The UK radiotherapy dosimetry audit network

    Thwaites, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy dosimetry intercomparison in the UK has been carried out in limited studies since the 1960s. However the first national dosimetry intercomparison involving all radiotherapy centres was conducted in the late 1980s. This was based on visits to each centre, using ionisation chamber dosimetry. It audited megavoltage photon beam calibration and other single field parameters. It also measured doses in a three-field 'treatment' in a trapezoidal phantom constructed from epoxy-resin water-equivalent material and compared these to locally planned doses. This included off-axis points, oblique incidence, inhomogeneities, etc. The study found mean measured beam calibration doses close to stated values (ratio 1.003), with a standard deviation (sd) of the distribution of 1.5% and 97% of doses within the pro-set 3% tolerance. For the planned multi-field irradiations, mean dose ratios (measured/stated) were 1.01 (sd 3%, 90% of results within 5%). A number of discrepancies were identified, leading to improved practice. A follow up study (mid-1990s) for electron beam audit also repeated the megavoltage photon calibration audit. For photons, an improvement was noted (mean ratio 1.003, sd 1.0%, 100% within 3%), whilst for electron beams, the mean ratio of measured/stated dose was 0.994 (sd 1.8%, 94% within 3%, 99% within 5%). In parallel with - and growing out of - this, a national audit network began to develop in 1991/2. It utilised similar methodology to the intercomparison and a network approach to allow parallel developments of the scope of the system. The network has eight regional groups, each with up to 10 radiotherapy centres, serving average populations of 7-8 million. Each group organises audits of its own centres and has developed at its own pace. Most have piloted methodology, phantoms, etc. for new audits which can then be used by other groups. All 65 UK centres are included. The network is co-ordinated by an IPEM Steering Committee (current chair

  2. Healthcare professional views and experiences of complementary and alternative therapies in obstetric practice in North East Scotland: a prospective questionnaire survey.

    Stewart, D; Pallivalappila, A R; Shetty, A; Pande, B; McLay, J S

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) therapy by UK healthcare professionals involved in the care of pregnant women, and to identify key predictors of use. A prospective survey. Maternity services in Grampian, North East Scotland. All healthcare professionals (135) involved in the care of pregnant women (midwives, obstetricians, anaesthetists). Questionnaire development, piloting, and distribution. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. A response rate of 87% was achieved. A third of respondents (32.5%) had recommended (prescribed, referred, or advised) the use of CAMs to pregnant women. The most frequently recommended CAMs modalities were: vitamins and minerals (excluding folic acid) (55%); massage (53%); homeopathy (50%); acupuncture (32%); yoga (32%); reflexology (26%); aromatherapy (24%); and herbal medicine (21%). Although univariate analysis identified that those who recommended CAMs were significantly more likely to be midwives who had been in post for more than 5 years, had received training in CAMs, were interested in CAMs, and were themselves users of CAMs, the only variable retained in bivariate logistic regression was 'personal use of CAM', with an odds ratio of 8.26 (95% CI 3.09-22.05; P pregnant women by approximately a third of healthcare professionals, with those recommending the use of CAMs being eight times more likely to be personal CAM users. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Prevalence of Influenza A (H1N1) Sero positivity in Unvaccinated Health care Workers in Scotland at the Height of the Global Pandemic

    Smith, K.; Katikireddi, S.V.; Mackenzie, D.G.; Warner, P.; Williams, L.J.; Adamson, W.E.; Carman, W.F.; Dewart, P.; Templeton, K.; Denison, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. We set out to identify the level of previous exposure to influenza A (H1N1) in unvaccinated health care workers (HCWs) at the peak of the pandemic outbreak in the UK, with control samples collected prior to the outbreak. Methods. Cross-sectional study (sero prevalence assessed before and at pandemic peak, with questionnaire data collected at peak of outbreak) in HCWs in Scotland. Results. The prevalence of sero positivity in 493 HCWs at pandemic peak was 10.3%, which was higher than the pre pandemic level by 3.7 percentage points (95% CI 0.3% to 7.3%, P=0.048). Sero positivity rates for front line and non front line HCWs were similar. Conclusion. At pandemic peak, only 10.3% of HCWs were seropositive for influenza A (H1N1), so the great majority were still susceptible to infection at the introduction of the vaccination programme. Few studies have reported on sero prevalence in unvaccinated and asymptomatic participants, so our findings may have relevance to the wider population

  4. Comparison between Modified Neuroendoscopy and Craniotomy Evacuation of Spontaneous Intra-Cerebral Hemorrhages: Study of Clinical Outcome and Glasgow Outcome Score

    Arie Ibrahim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purposes: Stroke is still one of a leading health-care problem in industrial country and in the developing country. Spontaneous Intra-cerebral Hemorrhage accounts for 30–60% of all stroke admissions into a hospital. Presence of intra-cerebral hemorrhage is considered a poor prognostic factor due to the resultant obstruction to the mass effect following the presence of blood resulting in raised intracranial pressure. While the craniotomy procedure failed to show more benefits over functional outcome, a less invasive and quicker surgical decompression might improve the outcome. Neuroendoscopy is one of promising optional  on minimal invasive  treatment  for spontaneous intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Material and Methods: We evaluated Glasgow Outcome Score and clinical outcome of patients with Spontaneous Intra-cerebral Hemorrhage who underwent modified neuroendoscopic surgery and craniotomy. Randomized control trial was performed during 27 months in 43 patients. Twenty-five patients treated with neuroendoscopy surgery and 18 patients with craniotomy. The removal of intra-cerebral hemorrhage was done by a modified neuroendoscopic transparent sheath made of silastic material, derived from pieces of thoracic tube No. 21F as a conduit working channel. Results: We analyzed statistically, clinical outcome assessment and Glasgow Outcome Scale 6 months post operative follow-up period. The mortality rate was significantly higher by Pearson chi-square methods, in craniotomy group n=12 (63.2% compared with neuroendoscopy group, n=7 (36.8% (p<.005. Patients with Glasgow Outcome Scale score 3–5 was higher in neuroendoscopy group, n=18 (75% compared with craniotomy group n=6 (25%. The survival rate analyzed by Kaplan Meier methods, found that patients in the neuroendoscopy group were a significantly longer survival rate compare with the craniotomy group during 6 months post operative follow-up period. Conclusions: Treatment of spontaneous

  5. High-sensitivity modified Glasgow prognostic score (HS-mGPS) Is superior to the mGPS in esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy

    Chen, Peng; Fang, Min; Wan, Qiuyan; Zhang, Xuebang; Song, Tao; Wu, Shixiu

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the prognostic value of the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) and high-sensitivity mGPS (HS-mGPS) in unresectable locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcimona (LAESCC) patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The baseline data of 163 eligible patients were retrospectively collected. Patients with a C-reactive protein (CRP) ≤ 10 mg/l and albumin ≥ 35 g/l were allocated to mGPS-0 group. Patients with only elevated CRP (> 10 mg/l) were a...

  6. Digital curation and online resources: digital scanning of surgical tools at the royal college of physicians and surgeons of Glasgow for an open university learning resource.

    Earley, Kirsty; Livingstone, Daniel; Rea, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Collection preservation is essential for the cultural status of any city. However, presenting a collection publicly risks damage. Recently this drawback has been overcome by digital curation. Described here is a method of digitisation using photogrammetry and virtual reality software. Items were selected from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow archives, and implemented into an online learning module for the Open University. Images were processed via Agisoft Photoscan, Autodesk Memento, and Garden Gnome Object 2VR. Although problems arose due to specularity, 2VR digital models were developed for online viewing. Future research must minimise the difficulty of digitising specular objects.

  7. Indian Diaspora In The UK

    L. V. Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author traces the history of formation of the Indian diaspora in the UK, evaluates the key trends that characterize the current state of diaspora. The article highlights the level of involvement and participation of diaspora in the evolution of the bilateral relations, as well as the influence of diaspora over home and foreign policy in the UK and India. The diaspora today is not just a unique vibrant connection between the two countries, it has also become a factor of influence over domestic, social and economic affairs in both the UK and India. There is a growing number of Indians among British statesmen and politicians. Indians occupy significant posts in various sectors in Britain, including business and finance. This contributes to strengthening of economic ties between the two countries, particularly important considering Britain’s forthcoming exit from the EU. As to internal political matters, though potential issues exist (those include, for instance, the possible transfer from India into Britain of problematic inter-caste relations, India’s criticism over unbalanced approach to teaching colonial history in British schools, the Indian diaspora due to its’ inherent tolerance and moderation generally plays a stabilizing role in the UK, especially on the background of radicalization of other ethnic communities. For the new India the diaspora today is not just an important source of financing, competences and know-how, it is also a significant lobbying and soft-power instrument. This article is part of a broader research, related to the contemporary relations between the United Kingdom and India. Indian diaspora in the UK is an integral part of the unique centuries-long history that connects the two countries. It is poised to remain a strong factor contributing to interdependence and cooperation between Britain and India in the XXI century.

  8. Value of Glasgow-Blatchford score in predicting early prognosis of cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding

    CUI Shu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the value of Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP score, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score in predicting the 1- and 6-week prognosis of cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding via a comparative analysis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 202 cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding who were hospitalized in Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 1 to December 31, 2014. According to the endpoint of death at 6 weeks after admission, the patients were divided into 1-week death group (10 patients, 6-week death group (23 patients, and survival group (179 patients. The Glasgow-Blatchford score, MELD score, CTP score, and CTP score and classification were calculated on admission, and these scores were compared between the three groups. The two-independent-samples t test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between groups. The chi-square test or the Fisher′s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The Z test was used for comparison of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of these three scoring systems. ResultsThere were significant differences between the 1-week death group and the survival group in the incidence rates of liver cancer with vascular invasion or metastasis (χ2=4.559, P=0.033, hepatic encephalopathy (χ2=25.568, P<0.01, melena (χ2=0.842, P=0.04, and heart failure (P=0.003, pulse rate (Z=-2.943, P=0.003, CTP classification (χ2=12.22, P=0.002, CTP score (Z=-2.505, P=0.012, MELD score (t=-2.395, P=0.018, and GBS score (Z=-2545, P=0.011. There were significant differences between the 6-week death group and the survival group in the incidence rates of liver cancer (χ2=9.374, P=0.002, liver

  9. Physical health indicators in major mental illness: data from the Quality and Outcome Framework in the UK.

    Martin, Julie Langan; Lowrie, Richard; McConnachie, Alex; McLean, Gary; Mair, Frances; Mercer, Stewart; Smith, Daniel

    2015-02-26

    In the UK, the Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) has specific targets for general practictioners to record body-mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in major mental illness, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Although incentives are given for aspects of major mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and related psychoses), barriers to care can occur. Our aim was to compare recording of specific targets for BP and BMI in individuals with major mental illness relative to diabetes and chronic kidney disease across the UK. Using 2012 and 2013 QOF data from 9731 general practices across all four countries in the UK, we calculated median payment, population achievement, and exception rates for BP indicators in major mental illness and chronic kidney disease and BMI indicators in major mental illness and diabetes. Differences in unweighted rates between practices in the same UK country were tested with a sign test. Differences in population achievement rate between practices in different countries were compared with those in England by use of a quantile regression analysis. UK payment and population achievement rates for BMI recording in major mental illness were significantly lower than were those in diabetes (payment 92·7% vs 95·5% and population achievement 84·0% vs 92·5%, pmental illness than for chronic kidney disease (94·1% vs 97·8% and 87·0% vs 97·1%, pmental illness were significantly lower in Scotland than in England (for BMI -1·5%, 99% CI -2·7 to -0·3, and for BP -1·8%, -2·7 to -0·9; pmental illness than in diabetes and chronic kidney disease throughout the UK. We also found variation in these rates between countries. This finding is probably multifactorial, reflecting a combination of patient, clinician, and wider organisational factors; however, it might also suggest inequality in access to certain aspects of health care for people with major mental illness. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Glasgow supported self-management trial (GSuST) for patients with moderate to severe COPD: randomised controlled trial.

    Bucknall, C E; Miller, G; Lloyd, S M; Cleland, J; McCluskey, S; Cotton, M; Stevenson, R D; Cotton, P; McConnachie, A

    2012-03-06

    To determine whether supported self management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can reduce hospital readmissions in the United Kingdom. Randomised controlled trial. Community based intervention in the west of Scotland. Patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of COPD. Participants in the intervention group were trained to detect and treat exacerbations promptly, with ongoing support for 12 months. The primary outcome was hospital readmissions and deaths due to COPD assessed by record linkage of Scottish Morbidity Records; health related quality of life measures were secondary outcomes. 464 patients were randomised, stratified by age, sex, per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second, recent pulmonary rehabilitation attendance, smoking status, deprivation category of area of residence, and previous COPD admissions. No difference was found in COPD admissions or death (111/232 (48%) v 108/232 (47%); hazard ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.38). Return of health related quality of life questionnaires was poor (n=265; 57%), so that no useful conclusions could be made from these data. Pre-planned subgroup analysis showed no differential benefit in the primary outcome relating to disease severity or demographic variables. In an exploratory analysis, 42% (75/150) of patients in the intervention group were classified as successful self managers at study exit, from review of appropriateness of use of self management therapy. Predictors of successful self management on stepwise regression were younger age (P=0.012) and living with others (P=0.010). COPD readmissions/deaths were reduced in successful self managers compared with unsuccessful self managers (20/75 (27%) v 51/105 (49%); hazard ratio 0.44, 0.25 to 0.76; P=0.003). Supported self management had no effect on time to first readmission or death with COPD. Exploratory subgroup analysis identified a minority of participants who learnt to self manage; this group had a

  11. Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry

    Mitchell, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: Sustainability is not just about environmental protection it also concerns biodiversity, community relations, competence, employment, geodiversity, health and safety, resource efficiency, restoration and stakeholder accountability. The UK construction minerals industry aims to supply essential materials in a sustainabl...

  12. Paradoxical upgrading reaction in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis: association with vitamin D therapy

    Barr, D.A.; Coussens, A.K.; Irvine, S.; Ritchie, N.D.; Herbert, K.; Choo-Kang, B.; Raeside, D.; Bell, D.J.; Seaton, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    SETTING: Glasgow, Scotland, UK.\\ud \\ud BACKGROUND: Paradoxical reactions in tuberculosis (TB) are a notable example of our incomplete understanding of host-pathogen interactions during anti-tuberculosis treatment.\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for a TB paradoxical reaction, and specifically to assess for an independent association with vitamin D use.\\ud \\ud DESIGN: Consecutive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative adult patients treated for extra-pulmonary TB were identif...

  13. UK regulatory standards - the 'Guidance on requirements for authorisation'

    Williams, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, disposal of radioactive waste requires an authorisation under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. The power to grant such authorisations rests with the Environment Agency for disposals in England and Wales, and with similar Agencies in Scotland and Northern Ireland - namely the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Environment and Heritage Service (EHS) of the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland. In 1997, following two rounds of consultation, the Environment Agency jointly with SEPA and EHS published a document 'Disposal Facilities on Land for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes: Guidance on Requirements for Authorisation' - the GRA document. The GRA document outlines the regulatory framework governing the disposal of radioactive waste, general guidance on procedures, the principles and criteria against which proposals for a disposal facility will be assessed, and the radiological and technical requirements which a facility will be expected to meet. In particular, the document states that, in the period after control is withdrawn, the assessed radiological risk from a facility to a representative member of the potentially exposed group at greatest risk should be consistent with a risk target of 10 -6 per year. The document also specifies the information which a developer will need to provide, to demonstrate that a proposal is consistent with the principles and requirements, and identifies other, non-risk-based, criteria. In March 1997, the Secretary of State for the Environment rejected a planning appeal by United Kingdom Nirex Ltd for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility located near Sellafield in Cumbria. That decision has effectively delayed the construction of any deep repository in the UK. Subsequently a House of Lords Select Committee has commenced a major review of nuclear waste management. The Environment Agency continues to be responsible for the authorisation of the shallow

  14. A Comparative Study of Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Scores for Predicting Long-Term Outcome After Brain Injury.

    McNett, Molly M; Amato, Shelly; Philippbar, Sue Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare predictive ability of hospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and scores obtained using a novel coma scoring tool (the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness [FOUR] scale) on long-term outcomes among patients with traumatic brain injury. Preliminary research of the FOUR scale suggests that it is comparable with GCS for predicting mortality and functional outcome at hospital discharge. No research has investigated relationships between coma scores and outcome 12 months postinjury. This is a prospective cohort study. Data were gathered on adult patients with traumatic brain injury admitted to urban level I trauma center. GCS and FOUR scores were assigned at 24 and 72 hours and at hospital discharge. Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were assigned at 6 and 12 months. The sample size was n = 107. Mean age was 53.5 (SD = ±21, range = 18-91) years. Spearman correlations were comparable and strongest among discharge GCS and FOUR scores and 12-month outcome (r = .73, p coma scores performed best for both tools, with GCS discharge scores predictive in multivariate models.

  15. Denmark in Scotland: The energy and housing market 1988. Danmark i Skotland: Energi- og boligmarkedet 1988

    Joergensen, K

    1988-02-01

    A Danish architect and planning firm, ''Praxis'' (Aarhus), and the Scottish firm ''Heatwise'' (Glasgow), backed up by the Ministry of Housing, the Scottish Development Agency and the European Communities, have cooperated in order to examine the Scottish market for Danish ''know-how'' concerning energy conservation and efficiency in relation to the heating of residential buildings. Danish experts could also advise on energy policy and planning and renewable energy sources. The buildings on a large peripheral housing estate were examined in detail, especially with regard to heat losses caused by insufficient insulation and inefficient heating systems. it was discovered that the cost of raising the standard of heating in Scottish residences to that of the average Danish ones would be approximately 7 milliard pounds including necessary general repairs and upheep. There are also many barriers to development inspired by Danish know-how and technology - some being the lack of economical resources and as Glasgow is a town with great poverty problems, other needs hold higher priority amongst its inhabitants. However cooperation between the Danish and English firms will continue. (AB).

  16. Online Shopping In The UK

    K. K. Ramachandran; K. K. Karthick; M. Saravana Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This paper will contribute to current academic literature in the area of online retailing and consumer behaviour. Our research outlines a survey conducted with respondents from the UK to ascertain their attitudes to grocery shopping both off and online. The findings indicate that, whilst the vast majority of our sample has experience of online shopping, few actively engage in online grocery shopping. Some of the reasons for this are highlighted and the key issues relate to consumer trust and ...

  17. Factors determining UK album success

    Elliott, Caroline; Simmons, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a recently compiled dataset on the UK album sales to determine which factors contribute to best-selling album sales success. We control for factors including length of time since release, nationality of artist, artist type and album type, testing the increasing returns to information hypothesis. Information on general public online review scores for the albums in the dataset allows for a strong test of the accuracy of online reviews in predicting music sales, as online revie...

  18. Radon exposures in the UK

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Public and occupational health protection against radon is provided in the UK. Protection is advised where geological conditions cause high concentrations in domestic and commercial buildings. These circumstances are described and the resulting exposures reviewed. An account is given of the limitation scheme for radon in the home and the regulatory scheme for radon at work, the manner in which they are implemented, and the degree to which they are successful. (author)

  19. Remote interest in the UK

    Watson, C.

    1993-01-01

    The United Kingdom nuclear industry has moved on from its low-technology solutions to remote handling problems which were popular in the 1950s and 1960s. A change in attitude has occurred which means that users are looking for high-technology solutions to today's remote handling problems. This review focuses on the ways in which their needs are being met and on the demands for future development which they are generating. (UK)

  20. Development of consensus guidance to facilitate service redesign around pharmacist prescribing in UK hospital practice.

    Tonna, Antonella; McCaig, Dorothy; Diack, Lesley; West, Bernice; Stewart, Derek

    2014-10-01

    The last decade has seen a drive towards non-medical prescribing in the United Kingdom (UK). However, there is a dearth of any published literature on applying the principles of service redesign to support pharmacist prescribing in any sphere of practice. To develop consensus guidance to facilitate service redesign around pharmacist prescribing. UK hospital practice. The Delphi technique was used to measure consensus of a panel of expert opinion holders in Scotland. Individuals with key strategic and operational roles in implementing initiatives of pharmacy practice and medicines management were recruited as experts. An electronic questionnaire consisting of 30 statements related to pharmacist prescribing service redesign was developed. These were presented as five-point Likert scales with illustrative quotes. Consensus, defined as 70 % of panel members agreeing (ranked strongly agree/agree) with each statement. Responses were obtained from 35/40 (87.5 %) experts in round one and 29 (72.5 %) in round two. Consensus in round one was achieved for 27/30 of statements relating to aspects of generic 'service development' (e.g. succession planning, multidisciplinary working, quality evaluation, practice development and outcome measures) and 'pharmacist prescribing role development' (e.g. education and future orientation of service). Issues of disagreement were around targeting of pharmacist prescribing to clinical specialities and financial remuneration for prescribing in the hospital setting. Consensus guidance has been developed to facilitate service redesign around hospital pharmacist prescribing.

  1. The control of potential health risks related to drinking water in the UK

    Dick, T A

    1981-04-01

    In the United Kingdom, potable water put into supply is required to be 'wholesome'. The term 'wholesome' is interpreted as clear, palatable and safe to drink. About 99% of potable supplies are provided by Regional Water Authorities and Water Companies (for England and Wales), Regional Councils and Island Councils (for Scotland) and the Department of the Environment (NI) (for Northern Ireland). These water authorities draw their raw water from upland surface waters, lowland surface waters (including lakes and rivers) and underground waters. Although each source provides approximately one-third of supply, the proportion varies considerably in different parts of the UK. Consequently the control of potential health risks related to drinking water also varies according to the source of supply. The paper describes briefly the treatment practice for the various sources, including disinfection practice. More specifically the paper describes current UK practice or developments in the control or investigation of plumbosolvency, fluoridation, nitrate, trihalomethanes, other organic micropollutants, sodium, asbestos and tar linings in pipes. The possibilities for the surveillance of the 1% of private supplies are also discussed.

  2. The wind energy market in the U.K. and Ireland

    Lindley, D. [Lindley and Associates, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The market for renewable energy projects has been created in England and Wales by measures established by the Electricity Act 1989 which created the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). Identical market enablement mechanisms now exist for Scotland and Northern Ireland whilst yet another version of the NFFO mechanism has been established in Ireland. As a result, the UK now has 31 operational windfarms with a total rating of 195MW whilst the completion of the first windfarm in Ireland is expected in early 1997. This paper gives details of these mechanisms and the impact they have had on the creation of a renewables market. Current expectations are that additional wind energy capacity of about 900MW will be added in the UK and Ireland by the end of the millennium. This implies a market worth between US$525 million and US$600 million in turbine sales and a total turnkey investment cost of between US$1.2 billion and US$1.5 billion. 6 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. The UK clinical research network--has it been a success for dermatology clinical trials?

    Thomas, Kim S; Koller, Karin; Foster, Katharine; Perdue, Jo; Charlesworth, Lisa; Chalmers, Joanne R

    2011-06-16

    Following the successful introduction of five topic-specific research networks in the UK, the Comprehensive Local Research Network (CLRN) was established in 2008 in order to provide a blanket level of support across the whole country regardless of the clinical discipline. The role of the CLRN was to facilitate recruitment into clinical trials, and to encourage greater engagement in research throughout the National Health Service (NHS). This report evaluates the impact of clinical research networks in supporting clinical trials in the UK, with particular reference to our experiences from two non-commercial dermatology trials. It covers our experience of engaging with the CLRN (and other research networks) using two non-commercial dermatology trials as case studies. We present the circumstances that led to our approach to the research networks for support, and the impact that this support had on the delivery of these trials. In both cases, recruitment was boosted considerably following the provision of additional support, although other factors such as the availability of experienced personnel, and the role of advertising and media coverage in promoting the trials were also important in translating this additional resource into increased recruitment. Recruitment into clinical trials is a complex task that can be influenced by many factors. A world-class clinical research infrastructure is now in place in England (with similar support available in Scotland and Wales), and it is the responsibility of the research community to ensure that this unique resource is used effectively and responsibly.

  4. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials: The UK position

    Englefield, C.; Holyoak, B.; Ledgerwood, K.; Littlewood, K.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the organizations involved in the regulation of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials across the UK. The safety of radiation sources is within the regulatory remit of the Health and Safety Executive, under the Health and safety of Work Act 1974 and associated regulations. Any employer using radiation sources has a statutory duty to comply with this legislation, thereby protecting workers and the public from undue risk. From a radioactive waste management perspective, the storage and use of radioactive materials and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive waste are regulated by the environment agencies of England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. Special regulatory arrangements apply to nuclear sites, such as power stations and fuel cycle plants, and some additional bodies are involved in the regulation of the security of fissile materials. An explanation is given in the paper as to how these organizations to work together to provide a comprehensive and effective regulatory regime. An overview of how these regulators have recently started to work more closely with other enforcement bodies, such as the Police and Customs and Excise is also given, to illustrate the approach that is being applied in the UK to deal with orphan sources and illicit trafficking. (author)

  5. GeoBus: bringing Earth science learning to secondary schools in the UK

    Robinson, Ruth; Roper, Kathryn; Pike, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have no or little expertise of teaching Earth science, to share the outcomes of new science research and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Almost 35,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities by April 2015, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The challenge with secondary school experiential learning as outreach is that activities need to be completed in either 50 or 80 minutes to fit within the school timetables in the UK, and this can limit the amount of hands-on activities that pupils undertake in one session. However, it is possible to dedicate a whole or half day of linked activities to Earth science learning within the Scotland Curriculum for Excellence, and this provides a long enough period to undertake field work, conduct group projects, or complete more complicated experiments. GeoBus has developed a suite of workshops that all involve experiential learning and are targeted for shorter and longer time slots, and the lessons learned in developing and refining these workshops to maximise the learning achieved will be presented. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate research outcomes directly into workshops, and to involve early career researchers in project development. One example that is currently in progress is a set of hydrology workshops that focus on the water

  6. GeoBus: bringing experiential Earth science learning to secondary schools in the UK

    Pike, C. J.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Roper, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have no or little expertise of teaching Earth science, to share the outcomes of new science research and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Over 30,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities by December 2014, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The challenge with secondary school experiential learning as outreach is that activities need to be completed in either 50 or 80 minutes to fit within the school timetables in the UK, and this can limit the amount of hands-on activities that pupils undertake in one session. However, it is possible to dedicate a whole or half day of linked activities to Earth science learning in Scotland and this provides a long enough period to undertake field work, conduct group projects, or complete more complicated experiments. GeoBus has developed a suite of workshops that all involve experiential learning and are targeted for shorter and longer time slots, and the lessons learned in developing and refining these workshops to maximise the learning achieved will be presented. Three potentially unsurprising observations hold true for all the schools that GeoBus visits: young learners like to experiment and use unfamiliar equipment to make measurements, the element of competition stimulates learners to ask questions and maintain focus and enthusiasum

  7. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Emma Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  8. A UK perspective on recycling

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom, through the recycling of depleted uranium from Magnox reactors into Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel, has already recycled significant quantities of reprocessed material in reactors owned by Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited. This AGR fuel has been satisfactorily irradiated and discharged over a decade or more, and will be reprocessed in the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), currently under construction in the UK. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) have also been exploiting the potential of plutonium recycled in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which they have been making since 1963. All of the UK nuclear companies are committed to further recycling of Magnox depleted uranium during the 1990s, and it is anticipated that oxide recycling will also become firmly established during the next decade. British Nuclear Fuels and Urenco Ltd, as the providers of fuel cycle services, are developing an infrastructure to close the fuel cycle for oxide nuclear fuel, using both the uranium and plutonium arising from reprocessing. (author)

  9. Worldwide open access: UK leadership?

    Stevan Harnad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The web is destined to become humankind's cognitive commons, where digital knowledge is jointly created and freely shared. The UK has been a leader in the global movement toward open access (OA to research but recently its leadership has been derailed by the joint influence of the publishing industry lobby from without and well-intentioned but premature and unhelpful over-reaching from within the OA movement itself. The result has been the extremely counterproductive ‘Finch Report’ followed by a new draft of the Research Councils UK (RCUK OA mandate, downgrading the role of cost-free OA self-archiving of research publications (‘green OA’ in favor of paying subscription publishers over and above subscriptions, out of scarce research funds, in exchange for making single articles OA (‘hybrid gold OA’. The motivation of the new policy is to reform publication and to gain certain re-use rights (CC-BY, but the likely effect would be researcher resistance, very little OA and a waste of research funds. There is still time to fix the RCUK mandate and restore the UK's leadership by taking a few very specific steps to clarify and strengthen the green component by adding a mechanism for monitoring and verifying compliance, with consequences for non-compliance, along lines also being adopted in the EC and the US.

  10. Ethnic variations in asthma hospital admission, readmission and death: a retrospective, national cohort study of 4.62 million people in Scotland.

    Sheikh, Aziz; Steiner, Markus F C; Cezard, Genevieve; Bansal, Narinder; Fischbacher, Colin; Simpson, Colin R; Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj

    2016-01-12

    Our previous meta-analysis found that South Asians and Blacks in the UK were at a substantially increased risk of hospital admission from asthma. These estimates were, however, derived from pooling data from a limited number of now dated studies, confined to only three very broad ethnic groups (i.e. Whites, South Asians and Blacks) and failed to take account of possible sex-related differences in outcomes within these ethnic groups. We undertook the first study investigating ethnic variations in asthma outcomes across an entire population. This retrospective 9-year cohort study linked Scotland's hospitalisation/death records on asthma to the 2001 census (providing ethnic group). We calculated age, country of birth and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation adjusted incident rate ratios (IRRs) for hospitalisation or death by sex for the period May 2001-2010. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for asthma readmission and subsequent asthma death. We were able to link data on 4.62 million people (91.8% of the Scottish population), yielding over 38 million patient-years of data, 1,845 asthma deaths, 113,795 first asthma admissions, and 107,710 readmissions (40,075 of which were for asthma). There were substantial ethnic variations in the rate of hospitalisation/death in both males and females. When compared to the reference Scottish White population, the highest age-adjusted rates were in Pakistani males (IRR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.30-1.94) and females (IRR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.06-2.11) and Indian males (IRR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.54), and the lowest were seen in Chinese males (IRR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.94) and females (IRR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.39-0.61). There are very substantial ethnic variations in hospital admission/deaths from asthma in Scotland, with Pakistanis having the worst and Chinese having the best outcomes. Cultural factors, including self-management and health seeking behaviours, and variations in the quality of primary care provision are the most

  11. Isotopic characterisation of the historical lead deposition record at Glensaugh, an organic-rich, upland catchment in rural N.E. Scotland

    Farmer, J.G.; Graham, M.C.; Bacon, J.R.; Dunn, S.M.; Vinogradoff, S.I.; MacKenzie, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a wider investigation of the biogeochemistry and fate of Pb deposited from the atmosphere at Glensaugh, a rural upland catchment in N.E. Scotland, the concentration and isotopic composition of Pb were determined in four thinly sectioned monolith cores (25 cm) of peat collected at altitudes of 426-434 m from different faces of Thorter Hill and in a series of 21 10-cm unsectioned cores of peat and organic-rich soil along a transect from near the top (434 m) to the bottom (224 m) of the catchment. Depth profiles of Pb concentration and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio were similar for the longer cores. Subsurface Pb maxima (238-489 mg kg -1 ) typically occurred below 206 Pb/ 207 Pb minima (1.123-1.134). One core was 210 Pb-dated and had a fairly constant 206 Pb/ 207 Pb value of 1.170 from mid-19th century to ca. 1930, followed by a decline (attributable to the increasing influence of Australian Pb of much lower 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio) to 1.134 by the early 1990s, and then a rapid increase to 1.160 by 2002, after the phased withdrawal of leaded petrol. The fluxes of Pb increased from 15 mg m -2 year -1 in the late 19th century to a peak of 60 mg m -2 year -1 ca. 1960, before declining steadily to 3.6 mg m -2 year -1 by the beginning of the 21st century. Some 40% of the anthropogenic Pb in the core had been deposited prior to 1900. The mean anthropogenic Pb inventory of the four longer cores was 7.4±1.5 g m -2 , of which ∼70% occurred in the top 10 cm, in good agreement with the inventories of the shorter cores collected above 400 m. These inventories are higher than those of the industrial central belt of Scotland, probably because of enhanced deposition at altitude. This is consistent with the derived average 210 Pb flux of 198±11 Bq m -2 year -1 , which is twice that of typical UK 210 Pb deposition and the rainfall for the site. The past deposition of Pb at Glensaugh, including that from sources (e.g., smelting, coal combustion) other than leaded petrol, has clearly

  12. Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2007-01-01

    Contents: Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK -- Executive summary -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 1 : UK tidal resource assessment -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 2 : tidal technologies overview -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 3 : Severn barrage proposals -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 4 : Severn non-barrage options -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 5 : UK case studies. Summarised in the Welsh language version of the executive ...

  13. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  14. Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) in the UK: the road to freedom.

    Taylor, N G H; Peeler, E J; Denham, K L; Crane, C N; Thrush, M A; Dixon, P F; Stone, D M; Way, K; Oidtmann, B C

    2013-08-01

    Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a disease of international importance that predominantly affects cyprinid fish and can cause significant mortality. In the United Kingdom (UK), SVC was first detected in 1977 with further cases occurring in fisheries, farms, wholesale and retail establishments throughout England and Wales (but not Scotland, where few cyprinid populations exist, nor Northern Ireland where SVC has never been detected) over the subsequent 30 years. Following a control and eradication programme for the disease initiated in 2005, the UK was recognised free of the disease in 2010. This study compiles historic records of SVC cases in England and Wales with a view to understanding its routes of introduction and spread, and assessing the effectiveness of the control and eradication programme in order to improve contingency plans to prevent and control future disease incursions in the cyprinid fish sectors. Between 1977 and 2010 the presence of SVC was confirmed on 108 occasions, with 65 of the cases occurring in sport fisheries and the majority of the remainder occurring in the ornamental fish sector. The study found that throughout the history of SVC in the UK, though cases were widely distributed, their occurrence was sporadic and the virus did not become endemic. All evidence indicates that SVC was not able to persist under UK environmental conditions, suggesting that the majority of cases were a result of new introductions to the UK as opposed to within-country spread. The control and eradication programme adopted in 2005 was highly effective and two years after its implementation cases of SVC ceased. Given the non-persistent nature of the pathogen the most important aspect of the control programme focused on preventing re-introduction of the virus to the UK. Despite the effectiveness of these controls against SVC, this approach is likely to be less effective against more persistent pathogens such as koi herpesvirus, which are likely to require more

  15. Rainfall thresholds and susceptibility mapping for shallow landslides and debris flows in Scotland

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dijkstra, Tom; Dixon, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Shallow translational slides and debris flows (hereafter 'landslides') pose a significant threat to life and cause significant annual economic impacts (e.g. by damage and disruption of infrastructure). The focus of this research is on the definition of objective rainfall thresholds using a weather radar system and landslide susceptibility mapping. In the study area Scotland, an inventory of 75 known landslides was used for the period 2003 to 2016. First, the effect of using different rain records (i.e. time series length) on two threshold selection techniques in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was evaluated. The results show that thresholds selected by 'Threat Score' (minimising false alarms) are sensitive to rain record length and which is not routinely considered, whereas thresholds selected using 'Optimal Point' (minimising failed alarms) are not; therefore these may be suited to establishing lower limit thresholds and be of interest to those developing early warning systems. Robust thresholds are found for combinations of normalised rain duration and accumulation at 1 and 12 day's antecedence respectively; these are normalised using the rainy-day normal and an equivalent measure for rain intensity. This research indicates that, in Scotland, rain accumulation provides a better indicator than rain intensity and that landslides may be generated by threshold conditions lower than previously thought. Second, a landslide susceptibility map is constructed using a cross-validated logistic regression model. A novel element of the approach is that landslide susceptibility is calculated for individual hillslope sections. The developed thresholds and susceptibility map are combined to assess potential hazards and impacts posed to the national highway network in Scotland.

  16. An analysis of suicide trends in Scotland 1950-2014: comparison with England & Wales.

    Dougall, Nadine; Stark, Cameron; Agnew, Tim; Henderson, Rob; Maxwell, Margaret; Lambert, Paul

    2017-12-20

    Scotland has disproportionately high rates of suicide compared with England. An analysis of trends may help reveal whether rates appear driven more by birth cohort, period or age. A 'birth cohort effect' for England & Wales has been previously reported by Gunnell et al. (B J Psych 182:164-70, 2003). This study replicates this analysis for Scotland, makes comparisons between the countries, and provides information on 'vulnerable' cohorts. Suicide and corresponding general population data were obtained from the National Records of Scotland, 1950 to 2014. Age and gender specific mortality rates were estimated. Age, period and cohort patterns were explored graphically by trend analysis. A pattern was found whereby successive male birth cohorts born after 1940 experienced higher suicide rates, in increasingly younger age groups, echoing findings reported for England & Wales. Young men (aged 20-39) were found to have a marked and statistically significant increase in suicide between those in the 1960 and 1965 birth cohorts. The 1965 cohort peaked in suicide rate aged 35-39, and the subsequent 1970 cohort peaked even younger, aged 25-29; it is possible that these 1965 and 1970 cohorts are at greater mass vulnerability to suicide than earlier cohorts. This was reflected in data for England & Wales, but to a lesser extent. Suicide rates associated with male birth cohorts subsequent to 1975 were less severe, and not statistically significantly different from earlier cohorts, suggestive of an amelioration of any possible influential 'cohort' effect. Scottish female suicide rates for all age groups converged and stabilised over time. Women have not been as affected as men, with less variation in patterns by different birth cohorts and with a much less convincing corresponding pattern suggestive of a 'cohort' effect. Trend analysis is useful in identifying 'vulnerable' cohorts, providing opportunities to develop suicide prevention strategies addressing these cohorts as they age.

  17. Sugar intake and dental decay: results from a national survey of children in Scotland.

    Masson, Lindsey F; Blackburn, Alison; Sheehy, Christine; Craig, Leone C A; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Holmes, Bridget A; McNeill, Geraldine

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this analysis was to investigate the strength of the association between sugar intake and treatment for dental decay in children in Scotland, and the impact of tooth brushing frequency on this association. The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in 2006 in those aged 3-17 years. Diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ, and interviews were carried out by trained fieldworkers who asked about dental health. A total of 1700 interviews were carried out, and 1512 FFQ were returned. Of the children, 56% had received treatment for decay (fillings or teeth removed due to decay). Intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), but not total sugar, increased the risk of having had treatment for decay: adjusted OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.28, 2.64) for the highest ( ≥ 20.0% food energy) v. lowest ( ≤ 14.8% food energy) tertile of NMES intake. This raised risk remained in children who reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day. Compared with children who reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day and were in the lowest tertile of NMES intake, children who reported brushing their teeth once a day or less and were in the highest tertile of NMES intake were over three times more likely to have received treatment for decay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.97, 5.82). In order to improve dental health in children in Scotland, dental health strategies must continue to stress the importance of both reduced NMES intake and good oral hygiene.

  18. A short history of the Royal Odonto Chirurgical Society of Scotland.

    Geissler, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    In the mid-19th Century, the practice of dentistry in Britain was unregulated and chaotic. Organised training was non-existent, and the public was unable to be assured of satisfactory, ethical treatment. A group of Scottish practitioners, led by John Smith, an Edinburgh surgeon, established the Odonto Chirurgical Society of Scotland in 1867 as an ethical dental society promoting education and regulation of the emerging profession. The Society has prospered over the years. It was granted the title "Royal" on the occasion of its centenary in 1967, and approaches its 150th year with confidence.

  19. Oral hygiene habits, denture plaque, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in institutionalised elderly in Lothian, Scotland

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Cumming, C

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between oral hygiene habits, denture plaque, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in institutionalised elderly. A sample of 201 residents, 48-99 yr of age (mean age 82 yr), was selected from four different institutions in Lothian, Scotland....... Clinical recordings were carried out under standardised circumstances using well recognised indices. Information about oral hygiene habits was obtained through structured interviews conducted immediately before the clinical examination. A multivariate analysis, principal component, was carried out...

  20. Human and animal salmonellosis in Scotland associated with environmental contamination, 1973-79.

    Reilly, W J; Forbes, G I; Paterson, G M; Sharp, J C

    1981-06-27

    Twenty-six incidents of salmonellosis occurring in Scotland between 1973 and 1979 and attributed to environmental pollution are reviewed. The apparent sources of pollution were sewage effluent (10 incidents), septic tank effluent (eight), sewage sludge (three), seagulls (three) and abattoir effluents (two). Cattle were the species predominantly affected. Human infection was primary in three incidents and was secondary to bovine infection in another four. Thirteen salmonella serotypes were recovered from infected humans or animals and 17 during related environmental investigations. The factors causing pollutions and possible control measures are discussed.

  1. Microbiology of acid soils. IV. Selected sites in Northern England and Southern Scotland

    Boswell, J G

    1955-01-01

    A number of localities were selected in Northern England and Southern Scotland at altitudes above 225 m. A series of soil samples were taken over the period 1946-9, and the soils examined for fungal and bacterial activity. The frequency of the appearance of species of the genera penicillium, saccharomyces, pullularia, cladosporium, botrytis, cephalosporium, trichoderma, verticilium and stemphylium and of the mucorles were recorded by a plating-out technique. The distributions of cellulose- and protein-decomposing bacteria, of Clostridium butyricum and of nitrifying bacteria were examined. Finally, the metabolic activities of selected bacteria were recorded.

  2. What supports hospital pharmacist prescribing in Scotland? - A mixed methods, exploratory sequential study.

    Fisher, J; Kinnear, M; Reid, F; Souter, C; Stewart, D

    2018-05-01

    While approximately half of all qualified hospital pharmacist independent prescribers (PIPs) in Scotland are active prescribers, there are major differences in prescribing activity across geographical areas. This study aimed to explore, through focus groups, interviews and a questionnaire, hospital PIPs' perceptions of factors associated with prescribing activity and to investigate the infrastructure required to better support active prescribing by PIPs. Findings reinforced the perceived positive impact of supportive pharmacy leadership within the organisation, recognition that prescribing is integral to the clinical pharmacist role and a work environment conducive to prescribing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human and animal salmonellosis in Scotland associated with environmental contamination, 1973-79

    Reilly, W J; Forbes, G I; Paterson, G M; Sharp, J C

    1981-06-27

    Twenty-six incidents of salmonellosis occurring in Scotland between 1973 and 1979 and attributed to environmental pollution are reviewed. The apparent sources of pollution were sewage effluent (10 incidents), septic tank effluent (eight), sewage sludge (three), seagulls (three) and abattoir effluents (two). Cattle were the species predominantly affected. Human infection was primary in three incidents and was secondary to bovine infection in another four. Thirteen salmonella serotypes were recovered from infected humans or animals and 17 during related environmental investigations. The factors causing pollutions and possible control measures are discussed.

  4. Target language use in Modern Language classrooms: perception and change among newly qualified teachers in Scotland

    Lynch, Michael Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate the practices and perceptions of some Newly Qualified Teachers (NQTs) of modern foreign languages (MFL) in Scotland in relation to how they use the target language (L2). I seek to answer the questions “In what different ways do student teachers of modern languages use the target language in Scottish secondary school classrooms?’, ‘What reasons do they give for how they use it?” and “In what way(s), if any, do newly qualified teachers of modern language...

  5. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  6. Downsizing of acute inpatient beds associated with private finance initiative: Scotland's case study

    Dunnigan, Matthew G; Pollock, Allyson M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether the projected 24% reduction in acute bed numbers in Lothian hospitals, which formed part of the private finance initiative (PFI) plans for the replacement Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, is being compensated for by improvements in efficiency and greater use of community facilities, and to ascertain whether there is an independent PFI effect by comparing clinical activity and performance in acute specialties in Lothian hospitals with other NHS hospitals in Scotland. Design Comparison of projected and actual trends in acute bed capacity and inpatient and day case admissions in the first five years (1995-6 to 2000-1) of Lothian Health Board's integrated healthcare plan. Population study of trends in bed rate, hospital activity, length of stay, and throughput in Lothian hospitals compared with the rest of Scotland from 1990-1 to 2000-1. Main outcome measures Staffed bed rates, admission rates, mean lengths of stay, occupancy, and throughput in four adult acute specialty groups in 1990-1, 1995-6, and 2000-1. Results By 2000-1, rates for inpatient admission in all acute, medical, surgical, and intensive therapy specialties in Lothian hospitals were respectively 20%, 6%, 28%, and 38% below those in the rest of Scotland. Day case rates in all acute and acute surgical specialties were 13% and 33% lower. The proportion of delayed discharges in staffed acute and post-acute NHS beds in Lothian hospitals exceeded the Scottish average (15% and 12% respectively; Pfinance initiative (PFI) hospitals in England and Scotland projected reductions in acute beds of about 30% in the five years before the opening of the new replacement hospitalsThe new PFI Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, which will fully open in 2003, is the cornerstone of Lothian Health Board's healthcare plan for its acute hospitalsWhat this study addsCompared with other Scottish NHS hospitals, service delivery has been reduced across Lothian associated with PFI developmentThe planning targets

  7. Feminine anthroponyms in 13th-century Scotland: the Ragman Roll (1296

    Valeria Di Clemente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The documents known as Ragman Roll collect the fealty oaths sworn and the homages rendered by Scottish nobility, clergy, landowners and burgesses to Edward I Plantagenet after the English invasion of Scotland in the spring and summer of 1296. These documents record personal names and surnames of ca. 1800 people, being a precious source for the study of Scottish anthroponymy in the second half of the 13th century. This paper focuses on the feminine anthroponyms occurring in the Ragman Roll, on their form and on their historical-etymological and cultural background.

  8. The Radical Thread - Liberalism and the rise of Labour in Scotland 1886 - 1924

    Catriona MacDonald

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available PreambleThis paper is a revised version of a lecture delivered to the Liberal Democrat History Meeting at the Scottish Liberal Democrat Conference in 2009. It was the subject of a report in the Journal of Liberal History (Winter 2009-2010, pp. 32-38. See also Catriona M.M. Macdonald, The Radical Thread: Political Change in Scotland, Paisley 1885-1924 (John Donald, 2000.Contemporary resonances are seductive when reflecting on the historic and recent past of the Liberal Party in Britain and i...

  9. Correlations of particle number concentrations and metals with nitrogen oxides and other traffic-related air pollutants in Glasgow and London

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; Heal, Mathew R.; Beverland, Iain J.

    2012-07-01

    Particle number concentration (PNC) and transition metal content are implicated in the health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) but they are difficult to measure so consequently their temporal and spatial variations are not well characterized. Daily concentrations of PNC and particle-bound water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were measured at background and kerbside sites in Glasgow and London to examine if other metrics of air pollution such as optical darkness (absorbance) of collected filter samples of PM, gravimetric PM, and NO, NO2 and CO gas concentrations, can be used as surrogates for the temporal and spatial variations of the former. NO2 and NOx exhibited a high degree of within-site correlation and with PNC and water-soluble metals (Fe, Cu, As, Cd, Pb) at background sites in both cities. There is therefore potential to use NO2 and NOx as surrogates for PNC and water-soluble metal at background sites. However, correlation was weaker in complex street canyon environments where pollutant concentrations are strongly affected by local sources and the small-scale variations in pollutant dispersion induced by the wind regimes within street canyons. The corollary of the high correlation between NO2 and PNC and water-soluble metals at the background sites is that the latter pollutants may act as confounders for health effects attributed to NO2 from such sites. Concentrations of CO cannot be used as a surrogate for PNC. Increments in daily NOx and NO2 concentrations between trafficked and background sites were shown to be a simple and novel surrogate for daily spatial variation of PNC; for example, increments in NOx explained 78-79% of the variance in PNC at the paired sites in both Glasgow and London, but relationships were city specific. The increments in NOx also explained 70% of the spatial variation in Cu and Ni in Glasgow but not in London. Weekly NO2 measurements derived from passive diffusion tubes were also shown to

  10. Funding bombshell hits UK physics

    Banks, Michael; Durrani, Matin

    2008-01-01

    Physicists and astronomers in the UK are coming to terms with a massive funding crisis that engulfed one of the country's main funding agencies last month. As a result of an £80m black hole in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), it has decided to stop funding research into the International Linear Collider (ILC), withdraw from the Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile, and cease all support for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy and ground-based solar-terrestrial physics. Research grants in particle physics and astronomy could also be cut by up to 25%, which may lead to job losses at university departments.

  11. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  12. Energy strategies for the UK

    Littlechild, S.C.; Vaidya, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive and integrated model of the UK energy sector which focuses on decision-making and optimisation rather than on forecasting or simulation. It incorporates the production and investment policy of all the major fuels (coal, oil, gas and electricity) over a fifty year horizon and analyses strategy under a variety of different assumptions about costs, demands, technolgy and future decisions. The authors cover the wide spectrum of energy problems and policy, including scenarios of rising il and gas prices, and there are striking calculations of the (low) costs of a non-nuclear plus conservation strategy. (author)

  13. History magazines in the UK

    Haydn, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the phenomenon of popular history magazines as a facet of public history. The UK has seen a substantial increase in the number of popular history magazines available to the public, with some magazines reaching high levels of circulation. The paper looks at the range of magazines available – from ‘heritage’ and ‘family’ history, to special interest magazines, and more ‘serious’ and scholarly history magazines. What is it that makes history magazines sell, and what influence ...

  14. Modelling potential production of macroalgae farms in UK and Dutch coastal waters

    J. van der Molen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in macroalgae farming in European waters for a range of applications, including food, chemical extraction for biofuel production. This study uses a 3-D numerical model of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry to investigate potential production and environmental effects of macroalgae farming in UK and Dutch coastal waters. The model included four experimental farms in different coastal settings in Strangford Lough (Northern Ireland, in Sound of Kerrera and Lynn of Lorne (north-west Scotland and in the Rhine plume (the Netherlands, as well as a hypothetical large-scale farm off the UK north Norfolk coast. The model could not detect significant changes in biogeochemistry and plankton dynamics at any of the farm sites averaged over the farming season. The results showed a range of macroalgae growth behaviours in response to simulated environmental conditions. These were then compared with in situ observations where available, showing good correspondence for some farms and less good correspondence for others. At the most basic level, macroalgae production depended on prevailing nutrient concentrations and light conditions, with higher levels of both resulting in higher macroalgae production. It is shown that under non-elevated and interannually varying winter nutrient conditions, farming success was modulated by the timings of the onset of increasing nutrient concentrations in autumn and nutrient drawdown in spring. Macroalgae carbohydrate content also depended on nutrient concentrations, with higher nutrient concentrations leading to lower carbohydrate content at harvest. This will reduce the energy density of the crop and thus affect its suitability for conversion into biofuel. For the hypothetical large-scale macroalgae farm off the UK north Norfolk coast, the model suggested high, stable farm yields of macroalgae from year to year with substantial carbohydrate content and limited environmental effects.

  15. Modelling potential production of macroalgae farms in UK and Dutch coastal waters

    van der Molen, Johan; Ruardij, Piet; Mooney, Karen; Kerrison, Philip; O'Connor, Nessa E.; Gorman, Emma; Timmermans, Klaas; Wright, Serena; Kelly, Maeve; Hughes, Adam D.; Capuzzo, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing interest in macroalgae farming in European waters for a range of applications, including food, chemical extraction for biofuel production. This study uses a 3-D numerical model of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry to investigate potential production and environmental effects of macroalgae farming in UK and Dutch coastal waters. The model included four experimental farms in different coastal settings in Strangford Lough (Northern Ireland), in Sound of Kerrera and Lynn of Lorne (north-west Scotland) and in the Rhine plume (the Netherlands), as well as a hypothetical large-scale farm off the UK north Norfolk coast. The model could not detect significant changes in biogeochemistry and plankton dynamics at any of the farm sites averaged over the farming season. The results showed a range of macroalgae growth behaviours in response to simulated environmental conditions. These were then compared with in situ observations where available, showing good correspondence for some farms and less good correspondence for others. At the most basic level, macroalgae production depended on prevailing nutrient concentrations and light conditions, with higher levels of both resulting in higher macroalgae production. It is shown that under non-elevated and interannually varying winter nutrient conditions, farming success was modulated by the timings of the onset of increasing nutrient concentrations in autumn and nutrient drawdown in spring. Macroalgae carbohydrate content also depended on nutrient concentrations, with higher nutrient concentrations leading to lower carbohydrate content at harvest. This will reduce the energy density of the crop and thus affect its suitability for conversion into biofuel. For the hypothetical large-scale macroalgae farm off the UK north Norfolk coast, the model suggested high, stable farm yields of macroalgae from year to year with substantial carbohydrate content and limited environmental effects.

  16. Introducing wood pellet fuel to the UK

    Cotton, R A; Giffard, A

    2001-07-01

    Technical and non-technical issues affecting the introduction of wood pellet-fired heating to the UK were investigated with the aim of helping to establish a wood pellet industry in the UK. The project examined the growth and status of the industry in continental Europe and North America, reviewed relevant UK standards and legislation, identified markets for pellet heating in the UK, organised workshops and seminars to demonstrate pellet burning appliances, carried out a trial pelletisation of a range of biomass fuels, helped to set up demonstration installations of pellet-fired appliances, undertook a promotional campaign for wood pellet fuel and compiled resource directories for pellet fuel and pellet burning appliances in the UK. The work was completed in three phases - review, identification and commercialisation. Project outputs include UK voluntary standards for wood pellet fuel and combustion appliances, and a database of individuals with an interest in wood pellet fuel.

  17. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-10

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  18. Self-Reported Digital Literacy of the Pharmacy Workforce in North East Scotland

    Katie MacLure

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently.

  19. An outbreak of an unusual strain of Listeria monocytogenes infection in North-East Scotland

    Emmanuel Okpo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Listeria monocytogenes infection is an important cause of illness and hospitalization in vulnerable individuals. In the present study, we describe a community outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes in the North-East region of Scotland, which was epidemiologically, environmentally and microbiologically linked to a local meat product and ready-to-eat product manufacturer. Infected individuals were interviewed, and an environmental investigation was conducted. Clinical and environmental samples were tested by culture, and isolates were typed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP. Three cases of Listeria monocytogenes were linked geographically, had the same serotype (1/2a and were indistinguishable by fAFLP type XII.6. The human, food and environmental isolates were of the same serotype and were indistinguishable by molecular typing.This is the first community outbreak of L. monocytogenes reported in Scotland since the current outbreak surveillance was established in 1996. Epidemiological and laboratory evidence indicated poor hand hygiene, unhygienic practices and cross-contamination throughout the manufacturing process of ready-to-eat foods as a possible cause of the outbreak. More stringent control of commercial food establishments that provide ready-to-eat food and the need to advise specifically vulnerable groups, e.g., pregnant women, of the risk of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food is urgently needed. Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, Outbreak, Foodborne, Community acquired infection, Listeriosis

  20. Determinants of utilisation differences for cancer medicines in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden.

    Ferrario, Alessandra

    2017-12-01

    Little comparative evidence is available on utilisation of cancer medicines in different countries and its determinants. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical model to test the correlation between utilisation and possible determinants in selected European countries. A sample of 31 medicines for cancer treatment that obtained EU-wide marketing authorisation between 2000 and 2012 was selected. Annual data on medicines' utilisation covering the in- and out-patient public sectors were obtained from national authorities between 2008 and 2013. Possible determinants of utilisation were extracted from HTA reports and complemented by contacts with key informants. A longitudinal mixed effect model was fitted to test possible determinants of medicines utilisation in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden. In the all-country model, the number of indications reimbursed positively correlated with increased consumption of medicines [one indication 2.6, 95% CI (1.8-3.6); two indications 2.4, 95% CI (1.4-4.3); three indications 4.9, 95% CI (2.2-10.9); all P marketing authorisation [1.2, 95% CI (1.02-1.4); p marketing authorisation. Prices had a negative effect on consumption in Belgium and Sweden. The positive impact of financial MEAs in Scotland suggests that the latter may remove the regressive effect of list prices on consumption.

  1. Observed and Modeled Pathways of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water in the eastern North Atlantic

    Zou, Sijia; Lozier, Susan; Zenk, Walter; Bower, Amy; Johns, William

    2017-04-01

    The Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW), one of the major components of the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), is formed in the Nordic Seas and enters the eastern North Atlantic subpolar gyre via the Iceland-Scotland sill. After entraining the ambient waters, the relatively homogeneous ISOW spreads southward into the North Atlantic. An understanding of the distribution and variability of the spreading pathways of the ISOW is fundamental to our understanding of AMOC structure and variability. Three major ISOW pathways have been identified in the eastern North Atlantic by previous studies: 1) across the Reykjanes Ridge via deep gaps, 2) through the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone, and 3) southward along the eastern flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). However, most of these studies were conducted using an Eulerian frame with limited observations, especially for the third pathway along the eastern flank of the MAR. In this work, we give a comprehensive description of ISOW pathways in the Eulerian and Lagrangian frames, quantify the relative importance of each pathway and examine the temporal variability of these pathways. Our study distinguishes itself from past studies by using both Eulerian (current meter data) and Lagrangian (eddy-resolving RAFOS float data) observations in combination with modeling output (1/12° FLAME) to describe ISOW spreading pathways and their variability.

  2. Third Way Parenting and the Creation of the “Named Person” in Scotland

    Stuart Waiton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article has been developed through the experience of working with the various organizations and individuals who have been part of the No to Named Person campaign. The aim of the article is to understand the emergence of the Named Person in Scotland and to explain the significant distance between legislators and policy makers and those who have opposed the Named Person initiative. We propose that the key to understanding these divergent views is predicated upon profoundly different views of the family, the collapse of the ideal of family autonomy, and its replacement with what can be described as “third way parenting.” Here, the meaning of the “Named Person” as laid out in the Children and Young People (Scotland Act 2014, and the opposing views that have been made against this act are explained. The “Named Person” provision in the legislation, it is argued, has developed with the rise of micro-managerial politics, the construction of the “at risk” child and the anxiety expressed about the early years of children, seen most clearly in the significance of early intervention policies. Within this context, parenting has become problematized and increasingly understood as a skills activity requiring training, support, and surveillance.

  3. A survey of non-accidental injury imaging in England, Scotland and Wales

    James, S L.J.; Halliday, K; Somers, J; Broderick, N

    2003-09-01

    AIM: To identify the potential national variation in non-accidental injury (NAI) imaging in England, Scotland and Wales. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A postal survey was sent to 323 hospitals with both paediatric and radiology departments. These were identified by a search through the Medical Directory. RESULTS: One hundred and thirteen of 323 postal questionnaires were returned within the study period (35%). Sixteen were excluded from the study because either no NAI imaging was performed at that institution or an incorrect address had been used. The total number of completed questionnaires was 97 (30%). Extensive variation was seen in all aspects of NAI imaging including imaging techniques used, total case numbers, follow-up imaging and those who report the NAI imaging. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently no national protocol that incorporates all aspects of NAI imaging in England, Scotland and Wales. Extensive variation in practice has been shown by this survey. Further standardization of NAI imaging practice is required. The draft BSPR skeletal survey guidelines and routine neurological imaging is recommended.

  4. Fingerprinting of bed sediment in the Tay Estuary, Scotland: an environmental magnetism approach

    P. A. Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment fingerprinting is commonly used for sediment provenance studies in lakes, rivers and reservoirs and on hillslopes and floodplains. This investigation explores the mixing of terrestrial and marine-derived sediment in the Tay Estuary, Scotland, using mineral magnetic attributes for fingerprinting. Samples representative of the estuary sediments and of four sources (end-members were subjected to a suite of magnetic susceptibility and remanence measurements. Sediment samples from the beds of the Rivers Tay and Earn represented fluvial inputs while samples from the Angus and Fife coasts represented marine input. Multivariate discriminant and factor analysis showed that the sources could be separated on the basis of six magnetic parameters in a simple multivariate unmixing model to identify source contributions to estuarine bed sediments. Multi-domain magnetite signatures, characteristic of unweathered bedrock, dominate the magnetic measurements. Overall contributions of 3% from the River Earn, 17% from the River Tay, 29% from the Angus coast and 51% from the Fife coast source end-members, demonstrated the present-day regime of marine sediment derivation in the Tay Estuary. However, this conceals considerable spatial variability both along-estuary and in terms of sub-environments, with small-scale variations in sediment provenance reflecting local morphology, particularly areas of channel convergence. Keywords: bed sediment, environmental magnetism, fingerprinting, Tay Estuary, Scotland

  5. Concurrent and legacy economic and environmental impacts from establishing a marine energy sector in Scotland

    Allan, Grant J.; Bryden, Ian; McGregor, Peter G.; Stallard, Tim; Kim Swales, J.; Turner, Karen; Wallace, Robin

    2008-01-01

    We examine the economic and environmental impact that the installation of 3 GW of marine energy capacity would have on Scotland. This is not a forecast, but a projection of the likely effects of meeting the Scottish Government's targets for renewable energy through the development of a marine energy sector. Energy, with a particular focus on renewables, is seen by the Scottish Government as a 'key sector', with high growth potential and the capacity to boost productivity (Scottish Government, 2007a. The Government Economic Strategy. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh). The key nature of this sector has been identified through targets being set for renewable energy to achieve environmental and economic benefits. Using a regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of Scotland we show that the development of a marine energy sector can have substantial and beneficial impacts on GDP, employment and the environment over the lifetime of the devices, given the encouragement of strong indigenous inter-industry linkages. Furthermore, there are also substantial 'legacy' effects that persist well beyond the design life of the devices

  6. 'Breaking Good News': Neurologists' experiences of discussing SUDEP with patients in Scotland.

    Nisbet, Tom; Turbull, Sue; Mulhern, Sharon; Razvi, Saif

    2017-05-01

    Since the findings of a Fatal Accident Inquiry (FAI) in 2010, clinicians working in Scotland have been advised to discuss the risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) with patients immediately or soon after a diagnosis of epilepsy is made. A thematic analysis was used to describe the experiences discussing SUDEP of 10 clinicians (six Consultant Neurologists and four Neurology Registrars) working in Scotland. Contrary to previous research, clinicians appear to be routinely discussing SUDEP in a standardized fashion with newly diagnosed patients and the FAI appears to have instigated this change in practice. Clinicians are ambivalent about the practice and whether this is a Breaking Bad News (BBN) experience. Clinicians appear to anticipate that patients will be anxious or distressed discussing SUDEP, despite their experiences that patients do not react this way. There are further concerns that the pressure to discuss SUDEP, as a result of the FAI, hinders effective communication of the SUDEP message. Implications for guideline development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Progress in the development of integrated mental health care in Scotland

    Kevin Woods

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of integrated care through the promotion of ‘partnership working’ is a key policy objective of the Scottish Executive, the administration responsible for health services in Scotland. This paper considers the extent to which this goal is being achieved in mental health services, particularly those for people with severe and enduring mental illness. Distinguishing between the horizontal and vertical integration of services, exploratory research was conducted to assess progress towards this objective by examining how far a range of functional activities in Primary Care Trusts (PCTs and their constituent Local Health Care Co-operatives (LHCCs were themselves becoming increasingly integrated. All PCTs in Scotland were surveyed by postal questionnaire, and followed up by detailed telephone interviews. Six LHCC areas were selected for detailed case study analysis. A Reference Group was used to discuss and review emerging themes from the fieldwork. The report suggests that faster progress is being made in the horizontal integration of services between health and social care organisations than is the case for vertical integration between primary health care and specialist mental health care services; and that there are significant gaps in the extent to which functional activities within Trusts are changing to support the development of integrated care. A number of models are briefly considered, including the idea of ‘intermediate care’ that might speed the process of integration.

  8. An outbreak of an unusual strain of Listeria monocytogenes infection in North-East Scotland.

    Okpo, Emmanuel; Leith, Jayne; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Bell, John; Parks, Duncan; Browning, Fiona; Byers, Lynn; Corrigan, Helen; Webster, Diana; Karcher, Anne M; Murray, Andrew; Storey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection is an important cause of illness and hospitalization in vulnerable individuals. In the present study, we describe a community outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes in the North-East region of Scotland, which was epidemiologically, environmentally and microbiologically linked to a local meat product and ready-to-eat product manufacturer. Infected individuals were interviewed, and an environmental investigation was conducted. Clinical and environmental samples were tested by culture, and isolates were typed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP). Three cases of Listeria monocytogenes were linked geographically, had the same serotype (1/2a) and were indistinguishable by fAFLP type XII.6. The human, food and environmental isolates were of the same serotype and were indistinguishable by molecular typing. This is the first community outbreak of L. monocytogenes reported in Scotland since the current outbreak surveillance was established in 1996. Epidemiological and laboratory evidence indicated poor hand hygiene, unhygienic practices and cross-contamination throughout the manufacturing process of ready-to-eat foods as a possible cause of the outbreak. More stringent control of commercial food establishments that provide ready-to-eat food and the need to advise specifically vulnerable groups, e.g., pregnant women, of the risk of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food is urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  10. Urban-rural differences in self-reported limiting long-term illness in Scotland.

    Levin, Kate A

    2003-12-01

    Previous research suggests that there are significant differences in health between urban and rural areas. The aim of this study is to describe the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in health in Scotland and to examine the factors associated with health inequalities in urban and rural areas. The data used in this study were limiting long-term illness (LLTI) and socio-economic data collected by the 1991 Census. A rurality indicator was created using Scottish Household Survey rurality classifications. Multilevel Poisson regression modelling was carried out with LLTI as a health indicator for each type of rurality within Scotland. A variety of socio-economic factors were investigated for each rurality. Areas with the highest Standardized Illness Ratios (SIRs) (>125) are predominantly urban whereas the lowest SIRs (rural areas. Rural communities are more heterogeneous than urban areas in terms of their social make-up with relation to health; however, when these areas are split according to minor road length and different socio-economic factors are added, the model fit for each new model is improved and the reduction in total variation is comparable with that of the urban models. These findings suggest that rural areas should not be treated as a homogeneous group but should be subdivided into rural types.

  11. The introduction, deployment and impact of assistant practitioners in diagnostic radiography in Scotland

    Price, R.; Miller, L.; Hicks, B.; Higgs, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the outcomes of an evaluation of the impact of introducing Assistant Practitioners (AP) roles into imaging departments in 13 of the 14 NHS Boards in Scotland. Between 2006 and 2009 some 34 individuals were trained as APs in diagnostic radiography with 33 subsequently taking up AP posts. In 2010 NHS Education for Scotland commissioned an evaluation of the impact brought about through introduction of the diagnostic imaging AP role in imaging departments. The research found that a minority of the managers had considered the workforce implications of introducing the new roles or the supervisory arrangements that would be required. In some sites implementation of the roles had resulted in the release of radiographers for additional training and higher level activities, but in others financial constraints had limited such initiatives. Managers believed that APs had helped maintain or improve service capacity and quality. - Highlights: • Minority of managers consider implications of new roles or supervisory arrangements. • Assistant practitioners (APs) help maintain or improve service capacity and quality. • Financial constraints limit training and initiatives. • APs can allow staff release for training and work in specialist modalities. • Data collection key in measuring financial effectiveness, capacity and impact

  12. Audit, guidelines and standards: clinical governance for hip fracture care in Scotland.

    Currie, Colin T; Hutchison, James D

    To report on experience of national-level audit, guidelines and standards for hip fracture care in Scotland. Scottish Hip Fracture Audit (from 1993) documents case-mix, process and outcomes of hip fracture care in Scotland. Evidence-based national guidelines on hip fracture care are available (1997, updated 2002). Hip fracture serves as a tracer condition by the health quality assurance authority for its work on older people, which reported in 2004. Audit data are used locally to document care and support and monitor service developments. Synergy between the guidelines and the audit provides a means of improving care locally and monitoring care nationally. External review by the quality assurance body shows to what extent guideline-based standards relating to A&E care, pre-operative delay, multidisciplinary care and audit participation are met. Three national-level initiatives on hip fracture care have delivered: Reliable and large-scale comparative information on case-mix, care and outcomes; evidence-based recommendations on care; and nationally accountable standards inspected and reported by the national health quality assurance authority. These developments are linked and synergistic, and enjoy both clinical and managerial support. They provide an evolving framework for clinical governance, with casemix-adjusted outcome assessment for hip fracture care as a next step.

  13. Association Between Old Firm Football Matches and Reported Domestic (Violence Incidents in Strathclyde, Scotland

    Damien J. Williams

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Media reports have suggested that the number of reports of domestic violence may increase when Scotland’s two largest, Glasgow-based football (soccer clubs, Rangers and Celtic (traditionally referred to as the “Old Firm” play one another. This study considers the number of domestic (violence incidents reported to Strathclyde Police between 2008 and 2011 in the 24 hours following these matches, and compares it with the number reported during two appropriate comparator periods. There is a statistically significant increase in the number of reports following Old Firm matches compared with the comparator periods. This preliminary analysis confirms previous speculation concerning the association between Old Firm matches and reports of domestic violence, and highlights the need to better understand the factors leading to such violence to inform preventive interventions.

  14. A new approach to age-period-cohort analysis using partial least squares regression: the trend in blood pressure in the Glasgow Alumni cohort.

    Yu-Kang Tu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to a problem of identification, how to estimate the distinct effects of age, time period and cohort has been a controversial issue in the analysis of trends in health outcomes in epidemiology. In this study, we propose a novel approach, partial least squares (PLS analysis, to separate the effects of age, period, and cohort. Our example for illustration is taken from the Glasgow Alumni cohort. A total of 15,322 students (11,755 men and 3,567 women received medical screening at the Glasgow University between 1948 and 1968. The aim is to investigate the secular trends in blood pressure over 1925 and 1950 while taking into account the year of examination and age at examination. We excluded students born before 1925 or aged over 25 years at examination and those with missing values in confounders from the analyses, resulting in 12,546 and 12,516 students for analysis of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. PLS analysis shows that both systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased with students' age, and students born later had on average lower blood pressure (SBP: -0.17 mmHg/per year [95% confidence intervals: -0.19 to -0.15] for men and -0.25 [-0.28 to -0.22] for women; DBP: -0.14 [-0.15 to -0.13] for men; -0.09 [-0.11 to -0.07] for women. PLS also shows a decreasing trend in blood pressure over the examination period. As identification is not a problem for PLS, it provides a flexible modelling strategy for age-period-cohort analysis. More emphasis is then required to clarify the substantive and conceptual issues surrounding the definitions and interpretations of age, period and cohort effects.

  15. Comparison of Glasgow-Blatchford score and full Rockall score systems to predict clinical outcomes in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Mokhtare M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marjan Mokhtare, Vida Bozorgi, Shahram Agah, Mehdi Nikkhah, Amirhossein Faghihi, Amirhossein Boghratian, Neda Shalbaf, Abbas Khanlari, Hamidreza Seifmanesh Colorectal Research Center, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran Background: Various risk scoring systems have been recently developed to predict clinical outcomes in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB. The two commonly used scoring systems include full Rockall score (RS and the Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS. Bleeding scores were assessed in terms of prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with UGIB. Patients and methods: Two hundred patients (age >18 years with obvious symptoms of UGIB in the emergency department of Rasoul Akram Hospital were enrolled. Full RS and GBS were calculated. We followed the patients for records of rebleeding and 1-month mortality. A receiver operating characteristic curve by using areas under the curve (AUCs was used to statistically identify the best cutoff point. Results: Eighteen patients were excluded from the study due to failure to follow-up. Rebleeding and mortality rate were 9.34% (n=17 and 11.53% (n=21, respectively. Regarding 1-month mortality, full RS was better than GBS (AUC, 0.648 versus 0.582; P=0.021. GBS was more accurate in terms of detecting transfusion need (AUC, 0.757 versus 0.528; P=0.001, rebleeding rate (AUC, 0.722 versus 0.520; P=0.002, intensive care unit admission rate (AUC, 0.648 versus 0.582; P=0.021, and endoscopic intervention rate (AUC, 0.771 versus 0.650; P<0.001. Conclusion: We found the full RS system is better for 1-month mortality prediction while GBS system is better for prediction of other outcomes. Keywords: full Rockall score, Glasgow-Blatchford score, gastrointestinal bleeding, mortality, prognosis

  16. Estudo de conforto em espaços abertos em região de clima temperado: o caso de Glasgow, Reino Unido

    Eduardo Leite Krüger

    Full Text Available O estudo da sensação de conforto térmico em espaços abertos deve ser entendido como primordial para o planejamento climaticamente adequado de áreas urbanas. Através do aumento da atratividade das àreas abertas e do incentivo às atividades ao ar livre, o planejamento urbano norteado do pelas preferências térmicas da população torna-se um agente facilitador do uso desses espaços. O presente trabalho analisa a sensação térmica de moradores de Glasgow, Reino Unido, localizada em região temperada, comparando respostas obtidas por meio de entrevistas estruturadas a índices utilizados pela meteorologia (Wind Chill e THSW e em estudos de conforto (PET e PMV. Os dados foram coletados em 19 campanhas de monitoramento, no período do inverno ao verão de 2011. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizada uma estação Davis Vantage Pro2, contendo sensores de temperatura e umidade relativa, anemômetro e piranômetro. Foi confeccionado um termômetro de globo, utilizado para obtenção da temperatura radiante média (TRM, equipado com um data logger (Tinytag-TGP-4500. Os resultados indicam que os índices THSW e PET foram os que mais se aproximaram da resposta térmica dos entrevistados, podendo ser aplicados no entendimento das condições do clima na cidade e entorno de Glasgow.

  17. Mapping area variability in social and behavioural difficulties among Glasgow pre-schoolers: linkage of a survey of pre-school staff with routine monitoring data.

    Barry, S J E; Marryat, L; Thompson, L; Ellaway, A; White, J; McClung, M; Wilson, P

    2015-11-01

    Social, emotional and behavioural development in early to middle childhood impact upon many outcomes in future life and are influenced by home, neighbourhood and school environments. We used linked data to investigate differences between areas in Glasgow City in level of difficulties in pre-school age children, after consideration of demographics, including area-level deprivation. Pre-school education staff completed Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) on all children progressing to school from a local authority or partnership (local authority-funded private) pre-school in Glasgow City between 2010 and 2012. These data were linked to individual (age, gender) and area-level (deprivation) demographics from the City Council Education Services Department. Statistical models were fitted to the SDQ scores, adjusting for age, gender, area deprivation, year of school entry, pre-school establishment attended and electoral ward of residence. Correlation between neighbouring wards was incorporated to allow for clustering of scores. Boys and those living in more deprived areas had higher levels of difficulties. Children aged 5.0-5.5 years had fewest difficulties, while the oldest and youngest children had similar levels of difficulties. There were no significant secular trends by year of school entry. There remained differences among areas after adjusting for these variables, with children living in some areas having fewer difficulties than would be expected based on their socio-demographic characteristics. There remained differences in children's levels of difficulties between areas after adjusting for age, gender, area deprivation and year of school entry. Children in some very deprived areas had fewer difficulties than might be expected, while those in relatively affluent areas had more difficulties than expected based on their deprivation level. There may be other, unmeasured, individual- and area-level reasons for children's level of difficulties, and these

  18. Pub Culture in the U.K.

    孙鑫

    2015-01-01

    In the U.K., pubs can be seen everywhere. They play an important role in the British society. How pubs came into being in the U.K.? Why is pub culture formed and what makes it prosperous? What effects does pub culture make on British society both in the past and in the present? Does any British character be shown in pub culture in the U.K.? In this paper, I will give a brief in-troduction of pub culture's history and development in the U.K.. Besides, the above questions will be explored and analyzed one by one.

  19. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK ? A Mixed Methods Study

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background:\\ud Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design.\\ud Methods:\\ud Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social a...

  20. Business, Management and Administration: A Subject-Based Aspect Report by Education Scotland on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council on Provision in Scotland's Colleges. Transforming Lives through Learning

    Education Scotland, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In preparing this report, reviewers visited a sample of four colleges, detailed in Appendix 1. They also drew on the findings of published Education Scotland external reviews of colleges, and examined other relevant publications and reports. They consulted and held focus groups with key stakeholders, including the Scottish Qualifications Authority…