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Sample records for glandular stomach lesions

  1. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.

    2010-01-01

    appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...

  2. MORPHOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE WALL OF THE GLANDULAR STOMACH OF YOUNG RABBITS (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Larissa Renata; Molinari, Sonia Lucy; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Michelan, Andrea Cristiane; Scapinello, Claúdio

    2001-01-01

    The morphology of the stomach may vary between species as a function of feeding habits, differences on the cellular composition of the mucosa of the stomach wall and the different functions it carries out. Morphofunctional variations of the stomach of several animals along phylogeny led us to investigate the morphology of the wall of the glandular stomach of rabbits. We used the stomachs of 32 young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from the White New Zealand strain, coming from the Experimenta...

  3. Induction of carcinomas in rat glandular stomach by direct X-irradiation of the stomach wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratenko, A.G.; Bykorez, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    To induce carcinoma in rat stomach the direct irradiation of the organ wall with X-rays in a dose of 16.22 Gy has been used. In the period from the 8-th to the 15-th month after irradiation in mucous membrane of stomach foci of atrophy, sections of regenerating hyperplasia of glands and methaplasia of stomach gland cells in the epithelium of the intestine type have been observed. Highly differentiated adenocarcinomas growing through all the walls of stomach are found in 18.5% rats [ru

  4. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in glandular lesions of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Eric; Zheng, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Ming; Yang, Ximing; Fallon, John T; Epstein, Jonathan I; Zhong, Minghao

    2015-10-01

    Glandular lesions of the urinary bladder include a broad spectrum of entities ranging from completely benign to primary and secondary malignancies. The accurate diagnosis of these lesions is both important and challenging. Recently, studies suggest that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations could be a biomarker for urothelial carcinoma (UC). We hypothesized that these mutations can distinguish UC with glandular differentiation from nephrogenic adenoma, primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder (PAUB), or secondary malignancies. Twenty-five cases of benign glandular lesions (including nephrogenic adenoma); 29 cases of UC with glandular differentiation; 10 cases of PAUB; and 10 cases each of metastatic colon cancer, prostatic carcinoma, and carcinoma from Mullerian origin were collected. Slides were reviewed and selected to make sure the lesion was at least 10% to 20% of all tissue. Macrodissection was performed in some of cases, and genomic DNA was extracted from the tissue. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were determined by standard polymerase chain reaction sequencing. Twenty-one cases (72%) of UC with glandular differentiation were positive for TERT promoter mutations. However, none of the remaining cases (total 65 cases of benign lesions, PAUB, and metastatic carcinomas) was positive for TERT promoter mutation. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were highly associated with UC including UC with glandular differentiation but not other glandular lesions of bladder. Therefore, in conjunction with morphologic features, Immunohistochemistry stain profile, and clinical information, TERT promoter mutations could distinguish UC with glandular differentiation from other bladder glandular lesions. In addition, lack of TERT promoter mutations in primary adenocarcinoma of bladder suggests that this entity may have different origin or carcinogenesis from those of UC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  6. 20-year Follow-up of Recurrent Glandular Odontogenic Cyst Mimicking a Periapical Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; Yamamoto-Silva, Fernanda Paula; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; Silva Sant'Ana, Simone Sousa; Mariano-Júnior, Wilson José; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Periapical lesions usually are caused by root canal infection; nevertheless, other pathologies may eventually involve the tooth apex, making the correct diagnosis more difficult. Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are uncommon and, despite their cystic nature, may present an aggressive behavior and a high recurrence rate. This report describes a recurrent GOC mimicking a periapical lesion that was followed up for 20 years. A 45-year-old woman described tooth discomfort for several years in the anterior region of the mandible that was not exacerbated during eating or occlusion. Clinical examination revealed no signs of swelling, redness, or inflammation in the gingival or surrounding soft tissue. Nevertheless, periapical radiography showed a well-defined large radiolucent lesion in the periapical region of teeth #22, #23, #24, and #25. The pulp test confirmed that all these teeth were vital. An incisional biopsy was performed, and with the histopathological diagnosis of an odontogenic cyst, the lesion was enucleated surgically. After recurrence, the extensive periapical multilocular lesions were again surgically removed. Based on the microscopic findings, the final diagnosis was GOC. One year later, there were no signs of recurrence. GOCs associated with the root apex may mimic periapical inflammatory diseases. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are essential for the diagnosis of inconclusive radiolucent findings in the periapical region. Biopsy specimens should be sent to a specialized oral pathology laboratory. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lanthanum deposition corresponds to white lesions in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Urata, Haruo; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-23

    Although lanthanum deposition in the stomach has been most frequently reported to occur as white lesions, no study has investigated whether the white lesions observed during esophagogastroduodenoscopy are truly lanthanum-related. Here, we retrospectively investigated the amount of lanthanum in endoscopic biopsy specimens. We reviewed four patients showing gastric white spots or annular whitish mucosa in the gastric white lesions (Bw) and peripheral mucosa where the white substance was not endoscopically observed (Bp) during biopsy. We also reviewed three patients with diffuse whitish mucosa and three patients with no whitish lesions. We performed scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to quantify the lanthanum elements (wt%) in the biopsy specimens. The amount of lanthanum in the Bw ranged from 0.15-0.31 wt%, whereas that of Bp was 0.00-0.13 wt%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The amount of lanthanum in the Bw, endoscopically presented with white spots or annular whitish mucosa, was significantly higher than that of no whitish lesions (0.05-0.14 wt%, P < 0.05). The amount of lanthanum was also higher in the diffuse whitish mucosa (0.21-0.23 wt%) compared with no whitish lesions (P < 0.01). This study is the first to reveal that pathological lanthanum deposition corresponds to the endoscopically observed white lesions in the gastric mucosa. Therefore, during esophagogastroduodenoscopy, physicians should pay attention to possible presence of white lesions in patients treated with oral lanthanum carbonate to ensure prompt identification of associated issues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. CINtec PLUS immunocytochemistry as a tool for the cytologic diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravarino, Alberto; Nemolato, Sonia; Macciocu, Elena; Fraschini, Matteo; Senes, Giancarlo; Faa, Gavino; Negri, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic findings of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri are often difficult to evaluate. We studied the usefulness of CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain (mtm laboratories, Heidelberg, Germany) for the diagnosis of glandular lesions. The study included 47 abnormal results on liquid-based cytologic tests with a subsequent histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ or with early invasion, and 16 samples with negative results on follow-up. All samples were stained with CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain. Of the neoplastic samples, 7 were excluded because of insufficient residual cellularity or loss of neoplastic cells. Of the samples that were adequate, 92.5% were stained with CINtec PLUS, whereas 7.5% were judged inconclusive. All inconclusive cases were at least 3 years old. Of the 16 negative samples, 15 (93.8%) stained negative and only 1 (6.2%) showed several positive clusters of cells. Our study shows that CINtec PLUS is a robust and useful tool for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

  9. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment

  10. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katano, Takahito [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Ootani, Akifumi [Department of Gastroenterology and GI Endoscopy Center, Shin-Kokura Hospital, Federation of National Public Service Personnel Mutual Aid Associations, 1-3-1 Kanada, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-0816 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Mizoshita, Tsutomu, E-mail: tmizoshi@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Toda, Shuji [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  11. Benign submucosal lesions of the stomach and duodenum: Imaging characteristics with endoscopic and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Choi, Jong Cheol; Cho, Jin Han; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Choi, Sun Seob; Kwon, Hee Jin; Yoon, Jung Hee; Kim, Su Jin

    2008-01-01

    Benign submucosal lesions of the stomach and duodenum are occasionally encountered during endoscopy. But endoscopy has its limitations in the diagnosis and differentiation of these lesions, because submucosal lesions are often difficult to visualize at endoscopy due to minimal change of the overlying mucosa. Furthermore, endoscopic biopsy may not always yield adequate tissue for diagnosis due to the submucosal location of the lesions. For this reason, the role of radiologic imaging is important in the diagnosis of submucosal lesions of the stomach and duodenum. Recent advances in computed tomography (CT) and sonographic technology are helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis of gastroduodenal submucosal lesions. In contrast to endoscopy and barium studies, CT or ultrasonography (US) provides information about both the gastric wall and the extragastric extent of the disease. Arterial phase contrast enhanced CT enables us to discriminate a mass of submucosal from that of a mucosal origin in the differential diagnosis of gastric or duodenal lesions. Although endoscopic sonography has been considered the better modality in the diagnosis of gastroduodenal submucosal lesions, transabdominal sonography can still be an alternative method to endoscopic sonography in assessing of the origin and character of the submucosal lesions. Some gastroduodenal submucosal lesions have similar radiologic findings that make differentiation difficult. But despite overlaps in radiologic findings, some lesions have characteristic radiologic features that may suggest a specific diagnosis. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of benign submucosal lesions in the stomach and duodenum may promote correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment

  12. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Induction of intestinal metaplasia in the glandular stomach of rats by x-irradiation prior to oral administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Watanabe, H; Terada, Y; Naito, Y; Naito, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-12-01

    CD/CRJ rats were subjected to localized X-irradiation of the stomach and given N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the drinking water. Rats given MNNG alone and non-treated rats were used as controls. Upon sacrifice at 15 months after the initial MNNG administration, intestinal metaplasia was observed; the histology was of complete type and the incidence was 100% in rats treated with X-rays and MNNG, whereas in rats treated with MNNG alone the intestinal metaplasia was of incomplete type and its incidence was 80%. However, the incidence of gastric cancer in rats treated with MNNG alone was 25%.

  14. Expression of podoplanin and TGF-beta in glandular odontogenic cyst and its comparison with developmental and inflammatory odontogenic cystic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddini, Mojgan; Eshghyar, Nosratollah; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo

    2017-01-01

    The number of studies investigating the immunohistochemical characteristics of glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) is limited, due to its rarity. TGF-beta has been suggested to induce podoplanin expression in some lesions. We aimed to evaluate and compare podoplanin and TGF-beta expression in GOC and other odontogenic cystic lesions. A total of 43 samples including five GOCs, 10 dentigerous cysts (DCs), eight unicystic ameloblastoma (UAs), and 20 radicular cysts (RCs) were selected and subjected to immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against podoplanin and TGF-beta. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis along with Bonferroni for adjusting P-values (P < 0.05). Podoplanin immunoreactivity was observed in 80%, 70%, and 100% of DCs, RCs, and UAs, respectively, while none of the GOCs were positive for this marker (P = 0.004). Significant differences were only found in the GOC specimens. TGF-beta positivity occurred in the capsule and epithelium of all GOCs and DCs, while RCs and UAs demonstrated different expression percentages in the capsular and epithelial tissues. Epithelial TGF-beta showed significant differences among the studied lesions (P = 0.007) with the main difference found between DCs with RCs and DCs with UAs. Lack of podoplanin expression might be involved in the characteristic histologic and behavioral features of GOC, which seems to be unrelated to TGF-beta expression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Precancerous lesions in the stomach: from biology to clinical patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugge, Massimo; Capelle, Lisette G; Cappellesso, Rocco; Nitti, Donato; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2013-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the final step in a multi-stage cascade triggered by long-standing inflammatory conditions (particularly Helicobacter pylori infection) resulting in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: these lesions represent the cancerization field in which (intestinal-type) gastric cancer develops. Intraepithelial neoplasia is consistently recognized as the phenotypic bridge between atrophic/metaplastic lesions and invasive cancer. This paper addresses the epidemiology, pathology, molecular profiling, and clinical management of advanced precancerous gastric lesions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    landing on the plant. Glandular trichomes in catmint (Nepeta sp.) produce nepetalactone, closely related to the aphid sex pheromone, nepetalactol. Nepetalactone can be reduced to the corresponding nepetalactol. ... Plant glandular trichomes function either as repositories or releasing sites of various chemicals. Interest in ...

  17. [Consideration of algorithms to presume the lesion location by using X-ray images of the stomach--geometric analysis of four direction radiography for the U region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henmi, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    The author considered algorithms to presume the lesion location from a series of X-ray images obtained by four direction radiography without blind area for the U region of the stomach. The objects of analysis were six cases that protruding lesions were noticed in the U region. Firstly, from the length of short axis and measure of the lateral width of U region projected on the film, we presumed the length of longitudinal axis and angle between short axis and the film. Secondly, we calculated the rate of length to stomach walls from right side and left side of every image to the lateral width at the height passing through the center of the lesion. Using the lesion location calculated from these values, we presumed that the values that almost agreed between two images to be the lesion location. As the result of analysis, there were some cases that the lesion location could be presumed certainly or un-certainly, on the other hand, there were some cases that the lesion location could not be presumed. Since the form of the U region can be distorted by a change of position, or the angle between longitudinal axis and sagittal plane was changed, the error might have been made in calculation, and so it was considered that the lesion location could not be presumed.

  18. Correlação dos aspectos laparoscópicos com as alterações histológicas glandulares das lesões endometrióticas peritoneais Correlation between laparoscopic aspects and glandular hystological findings of peritoneal endometriotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Antonio Viscomi

    2004-09-01

    evolutiva da endometriose peritoneal.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between laparoscopic aspects and glandular hystological findings of peritoneal endometriosis to understand the theory of evolution of endometriosis. METHODS: Sixty seven women with peritoneal endometriosis were submitted to laparoscopy. Peritoneal biopsy was taken from the typical (puckered black and atypical endometriotic implants. The different aspects of endometriosis were classified as follows: red lesions (group V, black lesions (group N and white lesions (group B. Hystological sections were examined according to a standardized protocol. The hystological parameters used were: functional characteristics of glandular epithelium, presence of intraluminal debris, occurrence of mitosis and stroma/gland ratio. RESULTS: Functional characteristics of glandular epithelium showed statistically significant association among groups. Secretory epithelium was found in 68.4 % of group V, in 15.8% of groups N & B, while not characteristic epithelium was found in 19.4% of red lesions, 38.7% of black lesions and 41.9% of white lesions. Proliferative epithelium was found in 50% of group B patients and in 25% of groups V & N (p=0.011. Regarding intraluminal debris, there were also statistically significant differences among the groups, present in 58.4% of group N, 33.3% of group B and 8.3% of group V (p=0.016. There was no statistical difference between occurrence of mitosis (P=0.428, nor in the stroma/gland ratio (p=0.159. CONCLUSION: Association between functional activity and red lesions and low activity in black and white lesions, regarding the hystological characteristics of the glandular epithelium analyzed in this study shows the importance of the theory of evolution of endometriosis. This was also demonstrated by presence of intraluminal debris in the study groups.

  19. Mass-like Dieulafoy's lesion associated with advanced gastric cancer at the antrum of stomach: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsi-Lan; Leung, Chi Yan; Cheng, Chien-Jui

    2017-10-10

    Dieulafoy's lesion, also known as a caliber-persistent artery, is a shallow, small, and rare lesion that occurs along the lesser curvature of proximal stomach. It is rare for a Dieulafoy's lesion to present as a mass-like lesion that coexists with gastric cancer. To our best knowledge, we report the first case and histopathological pictures of a mass-like Dieulafoy's lesion coexisting with advanced gastric cancer in the antrum of the stomach. A 57-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of intermittent epigastric dull pain and dyspepsia. Subsequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a friable mass that was located between the distal antrum and the pyloric ring. Biopsy revealed it to be an intestinal type adenocarcinoma. Subtotal gastrectomy was performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Grossly, a large irregular plaque-like tumor lesion was noted at the anterior wall of the distal antrum and pylorus ring near the lesser curvature, measuring 5.6 × 4.8 × 1.0 cm. Histopathological examination of the resected stomach revealed that the plaque-like lesion largely consisted of numerous abnormally large-caliber and tortuous arteries in the submucosa. The increased fibrosis of the submucosa resulted in the formation of elevated plaque. The intestinal type adenocarcinoma was noted to be largely confined to the mucosa layer, with focal submucosal and muscular propria involvement. The patient was discharged one week after the subtotal gastrectomy, and she was alive and well 17 months after discharge, with no major complications. This is the first case of a mass-like Dieulafoy's lesion coexisting with advanced gastric cancer at the distal antrum area. This case highlights the possibility of life-threatening gastric bleeding after mucosal resection or biopsy that could be encountered by endoscopists.

  20. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  1. Estimating average glandular dose by measuring glandular rate in mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Sachiko; Azuma, Yoshiharu; Sumimoto, Tetsuhiro; Eiho, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    The glandular rate of the breast was objectively measured in order to calculate individual patient exposure dose (average glandular dose) in mammography. By employing image processing techniques and breast-equivalent phantoms with various glandular rate values, a conversion curve for pixel value to glandular rate can be determined by a neural network. Accordingly, the pixel values in clinical mammograms can be converted to the glandular rate value for each pixel. The individual average glandular dose can therefore be calculated using the individual glandular rates on the basis of the dosimetry method employed for quality control in mammography. In the present study, a data set of 100 craniocaudal mammograms from 50 patients was used to evaluate our method. The average glandular rate and average glandular dose of the data set were 41.2% and 1.79 mGy, respectively. The error in calculating the individual glandular rate can be estimated to be less than ±3%. When the calculation error of the glandular rate is taken into consideration, the error in the individual average glandular dose can be estimated to be 13% or less. We feel that our method for determining the glandular rate from mammograms is useful for minimizing subjectivity in the evaluation of patient breast composition. (author)

  2. Stomach ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... erode the stomach wall. A major cause of stomach ulcers is the bacteria called Helicobacter pylori . Treatment regimens for ulcers caused this bacterium usually include medications to suppress the stomach acid as well as antibiotics to eradicate the ...

  3. Stomach: ultrasonography evaluation and post mortem inspection in adult horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Chaves Pessoa da Veiga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Veiga C.C.P., Cascon C.M., Souza B.G., Braga L.S.M., Souza V.C., Ferreira A.M.R. & Leite J.S. [Stomach: ultrasonography evaluation and post mortem inspection in adult horses.] Avaliação ultrassonográfica e anatomopatológica macroscópica do estômago de equinos destinados ao abate comercial. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:125-130, 2014. Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, km 7, Seropédica, 23890-000, RJ, Brasil. E-mail: radiovet@ufrrj.br The equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS includes all symptomatic or asymptomatic cases of erosions, ulcers, gastritis, gastric emptying disorders, duodenitis, duodenal ulcers and complications of these disorders. Occupies a prominent place in the equine clinic where you can go for the death of the animal. Ultrasonography of the stomach is indicated when the animals showed clinical signs of gastric disease. The aim of this study was to describe the sonographic evaluation and macroscopic pathological findings of the stomach of adult horses intended for commercial slaughter. To this 39 intended for commercial slaughter horses were evaluated. Sonographic evaluation before slaughter transabdominal via the left side of abdomen for evaluation of the stomach was performed. After the slaughter of these animals their stomachs were collected, evaluated and photographed. The study concluded that ultrasonography identified the stomach in all animals evaluated, but did not allow a careful evaluation of the entire length of the viscera, especially the aglandular region and pleated border. All animals evaluated had injury to the gastric mucosa in different degrees. In animals evaluated, the stomach region was most affected by injuries glandular region, although the most severe lesions have been found in the ruffled border adjacent to aglandular region.

  4. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  5. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  6. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  7. Regional surface geometry of the rat stomach based on three-dimensional curvature analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Donghua [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Zhao Jingbo [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Gregersen, Hans [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2005-01-21

    A better understanding of gastric accommodation and gastric perception requires knowledge of regional gastric geometry and local gastric tension throughout the stomach. An analytic method based on medical imaging data was developed in this study to describe the three-dimensional (3D) rat stomach geometry and tension distribution. The surface principal radii of curvatures were simulated and the surface tension was calculated in the glandular and non-glandular region of the stomach at pressures from 0 Pa to 800 Pa. The radii of curvature and tension distribution in the stomach were non-homogeneous. The radii of curvature in the glandular stomach were larger than those in the non-glandular region at pressures less than 100 Pa (P < 0.001). When the pressure increased to more than 200 Pa, the radii of curvature in the non-glandular stomach was larger than in the glandular stomach (P < 0.05). The curvature and tension distribution mapping using medical imaging technology and 3D models can be used to characterize and distinguish the physical behaviour in separate regions of the stomach.

  8. Regional surface geometry of the rat stomach based on three-dimensional curvature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Donghua; Zhao Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of gastric accommodation and gastric perception requires knowledge of regional gastric geometry and local gastric tension throughout the stomach. An analytic method based on medical imaging data was developed in this study to describe the three-dimensional (3D) rat stomach geometry and tension distribution. The surface principal radii of curvatures were simulated and the surface tension was calculated in the glandular and non-glandular region of the stomach at pressures from 0 Pa to 800 Pa. The radii of curvature and tension distribution in the stomach were non-homogeneous. The radii of curvature in the glandular stomach were larger than those in the non-glandular region at pressures less than 100 Pa (P < 0.001). When the pressure increased to more than 200 Pa, the radii of curvature in the non-glandular stomach was larger than in the glandular stomach (P < 0.05). The curvature and tension distribution mapping using medical imaging technology and 3D models can be used to characterize and distinguish the physical behaviour in separate regions of the stomach

  9. [Treatment and prevention of erosive and ulcerative lesions in the stomach and duodenum caused by intake of non-steroidalanti-inflammatory drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzina, E V

    2014-01-01

    Therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is a diffcult task. Good anti-inflammatory effect increases the risk of gastrointestinal complications with a frequency of 10-50%. The risk further increases with age (above 60-70 yr), the history of ulcer disease concomitant intake of acetylsalicylic acid, anticoagulants, and glucocorticosteroids. Long-term antisecretory therapy with proton pump inhibitors, e.g., esomeprazole, was shown to be an effective prophylactic tool. This drug maintains the intragastric pH value above 4 for 15 hr on the average. The risk of erosive and ulceraive lesions in the stomach and duodenum significantly decreases by selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, e.g., coxibs, that however increase the risk of thrombotic cardiovascular complications. The author proposes recommendations on the use of NSAIDs in the patients at risk of serious gastrointestinal and cardiovascular pathology. Naproxen in combination with proton pitmp inhibitors is the drug of choice among NSAIDs. Vimovo is a fixed combination of naproxen and esomeprazole. Results of comparative studies on the efficacy of vimovo and celecoxib are presented along with the data on the safety of this. combination compared with that of naproxen monotherapy

  10. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Men, Seniors, WomenTags: cancer, gastric cancer, stomach cancer May 1, 1999 Copyright © American Academy ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  11. Stomach Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pylori) bacteria are a common cause of the gastritis that contributes to hyperplastic polyps and adenomas. Familial adenomatous polyposis. This rare, inherited syndrome increases the risk of colon cancer and other conditions, including stomach polyps. Certain medications. ...

  12. Stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako

    1992-01-01

    Malignant tumors have received much attention as delayed effects of A-bomb radiation. Above all, it is of a major concern to determine how the incidence of stomach cancer, commonly observed among Japanese, is influenced by A-bomb radiation. This article focusses on the relationship between A-bomb radiation and the incidence of stomach cancer, and its histological features with a brief review of the literature. Mass screening for stomach cancer has showed in 1973 that the incidence of stomach cancer is definitely high among the heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. Since then, data analyses using the T65DR have showed it to be higher in the 100 rad exposed group than the 0 rad exposed group. On the basis of death certificates, the incidence of stomach cancer is found to be increased around 1976. When using DS86, the calculated lowest dose that produces a significantly high mortality incidence from stomach cancer is 1 Gy at the sheilding kerma and 0.5 Gy at organ absorbed dose. Histopathologically, the incidence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma is increased with increasing radiation doses; it is significantly increased in the 1 rad exposed group. The incidence of medullary type is decreased and the incidence of scirrhous type is increased with increasing radiation doses. (N.K.)

  13. Schwannoma of the stomach: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yun, Yeung Geum; Yang, Kee Hwa

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of exogastric schwannoma of the stomach in 41-years-old male patient with papable mass in left upper abdomen. Upper Gl series revealed extrinsic compression on the greater curvature of the stomach. CT scan showed a low density mass attached to greater curvature of the stomach with inhomogeneous contrast enhancement in the mass lesion. The mass was removed by surgery, and confirmed pathologically as schwannoma arising from the stomach

  14. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  15. [The spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Kaĭsinova, A S

    2014-01-01

    To develop a new medical technology for the spa-and-health resort-based treatment of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation. A total of 100 patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation were available for the examination that included detailed investigations of the clinical picture, characteristics of the immune status, and psychological testing before and after a course of the spa-and-health resort-based treatment. The effectiveness of two therapeutic modalities was evaluated. One of them (control) prescribed to 50 patients consisted of standard antiulcer pharmacotherapy in combination with Essentuki Novaya drinking mineral water and carbon dioxide mineral baths, the other given to 50 patients included radon baths instead of carbon dioxide mineral baths. The combined application of drinking mineral waters, radon baths, and standard antiulcer pharmacotherapy produced the most conspicuous clinical effect in the framework of spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation as confirmed by positive dynamics of their psychoemotional status in 97.7% of the cases, regression of pain syndrome (91.5%), and improvement of humoral and cellular immunity (94%). An important result of the spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation is the intensification of the reparative processes in gastroduodenal mucosa responsible for the healing of ulcers and erosions in 94.7% of the patients. The spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation is a pathogenetically sound and efficacious approach to the management of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the

  16. Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Ribeiro, M.; Areia, M.; de Vries, A. C.; Marcos-Pinto, R.; Monteiro-Soares, M.; O'Connor, A.; Pereira, C.; Pimentel-Nunes, P.; Correia, R.; Ensari, A.; Dumonceau, J. M.; Machado, J. C.; Macedo, G.; Malfertheiner, P.; Matysiak-Budnik, T.; Megraud, F.; Miki, K.; O'Morain, C.; Peek, R. M.; Ponchon, T.; Ristimaki, A.; Rembacken, B.; Carneiro, F.; Kuipers, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods. PMID:22198778

  17. The stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amberg, J.R.; Juhl, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Symptoms of epigastric pain raise the possibility of peptic ulcer disease and lead to an examination of the stomach and duodenum. Hematemesis or melena is also a strong indication. The nausea-vomiting complex on a subacute or chronic basis raises the possibility of an obstructive lesion. A palpable mass in the upper abdomen may involve the stomach. Weight loss and anorexia are less specific symptoms but can occur with gastric cancer. Major changes in indications have occurred now that ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are available. No longer is the gut studied to detect extra-gut disease. Currently, the duodenal contour is not important in the search for pancreatic disease. All intra-abdominal structures can now be seen directly using CT or ultrasound

  18. The anti-secretory and anti-ulcer activities of esomeprazole in comparison with omeprazole in the stomach of rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaki, Salim M A; Chandranath, Irwin S; Singh, Jaipaul

    2008-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat hyperacid secretion and stomach ulcers. The study investigated the anti-secretory and anti-ulcer effects of esomeprazole, the S-isomer of omeprazole on dimaprit, histamine and dibutyryl adenosine 3, 5 cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP)-evoked gastric acid secretion, acidified ethanol (AE) and indomethacin (INDO)-induced haemorrhagic lesions and on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the rat in vivo and rabbit in vitro preparations. The effect of omeprazole was also investigated for comparison. Dimaprit-induced acid secretion was significantly (P stomach tissue homogenate. The results show that esomeprazole and omeprazole were equally effective against gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by either AE or INDO and in inhibiting dimaprit-, dbcAMP- and histamine-induced gastric acid secretion in the rat and rabbit stomach both in vivo and in vitro. The gastro-protective effect of esomeprazole was found to be proportional to the bound PGE2 levels in the glandular area of the stomach.

  19. Effects of pregelatinized vs. native potato starch on intestinal weight and stomach lesions of pigs housed in barren pens or on straw bedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Staals, S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 16 groups of 12 pigs (approximately 25 kg) were assigned to either barren or straw housing and to native or pregelatinized potato starch included in the diet (35%) to investigate effects on intestinal weight and gastric lesions. Pigs were fed restrictedly (2.5 ×

  20. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Chul; Jin, S I; Kim, J W [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-12-15

    The ultrasonographic features of stomach cancer were studied in 43 patients who were diagnosed by double contrast UGI study and endoscopy. Ultrasonographic study was performed immediately after UGI study and the findings were correlated with USI study. The authors observed infiltrative lesions causing thickening of gastric wall, which can be localized (16 of 31) or diffuse(15 of 31). 9 cases were exogastric masses, sonographic findings were not found in the lesions occupying the cardia (3 of 5) Ultrasonography is useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of metastasis elsewhere in the abdomen, facilitating tumor staging and evaluation of the response to therapy

  1. Immunohistochemical characterization of glandular elements in glandular cardiac myxoma: Study of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devajit Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Glandular cardiac myxoma has varying clinical presentation with uncertain histogenesis and debatable immunohistochemical profile. Glandular epithelial differentiations are rare phenomenon known to be present as an intrinsic component of the tumor. The origin of the glands has been attributed to epithelial differentiation of a totipotent cardiomyogenic precursor cells or the entrapped foregut rests in the tumor. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study includes six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma collected over a perior of 4 years. Sections were examined to define the histogenesis, histological and immunohistochemical profile of the glandular elements. Results: Incidence of glandular cardiac myxoma was 6.6% with a male to female ratio of 1:2.Mean age was 49.9 years. Left atrium was the commonest site. Five were sporadic and one was familial. Chest pain and dyspnea were the commonest clinical symptoms. Histologically all myxoma showed well formed glandular structures with typical myxomatous area. No atypia, mitosis or necrosis was identified in the glandular elements. Markers in six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma were immunopositive for CK7, CK 19, EMA, CEA, focally for E-cadherin while immunonegative for CK20, Chromogranin, Synaptophysin, calretenin, vimentin, B-catenin, TTF-1 and GCDFP-15 favoring enteric differentiation. Conclusion: Glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare entity which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma with benign glandular elements showing enteric differentiation. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice with good prognosis. It is important to recognize this entity to avoid an erroneous diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  2. Diagnosis of Stomach Carcinoma by Radioisotope Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, P.; Meytes, E.; Sinkover, A.; Bank, H. [Tel-Hashomer Government Hospital, University of Tel Aviv School of Medicine (Israel)

    1969-05-15

    Scanning of the stomach after administration of {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc is presented. Experiments on 20 dogs were performed and 105 patients were examined. The studies with {sup 131}I are only mentioned briefly as they have been summarized in a previous publication and we have concentrated on our experience with {sup 99m}Tc and on stomach carcinoma. The turnover of the nuclide in blood, urine, gastric juice and gastric mucosa was tested: in-vivo and post-operative scannings were performed. The scans are classified in four groups. Carcinoma of the stomach results in space-occupying lesions or foggy scans. A correlation of 85 - 90% between scan results and clinical findings is noted. A special group of 10 volunteers was examined to establish the possibility of a screening examination for the detection of stomach cancer using the technique presented. (author)

  3. Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Bouassida, Mahdi; Kilani, Houda; Medhioub, Mouna; Chelbi, Emna

    2015-11-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach is very rare. Its pathogenesis is unclear and the treatment strategy is controversial. We report an agressive primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with liver and lung metastases in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple liver metastases. Endoscopic examination showed two tumour masses on the fundus of the stomach. Biopsy of the lesions revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Chest x-ray showed multiple large pulmonary nodules highly suggestive of pulmonary metastases. The patient died ten days after he was admitted because of progression of the tumour and before any therapeutic decision.

  4. MRI: Imaging of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, W. W. M; Lee, J. S. W.; Ho, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The study is to determine the optimal MRI bowel preparation regime for visualization of the stomach anatomy, Eight healthy volunteers were asked to take water, 75% barium and blueberry juice. The image quality and tolerance of different stomach distension regime were evaluated. Blueberry juice gave the best distension, but the signal intensity was not very homogeneous. Taking into account the image quality, tolerability and adverse effects, it is concluded that water is the most desirable oral contrast for MR stomach imaging

  5. Pathology of gastric lesions in donkeys: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mokaddem, A K; Ahmed, K A; Doghaim, R E

    2015-11-01

    Donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) are important working animals, particularly in countries where the majority of the population lives below the poverty line. Gastric ulceration has been shown to be common in British donkeys but donkeys from other parts of the world have not been as extensively researched. This study was performed as a preliminary overview of the severity and distribution of gastric lesions in mature donkeys and to document which parasites were present. Descriptive study of pathological findings. Stomachs of 35 mature draught donkeys were examined grossly and histopathology samples taken from 5 regions of the gastric mucosa. Gross examination revealed hyperaemia, oedema, erosions and ulcers in addition to parasitic lesions. Histopathological examination revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, vacuolar degeneration of stratified squamous cells, gastritis, erosions, ulcerations, scarring, hyperactivity of mucus glands, periglandular fibroplasia and parasitic granulomes with infestation by Gasterophilus spp. larvae, Habronema spp. and Draschia megastoma. In donkeys, ulceration of the nonglandular regions of the stomach is more prominent than the glandular regions and parasitic infestations were frequent. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Choriocarcinoma of the Stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hee

    1987-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is considered to be a malignant tumor of the trophoblast originating within the uterus. But it may be rarely encountered in the stomach. We have experienced a case of extragonadal choriocarcinoma arising from the stomach and present its ultrasonographic findings

  7. Ulcers of stomach body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, A.N.; Rizaev, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Symptoms of the roentgenologic image in differential diagnosis of nonmalignant ulcers and stomach carcinomas ulcerated are presented. Problems on X-ray semiotics of ulcerations, data on X-ray represenetation of ulcer evolution as well as postulcer changes in the stomach are interpreted

  8. "Stomach Flu" (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Educators Search English Español "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth / For Kids / "Stomach Flu" Print Many people talk about the " ...

  9. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  10. Anatomical subdivisions of the stomach of the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J L; Lan, G; Wang, G X; Li, H Y; Xie, Z M

    2000-08-01

    Twenty stomachs of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) were studied by gross dissection. Based on the configuration of the stomach and the structure of the mucous membrane, the stomach was divided into three ventricles that differ from the arrangement described for ox and sheep. The first and second ventricles of the proventriculus of camel form one stomach rather than two different stomachs. These ventricles of the proventriculus do not correspond to the rumen and reticulum of ox and sheep. The third ventricle appears to be the abomasum. One part of the abomasum has reticular mucosal folds that indicate it is not the reticulum. A second part of the abomasum has longitudinal mucosal folds suggesting it is not the omasum. Three glandular sac areas associated with the preventriculus and abomasum are also described. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Roentgenographic diagnosis of early stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung Sook; Choi, Heung Jai

    1970-01-01

    The most significant feature of early carcinoma, be defined as the gastric carcinoma confined in mucosa and submucosal regardless of its size and shape, is its excellent prognosis; 5 year survival rate after operation in early stomach carcinoma amounts to 93 percent in comparison with around 25 percent in advanced carcinoma, and so the detection of this early stomach carcinoma is most important subject to minimize the mortality from stomach carcinoma at the present time. For the diagnosis of the early stomach carcinoma the radiographic study, cytology and gastroscopic examination are practised, and of those the radiographic study has been revealed commonly best results, but by usual method of upper G-I study it is often difficult to diagnose accurately. Therefore, we have been employed the barium and air double contrast method by insertion of the gastric tube. This method is simple and by this method, the adequate amount of air may introduced into the stomach for the best visualization of the mucosal pattern and gastric juice may also aspirated in a case of which the stomach wall could not be coated by barium because of excessive gastric juice. Summary of the results of this studies of early carcinoma detection at the department of radiology, Severance Hospital during 6 months since May 1969 are as followings; of 1407 cases taken upper G-I study with double contrast method, 17 cases were diagnosed as possible early stomach carcinoma radiographically, and then only 6 cases had surgical resection of stomach. Of these 2 cases were confirmed pathologically and one was considered as precancerots lesion

  12. Roentgenographic diagnosis of early stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung Sook; Choi, Heung Jai [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-10-15

    The most significant feature of early carcinoma, be defined as the gastric carcinoma confined in mucosa and submucosal regardless of its size and shape, is its excellent prognosis; 5 year survival rate after operation in early stomach carcinoma amounts to 93 percent in comparison with around 25 percent in advanced carcinoma, and so the detection of this early stomach carcinoma is most important subject to minimize the mortality from stomach carcinoma at the present time. For the diagnosis of the early stomach carcinoma the radiographic study, cytology and gastroscopic examination are practised, and of those the radiographic study has been revealed commonly best results, but by usual method of upper G-I study it is often difficult to diagnose accurately. Therefore, we have been employed the barium and air double contrast method by insertion of the gastric tube. This method is simple and by this method, the adequate amount of air may introduced into the stomach for the best visualization of the mucosal pattern and gastric juice may also aspirated in a case of which the stomach wall could not be coated by barium because of excessive gastric juice. Summary of the results of this studies of early carcinoma detection at the department of radiology, Severance Hospital during 6 months since May 1969 are as followings; of 1407 cases taken upper G-I study with double contrast method, 17 cases were diagnosed as possible early stomach carcinoma radiographically, and then only 6 cases had surgical resection of stomach. Of these 2 cases were confirmed pathologically and one was considered as precancerots lesion.

  13. Evaluation of roentgenologic study of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung So

    1972-01-01

    In order to achieve more correct diagnosis of gastric lesion, further progress in the technique of diagnosis is much desired. And so, in pursuing the more ideal study, about 7,500 cases of U. G. I. studies taken in Severance Hospital in the past 29 months from May 1969 to September 1971, have been reviewed to evaluate how the following factors will affect the demonstrability of gastric lesion in upper G. I. series. (1) Introduction of air into the stomach by nasogastric tube. (2) Kinds and concentration of barium. (3) Demonstrability according to the position of the patient. (4) Use of antispasmodics. The results may be briefly summarized as follows: 1. The intubation of nasogastric tube gives discomfort temporarily to the patient: however, it has an advantage that the amount of air required for ideal insufflation of the stomach can be controlled under the fluoroscopy. 2. About concentration and type of barium. a) Mikabarium in 90% seems to give the best result in filling study, mucosal relief study and double contrast study. b) Mikabarium in higher concentration adheres to the mucosa better, thus resulting in good double contrast: however, it tends to coagulate each other in the high concentration. c) Micropaque powder of 110% solution produces good double contrast, but it has the disadvantage of making air bubbles. d) When water is given prior to barium ingestion, the anterior wall of stomach is better demonstrated with mucosal relief study. e) To get better result in contrast study, the selection of barium is important as well as rapid and proper positioning of the patient and abdominal respiratory movement. 3. Demonstrability of the stomach lesion according to the position. a) The small lesion either in pylorus or in antrum can be best demonstrated by compression technique of double contrast method in supine position. b) The mucosal relief study in prone by adequate air insufflation was proper to demonstrate the lesion of anterior wall. c) In the lesion of the

  14. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... following are risk factors for stomach cancer: Certain medical conditions Having any of the following medical conditions ...

  15. Uncommon mucosal metastases to the stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastases to the stomach from an extra-gastric neoplasm are an unusual event, identified in less than 2% of cancer patients at autopsy. The stomach may be involved by hematogenous spread from a distant primary (most commonly breast, melanoma or lung, or by contiguous spread from an adjacent malignancy, such as the pancreas, esophagus and gallbladder. These latter sites may also involve the stomach via lymphatic or haematogenous spread. We present three cases of secondary gastric malignancy. Methods/Results The first is a 19-year-old male who received a diagnosis of testicular choriocarcinoma in September 2004. Metastatic malignancy was demonstrated in the stomach after partial gastrectomy was performed to control gastric hemorrhage. The second is a 75-year-old male, generally well, who was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung in September 2005. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung was demonstrated in a subsequent biopsy of "gastric polyps". The third is an 85-year-old man with no known history of malignancy who presented for evaluation of iron deficiency anemia by endoscopy in February 2006. Biopsies of the colonic and gastric mucosa demonstrated moderately differentiated invasive colonic adenocarcinoma with metastatic deposits in the stomach. Conclusion While the accurate recognition of these lesions at endoscopy is fraught with difficulty, pathological awareness of such uncommon metastases in the gastric mucosa is essential for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management.

  16. Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikata Hara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are very rare. As characteristics of breast cancer metastases to the stomach, metastases of lobular carcinoma, mainly with signet ring cells, are frequently observed, and they are often difficult to distinguish from a primary gastric cancer with signet ring cells. Moreover, because no characteristic symptoms are shown and they involve a submucosal lesion, it is difficult to make a radiographic diagnosis. However, if a gastric lesion is observed after breast carcinoma surgery, differentiation between a gastric primary lesion and a metastatic lesion is very important in order to determine treatment. We encountered a case that was diagnosed as early gastric cancer discovered using an endoscope 2 years after surgery and which was found to be breast cancer metastasis to the stomach by gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP and cytokeratin (CK 7/20 immunostaining of the biopsy tissue. Here, we report our findings of this unique case.

  17. Radiodiagnosis of stomach diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Description of roentgenologial image of stomach diseases is given. Characteristic roentgenological symptoms of various stomach diseases are presented. It is shown that the role of roentgenological investigation when detecting changes, which may indicate cancer of the 1st stage, has substantially increased. However, due to frequent nonspecificity of x-ray and endoscopic symptoms at cancers of the 1st stage, benign polyps and ulcers, as well as due to mucous membrane reconstruction under several forms of gastritis, the final diagnosis may be ascertained only using a complex investigation (roentgenological, endoscopic with obligatory taking of biopsy from several places with subsequent cytologic and histologic

  18. Structure and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The glandular trichomes were classified into two subpopulations, namely the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. The former was characterized by a short stalk and a large four-celled secretory head, while the latter was further subdivided into two groups; one has a short unicellular stalk and two-cellular head (type I), ...

  19. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  20. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-15

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  1. Histological, surface ultrastructural, and histochemical study of the stomach of red piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri (Kner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Saroj Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization and function of the stomach in the omnivore Pygocentrus nattereri were described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The sac-like stomach was morphologically divided into the cardiac and pyloric regions. The histological structure of the stomach consisted of four layers of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The superficial epithelium of the cardiac stomach was lined with columnar epithelial cells and the glandular epithelium contained numerous gastric glands. Gastric glands were completely absent in the pyloric portion. The mucosal surface of the stomach was a meshwork of various folds, provided with oval or rounded columnar epithelial cells which were densely packed with short, stubby microvilli. The occasional presence of conspicuous gastric pits was surrounded by epithelial cells. The localization and chemical nature of acid and neutral mucins in the various cells of the stomach was studied by employing combined the Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS technique. The deposition of glycogen was detected in the gastric glands as well as in the epithelial lining of the stomach. The utmost reactions for protein and tryptophan were recorded in the gastric glands of mucosa. The cellular organization and histochemical characterization of the stomach are discussed in relation to the feeding and digestion of the fish concerned.

  2. A basic study of intraoperative radiation on the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Tetsuya

    1978-01-01

    In a basic study of intraoperative radiation on the stomach, adult dogs were laparotomized, and radiated on the stomach and gastroduodenal anastomosed part with an electron beam to 1,000 - 4,000 rads to observed its effects on hematologic and histologic findings. 1) No leukopenia occurred with the radiation, but secondary effects such as anemia and hypoproteinemia were noted. 2) On the gastric wall, the mucosa was most severely effected by the radiation, presenting such changes as erosion, atrophy, disappearance of glandular tissue, and fibrosis with the lapse of time. 3) The radiation on the stomach to 3,000 rads was followed by ulceration in one month, by the start of repair of the ulceration in three months, and by its healing in eight months. Histologic examination disclosed no evident damages to the blood vessels by the radiation. 4) Delayed healing of the anastomosed part was noted as an effect of the radiation on this part. 5) The findings in this experiment appear to suggest that the single tolerable dose of electron beam radiation on the stomach and the gastroduodenal anastomosed part should be 3,000 rads. (author)

  3. Synchronous Epithelioid Stromal Tumour and Lipoma in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Al-Brahim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old man presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A polypoid lesion of the distal stomach with focal ulceration was seen at endoscopy. This was treated by a partial gastrectomy. The resected stomach contained two separate tumours near the pylorus: a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST and an adjacent lipoma. The literature includes case reports of synchronously occurring GIST and adenocarcinoma, GIST and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and GIST and carcinoid tumour. Herein is the first case report of two distinct mesenchymal tumors coexisting in the stomach.

  4. Stochastic stomach theory of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    searching time and meal size as well as the average rate of food consumption decrease considerably in the more realistic case of variable meal sizes. The model is able to account for the high frequency of empty stomachs, which occurs simultaneously with a relatively high observed mean stomach content. Need......Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency...... distributions of stomach content are derived for general classes of meal-size distributions and rate models of gastric evacuation. Probability characteristics in steady-state of empty and non-empty stomachs are evaluated from first principles with particular attention to the square root rate model of gastric...

  5. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, T.; Di Maria, S.; Vaz, P.; Ribeiro, A.; Belchior, A.; Cardoso, J.; Matela, N.; Oliveira, N.; Almeida, P.; Janeiro, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed. (authors)

  6. [Laparoscopic resection of stomach in case of stomach ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazhin, I V; Sazhin, V P; Nuzhdikhin, A V

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic resection of stomach was done in 84 patients with complicated peptic ulcer of stomach and duodenum. There were 1.2% post-operative complications in case of laparoscopic resection of stomach in comparison with open resection, which had 33.3% complications. There were not deaths in case of laparoscopic resection of stomach. This indication was about 4% in patients after open resection. It was determined that functionalefficiency afterlaparoscopic resection was in 1.6-1.8 times higher than afteropen resectionof stomach.

  7. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo; Yoon, Jung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  8. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  9. Gastritis cystica polyposa in the unoperated stomach: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeo Jin; Kim, Kyung Ah; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Jeon, Hyae Min

    2012-01-01

    Gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) is an uncommon lesion that usually develops at the gastroenterostomy site. A 57 year old man visited a hospital with a complaint of melena. He did not have any surgical history or past medical history. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate the cause of melena, and a polypoid cystic mass in the stomach was found on an endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. The polypoid cystic mass did not show any enhancing solid portion on a computed tomography. The gastric lesion was conclusively confirmed as GCP through endoscopic submucosal dissection. We report a rare case of GCP that occurred in an unoperated stomach

  10. Gastritis cystica polyposa in the unoperated stomach: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeo Jin; Kim, Kyung Ah; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Jeon, Hyae Min [Severance Hospital/Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) is an uncommon lesion that usually develops at the gastroenterostomy site. A 57 year old man visited a hospital with a complaint of melena. He did not have any surgical history or past medical history. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate the cause of melena, and a polypoid cystic mass in the stomach was found on an endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. The polypoid cystic mass did not show any enhancing solid portion on a computed tomography. The gastric lesion was conclusively confirmed as GCP through endoscopic submucosal dissection. We report a rare case of GCP that occurred in an unoperated stomach.

  11. Leiomyosarcoma of the stomach of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S W; Park, K J; Suh, W H; Song, M K; Kang, M Z [Woo-Suk Hospital, School of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    A case of leiomyosarcoma of the stomach developed in 15 year old child reports with a review of the literature. The old child visited to Hospital on 15th. Sept. 1972. with epigastric discomfort, dizziness and headache, indigestion of 6 month prior. The upper G-I series showed a enlargement of polypoid mass in the posterior wall of the greater curvature of the gastric body and ulcerative lesion in the central part of the its mass. Ulcerative margin was irregular. Mucosal patterns of the stomach were preserved save for polypoid region seems to be some widen of mucosae. Numerous nodular calcifications were demonstrated in the extralumen of the greater curvature of the gastric body.

  12. Leiomyosarcoma of the stomach of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. W.; Park, K. J.; Suh, W. H.; Song, M. K.; Kang, M. Z.

    1972-01-01

    A case of leiomyosarcoma of the stomach developed in 15 year old child reports with a review of the literature. The old child visited to Hospital on 15th. Sept. 1972. with epigastric discomfort, dizziness and headache, indigestion of 6 month prior. The upper G-I series showed a enlargement of polypoid mass in the posterior wall of the greater curvature of the gastric body and ulcerative lesion in the central part of the its mass. Ulcerative margin was irregular. Mucosal patterns of the stomach were preserved save for polypoid region seems to be some widen of mucosae. Numerous nodular calcifications were demonstrated in the extralumen of the greater curvature of the gastric body

  13. Monte Carlo simulation studies for the determination of microcalcification thickness and glandular ratio through dual-energy mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Lama, L. S.; Godeli, J.; Poletti, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of breast carcinomas can be associated to the presence of calcifications before the development of a mass. However, the overlapping tissues can obscure the visualization of microcalcification clusters due to the reduced contrast-noise ratio (CNR). In order to overcome this complication, one potential solution is the use of the dual-energy (DE) technique, in which two different images are acquired at low (LE) and high (HE) energies or kVp to highlight specific lesions or cancel out tissue background. In this work, the DE features were computationally studied considering simulated acquisitions from a modified PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. The employed irradiation geometry considered typical distances used in digital mammography, a CsI detection system and an updated breast model composed of skin, microcalcifications and glandular and adipose tissues. The breast thickness ranged from 2 to 6 cm with glandularities of 25%, 50% and 75%, where microcalcifications with dimensions from 100 up to 600 μm were positioned. In general, results pointed an efficiency index better than 87% for the microcalcification thicknesses and better than 95% for the glandular ratio. The simulations evaluated in this work can be used to optimize the elements from the DE imaging chain, in order to become a complementary tool for the conventional single-exposure images, especially for the visualization and estimation of calcification thicknesses and glandular ratios.

  14. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  15. Effects of sucralfate, cimetidine and rabeprazole on mucosal hydroxyproline content in healing of ethanol-hcl-induced gastric lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Yoshio; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Masakatsu; Fujita, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Shin; Harata, Masao; Nakamura, Masahiko; Mizuno, Tamaki; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Ohta, Yoshiji; Nakano, Hiroshi

    2006-07-01

    1. No general consensus has been reached on the treatment of acute gastric lesions. The aims of the present study were to clarify the effects of sucralfate, cimetidine and rabeprazole monotherapies and combination therapies on acute gastric lesions from the viewpoint of connective tissue regeneration. 2. Gastric lesions were experimentally created by the oral administration of 50% ethanol-0.15 mol/L HCl to rats. After 30 min, the anti-ulcer agents sucralfate (100 mg/kg), cimetidine (20 mg/kg) and rabeprazole (2 mg/kg) were administered separately or in combination and the stomach was excised at different times to measure the level of hydroxyproline in the gastric mucosa and determine lesion index. Immunostaining against prolylhydroxylase was performed on some specimens. 3. In the control group, lesion index decreased linearly from 30 min after ethanol-HCl administration and the level of mucosal hydroxyproline peaked between 2 and 4 h later. Although sucralfate significantly promoted lesion healing, it had no effect on mucosal hydroxyproline level. Cimetidine suppressed increases in mucosal hydroxyproline and prolonged lesion healing, but these findings were reversed by combining cimetidine and sucralfate. Rabeprazole had no significant effect on lesion healing, but promoted lesion healing in combination with sucralfate. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that prolylhydroxylase was expressed in spindle cells that lined the glandular cells in a boundary area between normal and injured tissues. 4. Under conditions in which the effects of intragastric pH are minimal, sucralfate is superior to antisecretory agents in promoting the healing of acute gastric lesions.

  16. Granulocytic Sarcoma of the Stomach Presenting as Dysphagia during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sekaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma also known as extramedullary myeloid sarcoma or chloroma is an uncommon manifestation of leukemia and presents as a deposit of leukemic cells outside the bone marrow. We report a case of a twenty-five-year-old pregnant woman who presented with progressive dysphagia and recurrent postprandial vomiting. Upper GI endoscopy had shown large flat laterally spread nodular lesions in the cardia and proximal body of stomach. Biopsies from the gastric lesion showed granulocytic sarcoma of the stomach. Concurrent peripheral and bone marrow picture was suggestive of acute myeloid leukemia (AML–M4. There is limited reported literature on granulocytic sarcoma of the stomach. Concurrent gastric granulocytic sarcoma involving cardia and AML in pregnancy has not been reported till date.

  17. Double contrast examination of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The intention of this book is to convey vividly and comprehensively a method, which has been applied in practice and whose basic principle is easy to learn. This technique requires as absolutely necessary equipment only a scanner. Therefore the examination technique is explained in detail with its fundamental principles and specific modifications. The morphologic part of the book wants to point out the systematic procedure to a definite and logic interpretation of the findings, and it arranges the numerous different pathological alterations of the stomach according to the continuous concept of the alway repeating macroscopic basic pattern. For each disease group the typical features, the more rare variants and also the differential diagnosis are presented and special limits for the examination procedure are given. For all important stomach lesions characteristic X-ray images were selected. In some more rare stomach pathologies the short description of the roentgenologic findings is added in order to complete the book, since its intention is not only to be a guide-line, but it shall also be an enceclopaedic adviser. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Células glandulares atípicas e câncer de colo uterino: revisão sistemática Atypical glandular cells and cervical cancer: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pedrosa de Holanda Marques

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atipias de células glandulares em esfregaços cervicovaginais é um achado citológico na rotina de rastreamento do câncer cervical, que aumentou nas últimas décadas. Sua constatação é importante clinicamente, pois é alta a percentagem de casos associados com doença cervical e endometrial de alto grau e câncer. Este trabalho avaliou, por meio de uma revisão sistemática, estudos que investigaram o perfil das lesões de colo uterino em avaliações histológicas de seguimento de pacientes já diagnosticadas com células glandulares atípicas. Foram excluídos os estudos cuja investigação diagnóstica não incluísse o diagnóstico histopatológico. Realizou-se uma busca abrangente de publicações no período de 1966 a 2009, nas bases do LILACS, SciELO, PubMed/Medline e Old Medline. Os artigos omitidos na busca eletrônica também foram incluídos. Estavam de acordo com os critérios de inclusão 19 artigos, que foram selecionados. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar se a atipia celular glandular observada inicialmente na citologia relacionava-se histologicamente com a presença de lesões benignas, pré-neoplásicas ou neoplásicas. Dos 19 estudos selecionados, 11 mostraram maior correlação entre atipia glandular com patologias benignas e seis com lesões escamosas pré-malignas.Atypical glandular cells are a common finding in cervical cytology in cervical cancer screening and its occurrence has increased in the last decades. The identification of these cells is clinically very important due to its association with cervical and endometrial dysplasic lesions and cancer. Using a systematic approach, this article reviewed studies investigating cervical lesions that are characteristic in patients previously diagnosed as having atypical glandular cells. Studies in which diagnostic investigation did not include histopathological diagnosis were excluded. A comprehensive search for available material in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed/ Medline

  19. Células glandulares atípicas em esfregaços cervicovaginais: significância e aspectos atuais Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: significance and current aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bittencourt Campaner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Células glandulares atípicas (AGC em esfregaços cervicovaginais são achados citológicos raros, porém de significado representativo. Sua incidência varia, na literatura, de 0,08% a 0,81%. O sistema Bethesda de 2001 classifica estas lesões glandulares como AGCs sem outras especificações, AGCs provavelmente neoplásicas, adenocarcinoma cervical in situ (AIS e adenocarcinoma invasivo. Das mulheres portadoras de AGC, grande parte não apresentará qualquer tipo de alteração histológica em avaliação subseqüente. Entretanto, em 17,4% a 62,2% dos casos serão encontradas lesões histológicas significativas, como neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais, AIS, neoplasias escamosas e glandulares, cervicais e endometriais, bem como neoplasias de outras localizações. O risco de doença significativa está relacionado à subdivisão de AGC encontrada. Em virtude da elevada probabilidade de anormalidades histológicas significativas em casos de AGC, a simples repetição citológica é insuficiente para o seguimento dessa condição. Esta atualização descreve a epidemiologia, a avaliação e a conduta das pacientes portadoras dessa anormalidade citológica.Atypical glandular cells (AGC on cervical smears are unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The incidence of AGC ranges from 0.08% to 0.81 % of all cervical smears tests. The 2001 Bethesda System nomenclature classifies these glandular lesions as AGC not otherwise specified, AGC favor neoplasia, endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma. Of women with AGC smears, a great number will have no histologic abnormalities on further evaluation. However, 17.4% to 62.2% are found to have significant histologic lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, AIS, squamous and glandular cancers from sites farther the cervix and endometrium. The risk of significant disease is related to the AGC subclassification that was found. Because of the high likelihood that AGC

  20. The effects of Pretreatment with stomach extract on the incidence of x-ray-induced gastric tumor in ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Naito, Masashi; Kawashima, Kengo; Ito, Akihiro

    1984-01-01

    The effect of crude stomach extracts (CSE) on X-ray-induced gastric tumorigenesis was examined. ICR mice were treated with two or four administrations of CSE at one-week intervals then irradiated with 20 Gy of X-rays one week after the final CSE administration. Unexpectedly, the incidence of X-ray-induced tumors was not significantly altered by two CSE pretreatments but was markedly reduced by four CSE pretreatments. Similarly, erosion and squamous metaplasia produced in the glandular stomach a week after X-irradiation were markedly diminished by four CSE pretreatments but not by two CSE pretreatments. (author)

  1. Evaluation of exposure in mammography: limitations of average glandular dose and proposal of a new quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeraert, N.; Bosmans, H.; Klausz, R.; Muller, S.; Bloch, I.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation risk in mammography is traditionally evaluated using the average glandular dose. This quantity for the average breast has proven to be useful for population statistics and to compare exposure techniques and systems. However it is not indicating the individual radiation risk based on the individual glandular amount and distribution. Simulations of exposures were performed for six appropriate virtual phantoms with varying glandular amount and distribution. The individualised average glandular dose (iAGD), i.e. the individual glandular absorbed energy divided by the mass of the gland, and the glandular imparted energy (GIE), i.e. the glandular absorbed energy, were computed. Both quantities were evaluated for their capability to take into account the glandular amount and distribution. As expected, the results have demonstrated that iAGD reflects only the distribution, while GIE reflects both the glandular amount and distribution. Therefore GIE is a good candidate for individual radiation risk assessment. (authors)

  2. Iatrogenic stomach perforation complicating unrecognized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of 21-year-old male patient with traumatic diaphragmatic herniation of the stomach that is misdiagnosed as a hemo-pneumothorax with the resulting insertion of a chest tube causing iatrogenic perforation of the stomach and draining of gastric content into the pleural cavity. An emergency thoracotomy was ...

  3. Average glandular dose in patients submitted to mammographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, M.S.; Silva, T.A. da; Oliveira, M. de; Joana, G.S.; Oliveira, A.L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Doses in mammography should be maintained as low as possible without reducing the high image quality needed to the early detection of the breast cancer. As the breast is composed of tissues with very soft composition and densities, it increases the difficulty to detect small changes in the normal anatomical structures that may be associated with breast cancer. To achieve the standards of resolution and contrast for mammography, the quality and intensity of the X-ray beam, the breast positioning and compression, the film screen system, and the film processing must be in optimal operational conditions. This study intended to evaluate the mean glandular dose of patients undergoing routine exams in one mammography unit. Patient image analyses were done by a radiologist doctor who took into account 10 evaluation criteria for each CC and MLO incidences. For estimating each patient glandular dose the radiographic technique parameters (kV and mAs) and the thickness of the compressed breast were recorded. European image quality criteria were adopted by the radiologist doctor to accept the image for diagnostic purpose. For breast densities of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues the incident air-kerma was measured and the glandular dose calculated considering the x-ray output during the exam. In the study of 50 patients the mean glandular dose varied from 0.90 to 3.27 mGy with a mean value of 1.98 mGy for CC incidences. For MLO incidences the mean glandular doses ranged from 0.97 to 3.98 mGy and a mean value of 2.60 mGy. (author)

  4. Evaluation of glandular dose in conventional and digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, Celia Maria Campos

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the average glandular dose (D g ) for patients undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of incident air kerma (K i ), patient age, compressed breast thickness and glandular tissue content. From 1183 cranio caudal mammograms clinical data were collected and doses were measured. The survey data included mammograms from six mammography equipment: two screen/film units (SFM), two computed radiography units (CR) and two full-field digital (DR). Mean value for patient age and compressed breast thickness were 57 +-12 y and 5.4 +-1.4 cm, respectively. To investigate the importance of technical characteristics of three different mammography systems and breast glandularity, K i and D g were measured for individual breast of 392 patients from the original sample with compressed breast thickness in the range of 5.5 cm to 6.5 cm using tissue-equivalent phantoms of different glandularities manufactured in this study to mimic both the attenuation and the density of breast tissues. Mean K i value was 10.0 +-3.6 mGy for SFM systems, 12.0 +-3.6 mGy for CR systems and 4.9 +-1.3 mGy for DR systems. Mean D g value was 1.4 +-0.5 mGy for S/F systems, 1.7 +-0.5 mGy for CR systems and 0.9 +-0.2 mGy for D R systems. Statistical analysis for differences in mean values of K i and D g between mammography systems showed significant effect of their technical characteristics (p i and D g , it was observed statistically significant differences between the group of patients with 0 to 50% glandularity and the group of patients with 50 to 100% glandularity. (author)

  5. Clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in remnant stomach or gastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, N; Ono, H; Kakushima, N; Takizawa, K; Tanaka, M; Matsubayashi, H; Yamaguchi, Y

    2012-06-01

    Little information exists regarding the optimal treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) in a remnant stomach or gastric tube. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for EGC in a remnant stomach and gastric tube. Between September 2002 and December 2009, ESD was performed in 62 lesions in 59 patients with EGC in a remnant stomach (48 lesions) or gastric tube (14 lesions). Clinicopathological data were retrieved retrospectively to assess the en bloc resection rate, complications, and outcomes. Treatment results were assessed according to the indications for endoscopic resection, and were compared with those of ESD performed in a whole stomach during the same study period. The en bloc resection rates for lesions within the standard and expanded indication were 100 % and 93 %, respectively. Postoperative bleeding occurred in five patients (8 %). The perforation rate was significantly higher (18 %, 11 /62) than that of ESD in a whole stomach (5 %, 69 /1479). Among the perforation cases, eight lesions involved the anastomotic site or stump line, and ulcerative changes were observed in five lesions. The 3-year overall survival rate was 85 %, with eight deaths due to other causes and no deaths from gastric cancer. A high en bloc resection rate was achieved by ESD for EGC in a remnant stomach or gastric tube; however, this procedure is still technically demanding due to the high complication rate of perforation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Xanthomas of the stomach: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana M. Andrejić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract xanthomas are non tumor, well demarcated mucosal lesions that consist of foamy histiocytes, most commonly diagnosed in the stomach. The histologic appearance of xanthomas can resemble certain malignant lesions. After retrospective data base search, we have encountered only 2 cases of xanthomas, both in the antral part of the stomach. Lamina propria of the mucosa contained rare, chronic inflammatory infiltrate and clusters of oval and polygonal cells with abundant, foamy cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of described cells did not show the presence of mucin (Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue staining. The cells showed distinct cytoplasmic CD68 positivity and CKMNF116 negativity, which confirmed the diagnosis of xanthoma. Given the frequent association of xanthomas and known precancerous lesions of gastric mucosa, and occasional coexistence of malignant change, we need to pay attention to its diagnosis, and it is advisable to use both histochemical and immunohistochemical methods.

  7. The postoperative stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, Courtney A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Levine, Marc S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: marc.levine@uphs.upenn.edu

    2005-03-01

    Gastric surgery may be performed for the treatment of a variety of benign and malignant diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. Radiographic studies with water-soluble contrast agents often are obtained to rule out leaks, obstruction, or other acute complications during the early postoperative period. Barium studies may also be obtained to evaluate for anastomotic strictures or ulcers, bile reflux gastritis, recurrent tumor, or other chronic complications during the late postoperative period. Cross-sectional imaging studies such as CT are also helpful for detecting abscesses or other postoperative collections, recurrent or metastatic tumor, or less common complications such as afferent loop syndrome or gastrojejunal intussusception. It is important for radiologists to be familiar not only with the radiographic findings associated with these various abnormalities but also with the normal appearances of the postoperative stomach on radiographic examinations, so that such appearances are not mistaken for pseudoleaks or other postoperative complications. The purpose of this article is to describe the normal postsurgical anatomy after the most commonly performed operations (including partial gastrectomy, esophagogastrectomy and gastric pull-through, and total gastrectomy and esophagojejunostomy) and to review the acute and chronic complications, normal postoperative findings, and major abnormalities detected on radiographic examinations in these patients.

  8. The postoperative stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfield, Courtney A.; Levine, Marc S.

    2005-01-01

    Gastric surgery may be performed for the treatment of a variety of benign and malignant diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. Radiographic studies with water-soluble contrast agents often are obtained to rule out leaks, obstruction, or other acute complications during the early postoperative period. Barium studies may also be obtained to evaluate for anastomotic strictures or ulcers, bile reflux gastritis, recurrent tumor, or other chronic complications during the late postoperative period. Cross-sectional imaging studies such as CT are also helpful for detecting abscesses or other postoperative collections, recurrent or metastatic tumor, or less common complications such as afferent loop syndrome or gastrojejunal intussusception. It is important for radiologists to be familiar not only with the radiographic findings associated with these various abnormalities but also with the normal appearances of the postoperative stomach on radiographic examinations, so that such appearances are not mistaken for pseudoleaks or other postoperative complications. The purpose of this article is to describe the normal postsurgical anatomy after the most commonly performed operations (including partial gastrectomy, esophagogastrectomy and gastric pull-through, and total gastrectomy and esophagojejunostomy) and to review the acute and chronic complications, normal postoperative findings, and major abnormalities detected on radiographic examinations in these patients

  9. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  10. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPV are associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer and these are termed high-risk. HPV type 16 is detected in approximately half of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer. Because of the high rate of spontaneous regression of low-grade squamous lesions, follow-up by cytology, colposcopy and possible biopsy appears preferable. Due to the higher rate of progression to malignancy of the high-grade lesions conservative treatment is recommended. One of the most common reasons for persistence relates to the human immunodeficiency virus. Adenocarcinoma in situ is an uncommon disorder and not well identified by cytologic sampling or colposcopic inspection. The diagnosis is made by cone biopsy, the specimen having negative margins for disease. Hysterectomy is the treatment procedure of choice unless fertility is an issue. Excisional methods (particularly electrosurgical loop can interfere with accurate histological interpretation in some cases of both squamous disease and adenocarcinoma in situ.Ciertos tipos de virus del papiloma humano (VPH, denominados de alto riesgo, están asociados con lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales y cáncer invasor. El VPH tipo 16 es detectado en aproximadamente la mitad de las lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales de alto grado y cáncer. Sin embargo, existe una elevada proporción de regresión espontánea en lesiones escamosas de bajo grado, por lo que para su monitoreo es preferible la utilización de citología, colposcopía y biopsia. Asimismo, debido a la elevada tasa de progresión a malignidad de lesiones de alto grado se recomienda un tratamiento conservador. Una de las razones comunes relacionadas con la persistencia de infección por el VPH es el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Por otra parte, el adenocarcinoma in situ es un trastorno raro, no bien identificado en muestras citológicas o de inspección colposcópica; el diagnóstico se

  11. Genetic architecture of capitate glandular trichome density in florets of domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. Capitate glandular trichomes can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resist...

  12. Maxilary glandular odontogenic cyst: case report = Cisto odontogênico glandular em maxila: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso, Juliana Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente trabalho objetiva relatar um caso clínico de cisto odontogênico glandular (COG em maxila, cisto de desenvolvimento raro que pode apresentar comportamento agressivo e recidivante, dando ênfase no tratamento e proservação desta doença. Relato de Caso: Paciente faioderma, gênero feminino, 36 anos, foi encaminhada pelo Ortodontista por apresentar aumento de volume em maxila com abaulamento e crepitação. Foram realizadas radiografias e punção aspirativa. Uma vez observado o conteúdo da lesão, foi realizada a biópsia incisional e iniciada a descompressão com colocação de dreno rígido. Tendo a confirmação do diagnóstico para COG, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia para remoção do cisto maxilar, através da enucleação cirúrgica, curetagem e osteotomia periférica. Conclusões: O COG é uma patologia incomum, recentemente reconhecida, cujo comportamento biológico pouco ainda se sabe. Sugere-se, portanto, a realização de investigações futuras sobre critérios para classificação de variáveis comumente utilizadas em estudos epidemiológicos, na tentativa de padronizar e possibilitar comparação entre estudos, todavia, para auxiliar em um diagnóstico bem sucedido

  13. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burukoglu, Dilek; Baycu, Cengiz; Taplamacioglu, Fulya; Sahin, Erhan; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are the most commonly used group of drugs today. Increase in the use of standard NSAI for treating pain and inflammation was restricted by the fact that these drugs were proven to possibly cause gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Meloxicam is a NSAI that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats under light microscopy level. Based on the light microscopic observations, mononuclear cell infiltration and pseudolobular formation was established in liver samples of animals in the experimental group. Metaplasia in surface and glandular epithelia and atrophy were observed in stomach samples. Glomerular stasis-related hypertrophy and focal interstitial nephritis were found in kidneys. It was concluded in this study that meloxicam might cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and gastric metaplasia in rats at a used dose and duration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Effect of paddock vs. stall housing on 24 hour gastric pH within the proximal and ventral equine stomach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Louise; Sanchez, Linda Chris; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2008-01-01

    Equine gastric ulceration occours in both squampos and glandular mucsa, with the former being studied more. Prevalence studies of high risk horse populations, such as racehorses in training, revealed the 80-90% of this group had lesions within mucosa....

  15. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  16. Development of an excel spreadsheet formean glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Kazuyo; Fujisaki, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Excel spreadsheet to calculate mean glandular dose (D g ) in mammography using clinical exposure data. D g can be calculated as the product of incident air kerma (K a ) and D gN (i.e., D g =K a x D gN ). According to the method of Klein et al (Phys Med Biol 1997; 42: 651-671), K a was measured at the entrance surface with an ionization dosimeter. Normalized glandular dose (D gN ) coefficients, taking into account breast glandularity, were computed using Boone's method (Med Phys 2002; 29: 869-875). D gN coefficients can be calculated for any arbitrary X-ray spectrum. These calculation procedures were input into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The resulting Excel spreadsheet is easy to use and is always applicable in the field of mammography. The exposure conditions concerning D g in clinical practice were also investigated in 22 women. Four exposure conditions (target/filter combination and tube voltage) were automatically selected in this study. This investigation found that average D g for each exposure was 1.9 mGy. Because it is recommended that quality control of radiation dose management in mammography is done using an American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom, information about patient dose is not obtained in many facilities. The present Excel spreadsheet was accordingly considered useful for optimization of exposure conditions and explanation of mammography to patients. (author)

  17. Roentgenodiagnosis of stomach postulcer scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunin, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the X-ray picture of the stomach postulcer scar in correlation with fibrogastroscopy in 39 patients. The X-ray picture was characterized by considerable polymorphism and at the same time it was difficult to single out pathognomonic features. For specified diagnosis and differentiation the detection of the postulcer scar must become a multifaceted roentgenoendoscopic problem. Stomach ulcers may scar, sometimes with the complete regeneration of the mucosa relief, however their recurrences can develop in the zone of the postulcer scar

  18. Endoscopic findings of the stomach in pleasure horses in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ulcers in the gastric squamous and glandular mucosa in Polish pleasure horses. Study design Medical records from gastroscopic examinations of 108 pleasure horses of different breeds were reviewed. The study population consisted of two groups; group I (n = 48) with horses that expressed mild clinical signs of gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) including poor appetite, slight weight loss or poor body condition, and group II (n = 60) with horses that had no signs of gastrointestinal problems. The age range was 4–10 years, including 5 males, 34 castrated males (geldings) and 69 mares. The prevalence, distribution and severity of gastric ulcers were recorded. Lesions involving the squamous mucosa and the glandular mucosa of the antrum and pylorus were graded and compared between groups. Results Significant difference was found in the presence and severity of gastric ulcers between the two groups of horses. The overall prevalence of gastric ulcers in the first group of horses (n = 48) was 59% while in the group of clinically healthy horses (n = 60) the prevalence of gastric lesion was 40% (P = 0.004). Almost 19% of horses from group I had between 6–10 lesions (EGUS score III) and nearly 19% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). The number of ulcerations in affected horses were significantly lower in group II compared to group I (P = 0.016) as 10% of horses had 6–10 lesions (EGUS number score III) and nearly 14% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). Gastroscopy revealed that nearly 32% of horses from the second group had an ulceration EGUS score ≥ II. Discussion and conclusions This study confirms that gastric ulcerations can be prevalent in apparently clinically normal pleasure horses and a complete gastroscopic examination including the examination of the pylorus is advisable

  19. Combined endoscopic and laparoscopic approach for palliative resection of metastatic melanoma of the stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritchard SA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic tumours of the stomach present a clinical dilemma for the surgeon. Palliative surgical resection can alleviate symptoms and prolong survival in selected patients. However, previous studies have used open methods of surgical resection with potentially high morbidity and mortality. We describe the use of laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach for palliative resection of metastatic melanoma to highlight the benefits of this technique. Case presentation A 58 year old male was investigated for iron deficiency anaemia while under treatment for pulmonary metastatic malignant melanoma. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 5 cm diameter ulcer on the anterior wall of the stomach, biopsies from the ulcer confirmed metastatic melanoma. Laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach lesion was performed without complication. Conclusion Laparoscopic approach has many benefits and is useful for the palliative resection of rare tumours of the stomach in order to preserve the quality of life. Its use should be considered in selected patients.

  20. Concentrated Phosphatidic Acid in Cereal Brans as Potential Protective Agents against Indomethacin-Induced Stomach Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Sheuli; Ikoma, Teru; Yagi, Ayano; Kogure, Kentaro; Tokumura, Akira; Tanaka, Tamotsu

    2016-09-21

    One of complications associated with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is peptic ulcer. Recently, we found that orally administered phosphatidic acid (PA) ameliorated aspirin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In this study, we identified PA-rich food sources and examined the effects of the food materials on indomethacin-induced stomach ulcer. Among examined, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) bran contained the highest level of PA (188 mg/100 g). PA was the richest phospholipid (25%) in the lipid fraction of the buckwheat bran. Administration of the lipid extracts of buckwheat bran significantly ameliorated indomethacin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In contrast, wheat (Triticum durum) bran lipids (PA, 4%) and soybean (Glycine max) lipids (PA, 3%) were not associated with ameliorative effects. These results indicated that PA-rich lipids can be used as an effective supplement for prevention of NSAID-induced stomach ulcer.

  1. The stomach, cholecystokinin, and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, P R; Moran, T H

    1986-04-01

    The stomach of the rhesus monkey empties liquids in a fashion that varies with the character of the solutions. Physiological saline empties exponentially. Glucose solutions empty biphasically--rapidly for the first minutes, then slowly and proportionately to glucose concentration to deliver glucose calories through the pylorus at a regulated rate (0.4 kcal/min). This prolonged and regulated second phase of gastric emptying depends on intestinal inhibition of the stomach. Cholecystokinin (CCK), a hormone released by food in the intestine, is an inhibitor of gastric emptying. In vitro receptor autoradiography demonstrates CCK receptors to be clustered on the circular muscle of the pylorus. Exogenous CCK, in doses that inhibit gastric emptying, will reduce food intake only if combined with an infusion of saline in the stomach. These observations indicate how gastric distension can be a means for provoking satiety. The variably sustained distension produced by the stomach's slow, calorically regulated emptying could prolong intermeal intervals and thus permit high-calorie meals to inhibit further caloric intake over time. CCK, by directly inhibiting gastric emptying during a meal, could promote gastric distension and so restrict the duration and size of individual meals.

  2. The study of mean glandular dose in mammography in Yazd and the factors affecting it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarjomehri, F.; Mostaar, A.; Ghasemi, A.; Ehramposh, M. H.; Khosravi, H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose resulting from mammography examinations in Yazd, southeastern Iran and to identify the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: This survey was conducted during May to December 2005 to estimate the mean glandular dose for women undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of dose. compressed breast thickness, glandular tissue content, and mammography technique used. The clinical data were collected from 946 mammograms taken from 246 women who were referred to four mammography centers. The mammography instruments in these centers were four modern units with a molybdenum anode and either molybdenum or rhodium filter. The exposure conditions of each mammogram were recorded. The breast glandular content of each mammogram was estimated by a radiologist. The mean glandular dose was calculated based on measuring the normalized entrance skin dose in air. half value layer, kVp, mAs, breast thickness and glandular content. Half value layer, kVp and entrance skin dose were measured by a solid-state detector. The analytical method of Sobol et al. was used for calculation of mean glandular dose . Results: The mean±SD mean glandular dose per film was.2±0.6 mGy for cranio caudal and 1.63±O.9 mGy for mediolateral oblique views. The mean±SD mean glandular dose per woman was 5.5 3.1.mGy. A positive correlation was found between the beam Half value layer with mean glandular dose (r=O.38) and the breast thickness with mean glandular dose (r=O.5). Conclusion: The mean±SD mean glandular dose per film of 1.42±0.8 mGy in present study was lower than most of similar reports. However, the mean mean glandular dose per woman was higher than that in other studies

  3. CT and MR imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of stomach: a pictorial review

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Jingshan; Kang, Wenyan; Zhu, Jin; Xu, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    This pictorial review illustrates CT and MR imaging appearance of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach and other lesions with similar imaging appearance. GIST of the stomach appears as well-defined enhanced masses with characteristics of subeppthial neoplasms. Majority are exophytic growth, but can also be of intra-luminal growth. GIST can growth into a large mass without gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Necrosis is often seen in GIST and results in heterogeneous enhancemen...

  4. Basic study of intraoperative radiation on the stomach. With particular reference to histopathologic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, T [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1978-07-01

    In a basic study of intraoperative radiation on the stomach, adult dogs were laparotomized, and radiated on the stomach and gastroduodenal anastomosed part with an electron beam to 1,000 to 4,000 rads to observe its effects on hematologic and histologic findings. 1) No leukopenia occurred with the radiation, but secondary effects such as anemia and hypoproteinemia were noted. 2) On the gastric wall, the mucosa was most severely effected by the radiation, presenting such changes as erosion, atrophy, disappearance of glandular tissue, and fibrosis with the lapse of time. 3) The radiation on the stomach to 3,000 rads was followed by ulceration in one month, by the start of repair of the ulceration in three months, and by its healing in eight months. Histologic examination disclosed no evident damages to the blood vessels by the radiation. 4) Delayed healing of the anastomosed part was noted as an effect of the radiation on this part. 5) The findings in this experiment appear to suggest that the single tolerable dose of electron beam radiation on the stomach and the gastroduodenal anastomosed part should be 3,000 rads.

  5. Functional disorders of the stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastroenterologists frequently encounter patients who report vague epigastric discomforts or sensations of fullness, bloating, and distention in the upper abdomen. The discomfort is neither burning in character nor severe in intensity; there is no nocturnal pain. The epigastric location of discomfort and lack of radiation may help to exclude biliary tract and pancreatic diseases. Nausea may be present, but there is little or no vomiting. After these patients ingest liquids or solid foods, the symptoms of easy filling or early satiety and increasing discomfort and nausea are almost always present. The patient may only report "indigestion," but a specific chief complaint, such as pain, discomfort, nausea, or bloating may be elicited with further inquiries. Solid foods usually provoke more symptoms than do liquids. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort may culminate in the vomiting of undigested food. These vague upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been termed "dyspepsia." When peptic diseases of the stomach are excluded, the symptom complex has been called "nonulcer" dyspepsia, a vague syndrome with symptoms attributed to stomach dysfunction. Nonulcer dyspepsia has been reviewed recently. Such symptoms, commonly attributed to a "functional" disorder, are very common in clinical practice, with an incidence of 30% of patients. In this review, we will discuss an approach to the evaluation and treatment of patients with symptoms of nausea, early satiety, bloating, and vague epigastric discomfort--dyspeptic symptoms associated with functional stomach disorders. We will review the anatomy and motility of the stomach and suggest potential neuromuscular malfunctions of the stomach that may result in epigastric symptoms. The potential role of stress and other brain-gut interactions, which may underlie these symptoms, will also be reviewed.

  6. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on FDG PET: correlation with endoscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Seong Eun; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-nine patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in our study. In all of them, FDG PET and gastrofibroscopy were performed within one week. One man who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy was excluded. We reviewed 38 cases (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32{approx}79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. On interpretation of FDG PET scan, two nuclear physician evaluated five parameters on FDG-PET findings of stomach with a concensus : 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (SUVmax), 3) focality, 4) asymmetry, and 5) gross appearance. We correlated FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. On endoscopy, six of 38 patients were proven as gastric cancer, and others had inflammatory lesion (ulcer in 3, chronic gastritis in 12, uncommon from gastritis in 5) or benign noninflammatory lesions (polyp and varix in 3, and normal limit). On the visual analysis, FDG uptake of stomach cancer had the tendency of higher uptake than the other lesions. SUVmax of gastric cancer was 7.95{+-}4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9{+-}0.69 in ulcer, 3.08{+-}1.2 in chronic gastritis 3.2{+-}1.49 in uncommon from gastritis). In the appearance of stomach on PET, gastric cancer was shown as focal lesion (5 of 6), and those of benign inflammatory lesions were asymmetric (14 of 20), and diffuse (9 of 20). Some cases of chronic inflammatory lesions, such as ulcer, and chronic gastritis, showed focal appearance and mimicked cancerous lesion (4 of 15). On FDG PET, the lesions of stomach cancer had higher FDG uptake and focal appearance comparing with the other benign inflammatory lesions. However, ulcer, and chronic gastritis showed focal appearance on PET, which could be mimicked as cancerous

  7. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on FDG PET: correlation with endoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Seong Eun; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-nine patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in our study. In all of them, FDG PET and gastrofibroscopy were performed within one week. One man who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy was excluded. We reviewed 38 cases (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32∼79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. On interpretation of FDG PET scan, two nuclear physician evaluated five parameters on FDG-PET findings of stomach with a concensus : 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (SUVmax), 3) focality, 4) asymmetry, and 5) gross appearance. We correlated FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. On endoscopy, six of 38 patients were proven as gastric cancer, and others had inflammatory lesion (ulcer in 3, chronic gastritis in 12, uncommon from gastritis in 5) or benign noninflammatory lesions (polyp and varix in 3, and normal limit). On the visual analysis, FDG uptake of stomach cancer had the tendency of higher uptake than the other lesions. SUVmax of gastric cancer was 7.95±4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9±0.69 in ulcer, 3.08±1.2 in chronic gastritis 3.2±1.49 in uncommon from gastritis). In the appearance of stomach on PET, gastric cancer was shown as focal lesion (5 of 6), and those of benign inflammatory lesions were asymmetric (14 of 20), and diffuse (9 of 20). Some cases of chronic inflammatory lesions, such as ulcer, and chronic gastritis, showed focal appearance and mimicked cancerous lesion (4 of 15). On FDG PET, the lesions of stomach cancer had higher FDG uptake and focal appearance comparing with the other benign inflammatory lesions. However, ulcer, and chronic gastritis showed focal appearance on PET, which could be mimicked as cancerous lesion on PET

  8. Monitoring radiolabelled antacid preparations in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, H.A.; Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabelled antacid preparations have been monitored in the stomach using gamma scintigraphy. The stomach contents were labelled with technetium-99m and two antacid preparations with indium-113m. It has been shown that the antacid containing aluminium hydroxide and magnesium oxide mixed and emptied with the other stomach contents. An alginate containing preparation tended to float on the food and emptied only slowly from the stomach. (Auth.)

  9. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon; Yoon, Kwon Ha

    1999-01-01

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer

  10. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon Ha [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer.

  11. Radiodiagnosis of general diseases of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Modern representations of X-ray diagnostics of the most wide-spread stomach diseases are shown. X-ray-anatomical-functional peculiarities of the stomach technique of its X-ray examination as well as X-ray diagnostics of diseases of the stomach are stated on the basis of data of special literature and own author experience. X-ray pattern of the operated stomach and its complications is described in detail

  12. Carcinoma of the stomach in the young adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. R.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    Carcinoma of the stomach is usually considered a disease of middle aged or elderly patients and is rarely suspected in young adults. However carcinoma of the stomach in the young adults is an aggressive malignant disease with nonspecific symptoms and worse prognosis than older age group because of late diagnosis and increased incidence of undifferentiated form. In an attempt to identify further the natural history of carcinoma of the stomach in the young adults, we reviewed 68 cases of stomach cancers in patients 30 years of age and less at Severance hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The over-all male to female ratio in the young adult was 1:1.34 and in order age group was 2.44:1. 2. Common symptoms included epigastric pain, weight loss and vomiting. The mean time interval between onset of symptoms and the first visit to a physician was 3 months. 3. Usually diagnostic aids were UGI series and endoscopic examination. 38 patients underwent an exploratory laparatomy, and lesions were amenable to curative or palliative resection. 4. In the young age Bormann type III and IV were predominant, while in the older age group Bormann type II and III were common. 5. The majority of tumors occurred in the cardia, fundus and upper body. 6. Histologic diagnosis were poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma in orders. 7. A relatively high incidence of pregnancy and Krukenberg tumor in the young age were noted

  13. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach (gastric) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions. Start here to find information on stomach (gastric) cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  14. Roentgenologic assessment of consequences of stomach ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, A.N.; Kaplun, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Symptoms of roentgenologic study of postulcer changes in the stomach mucous membrane are presented. Roentgenologic study predominates in diagnosis of such changes as stenosis of the pylorus, stomach deformation according to the sand glass type or in the form of a snail, as well as in perigastritis. Differential diagnostic difficulties especially in stomach deformations caused by tumor are pointed out

  15. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  16. 19F-MRI of stomach and intestine using 50% FTPA emulsion under 2T MRI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Teturou; Mishima, Hideyuki

    1991-01-01

    1 H-MRI is of clinical value in many lesions, but imaging of gastrointestinal lesions is still difficult by 1 H-MRI. To overcome this weak point of 1 H-MRI, rabbit stomachs were examined by 19 F-MRI using 50% FTPA emulsion. We also examined the stability of 50% FTPA emulsion in the stomach and its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. We found that 50% FTPA emulsion was very stable at pH 1.5, and only a very small amount was absorbed. A rabbit (weighing 2 kg) was anesthetized, and 100 ml of 50% FTPA emulsion was infused into the stomach by catheter. 19 F-MRI was performed in this rabbit using a 2 T superconducting MRI system designed for human use, and clear pictures of the stomach were obtained. From our results we conclude that 19 F-MRI of the stomach using 50% FTPA emulsion is of practical value. (author)

  17. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on F-18 FDG positron emission tomography: correlation with endoscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Sang Woo; Byun, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yu Chul; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    We often find variable degrees of FDG uptake and patterns in stomach, which can make difficult to distinguish physiologic uptake from pathologic uptake on FDG PET. The purpose of this study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-eight patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy within one week from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in this study. We reviewed 38 patients (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32 {approx} 79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. Two nuclear physicians evaluated five parameters on FDG PET findings of stomach with a consensus: 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (max.SUV) 3) focal 4) diffuse and 5) asymmetric patterns. We correlated the lesions of FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. We considered more than equivocal findings on FDG PET as positive. The six of 38 patients were proven as malignant lesions by endoscopic biopsy and others were inflammatory lesions (ulcer in 3, chronic atrophic gastritis in 12, uncommon forms of gastritis in 5), non-inflammatory lesions (n=3), and normal stomach (n=9). By the visual analysis, malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake than the others. The max.SUV of malignant lesions was 7.95 {+-} 4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9 {+-} 0.69 in ulcer, 3.08 {+-} 1.2 in chronic atrophic gastritis, 3.2 {+-} 1.49 in uncommon forms of gastritis ( {rho} =0.044). In the appearance of stomach on FDG PET, malignant lesions were shown focal (5 of 6) and benign inflammatory lesions were shown diffuse (9 of 20) and asymmetric (14 of 20). Benign lesions and normal stomach were shown variable degrees of uptake and patterns. Some cases of benign inflammatory lesions such as ulcer and gastritis were shown focal and mimicked cancerous lesions (4 of 15). Gastric malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake and focal pattern

  18. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on F-18 FDG positron emission tomography: correlation with endoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Sang Woo; Byun, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yu Chul; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2005-01-01

    We often find variable degrees of FDG uptake and patterns in stomach, which can make difficult to distinguish physiologic uptake from pathologic uptake on FDG PET. The purpose of this study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-eight patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy within one week from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in this study. We reviewed 38 patients (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32 ∼ 79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. Two nuclear physicians evaluated five parameters on FDG PET findings of stomach with a consensus: 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (max.SUV) 3) focal 4) diffuse and 5) asymmetric patterns. We correlated the lesions of FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. We considered more than equivocal findings on FDG PET as positive. The six of 38 patients were proven as malignant lesions by endoscopic biopsy and others were inflammatory lesions (ulcer in 3, chronic atrophic gastritis in 12, uncommon forms of gastritis in 5), non-inflammatory lesions (n=3), and normal stomach (n=9). By the visual analysis, malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake than the others. The max.SUV of malignant lesions was 7.95 ± 4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9 ± 0.69 in ulcer, 3.08 ± 1.2 in chronic atrophic gastritis, 3.2 ± 1.49 in uncommon forms of gastritis ( ρ =0.044). In the appearance of stomach on FDG PET, malignant lesions were shown focal (5 of 6) and benign inflammatory lesions were shown diffuse (9 of 20) and asymmetric (14 of 20). Benign lesions and normal stomach were shown variable degrees of uptake and patterns. Some cases of benign inflammatory lesions such as ulcer and gastritis were shown focal and mimicked cancerous lesions (4 of 15). Gastric malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake and focal pattern. However, benign

  19. Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma with Glandular Differentiation That Confirmed the Response by Autopsy Specimen to Second-Line mFOLFOX6 (Fluorouracil, Oxaliplatin, and Leucovorin plus Bevacizumab Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Naiki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic significance of glandular differentiation in urothelial carcinoma (UC is controversial, and thus far there is no established treatment strategy against metastasis of glandular component. We describe here a case of metastatic UC with glandular differentiation that had histological disappearance of adenocarcinoma components at autopsy after sequential chemotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP and with mFOLFOX6 (fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin plus bevacizumab (mFOLFOX6+Bev. A 62-year-old Asian male was diagnosed with invasive UC with glandular differentiation (T2N0M0 by radical cystectomy and ileal conduit, and careful follow-up observation was made. Eight years after radical operation, peritoneal metastases occurred, and a biopsy specimen using colon fiber revealed high-grade adenocarcinomas with an immunohistochemical profile that included positivity for cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and negativity for cytokeratin 20 (CK20 and uroplakin, which was identical to the radical cystectomy specimen. Thus, he received combination chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP; however, the peritoneal metastasis worsened after 2 cycles. Therefore, second-line mFOLFOX6+Bev chemotherapy was performed for a total of 5 courses. In spite of this, the patient died, and the final diagnosis by autopsy was multiple metastases of infiltrating pure UC to the lung, bone, and peritoneum. Interestingly, there were no pathological findings of adenocarcinoma, and the immunohistochemical profile of the metastatic lesions was identical to that of the previous specimens from the bladder and colon. This suggests that sequential chemotherapy of S-1 and CDDP and second-line mFOLFOX6+Bev might be a feasible option in metastatic UC with glandular differentiation.

  20. Neoplastic stomach lesions and their mimickers: spectrum of imaging manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Virmani, Vivek; Khandelwal, Ashish; Sethi, Vineeta; Fraser-Hill, Margret; Fasih, Najla; Kielar, Ania

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This review illustrates a wide spectrum of gastric neoplasms with emphasis on imaging findings helpful in characterizing various gastric neoplasms. Both the malignant and benign neoplasms along with focal gastric masses mimicking tumour are illustrated. Moreover, imaging clues to reach an accurate diagnosis are emphasized.

  1. Method for determination of the mean fraction of glandular tissue in individual female breasts using mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J T M; Veldkamp, W J H; Thijssen, M A O; Woudenberg, S van; Zoetelief, J

    2005-01-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme using mammography has been in full operation in the Netherlands since 1997. Quality control of the screening programme has been assigned to the National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening. Limits are set to the mean glandular dose and the centre monitors these for all facilities engaged in the screening programme. This procedure is restricted to the determination of the entrance dose on a 5 cm thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The mean glandular dose for a compressed breast is estimated from these data. Individual breasts may deviate largely from this 5 cm PMMA breast model. Not only may the compressed breast size vary from 2 to 10 cm, but breast composition varies also. The mean glandular dose is dependent on the fraction of glandular tissue (glandularity) of the breast. To estimate the risk related to individual mammograms requires the development of a method for determination of the glandularity of individual breasts. A method has been developed to derive the glandularity using the attenuation of mammography x-rays in the breast. The method was applied to a series of mammograms at a screening unit. The results, i.e., a glandularity of 93% within the range of 0 to 1, were comparable with data in the literature. The glandularity as a function of compressed breast thickness is similar to results from other investigators using differing methods

  2. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.; Kalsbeek, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  3. Radiography of the equine stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dik, K.J.; Kalsbeek, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    To obtain radiographic information concerning the equine stomach, a gastrographic contrast examination is required. This study describes this procedure in detail. A powerful radiographic unit, the tubehead linked to an image intensifier and suspended by an electromechanical overhead gantry system, is required. To obtain accurately positioned radiographs during the fluoroscopic examination, a cassette holder with a stationary grid is mounted at the entrance window of the image intensifier. The examination is performed in the unsedated standing horse after 24 hours of starvation, using a combination of survey radiography and fluoroscopic viewing after the inflation of air, followed by the administration of barium sulphate suspension by stomach tube. The gastrographic contrast examination is performed in three experimental animals and 23 abnormal horses. Pneumogastrophy appeared to be valuable to diagnose gastric tumors, to differentiate between gastric tumors and other masses in the cranial abdomen, and to visualize gastric parasites, even in large horses. The use of barium sulphate suspension does not result in an adequate double contrast of the stomach, but it may aid to diagnose esophagogastric or pyloric stenosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers

  4. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients; Dosis glandular en examenes de tomosintesis de mama: estudio preliminar con una muestra de pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  5. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, T. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  6. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olgar, T.; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  7. Watermelon-stomach og sklerodermi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Rasmussen, Jens Møller

    2002-01-01

    We report here a 72-year-old man with severe, persistent, iron deficiency anaemia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed red stripes radiating to the pylorus, characteristic of watermelon stomach (gastric antral vascular ectasia). The patient was found to have scleroderma with calcinosis......, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasias, but neither Raynaud's phenomenon nor oesophageal dysmotility. The patient was treated with endoscopic Argon laser therapy, repeated six times, but this did not control the bleeding. Altogether the patient received 62 units of blood transfusions. The patient died after 9...

  8. Analysis of local concentration in stomach fold pattern by using abdominal X-ray CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeto; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Mekada, Yoshito; Mori, Kensaku; Nawano, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a method for analysis of stomach folds pattern in abdominal X-ray CT images. Many stomach cancers have local concentration of folds at cancer lesions. Therefore, in stomach diagnosis, it is very important to evaluate quantitatively such fold concentration. In this paper, a method for calculation of concentration index for line figure on a curved surface is proposed first. Then, using this method a processing procedure for detection of stomach cancer from an abdominal X-ray CT image is developed. In the experiment using practical X-ray CT images, it is shown that by the proposed procedure, higher values of concentration index are obtained at cancer area. (author)

  9. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach leading to gastric diverticulum and upper gastro-intestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Stoian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach is a rare condition. Gastric diverticulum is also a rare condition, mostly located at the fornix. Therefore, the existence of a pyloric gastric diverticulum containing a submucosal tumor proved to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach is an extremely rare condition. The patient was a young thin male with epigastralgia chronically treated for gastritis/ulcer. Following an episode of melena, he underwent gastroscopy that diagnosed antral gastric diverticulum containing a polyp. The lesion was surgically removed. The pathology report stated: heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach with secondary development of a traction diverticulum. Heterotopic pancreas tissue of the stomach is a rare condition but the association with gastric diverticulum is completely unusual. The possibility of the ectopic tissue leading to secondary diverticulum development should be considered.

  10. Enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation by mouse glandular kallikrein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Q; Murakami, K; Ikigai, H; Shimamura, T

    1992-03-01

    Mouse glandular kallikrein (mGK) strongly enhanced the spontaneous and mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. Both blast formation and 3H-TdR incorporation were dose-dependently enhanced at the same time many cells were killed. The enhancing activity was independent of EGF, because EGF-binding proteins (mGK-9 in mGK-6,9 mixture and mGK-13), renal kallikrein (mGK-6) and human kallikrein all displayed the same enhancement. A serine proteinase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, could block the enhancement by mGK. The new function suggests that mGK is important in the immune system as a regulatory molecule.

  11. [Antiulcer activity of dibunol in experimental stomach and duodenal ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatalov, V N; Korman, D B; Krutova, T V; Sokolov, L K; Andrianova, O P

    1988-01-01

    The antiulcer effect of two medicinal forms (oil solution, liniment) of dibunol in rats with different models of the stomach and duodenum ulcers was studied. The therapeutic activity of dibunol was evaluated by determining the index of ulcer formation as well as during the morphological and histochemical studies. The two medicinal forms of dibunol possessed equal antiulcer activity by all studied criteria. One should note a characteristic property of dibunol--its ability to produce pronounced epithelialization of ulceroerosive and ulceronecrotic lesions of the mucosa without rough scarring.

  12. Diagnosis of early stomach cancer (Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Problems concerning diagnosis of early stomach cancer using X-ray and endoscopic investigation techniques are stated. Classification of early stomach cancer suggested by the Japan Endoscopy Society and division system of early stomach cancer into two main foms: depth (erosive-ulcerous) one and elevated (polypoid) one-is presented X-ray and endoscopic investigation techniques are shown to be high efficiency concerning revealingation of stomach mucous variations using biopsy, which allow to determine for certain whother the process is benign or malignant one

  13. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  14. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasta, Julian A; Chaitra, V; Simi, Cm; Correa, Marjorie

    2009-04-01

    Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81%) of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  15. Breast Glandularity in Malaysian Women from a Full-Field Digital Mammography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung; Siti Selina Abdul Hamid; Juliana Mahamad Napiah

    2014-01-01

    This study is undertaken to estimate breast glandularity in Malaysian women from a Full-Field Digital mammography System. This study involved 223 women (Malay=100;Chinese=101 and Indian=22) underwent voluntary screening mammography at Breast Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM Breast Centre) for the first quarter of year 2009. Those are women aged between 31 to 69 years old (median age, 49 years). Data on miliampere-seconds, kilo voltage and compressed breast thickness for each cranio caudal view are used to estimate breast glandularity for an individual breast. Breast glandularity is calculated using the fitted equation reported earlier. The difference in breast glandularity among ethnic groups was tested for significance using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The average breast glandularity estimated in our study, using FFDM system is 52.94±27.63 %. No significant difference was seen in breast glandularity among the ethnic groups (p>0.05, Kruskan Wallis test). Breast glandularity decrease as age increases, up to 60 years old. (author)

  16. X-ray diagnosis of diseases of operated stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, I.S.; Rozenfel'd, L.G.; Ostapenko, T.A.; Shpontak, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Principal methods for operations on the stomach, X-ray examinations of patients with the operated stomach are described as well as the state of the stomach after different surgical treatments. Radiodiagnosis of operated stomach complications in early and late postoperative periods, diseases of the operated stomach, cancer relapse after an operation, dumping syndrome, are considered

  17. The operated stomach in double contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of common modifications of surgery facilitates the interpretation of changes in X-ray morphology. Vagotomy modifies the motor aspects of the stomach. Gastroenterostomy modifies discharge conditions with high incidence of gastric ulcers. Pyloroplasty causes typical pockets. X-ray findings after repeated surgical treatment of the stomach, total gastrectomy, and pancreatic surgery may be classified and distinguished from pathological findings. (orig.) [de

  18. FORTRAN Code for Glandular Dose Calculation in Mammography Using Sobol-Wu Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mowlavi A A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate computation of the radiation dose to the breast is essential to mammography. Various the thicknesses of breast, the composition of the breast tissue and other variables affect the optimal breast dose. Furthermore, the glandular fraction, which refers to the composition of the breasts, as partitioned between radiation-sensitive glandular tissue and the adipose tissue, also has an effect on this calculation. Fatty or fibrous breasts would have a lower value for the glandular fraction than dense breasts. Breast tissue composed of half glandular and half adipose tissue would have a glandular fraction in between that of fatty and dense breasts. Therefore, the use of a computational code for average glandular dose calculation in mammography is a more effective means of estimating the dose of radiation, and is accurate and fast. Methods: In the present work, the Sobol-Wu beam quality parameters are used to write a FORTRAN code for glandular dose calculation in molybdenum anode-molybdenum filter (Mo-Mo, molybdenum anode-rhodium filter (Mo-Rh and rhodium anode-rhodium filter (Rh-Rh target-filter combinations in mammograms. The input parameters of code are: tube voltage in kV, half-value layer (HVL of the incident x-ray spectrum in mm, breast thickness in cm (d, and glandular tissue fraction (g. Results: The average glandular dose (AGD variation against the voltage of the mammogram X-ray tube for d = 4 cm, HVL = 0.34 mm Al and g=0.5 for the three filter-target combinations, as well as its variation against the glandular fraction of breast tissue for kV=25, HVL=0.34, and d=4 cm has been calculated. The results related to the average glandular absorbed dose variation against HVL for kV = 28, d=4 cm and g= 0.6 are also presented. The results of this code are in good agreement with those previously reported in the literature. Conclusion: The code developed in this study calculates the glandular dose quickly, and it is complete and

  19. Relation between reflux of bile acids into the stomach and gastric mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia in biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Tsukui, Taku

    2012-05-01

    During endoscopic examinations we collected fluid in the stomach that included reflux fluid from the duodenum, and assessed the effect of quantitatively determined bile acids on glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia using biopsy specimens. A total of 294 outpatients were enrolled in this study. Total bile acid concentration was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia scores were graded according to the Updated Sydney System. An effect of refluxed bile acids on atrophy and intestinal metaplasia was shown in the high-concentration reflux group in comparison with the control group. However, when the odds ratios (ORs) were calculated according to whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was present, no significant associations were shown between reflux bile acids and atrophy in either the H. pylori-positive cases or -negative cases. The same was true for intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cases, whereas intestinal metaplasia was more pronounced in the high-concentration reflux group in the H. pylori-negative cases (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1-5.6). We could not clarify the effect of the reflux of bile acids into the stomach in the progression of atrophy. High-concentration bile acids had an effect on the progression of intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-negative cases.

  20. Gallium-67 accumulation in the stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Masayoshi; Irie, Goro; Itoh, Kazuo; Furudate, Masayori

    1988-10-01

    Scintigraphy with Ga-67 citrate routinely performed which showed an uptake in the stomach was reviewed retrospectively. There were 24 cases correlated ; 7 cases with malignant lymphoma in the stomach, 4 with gastric carcinoma, 2 with gastritis, 1 with abscess after gastroenterostomy and 8 with no disease detected. The Ga-uptake in the stomach in those was patterned to 4 groups. Rod and wall patterns were unlikely in malignant diseases of the stomach. On the other hand, focal or irregular uptake was commonly seen in malignant diseases of the stomach. Those Ga-uptake patterns may be useful to interprete complicated distribution of the radiogallium in the G.I. tracts of the left upper abdomen.

  1. Stomach development, stem cells and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2016-01-01

    The stomach, an organ derived from foregut endoderm, secretes acid and enzymes and plays a key role in digestion. During development, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions drive stomach specification, patterning, differentiation and growth through selected signaling pathways and transcription factors. After birth, the gastric epithelium is maintained by the activity of stem cells. Developmental signals are aberrantly activated and stem cell functions are disrupted in gastric cancer and other disorders. Therefore, a better understanding of stomach development and stem cells can inform approaches to treating these conditions. This Review highlights the molecular mechanisms of stomach development and discusses recent findings regarding stomach stem cells and organoid cultures, and their roles in investigating disease mechanisms. PMID:26884394

  2. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Andrew M., E-mail: amhern@ucdavis.edu [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  3. A study of UGI series for improvement of diagnosis on the anterior wall of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Hyoung Wook

    1997-01-01

    This paper is to investigate a more detailed method for the diagnosis of anterior wall of the stomach by making a comparative study with several hospitals. It has been true that there have been hospitals, that have not examined anterior wall of the stomach. However, it is very important for us to examine anterior wall of the stomach for an early detection of gastric carcinoma. The results of the study are as follows : 1. Frequency of occurrence of the early gastric carcinoma for the anterior wall were 50 cases and 34 cases for the posterior wall out of 84 cases. 2. Only a hospitals have examined the anterior wall of stomach. 3. In case of operation, only a hospitals have used two techniques at for same time single and double contrast studies. 4. Only one hospital used a compression pad and three hospitals had only filing state images taken. 5. In general, l chest of film was used and the number of exposures rouged from 1 to 2 times. Lesions on the anterior wall of the stomach can be shown by the combination of prone single compression and supine double contrast radiographs. Therefore, the conclusion came to the result that the prone single compression and supine double contract technique of the anterior wall are indispensable methods to the routine check of the stomach

  4. Stomach Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach (gastric) cancer risk factors include smoking and H. pylori. Learn about these and other risk factors for stomach cancer and how to prevent stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed and evidence-based summary.

  5. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  6. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma associated with atypical glandular cells on liquid-based cervical cytology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chummun, K

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the management of women in Ireland with atypical glandular cells changed to immediate referral to colposcopy. The optimal management of these women is unclear. A balance between the detection of occult disease and overtreatment is required.

  7. The stomach in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R H; Camilleri, M; Crowe, S E; El-Omar, E M; Fox, J G; Kuipers, E J; Malfertheiner, P; McColl, K E L; Pritchard, D M; Rugge, M; Sonnenberg, A; Sugano, K; Tack, J

    2016-01-01

    The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes. Normal gastric physiology and morphology may be disrupted by Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In this state-of-the-art review, the most relevant new aspects of the stomach in health and disease are addressed. Topics include gastric physiology and the role of gastric dysmotility in dyspepsia and gastroparesis; the stomach in appetite control and obesity; there is an update on the immunology of the stomach and the emerging field of the gastric microbiome. H. pylori-induced gastritis and its associated diseases including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer are addressed together with advances in diagnosis. The conclusions provide a future approach to gastric diseases underpinned by the concept that a healthy stomach is the gateway to a healthy and balanced host. This philosophy should reinforce any public health efforts designed to eradicate major gastric diseases, including stomach cancer. PMID:26342014

  8. Multifocal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach in an 11-year-old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin; Rubinas, Tara C.; Fordham, Lynn A.; Phillips, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    A previously healthy 11-year-old girl presented with an 8-month history of anemia and left upper quadrant abdominal pain. US examination demonstrated a 9-cm cystic mass with a fluid-fluid level in the left upper quadrant with unclear organ of origin. Abdominal MR imaging demonstrated a complex cystic mass, likely arising from the stomach. Additional T2 hyperintense submucosal lesions were identified in the gastric wall. Surgical excision confirmed the diagnosis of multifocal gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). MR imaging was helpful in suggesting a gastric origin of the primary mass and in demonstrating multifocal disease within the stomach. (orig.)

  9. Absorption of pentacaine from ulcerous rat stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomcikova, O.; Babulova, A.; Durisova, M.; Trnovec, T.; Benes, L.

    1985-01-01

    Pentacaine is a local anaesthetic which exhibited positive effects on healing of model ulcers in the rat stomach. The in situ disappearance of pentacaine from the ulcerous and intact rat stomach was studied. Gastric ulcers were produced by oral administration of phenylbutazone (200 mg/kg) 3.5 h before absorption experiment. Pentacaine exhibited a biexponential decrease from the lumen of the stomach, the rate of which was essentially the same in both groups. The total amount of pentacaine absorbed was small because of extremly low absorption rate. (author)

  10. Glandularity estimation in Japanese women by using a breast model made from mammographic findings of European women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Ai; Matsunaga, Yuta; Chida, Koichi; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate breast glandularity in Japanese women using patient exposure conditions and tissue-equivalent materials by a conventional method. Typical glandularities in Japanese women were compared with those in European women to verify the validity of the average glandular dose estimation manual based on the EUREF protocol. Glandularity was estimated from the data of 600 patients and the model breast of the tissue-equivalent materials which had various amounts of glandular contents and thicknesses. The model breasts were measured to examine the relationships between the thickness of the glandular contents and tube loading by using an automatic exposure control system. Then, equations were established to determine glandularity from patient data. The mean glandularity in the highest compressed breast thickness (CBT) group of 36–45 mm was 72%. The mean CBT of the 184 (31%) patients with glandularities exceeding 100% was 31 mm. Glandularities in patients with CBT of 30–70 mm in the present study were higher compared to those in European women by approximately 10–20%. The results suggest that the model breast of European women might not be a suitable reference standard for more than 30% of Japanese women, who have breasts with lower CBT. (author)

  11. FDG uptake in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, M. J.; Cho, H. J.; Cho, E. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kang, W. J.; Lee, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) to predict FDG uptake on PET. 153 patients(102 men; mean age, 55 y) were diagnosed with AGC by surgery were included in this study. PET images were evaluated by visual and semi-quantitative analysis of FDG uptake in primary tumors. Primary tumors size were measured and divided according to Borrmann classification. Tumor histology was classified under WHO classification, depth of invasion and Iymphovascular invasion. The tumors were also grouped by high cellular(cellularity = 50%) and low cellular group (<50%). Microscopic growth type was based on Lauren classification. Stromal fibrosis degree and inflammatory cell infiltration amount was graded as low(none∼mild), or high(moderate∼severe). Lymph node metastases was assessed in all patients. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate differences in SUV as to histopathologic factors. Of the 153 patients, 21 patients(14%) had primary tumor invisible on initial whole body images. After water ingestion, the tumors became visible in 15 of the 21 patients due to disappearance of physiologic stomach uptake. Polypoid or ulcerofungating tumors, high cellularity, intestinal growth pattern, and larger tumors significantly predicted increased tumor SUVs. Well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma tended to show high cellularity and intestinal growth pattern. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma had diverse spectrum of histopathology. Signet ring cell carcinomas were mostly ulceroinfiltrative or diffusely infiltrative in macroscopic type and diffuse in microscopic tumor growth. Mucinous adenocarcinomas were mostly low in cellularity. FDG uptake patterns are useful in representing histopathologic characteristics of the entire tumor in gastric cancers. The degree of FDG uptake depends on tumor size, macroscopic type, cellularity, and microscopic growth pattern and it shows no association with well known important prognostic

  12. Microbiota in the stomach: new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen Ming; Yang, Yun Sheng; Peng, Li Hua

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria are sparsely distributed in the stomach due to the gastric microbicidal barrier. Several innate defenses (low pH, migrating motor complex and the entero-salivary circulation of nitrate) as well as external factors (diet, Helicobacter pylori infection, proton pump inhibitors, antibiotics and stomach diseases) have been shown to influence significantly the microbiota composition in the stomach. In recent years new culture-independent technologies have allowed the investigation of the cross talk that occurs between hosts and stomach-associated microflora, which helps us to understand the role of gastric bacterial flora in the gastrointestinal microbiological system, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we reviewed the literatures related to this topic and set the stage for future developments of the field. © 2013 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ) which coats the esophagus and stomach as it ... to remove tissue , which is checked under a microscope for signs of disease. Enlarge Upper endoscopy. A ...

  14. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Cancer of the Stomach in the Mrican

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -of 98 cases of histologically proved cancer of the stomach are reported here ... origin, size and site of tumour clinical features, principles of management ... NO OF CASES STUDIED. Other surgical ... tenderness, vomiting, and anorexia (Fig. 2).

  16. Manufacturing Of Novelty Leather From Cattle Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of turning cattle stomach into novelty leather and then leather product which would add value to end of cattle. Four pieces of green buffalo stomachs were taken through soaking liming deliming pickling tanning neutralization retanning dyeing and fat liquoring operation. Then mechanical operations like drying and staking operations were also done. Some physical tensile strength stitch tear strength and colour rub fastness and chemical chromic oxide content fat content and pH tests were accomplished .The results of physical tests were poor compared to the grain leather as the composition of raw outer coverings of animals and their stomachs are different. The stomach leathers could be used for making coin purse key case bracelet wrist watch belt ear-ring necklace hair band iPod case etc. as novelty leather product item.

  17. Swordfish Stomach Content Data, 1989-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents were tabulated for 734 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the central North Pacific from 1989 to 2000 (most from 1994-1998). The swordfish were...

  18. Chemo Before Surgery May Help Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy given before surgery for cancer of the lower esophagus and stomach increased the number of patients surviving for five years compared to surgery alone, according to findings presented at the 2007 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

  19. Mineral nutrient uptake from prey and glandular phosphatase activity as dual test of carnivory in semidesert plants with glandular leaves suspected of carnivory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Huet, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2009), s. 649-654 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mineral nutrient uptake * phosphatases * glandular leaves Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.501, year: 2009

  20. Experimental study on carcinoma of the stomach in rats induced by administration of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and x-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haizuka, S [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan).School of Medicine

    1979-12-01

    Induction of gastrointestinal cancer in 109 6-week-old wistar rats (54 males, 55 females) divided into 6 groups was carried out with various combinations of localized x-ray irradiation and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Carcinoma of the glandular part of the stomach and duodenum was found in 50% of the rats in group 1 (localized x-ray irradiation, 2000 R), in 73.3% in group 2 (80 ..mu..g/ml of MNNG in drinking water), in 52.9% in group 3 (x-ray irradiation, 2000 R; MNNG), in 78% in group 4 (x-ray irradiation + oral MNNG at the same time), and in 72.7% in group 5 (oral MNNG + x-ray irradiation). Group 6 was not treated. Most of the cases of carcinoma developed in the antrum of the glandular part of the stomach. Of the histological types of carcinoma, very differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma was the most frequent. Sarcoma of the glandular part of the stomach, which was frequently complicated by carcinoma, was seen in 14.2% of the rats in group 1 and in 45.5% in group 5. Two kinds of adenomatous hyperplasia of the gastroduodenal mucosa were noted in the treated groups. In group 1, only downward adenomatous hyperplasia was seen. In group 2, two kinds of adenomatous hyperplasia were located in the antrum only. In groups 3, 4, and 5, two kinds of adenomatous hyperplasia were found in the antrum and duodenum. Most of the cases of adenomatous hyperplasia were complicated by adenocarcinoma, which frequently results from a downward type of adenomatous hyperplasia. Intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa occurred often in group 4 (71.4%) and group 5 (72.7%). Squamous metaplasia of the gastric mucosa occurred frequently in the limiting ridge. There was no difference between groups 1 and 2 regarding the incidence of squamous metaplasia (25%) while group 4 showed the highest rate (71.4%).

  1. A calibration approach to glandular tissue composition estimation in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, J.; Thomas, J.A.; Eberhard, J.W.; Galbo, C.E.; Trotter, D.E. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    The healthy breast is almost entirely composed of a mixture of fatty, epithelial, and stromal tissues which can be grouped into two distinctly attenuating tissue types: fatty and glandular. Further, the amount of glandular tissue is linked to breast cancer risk, so an objective quantitative analysis of glandular tissue can aid in risk estimation. Highnam and Brady have measured glandular tissue composition objectively. However, they argue that their work should only be used for 'relative' tissue measurements unless a careful calibration has been performed. In this work, we perform such a 'careful calibration' on a digital mammography system and use it to estimate breast tissue composition of patient breasts. We imaged 0%, 50%, and 100% glandular-equivalent phantoms of varying thicknesses for a number of clinically relevant x-ray techniques on a digital mammography system. From these images, we extracted mean signal and noise levels and computed calibration curves that can be used for quantitative tissue composition estimation. In this way, we calculate the percent glandular composition of a patient breast on a pixelwise basis. This tissue composition estimation method was applied to 23 digital mammograms. We estimated the quantitative impact of different error sources on the estimates of tissue composition. These error sources include compressed breast height estimation error, residual scattered radiation, quantum noise, and beam hardening. Errors in the compressed breast height estimate contribute the most error in tissue composition--on the order of ±7% for a 4 cm compressed breast height. The spatially varying scattered radiation will contribute quantitatively less error overall, but may be significant in regions near the skinline. It is calculated that for a 4 cm compressed breast height, a residual scatter signal error is mitigated by approximately sixfold in the composition estimate. The error in composition due to the quantum noise, which is the limiting

  2. Investigation of mean glandular dose versus compressed breast thickness relationship for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, D.; Tukel, S.; Olgar, T.; Toklu, T.; Aydin, E.; Akyol, O.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the compressed breast thickness (CBT) is commonly used for the presentation of mammographic dose survey results and could also be useful for the assessment of individual breast doses retrospectively in case of lack of necessary dosimetric instrumentation. The high data scattering from the best fit reduces the reliability of this technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of this relationship using the data collected from a patient survey and phantom experiment. Patients were divided into three different groups according to their breast glandularities, which were predicted from the inspection of previous mammograms. X-ray beam qualities that will be used in patient examinations were determined according to breast thickness and predicted glandularities. The MGD versus CBT relationship for all the examined patients resulted in a poor correlation (R 2 = 0.28). This relationship was separately obtained for each glandularity group and also for sub-groups of specific beam qualities. The best correlation (R 2 = 0.73) was obtained for the fatty breast group and Mo/Mo combination. A low correlation (R 2 = 0.34) was observed in the mid-glandularity group due to inclusion of a wide range of glandularities in this group. In the case of the dense breast group, although the glandularity range was narrow, there were e still high data scattering (R 2 = 0.25). This was probably due to the use of Mo/Rh and Mo/Mo combinations. This is validated by obtaining the MGD-CBT relationship specific to Mo/Mo combination (R 2 = 0.61). (authors)

  3. Computation of the glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Vedantham, Srinivasan; D'Orsi, Carl; Karellas, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Tomosynthesis of the breast is currently a topic of intense interest as a logical next step in the evolution of digital mammography. This study reports on the computation of glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast. Previously, glandular dose estimations in tomosynthesis have been performed using data from studies of radiation dose in conventional planar mammography. This study evaluates, using Monte Carlo methods, the normalized glandular dose (D g N) to the breast during a tomosynthesis study, and characterizes its dependence on breast size, tissue composition, and x-ray spectrum. The conditions during digital tomosynthesis imaging of the breast were simulated using a computer program based on the Geant4 toolkit. With the use of simulated breasts of varying size, thickness and tissue composition, the D g N to the breast tissue was computed for varying x-ray spectra and tomosynthesis projection angle. Tomosynthesis projections centered about both the cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated. For each projection angle, the ratio of the glandular dose for that projection to the glandular dose for the zero degree projection was computed. This ratio was denoted the relative glandular dose (RGD) coefficient, and its variation under different imaging parameters was analyzed. Within mammographic energies, the RGD was found to have a weak dependence on glandular fraction and x-ray spectrum for both views. A substantial dependence on breast size and thickness was found for the MLO view, and to a lesser extent for the CC view. Although RGD values deviate substantially from unity as a function of projection angle, the RGD averaged over all projections in a complete tomosynthesis study varies from 0.91 to 1.01. The RGD results were fit to mathematical functions and the resulting equations are provided

  4. Normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients for flat-panel CT breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, Samta C; Glick, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    The development of new digital mammography techniques such as dual-energy imaging, tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging will require investigation of optimal camera design parameters and optimal imaging acquisition parameters. In optimizing these acquisition protocols and imaging systems it is important to have knowledge of the radiation dose to the breast. This study presents a methodology for estimating the normalized glandular dose to the uncompressed breast using the geometry proposed for flat-panel CT breast imaging. The simulation uses the GEANT 3 Monte Carlo code to model x-ray transport and absorption within the breast phantom. The Monte Carlo software was validated for breast dosimetry by comparing results of the normalized glandular dose (DgN) values of the compressed breast to those reported in the literature. The normalized glandular dose was then estimated for a range of breast diameters from 10 cm to 18 cm using an uncompressed breast model with a homogeneous composition of adipose and glandular tissue, and for monoenergetic x-rays from 10 keV to 120 keV. These data were fit providing expressions for the normalized glandular dose. Using these expressions for the DgN coefficients and input variables such as the diameter, height and composition of the breast phantom, the mean glandular dose for any spectra can be estimated. A computer program to provide normalized glandular dose values has been made available online. In addition, figures displaying energy deposition maps are presented to better understand the spatial distribution of dose in CT breast imaging

  5. The Cellient automated cell block system is useful in the differential diagnosis of atypical glandular cells in Papanicolaou tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Hou, April Y; Fischer, Andrew; Owens, Christopher L; Jiang, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Atypical glandular cells (AGC) is a very important diagnosis in gynecological cytology. In the current study, the authors investigated the usefulness of Cellient cell blocks (CB) for characterizing AGC on Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. A total of 148 patients with an AGC diagnosis based on Pap tests by cytotechnologists and referred to cytopathologists were studied. Among these patients, there were 68 patients with CB preparations and 80 patients with Pap tests only (TP-AGC group). Follow-up results by Pap tests or biopsies were obtained in 117 of 148 patients. The median follow-up was 13 months (range, 1 month-36 months). Of the 68 patients with CBs, 31 (46%) were reclassified as negative for dysplasia or low-grade intraepithelial lesion; 30 patients (44%) retained a diagnosis of AGC (CB-AGC group); and 7 patients (10%) were given specific diagnoses of high-grade intraepithelial lesion (3 patients), endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (1 patient), and invasive adenocarcinoma (3 patients). On follow-up, the CB-AGC group was found to have a significantly lower rate of negative/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion diagnoses compared with the TP-AGC group (55% vs 85%; P= .006). The CB-AGC group had a significantly higher rate of endocervical or endometrial adenocarcinoma compared with the TP-AGC group (36% vs 8%; P= .003) at the time of follow-up. The rates of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were not found to be statistically different between these 2 groups (9% vs 7%; P= .66). The Cellient CB is a useful technique to further categorize a diagnosis of AGC on Pap tests. Using the Cellient CB system, the pathologist has the ability to improve the diagnostic accuracy of AGC so that unnecessary colposcopic evaluation or biopsies can be avoided. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  6. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  7. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  8. A middle age addicted man with caustic stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Nouri Broujerdi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term caustic generally refers to alkaline and the term corrosive generally refers to acidic agents' injury; however, in medical literature caustic is frequently a term applied to both substances. Ingested alkali typically damage the esophagus more than stomach or duodenum, whereas acids usually cause more severe gastric injury. Since esophagus has a slightly alkaline pH, its epithelium is more resistant to acids, so that only 6 to 20% of those who ingest these substances present lesions in this organ. Case : A middle-aged addicted man who drunk hydrochloric acid accidentally had extensive necrosis of the stomach with remarkable sparing of the esophagus on second look exploration. A total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y esophago-jejunostomy with feeding jejunostomy was performed. Conclusion : In caustic GI injury, patients who are operated on and found to have no evidence of extensive esophago-gastric necrosis, a biopsy of the posterior gastric wall should be performed to exclude occult injury. If histologically there is a question of viability, a second look operation should be performed within 36 hours.

  9. Calcifying mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ki Yeal; Han, Seong Tai; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1983-01-01

    There is a great variety of abdominal calcifications of varying etiology. Among them, calcification in gastric carcinoma is rare. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous report of calcifying mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach in Korea. In the present communication, we report toe cases of this rare tumor. The first cases was 27 years old female who had anorexia and palpable mass in the epigastrium. By palpation, a firm non-tender large mass was felt in the epigastrium. A plain abdominal film showed numerous punctuate calcifications in the left upper quadrant. Film from an upper G-I series demonstrated findings of advanced gastric carcinoma with multiple punctuate calcifications involving the antrum and body. Gastroscopic biopsy proved the lesion to be mucinous adenocarcinoma (signet ring cell type). The second case was 38 years old female who complicated of nausea, vomiting and weight loss. On physical examination, she appeared normal. Routine laboratory tests were within normal limits. A plain abdominal film reveal stippled calcifications in the left upper quadrant medial to the splenic shadow. The film from an upper G-I series showed a mass in the fundus and upper body of stomach with multiple stippled calcifications along the lesser curvature. Subtotal gastrectomy was performed and the pathologic finding was calcifying mucinous adenocarcinoma (signet ring cell type)

  10. Modern endoscopic techniques of precancerous stomach conditions diagnostics: problems and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The review shows the classification of precancerous stomach pathology, proposed in the Consensus Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS (2012, according to which they are divided into precancerous lesions (atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia and precancerous changes (stomach mucosa dysplasia. Chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are considered precancerous conditions, as they are the background for development of dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma of intestinal type. Precancerous changes is gastric dysplasia and is the penultimate stage of gastric carcinogenesis sequence and is defined as histologically clear tumor epithelium without signs of infection, and thus is a direct tumor precancerous lesions. It is noted that, in general, the risk of stomach cancer is too small to justify by endoscopic observation in all the patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Thus, it is necessary to define additional risk factors for stomach cancer progression in that it is presented in the Kyoto global consensus on Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis (2015 for this category of patients. It was determined that stomach cancer risk factors are the intragastric distribution and the extent of intestinal metaplasia, presence of a family history of gastric cancer, the definition of subtypes of intestinal metaplasia. Sydney system is used for chronic gastritis classification (Houston review, as well as classification by metaplasia type (non-metaplastic, metaplastic atrophy of uncertain type. There are three methods to determine the prevalence and extent of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia used: endoscopic, histological and serological. The atrophy severity of the gastric mucosa is determined histologically. Classification of atrophy severity by endoscopic parameters does not currently exist. Intestinal metaplasia developed in different parts of the stomach and is multifocal

  11. Cadmium induced changes in subcellular glutathione contents within glandular trichomes of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Dagmar; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used an immunohistochemical approach combined with computer-supported transmission electron microscopy in order to measure changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during Cd-stress in mesophyll cells and cells of different glandular trichomes (long and short stalked) of Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: . Even though no ultrastructural alterations were observed in leaf and glandular trichome cells after the treatment of plants with 50 microM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 48 h, all cells showed a large decrease in glutathione contents. The strongest decrease was found in nuclei and the cytosol (up to 76%) in glandular trichomes which are considered as a major side of Cd accumulation in leaves. The ratio of glutathione between the cytosol and nuclei and the other cell compartments was strongly decreased only in glandular trichomes (more than 50%) indicating that glutathione in these two cell compartments is especially important for the detoxification of Cd in glandular trichomes. Additionally, these data indicate that large amounts of Cd are withdrawn from nuclei during Cd exposure. The present study gives a detailed insight into the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during Cd exposure in mesophyll cells and glandular trichomes of C. pepo L. plants.

  12. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  13. Evaluation of subject contrast and normalized average glandular dose by semi-analytical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomal, A.; Poletti, M.E.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, two semi-analytical models are described to evaluate the subject contrast of nodules and the normalized average glandular dose in mammography. Both models were used to study the influence of some parameters, such as breast characteristics (thickness and composition) and incident spectra (kVp and target-filter combination) on the subject contrast of a nodule and on the normalized average glandular dose. From the subject contrast results, detection limits of nodules were also determined. Our results are in good agreement with those reported by other authors, who had used Monte Carlo simulation, showing the robustness of our semi-analytical method.

  14. Radiology of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.H.; Sala, E.

    2008-01-01

    A number of imaging techniques, many of them complementary, are used in the investigation and treatment of disorders of the stomach and duodenum. Optimal patient treatment requires a thorough knowledge of the application of these techniques, as well as a sound understanding of pathology of the stomach and its presenting symptomatology. This well-illustrated book covers the various investigative methods in detail, discussing their advantages and disadvantages and explaining their role in specific settings. It will be of great value to both trainee and experienced radiologists, and should assist in promoting effective and judicious patient management. (orig.)

  15. Neonatal Intrathoracic Stomach without Gastric Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokka, Sriharsha; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare and serious congenital abnormality. The anomaly may be complicated by gastric volvulus and can lead to ischemic gastric infarction in the neonate. If diagnosed antenatally, neonatal management can be planned in advance so as to reduce morbidity. This anomaly must be differentiated from the more common congenital diaphragmatic hernia, as associated pulmonary hypoplasia is common in the latter and rare with gastric herniation. We report a case of intrathoracic stomach in a neonate without volvulus, fortunately a rare entity which was managed operatively, and the child has been under regular follow-up.

  16. Exposure parameters of mammograms with and without mass lesions from a South African breast care centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acho, Sussan N.; Boonzaier, Willem P. E.; Nel, Ina F.

    2017-01-01

    In South African breast care centres, full-field digital mammography units provide breast imaging services to symptomatic and asymptomatic women simultaneously. This study evaluated the technical exposure parameters of 800 mammograms of which 100 mammograms had obvious mass lesions in the fibro-glandular tissue. The average breast compression force of mammograms with mass lesions in the fibro-glandular tissue was 18.4% less than the average breast compression force of mammograms without mass lesions. The average mean glandular dose (MGD), tube potential (kV p ) and compressed breast thickness (CBT) values were 2.14 mGy, 30.5 kV p and 63.9 mm, respectively, for mammograms with mass lesions, and 1.45 mGy, 29.6 kV p and 56.9 mm, respectively, for mammograms without mass lesions. Overall, the average MGD and mean CBT of mammograms with mass lesion were significantly higher compared to those without mass lesions (p < 0.05), although there was no significant difference in their tube potentials (p > 0.05). (authors)

  17. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  18. A unique case of a huge mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of non-endobronchial origin with a peripheral growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yabuki

    Full Text Available We report a case of a huge solitary non-endobronchial pulmonary tumor in a 76-year-old male smoker. The tumor measured 11 × 10 × 8 cm. It was ill-defined, and it was located periphery of the right lower lobe with the subpleural cystic spaces. He underwent right lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection and is free from tumor 30 months after surgery. Microscopically, it was composed of a proliferation of squamous and ciliated columnar epithelial cells with a few mucous cells. These cells were arranged in a papillary growth fashion extending along the fibrously thickened alveolar septa together with metaplastic bronchiolar and squamous epithelia displaying an usual interstitial pneumonia-pattern. Although the histologic features of the tumor were that of a mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (MSCGP, it was peripherally located and showed a lepidic growth, and it was much larger than previously reported MSCGPs. It is possible that the tumor developed in association with bronchial metaplasia in the periphery of the lung, and then extended along the surface of the reconstructed air spaces, which resulted in its unique histologic appearance. Further investigations of respiratory papilloma are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of these lesions. Keywords: Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma, Non-endobronchial, Cytology, Interstitial pneumonia, Pulmonary tumor

  19. Pharmacotherapy of stomach diseases in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović Saša M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomach diseases have an important place in the clinical pathology of dogs. Etiological factors can be nutritive, chemical, or infective, but treatment implies certain common general principles and a certain number of therapy protocols which are most often used. On the other hand, a part of the medicines used in the pharmacotherapy of stomach diseases in dogs are taken from the palette of medicines intended for human use, so that a regular dosage and regime of implementation are the main precondition for the success of the applied therapy. Drugs used in the treatment of stomach diseases include antiemetics, prokinetics, antacids, mucoprotectives, anticholinergics, H2-antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, semisynthetic derivatives of prostaglandin E1, and others. The therapy of stomach diseases implies the simultaneous application of several drugs from different pharmacodynamic groups (for instance, an antiemetic, a prokinetic, an antacid, and an Hg antagonist or a proton pump inhibitor when it is necessary to establish a correct regime of implementation because of possible interaction, which will also be discussed in this work.

  20. Ontogenetic stomach development in catshark Scyliorhinus canicula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odete Goncalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract (GIT of vertebrates develops from a simple undifferentiated tube into highly differentiated regions for the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Each region has a different histological structure and gene expression profile that enables the performance of their different functions. The stomach is the most highly derived GIT region and gastric glands are responsible for the secretion of HCl and pepsinogen that enables acid-peptic digestion, representing a functional innovation found exclusively in jawed vertebrates. The mechanisms of GIT organ specification are well studied in some vertebrates including mouse, Xenopus, chicken and some teleost fishes. General embryonic development has been studied in chondrichthyans but not GIT development. In this study we characterize the development of the stomach in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, an elasmobranch with a ~5 month development spanning 34 developmental stages. As a representative of basal jawed vertebrate for which genomic information is currently available, the catshark is a suitable model system to characterize the ancient expression and function developmental of physiologically relevant genes. Therefore, during this study we used embryos from a brood stock held in our fish facility to conduct gene expression, protein detection and histological analyses. Our aim was to characterize, at molecular and morphological levels, stomach development and the differentiation of its characteristic secreting glands. The differentiation of the stomach starts around stage 24. However, immunohistochemistry for the gastric proton pump indicates a delayed development of gastric gland that are only visible before hatching at stage 33-34. Supported by NSERC to JMW

  1. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  2. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT

  3. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. He...

  4. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of phantom and patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R. W.; van Engen, R. E.; Young, K. C.; den Heeten, G. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.; Schopphoven, S.; Jeukens, C. R. L. P. N.; Veldkamp, W. J. H.; Dance, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last

  5. Severe glandular tularemia in a patient treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor for psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Calin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline–ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment.

  6. A Stochastic Polygons Model for Glandular Structures in Colon Histology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Snead, David R J; Rajpoot, Nasir M

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a stochastic model for glandular structures in histology images of tissue slides stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, choosing colon tissue as an example. The proposed Random Polygons Model (RPM) treats each glandular structure in an image as a polygon made of a random number of vertices, where the vertices represent approximate locations of epithelial nuclei. We formulate the RPM as a Bayesian inference problem by defining a prior for spatial connectivity and arrangement of neighboring epithelial nuclei and a likelihood for the presence of a glandular structure. The inference is made via a Reversible-Jump Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. To the best of our knowledge, all existing published algorithms for gland segmentation are designed to mainly work on healthy samples, adenomas, and low grade adenocarcinomas. One of them has been demonstrated to work on intermediate grade adenocarcinomas at its best. Our experimental results show that the RPM yields favorable results, both quantitatively and qualitatively, for extraction of glandular structures in histology images of normal human colon tissues as well as benign and cancerous tissues, excluding undifferentiated carcinomas.

  7. STUDY OF MORPHOMETRIC CHANGES OF FOETAL STOMACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aneesur Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Interest in human development is very widespread largely because of the curiosity about our beginnings and desire to improve the quality of life. Understanding of the processes involved in the formation of various organs and systems has unrevealed most cryptic secrets of the nature. Human development begins at fertilisation when a male gamete or sperm unites with a female gamete or oocyte to form a single cell, a zygote. With the formation of zygote (single-celled stage, foetal development begins. The aim of the study is to- 1 Study the morphometric parameters of foetal stomach at various gestational ages. 2 Compare these observations with the previous studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present work was the cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Anatomy in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at SRTRGMC and Hospital, Ambajogai Dist., Beed, Maharashtra. For this, approval of Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. 30 aborted human foetuses of different age groups ranging from 12 to 36 weeks of fertilisation were taken from the Department of OB-GYN. Foetuses were preserved by using 10% formalin. Age of foetuses were determined by crown-rump length and history given by mother. Foetuses were dissected after preservation for 15 days and morphometric studies were done on stomach. RESULTS Various quantitative parameters like weight of foetus, crown-rump length, total length of stomach, weight of stomach, length of greater curvature, lesser curvature, width of cardia and width of pylorus were used. For the purpose of study and comparison with other researchers, the foetuses were divided into 3 groups. Morphometric changes were observed in different groups and compared with previous studies. CONCLUSION With the increase in the body weight, crown-rump length and gestational age of the foetus, there is gradual increase on various parameters of stomach.

  8. Histopathological changes in the liver and stomach of Didelphis virginiana (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) during natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Montoya, E H; Zazueta-Moreno, J M; Osuna-Martínez, L U; Castillo-Ureta, H; Silva-Hidalgo, G; López-Moreno, H S; Osuna-Ramírez, I; Noguera-Corona, E; Rendón-Maldonado, J G

    2017-11-06

    Gnathostoma turgidum is a nematode parasite that exploits the stomach of Virginian opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Latin America. The opossum is the definitive host of G. turgidum in the wild. Intrahepatic growth and maturation of the parasite, subsequent migration to the stomach and spontaneous expulsion are common. However, the histopathological lesions caused by G. turgidum are poorly described. A better understanding of the life cycle of this parasite and the pathological changes in natural host-parasite interactions could help to clarify the progression of human infections caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes in the liver and stomach of D. virginiana during natural infection and adult worm expulsion. Three opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum were captured from an endemic area of gnathostomosis. Three uninfected opossums captured from a non-endemic area were used as controls. The opossums were sacrificed at different stages of infection (March, May and December), and a histopathological study of their livers and stomachs was conducted. Injuries in livers were observed by histopathology - areas of necrosis and collagen septa were identified. Parasites caused nodules with necrosis on the periphery of lesions, and collagen fibres were also observed in stomachs. Collagen septa may be caused by antigenic remains of the parasite. Further immunological studies are necessary to verify that stimulation is caused by these factors.

  9. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach mimicking a superficial gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Miwako; Fujino, Yasuteru; Muguruma, Naoki; Murayama, Noriaki; Okamoto, Koichi; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of a depressed lesion in the stomach found by cancer screening gastroscopy. A barium upper gastrointestinal series showed an area of irregular mucosa measuring 15 mm on the anterior wall of the gastric body. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 15 mm depressed lesion on the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We suspected an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma from the appearance and took some biopsies. However, histology of the specimens revealed amyloidal deposits in the submucosal layer without malignant findings. Congo red staining was positive for amyloidal protein and green birefringence was observed under polarized light microscopy. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL) amyloid type. There were no amyloid deposits in the colon or duodenum. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no remarkable findings. Thus, this case was diagnosed as a localized gastric amyloidosis characterized by AL type amyloid deposition in the mucosal or submucosal layer. As the clinical outcome of gastric AL amyloidosis seems favorable, this case is scheduled for periodic examination to recognize potential disease progression and has been stable for 2 years.

  10. Primary adenosquamous carcinoma of the stomach: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Kim, In Ho; Ryu, Seung Wan; Park, Kyung Sik; Hwang, Jae Seok; Kang, Yu Na

    2005-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma, a rare malignant tumor of the stomach, is characterized by the presence of two different cell components, one adenomatous and the other squamous. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the stomach tends to more aggressive clinicopathologic features than common adenocarcinoma. There are few reports about radiologic features of adenosquamous carcinoma of the stomach. We experienced a case of a primary adenosquamous carcinoma of the stomach in a 67-year-old man, and report here the ultrasonographic and computed tomographic (CT) findings

  11. Double contrast study of the operated stomach in lateroposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodina, G.I.; Novakovskij, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Anastomosis was diagnosed in 34 patients, anastomosis ulcer in 3, cancer of the stump in 2, recurrence of stomach polyposis in 1 and cicatrical structure of the jejunum in 1. The great potentialities of a double contrast study of the operated stomach in lateroposition in the differential diagnosis of cancer of the stomach stump, deformities and other diseases were noted. The above method of examination of the operated stomach was recommended as an adjuvant to the commonly used method

  12. Improved radiological diagnosis in the stomach by means of an improved contrast material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, W.; Liebenow, S.

    1979-01-01

    Our experience with a cheap contrast medium, which we prepare ourselves, is described, stretching over a period of 18 months. It is based on the bubbly barium first described by Op den Orth and is made by means of carbone dioxide in a soda water syphon. It is better for detailed contrast examination of the stomach than the commercially available contrast media. It is thought that this is due to optimal viscosity for wetting of the mucosa, optimal size of the barium sulphate particles, which are larger than one micron, and greater distension of the stomach due to greater quantities of CO 2 . The use of bubbly barium for routine examination of the stomach, using double contrast and hypotonia with graded compresseion, almost always results in demonstration of the areae gastricae in large parts of the stomach. We regard this as a sign of a good examination, since we are then able to demonstrate small lesions such as complete or incomplete erosions, ulcer scars of flat ulcers. (orig.) [de

  13. A rare case of trihobezoar of the stomach: imaging methods for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanakiev, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Bezoar formations are formed in the stomach of ingested foreign particles. In most cases those foreign particles are organic, such as hair, plant fibers, seeds, fruit and vegetables and more. According to their composition bezoars are divided into trihobezoari (composed of hair), fitobezoari (composed of vegetable particles), mixed and others. The most common bezoars are trihobezoars. They are formed by chewing and swallowing hair, especially in girls or occupational disease in people who work with wool (brushmakers). Aim: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the value of non-conventional imaging methods, ultrasound, CT and MRI in the diagnosis of trihobezoar in the stomach. Material and methods: Patient of 70 years is hospitalized in Gastrointestinal ward with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, a feeling of satiation and weight loss. At physical examination a moving epigastric formation was found with the following characteristics: size 4-5 cm, smooth, hard surface. The patient was carried out echographic, CT and MRI examinations. Results: With the echographic examination in the lumen of the stomach, it was found mainly hipoehogenic formation of relatively sharp and smooth lines and multiple hyperechogenic inclusions. CT results - the described formation is visualized as a parenchymal lesion with a homogeneous structure and smooth contours. MRI results - the gastric formation appears as hipointensiv mainly in T1 and T2 sequences respectively in T1 and T2 hipointensive areas. The patient underwent surgery and was ultimately diagnosed with trihobezoar in the stomach

  14. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH (hydrogen...

  15. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach (gastric) cancer. Stomach (gastric) cancer is not common in the U.S. Learn about tests that have been studied to detect or screen for stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  16. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis; Estimacion de la dosis glandular media en un equipo de tomosintesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-07-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  17. Beyond the GIST: Mesenchymal Tumors of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menias, Christine O.; Gaballah, Ayman H.; Shroff, Stuti; Taggart, Melissa W.; Garg, Naveen; Elsayes, Khaled M.

    2013-01-01

    Intramural gastric masses arise in the wall of the stomach (generally within the submucosa or muscularis propria), often with intact overlying mucosa. These tumors are typically mesenchymal in origin and have overlapping radiologic appearances. A combination of features such as location, attenuation, enhancement, and growth pattern may suggest one diagnosis over another. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of intramural tumors and can vary widely in appearance, from small intraluminal lesions to exophytic masses that protrude into the peritoneal cavity, commonly with areas of hemorrhage or necrosis. A well-circumscribed mass measuring −70 to −120 HU is a lipoma. Leiomyomas usually manifest as low-attenuation masses at the gastric cardia. Homogeneous attenuation is a noteworthy characteristic of schwannomas, particularly for larger lesions that might otherwise be mistaken for GISTs. A hypervascular mass in the antrum is a common manifestation of glomus tumors. Hemangiomas are also hypervascular but often manifest in childhood. Inflammatory fibroid polyps usually arise as a polypoid mass in the antrum. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are infiltrative neoplasms with a propensity for local recurrence. Plexiform fibromyxomas are rare, usually antral tumors. Carcinoid tumors are epithelial in origin, but often submucosal in location, and therefore should be distinguished from other intramural lesions. Multiple carcinoid tumors are associated with hypergastrinemia, either in the setting of chronic atrophic gastritis or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Sporadic solitary carcinoid tumors not associated with hypergastrinemia have a higher rate of metastasis. Histopathologic analysis, including immunohistochemistry, is usually required for diagnosis of intramural masses. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:24108557

  18. Usefulness of p16ink4a, ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of glandular dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Giovanni; Bellisano, Giulia; Carico, Elisabetta; Faa, Gavino; Kasal, Armin; Antoniazzi, Sonia; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Piccin, Andrea; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Vittadello, Fabio

    2011-07-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria of in-situ and invasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri are well established, the differentiation from benign mimics may be difficult and the morphologic features of the precursors of endocervical adenocarcinoma are still debated. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of p16ink4a (p16), ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma and its precursors. Immunohistochemistry with p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67 was performed in 82 glandular lesions including 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, 29 adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS), 22 non-neoplastic samples, and 16 cases of glandular dysplasia (GD), which showed significant nuclear abnormalities but did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AIS. The immunohistochemical expression pattern was scored according to the percentage of the stained cells (0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ when 0% to 5%, 6% to 25%, 26% to 50%, and more than 50% of the cells were stained, respectively) and was evaluated for each antibody. p16 was at least focally expressed (1+ or more) in 14 of 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, in all AIS and in 7 negative samples. ProEX C and Ki-67 both scored 1+ or more in all adenocarcinomas and AIS and in 8 and 6 negative samples, respectively. Of the GD 15, 14, and 15 expressed p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67, respectively. The score differences between neoplastic and non-neoplastic samples were highly significant for each marker (Pcervix uteri and may also improve the diagnostic accuracy of endocervical GD. In particularly problematic cases, the combination of p16 and a proliferation marker can provide additional help for the interpretation of these lesions.

  19. Benign nerve sheath tumor of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, N.U.; Zafar, S.; Haque, I.U.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors are a group of tumors, which originate from the mesenchymal stem cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric schwannoma is a very rare gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumor, which represents only 0.2% of all gastric tumors and 4% of all benign gastric neoplasms. We report a 55 years old lady who suffered from pain epigastrium, vomiting, occasionally with blood, loss of appetite and weight loss. Endoscopic examination showed a round submucosal tumor with a central ulceration along the greater curvature of the stomach. The pathological examination revealed a picture of spindle cell tumor. Immunohistochemical stain was strongly positive for S-100 protein stain, and non-reactive for CD34, CD117, consistent with benign nerve sheath tumor of stomach i.e. gastric schwannoma. (author)

  20. The neoplasms of the operated stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ositrova, L.I.; Golubovich, I.A.; Mashevskaya, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that operation and rexction in case of primary and recurrent neoplasm of operated stomach remains low. However radical operation is the only method permitting to hope for healing of shuch patients. A thorough medical examination is necessary at first 3 years following operation. Surgical treatment is accompanied by preoperational irradiation in such patients. Au 198 in 1.48 GBq is intravenously injected to some patients. 10 refs

  1. General problems of roentgenology of stomach ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizaev, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that differential X-ray semiotics should be considered with regard to ulcer localization in one or another part of the stomach. Differential radiodiagnosis of tumoral and non-tumoral nature of ulcerations is based on analyzing the combination of X-ray symptoms, because every separate symptom doesn't reflect the whole variety and complexity of X-ray semiotics of the disease

  2. Roentgenoendoscopic diagnosis of early stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.; Kopytov, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    Some potentialities of the X-ray and endoscopic methods in the recognition of early stomach cancer are analysed. Both methods are provided by a roentgenotogist. Of 396 operated patients with stomach cancer, early forms were detected in 78 which is equal to 8% of the detected number and 19.7% of the operated cancer pasients. Two macroscopic forms of early cancer were detected: cancer with ulceration (erosion-ulcerative form) and polypoidcancer. The first form is interpreted as primary-ulcerative cancer, malignant ulcers and cancer in the form of erosions, the second one as polyps, polypoid and patchlike cancer, malignant polyps. X-ray changes were detected in 80% of the patients, in the rest of 20% by the endoscopic method only. With the help of the roentgenological and endoscopic methods (without cytological examination) one cannot be sure of accurate differential diagnosis between malignant and benign variants of ulcerations and polypoid changes in early cancer. The potentialities of the X-ray method ir the detection of ulcerative and polypoid changes of the stomach make it possible to improve it, though under a strict condition of performing subsequent obligatory endoscopy and getting tissue specimens for biopsy. The organization of the common roentgenoendoscopic centers is found appropriate

  3. The lymphatics of the cardia of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Katayama, Kanji; Sawa, Toshiharu

    1985-01-01

    The lymphatics of the cardia of stomach was examined using lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m colloid in 98 patients with gastric cancer and 4 patients with esophageal cancer. The colloidal Tc-99m was injected into the submucosa of stomach 12 hr before operation with the aid of endoscopy. Each lymph node dissected from the specimens was measured by scintillation counter. Lymph nodes located along the left gastric, splenic and left inferior phrenic arteries were mainly involved in the lymphatics of the cardia of stomach. There was strong relationship between the cardia and the node of number 16. The lymphatics was also present in the mediastinum. These results suggest the necessities of the complete removal of the gastropancreatic mesenteriolum including the left inferior phrenic artery and the extirpation of the regional lymph nodes around the aorta above and below the left renal artery, in addition to the removal of both pancreas and spleen in cases of cardia tumors. Furthermore, in cases of squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes, it seems necessary to extirpate the complete mediastinal lymph nodes. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Solitary Fibrous Tumor Arising from Stomach: CT Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Kwon, Jieun; Park, Jong-pil; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2007-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are spindle-cell neoplasms that usually develop in the pleura and peritoneum, and rarely arise in the stomach. To our knowledge, there is only one case reporting a solitary fibrous tumor arising from stomach in the English literature. Here we report the case of a 26-year-old man with a large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach which involved the submucosa and muscular layer and resembled a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach, based on what was seen during abdominal computed tomography. A solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach, although rare, could be considered as a diagnostic possibility for gastric submucosal tumors. PMID:18159603

  5. The effect of aluminium added filter on mean glandular dose using mammography machine in MINT Medical Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various thickness of aluminium added filter on mean glandular dose in mammography is investigated for a standard breast phantom, 4.2 cm Perspex. A mammography machine in Medical Physics Laboratory MINT, Bennett Model DMF-150 is used to provide radiation in various kV range under clinical condition. The mean glandular dose on the phantom were measured based on technique recommended by AAPM protocol (1990) report no 29. The mean glandular dose was found reducing with increasing thickness of added filter. A more detail results of this study is presented in this paper. (Author)

  6. Localization of a defensive volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one in the capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyun Tan; Desen Li; Juan Hua; Shihong Luo; Yan Liu; Shenghong Li

    2017-01-01

    Glandular trichomes of plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites which are considered as major defensive chemicals. The capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana (Onagraceae) were collected with laser microdissection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compound 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one (1) was identified. We found that compound 1 displays antimicrobial, insecticidal, and phytotoxic activities. These results suggest that compound 1 might function as a defensive compound in the capitate glandular trichomes of O. glazioviana against pathogens, insect herbivores, and presumably competitive plants as well.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation for the estimation of the glandular breast dose for a digital breast tomosynthesis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Leonardo; Braz, Delson; Goncalves Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a screening and diagnostic modality that acquires images of the breast at multiple angles during a short scan. The Selenia Dimensions (Hologic, Bedford, Mass) DBT system can perform both full-field digital mammography and DBT. The system acquires 15 projections over a 15 deg. angular range (from -7.5 deg. to +7.5 deg.). An important factor in determining the optimal imaging technique for breast tomosynthesis is the radiation dose. In breast imaging, the radiation dose of concern is that deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast because this is the tissue that has a risk of developing cancer. The concept of the normalised mean glandular dose (DgN) has been introduced as the metric for the dose in breast imaging. The DgN is difficult to measure. The Monte Carlo techniques offer an alternative method for a realistic estimation of the radiation dose. The purpose of this work was to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX technique to generate monoenergetic glandular dose data for estimating the breast tissue dose in tomosynthesis for arbitrary spectra as well as to observe the deposited radiation dose by projection on the glandular portion of the breast in a Selenia Dimensions DBT system. A Monte Carlo simulation of the system was developed to compute the DgN in a craniocaudal view. Monoenergetic X-ray beams from 10 to 49 keV in 1-keV increments were used. The simulation utilised the assumption of a homogeneous breast composition and three compositions (0 % glandular, 50 % glandular and 100 % glandular). The glandular and adipose tissue compositions were specified according ICRU Report 44. A skin layer of 4 mm was assumed to encapsulate the breast on all surfaces. The breast size was varied using the chest wall-to-nipple distance (CND) and compressed breast thickness (t). In this work, the authors assumed a CND of 5 cm and the thicknesses ranged from 2 to 8 cm, in steps of 2 cm. The fractional energy absorption increases (up to 44

  8. Localization of a defensive volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one in the capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyun Tan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes of plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites which are considered as major defensive chemicals. The capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana (Onagraceae were collected with laser microdissection and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The volatile compound 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one (1 was identified. We found that compound 1 displays antimicrobial, insecticidal, and phytotoxic activities. These results suggest that compound 1 might function as a defensive compound in the capitate glandular trichomes of O. glazioviana against pathogens, insect herbivores, and presumably competitive plants as well.

  9. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  10. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G; Wei, J; Zheng, Z; Ye, J; Zeng, S

    2014-01-01

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM. (letters)

  11. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Inflammatory Pseudotumor Presenting as a Solitary Mass in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ryeol Cheong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD is a relatively recently recognized entity that is histopathologically characterized by an extensive infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells with dense fibrosis. IgG4RD is now known to affect any organ system, and a few cases of gastrointestinal lesions have also been reported. However, solitary IgG4RD of the stomach is still very rare. Furthermore, as it can mimic malignant conditions, it is important to recognize this disease to avoid unnecessary surgery. Herein, we present a case of IgG4RD presenting as an isolated subepithelial mass in the stomach.

  12. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Maluf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII, and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence to spider mites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção para maior densidade de tricomas glandulares na resistência (repelência ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae, em populações de tomate derivadas do cruzamento interespecífico Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Foram avaliados 19 genótipos quanto à densidade de tricomas, que incluíram 12 derivados de populações avançadas de retrocruzamentos, obtidos a partir do cruzamento original L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Nas faces abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, realizaram-se as contagens e os tricomas foram classificados em glandulares tipo IV e VI, outros glandulares (tipo I e VII e não glandulares. A repelência aos ácaros foi medida pela distância média, percorrida pelo

  13. Second-harmonic generation as a DNA malignancy indicator of prostate glandular epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-Fei, Zhuang; Han-Ping, Liu; Zhou-Yi, Guo; Xiao-Yuan, Deng; Shuang-Mu, Zhuo; Bi-Ying, Yu

    2010-01-01

    This paper first demonstrates second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the intact cell nucleus, which acts as an optical indicator of DNA malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells. Within a scanning region of 2.7 μm×2.7 μm in cell nuclei, SHG signals produced from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC) tissues (mouse model C57BL/6) have been investigated. Statistical analyses (t test) of a total of 405 measurements (204 nuclei from BPH and 201 nuclei from PC) show that SHG signals from BPH and PC have a distinct difference (p < 0.05), suggesting a potential optical method of revealing very early malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells based upon induced biochemical and/or biophysical modifications in DNA. (geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics)

  14. Ultrastructure of the apical glandular region of the scolex of Proteocephalus torulosus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žďárská, Zdeňka; Scholz, Tomáš; Nebesářová, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2004), s. 333-338 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cestoda * Proteocephalus torulosus * apical glandular region Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2004

  15. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  16. Severe glandular tularemia in a patient treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor for psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calin, Ruxandra; Caumes, Eric; Reibel, Florence; Ali Mohamed, Anzime; Brossier, Florence; Foltz, Violaine; Boussouar, Samia; Fautrel, Bruno; Maurin, Max; Katlama, Christine; Pourcher, Valérie

    2017-07-01

    A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  18. Atypical squamous and glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and AGUS) of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    ASCUS (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) and AGUS (Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance), or AGCUS, are two acronyms introduced in 1988 by The Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting borderline cytological changes in cervical cytology. ASCUS and AGUS categories should be subclassified. Five ASCUS subgroups were proposed: 1) ASCUS due to processing defects, 2) with "mature" cytoplasm, 3) in post-menopausal women (a--in the setting of atrophy and b--with estrogen stimulation), 4) atypical metaplasia, and 5) ASCUS with keratinized cytoplasm. AGUS subgroups may be subcategorized in endometrial or endocervical on the basis of origin. Endocervical AGUS should be further qualified, but the analysis of atypical glandular cells may be really difficult and the conclusive diagnosis is frequently "AGUS not otherwise specified". The subclassification of ASCUS and AGUS is useful for an appropriate clinical management, but pertinent patient information (such as age, date of last menstrual period, mechanical therapies, tamoxifen therapy, and others) is needed to avoid an overdiagnosis and consequently an overtreatment. In fact various subgroups require different clinical management. Therefore, an effective communication between cytopathologists and referring physicians is essential in the analysis of squamous and glandular atypias.

  19. Genetic Architecture of Capitate Glandular Trichome Density in Florets of Domesticated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kane, Nolan C; Hulke, Brent S; Reinert, Stephan; Pogoda, Cloe S; Tittes, Silas; Prasifka, Jarrad R

    2017-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. CGT can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resistance is effective to combat the specialist pest, sunflower moth. However, the genetic basis of CGT density is not well understood in sunflower. In this study, we identified two major QTL controlling CGT density in sunflower florets by using a F 4 mapping population derived from the cross HA 300 × RHA 464 with a genetic linkage map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data and composed of 2121 SNP markers. One major QTL is located on chromosome 5, which explained 11.61% of the observed phenotypic variation, and the second QTL is located on chromosome 6, which explained 14.06% of the observed phenotypic variation. The QTL effects and the association between CGT density and QTL support interval were confirmed in a validation population which included 39 sunflower inbred lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. We also identified two strong candidate genes in the QTL support intervals, and the functions of their orthologs in other plant species suggested their potential roles in regulating capitate glandular trichome density in sunflower. Our results provide valuable information to sunflower breeding community for developing host resistance to sunflower insect pests.

  20. CT measurement of breast glandular tissue and its association with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klang, Eyal [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Rozendorn, Noa; Raskin, Steve; Portnoy, Orith; Sklair, Miri; Marom, Edith M.; Konen, Eli; Amitai, Michal M. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient). The ability of measured diameters to predict lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread was evaluated (ROC curves). The associations between measured diameter cut-off values of 20 and 25 mm and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification, lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread and histological subtypes were evaluated (chi squared test). Breast glandular diameters correlated to log(b-hCG) (r = 0.579) and predicted distant haematogenous metastatic spread (AUC = 0.78). Worse prognosis (intermediate or poor IGCCCG) was shown for 20 mm (27.3 vs. 4.2 %, p = 0.005) and 25 mm (33.3 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.014). A diameter of 25 mm was associated with non-seminoma (91.7 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.005). Breast glandular tissue diameters correlated with log(b-hCG) and predicted distant haematogenous metastases. Twenty and 25 mm were associated with worse prognosis and 25 mm was able to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminoma. (orig.)

  1. Antibacterial, modulatory activity of antibiotics and toxicity from Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) (Anura: Bufonidae) glandular secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Débora Lima; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Santos, Antonia Thassya Lucas Dos; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Araujo Filho, João Antonio de; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra da; Saraiva, Rogério de Aquino; Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar de; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Costa, José Galberto Martins; Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    The increase in microorganisms with resistance to medications has caused a strong preoccupation within the medical and scientific community. Animal toxins studies, such as parotoid glandular secretions from amphibians, possesses a great potential in the development of drugs, such as antimicrobials, as these possess bioactive compounds. It was evaluated Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) glandular secretions against standard and multi-resistant bacterial strains; the effect of secretions combined with drugs; and determined the toxicity using two biologic in vivo models, and a in vitro model with mice livers. Standard strains were used for the determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), while for the modulatory activity of antibiotics, the clinical isolates Escherichia coli 06, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03 and Staphylococcus aureus 10 were used. Modulatory activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method with aminoglycosides and β-lactams as target antibiotics. The secretions in association with the antibiotics have a significant reduction in MIC, both the aminoglycosides and β-lactams. The toxicity and cytotoxicity results were lower than the values used in the modulation. R. jimi glandular secretions demonstrated clinically relevant results regarding the modulation of the tested antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of glandular kallikrein in human plasma after partial purification by immunoaffinity column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazutaka; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Kokubu, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Glandular kallikrein in human plasma was partially purified by immunoaffinity column and was measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). Plasma was diluted with an equal volume of 10 mmol/l sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.9% NaCl (PBS) and was applied to an immunoaffinity column from which glandular kallikrein was eluted with 3 mol/l NaSCN (20 ml). The enzymic fraction was concentrated with an Amicon PM 10 filter and dialyzed against PBS. The final recovery of the enzyme was 51.6 ± 1.6%, determined by using [ 125 I]kallikrein. The usable range of the standard curve covered 2.5-100 ng/tube. The coefficient of variation within the series was 5.9%, and the coefficient of variation between the series was 7.6%. In healthy controls, the plasma content of glandular kallikrein was 1.36 ± 0.39 ng/ml. In patients with acute pancreatitis, the plasma concentration was 8.02 ± 6.15 ng/ml, significantly different from the control group. (Auth.)

  3. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    OpenAIRE

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer and these are termed high-risk. HPV type 16 is detected in approximately half of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer. Because of the high rate of spontaneous regression of low-grade squamous lesions, follow-up by cytology, colposcopy and possible biopsy appears preferable. Due to the higher rate of progression to malignancy of the high-grade lesions conservative...

  4. Impact of digitalization of mammographic units on average glandular doses in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    De Hauwere, An; Thierens, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    The impact of digitalization on the average glandular doses in 49 mammographic units participating in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Program was studied. Screen-film was changed to direct digital radiography and computed radiography in 25 and 24 departments respectively. Average glandular doses were calculated before and after digitalization for different PMMA-phantom thicknesses and for groups of 50 successive patients. For the transition from screen-film to computed radiography both ph...

  5. Traumatic displacement of stomach - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Joshima; Tarvadi, Pratik Vijay; Manipady, Shahnavaz; Shetty, Mahabalesh; Somashekar, C

    2014-01-01

    These days we have fast paced traffic on our roads to help us keep up with our fast paced life. But every boon has a down side and our high velocity traffic is no exception. Here is a case report of a blunt abdominal injury following a road traffic accident. Externally the deceased had only a few grazed abrasions on the forehead and right forearm. But on internal examination of abdomen, it was noticed that the left hemi-diaphragm was torn and the stomach and intestines were found displaced into the left thoracic cavity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolated Crohn's disease of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traxler, M.; Weiss, W.; Rohrmoser, G.

    1988-01-01

    The spectrum of this disease has undergone major changes since 1932 when Crohn, Ginzberg and Oppenheimer differentiated Ileitis terminalis from nonspecific inflammations of the bowels. Initially, Crohn assumed an inflammation restricted to the terminal ileum. Today, Crohn's disease has been verified to affect the total gastro-intestinal tract from the cavity of the mouth to the anus. In 1949 Ross et al. were the first to report Crohn's disease in the region of the stomach and duodenum. Its localization in the upper intestinal tract, however, is a rare occurrence on the whole. (orig.) [de

  7. Characterization of fibrillar collagens and extracellular matrix of glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Bauman

    Full Text Available Recent studies have associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men with prostatic fibrosis, but a definitive link between collagen deposition and LUTS has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate ECM and collagen content within normal glandular prostate tissue and glandular BPH, and to evaluate the association of clinical parameters of LUTS with collagen content.Fibrillar collagen and ECM content was assessed in normal prostate (48 patients and glandular BPH nodules (24 patients using Masson's trichrome stain and Picrosirius red stain. Second harmonic generation (SHG imaging was used to evaluate collagen content. Additional BPH tissues (n = 47 were stained with Picrosirius red and the association between clinical parameters of BPH/LUTS and collagen content was assessed.ECM was similar in normal prostate and BPH (p = 0.44. Total collagen content between normal prostate and glandular BPH was similar (p = 0.27, but a significant increase in thicker collagen bundles was observed in BPH (p = 0.045. Using SHG imaging, collagen content in BPH (mean intensity = 62.52; SEM = 2.74 was significantly higher than in normal prostate (51.77±3.49; p = 0.02. Total collagen content was not associated with treatment with finasteride (p = 0.47 or α-blockers (p = 0.52, pre-TURP AUA symptom index (p = 0.90, prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.86, post-void residual (PVR; p = 0.32, prostate size (p = 0.21, or post-TURP PVR (p = 0.51. Collagen content was not associated with patient age in patients with BPH, however as men aged normal prostatic tissue had a decreased proportion of thick collagen bundles.The proportion of larger bundles of collagen, but not total collagen, is increased in BPH nodules, suggesting that these large fibers may play a role in BPH/LUTS. Total collagen content is independent of clinical parameters of BPH and LUTS. If fibrosis and overall ECM deposition are

  8. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  9. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Hao, Fuhua; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Lu, Dayan; Gong, Fujun; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin) were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  10. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  11. Calculation of Absorbed Glandular Dose using a FORTRAN Program Based on Monte Carlo X-ray Spectra in Mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Mowlavi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Average glandular dose calculation in mammography with Mo-Rh target-filter and dose calculation for different situations is accurate and fast. Material and Methods: In this research, first of all, x-ray spectra of a Mo target bombarded by a 28 keV electron beam with and without a Rh filter were calculated using the MCNP code. Then, we used the Sobol-Wu parameters to write a FORTRAN code to calculate average glandular dose. Results: Average glandular dose variation was calculated against the voltage of the mammographic x-ray tube for d = 5 cm, HVL= 0.35 mm Al, and different value of g. Also, the results related to average glandular absorbed dose variation per unit roentgen radiation against the glandular fraction of breast tissue for kV = 28 and HVL = 0.400 mmAl and different values of d are presented. Finally, average glandular dose against d for g = 60% and three values of kV (23, 27, 35 kV with corresponding HVLs have been calculated. Discussion and Conclusion: The absorbed dose computational program is accurate, complete, fast and user friendly. This program can be used for optimization of exposure dose in mammography. Also, the results of this research are in good agreement with the computational results of others.

  12. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer on the lesser curvature in upper third of the stomach is a risk factor for postoperative delayed gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Tetsuya; Obata, Daisuke; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Norihiro; Hashimura, Hiroki; Kano, Chise; Matsushita, Megumi; Kanamori, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Kei; Tsujimae, Masahiro; Momose, Kenji; Eguchi, Takaaki; Okuyama, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Fujita, Mikio; Okada, Akihiko

    2018-02-07

    Advances in Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technology have established ESD for early gastric cancer as a safe and stable technique. However, ESD may induce delayed gastric emptying and the cause of food residue retention in the stomach after ESD is not clear. This study aimed to clarify risk factors for delayed gastric emptying with food retention after gastric ESD. We retrospectively examined for food residue in the stomach 1 week after ESD was performed for early gastric carcinoma at Osaka Saiseikai Nakatsu Hospital from February 2008 to November 2016. Food residue was observed in 68 (6.1%) of 1114 patients who underwent gastric ESD. The percentage of lesions located on the lesser curvature of the upper third of the stomach was 45.6% (31/68) in the food residue group and 3.5% (37/1046) in the non-food residue group, which was significantly different (P gastric ESD. Of the 68 patients, 3 had food residue in the stomach on endoscopic examination for follow-up observation after the ESD ulcer had healed. Delayed gastric emptying with food retention after gastric ESD was associated with lesions located in the lesser curvature of the upper stomach, submucosal invasion of the lesion, age older than 80 years, and post-ESD bleeding, though it was temporary in most cases.

  13. Is It Worthwhile to Fully Evaluate the Stomach in Every Ultrasound Examination of the Abdominal Cavity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, M.; Navabi, J.; Salimi, Gh.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of abdominal sonography in the fasting state with no hypotonic agents in the detection and exclusion of gastric lesions. One-hundred patients with normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 94 patients with a major gastric abnormality (including 59 intraluminal tumors, three submucosal masses, 29 ulcers, two polyps and one hypertrophied gastric mucosa) and 75 patients with minor gastric abnormalities (mainly gastritis) were enrolled into the study. Of the 100 normal patients, ultrasound showed four false positive results with 96% specificity of the examination. Within the major gastric lesion group, ultrasound was true positive in 55 of 59 tumors, 15 of 29 ulcers, three of three submucosal masses and the case of giant gastric mucosa. It was negative in the detection of gastric polyps. It could detect only 8% of minor gastric abnormalities. Abdominal sonography in the fasting state, if carefully performed, is sufficiently accurate in detection and exclusion of major gastric lesions. Therefore, although it cannot replace endoscopic and barium studies of the stomach, careful evaluation of the stomach is recommended in every sonographic evaluation of the abdominal cavity

  14. Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Stomach: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Kubota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare and have a poor prognosis, and the diagnostic criteria for this disease have recently changed. We herein report a case of sporadic gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma. A 75-year-old man was referred to our hospital with epigastric pain. Endoscopic examination revealed a localized ulcerative lesion (diameter, 4 cm at the upper stomach. The diagnosis on biopsy was neuroendocrine carcinoma. Total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy, splenectomy, and cholecystectomy was performed. Pathologically, the tumor infiltrated the subserosal layer, and 6/49 lymph nodes were involved. The tumor was uniform in shape and arranged in a rosette-like structure to form solid nests, with medium-sized, round-to-cuboid-shaped tumor cells and intense mitosis 46/10 HPF. It was positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin A, and the Ki-67 labeling index was 70–80%. The diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma was made according to the WHO 2010 criteria. The patient was followed up for three years without recurrence.

  15. A roentgenological study on the position of the stomach in Korean adults, and the radiological evaluation of gastric acid secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Jae

    1970-01-01

    The position and form of the stomach vary depending upon the position and habit of the body, spatial conditions of the abdominal cavity, phase of respiration, level of the liver and diaphragm. There has been much speculation about the criteria and significance of gastroptosis. Some regard gastroptosis as a manifestation of asthenic habit, while others claim that this entity is a generalized symptom complex. However, it appears that many clinicians in this country prefer to ascribe the gastric symptoms subtly to gastroptosis in the patients in whom no organic lesions can be detectable on x-ray study and physical examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, they say that level of the stomach is considerably lower in position and the incidence of gastroptosis is much higher in Koreans than in western peoples or in Japanese. Employing a roentgenological study the author made observations on the level and form of the stomach in 100 healthy Korean adults and on the interrelationships of the stomach, level of the other abdominal viscera and gastric emptying time in 46 symptomatic patients with no demonstrable organic lesions. The interrelationship between the acidity of gastric secretion and the mucosal pattern of the stomach and duodenum was also evaluated in 92 patients in whom no demonstrable organic lesion was found. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The lower pole of the stomach was lying below Jacob's line in 18% of 73 healthy men under 40 years of age and in 44% of the asymptomatic individuals over 40 years, while in symptomatic group it was lying below Jacob's line in 35% of 65 men under 40 years of age and in 56% of 71 patients over 40 years. 2. The incisura angularis of the stomach was observed lying below Jacob's line in 7.5% of the symptomatic groups. On the contrary, the incisura angularis was located above the level of the iliac crest in all of the healthy group. 3. The stomach of Korean adults was slightly higher in position than

  16. Topical application of benzalkonium chloride to the stomach serosa increases gastric emptying time, acid secretion, serum gastrin and size of the mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucoloto, S; Romanello, L M F; Garcia, S B; Sobreira, L F R; Barbosa, A J A; Troncon, L E A

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of gastric myenteric denervation using benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the time for gastric emptying, as well as gastric secretion, and mucosal epithelial cell size and population in rats. Wistar rats were treated with topical serosal application of BAC to the stomach. Control animals received saline. Ninety days after surgery, gastric emptying time, gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels were studied. Next, the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were removed, fixed in formalin and histologically processed for histomorphometry of the height, area and volume of the glandular portion, and volume and population of mucous, chief, parietal, G- and labelled cells. BAC animals showed a significant delay in gastric emptying and an increase in gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels. These animals also presented a significant reduction of myenteric neuron number, hypertrophy of parietal and chief cells, hyperplasia of G cells and an increase in the gastric mucosa area. The absence of the myenteric plexus seems to protect the stomach from the hyperplastic effects of hypergastrinemia. Gastric food stasis may act as a factor triggering morphological and functional alterations of the gastric epithelium. Although gastric food stasis is a common finding in medical practice, its physiopathological consequences are poorly understood and have not been frequently discussed in the literature.

  17. Present-day potentialities of radiodiagnosis of stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Simavonyan, K.V.; Turovskij, B.M.; Kaluzhskij, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present-day potentialities of radiodiagnosis of stomach cancer were studied using the results of clinicoradiological examination of 209 patients, mainly with endophytic and small forms of stomach cancer and 28 with stomach polypus. It was shown that to achieve the most complete and objective estimation of tumor changes in the stomach a combination of X-ray methods including routine examination with barium suspension and double contrast should be used. One of the most promising trends in radiodiagnosis of stomach cancer is fluorographic mass screening for stomach cancer in persons at high risk with subsequent selective endoscopic examination ( according to indications ). Double contrast remains the major and most informative part of standardized technique of gastrofluorographic examination

  18. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  19. Carcinoma of the stomach in young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Sook; Kim, Bo Young; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song; Oh, Sung Soo

    1988-01-01

    Of patients examined during the 24 years from January 1963 to December 1986, we have reviewed 6116 cases of gastric cancer. We found 126 cases of gastric carcinoma in patients below 30 years of age among 6116 cases of gastric malignancy, which were confirmed by histopathological study at PMC in Chonju. In an attempt to identify further the natural history of carcinoma of the stomach in young adults, we reviewed 126 cases of stomach carcinoma in patients below 30 years of age at PMC. The results were as follows: 1.Among the gastric malignancies the incidence of gastric carcinoma in young adults was 2.1%. 2.The age ranged from 13 years to 29 years, and the peak incidence occurred in the 3rd decade. 3.Male to female ratio was 1:1.03. 4.Common symptoms included epigastric pain, indigestion, weight loss, and vomiting. The mean time interval between onset of symptoms and the 1st visit to a physician was 12 months. 5.Usually diagnostic aids were UGI series, endoscopic examination and biopsy. 6.In the endoscopic finding Borrmamn type III was predominant. 7.The majority of tumors occurred in the antrum and Pyloric portion. 8.Histologic diagnosis were adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma, and mucinous cardinoma, in orders

  20. Clinico-roentgenological characteristic of early stomach neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Peculiarities of clinic and roentgenosemiotics of early stomach neoplasms in patients were analyzed. Roentgenological picture of early stomach neoplasms depends on anatomic growth shape and size of neoplasms, its localization and on manifestation of inflammatory and functional chages accompanying the neoplasm. Application of complex of gastrological examination including roentgenological diagnostic method, gastrofibroscopy and morphological examination of the tissue permits to diagnose early stomach neoplasm in 95,4 % of patients. 8 refs

  1. Adenocarcinoma of the stomach following radical radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, C.D.M.; Chadderton, R.; Bourke, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Two male patients who underwent curative surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (with further chemotherapy in one) for testicular cancer developed adenocarcinoma of the stomach 5 and 19 years after treatment. The stomach is included in the field of radiotherapy used to treat the para-aortic lymph nodes and this may lead to dysplastic changes in the stomach mucosa which can lead to frank malignancy. Early endoscopy should be offered to patients with dyspeptic symptoms after adjuvant radiotherapy for testicular cancer. (author)

  2. Lanthanum Deposition in the Stomach in the Absence of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Urata, Haruo; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-15

    In this case report, we describe two patients who showed a diffusely whitish mucosa in the posterior wall and the lesser curvature of the gastric body. The patients were serologically- and histopathologically-negative for Helicobacter pylori. Random biopsy specimens from the stomach revealed no regenerative changes, intestinal metaplasia, and/or foveolar hyperplasia in either of the patients. Although lanthanum deposition in the gastric mucosa has been reported to occur in close association with H. pylori-associated gastritis, our patients tested negative for H. pylori. These cases suggest that lanthanum deposition presents as whitish lesions in the gastric body in H. pylori-negative patients.

  3. The standard biphasic-contrast examination of the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op den Orth, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A standard examination has been developed, called biphasic, because it combines the advantages of positive-contrast and double-contrast techniques. The theoretical background and technique of this examination are described and the basic interpretation of double-contrast studies stated. General remarks on the results and on the complementary role of radiological examination and endoscopy are included. A quantitative study of standard biphasic-contrast examinations in patients over a period of 3 years is presented. Finally a radiological atlas of common lesions of the stomach and duodenum is given. (C.F.)

  4. Generation of stomach tissue from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Taka-aki K; Ninomiya, Naoto; Sekine, Mari; Komazaki, Shinji; Wang, Pi-Chao; Asashima, Makoto; Kurisaki, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Successful pluripotent stem cell differentiation methods have been developed for several endoderm-derived cells, including hepatocytes, β-cells and intestinal cells. However, stomach lineage commitment from pluripotent stem cells has remained a challenge, and only antrum specification has been demonstrated. We established a method for stomach differentiation from embryonic stem cells by inducing mesenchymal Barx1, an essential gene for in vivo stomach specification from gut endoderm. Barx1-inducing culture conditions generated stomach primordium-like spheroids, which differentiated into mature stomach tissue cells in both the corpus and antrum by three-dimensional culture. This embryonic stem cell-derived stomach tissue (e-ST) shared a similar gene expression profile with adult stomach, and secreted pepsinogen as well as gastric acid. Furthermore, TGFA overexpression in e-ST caused hypertrophic mucus and gastric anacidity, which mimicked Ménétrier disease in vitro. Thus, in vitro stomach tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells mimics in vivo development and can be used for stomach disease models.

  5. Solitary Fibrous Tumor Arising from Stomach: CT Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kwon, Jieun; Park, Jong-pil; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2007-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are spindle-cell neoplasms that usually develop in the pleura and peritoneum, and rarely arise in the stomach. To our knowledge, there is only one case reporting a solitary fibrous tumor arising from stomach in the English literature. Here we report the case of a 26-year-old man with a large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach which involved the submucosa and muscular layer and resembled a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach, based on what was see...

  6. The incidence of gastric lesions in slaughtered pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    histopathological changes observed are that of ulceration with foci of chronic nodular gastritis and fibrous granulation. There is a possible age predisposition in the occurrence of gastric lesions. The pin point ulcers and chronic nodular gastritis observed showed that most stomach lesions observed in slaughtered pigs in this.

  7. Glandular trichomes in Connarus suberosus (Connaraceae: distribution, structural organization and probable functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Donizete Denardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Connarus suberosus is a typical species of the Brazilian Cerrado biome, and its inflorescences and young vegetative branches are densely covered by dendritic trichomes. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of a previously undescribed glandular trichome of this species. The localization, origin and structure of these trichomes were investigated under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Collections were made throughout the year, from five adult specimens of Connarus suberosus near Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, including vegetative and reproductive apices, leaves and fruits in different developmental stages, as well as floral buds and flowers at anthesis. Glandular trichomes (GTs occurred on vegetative and reproductive organs during their juvenile stages. The GTs consisted of a uniseriate, multicellular peduncle, whose cells contain phenolic compounds, as well as a multicellular glandular portion that accumulates lipids. The glandular cell has thin wall, dense cytoplasm (with many mitochondria, plastids and dictyosomes, and a large nucleus with a visible nucleolus. The starch present in the plastids was hydrolyzed during the synthesis phase, reducing the density of the plastid stroma. Some plastids were fused to vacuoles, and some evidence suggested the conversion of plastids into vacuoles. During the final activity stages of the GTs, a darkening of the protoplasm was observed in some of the glandular cells, as a programmed cell death; afterwards, became caducous. The GTs in C. suberosus had a temporal restriction, being limited to the juvenile phase of the organs. Their presence on the exposed surfaces of developing organs and the chemical nature of the reserve products, suggest that these structures are food bodies. Field observations and detailed studies of plant-environment interactions, as well as chemical analysis of the reserve compounds, are still necessary to confirm the role of these GTs as feeding

  8. Occurrence of Bifidobacteriaceae in human hypochlorhydria stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mattarelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human stomach, when healthy, is not a suitable host for microorganisms, but in pathological conditions such as gastritis, when gastric acid secretion is impaired, microbial overgrowth can be observed. Apart from Helicobacter pylori, the composition of microbiota, resident or exogenously introduced during neutral/high pH conditions, has not been investigated thoroughly. Thus, it is possible that Bifidobacteriaceae, important autochthonous and beneficial bacteria of human gastrointestinal microbiota, could over-colonize the stomach of hypochlorhydria patients suffering from autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG or omeprazole-treated (OME gastritis. This prompted us to characterize the Bifidobacteriaceae in such patients’ gastric microbiota and to study its abnormal colonization. Methods: Samples of gastric juices, and antrum and corpus mucosa from 23 hypochlorhydria patients (13 AAG and 10 OME and from 10 control volunteers with base-line normochlorhydria, were cultivated in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI and selective Bifidobacterium-Tryptone-Phytone-Yeast extract (Bif-TPY media. The isolates were characterized by the fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK test, electrophoresis of cellular proteins, the fermentation test, guanine-cytosine% DNA content, and DNA–DNA hybridization. Negative F6PPK isolates were characterized by order-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: A total of 125 isolates, assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their morphology, were obtained from AAG and OME patients, but not from normal subjects. Of these isolates, 55 were assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their fructose-6-phosphoketolase (PPK activity, PPK being the key taxonomic enzyme of this family. The remaining 70 isolates, which were PPK-negative, were attributed to the Actinomycetales order following specific primer PCR analysis. We observed a significantly higher abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae

  9. CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of masses located in the junctional space adjacent to stomach, spleen and pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xueling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of masses located in the junctional space adjacent to stomach, spleen and pancreas, with analysis of cases in which misdiagnosis was made. Methods: CT manifestations were retrospectively investigated in 20 cases of masses located in the junctional space adjacent to stomach, spleen and pancreas. Lesions had been located with the images and then qualitative diagnosis had been made. All the cases were eventually confirmed by pathology. Results: The lesions were in round shape in 6 cases out of 20 irregular masses were revealed in 14 showed, unclear demarcated lesions were showed in 16 cases. Inhomogeneous enhancement of the masses was visualized when the contrast agent was given. The central spot and maximum plain of the mass were different among different pathology types of the masses. 6 of 20 were original from stomach, 7 of 20 from pancreas, 3 from spleen and 4 from peritoneal cavity. 6 of 20 were wrong located (30%), 8 of 20 (40%)were wrong pathological diagnosis. Conclusion: Location is more important than pathological character diagnosis. It is valuable to locate the maximum plain of the masses and shape changed of organs nearby. (authors)

  10. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  11. Assessment of mean glandular dose to patients from digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pwamang, Caroline K.

    2016-07-01

    Mean glandular dose assessment of patients undergoing digital mammography examination has been done. A total of 297 patient data was used for the study. Basic Quality Control tests were done to ascertain the performance of the equipment used. The results of Quality Control tests indicated that the three Mammography units used for this study were functioning within the internationally acceptable performance criteria. Patients with a breast thickness of 30 mm within the two age groups of 40-49 yrs and 50-64 yrs received doses slightly higher than the acceptable dose levels. A patient in the category 40-49 yrs with breast thickness of 30 mm received 1.83 mGy as calculated Mean Glandular Dose, 2.10 mGy was the recorded dose and 1.58 mGy was recorded under the age group 50-64 yrs. These values have deviated by -22%, -40%, and -5.33% respectively from 1.5 mGy which is the recommended dose for a breast thickness of 30 mm. Also patients with breast thickness of 70 mm under the age group 40–49 yrs had a recorded dose of 6.58 mGy, which deviated by -1.21% from the recommended value of 6.5 mGy for that breast thickness. Aside these values, all the other values were within the recommended dose values. The percentage deviation between the recommended values and the calculated values was within ±25% which was a working limit that was set for this work. Doses delivered by the Full-field Digital mammography equipment were higher than doses delivered by the Computered Radiography equipment. The calculated Mean Glandular Doses for the three facilities were within recommended dose values. (author)

  12. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Serrated adenoma of stomach: A premalignancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Achutha Ail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serrated adenoma is a newly described entity in the group of gastric adenomas. Until date only 20 cases of gastric serrated adenoma have been reported. It is an important entity to be diagnosed accurately as it has a very high-risk of malignant transformation, especially those located in the cardia of stomach. Serrated adenoma associated with adenocarcinoma is more frequent in the elderly, but pure serrated adenoma is common in the young, in whom follow-up is mandatory. Gastric serrated adenoma has distinct location, definite histomorphology and characteristic Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining. Ki-67 staining helps to differentiated pure serrated adenoma from those associated with adenocarcinoma. We present a young adult male, incidentally detected to have gastric serrated adenoma.

  14. Leiomyoblastoma of the stomach -a case report-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, So Hie; Park, Hae Won; Woo, Won Hyung

    1987-01-01

    Leiomyoblastomas are radiologically and grossly indistinguishable from the leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. They tend to occur later in life, but attain the same size and shape and have the same sex attribution as the other smooth muscle tumors. The major difference is their histologic appearance. Leiomyoblastomas are composed primarily of rounded or polygonal cells with a clear space surrounding the nucleus instead of spindle cell mainly found in leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. Leiomyoblastomas are felt to have considerably more malignant potential than leiomyoma, but this has rarely been demonstrated. Exophytically growing tendency limits conventional barium studies. So recently CT is useful in depicting the origin, extend of these masses, and detection of distant metastasis. CT is an ideal imaging modality for study of this unusual neoplasm. We report a case of exophytic growing leiomyoblastoma from posterior wall of the stomach in 43 year old woman. We discussed with CT finding and reviewed the literature

  15. Varioliform erosions in the stomach and duodenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.; Schulz, D.; Munkel, G.

    1984-04-01

    One thousand five hundred and eighty-three patients who were x-rayed for dyspepsia showed varioliform erosions in 15.3%. Men had an incidence of 9.8%, almost twice as common as in women (5.5%). Mucosal polyps, usually of the hyperplastic type, occurred in 2.4%. 15% of patients with gastric ulcers and 16% of patients with duodenal ulcers had varioliform erosions. On the other hand, amongst patients with erosions, 11% had gastric ulcers and 8.3% duodenal ulcers. The definitions of erosion which have been given in the literature are partly contradictory, and are discussed. Varioliform erosions, also known as complete erosions, may be acute or chronic. They are the third most common cause of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. With modern radiological methods of examining the stomach, they are no longer a rare finding. 5 figs.

  16. Varioliform erosions in the stomach and duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, W.; Schulz, D.; Munkel, G.

    1984-01-01

    One thousand five hundred and eighty-three patients who were x-rayed for dyspepsia showed varioliform erosions in 15.3%. Men had an incidence of 9.8%, almost twice as common as in women (5.5%). Mucosal polyps, usually of the hyperplastic type, occurred in 2.4%. 15% of patients with gastric ulcers and 16% of patients with duodenal ulcers had varioliform erosions. On the other hand, amongst patients with erosions, 11% had gastric ulcers and 8.3% duodenal ulcers. The definitions of erosion which have been given in the literature are partly contradictory, and are discussed. Varioliform erosions, also known as complete erosions, may be acute or chronic. They are the third most common cause of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract. With modern radiological methods of examining the stomach, they are no longer a rare finding. (orig.) [de

  17. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  18. Estimate of average glandular dose (AGD) in national clinics of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Segura, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The breast cancer represents the second cause of death by cancer in the femme population of our country. The specialized equipment for the obtaining of the mammographic images is higher every day and its use increases daily. The quality of the radiographic study is linked to the dose that this tissue intrinsically sensible receives to the ionizing radiations. The present work makes the first national study to quantify the average glandular doses and to connect them with the diagnostic quality and the recommendations to international scale. (Author) [es

  19. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Stomach: A Rare Entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schmidt C, Schmid A, Lüttges JE, Kremer B, Henne-Bruns D. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Report of a case and review of literature. Hepatogastroenterology 2001;48:1033-6. 5. Muto M, Hasebe T, Muro K, Boku N, Ohtsu A, Fujii T, et al. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: A case report with ...

  20. CT of the stomach and duodenum. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziedses des Plantes, B.G. Jr.; Falke, T.H.M.; Tjon Tjauw Liem, B.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is provided of the CT appearance of the normal and postoperative stomach based on a retrospective study on 262 patients. The results were compared with those of conventional barium meal examination. Detailed understanding of the CT anatomy of the normal and postoperative stomach, as well as familarity with the usual pitfalls, are imperative to guarantee correct interpretation of pathology. (orig.)

  1. Stomach cancer risk after treatment for hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Dores, Graça M; Curtis, Rochelle E

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear.......Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear....

  2. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  3. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for stomach (gastric) cancer include certain health conditions (e.g., atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, H. pylori infection), genetic factors (e.g., Li-Fraumeni syndrome), or environmental factors (e.g., diet, smoking). Review the evidence on these and other risk factors and interventions to prevent stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  4. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C.

    2013-01-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D G . Measuring methods of D G were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D G from the measurement of incident air kerma, K i , and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D G measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  5. Gastritis Cystica Polyposa in An Unoperated Stomach, Treated by Endoscopic Polypectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zali

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis cystic polyposa is a rare and peculiar polypoid lesion arising at a gastroenterostomysite,and almost always on the gastric side.It is characterized by elongationof the gastric foveolae along with hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of the gastricglands extending into the submucosal layer. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy in a47-year-old woman without any history of gastric operation revealed a pedunculatedpolyp approximately 2 cm in diameter, in a background of erythematous gastric foldsalong the anterior wall of the fundus. Polypectomy was performed, with endoscopicimpression of hyperplastic or fundic gland polyp,without any complications.Histopathological findings were consistent within gastritis cystic polyposa(GCP. Amild Helicobacter pylori colonization in gastric pits was seen. GCP could occur in anunoperated stomach and treated by endoscopic polypectomy. However,removal andhistopathologic confirmation of these lesions are necessary.

  6. Stomach Cancer Following Hodgkin Lymphoma, Testicular Cancer and Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Curtis, Rochelle E; Hauptmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To further understand the risk of stomach cancer after fractionated high-dose radiotherapy, we pooled individual-level data from three recent stomach cancer case-control studies. These studies were nested in cohorts of five-year survivors of first primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), testicular cancer...... (TC) or cervical cancer (CX) from seven countries. Detailed data were abstracted from patient records and radiation doses were reconstructed to the site of the stomach cancer for cases and to the corresponding sites for matched controls. Among 327 cases and 678 controls, mean doses to the stomach were...... 15.3 Gy, 24.7 Gy and 1.9 Gy, respectively, for Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer and cervical cancer survivors, with an overall mean dose of 10.3 Gy. Risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach cancer site (P

  7. Stomach Cancer Risk After Treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Dores, Graça M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Lynch, Charles F.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hall, Per; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Hodgson, David C.; Storm, Hans H.; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Andersson, Michael; Fossa, Sophie D.; Hauptmann, Michael; Holowaty, Eric J.; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Langmark, Frøydis; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Travis, Lois B.; Aleman, Berthe M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear. Patients and Methods We conducted an international case-control study of stomach cancer nested in a cohort of 19,882 HL survivors diagnosed from 1953 to 2003, including 89 cases and 190 matched controls. For each patient, we quantified cumulative doses of specific alkylating agents (AAs) and reconstructed radiation dose to the stomach tumor location. Results Stomach cancer risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach (Ptrend < .001) and with increasing number of AA-containing chemotherapy cycles (Ptrend = .02). Patients who received both radiation to the stomach ≥ 25 Gy and high-dose procarbazine (≥ 5,600 mg/m2) had strikingly elevated stomach cancer risk (25 cases, two controls; odds ratio [OR], 77.5; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1452) compared with those who received radiation < 25 Gy and procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2 (Pinteraction < .001). Risk was also elevated (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.4) among patients who received radiation to the stomach ≥ 25 Gy but procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2; however, no procarbazine-related risk was evident with radiation < 25 Gy. Treatment with dacarbazine also increased stomach cancer risk (12 cases, nine controls; OR, 8.8; 95% CI, 2.1 to 46.6), after adjustment for radiation and procarbazine doses. Conclusion Patients with HL who received subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy had dose-dependent increased risk of stomach cancer, with marked risks for patients who also received chemotherapy containing high-dose procarbazine. For current patients, risks and benefits of exposure to both procarbazine and subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy should be weighed carefully. For patients treated previously, GI symptoms should be evaluated promptly. PMID:23980092

  8. Detection of endogenous DNA adducts, O-carboxymethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine and 3-ethanesulfonic acid-2'-deoxycytidine, in the rat stomach after duodenal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Masaru; Totsuka, Yukari; Nishimura, Koichi; Mukaisho, Ken-Ichi; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Hattori, Takanori; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2008-09-01

    The endogenous DNA adducts O(6)-carboxymethyl-deoxyguanosine (O(6)-CM-dG) and 3-ethanesulfonic acid-deoxycytidine (3-ESA-dC) are produced from N-nitroso bile acid conjugates, such as N-nitrosoglycocholic acid (NO-GCA) and N-nitrosotaurocholic acid (NO-TCA), respectively. Formation of these DNA adducts in vivo was here analyzed by 32P-postlabeling in the glandular stomach of rats subjected to duodenal content reflux surgery. In this model, all duodenal contents, including bile acid conjugates, flow back from the jejunum into the gastric corpus. The levels of O(6)-CM-dG found at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery were 40.9 +/- 9.4 and 56.3 +/- 3.2 per 10(8) nucleotides, respectively, whereas the sham operation groups had values of 5.8 +/- 2.3 and 5.9 +/- 0.5 per 10(8) nucleotides. Moreover, adduct spots corresponding to 3-ESA-dC were detected in both duodenal reflux and sham operation groups and levels in the duodenal reflux groups were around four-fold elevated at 11.2 +/- 1.0 and 8.9 +/- 1.0 per 10(8) nucleotides after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. When the duodenal reflux animals were treated with a nitrite trapping agent, thiazolidine- 4-carboxylic acid (thioproline, TPRO), the levels of O(6)-CM-dG and 3-ESA-dC were reduced to the same levels as in the sham operation animals. These observations suggest that NO-TCA and NO-GCA are formed by nitrosation of glycocholic acid and taurocholic acid, respectively, and these nitroso compounds produce DNA adducts in the glandular stomach of rats subjected to duodenal content reflux surgery.

  9. Alkaline comet assay in liver and stomach, and micronucleus assay in bone marrow, from rats treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, azidothymidine, cisplatin, or isobutyraldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraynak, A R; Barnum, J E; Cunningham, C L; Ng, A; Ykoruk, B A; Bennet, B; Stoffregen, D; Merschman, M; Freeland, E; Galloway, S M

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined the ability of the assay to determine the genotoxicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), azidothymidine (AZT), cisplatin (CPN), and isobutyraldehyde (IBA) in liver and glandular stomach of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were given oral doses of test compound or control once daily for three days. High dose levels were approximately maximum tolerated doses and were based on preliminary range-finding studies. Tissues were harvested 3h after the final dose (48h after the initial dose). A bone marrow micronucleus assay (MN) was also conducted on the rats treated with AZT, CPN, and IBA. Acute toxic effects of treatment were determined primarily through histomorphologic analysis of liver and stomach but also by body weight and serum liver enzyme changes. The comet assay was conducted on fresh tissue preparations but frozen samples from two studies were also assayed. Statistically significant dose-related differences in comet % DNA in tail were found in liver and stomach for the genotoxin AZT and in liver for the genotoxin CPN, but not in liver or stomach for the non-genotoxin IBA. Statistically significant differences in % DNA in tail were measured in liver for the low and mid dose of the genotoxin AAF, but not the high dose. The comet assays of frozen liver suspensions from CPN- and AAF-treated rats yielded comparable results to the assays of fresh preparations. There were no indications of significant toxicity induced by any treatment. The micronucleus assay was positive for CPN and AZT and negative for IBA. In conclusion, the in vivo comet assay is capable of detecting genotoxic effects of a variety of chemicals and may fill an important role in the genotoxicity test battery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: molecular evidence of a rare phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jour, George; Liu, Yajuan; Ricciotti, Robert; Pritchard, Colin; Hoch, Benjamin L

    2015-09-01

    Epithelial glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma has not been described. Our patient was a 64-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer status post-radiation and hormonal therapy. On screening bone scan, he was found to have increased uptake in his right femoral shaft. Biopsy revealed intermediate-grade conventional chondrosarcoma. Subsequent femoral resection was remarkable for an intermediate-grade chondrosarcomatous component juxtaposed to an area composed of anastomosing nests and cords of malignant epithelial cells showing nuclear atypia and increased mitotic activity. A fibroblastic-appearing spindle cell population was intimately associated with the epithelial cells. The epithelial cells labeled with 34bE12, AE1/AE3, EMA, and Vimentin (both spindled and epithelial components) while being negative for prostate-specific antigen, prostate specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20, thyroid transcription factor-1, and CDX2. The patient developed local recurrence 9 months after the initial resection but has had no metastatic disease and consistently undetectable prostate-specific antigen levels. Deep parallel sequencing of the dedifferentiated component showed a nonsynonymous mutation at exon 4 of IDH1 gene at codon R132 leading to a substitution of arginine, with serine confirming glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

  12. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated.

  13. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  15. Average glandular dose in routine mammography screening using a Sectra Microdose Mammography unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemdal, B.; Herrnsdorf, L.; Andersson, I.; Bengtsson, G.; Heddson, B.; Olsson, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Sectra MicroDose Mammography system is based on direct photon counting (with a solid-state detector), and a substantially lower dose to the breast than when using conventional system can be expected. In this work absorbed dose measurements have been performed for the first unit used in routine mammography screening (at the Hospitals of Helsingborg (Sweden)). Two European protocols on dosimetry in mammography have been followed. Measurement of half value layer (HVL) cannot be performed as prescribed, but this study has demonstrated than non-invasive measurements of HVL can be performed accurately with a sensitive and well collimated solid-state detector with simultaneous correction for the energy dependence. The average glandular dose for a 50 mm standard breast with 50% glandularity, simulated by 45 mm polymethylmethacrylate, was found to be 0.21 and 0.28 mGy in March and December 2004, respectively. These values are much lower than for any other mammography system on the market today. It has to be stressed that the measurement were made using the current clinical settings and that no systematic optimisation of the relationship between absorbed dose and diagnostic image quality has been performed within the present study. In order to further increase the accuracy of absorbed dose measurements for this unit, the existing dose protocols should be revised to account also for the tungsten/aluminium anode/filter combination, the multi-slit pre-collimator device and the occurrence of a dose profile in the scanning direction. (authors)

  16. Gynecomastia: glandular-liposculpture through a single transaxillary one hole incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung Ki; Lee, Jun Hee; Kang, Sang Yoon

    2018-04-01

    Gynecomastia is characterized by the benign proliferation of breast tissue in men. Herein, we present a new method for the treatment of gynecomastia, using ultrasound-assisted liposuction with both conventional and reverse-cutting edge tip cannulas in combination with a pull-through lipectomy technique with pituitary forceps through a single transaxillary incision. Thirty patients were treated with this technique at the author's institution from January 2010 to January 2015. Ten patients were treated with conventional surgical excision of the glandular/fibrous breast tissue combined with liposuction through a periareolar incision before January 2010. Medical records, clinical photographs and linear analog scale scores were analyzed to compare the surgical results and complications. The patients were required to rate their cosmetic outcomes based on the linear analog scale with which they rated their own surgical results; the mean overall average score indicated a good or high level of satisfaction. There were no incidences of skin necrosis, hematoma, infection and scar contracture; however, one case each of seroma and nipple inversion did occur. Operative time was reduced overall using the new technique since it is relatively simple and straightforward. According to the evaluation by the four independent researchers, the patients treated with this new technique showed statistically significant improvements in scar and nipple-areolar complex (NAC) deformity compared to those who were treated using the conventional method. Glandular liposculpture through a single transaxillary incision is an efficient and safe technique that can provide aesthetically satisfying and consistent results.

  17. A study on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Kim, Hak Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Huh, Joon

    2002-01-01

    We came to the following conclusion as the results of experiment on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose using 4 apparatuses at 3 hospital in Seoul. Whereas the measurement of half value layer showed no differences among the apparatuses, the measurement by an attenuation curve method showed some differences by 5.9%. There were 9.1% differences in the measurement by aluminum conversion method. The basic density of an automatic exposure control unit must be D = 1.40, but there was no automatic exposure unit adjusted precisely at any hospital. The unit at the B hospital exceeded the allowable limit by ± 0.15. In the photographing using an automatic exposure control unit and the management of an automatic film processor using a sensitometer, most automatic film processors were well kept. But in some cases the mean value of a fluctuation coefficient exceeded the allowable limit. There is a need for more cautious management. The image quality of breast phantom photography was affected by the screen/film system among the hospital. The average glandular dose at a breast of 4.2 cm thickness depended on the tube voltage, In the case of Mo/Mo, it was measured 0.26 ∼ 1.39 mGy less than ACR standard 3.0 mGy

  18. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  19. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras-Chaverri, M; Galavis, P; Bakic, P; Vetter, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8 − +0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9 − 105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses current

  20. Sonographic demonstration of stomach pathology: Reviewing the cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The stomach can be the source of complaints for many patients attending for upper abdominal ultrasound. It is not routinely imaged as part of most upper abdominal ultrasound protocols, with sonographers and sonologists alike commonly muttering the line; “I can't see the stomach on ultrasound”. However, this is incorrect, as the gastric antrum can almost always be visualised sonographically. Discussion: It is possible to detect a range of pathologies affecting the stomach sonographically, from common, largely tolerable conditions such as hiatus hernias through to life‐threatening neoplasms. Conclusion: The stomach can easily be assessed during routine abdominal ultrasound providing the sonographer has knowledge of stomach anatomy, normal ultrasound appearances and limitations to its visualisation. While endoscopy is the gold standard for investigation of the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract, many patients will initially present for abdominal ultrasound due to its easy, non‐invasive nature, ready availability and low cost. For patients with mild abdominal symptoms, a normal abdominal ultrasound may be the extent of their imaging investigations meaning stomach pathologies may go undiagnosed. PMID:28191199

  1. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor of Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abu-Zaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is an extremely uncommon, highly aggressive, and malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of undetermined histogenesis. Less than 200 case reports have been documented in literature so far. Herein, we report a 26-year-old otherwise healthy female patient who presented with a 1-month history of epigastric pain. On physical examination, a palpable, slightly mobile, and tender epigastric mass was detected. All laboratory tests were normal. A chest, abdominal, and pelvic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scans showed a 3.8 × 7.2 × 8.7 cm ill-defined mass, involving gastric fundus and extending into gastric cardia and lower gastroesophageal junction. It was associated with multiple enlarged gastrohepatic lymph nodes; the largest measured 1.2 cm. There was no evidence of ascites or retroperitoneal or mesenteric lymphatic metastases. Patient underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy, splenectomy, and antecolic Roux-en-Y esophagojejunal anastomosis. Histopathological examination revealed coexpression of mesenchymal, epithelial, and neural markers. The characteristic chromosomal translocation (t(11; 22(p13; q12 was demonstrated on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique. Diagnosis of DSRCT of stomach was confirmed. Patient received no postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. A postoperative 3-month followup failed to show any recurrence. In addition, a literature review on DSRCT is included.

  2. Enteric neural crest cells regulate vertebrate stomach patterning and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Sandrine; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-15

    In vertebrates, the digestive tract develops from a uniform structure where reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions pattern this complex organ into regions with specific morphologies and functions. Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by the vagal enteric neural crest cells (vENCCs), a population of cells that will give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract. The influence of vENCCs on early patterning and differentiation of the GI tract has never been evaluated. In this study, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is required for proper chick stomach development, patterning and differentiation. We show that reducing the number of vENCCs by performing vENCC ablations induces sustained activation of the BMP and Notch pathways in the stomach mesenchyme and impairs smooth muscle development. A reduction in vENCCs also leads to the transdifferentiation of the stomach into a stomach-intestinal mixed phenotype. In addition, sustained Notch signaling activity in the stomach mesenchyme phenocopies the defects observed in vENCC-ablated stomachs, indicating that inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway is essential for stomach patterning and differentiation. Finally, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is also required for maintenance of stomach identity and differentiation through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Altogether, our data reveal that, through the regulation of mesenchyme identity, vENCCs act as a new mediator in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that control stomach development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. A study on the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach In Koreans (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Soo Il [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-10-15

    A study on the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach was carried out in 105 selected Korean cases of histologically proved carcinoma of the stomach, aimed to the position and value of roentgenography and gastroscopy. The results were summarized as follows: 1) In the diagnosis of 105 cases of Korean gastric carcinomas, a correct diagnosis was made by roentgenography in 79.1 percent and by gastroscopy in 86.7 percent of all cases. Roentgenography plus gastroscopy permitted a correct diagnosis in 92.3 percent of all cases. There is no significant difference statistically on the diagnostic accuracy between roentgenography and gastroscopy (by t-test, t=0.8572). 2) In the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach, with roentgenography the greatest diagnostic error occurred in primary ulcerative lesions and with gastroscopy in inadequate examinations which were resulted from mechanical failures. It occurred also in mixed type of infiltration and ulceration for the gross pathology and in lesions of gastric body and pyloric antrum as the site of the lesion. 3) In this series of 105 cases of Korean gastric carcinomas, two cases of early gastric carcinoma (type IIc +III) were correctly diagnosed by roentgenography and gastroscopy. 4) In this series, the most frequent type of gross pathology appeared to be Bormann tpe III, type of ulceration with spreading infiltration, which was 72.4 percent of all 105 cases and the site of the lesion revealed the highest frequently in the pylorus in 53.3 percent, but both of these had little significance in the determination of diagnostic accuracy of roentgenography and/or gastroscopy in gastric carcinomas. 5) The onset of symptoms, clinical manifestations, and physical findings were reviewed in all 105 cases of this series. The predominant symptoms were epigastric pain (75.2 percent), indigestion (73.3 percent) and weight lose (57.0 percent) in the order and the most frequent physical findings was epigastric tenderness (68.6 percent). The

  4. A study on the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach In Koreans (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Soo Il

    1971-01-01

    A study on the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach was carried out in 105 selected Korean cases of histologically proved carcinoma of the stomach, aimed to the position and value of roentgenography and gastroscopy. The results were summarized as follows: 1) In the diagnosis of 105 cases of Korean gastric carcinomas, a correct diagnosis was made by roentgenography in 79.1 percent and by gastroscopy in 86.7 percent of all cases. Roentgenography plus gastroscopy permitted a correct diagnosis in 92.3 percent of all cases. There is no significant difference statistically on the diagnostic accuracy between roentgenography and gastroscopy (by t-test, t=0.8572). 2) In the diagnosis of carcinoma of the stomach, with roentgenography the greatest diagnostic error occurred in primary ulcerative lesions and with gastroscopy in inadequate examinations which were resulted from mechanical failures. It occurred also in mixed type of infiltration and ulceration for the gross pathology and in lesions of gastric body and pyloric antrum as the site of the lesion. 3) In this series of 105 cases of Korean gastric carcinomas, two cases of early gastric carcinoma (type IIc +III) were correctly diagnosed by roentgenography and gastroscopy. 4) In this series, the most frequent type of gross pathology appeared to be Bormann tpe III, type of ulceration with spreading infiltration, which was 72.4 percent of all 105 cases and the site of the lesion revealed the highest frequently in the pylorus in 53.3 percent, but both of these had little significance in the determination of diagnostic accuracy of roentgenography and/or gastroscopy in gastric carcinomas. 5) The onset of symptoms, clinical manifestations, and physical findings were reviewed in all 105 cases of this series. The predominant symptoms were epigastric pain (75.2 percent), indigestion (73.3 percent) and weight lose (57.0 percent) in the order and the most frequent physical findings was epigastric tenderness (68.6 percent). The

  5. Quantitative differentiation of breast lesions at 3T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using the ratio of distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Gokhan; Onaygil, Can; Akin, Yasin; Kaya, Handan; Aribal, Erkin

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the accuracy of diffusion coefficients and diffusion coefficient ratios of breast lesions and of glandular breast tissue from mono- and stretched-exponential models for quantitative diagnosis in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We analyzed pathologically confirmed 170 lesions (85 benign and 85 malignant) imaged using a 3.0T MR scanner. Small regions of interest (ROIs) focusing on the highest signal intensity for lesions and also for glandular tissue of contralateral breast were obtained. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were estimated by performing nonlinear fittings using mono- and stretched-exponential models, respectively. Coefficient ratios were calculated by dividing the lesion coefficient by the glandular tissue coefficient. A stretched exponential model provides significantly better fits then the monoexponential model (P DDC ratio (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.93) when compared with lesion DDC, ADC ratio, and lesion ADC (AUC = 0.91, 0.90, 0.90) but with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). At optimal thresholds, the DDC ratio achieves 93% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 87% overall diagnostic accuracy, while ADC ratio leads to 89% sensitivity, 78% specificity, and 83% overall diagnostic accuracy. The stretched exponential model fits better with signal intensity measurements from both lesion and glandular tissue ROIs. Although the DDC ratio estimated by using the model shows a higher diagnostic accuracy than the ADC ratio, lesion DDC, and ADC, it is not statistically significant. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1633-1641. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Stomach cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 1950-73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kuniomi.

    1978-04-01

    Stomach cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Life Span Study was studied using death certificates for the period 1950-73. A consistent increase in mortality with increasing radiation dose was observed in Hiroshima, the highest rate being in the dose region of 400 - 499 rad. For Nagasaki, however, the evidence of a radiation effect is very weak. An excess in stomach cancer mortality was found only at doses above 500 rad. More evidence is needed to establish radiation as a causative factor in stomach cancer. (author)

  7. Quiescent gastric stem cells maintain the adult Drosophila stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Marie; Micchelli, Craig A

    2011-10-25

    The adult Drosophila copper cell region or "stomach" is a highly acidic compartment of the midgut with pH stem cells (GSSCs) produces the acid-secreting copper cells, interstitial cells, and enteroendocrine cells of the stomach. Our assays demonstrate that GSSCs are largely quiescent but can be induced to regenerate the gastric epithelium in response to environmental challenge. Finally, genetic analysis reveals that adult GSSC maintenance depends on Wnt signaling. Characterization of the GSSC lineage in Drosophila, with striking similarities to mammals, will advance the study of both homeostatic and pathogenic processes in the stomach.

  8. Deoxynivalenol (DON Contamination of Feed and Grinding Fineness: Are There Interactive Implications on Stomach Integrity and Health of Piglets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dänicke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The common feed contaminant deoxynivalenol (DON was reported to influence the morphology of the pars nonglandularis (PN of porcine stomach. Moreover, finely ground feed is known to trigger the development of ulcers and other pathologies of PN while coarsely ground feed protects from such lesions. The interactions between grinding fineness and DON contamination of feed were not examined so far. Therefore, both finely and coarsely ground feeds were tested either in the absence or presence of a DON contaminated wheat on growth performance and health of rearing piglets, including stomach integrity. DON contamination significantly reduced feed intake and serum albumin concentration with this effect being more pronounced after feeding the coarsely ground feed. Albeit at a higher level, albumin concentration was also reduced after feeding the finely ground and uncontaminated feed. Finely ground and DON-contaminated feed caused a significantly more pronounced lymphoplasmacytic infiltration both of PN and pars glandularis, partly paralleled by lymph follicle formation and detritus filled foveolae and tubes suggesting a local immune response probably triggered by epithelial lesions. It is concluded that DON contamination of feed exacerbates the adverse effects of finely ground feed on stomach mucosal integrity.

  9. Deoxynivalenol (DON) Contamination of Feed and Grinding Fineness: Are There Interactive Implications on Stomach Integrity and Health of Piglets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Beineke, Andreas; Berk, Andreas; Kersten, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The common feed contaminant deoxynivalenol (DON) was reported to influence the morphology of the pars nonglandularis (PN) of porcine stomach. Moreover, finely ground feed is known to trigger the development of ulcers and other pathologies of PN while coarsely ground feed protects from such lesions. The interactions between grinding fineness and DON contamination of feed were not examined so far. Therefore, both finely and coarsely ground feeds were tested either in the absence or presence of a DON contaminated wheat on growth performance and health of rearing piglets, including stomach integrity. DON contamination significantly reduced feed intake and serum albumin concentration with this effect being more pronounced after feeding the coarsely ground feed. Albeit at a higher level, albumin concentration was also reduced after feeding the finely ground and uncontaminated feed. Finely ground and DON-contaminated feed caused a significantly more pronounced lymphoplasmacytic infiltration both of PN and pars glandularis, partly paralleled by lymph follicle formation and detritus filled foveolae and tubes suggesting a local immune response probably triggered by epithelial lesions. It is concluded that DON contamination of feed exacerbates the adverse effects of finely ground feed on stomach mucosal integrity. PMID:28045426

  10. Interrelation secretory activity of stomach and immunes changes of peripheral blood when ulcerogenesis stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, L V; Mosina, L M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of gastric ulcer is high in almost all countries of the world. On the development and course of the disease affect the state acid- and enzymes production stomach, immune status. The purpose was to determine the presence and power of correlative links secretory activity of the stomach and immune changes in the peripheral blood during exacerbation of ulcer disease stomach. Surveyed in obtaining informed consent 42 patients with gastric ulcer in the acute phase prior to the eradication and antisecretory therapy and 40 healthy volunteers. On the state of function acid- and enzymes production of the gastric mucosa judged by the results of a 2-hour intragastric pH-metry and serum concentration pepsinogen, gastrin before the start of active treatment. Immunophenotype lymphocytes on CD-antigens (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, CD45, CD56) was measured by immunofluorescence, levels immunoglobulin isotype M, G, A, E - ELISA method. When short-term intragastric pH-metry of the stomach hyperacidity patients recorded 6.7 times more likely than healthy, normacidity - 12.3 times less. Reduction of acid production was observed up to 8.6 times more, indicating the development of mucosal atrophy. Basal pH in the antrum was lower by 54.5% than in the control group, with stimulation increased by 33.6%, but remained lower than the values of healthy individuals by 48.7%. When ELISA amount pepsinogen patients showed significant increase in serum levels of PG-I relative to the control group at 33.4%, PG-II - 52%. In assessing the immune status of patients were identified changes in system phagocytes, cellular and humoral links, most pronounced for severe current peptic ulcer disease. The results indicate the presence of positive and negative correlative links mild to moderate force between indicators of secretory activity of gastric mucosal innate and adaptive immunity in patients with acute exacerbation of peptic ulcer disease. The presence and nature of these relationships should

  11. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riabi, H. A.; Mehnati, P.; Mesbahi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. (authors)

  12. Mean glandular dose measurement on various breast phantom using mammography machine in MINT Medical Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, mammography have been the primary means of detecting early breast cancer. Although there is a risk of radiation- induced carcinogenesis associated with the x-ray examination of the female breast, but this risk is small compared to its benefits with modern equipment and technique. Therefore, it is important to determine the dose of the tissue at risk from radiation exposure by measuring the mean glandular dose (MGD). This can help minimize the risk to the patient. This paper describe the MGD measurement done on various types and thickness of breast phantom using a Bennett mammography machine model DMF-150 in the Medical Physics laboratory at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). Results of this study are discussed in this paper. (Author)

  13. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing...... uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461...... of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV....

  14. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun A; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Kim, Ju Seup [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a gastric carcinoma with both adenocarcinomatous and hepatocellular carcinomatous differentiation. It usually produces large amount of serum alpha-fetoprotein. It often occurs in aged person, commonly located in the gastric antrum. Because of early lymph node and liver metastasis, prognosis is poor. A case of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach in a 49-year-old man is reported. The patient's serum alpha-fetoprotein level was high (3380 ng/ml). Liver function test was normal, otherwise. A mass was observed in right lobe of the liver on US and CT. It was hypervascular with increased uptake of lipiodol on hepatic arteriography. A large ulcerative tumor involving the gastric antrum and body was also found at barium study of the stomach. Subtotal gastrectomy nad right lobectomy of the liver resulted in rapid decrease in serum alpha-fetoprotein. Histopathologically the diagnosis was hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach with liver metastasis.

  15. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun A; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Kim, Ju Seup

    1995-01-01

    Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a gastric carcinoma with both adenocarcinomatous and hepatocellular carcinomatous differentiation. It usually produces large amount of serum alpha-fetoprotein. It often occurs in aged person, commonly located in the gastric antrum. Because of early lymph node and liver metastasis, prognosis is poor. A case of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach in a 49-year-old man is reported. The patient's serum alpha-fetoprotein level was high (3380 ng/ml). Liver function test was normal, otherwise. A mass was observed in right lobe of the liver on US and CT. It was hypervascular with increased uptake of lipiodol on hepatic arteriography. A large ulcerative tumor involving the gastric antrum and body was also found at barium study of the stomach. Subtotal gastrectomy nad right lobectomy of the liver resulted in rapid decrease in serum alpha-fetoprotein. Histopathologically the diagnosis was hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach with liver metastasis

  16. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubota, Motoki; Ito, Chikako

    1980-01-01

    Mass examinations of the stomach were performed on 13,412 a-bomb survivors from Oct. 1975 to Mar. 1979. The necessity rate for detailed examinations was 13.6% on the average, and it was a little lower than the average in Japan. That in women was higher than that in men. The performance rate of detailed examinations was very high (91.8%), which might be influenced by active appeals to have detailed examinations. The estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer was 0.27% on the average, and it was higher than that in mass examinations of Chugoku and Shikoku districts. A relationship between the estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer and exposure conditions was not clarified. The discovery rate of stomach cancer was supposed to be influenced strongly by aging of a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  17. Double contrast investigation of the stomach in hypotonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggensack, H.O.

    1980-01-01

    After two years experience of routine investigation of the stomach in double contrast and hypotonia the advantages of this method and its main field of application are described pertaining to selected cases. (orig.) [de

  18. Relationship of Compressed Breast Thickness and Average Glandular Dose According to Focus/Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between the compressed breast thickness and Average Glandular Dose (AGD) among 1,969 outpatients who went through breast X-ray in a university hospital for 10 months from July 1st, 2007 to April 30th, 2008. Then it analyzed the result acquired from 3,900 cases of Cranio-Caudal (CC) view, especially, when the breasts were compressed (13-15daN). The following is the conclusion driven from the relationship analysis. 1. The subjects aged in 40s and 50s were 2,679 out of 3,900 cases and this figure was 68.69% in all. 2. In terms of distribution depending on focus/filter, 41.0% was Mo/Mo, 34.8% was Mo/Rh, and 24.2% was Rh/Rh. 3. In terms of compressed breast thickness depending on focus/filter, the average thickness was 26.91 mm at Mo/Mo, 38.84 mm at Mo/Rh, and 48.80 mm at Rh/Rh. The average thickness of the entire cases was shown to be 36.27 mm. 4. AGD depending on focus/filter was 1.27 mGy at Mo/Mo, 1.55 mGy at Mo/Rh, and 1.42 mGy at Rh/Rh. The average glandular dose of the entire cases was shown to be 1.43 mGy. 5. The relationship of AGD depending on compressed breast thickness at Mo/Mo was y=0.0318x + 0.470 while it was y=0.0206x + 0.709 at Mo/Rh and y=0.0248x + 0.335 at Mo/Rh. It was highly influenced by the compressed breast thickness, however, more variation was detected at Mo/Mo depending on breast thickness.

  19. Determination of mean glandular dose on patients and phantom in X-ray mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramova-Cholakova, S.; Vassileva, J.

    2008-01-01

    The statistics of breast cancer rate in Bulgaria show a tendency towards increase of the morbidity from this disease. Last years campaigns against breast cancer are organized yearly. This leads to an increased number of screening and diagnostic mammograms that are made in the country. The dose associated with the examination is very low but not slightingly small. The glandular tissue in the breast is considered to be the most sensitive in relation to the radiation exposure. Several publications propose different methods, measurement set up or conversion coefficients for the calculation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) delivered to the breast during the X-ray examination. The question about the standardization of the measurement procedures arises since the differences in the results obtained using different methodologies may be quite big. The aim of this work is to develop a standard procedure for the measurement of MGD based on the recommendations mentioned in the European protocol on dosimetry in mammography, the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening and the Code of practice: TRS 457 of the IAEA. Five contemporary film-screen mammography units were included in this study. Attention should be paid to the measurement set up. The reference point is chosen 6 cm from the chest wall edge laterally centered. If an ionization chamber is used for dose measurements the compression plate should be placed in close contact with it. If solid state detectors are used the compression plate should be put away from the detector and the output recalculated like if the plate is near the detector. The conversion coefficients for age dependence are not used in this study as not appropriate for the population included in it. PMMA measurements for the determination of diagnostic reference levels could be used but more correct results would be obtained with patient measurements

  20. Increased adrenocortical response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in sport horses with equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, M D; Gerber, V; Bruckmaier, R M; van der Kolk, J H; Burger, D; Ramseyer, A

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adrenocortical function would be altered in horses with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS). Twenty-six sport horses competing at national or international levels in eventing (n=15) or endurance (n=11) were subjected to a gastroscopic examination and an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline) and after (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150min) IV ACTH injection (1μg/kg bodyweight). Within EGUS, two distinct diseases, equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) and equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD), can be distinguished. ESGD was diagnosed in 8/11 (73%; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI], 43-92%) endurance horses and 5/15 (33%; 95% CI, 14-58%) eventing horses. EGGD was observed in 9/11 (82%; 95% CI, 53-96%) endurance horses and 9/15 (60%; 95% CI, 35-81%) eventing horses. The presence or severity of ESGD was unrelated to the presence or severity of EGGD. ACTH stimulation induced a larger increase in cortisol concentration in horses with moderate EGGD than in horses with mild EGGD. Cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period (total increase in cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period [dAUC], 31.1±6.4ng/mL) and the highest measured concentration at a single time point (maximal increase in cortisol concentration [dMAX], 10.3±2.3ng/mL) were increased (P=0.005 and P=0.038, respectively), indicating that horses with glandular gastric disease exhibited increased adrenocortical responses to ACTH stimulation. These results suggest that EGGD might be associated with an enhanced adrenocortical sensitivity. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association between adrenocortical sensitivity and EGGD and to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of mean glandular dose for patients who undergo mammography and studying the factors affecting it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzanje, Sana L. N. H.; Harki, Edrees M. Tahir Nury

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine mean glandular dose (MGD) during diagnostic mammography. This study was done in two hospitals in Hawler city in Kurdistan -region /Iraq, the exposure parameters kVp and mAs was recorded for 40 patients under go mammography. The MGD estimated by multiplied ESD with normalized glandular dose (Dn). The ESD measured indirectly by measuring output radiation mGy/mAs by using PalmRAD 907 as a suitable detector (Gigger detector).the results; shown that the mean and its standard deviation of MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography are (0.95±0.18)mGy and (0.99±0.26)mGy, respectively. And there is a significant difference between MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography views (p≤0. 05). Also the mean value and its standard deviation of MGD for screen film mammography is (0.96±0.21) for CC projection and (1.03±0.3) mGy for MLO projection, but mean value and its standard deviation evaluated of MGD for digital mammography is (0.92±0.17) mGy for CC projection and (0.98±0.2) mGy for MLO projection. As well as, the effect of kVp and mAs in MGD were studied, shows that in general as kVp and mAs increased the MGD increased accordingly in both of mammography systems.

  2. PTEN phosphatase-independent maintenance of glandular morphology in a predictive colorectal cancer model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-11-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  3. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  4. Dual-energy digital mammography: Calibration and inverse-mapping techniques to estimate calcification thickness and glandular-tissue ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C.

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer may manifest as microcalcifications in x-ray mammography. Small microcalcifications, essential to the early detection of breast cancer, are often obscured by overlapping tissue structures. Dual-energy imaging, where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Transmission measurements at two different kVp values were made on breast-tissue-equivalent materials under narrow-beam geometry using an indirect flat-panel mammographic imager. The imaging scenario consisted of variable aluminum thickness (to simulate calcifications) and variable glandular ratio (defined as the ratio of the glandular-tissue thickness to the total tissue thickness) for a fixed total tissue thickness--the clinical situation of microcalcification imaging with varying tissue composition under breast compression. The coefficients of the inverse-mapping functions used to determine material composition from dual-energy measurements were calculated by a least-squares analysis. The linear function poorly modeled both the aluminum thickness and the glandular ratio. The inverse-mapping functions were found to vary as analytic functions of second (conic) or third (cubic) order. By comparing the model predictions with the calibration values, the root-mean-square residuals for both the cubic and the conic functions were ∼50 μm for the aluminum thickness and ∼0.05 for the glandular ratio

  5. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  6. Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance cytology: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensveen, Celesta; Kagie, Marjolein; Veldhuizen, Roel; de Groot, Christianne; Denny, Lynette; Zwinderman, Koos; Trimbos, Baptist

    2003-01-01

    (1) To assess the prevalence of histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in patients with cervical smears diagnosed as atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance. (2) To evaluate the role of colposcopy and the presence of human papillomavirus in detecting

  7. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izdihar Kamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50 and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80 commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy for two dimension (2D and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error.

  8. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  9. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F.; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Terryn, C.; Castillon, N.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E.; Balossier, G.

    2005-01-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na + absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na + , Mg 2+ , P, S and Cl - ) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR inh -172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF

  10. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woon Ju; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Jeong, Hyung Yong; Noh; Seung Moo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (peripheral PNETs) are very rare and highly aggressive soft tissue malignancies originating from the neural crest. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases of peripheral PNETs of the stomach have been reported in the literature. We report a case of large peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the stomach with MDCT findings in a 22-year-old man presenting epigastric pain and vomiting

  11. Roentgenodiagnosis of neoplasms of esophageal-stomach segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, A.N.; Maksumov, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the roentgenologic method is one of the main resolution methods of diagnozing modern gastroenterology. The experimental and clinical material which permits to characterize morphological features and functional state of the stomach and to understand the most complex manifestations of the pathological process in it is given. It is underlined that the diagnosis of stomach tumors must be complex. It must be based on the thorough analysis of clinic, laboratory, endoscopic and roentgenologic data

  12. Preoperation diagnosis of stomach neoplasm metases in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.E.; Zholnerovich, E.M.; Zelenkevich, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that application of ultrasonography and computerized tomography in examining the upper part of abdomen in patients with stomach neoplasm permits to judge on metastases into the liver. Application of invasive methods of examination is indicated only in case of indefinite data of ultrasonography and computerized tomography. It is shown that application of invasive methods isn't advisable in patients with stomach neoplasm to which palliative operations are indicated. 4 refs

  13. Dietary habits and stomach cancer risk in the JACC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokui, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kondo, Takaaki; Kikuchi, Shogo; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2005-06-01

    Despite a declining incidence, stomach cancer is still a dominant cancer in Japan. The association between dietary habits and stomach cancer risk was investigated in a large prospective study in Japan. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire from 1988 through 1990. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the consumption of 33 selected food items. Proportional hazard model was used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of stomach cancer for different levels of the dietary intakes. A western style breakfast showed an inverse association with stomach cancer risk in males (HR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.35-0.70). Women who consumed liver three to four times per week and more than once per day had a significant increased risk, respectively (HR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.12-3.63, HR=3.16, 95% CI: 1.16-8.62 ). A clear dose-response relationship between the intake of liver and stomach cancer risk was observed. We found no association between stomach cancer mortality and the consumption of fruit such as mandarin orange, and vegetables such as carrots and spinach in both men and women. The consumption of high salt foods such as miso soup and pickles was also not significantly associated with the mortality of stomach cancer in both sexes. This prospective study suggested that a western-style breakfast is associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer, although some differences in the association were seen between men and women.

  14. Estimation of glandular content rate and statistical analysis of the influence of age group and compressed breast thickness on the estimated value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Naoki; Ashida, Kenji; Fujita, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    Because the glandular content rate is an important factor in evaluating breast cancer detection and average glandular dose, it is important in mammography research to estimate and analyze this rate. The purpose of this study was to obtain a formula for statistical estimation of the glandular content rate, to clarify statistically the influence of age group and compressed breast thickness (CBT) on estimating the glandular content rate, and to show statistically the general relation between glandular content rate and the factors of age and CBT. The subjects were 740 Japanese women aged 20-91 years (mean±SD: 48.3±12.8 years) who had undergone mammography. In our study, the glandular content rate was statistically estimated from age group, mAs-value, and CBT when subjects underwent mammography, from a phantom simulation, and from MR images of the breast. In addition, multivariate analysis was carried to examine statistically the influence of age group and CBT on glandular content rate. The mean glandular content rate as estimated by age group was as follows: 35.6% for those in their 20s, 33.4% in the 30s, 27.5% in the 40s, 23.8% in the 50s, and 21.8% in those 60 and over. The rate for the subjects as a whole was 27.1%. This study indicated that overestimation occurred if the estimated value of the glandular content rate was not corrected in the 3D-measurement by MRI. In addition, this study showed that the statistical influence on glandular content rate was significantly larger for CBT than age. (author)

  15. Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Gastric Subepithelial Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jeong Gong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions.

  16. A case report of prostate cancer metastasis to the stomach resembling undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Chiaki; Suzuki, Takuto; Kitagawa, Yoshiyasu; Hara, Taro; Yamaguchi, Taketo

    2017-08-07

    Occurrence of metastatic cancer to the stomach is rare, particularly in patients with prostate cancer. Gastric metastasis generally presents as a solitary and submucosal lesion with a central depression. We describe a case of gastric metastasis arising from prostate cancer, which is almost indistinguishable from the undifferentiated-type gastric cancer. A definitive diagnosis was not made until endoscopic resection. On performing both conventional and magnifying endoscopies, the lesion appeared to be slightly depressed and discolored area and it could not be distinguished from undifferentiated early gastric cancer. Biopsy from the lesion was negative for immunohistochemical staining of prostate-specific antigen, a sensitive and specific marker for prostate cancer. Thus, false initial diagnosis of an early primary gastric cancer was made and endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. Pathological findings from the resected specimen aroused suspicion of a metastatic lesion. Consequently, immunostaining was performed. The lesion was positive for prostate-specific acid phosphatase and negative for prostate-specific antigen, cytokeratin 7, and cytokeratin 20. Accordingly, the final diagnosis was a metastatic gastric lesion originating from prostate cancer. In this patient, the definitive diagnosis as a metastatic lesion was difficult due to its unusual endoscopic appearance and the negative stain for prostate-specific antigen. We postulate that both of these are consequences of hormonal therapy against prostate cancer.

  17. Diets of introduced predators using stable isotopes and stomach contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckstroth, A.M.; Miles, A.K.; Chandra, S.

    2007-01-01

    In a study of predation on ground-nesting birds at South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, USA, we analyzed stomach contents and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to identify commonly consumed prey. We obtained the stomach contents from 206 nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes regalis) collected in the South Bay area and Monterey County during 1995-2001 and from 68 feral cats (Felis silvestris) from the South Bay area during 2001-2002. We determined prey identity, biomass, and frequency, described seasonal diet trends, and derived an Index of Relative Importance. Avian species were the most frequent prey we found in the stomachs of red foxes from South Bay (61%), whereas small rodents were most frequent for red foxes from Monterey County (62%). Small rodents were the most frequent prey we found in feral cats (63%). Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for foxes supported stomach content findings. However, isotope results indicated that cats received a majority of their energy from a source other than rodents and outside the natural system, which differed from the stomach content analysis. We demonstrated the utility of both stable isotope and stomach content analyses to establish a more complete understanding of predators' diets. This information aids natural resource managers in planning and evaluating future predator-removal programs and increases our understanding of the impacts of nonnative foxes and cats on native species.

  18. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: A Rarely Seen Submucosal Lesion of the Stomach

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    Deniz Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT is a rare mesenchymal benign tumor which is generally seen in children and in young adults. It is especially located in the lungs. In histopathological examination, neoplastic fusiform cells originating from a subtype of accessory immune system cells which are called fibroblastic reticulum cells are seen (Kouichi and Youichirou, 2008. Although IMT is histopathologically benign, imaging methods show its tendency for local recurrence and invasion. In most of the cases, it may not be possible to make a distinction whether it is malign or benign. Complete surgical resection is the most important treatment method. In this study, we have discussed the findings of our case having a gastric submucosal located IMT in light of the current literatures.

  19. Diagnostic significance of gas distension technique of the stomach with gas-forming agent on CT scan of stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Tae Jin; Song, Chang June; Choi, Joong Chan; Park, Cheong Hee; Cho, June Sik; Rhee, Byung Chull

    1988-01-01

    CT is a valuable method for preoperative staging of patients with stomach cancers. However, in patients with poor distension of the stomach and scanty fat between the stomach and adjacent organs, CT findings may indicate a false impression of gastric wall thickening and cannot provide the precise extent of stomach cancer. We studied the usefulness of gastric distension by gas-forming agent in 28 cases of pathologically confirmed gastric cancers on CT. Comparative analysis between CT findings and surgical pathologic findings was done in 22 cases who underwent surgery. The results were as follows; 1. Conventional CT failed to define the wall thickening or masses of the stomach, in 14 cases of 23 advanced gastric cancers, while CT with gas distension technique allowed good visualization in all advanced gastric cancers. 2. In 2 cases of 5 early gastric cancers, CT with gas distension technique could detect focal thickening of the gastric wall, even less than 1cm thickness. 3. Among 13 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and liver on conventional CT, 7 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique and 5 cases of these were confirmed by surgery. 4. Among 11 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and pancreas on conventional CT, 3 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique, all of which were confirmed by surgery. 5. There was no significant difference between conventional CT and CT with gas distension technique of the stomach to diagnose invasion into transverse colon, transverse colon, transverse mesocolon, lymph node metastasis, and various distant metastasis.

  20. Diagnostic significance of gas distension technique of the stomach with gas-forming agent on CT scan of stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, Tae Jin; Song, Chang June; Choi, Joong Chan; Park, Cheong Hee; Cho, June Sik; Rhee, Byung Chull [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Dajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    CT is a valuable method for preoperative staging of patients with stomach cancers. However, in patients with poor distension of the stomach and scanty fat between the stomach and adjacent organs, CT findings may indicate a false impression of gastric wall thickening and cannot provide the precise extent of stomach cancer. We studied the usefulness of gastric distension by gas-forming agent in 28 cases of pathologically confirmed gastric cancers on CT. Comparative analysis between CT findings and surgical pathologic findings was done in 22 cases who underwent surgery. The results were as follows; 1. Conventional CT failed to define the wall thickening or masses of the stomach, in 14 cases of 23 advanced gastric cancers, while CT with gas distension technique allowed good visualization in all advanced gastric cancers. 2. In 2 cases of 5 early gastric cancers, CT with gas distension technique could detect focal thickening of the gastric wall, even less than 1cm thickness. 3. Among 13 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and liver on conventional CT, 7 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique and 5 cases of these were confirmed by surgery. 4. Among 11 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and pancreas on conventional CT, 3 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique, all of which were confirmed by surgery. 5. There was no significant difference between conventional CT and CT with gas distension technique of the stomach to diagnose invasion into transverse colon, transverse colon, transverse mesocolon, lymph node metastasis, and various distant metastasis.

  1. Effects of the gastric juice injection pattern and contraction frequency on the digestibility of casein powder suspensions in an in vitro dynamic rat stomach made with a 3D printed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoai; Liao, Zhenkai; Wu, Peng; Chen, Liding; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2018-04-01

    Previously, we have prepared a version of the dynamic in vitro rat stomach system (DIVRS-II or Biomimic Rat II). It was constructed and tested by showing similar digestive behaviors with those occurred in vivo. In the present work, a 3D-printed plastic mold was employed to create highly repeatable silicone rat stomach model. It has been seen to have shortened the time to handcraft a model like that used in DIVRS-II. The maximum mechanical force of the current stomach model generated by rolling extrusion is found to be more stable probably due to the more uniform wall thickness of the new model. Then the effects of the simulated gastric secretion patterns and contraction frequency of the system on the in vitro digestibility of casein powder suspensions were investigated. The results have shown that the location of the gastric secretion injection has an impact on experimental digestibility. The position of rolling-extrusion area, established at the central part of glandular portion (stomach B), displayed the highest digestibility compared to that at the other locations. Furthermore, the extent of digestion was positively correlated with the contraction frequency of the model stomach system, with the maximum frequency of 12cpm giving the highest digestibility. This highest digestibility is almost the same as the average value found in vivo. The better digestive performance produced by optimizing the gastric secretion pattern and contraction frequency may be both resulted from the improved mixing efficiency of the food matrix with digestive juice. This study shows that it is possible to achieve what in vivo in a simulated digestion device, which may be used for future food and nutrition studies in vitro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Papel da 2-tridecanona e dos tricomas glandulares tipo VI na resistência do tomateiro a Tuta absoluta Role of 2-tridecanone and type VI glandular trichome on tomato resistance to Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O metabólito secundário 2-tridecanona, secretado pelos tricomas glandulares tipo VI das folhas de tomateiro silvestre, Lycopersicon hirsutum L., confere-lhe resistência a uma grande variedade de insetos, inclusive a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de 2- tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro na cultivar suscetível 'Uco Plata' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., na linhagem resistente PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum e em suas progênies F1 e F2. Foram avaliadas ainda as possíveis associações entre a concentração de 2-tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro. O grau médio de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro em 'Uco Plata' foi significativamente superior ao obtido em PI 134417. Ainda que a concentração de 2-tridecanona tenha sido significativamente superior no parental resistente, a presença deste metabólito somente explicaria parcialmente a resistência (R² = 8,17%. Não se detectaram diferenças significativas na densidade de tricomas tipo VI entre o parental suscetível e o resistente. Este comportamento ocorreu independentemente do conteúdo de 2-tridecanona e do grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro.The secondary metabolite 2-tridecanone, secreted by the type VI glandular trichomes present in the leaves of Lycopersicon hirsutum L., make it resistant to a great variety of insects, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. The 2-tridecanone concentration, the type VI glandular trichome densities and the pinworm infestation degree were evaluated on the Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. susceptible cultivar 'Uco Plata', on the Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum resistant accession PI 134417 and on their F1 and F2. The mean infestation degree with pinworm larvae was significantly higher in 'Uco Plata' than in PI 134417. The 2

  3. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor in the Stomach

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    Sun Ah Shin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors or PEComas can arise in any location in the body. However, a limited number of cases of gastric PEComa have been reported. We present two cases of gastric PEComas. The first case involved a 62-year-old woman who presented with a 4.2 cm gastric subepithelial mass in the prepyloric antrum, and the second case involved a 67-year-old man with a 5.0 cm mass slightly below the gastroesophageal junction. Microscopic examination revealed that both tumors were composed of perivascular epithelioid cells that were immunoreactive for melanocytic and smooth muscle markers. Prior to surgery, the clinical impression of both tumors was gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, and the second case was erroneously diagnosed as GIST even after microscopic examination. Although gastric PEComa is a very rare neoplasm, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric submucosal lesions.

  4. Ultrasonic diagnosis of hepatic metastases in patients with stomach cancer and colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kye, Jong Sik; Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae; Ahn, Chi Yul

    1987-01-01

    To assess the value of hepatic ultrasound in cancer patients, a prospective evaluation was performed by comparing the preoperative ultrasound report and surgeon's diagnosis at the time of operation in 86 patients with stomach cancer and 26 patients with colon cancer. In a total of 112 patients considered to have a metastasis free liver on ultrasound scanning 10 patients were turned out to have had hepatic metastasis at the time of laparotomy. Among these, 4 patients had miliary metastasis, 4 patients had nodular metastasis at the dome of the right hepatic lobe, and 2 patients had surface metastasis or direct invasion from the primary tumor. These observations suggest that false negative preoperative hepatic ultrasound scanning is 9% had this is considered due to small size of the metastatic lesions, and lesions roundabout the dome of the right hepatic lobe or surface metastasis. Thus one should keep in mind the possibility of miliary metastasis in cancer patient was has coarse hepatic echotexture. In addition, the hepatic dome as well as hepatic surfaces should be searched carefully as the lesions in these areas tend to be easily neglected by ultrasound

  5. Assessment of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography System with Different Anode-Filter Combinations Using MCNP Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamkar, Lida; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Athari, Mitra

    2016-10-01

    X-ray mammography is one of the general methods for early detection of breast cancer. Since glandular tissue in the breast is sensitive to radiation and it increases the risk of cancer, the given dose to the patient is very important in mammography. The aim of this study was to determine the average absorbed dose of X-ray radiation in the glandular tissue of the breast during mammography examinations as well as investigating factors that influence the mean glandular dose (MGD). One of the precise methods for determination of MGD absorbed by the breast is Monte Carlo simulation method which is widely used to assess the dose. We studied some different X-ray sources and exposure factors that affect the MGD. "Midi-future" digital mammography system with amorphous-selenium detector was simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) code. Different anode/filter combinations such as tungsten/silver (W/Ag), tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), and rhodium/aluminium (Rh/Al) were simulated in this study. The voltage of X-ray tube ranged from 24 kV to 32 kV with 2 kV intervals and the breast phantom thickness ranged from 3 to 8 cm, and glandular fraction g varied from 10% to 100%. MGD was measured for different anode/filter combinations and the effects of changing tube voltage, phantom thickness, combination and glandular breast tissue on MGD were studied. As glandular g and X-ray tube voltage increased, the breast dose increased too, and the increase of breast phantom thickness led to the decrease of MGD. The obtained results for MGD were consistent with the result of Boone et al. that was previously reported. By comparing the results, we saw that W/Rh anode/filter combination is the best choice in breast mammography imaging because of the lowest delivered dose in comparison with W/Ag and Rh/Al. Moreover, breast thickness and g value have significant effects on MGD.

  6. Assessment of mean glandular dose for patients in mammography in some Hospitals in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Elmola, Alaa Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    A mammography examination facilitates the early detection of breast cancer. However, the potential risk of radiation- induced carcinogenesis is also increased with such a procedure. Thus assessment of the breast dose is important. The objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose (MGD) resulting from cranio caudal(CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views in one breast and the total dose per woman in Sudan, and to identify the factors affecting it. Measurements were performed to estimate mean glandular doses for 60 patients who underwent mammography examination in two clinics in Khartoum, Sudan.Doses were studied in RCH and NDC, centers which were using computed radiography(CR)devices. The piranha system was used for determining the MGD in this work. The characteristics of the radiographic equipment and the exposure data of each patient were recorded using designed format. The MGD was calculated from the measured incident Air kerma using appropriate conversion coefficients. The range of CBT was (1-7)cm for two projections. The respective averages for the CC and MLO projections were (4.55±1.38)mGy and (4.15±1.33) mGy, respectively. The average MGD per image was (4.3±1.35)mGy. The MGD per women was (8.6±1.35)mGy. The mean±SD MGD per image in the present study was lower than most of similar reports. The average MGD values recorded in this study were above the limiting value of the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine(2.0 mGy) and American College of Radiology (3.0 mGy recommendation. This suggests that mammography x-ray generators in this case are not capable of achieving acceptable dose levels for patients safety. Therefore, with consideration of all other factors, quality control program tests must be carried out periodically and frequently of the mammography equipment.(Author)

  7. A Monte Carlo model for mean glandular dose evaluation in spot compression mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Dance, David R; van Engen, Ruben E; Young, Kenneth C; Russo, Paolo; Di Lillo, Francesca; Mettivier, Giovanni; Bliznakova, Kristina; Fei, Baowei; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the dependence of normalized glandular dose (DgN) on various breast model and image acquisition parameters during spot compression mammography and other partial breast irradiation conditions, and evaluate alternative previously proposed dose-related metrics for this breast imaging modality. Using Monte Carlo simulations with both simple homogeneous breast models and patient-specific breasts, three different dose-related metrics for spot compression mammography were compared: the standard DgN, the normalized glandular dose to only the directly irradiated portion of the breast (DgNv), and the DgN obtained by the product of the DgN for full field irradiation and the ratio of the mid-height area of the irradiated breast to the entire breast area (DgN M ). How these metrics vary with field-of-view size, spot area thickness, x-ray energy, spot area and position, breast shape and size, and system geometry was characterized for the simple breast model and a comparison of the simple model results to those with patient-specific breasts was also performed. The DgN in spot compression mammography can vary considerably with breast area. However, the difference in breast thickness between the spot compressed area and the uncompressed area does not introduce a variation in DgN. As long as the spot compressed area is completely within the breast area and only the compressed breast portion is directly irradiated, its position and size does not introduce a variation in DgN for the homogeneous breast model. As expected, DgN is lower than DgNv for all partial breast irradiation areas, especially when considering spot compression areas within the clinically used range. DgN M underestimates DgN by 6.7% for a W/Rh spectrum at 28 kVp and for a 9 × 9 cm 2 compression paddle. As part of the development of a new breast dosimetry model, a task undertaken by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the European Federation of Organizations of Medical Physics

  8. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  9. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  10. Plexiform angiomyxoid myofibeoblastic tumor of the stomach: Report of a case and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Soo Heui; Yoon, Jung Hee; Kim, Ji Yeon [Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    We report a case of a plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor of the stomach that developed in a 38-year-old woman who underwent gastrofiberscopy and multi-detector computed tomography scans due to dyspepsia for 3 months. There was a subepithelial protruding mass with a small central mucosal ulceration and heterogeneous prominent enhancement in the gastric upper body along the greater curvature. The tumor measured 3.5 x 2.3 cm in size and showed a multinodular plexiform growth pattern of bland spindle cells in the myxoid stroma with abundant small blood vessels. The tumor cells were negative for CD117 (c-KIT), CD34, and S-100 protein but diffusely positive for smooth muscle actin and Alcian blue. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the lesion was a plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor. The patient is doing well and has had no recurrence or metastasis for 6 months after the wedge resection.

  11. Analysis of 178 penetrating stomach and small bowel injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ali; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Inaba, Kenji; Brown, Carlos; Browder, Timothy; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2008-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs), such as wound infection, fascial dehiscence, and intraabdominal abscess, commonly occur following penetrating abdominal trauma. However, most of the literature involves penetrating colon injuries. There are few reports describing complications following penetrating stomach and small bowel injuries. Based on the hypothesis that SSIs are commonly found following penetrating stomach and small bowel trauma, a prospective observational study was performed at an academic Level I trauma center from March 1, 2004 until August 31, 2006. The subjects were patients who had sustained a penetrating injury to the stomach or small bowel. Patients were followed for the development of an SSI, defined as wound infection, fascial dehiscence, or intraabdominal abscess. A total of 178 patients were admitted with penetrating stomach or small bowel injuries over the 29-month period. There were 121 (68%) gunshot injuries and 57 (32%) stab wounds. Associated intraabdominal injuries occurred in 74% of patients. Overall, SSIs occurred in 20% of cases. Risk factors for SSI included associated duodenal or colon injury, whereas time to operating room, blood loss, and type and duration of antibiotic use were not. When associated colon injuries were excluded, SSIs occurred in 16% of patients with gastric injuries and 13% of those with small bowel injuries. SSIs commonly follow penetrating stomach and small bowel trauma. Risk factors for SSI include associated duodenal or colon injury. Delay to operating room, blood loss, and type and length of antibiotic prophylaxis were not associated with an increased risk of SSI.

  12. Gastroscintigraphic signs of motor-evacuation disorders of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, A.G.; Mironova, E.V.; Tkachenko, M.N.

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with evaluation findings of diagnostic possibilities of gastroscintigraphy in assessment of motoric evacuatory function of the stomach in case of pathology of various origin. Gastroscintigraphy was conducted for 122 patients (56 men and 66 women) aged from 18 to 72 with different gastroduodenal pathology (functional dyspepsia, chronic gastritis, chronic cholecystitis, ulcer of the stomach and duodenum. Radiopharmaceutical agent 99 mTc-pertechnetate with activity of 1 MBq/kg was applied. Impaired motoric evacuatory function of the stomach was observed in 63 patients: regarding hypotonic type in most patients with functional dyspepsia (13.3%) and with chronic gastritis (19.8%); according to hypertonic type - 32 patients, mainly with functional dyspepsia (9.8%) and gastric ulcer (6.6%). Increased motoric evacuatory function of the stomach was revealed in 40 patients: with functional dyspepsia (14.8%) and in gastric ulcer (16.4%). The gastroesophageal reflux was observed in 59 patients and duodenogastric one - in 36 patients. Therefore, gastroscintigraphy in assessment of motoric evacuatory function of the stomach can completely replace X-ray examination.

  13. [Pathogenic aspects of stomach ulcerogenesis in acute intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, V E; Nguen, K K

    To identify the patterns and the correlation of morphological and functional changes in stomach wall with the dynamics of different types of acute intestinal obstruction. The study was performed on 33 adult mongrel dogs of both genders weighing 17-20 kg. All researches were conducted in accordance with the documents, such as the 'Guide for the Care and Use of laboratory animals of the National Institute of Health (National Institute of Health - NIH, Bethesda, USA)' and 'Rules of work with experimental animals'. The same methods were used to study the morphology of stomach wall in normal conditions and after intestinal obstruction simulation. We used H & E stain, Van Gieson's picrofuchsin staining combined with Mallory. The choice of histochemical methods was determined by the need to study metabolic processes in epithelial cells and gastric mucosa glands. Einarson method for detecting total nucleic acids was used. The last group of methods was statistical analysis. We determined the regularities of structural organization of microcirculation in various parts of the stomach, the correlation of morphological and functional changes in stomach wall with the dynamics of different types of acute intestinal obstruction. Our data indicate proximal-distal gradient of gastric perfusion: the most pronounced vascular network and maximum blood flow are observed in proximal stomach in both normal conditions and acute intestinal obstruction. More tenuous and reduced blood flow was revealed in the antrum, that is morphological basis of the most frequent localization of acute ulcers in this department.

  14. Exceptionally rare cause of a total stomach resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarska, Jadwiga; Jacyna, Krzysztof; Janiszewski, Jacek; Shafie, Danuta; Iwanowicz, Katarzyna; Żurada, Anna

    2012-05-28

    The first-ever case of a 54-year-old woman who overdosed on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in an attempt at suicide. Before that incident, she had not been treated for coexisting diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or depression. At the time of admission to the General Surgery Department, the patient reported pains in the epigastric region with accompanying nausea and vomiting with mucous content as well as the inability to ingest food orally. Despite parenteral and enteral feeding, the patient exhibited a drop in body mass. The histopathologic examination of a sample taken from the stomach during gastroscopy showed some non-specific necrotic and inflammatory masses with granulation. Intraoperatively, a very small, infiltrated stomach with an initial section of duodenum was identified. A total stomach resection together with the reconstruction of digestive tract continuity was performed using the Roux-Y method. Histopathologic examination of the stomach revealed a deep, chronic and exacerbated inflammatory condition with an extensive ulceration over the entire length of the stomach, reaching up to the pylorus. Additionally, numerous lymphatic glands with inflammatory reaction changes were observed.

  15. Primary NK/T cell lymphoma nasal type of the stomach with skin involvement: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kobold

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since nasal NK/T cell lymphoma and NK/T cell lymphoma nasal type are rare diseases, gastric involvement has seldom been seen. We report a unique case of a patient with a primary NK/T cell lymphoma nasal type of the stomach with skin involvement. The patient had no history of malignant diseases and was diagnosed with hematemesis and intense bleeding from his gastric primary site. Shortly after this event, exanthemic skin lesions appeared with concordant histology to the primary site. Despite chemotherapy, the patient died one month after the first symptomatic appearance of disease.

  16. Proliferative activity of stomach cancer and assessment of individual radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chissov, V.I.; Sergeeva, N.S.; Dar'yalova, S.L.; Petrov, A.N.; Repina, A.G.; Belous, T.A.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescent method with polyclonal antibodies to thymidine was used to assess the proliferative activity (PA-percent of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle) of 79 stomach tumors from primary cancer patients. Stomach cancer PA was shown to vary from 0.1 to 69.7%. Stomach cancer PA did not depend either on a tumor size or a degree of the involvement of regional lymph nodes. The mean PA of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma was slightly lower (14.9±4.7%) than that of low differentiated ones. Of 79 patients a tumor process was interpreted as a resectable one in 62. They were given preoperative irradiation at a total focal dose of 36 Gy followed by operation. It was shown that tumor radioresistance could be predicted in unchanged PA indices of their increase at the beginning of a course of irradiation with the probability of 95%

  17. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: The stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdiac, P.; Mineur, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the following article, we will discuss general issues relating to acute and late gastric's radiation toxicities. The tolerance of the stomach to complete or partial organ irradiation is more un-appreciated than for most other organs. We consulted the Medline database via PubMed and used the key words gastric - radiotherapy - toxicity. Currently, 60 Gy or less is prescribed in gastric radiation therapy. Acute clinical toxicity symptoms are predominantly nausea and vomiting. Although there is a general agreement that the whole stomach tolerance is for doses of 40 to 45 Gy without unacceptable complication, it is well established that a stomach dose of 35 Gy increases the risk of ulcer complications. (authors)

  18. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da; Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient

  20. Comparison of anode/filter combinations in digital mammography with respect to the average glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.F.; Mertelmeier, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the average glandular dose (AGD) applied for clinical digital mammograms acquired with the anode/filter combinations molybdenum/molybdenum (Mo/Mo), molybdenum/rhodium (Mo/Rh), and tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh). Using the method of Dance, the AGD was evaluated from the exposure data of 4867 digital mammograms at two sites equipped with a full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system based on an amorphous selenium detector. 1793 images were acquired and analyzed with Mo/Mo, 643 with Mo/Rh, and 2431 with W/Rh. In the Mo/Mo cases the mean compressed breast thickness was 46 ± 10 mm with an average AGD of 2.29 ± 1.31 mGy. For the Mo/Rh cases with a mean compressed thickness of 64 ± 9 mm, we obtained 2.76 ± 1.31 mGy. The W/Rh cases with a mean compressed thickness of 52 ± 13 mm resulted in 1.26 ± 0.44 mGy. The image quality was assessed as normal and adequate for diagnostic purposes in all cases. (orig.)

  1. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julie Y; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD's colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium.

  2. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jau-Der

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD, and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach.

  3. Gradual reintroduction of oxygen reduces reperfusion injury in cat stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.A.; Wadhwa, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals are responsible for a major portion of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the stomach. The oxygen radicals are produced during perfusion when oxygen delivery to the tissue increases. In the present study the authors investigate the effect on mucosal injury of regulating the rate of reintroduction of oxygen to the stomach after ischemia. Local gastric ischemia was achieved by reducing celiac artery pressure to 30 mmHg for 1 h. Ischemic injury was assessed by measuring the loss of 51 Cr-labeled red blood cells across the gastric mucosa. Mucosal blood loss was negligible before and during the ischemia period but increased during reperfusion. When blood flow to the stomach was gradually returned to normal after ischemia, the mucosal blood loss was reduced. If the stomach was vascularly perfused with low Po 2 blood for 1 h after ischemia before being returned to normal arterial perfusion, the mucosal blood loss was also reduced. When the stomach was made hypoxemic for 1 h rather than ischemic by perfusing the vasculature with low Po 2 blood then reperfused with normoxic blood, there was very little mucosal bleeding. The data indicate that gastric mucosal bleeding after ischemia is reduced if the tissue is returned slowly to a normal Po 2 . These findings support the concept that reperfusion injury is due largely to the production of oxygen radicals. The low level of injury produced by hypoxemia indicates that hypoxia per se makes only a minor contribution to reperfusion injury in the stomach

  4. Fish stomach contents in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TH. Tupinambás

    Full Text Available The choice of sampling gears to assess benthic macroinvertebrate communities depends on environmental characteristics, study objectives, and cost effectiveness. Because of the high foraging capacity and diverse habitats and behaviors of benthophagous fishes, their stomach contents may offer a useful sampling tool in studies of benthic macroinvertebrates, especially in large, deep, fast rivers that are difficult to sample with traditional sediment sampling gear. Our objective was to compare the benthic macroinvertebrate communities sampled from sediments with those sampled from fish stomachs. We collected benthic macroinvertebrates and fish from three different habitat types (backwater, beach, riffle in the wet season, drying season, and dry season along a single reach of the Grande River (Paraná River Basin, southeast Brazil. We sampled sediments through use of a Petersen dredge (total of 216 grabs and used gill nets to sample fish (total of 36 samples. We analyzed the stomach contents of three commonly occurring benthophagous fish species (Eigenmannia virescens, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus amblyrhynchus. Chironomids dominated in both sampling methods. Macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and abundances from fish stomachs differed from those from sediment samples, but less so from riffles than from backwater and beach habitats. Macroinvertebrate taxa from E. virescens stomachs were more strongly correlated with sediment samples from all three habitats than were those from the other two species. The species accumulation curves and higher mean dispersion values, compared with with sediment samples suggest that E. virescens is more efficient than sediment samples and the other fish studied at collecting benthic taxa. We conclude that by analyzing the stomach contents of benthophagous fishes it is possible to assess important characteristics of benthic communities (dispersion, taxonomic composition and diversity. This is especially true

  5. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat) in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p taurine concentrations with cAMP was observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach. PMID:21294907

  6. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the stomach: report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sok Hyun; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Ho Chul; Han, Sang Wook; Yoon, Dae Young; Bae, Sang Hoon; Nam, Eun Sook

    2000-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of epithelial origin but consists partly of variable differentiated tumor cells of mesenchymal origin. Accurate diagnosis, including differentiation from adenocarcinoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumor, is difficult. We experienced three cases of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the stomach, and describe the radiological and pathologic findings. One case involved a polypoid mass in the antrum, another a mass with a large ulcer mimicking a Bormann type-II adenocarcinoma in the body, while in the third case, an intraluminal bulky mass arising from the cardia of the stomach was present. This was not differentiated from cancer or stromal tumor. (author)

  7. A foreign body granuloma of the stomach: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Gwang Woo; Kim, Inn; Sohn, Hyung Kook; Koh, Byung Hee; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Soon Yong; Park, Kyung NAm

    1987-01-01

    Granulomatous inflammation of the stomach similar to gastric neoplasm may occur in disseminated sarcoidosis, allergic granulomatosis. Crohn's disease, a variety of infectious disease, as a reaction to foreign material, and in the absence of any of the above as isolated granulomatous gastritis. In the foreign body induced granulomatous inflammation of the stomach, beryllium, kaolin, talcum, suture material and food can be causative materials. It is the intent of this case report to add to the list of more commonly occurring intramural gastric masses, the remote possibility of a foreign body granuloma. So radiologist should be aware of this entity and include it in their differential diagnosis of intramural gastric masses.

  8. A foreign body granuloma of the stomach: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Gwang Woo; Kim, Inn; Sohn, Hyung Kook; Koh, Byung Hee; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Soon Yong; Park, Kyung NAm [Hanyang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-02-15

    Granulomatous inflammation of the stomach similar to gastric neoplasm may occur in disseminated sarcoidosis, allergic granulomatosis. Crohn's disease, a variety of infectious disease, as a reaction to foreign material, and in the absence of any of the above as isolated granulomatous gastritis. In the foreign body induced granulomatous inflammation of the stomach, beryllium, kaolin, talcum, suture material and food can be causative materials. It is the intent of this case report to add to the list of more commonly occurring intramural gastric masses, the remote possibility of a foreign body granuloma. So radiologist should be aware of this entity and include it in their differential diagnosis of intramural gastric masses.

  9. Advanced method of double contrast examination of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.V.; Yakimenko, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced method of double contrast examination of the stomach with the use of high concentrated barium suspension is described. It is shown that concentration of barium suspension must be not less than 200 mass/volume per cent to obtain the sharp image of the mucosal microrelief 6 standard position are recommended for the double contrast examination of all stomach walls. 200 patients with different digestive system diseases are examined with the help of developed methods. The sharp image of the mucosal microrelief is obtained in 70% cases [ru

  10. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the stomach: report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sok Hyun; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Ho Chul; Han, Sang Wook; Yoon, Dae Young; Bae, Sang Hoon; Nam, Eun Sook [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of epithelial origin but consists partly of variable differentiated tumor cells of mesenchymal origin. Accurate diagnosis, including differentiation from adenocarcinoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumor, is difficult. We experienced three cases of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the stomach, and describe the radiological and pathologic findings. One case involved a polypoid mass in the antrum, another a mass with a large ulcer mimicking a Bormann type-II adenocarcinoma in the body, while in the third case, an intraluminal bulky mass arising from the cardia of the stomach was present. This was not differentiated from cancer or stromal tumor. (author)

  11. [Treatment of gynecomastia by a combined method of liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Kuang, Ruixia; Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Huichao; Zhang, Weina; Wang, Zhiguo; Miao, Yuanxin; Chen, Lu

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of the combined method of liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection in the treatment of gynecomastia. From June 2004 to June 2006, 40 patients, aged 11-41 years old, were treated, with no-nodule (n = 10), nodule (n = 22) and female-breast-like with nodules (n = 8). Three patients were unilateral and 37 ones were bilateral. The levels of serum prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, testosterone and cortisol were normal in 38 patients, while in the other 2 patients, the levels of serum prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol were higher than normal, and the testosterone level was lower. Liposuction alone was performed in 10 no-nodule patients (lipo-type), and combined liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection were conducted in the other 30 patients (lipo-glandular type). RESULTS; Except for 2 cases in which hematoma and a small amount of effusion were found on the first and second day postoperatively and then obtained healing by first intention right after hematoma removal in time, all the other patients incisions obtained healing by first intention. Nipple numbness occurred in 3 cases on the first day postoperatively and no special treatment was conducted. There was still nipple hypesthesia in these 3 cases after 6-month follow-up. There were no complications such as hematoma, effusion, nipple and mammary areola necrosis, and nipple hypesthesia in other patients. All the 40 patients were followed up for 6-24 months (13 months on average). They were satisfied with their chest figures and no recurrence was observed. The combined method of liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection in the treatment of gynecomastia has many advantages, such as safe, micro-scars, natural and beautiflhl male breast figures as well as high patients' satisfaction.

  12. Comparison of average glandular dose in screen-film and digital mammography using breast tissue-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gwi Soon; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, You Hyun; Choi, Jong Hak; Kim, Chang Kyun

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, mammography system is changed rapidly from conventional screen-film system to digital system for application to screening and diagnosis. Digital mammography system provides several advantages over screen-film mammography system. According to the information provided by the manufacturer, digital mammography system offers radiation dose reduction in comparison with screen-film mammography system, because of digital detector, particularly direct digital detector has higher x-ray absorption efficiency than screen-film combination or imaging plate (IP). We measured average glandular doses (ADG) in screen-film mammography (SFM) system with slow screen-film combination, computed mammography (CM) system, indirect digital mammography (IDM) system and direct digital mammography (DDM) system using breast tissue-equivalent phantom (glandularity 30%, 50% and 70%). The results were shown as follows: AGD values for DDM system were highest than those for other systems. Although automatic exposure control (AEC) mode was selected, the curve of the AGD values against thickness or glandularity increased significantly for the SFM system with the uniform target/filter (Mo/Mo) combination. Therefore, the AGD values for the high energy examinations were highest in the SFM system, and those for the low energy examinations were highest in the DDM system. But the curve of the AGD values against thickness and glandularity increased gently for CM system with the automatic selection of the target/filter combination (from Mo/Mo to Mo/Rh or from Mo/Rh to Rh/Rh), and the AGD values were lowest. Consequently, the parameters in mammography for each exposure besides detection efficiency play an important role in order to estimate a patient radiation dose

  13. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  14. Predictive value of pretreatment metabolic activity measured by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with metastatic advanced gastric cancer: the maximal SUV of the stomach is a prognostic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Chul; Cheoi, Kungseok; Chung, Hyunsoo; Lee, Hyuk; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Gastroenterology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Few studies have evaluated metabolic activity by {sup 18}F-FDG PET as a prognostic factor in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). We investigated its prognostic role in metastatic AGC. We enrolled 82 patients with metastatic AGC, who were treatment-naive and underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scanning. In each patient, the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured in each target lesion. Stomach{sub SUVmax} was defined as SUVmax in the stomach, while Total{sub SUVmax} was defined as the highest SUVmax among all the target lesions. The stomach was the organ most frequently displaying the highest SUVmax among all the target lesions (in 67.1 % of patients). A Total{sub SUVmax} value of 11.5 was the value with the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity from receiver-operating characteristic curves for progression-free survival (PFS). PFS was significantly longer in patients with a Total{sub SUVmax} value <11.5 than in those with a Total{sub SUVmax} value {>=}11.5 (P = 0.023); however, overall survival (OS) was not (P = 0.055). A Stomach{sub SUVmax} value of 6.0 was derived by similar methods. PFS and OS were significantly longer in those with a Stomach{sub SUVmax} value <6.0 than in those with a Stomach{sub SUVmax} value {>=}6.0 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, those with a low Total{sub SUVmax} and those with a low Stomach{sub SUVmax} showed better chemotherapeutic responses (P = 0.016 and P = 0.034, respectively). Among patients with histologically undifferentiated carcinomas, those with lower Total{sub SUVmax} and those with lower Stomach{sub SUVmax} showed longer median PFS (P = 0.027 and P = 0.005, respectively) and OS (P = 0.009 and P <0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated Stomach{sub SUVmax} as an independent predictor of PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.038). Pretreatment metabolic activity may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with metastatic AGC undergoing palliative chemotherapy. Notably

  15. [Markers of stromal invasion during background and precancerous changes of the glandular epithelium and in adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, N V; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Zavalishina, L É; Mal'kov, P G

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to identify stromal invasion when the glandular epithelium of the cervix uteri is involved. It is necessary to draw a clear distinction between its glandular structures and adenocarcinoma in situ, involving the preexisting crypts and invasive glands. An attempt was made to assess the possibilities of using as markers of invasion the following stromal proteins and adhesion molecules: CD44, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, tenascin, and laminin. Fifty-three cases of benign glandular changes, 66 cases of dysplasias and adenocarcinomas in situ, and 47 cases of invasive adenocarcinoma were examined. An immunohistochemical study was performed according to the standard protocol using the antibodies to CD44, laminin, tenascin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin and a semiquantitative assessment of results was made. CD44 was found to be redistributed from the cells to the tumor stroma. CD44 was not detected in the stroma surrounding the intact glands, so were benign epithelial changes. In the tumor environment, there was, on the contrary, a reaction with CD44 in 74.5% of invasive adenocarcinomas cases (p 0.05). CD44 and tenascin are of great diagnostic value in examining invasive and microinvasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri. E-cadherin and beta-catenin are of no diagnostic value in the study groups of pathological processes. Laminin is a potential marker of stromal invasion; however, its expression calls for further investigation.

  16. Genetics and biochemistry of collagen binding-triggered glandular differentiation in a human colon carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, M.; Bodmer, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have examined the interaction between collagen binding and epithelial differentiation by using a human colon carcinoma cell line (SW1222) that can differentiate structurally when grown in a three-dimensional collagen gel to form glandular structures. As much as 66% inhibition of glandular differentiation can be achieved by addition to the culture of a synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr (RGDT) sequence, which is a cell recognition site found in collagen. Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr also inhibited the cell attachment to collagen-coated plates. Chromosome 15 was found in all human-mouse hybrid clones that could differentiate in the collagen gel and bind collagen. Both binding to collagen and glandular differentiation of the hybrid cells were also inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr as for the parent cell line SW1222. The ability of SW1222 cells to express the differentiated phenotype appears, therefore, to be determined by an Arg-Gly-Asp-directed collagen receptor on the cell surface that is controlled by a gene on chromosome 15

  17. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  18. X-ray of the stomach after vertical gastroplasty in the treatment of obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, V.I.; Lipko, N.S.; Yashkov, Yu.I.; Timoshin, A.D.; Movchun, A.A; Oppel', T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The operation vertical gastroplasty is used to treat the socalled morbid obesity. It ends with the formation of a small stomach, Some experience gained with X-ray of the stomach is analyzed in 17 patients undergone vertical gastroplasty. X-ray evaluated the status of the small stomach arranged as a tube in the upper portions in the vicinity of the lesser curvature of the stomach. The shape, sizes, outlet of the small stomach, as well as emptying rates and the state of an internal vertical suture of the stomach are to be studies. 8 refs., 4 figs

  19. Negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of flavonoids in glandular trichomes of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports a method for the analysis of secondary metabolites stored in glandular trichomes, employing negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The analyses of glandular trichomes from Lychnophora ericoides, a plant endemic to the Brazilian 'cerrado' and used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, led to the identification of five flavonoids (chrysin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin and 3-O-acetylpinobanksin) by direct infusion of the extracts of glandular trichomes into the nanospray ionisation source. All the flavonoids have no oxidation at ring B, which resulted in a modification of the fragmentation pathways compared with that of the oxidised 3,4-dihydroflavonoids already described in the literature. The absence of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant di-C-glucosylflavone vicenin-2, or any other flavonoid glycosides, in the glandular trichomes was also demonstrated. The use of the 'chip-based' nanospray QqTOF apparatus is a new fast and useful tool for the identification of secondary metabolites stored in the glandular trichomes, which can be useful for chemotaxonomic studies based on metabolites from glandular trichomes.

  20. Pellet in the stomach: Where did it come from?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Dogu Yildiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gunshot might have unexpected findings in the victim owing to the ballistics of the injury. The trajectory of the bullet plays a central role in the surprising findings in gunshot injuries. We are presenting a case with pellets seen in the stomach after a gunshot.

  1. Cephalopods represented by beaks in the stomach of a sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 3 000 cephalopod beaks taken from the stomach of a sperm whale stranded at Paekakariki, North Island, New Zealand, were identified to species and measured; estimates were made of the masses and standard lengths of the cephalopods represented. In all, 24 species of cephalopod in 13 families were ...

  2. Pathogenic enablers — toxic relationships in the stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Wroblewski, Lydia E.; Peek, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Saju et al. shed new light on mechanisms by which Epstein–Barr virus, a viral initiator of gastric cancer, potentiates the oncogenic effects of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach.

  3. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chikako; Naitoh, Yasuo; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1976-01-01

    Fluororoentogenography of stomach was carried out on the cases of which stool-test was positive at the time of general physical examinations from October, 1971 to September, 1975. Necessity rate of detailed examination was high in male, but there was no difference by exposure condition between female and male. Rate of detailed examination carried out tended to be high in female, but there was no difference by exposure condition. Rate showing abnormal findings was high in male, and was high in the aged of both female and male. Rate showing abnormal findings according to exposure condition was higher in the group exposed directly to atomic bomb over 2.1 km from the hypocenter, in the group who entered city after explosion, and in other groups than in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. In findings of the detailed examinations, incidence of gastric ulcer was high in young fellows and male, and incidence of gastric polyp was high in the aged of female. Incidence rate of stomach cancer was high in male, and it increased with increase of age in both female and male. Estimated incidence rate of stomach cancer by exposure condition seemed to be high in the group exposed directly within 1 km from the hypocenter. However, a statistically significant difference was not recognized because of small samples. Incidence rate of stomach cancer by sex was higher in females exposed proximally. (Kanao, N.)

  4. Constriction of the Stomach by an Unusual Peritoneal Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohammad W; Patel, Mayank; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2018-02-03

    Compression of intraabdominal contents can occur due to anomalous congenital bands. Herein, we describe, to our knowledge, the first case of compression of the stomach by an anomalous band extending from the lesser omentum to the greater omentum. Relevant literature is reviewed and the clinical implications of such a case are described.

  5. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For stomach (gastric) cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test for the general U.S. population. Review the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, or serum pepsinogen in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, C; Naitoh, Y; Kumasawa, T [Hiroshima A-Bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic (Japan)

    1976-09-01

    Fluororoentogenography of stomach was carried out on the cases of which stool-test was positive at the time of general physical examinations from October, 1971 to September, 1975. Necessity rate of detailed examination was high in male, but there was no difference by exposure condition between female and male. Rate of detailed examination carried out tended to be high in female, but there was no difference by exposure condition. Rate showing abnormal findings was high in male, and was high in the aged of both female and male. Rate showing abnormal findings according to exposure condition was higher in the group exposed directly to atomic bomb over 2.1 km from the hypocenter, in the group who entered city after explosion, and in other groups than in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. In findings of the detailed examinations, incidence of gastric ulcer was high in young fellows and male, and incidence of gastric polyp was high in the aged of female. Incidence rate of stomach cancer was high in male, and it increased with increase of age in both female and male. Estimated incidence rate of stomach cancer by exposure condition seemed to be high in the group exposed directly within 1 km from the hypocenter. However, a statistically significant difference was not recognized because of small samples. Incidence rate of stomach cancer by sex was higher in females exposed proximally.

  7. Arterial supply of the stomach of the Egyptian native goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the origin, course and distribution of the arteries supplying the stomach of the goat which is of extreme clinical importance for surgeon during caprine rumenotomy. Materials and methods: Fifteen adult goats were used in this study to demonstrate the arterial supply of the stomach by injection of the thoracic aorta with red gum milk latex after general anesthesia and slaughtering of the animals. Gross dissection of the arteries of the stomach was done to detect the origin, course and distribution of these arteries. Results: The study revealed that the rumen was richly supplied by the right and left ruminal arteries as well as ruminal branches from the reticular artery. The reticulum was supplied with reticular branches of reticular and accessory reticular arteries. The omasum was vascularized by omasal branches of the left gastric artery. While the abomasum received its entire arterial supply from abomasal branches of the left gastric, left gastroepiploic, right gastric and right gastroepiploic arteries. Conclusion: The stomach of the goat receives its arterial supply from the branches of the right ruminal, left ruminal, reticular, left gastric and hepatic arteries. Rumenotomy could be done in the left aspect of the dorsal ruminal sac, between the area of anastomoses of the terminal branches of the left and right ruminal arteries as the blood supply was minimal, so that bleeding will be low. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 80-87

  8. The clinical and endoscopic spectrum of the watermelon stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gostout, C. J.; Viggiano, T. R.; Ahlquist, D. A.; Wang, K. K.; Larson, M. V.; Balm, R.

    1992-01-01

    The watermelon stomach is an uncommon but treatable cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. We report our experience with the clinical and endoscopic features of 45 consecutive patients treated by endoscopic Nd:YAG laser coagulation. The prototypic patient was a woman (71%) with an average age

  9. Ulcers of anthral and pyloric section of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Roentgenological symptoms of the ulcer of anthral and pyloric sections of the stomach, as well as the roentgenological image of the topography of the mucous membrane of these sections during ulcerations are given. Complexity of ulcer differentiation of these sections and their roentgenological detection are emphasized

  10. Oncoplastic Resection of Retroareolar Breast Cancer: Central Quadrantectomy and Reconstruction by Local Skin-Glandular Flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients with central breast neoplasms account for 5 to 20% of breast cancer cases and, for a long time, they have been denied Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) and conventionally treated with mastectomy. The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result. With the help of Oncoplastic Surgical Techniques, BCS can be offered to these patients. In this study central quadrantectomy and breast reconstruction by an infero-Iaterally based pedicled flap were evaluated. Patients and Methods: This study comprised 23 women with central breast tumors treated at the National Cancer Institute (NC]), Cairo University and at the Aswan Cancer Center, Egyptian Ministry of Health. Their ages ranged from 31 to 62 years (mean: 48.4±10.2 years). Twenty-two had a palpable mass, while only I had Paget's disease of the nipple without mass. The size of their tumors ranged from 4 to 33mm (mean: 16.9±8.6mm). Only 9 women showed clinical suspicion of NAC involvement in the form of nipple retraction. Seventeen cases had their tumors strictly in the retro-areolar region, while 5 had tumors extending for a maximum of I.5Cm beyond the areolar edge. All patients underwent central quadrantec-tomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection. Advancement of an infero-Iaterally based skin-glandular flap was then carried out. All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Results: Fourteen patients showed pathological evidence of nipple infiltration (60.8%). The free safety margin (SM) ranged from 9 to 13mm (mean: 10. 0.9mm). This could be accomplished from the first attempt in 18 patients; however, in 5 patients a second wider excision was needed to obtain an adequate

  11. Results of a 2011 national questionnaire for investigation of mean glandular dose from mammography in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Y; Suzuki, S; Minami, K; Shirakawa, S

    2014-03-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for mammography have yet to be created in Japan. A national questionnaire investigation into radiographic conditions in Japan was carried out for the purpose of creating DRLs. Items investigated included the following: tube voltage; tube current; current-time product; source-image distance; craniocaudal view; automatic exposure control (AEC) settings; name of mammography unit; image receptor system (computed radiography (CR), flat panel detector (FPD), or film/screen (F/S)); and supported or unsupported monitor diagnosis (including monitor resolution). Estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for mammography was performed and compared with previous investigations. The MGD was 1.58(0.48) mGy, which did not significantly differ from a 2007 investigation. In relation to image receptors, although no difference in average MGD values was observed between CR and FPD systems, F/S systems had a significantly decreased value compared to both CR and FPDs. Concerning digital systems (FPDs), the MGD value of the direct conversion system was significantly higher than the indirect conversion system. No significant difference in MGD value was evident concerning type of monitor diagnosis for either the CR or the FPD digital systems; however, hard copies were used more often in CR. No significant difference in the MGD value was found in relation to monitor resolution. This report suggests ways to lower the doses patients undergoing mammography receive in Japan, and serves as reference data for 4.2 cm compressed breast tissue of 50% composition DRLs. Furthermore, our findings suggest that further optimisation of FPD settings can promote a reduction in the MGD value.

  12. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of phantom and patient data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, R W; Van Engen, R E; Den Heeten, G J; Broeders, M J M; Veldkamp, W J H; Young, K C; Dance, D R; Schopphoven, S; Jeukens, C R L P N

    2015-01-01

    For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last decades the automatic exposure control (AEC) increased in complexity and became more sensitive to (local) differences in breast composition. The question is how well the AGD estimated using these simple dosimetry phantoms agrees with the average patient AGD. In this study the AGDs for both dosimetry phantoms and for patients have been evaluated for 5 different x-ray systems in DM and DBT modes. It was found that the ratios between patient and phantom AGD did not differ considerably using both dosimetry phantoms. These ratios averaged over all breast thicknesses were 1.14 and 1.15 for the PMMA and PMMA-PE dosimetry phantoms respectively in DM mode and 1.00 and 1.02 in the DBT mode. These ratios were deemed to be sufficiently close to unity to be suitable for dosimetry evaluation in quality control procedures. However care should be taken when comparing systems for DM and DBT since depending on the AEC operation, ratios for particular breast thicknesses may differ substantially (0.83–1.96). Although the predictions of both phantoms are similar we advise the use of PMMA  +  PE slabs for both DM and DBT to harmonize dosimetry protocols and avoid any potential issues with the use of spacers with the PMMA phantoms. (paper)

  13. Histopathological confirmation of similar intramucosal distribution of fluorescein in both intravenous administration and local mucosal application for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the normal stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ohata, Ken; Ban, Shinichi; Ichihara, Shin; Takasugi, Rumi; Minato, Yohei; Tashima, Tomoaki; Matsuyama, Yasushi; Takita, Maiko; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-12-16

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is capable of acquiring in vivo magnified cross-section images of the gastric mucosa. Intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium is used for confocal imaging. However, it is still under debate if local administration of the dye to the mucosa is also effective for confocal imaging as it is not yet clear if topical application also reveals the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein sodium after topical application and to compare the distribution to the conventional intravenous injection used for confocal imaging. pCLE of the stomach uninfected with Helicobacter pylori was performed in a healthy male employing intravenous administration and local mucosal application of fluorescein. The mucosa of the lower gastric body was biopsied 1 min and 5 min after intravenous administration or local mucosal application of fluorescein, and the distribution of fluorescein in the biopsy samples was examined histologically. Green fluorescence was already observed in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells in the biopsied deep mucosa 1 min after local mucosal application of fluorescein. It was also observed in the foveolar lumen and inter-foveolar lamina propria, although it was noted at only a few sites. In the tissue biopsied 5 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, green fluorescence was more frequently noted in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells than in that 1 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, although obvious green fluorescence was not identified in the foveolar lumen or inter-foveolar lamina propria. The distribution of intravenously administered fluorescein in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells was also clearly observed similarly to that after local mucosal application of fluorescein. Green fluorescence in more cells was observed in many cells 5 min after intravenous administration compared

  14. Respiratory muscle strength of patients with esophagus and stomach neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Aline Boscolo Ruivo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In cancer patients, the reduced food intake causes weight loss and promotes protein-calorie malnutrition. This results in loss of lean body mass, which affects both skeletal muscles and respiratory muscles. Objective: Evaluate and compare the respiratory muscle strength of patients with esophageal and stomach neoplasia during the preoperative period. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out with 24 patients of both genders hospitalized in a teaching hospital. They underwent a physical therapy evaluation composed of anthropometric data and measurement of respiratory muscle strength through manovacuometry. Paired and unpaired t-tests were used to compare the values obtained with the predicted equations. Results: Regarding the disease prevalence, 66.66%(16 of the individuals had stomach neoplasm and 33.33%(8 esophageal neoplasm. Of the patients with esophageal neoplasm, 100% were men with a mean age of 63 ± 9.16 years. Of those with stomach neoplasm, 68.75% were men with a mean age of 69.36 ± 10.92 years. Female patients with stomach neoplasm had significantly higher BMI (p = 0.01 than male patients, and they were classified as overweight. Both neoplasms had significantly lower real values (p ≤ 0.05 than predicted values at the maximal expiratory pressure. Conclusion: Patients with esophageal and stomach neoplasms in the preoperative period present reduction in the expiratory muscle strength. There were no statistically significant differences, when we compared the maximum respiratory pressures between the two types of neoplasms investigated.

  15. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach: an unusual case of elevated alpha-fetoprotein with prior treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Seong Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC is a rare type of extrahepatic carcinoma whose morphology is similar to that of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Metachronous HCC and HAC in the same patient is extremely rare. The case of a 68-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B infection who had both HCC and HAC of the stomach is reported herein. Nine years previously this patient had been diagnosed with HCC and received a right lobectomy. HCC that recurred at the caudate lobe at 6 months after the operation was successfully treated with transarterial chemoembolization. The patient was followed up regularly thereafter without evidence of tumor recurrence for 9 years. In July 2010 his serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level elevated from 6.5 ng/mL to 625.4 ng/mL, and he developed a probable single metastatic lymph node around the hepatic artery without intrahepatic lesions. Subsequent evaluation with upper endoscopy revealed a 4-cm ulcerative lesion on the antrum of the stomach. Subtotal gastrectomy was performed with lymph-node dissection. Histologic examination revealed a special type of extrahepatic AFP-producing adenocarcinoma-HAC with lymph-node metastasis-which indicates that HAC can be a cause of elevated AFP even in patients with HCC. HAC should be considered if a patient with stable HCC exhibits unusual elevation of AFP.

  16. An analysis of the physiological FDG uptake pattern in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Hirofumi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Hiraka, Kiyohisa; Nakagawa, Makoto; Abe, Koichiro; Kaneko, Koichiro; Hayashi, Kazutaka; Honda, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the normal gastric FDG uptake pattern to provide basic information to make an accurate diagnosis of gastric lesions by FDG PET. We examined 22 cases, including 9 of malignant lymphoma, 8 of lung cancer, 2 of esophageal cancer, and 3 of other malignancies. No gastric lesions were observed in any of the 22 cases on upper gastrointestinal examinations using either barium meal or endoscopic techniques. The intervals between FDG PET and the gastrointestinal examination were within one week in all cases. The stomach regions were classified into the following three areas: U (upper)-area, M (middle)-area, and L (lower)-area. The degree of FDG uptake in these three gastric regions was qualitatively evaluated by visual grading into 4 degrees, and then a semiquantitative evaluation was carried out using the standardized uptake value (SUV). Based on a visual grading evaluation, the mean FDG uptake score in the U-, M-, and L-areas was 1.14±0.96, 0.82±0.96, and 0.36±0.49 (mean±S.D.), respectively. The FDG uptake scores obtained in the three areas were significantly different (Friedman test, p M>L. In conclusion, the physiological gastric FDG uptake was significantly higher at the oral end. A stronger gastric FDG uptake at the anal end may therefore be suggestive of a pathological uptake. (author)

  17. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  18. Mucin phenotypic expression and p53 gene abnormality of gastric super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma: Re-evaluation with relationship between histogenesis of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and intestinal metaplasia in distal stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the gastric well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in the distal stomach has been thought to develop via a intestinal metaplasia-carcinoma sequence, there are some disproofs from new mucin examinations for minute-size lesions in same type carcinoma. The current study was performed and pointed out the new findings for the solution to the problem according to the point described above. Methods 12 super-minute lesions (less than 1 mm in maximum diameter of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in distal stomach (SMCa, which were detected from the pathological examinations of 210 surgically resected stomach specimens, and the mucosa adjacent to these carcinoma lesions, were examined by immunohistochemical mucin stainings (MUC2 and CD-10: intestinal phenotype, 45M1 and MUC6: gastric phenotype and p53-overexpression. And the analyses of the replication error of the microsatellites in chromosome 17 related p53 gene (TP53 and D17S786 (RER-p53MS were performed in SMCa lesions, adjacent mucosa to each lesion and other gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia, because all SMCa lesions showed p53-overexpression immunohistochemically, decribed below. Results 1. The carcinoma cells in all SMCa lesions were positive for 45M1 and p53. On the other hand, no positive carcinoma cells for MUC6 were seen although the pyloric glands and the remnant pyloric gland in the SMCa lesions in the same slides were positive for MUC6. Ten lesions (83% had intestinal phenotypic mucin (10 lesions: MUC2 (+, 4 lesions: CD10 (+. Two lesions (17% were positive for only 45M1 (gastric phenotypic mucin. 2. All of the mucosa adjacent to SMCa showed intestinal metaplasia (complete type: 7 regions, incomplete type: 5 regions. 3. RER-p53MS was confirmed in 42% (5/12 regions of SMCa, in 42% (5/12 regions of the mucosa adjacent to SMCa and 14% (6/42 regions of the other intestinal metaplasia mucosa. Conclusion Most of the super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma

  19. Radiation diagnosis of stomach cancer. A critical analysis of deeply rooted misconceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.V.

    2000-01-01

    Present notions on the problem of early diagnosis of stomach carcinoma are presented. Achievements in the field of realizing preventive examinations for early identification of stomach carcinoma are shown. Technique for biomedical radiography study is described, local and organ semiotics of stomach carcinoma are presented. Potentialities of present techniques (computerized tomography, ultrasonography, video-laparoscopy) in the assessment of spreading and staging of stomach carcinoma are analysed [ru

  20. The Synchronous Prevalence of Colorectal Neoplasms in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Su; Jung, Woon Tae; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. Methods A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. Results The prevalence of...

  1. Potentialities of the X-ray endoscopic diagnosis of stomach syphilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrieva, S.D.; Gurova, S.V.; Kovalenko, S.F.; Popova, G.N.; Legostaev, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The possibilities of roentgenoendoscopic diagnostics of stomach syphilis are demonstrated by disease cases. Three forms of the stomach syphilis: tumor-like, infiltration and ulcerous ones are identified both roentgenological and endoscopic. Any infiltration process in the stomach of a young patient determined roentgenological should be reasoned as a sign of alterness relative to the syphilis. To perform endoscopic diagnosis of the stomach syphilis is easier than roentgenological one. The final syphilis diagnosis is impossible without blood test [ru

  2. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  3. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary......The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  4. The place of roentgen computesized tomography in the diagnosis of endophytic carcinoma of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.N.; Akberov, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The possibilities of roentgen computer tomography in the diagnosis of infiltrative carcinoma of the stomach, especially in the determination of stomach wall enlargement, process occurrence, are estimated positively using the investigations of 45 patients with endophytic carcinoma of the stomach. It should be used after usual roentgen and endoscopic methods. Refs. 5, figs. 5

  5. Nutrition deficiency increases the risk of stomach cancer mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Li Qing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to malnutrition during early life is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in later life. Methods The design protocol included analyzing the trend of gastric cancer mortality and nutrition and evaluating the association between nutrient deficiency in early life and the risk of gastric cancer by hierarchical age–period–birth cohort (APC analysis using general log-linear Poisson models and to compare the difference between birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine and those who were not exposed to the famine. Data on stomach cancer mortality from 1970 to 2009 and the dietary patterns from 1955 to 1985 which included the 1959–1961 Chinese famine period in the Zhaoyuan County population were obtained. The nutrition information was collected 15 years prior to the mortality data as based on the latest reference of disease incubation. Results APC analysis revealed that severe nutrition deficiency during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Compared with the 1960–1964 birth cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in all birth cohorts from 1900 to 1959 significantly increased; compared with the 1970–1974 cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in the 1975–1979 cohort significantly increased, whereas the others had a steadily decreased risk; compared with 85–89 age group in the 2005–2009 death survey, the ORs decreased with younger age and reached significant levels for the 50–54 age group after adjusting the confounding factors. The 1930 to 1964 group (exposed to famine had a higher mortality rate than the 1965 to 1999 group (not exposed to famine. For males, the relative risk (RR was 2.39 and the 95% confidence interval (CI was 1.51 to 3.77. For females, RR was 1.64 and 95% CI was 1.02 to 2.62. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that prolonged malnutrition during early life may increase the risk of

  6. Effects of argon plasma coagulation on human stomach tissue: An ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Young Soo; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a safe alternative treatment for gastrointestinal neoplasms and precancerous lesions. However, the extent of thermal damage after APC is difficult to predict. We investigated the effects of APC on human stomach tissue. Argon plasma coagulation was performed on 10 freshly resected human stomachs that were obtained after total gastrectomy. The effects on tissue were compared across power settings (40, 60, and 80 W), durations (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 s), and between injection (submucosal injection of normal saline) and control (without injection) groups. Success was defined as complete mucosal necrosis without damaging the muscularis propria. Without submucosal injection, the incidence of damaging the muscularis propria increased as the power and duration increased. Tissue damage in the injection group was mostly confined to the submucosa, even when using the high-power setting. In the injection group, ablations at 40 W for 20 s, 60 W for 15 s, and 80 W for 15 or 20 s produced success rates ≥80%. In the control group, ablations at 60 W for 10 s, and 80 W for 5, or 10 s produced success rates ≥80%. The optimal energy levels to achieve complete mucosal and submucosal necrosis without damaging the muscularis propria were 800-1600 and 600-800 J in the injection and control groups, respectively. Application of APC produces good results with a low risk of perforation. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubiak, R R; Gamba, H R; Neves, E B; Peixoto, J E

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in both

  8. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S.; Araujo T, M. H.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2014-08-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D G ) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D G values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D G values were derived from the incident air kerma (K i ) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K i measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D G values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This work contributes to

  9. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H. [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D{sub G} values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D{sub G} values were derived from the incident air kerma (K{sub i}) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K{sub i} measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D{sub G} values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  10. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  11. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  12. [Anterior seromyotomy of the body and the functional part of the stomach combined with posterior truncal vagotomy and ulcer excision in the surgical treatment of complicated stomach ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V I; Sytnik, A P; Gorbunov, V N; KOrenev, N N; Naumov, B A; Gordeev, S A

    1990-07-01

    Anterior seromyotomy of the body and fundus of the stomach was combined with posterior truncal vagotomy and excision of the ulcer in 23 patients with gastric ulcer complicated by bleeding or perforation. Seventeen patients had chronic ulcers of the body of the stomach (type I), 3 patients had concurrent ulcers (type II), and 3 more patients had acute ulcers of the body of the stomach. Operation was undertaken for active bleeding from the ulcer in 20 patients and for perforating ulcer in 3 patients. One patient died. Mild disorders of evacuation of an aqueous barium sulfate suspension from the stomach were noted in 4 patients.

  13. Stomach gas analyses in canine acute gastric dilatation with volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kruiningen, H J; Gargamelli, C; Havier, J; Frueh, S; Jin, L; Suib, S

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the gas in the stomachs of dogs with acute gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation with volvulus (GDV) often is disputed. We tested the hypothesis that gaseous distention resulted from aerophagia. Ten cases of GDV that were submitted to an emergency clinic were sampled intraoperatively. With the abdomen open, the needle of a vacutainer blood collection set was inserted into the distended stomach, and gas was collected into 10 mL glass vacutainer vials with rubber stoppers. These were stored at room temperature for 1-7 days and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. CO2 composition ranged from 13 to 20%. One dog had an H2 concentration of 29%. Because the CO2 content of atmospheric air is less than 1%, these findings suggest that the gaseous gastric distention in GDV is not the result of aerophagia. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Gelation of mucin: Protecting the stomach from autodigestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, Rama

    2011-03-01

    In this talk I will describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the remarkable ability of the mucus lining of the stomach for protecting the stomach from being digested by the acidic gastric juices that it secretes. These physical properties can be attributed to the presence of a high molecular weight glycoprotein found in mucus, called mucin. Rheology and other measurements show that gastric mucin forms a gel under acidic pH. A model of gelation based on the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions will be discussed. Molecular Dynamics simulation studies of folding and aggregation of mucin domains provide further support for this model. The relevance of gelation to the motion of the ulcer causing bacterium H. pylori will be discussed.

  15. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  16. SU-F-I-01: Normalized Mean Glandular Dose Values for Dedicated Breast CT Using Realistic Breast-Shaped Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A [Department of Radiology, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States); Boone, J [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engeering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate normalized mean glandular dose values for dedicated breast CT (DgN-CT) using breast CT-derived phantoms and compare to estimations using cylindrical phantoms. Methods: Segmented breast CT (bCT) volume data sets (N=219) were used to measure effective diameter profiles and were grouped into quintiles by volume. The profiles were averaged within each quintile to represent the range of breast sizes found clinically. These profiles were then used to generate five voxelized computational phantoms (V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 for the small to large phantom sizes, respectively), and loaded into the MCNP6 lattice geometry to simulate normalized mean glandular dose coefficients (DgN-CT) using the system specifications of the Doheny-prototype bCT scanner in our laboratory. The DgN-CT coefficients derived from the bCT-derived breast-shaped phantoms were compared to those generated using a simpler cylindrical phantom using a constant volume, and the following constraints: (1) Length=1.5*radius; (2) radius determined at chest wall (Rcw), and (3) radius determined at the phantom center-of-mass (Rcm). Results: The change in Dg-NCT coefficients averaged across all phantom sizes, was - 0.5%, 19.8%, and 1.3%, for constraints 1–3, respectively. This suggests that the cylindrical assumption is a good approximation if the radius is taken at the breast center-of-mass, but using the radius at the chest wall results in an underestimation of the glandular dose. Conclusion: The DgN-CT coefficients for bCT-derived phantoms were compared against the assumption of a cylindrical phantom and proved to be essentially equivalent when the cylinder radius was set to r=1.5/L or Rcm. While this suggests that for dosimetry applications a patient’s breast can be approximated as a cylinder (if the correct radius is applied), this assumes a homogenous composition of breast tissue and the results may be different if the realistic heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue is considered

  17. X-ray diagnostics. Stomach and duodenum. Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The standard deals with X-ray diagnostics of stomach and duodenum in patients on completion of the 14th year of life. It includes information on indications, contraindications, prerequisites and preparations as well as on application and appropriate dosage of contrast media. Parameters on focussing, imaging conditions and on the program of taking radiographies are outlined. The necessity of special examinations according to findings as well as measures concerning radiation protection and hygiene are presented

  18. Effectiveness of Braun's enteroanastomosis in B II-resected stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindecken, K.D.; Salm, B.

    1993-01-01

    With the aid of hepatobiliary sequence scintigraphy (HBSS) a functional analysis was obtained form 30 patients, subsequent to gastric surgery - after Billroth II with entero-anastomosis - which showed a suprisingly high rate of reflux into the residual stomach, in 16 out of these 30 patients. The high-grade HBSS data with regard to the biliary reflux proportions after gastric surgery and the low-grade effectiveness of Braun's entero-anastomosis are clearly evidenced. (orig./MG) [de

  19. [The medical management of carcinoma of the stomach (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auden, R R; Barrowman, J A

    1976-01-01

    Only a small proportion of patients with carcinoma of the stomach are suitable for radical surgery. For the remainder symptomatic treatment and radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy can be used to relieve distressing symptoms of pain, nausea and vomiting, and severe anemia. In the case of radiotherapy or chemotherapy, a degree of tumor regression can be expected. There have been encouraging results recently in palliating this disease with new radiotherapy techniques, notably fast neutron irradiation.

  20. Microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for salivary diagnostics of stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Yael; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2015-05-15

    We present a microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for saliva diagnostics with a potential application for non-invasive early diagnosis of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The primary identified cause is infection by a gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. These bacteria secrete the enzyme urease that converts urea into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3), leading to their elevated levels in breath and body fluids. The proposed optoelectronic sensor will detect clinically relevant levels of CO2 and NH3 in saliva that can potentially be used for early diagnosis of stomach cancer. The sensor is composed of the embedded in a microfluidic device array of microwells filled with ion-exchange polymer microbeads doped with various organic dyes. The optical response of this unique highly diverse sensor is monitored over a broad spectrum, which provides a platform for cross-reactive sensitivity and allows detection of CO2 and NH3 in saliva at ppm levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lymphatics of the cardia of stomach. Examination using RI lymphoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonemura, Yutaka; Katayama, Kanji; Sawa, Toshiharu

    1985-01-01

    The lymphatics of the cardia of stomach was examined using lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m colloid in 98 patients with gastric cancer and 4 patients with esophageal cancer. The colloidal Tc-99m was injected into the submucosa of stomach 12 hr before operation with the aid of endoscopy. Each lymph node dissected from the specimens was measured by scintillation counter. Lymph nodes located along the left gastric, splenic and left inferior phrenic arteries were mainly involved in the lymphatics of the cardia of stomach. There was strong relationship between the cardia and the node of number 16. The lymphatics was also present in the mediastinum. These results suggest the necessities of the complete removal of the gastropancreatic mesenteriolum including the left inferior phrenic artery and the extirpation of the regional lymph nodes around the aorta above and below the left renal artery, in addition to the removal of both pancreas and spleen in cases of cardia tumors. Furthermore, in cases of squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes, it seems necessary to extirpate the complete mediastinal lymph nodes. (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra; ElBeshbeishy, Rana

    2016-01-01

    A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs) versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH) as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed. Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities compared to the group which received PH alone. Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

  3. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma of the stomach: features of pathomorphological diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tumanskiy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On the base of our own observations and literature data it was determined that the distinctive pathologic features of MALT-lymphoma of the stomach are the presence of a dense diffuse lymphocytic infiltrate of centrocyte-like tumor cells of marginal zone (small cells resembling centrocytes with distinct bright rim of cytoplasm, with small nuclei of irregular shape, sometimes – split, containing coarse chromatin and indistinct nucleoli in the lamina propria between the reactive lymph follicles and glands of the mucous membrane, monocytoid B-lymphocytes characterized by clear cell borders, broad light cytoplasm and bean-like nucleus, plasma cells, which may contain Dutcher bodies – intranuclear inclusions of immunoglobulins; single large centroblast-like or immunoblast-like cells having round-oval or slightly irregular in shape nuclei with 1-3 nucleoli, or vesicular-like round in shape nuclei with compact, centrally located nucleolus; small lymphocytes. Infiltration looks as tumorcell layers or, more rarely, fuzzy nodular cellular formations. An important diagnostic criterion is the presence of "lymphoepithelial lesions" zones of glands due to infiltration by 3 or more centrocyte-like tumor cell aggregates with glands’ basement membranes destruction. In the damaged glands epithelium edema and eosinophilia are marked, but if extensive infiltration is present among the lymphoid infiltrate there are only clusters of degenerated cells at the site of destroyed epithelium. Low-grade MALT-lymphoma is characterized by the absence of distinct macroscopic changes and the prevalence of "mature" tumor cells over the blasts in histological picture. MALT-lymphoma with signs of transformation into high-grade lymphoma is characterized macroscopically by distinct exophytic component, hyperplasia of folds with ulcerous defects up to 1-2 cm in diameter. Histologic picture displays a significant amount of blast cells – both in the infiltrate and in the areas

  4. Prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer among patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examination, without visible lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rangel da Veiga

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is a serious public health problem in Brazil. For patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, but with cervical cytological tests suggesting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, the national recommendation is to repeat cervical cytological tests after three months. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of HSIL and cancer among patients with initial cervical cytological tests suggestive of HSIL but with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, in order to contribute towards the discussion regarding a more effective clinical approach that might diminish the likelihood of patient abandonment of follow-up before appropriate diagnosis and treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in Colposcopy Clinic of IFF/Fiocruz. METHOD: Patients admitted between December 1989 and April 2007 with cytological diagnoses of HSIL but with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions underwent cervical cone biopsy. RESULTS: Sixty-five such patients were included, comprising 33.8% with HSIL and 4.6% with cancer, confirmed histologically. The other patients presented low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (26.1%, glandular dysplasia (1.5% and absence of disease (33.8%. CONCLUSION: The observed prevalence of cancer and HSIL does not seem to be enough to justify immediate referral for cone biopsies to investigate the cervical canal in these cases. The findings suggest that the recommendation of repeated cytological tests following an initial one with HSIL, among patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, is appropriate in our setting. Efforts are needed to ensure adherence to follow-up protocols in order to reduce the chances of losses.

  5. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, Lucia L; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Castelao, Cecilia; Alonso, Jana; Folgueira, Cintia; Casanueva, Felipe F; Pardo, Maria; Seoane, Luisa M

    2015-02-26

    Obesity is a major public health threat for many industrialised countries. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment against obesity, suggesting that gut derived signals are crucial for energy balance regulation. Several descriptive studies have proven the presence of gastric endogenous systems that modulate energy homeostasis; however, these systems and the interactions between them are still not well known. In the present study, we show for the first time the comparative 2-DE gastric secretome analysis under different nutritional status. We have identified 38 differently secreted proteins by comparing stomach secretomes from tissue explant cultures of rats under feeding, fasting and re-feeding conditions. Among the proteins identified, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was found to be more abundant in gastric secretome and plasma after re-feeding, and downregulated in obesity. Additionally, two calponin-1 species were decreased in feeding state, and other were modulated by nutritional and metabolic conditions. These and other secreted proteins identified in this work may be considered as potential gastrokines implicated in food intake regulation. The present work has an important impact in the field of obesity, especially in the regulation of body weight maintenance by the stomach. Nowadays, the most effective treatment in the fight against obesity is bariatric surgery, which suggests that stomach derived signals might be crucial for the regulation of the energy homeostasis. However, until now, the knowledge about the gastrokines and its mechanism of action has been poorly elucidated. In the present work, we had updated a previously validated explant secretion model for proteomic studies; this analysis allowed us, for the first time, to study the gastric secretome without interferences from other organs. We had identified 38 differently secreted proteins comparing ex vivo cultured stomachs from rats under feeding, fasting and re-feeding regimes

  6. Clinicopathological importance of Papanicolaou smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Saba, Kanwal; Qamar, Samina; Majeed, Muhammad Muddasar; Niazi, Shahida; Naeem, Samina

    2012-01-01

    Premalignant and malignant lesions are not uncommon in Pakistani women, especially in the older age-groups This study was conducted to determine the clinicopathological importance of conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix. Pap smears of 1000 women were examined from January 2007 to June 2009. Only cases with neoplastic cytology were included. The overall frequency of normal, inadequate, neoplastic, and infective smears was 50%, 1.8%, 10.2%, and 38.3%, respectively. Most of the patients (67%) were in the postmenopausal age-group, with the mean age being 44.7±15.63 years. The commonest clinical signs/symptoms seen among the 102 patients with neoplastic gynecological lesions were vaginal discharge and abnormal bleeding (93/102;(91.2% and 62/102;60.7%). Of the 102 cases with neoplastic lesions 46 patients (45%) had low-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 22 (21.5%) had high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 14 (13.7%) had squamous cell carcinoma, and 6 (5.8%) showed features of adenocarcinoma. Ten (9.8%) cases showed cytology of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and four (3.9%) cases had atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS). We conclude that cervical smear examination is well suited for diagnosing neoplastic disease. It is clear that cervical neoplastic lesions are becoming a problem in Pakistan.

  7. Trans-nipple removal of fibro-glandular tissue in gynaecomastia surgery without additional scars: An innovative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The established techniques that have been used to treat gynaecomastia are said to have relatively less patient satisfaction rate as they leave some visible scars or mild elevation over the nipple areola complex, resulting in aesthetically unsatisfactory results. Even the slightest elevation or smallest scar over nipple areola complex leave patients extremely self conscious and in a dilemma of having a second intervention to get rid of that blemish. Aims: The aim of the study is to achieve - A flat chest without adding a scar and with no chances of re-occurrence of the condition. This article suggests an innovative approach to address the problem. Materials and Methods: The author presents trans-nipple incision approach for the delivery of fibro-glandular tissue component following liposuction for maximum patient satisfaction. This method consists of a unique small criss-cross incision right on the nipple itself for retrieving any volume of tough fibro-glandular tissues. Between the duration of January 2012 to October 2013, 28 male patients of different ages were operated with this technique. Results: The surgery resulted in well-shaped, symmetric chest contour without any visible elevation or additional scars on nipple areola complex. No complications were noticed in any of the patients. Conclusions: The presented technique is proved to have a high patient satisfaction rate and to be promising method to achieve good aesthetic results in gynaecomastia surgery.

  8. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and image of digital mammography and film mammography in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, M.; Leyton, F.; Rodrigue, L. L.C.; Oliveira, M.A.; Joana, G.S.; Silva, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. Mammography is the best method for breast-cancer screening and is capable of reducing mortality rates To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. Digital mammography has been proposed as a substitute for film mammography given the benefits inherent to digital technology. The purpose of our study was to compare the technical performance of digital mammographic and screen-film mammography. A PMMA phantom with objects to simulate breast structures. For the screen/film (SF) technique the results showed that 54% mammography units did not achieve the minimum acceptable performance as far the image quality. Besides, 67% services showed inadequate performance in their processing systems, which had significant influence on the image quality. At the mean glandular dose only 44% of digital systems evaluated were compliant in all thicknesses of PMMA. The average glandular dose AGD was 90 % higher than in screen/film systems. (authors)

  9. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  10. A Case Report: Krukenberg Tumour with Nodular Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Demir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krukenberg tumor is a rare variety of metastatic cancer to the ovary. The stomach is the most common site for the primary tumor, followed by the breast, gall bladder, colon and pancreas. It is not always possible to distinguish ovarian metastasis from primary ovarian masses in patients in whom the malignancy center is unidentified. This case report firstly aims to present a patient who presented with common nodular skin lesions, migrating arthritis and severe clinical characteristics, and diagnosed with Krukenberg tumor with further examinations.

  11. Analysis of opto-thermal interaction of porcine stomach tissue with 808-nm laser for endoscopic submucosal dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD, the narrow gastrointestinal space can cause difficulty in surgical interventions. Tissue ablation apparatuses with high-power CO2 lasers or Nd:YAG lasers have been developed to facilitate endoscopic surgical procedures. We studied the interaction of 808-nm laser light with a porcine stomach tissue, with the aim of developing a therapeutic medical device that can remove lesions at the gastrointestinal wall by irradiating a near-infrared laser light incorporated in an endoscopic system. The perforation depths at the porcine fillet and the stomach tissues linearly increased in the range of 2–8 mm in proportion to the laser energy density of 63.7–382 kJ/cm2. Despite the distinct structural and compositional difference, the variation of the perforation depth between the stomach and the fillet was not found at 808-nm wavelength in our measurement. We further studied the laser–tissue interaction by changing the concentration of the methyl blue solution used conventionally as a submucosal fluidic cushion (SFC in ESD procedures. The temperature of the mucosal layer increased more rapidly at higher concentration of the methyl blue solution, because of enhanced light absorption at the SFC layer. The insertion of the SFC would protect the muscle layer from thermal damage. We confirmed that more effective laser treatment should be enabled by tuning the opto-thermal properties of the SFC. This study can contribute to the optimization of the driving parameters for laser incision techniques as an alternative to conventional surgical interventions.

  12. Boerhaave's syndrome in a patient with an upside down stomach: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shin; Hosoya, Yoshinori; Kurashina, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Shiro; Kanamaru, Rihito; Ui, Takashi; Haruta, Hidenori; Kitayama, Joji; Lefor, Alan K; Sata, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal perforation, or Boerhaave's syndrome, is a life-threating condition which usually requires emergent surgery. An upside down stomach is defined as a gastric volvulus in a huge supradiaphragmatic sac. In general, this condition can result in ischemia and perforation of the stomach. This is the first report of a patient with Boerhaave's syndrome and an upside down stomach. A 79-year-old woman presented with sudden epigastric pain following hematemesis. Evaluation of the patient showed both an esophageal perforation and an upside down stomach. Surgical drainage and irrigation of the mediastinum and pleural cavities were undertaken emergently. Due to the concurrent gastric volvulus, a gastrostomy was placed to fix and decompress the stomach. The patient had an uneventful hospital course and was discharged. Boerhaave's syndrome is a rare but severe complication caused by excessive vomiting, due to a sudden elevation in intraluminal esophageal pressure resulting in esophageal perforation. Acute gastric volvulus can result in ischemia and perforation of the stomach, but has not previously been reported with esophageal perforation. The most likely mechanism associating an upside down stomach with Boerhaave's syndrome is acute gastric outlet obstruction resulting in vomiting, and subsequent esophageal perforation. Perforation of the esophagus as well as perforation of the stomach must be considered in patients with an upside down stomach although both upside down stomach and Boerhaave's syndrome are rare clinical entities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Stomach cancer burden in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Monica S; Cueva, Patricia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Stomach cancer mortality rates in Central and South America (CSA) are among the highest in the world. We describe the current burden of stomach cancer in CSA. We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries (13 countries) and nation-wide cancer deaths from WHO's mortality database (18 countries). We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 and estimated annual percent change to describe time trends. Stomach cancer was among the 5 most frequently diagnosed cancers and a leading cause of cancer mortality. Between CSA countries, incidence varied by 6-fold and mortality by 5-6-fold. Males had up to 3-times higher rates than females. From 2003 to 2007, the highest ASRs were in Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Peru (males: 19.2-29.1, females: 9.7-15.1). The highest ASMRs were in Chilean, Costa Rican, Colombian and Guatemalan males (17.4-24.6) and in Guatemalan, Ecuadorian and Peruvian females (10.5-17.1). From 1997 to 2008, incidence declined by 4% per year in Brazil, Chile and Costa Rica; mortality declined by 3-4% in Costa Rica and Chile. 60-96% of all the cancer cases were unspecified in relation to gastric sub-site but, among those specified, non-cardia cancers occurred 2-13-times more frequently than cardia cancers. The variation in rates may reflect differences in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and other risk factors. High mortality may additionally reflect deficiencies in healthcare access. The high proportion of unspecified cases calls for improving cancer registration processes. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Does stomach have mesentery? Learning from gastric cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This study will first confirm the existence of mesogastrium (gastric mesentery) and then examine its architecture and suggest improvements in the surgical methods for excision of gastric cancer.Methods:By employing video laparoscopy, a number of proximal segments of dorsal mesogastrium were found being extensively scattered around the pancreas. In this study, these segments were histologically analyzed and studied.Results:The structure of the mesogastrium was identiifed intraoperatively and then conifrmed both grossly and histologically atfer the operation. Conclusion:This study suggests for the first time a “Table Model” to describe the relationship between the stomach and gastric mesenteries.

  15. Endoscopic removal of a dislocated tomour prothesis from the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckauer, K.; Dinkel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Endoscopic pertubation of oesophagogustric neoplasms is an established method of palliative treatment. The dislocated plastic prosthesis may be removed with difficulties from the stomach endoscopically. A simple technique for endoscopic removal of the prosthesis is described. The tube can be precisely centred within the oesophageal lumen by use of an intestinal decompression tube and additional guidance by the endoscopic retraction forceps. Thus gross damge of the exophytic tumor tissue with bleeding or perforation sequelae can be avoided. Injury to the patient does not exceed that caused by an ordinary gastroscopy. (orig.) [de

  16. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  17. Radiation treatment planning techniques for lymphoma of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Biancia, Cesar; Hunt, Margie; Furhang, Eli; Wu, Elisa; Yahalom, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Involved-field radiation therapy of the stomach is often used in the curative treatment of gastric lymphoma. Yet, the optimal technique to irradiate the stomach with minimal morbidity has not been well established. This study was designed to evaluate treatment planning alternatives for stomach irradiation, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), to determine which approach resulted in improved dose distribution and to identify patient-specific anatomic factors that might influence a treatment planning choice. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with lymphoma of the stomach (14 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) were categorized into 3 types, depending on the geometric relationship between the planning target volume (PTV) and kidneys. AP/PA and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) plans were generated for each patient. IMRT was planned for 4 patients with challenging geometric relationship between the PTV and the kidneys to determine whether it was advantageous to use IMRT. Results: For type I patients (no overlap between PTV and kidneys), there was essentially no benefit from using 3DCRT over AP/PA. However, for patients with PTVs in close proximity to the kidneys (type II) or with high degree of overlap (type III), the 4-field 3DCRT plans were superior, reducing the kidney V 15Gy by approximately 90% for type II and 50% for type III patients. For type III, the use of a 3DCRT plan rather than an AP/PA plan decreased the V 15Gy by approximately 65% for the right kidney and 45% for the left kidney. In the selected cases, IMRT led to a further decrease in left kidney dose as well as in mean liver dose. Conclusions: The geometric relationship between the target and kidneys has a significant impact on the selection of the optimum beam arrangement. Using 4-field 3DCRT markedly decreases the kidney dose. The addition of IMRT led to further incremental improvements in the left kidney and liver

  18. Computer tomography for malignant disease of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, R.; Doehring, W.; Meyer, H.J.; Schmied, W.; Loehlein, D.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1984-01-01

    Forty-four patients with malignant disease of the stomach (41 carcinomas, three non-Hodgkin lymphomas) and two patients with chronic gastric ulcers were examined by computer tomography before undergoing surgery. The ulcers, the non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the carcinomas stages pT2 to pT4 were easily demonstrated, as well as 66% of carcinomas in stage pT1. In addition to the primary tumour, it was possible to recognise lymph node and organ metastases. Two of the 46 patients were not submitted for surgery because of extensive metastases. (orig.) [de

  19. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  20. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  1. Optimization of technique factors for a silicon diode array full-field digital mammography system and comparison to screen-film mammography with matched average glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, Eric A.; Hendrick, R. Edward; Cutter, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    Contrast-detail experiments were performed to optimize technique factors for the detection of low-contrast lesions using a silicon diode array full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system under the conditions of a matched average glandular dose (AGD) for different techniques. Optimization was performed for compressed breast thickness from 2 to 8 cm. FFDM results were compared to screen-film mammography (SFM) at each breast thickness. Four contrast-detail (CD) images were acquired on a SFM unit with optimal techniques at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm breast thicknesses. The AGD for each breast thickness was calculated based on half-value layer (HVL) and entrance exposure measurements on the SFM unit. A computer algorithm was developed and used to determine FFDM beam current (mAs) that matched AGD between FFDM and SFM at each thickness, while varying target, filter, and peak kilovoltage (kVp) across the full range available for the FFDM unit. CD images were then acquired on FFDM for kVp values from 23-35 for a molybdenum-molybdenum (Mo-Mo), 23-40 for a molybdenum-rhodium (Mo-Rh), and 25-49 for a rhodium-rhodium (Rh-Rh) target-filter under the constraint of matching the AGD from screen-film for each breast thickness (2, 4, 6, and 8 cm). CD images were scored independently for SFM and each FFDM technique by six readers. CD scores were analyzed to assess trends as a function of target-filter and kVp and were compared to SFM at each breast thickness. For 2 cm thick breasts, optimal FFDM CD scores occurred at the lowest possible kVp setting for each target-filter, with significant decreases in FFDM CD scores as kVp was increased under the constraint of matched AGD. For 2 cm breasts, optimal FFDM CD scores were not significantly different from SFM CD scores. For 4-8 cm breasts, optimum FFDM CD scores were superior to SFM CD scores. For 4 cm breasts, FFDM CD scores decreased as kVp increased for each target-filter combination. For 6 cm breasts, CD scores decreased slightly as k

  2. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  3. Comportamento da dose glandular versus contraste do objeto em mamografia: determinação de formalismo semi-empírico para diferentes combinações alvo-filtro Behavior of subject contrast versus glandular dose in mammography: determination of a semi-empirical formalism for different target-filter combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hoff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da mudança no contraste do objeto, tempo de exposição e dose de radiação quando diferentes espessuras de filtração de molibdênio (Mo e ródio (Rh são empregadas em mamógrafos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se medidas da exposição na entrada da pele com uma câmara de ionização para diferentes espessuras para os filtros de Mo e Rh. Para determinar a dose glandular média foi utilizado simulador de BR12 (50% tecido adiposo e 50% tecido glandular de diferentes espessuras (4 cm e 8 cm. Energias na faixa de 24 kVp a 34 kVp foram empregadas e filmes Kodak MinR 2000 foram utilizados. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram dados de contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para diferentes espessuras de filtros adicionais e diferentes tensões. Esses dados indicaram aumento nos valores de contraste do objeto e tempo de exposição, com o aumento da espessura dos filtros. A dose glandular apresentou comportamento com diferentes tendências para cada caso analisado. Equações foram definidas para possibilitar a estimativa do contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para os casos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados possibilitaram a estimativa de equações que auxiliam na verificação do comportamento do contraste do objeto e da dose glandular para simuladores com espessura de 4 cm e 8 cm e para os filtros de Rh e Mo. Dessa forma, torna-se possível estimar a figura de mérito (razão entre o contraste do objeto e a dose glandular, podendo auxiliar na análise da relação risco-benefício dos casos estudados.OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to verify the effect of changes in subject contrast, exposure time and radiation dose when different thicknesses of molybdenum (Mo and rhodium (Rh filters are used in mammography equipments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Entrance skin exposure measurements were performed with an ionization chamber for different thicknesses of Mo and Rh filters

  4. On the problem of possibilities of X-ray computer tomography in the diagnosis of endophitic tumors of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.N.; Akberov, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The possibilities of X-ray computer tomography in the diagnosis of endophitic tumors of the stomach including tumors of small size are considered using the examinations of 100 patients with stomach diseases. The computer-tomographic semiotics of small endophitic tumors of the stomach is presented, the place of computer tomography in the diagnosis of tumors of the stomach as well as its potential possibilities in revealing small tumors of the stomach with principally endophitic spreading. 10 refs.; 3 figs

  5. [Effect of vitamin C on the condition of NO-synthase system in experimental stomach ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuroms'kyĭ, V S; Skliarov, O Ia

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Vitamin C (Vit C) on the changes of activity of the enzymes of NO-synthase system, nitric oxide content, lipoperoxidation processes, activity of SOD and catalase in gastric mucosa (GM), and concentrations of L-arginine, Vit C and Vit E in the blood of rats under conditions of experimental ulcer of the stomach caused by adrenaline injection. Vit C displayed a pronounced antioxidant action, reduced the degree of destructive affections, diminished the activity of iNOS and lipoperoxidation processes, decreased the NO content and SOD activity. Furthermore, the concentration of L-arginine and Vit C in the blood was increased. Combined action of Vit C with L-arginine reduced the degree of GM lesions, activity of eNOS and the content of NO in GM whereas the concentration of L-arginine in blood was increased. Under conditions of Vit C action and iNOS and COX-2 blockage, the activity of NO-synthases and lipoperoxidation processes were slightly decreased, indicating on dominant action of Vit C.

  6. Dieulafoy's Lesions of the Rectum: A Rare Cause of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Enns

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dieulafoy's lesions located outside of the stomach are rare occurrences. Lesions found within the colon typically present with painless, massive hematochezia (ie, greater than 5 U. If they can be accurately located, endoscopic therapy in the form of adrenaline injection, sclerotherapy or cauterization appears to have long term success. The present report details the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with massive hematochezia and who was discovered to have a Dieulafoy's lesion within the rectum. The lesion was located just distal to a previous surgical anastomosis, and was successfully treated with adrenaline and electrocautery. Colonic Dieulafoy's lesions are rare but should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of massive hematochezia, because endoscopic therapy appears to result in complete cessation of bleeding.

  7. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  8. Scintigraphic study on the motility of stomach and gallbladder in non-ulceric dyspepsia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Min; Xu Guomin; Xu Denren

    1992-01-01

    Cholecystography with 99m Tc-EHIDA was performed to assess the preprandial empty function of gallbladder and then solid meal labelled with 99m Tc-DTPA was given to assess the postprandial empty function of stomach in 25 patients with NUD. The examinations were repeated in 15 patients with hypomotilitic stomach and gallbladder following administration of Domperidone 20 mg t.i.d for four weeks. The results showed that the empty function of stomach was closely related to the amplitude and frequency of antrum contractile peristaltic waves, all NUD patients who had delayed gastric empty also had hypomotilitic gallbladder. This may be one of the pathophysiologic bases of NUD. The movements of stomach and gallbladder both preprandial and postprandial were synchronous. Domperidone can restore hypomotility of stomach and gallbladder in NUD patients to normal, and the movements of stomach and gallbladder still remained synchronous

  9. Real-time monitoring of ischemia inside stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirbegi, Islam Bogachan; Mir, Mònica; Samitier, Josep

    2013-02-15

    The low pH in the gastric juice of the stomach makes it difficult to fabricate stable and functional all-solid-state pH ISE sensors to sense ischemia, mainly because of anion interference and adhesion problem between the ISE membrane and the electrode surface. In this work, the adhesion of ISE membrane on solid surface at low pH was improved by modifying the surface with a conductive substrate containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. This creates a stable and robust candidate for low pH applications. Moreover, anion interference problem at low pH was solved by integration of all-solid-state ISE and internal reference electrodes on an array. So, the same tendencies of anion interferences for all-solid-state ISE and all-solid-state reference electrodes cancel each other in differential potentiometric detection. The developed sensor presents a novel all-solid-state potentiometric, miniaturized and mass producible pH ISE sensor for detecting ischemia on the stomach tissue on an array designed for endoscopic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiologic Percutaneous Gastrostomy in Nondistended Stomach: A Modified Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrocelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.petrocelli@hsanmartino.it; Salsano, Giancarlo, E-mail: giancarlo.salsano@yahoo.it; Bovio, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.bovio@hsanmartino.it; Camerano, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.camerano@gmail.com; Utili, Alice, E-mail: aliceutili@gmail.com; Ferro, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ferro@hsanmartino.it [IRCCS San Martino University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    IntroductionGastrostomy tube placement for patients requiring long-term nutritional support may be performed using different techniques including endoscopic, surgical, and percutaneous radiologically guided methods. Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG), typically performed when percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is not possible, requires proper gastric distension that is achieved by insufflating air through a nasogastric tube. We describe a simple technique to prevent air escape from the stomach during gastrostomy tube placement. To the best of our knowledge, this technique has not yet been described in the literature.Materials and MethodsFour patients with unsuccessful percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy were referred for fluoroscopic-guided gastrostomy. One patient had a pyriform sinus tumor and three had an ischemic stroke causing dysphagia. Gastric distention was not achieved in the patients due to air escaping into the bowel during the standard RIG procedure. A modified approach using a balloon catheter inflated in the pylorus to avoid air passing into the duodenum permitted successful RIG.ResultsThe modified RIG procedure was successfully carried out in all cases without complications.DiscussionInadequate air distension of the stomach is an unusual event that causes a failure of gastrostomy tube placement and an increased risk of both major and minor complications. The use of a balloon catheter inflated in the first part of the duodenum prevents the air passage into the bowel allowing the correct positioning of the gastrostomy.

  11. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi Khuri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation. These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery.

  12. Metabolism of enkephalin in stomach wall of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnett, N.W.; Walsh, J.H.; Debas, H.T. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Peptidases degrade neuropeptides and thereby limit the duration and extent of their influence. This investigation examined the importance of peptidases in the degradation of the neuropeptide enkephalin in the stomach wall of the rat. Metabolism of (Leu5)- and (D-Ala2)(Leu5)enkephalin by gastric membranes was examined in vitro. Degradation of (Tyr1-3H)(Leu5)enkephalin was studied in the gastric submucosa of anesthetized and conscious rats in vivo by using a catheter to deliver peptide to tissues and implanted dialysis fibers to collect the metabolites. Specific inhibitors were used to assess the contribution of particular enzymes. (Leu5)- and (Tyr1-3H)(Leu5)enkephalin were metabolized by membranes and in the stomach wall by hydrolysis of the Tyr1-Gly2 bond. Degradation was inhibited by the aminopeptidase inhibitor amastatin (10(-5) M in vitro, 10 nmol in vivo). Inhibitors of endopeptidase-24.11 (phosphoramidon) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (captopril) did not inhibit degradation. Metabolism of the aminopeptidase-resistant analogue (D-Ala2)(Leu5)enkephalin by membranes was unaffected by amastatin and weakly inhibited by phosphoramidon affected by amastatin and weakly inhibited by phosphoramidon and captopril. A carboxypeptidase removed the COOH-terminal leucine residue and made a substantial contribution to degradation of both peptides by gastric membranes.

  13. Carcinoma of the stomach in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Shinichi; Ogawa, Yuichiro; Nagasue, Naofumi; Abe, Shunichi; Sasaki, Yukiharu.

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective study of 135 atomic bomb survivors (A-bomb group) and 377 non-atomic bomb survivors (control group) who had carcinoma of the stomach was made with respect to surgical and pathological findings of carcinoma. An average age was significantly older in the A-bomb group (65 years) than in the control group (57 years). The number of female patients was significantly larger in the A-bomb group than in the control group. Although there was no difference of incidence in liver and peritoneal metastases, lymph node metastases along the left gastric artery, common hepatic artery and splenic artery, around the celiac artery, and at the splenic hilus occurred less frequently in the A-bomb group than in the control group. When carcinoma of the stomach was histologically classified as differentiated and undifferentiated, the incidence of differentiated type was higher than that of undifferentiated type in the A-bomb group. Regarding postoperative complications and follow-up results, there was no significant difference between the groups, synchronous or heterochronous multiple cancer occurred more frequently in the A-bomb group than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Evaluation of capsule endoscopy to detect mucosal lesions associated with gastrointestinal bleeding in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davignon, D L; Lee, A C Y; Johnston, A N; Bowman, D D; Simpson, K W

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the utility of capsule endoscopy to detect mucosal abnormalities in dogs with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Capsules were administered to 2 healthy controls and 8 patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Images were evaluated for quality, gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time and presence of lesions. There were no adverse effects of capsule endoscopy in dogs weighing from 7·7 to 58 kg. The capsule traversed the entire gastrointestinal tract in 5 of 8 patients, with high quality images obtained in the stomach and small intestine. Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time ranged from 1 to 270 and 15 to 180 minutes, respectively. In 3 of 8 patients, the capsule remained in the stomach despite pro-kinetics. Gastric lesions included mild haemorrhage and pinpoint erosion (4 of 8), a mass (1) and thickened bleeding pyloric mucosa (2). Two of 3 dogs with capsule retention had gastric lesions. Intestinal lesions included a healing duodenal ulcer, abnormal villi, ileal ulceration and colonic bleeding. Lesions identified by capsule endoscopy were considered a significant source of haemorrhage in 4 of 7 dogs with active bleeding. The relevance of pinpoint gastric mucosal erosions to blood loss is unclear. Capsule endoscopy can enable the non-invasive detection of gastric and small intestinal mucosal lesions in dogs presenting for evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. Platinum derivatives in chemoradiotherapy of patients with cancer of esophagus and stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, B.V.; Chichka, N.A.; Fedina, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation into the testing of a complex platinum compound-platidiam as part of chemoradiotherapy in 101 patients suffering from cancer of esophagus and stomach is conducted. Schemes of combined chemoradio treatment and evaluation of results of treatment of patients suffering from esophagus and stomach cancer are presented. Side effects under the treatment realized are studied. Advisability of platidiam inclusion into the complex programs of chemoradiotherapy of spread form of esophagus and stomach cancer is demonstrated

  16. Methods of Molecular Biology in Predictive Diagnostics of Her/neu in Stomach Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Důra, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Stomach cancer is a malignant neoplastic disease, which is caused by malignant transformation of the gastric mucosal epithelium. Elderly patients are more frequently affected, the majority of the patients are males. Stomach cancer has some typical features like minor symptomatology and early metastasis founding. Nowadays, a mild decrease of incidence is registered. Treatment of stomach cancer depends on its location and stage. Because of its relative chemo- and radioresistance, surgical resec...

  17. Automated Breast Density Computation in Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Influence on Mean Glandular Dose and BIRADS Density Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-García, Maria; Chevalier, Margarita; Garayoa, Julia; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Alejandro; García-Pinto, Diego; Valverde, Julio

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to compare the breast density estimates from two algorithms on full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and to analyze the clinical implications. We selected 561 FFDM and DBT examinations from patients without breast pathologies. Two versions of a commercial software (Quantra 2D and Quantra 3D) calculated the volumetric breast density automatically in FFDM and DBT, respectively. Other parameters such as area breast density and total breast volume were evaluated. We compared the results from both algorithms using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test and the Spearman's rank coefficient for data correlation analysis. Mean glandular dose (MGD) was calculated following the methodology proposed by Dance et al. Measurements with both algorithms are well correlated (r ≥ 0.77). However, there are statistically significant differences between the medians (P density median values from FFDM are, respectively, 8% and 77% higher than DBT estimations. Both algorithms classify 35% and 55% of breasts into BIRADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) b and c categories, respectively. There are no significant differences between the MGD calculated using the breast density from each algorithm. DBT delivers higher MGD than FFDM, with a lower difference (5%) for breasts in the BIRADS d category. MGD is, on average, 6% higher than values obtained with the breast glandularity proposed by Dance et al. Breast density measurements from both algorithms lead to equivalent BIRADS classification and MGD values, hence showing no difference in clinical outcomes. The median MGD values of FFDM and DBT examinations are similar for dense breasts (BIRADS d category). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  19. The Synchronous Prevalence of Colorectal Neoplasms in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Su; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. Methods A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. Results The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher in the stomach cancer group (35.8%) than in the control group (17.9%) (P neoplasms were more prevalent in the patients with stomach cancer (odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71 to 5.63). In particular, the difference in the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was more prominent in the patients above 50 years old (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.80 to 6.98). Conclusion The results showed that the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was higher in patients with stomach cancer than in those without stomach cancer. Therefore, patients with stomach cancer should be regarded as a high-risk group for colorectal neoplasms, and colonoscopy should be recommended for screening. PMID:22102975

  20. Role of X-ray examination methods in the diagnosis of endophytic stomach carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.N.; Akberov, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Results of studying potentialities of radiographic methods in the diagnosis of stomach endophytic neoplasms (130 cases) are presented. All of patients were exposed to complex radiographic-endoscopic studies of stomach. X-ray computerized tomography is used as an additional method. It is shown that the complex approach to the diagnosis of endophytic neoplasms of stomach is necessary. Radiographic method is proposed to be used as an initial examination method. Endoscopic method with multiple biopsy is also used. X-ray computerized tomography is used for certain anatomic stomach section at the final stage [ru

  1. Correlation Between Bile Reflux Gastritis and Biliary Excreted Contrast Media in the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Yeom, Suk Keu; Shim, Euddeum; Cha, Jaehyung; Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach and the presence of bile reflux gastritis. Consecutive 111 patients who underwent both gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (gadoxetic MRC) and gastric endoscopy were included in this study. We performed a review of the gadoxetic-MRC image sets acquired 60 minutes after intravenous injection of contrast media and endoscopic images. We recorded amount of contrast media in the stomach. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of duodenogastric bile reflux diagnosis were evaluated for the gadoxetic MRC. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the linear-by-linear association test. Among the 111 patients, 39 had 60-minute delayed images showing the presence of contrast media in the stomach. Of these 39 patients, 13 had bile reflux gastritis and 5 showed bile in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Of the 72 patients who did not show contrast media in the stomach, none had bile reflux gastritis and 2 patients showed bile staining in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Bile reflux gastritis was significantly more frequent in patients with contrast media in the stomach on gadoxetic MRC than in those without. Patients with high-grade extension of contrast media in the stomach had significantly frequent bile reflux gastritis than did those with low-grade extension. Biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach on 60-minute delayed gadoxetic MRC has a correlation with the presence of bile reflux gastritis on endoscopic examination.

  2. Monte Carlo evaluation of glandular dose in cone-beam X-ray computed tomography dedicated to the breast: Homogeneous and heterogeneous breast models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Tucciariello, Raffaele M; Bliznakova, Kristina; Boone, John M; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Di Lillo, Francesca; Russo, Paolo

    2018-06-07

    In cone-beam computed tomography dedicated to the breast (BCT), the mean glandular dose (MGD) is the dose metric of reference, evaluated from the measured air kerma by means of normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN CT ). This work aimed at computing, for a simple breast model, a set of DgN CT values for monoenergetic and polyenergetic X-ray beams, and at validating the results vs. those for patient specific digital phantoms from BCT scans. We developed a Monte Carlo code for calculation of monoenergetic DgN CT coefficients (energy range 4.25-82.25 keV). The pendant breast was modelled as a cylinder of a homogeneous mixture of adipose and glandular tissue with glandular fractions by mass of 0.1%, 14.3%, 25%, 50% or 100%, enveloped by a 1.45 mm-thick skin layer. The breast diameter ranged between 8 cm and 18 cm. Then, polyenergetic DgN CT coefficients were analytically derived for 49-kVp W-anode spectra (half value layer 1.25-1.50 mm Al), as in a commercial BCT scanner. We compared the homogeneous models to 20 digital phantoms produced from classified 3D breast images. Polyenergetic DgN CT resulted 13% lower than most recent published data. The comparison vs. patient specific breast phantoms showed that the homogeneous cylindrical model leads to a DgN CT percentage difference between -15% and +27%, with an average overestimation of 8%. A dataset of monoenergetic and polyenergetic DgN CT coefficients for BCT was provided. Patient specific breast models showed a different volume distribution of glandular dose and determined a DgN CT 8% lower, on average, than homogeneous breast model. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  4. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  5. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  6. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  7. Benign fibroosseous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Köseoğlu Seçgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibroosseous lesions represent a group of lesions that share the same basic evolutive mechanism and are characterized by replacement of normal bone with a fibrous connective tissue that gradually undergoes mineralization. These lesions are presented by a variety of diseases including developmental, reactive-dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Depending on the nature and amount of calcified tissue, they can be observed as radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque. Their radiographic features could be well-defined or indistinguishable from the surrounding bone tissue. They can be asymptomatic as in osseous dysplasias and can be detected incidentally on radiographs, or they can lead to expansion in the affected bone as in ossifying fibroma. All fibroosseous lesions seen in the jaws and face are variations of the same histological pattern. Therefore, detailed clinical and radiographic evaluation in differential diagnosis is important. In this review, fibroosseous benign lesions are classified as osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and fibroosseous tumors; and radiographic features and differential diagnosis of these lesions are reviewed taking into account this classification.

  8. [Inflammatory pancreatic disease due to enzyme autodigestion: an exceptional model of glandular crinophagy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fayos Calabuig, P; Martín Relloso, M Jesús; González Guirado, Agustina; Porres Cubero, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The exocrine pancreas is a functionally dangerous structure since it is exposed to digestion by its most aggressive enzymes (proteases, etc) despite self-protective measures such as the synthesis of some of these enzymes in the form of inactive zymogens (trypsinogen, etc.). We review inflammatory pancreatic disease by separately analyzing its classical forms of onset: acute and chronic pancreatitis (AP and CP). There is general consensus that the initial pathogenic event in AP is intraacinar activation of trypsinogen into trypsin, followed by that of the remaining proenzymes, giving rise to an unusual model of autophagic inflammation. In contrast, consensus is lacking on the initial pathogenic event in CP (toxic-metabolic lesion, oxidative stress, ductal hypertension, etc.?), although in some cases a sequence due to recurrent episodes of AP seems evident. The pathogenic features shared by both forms of the disease and which justify some recent attempts to formulate an overall explanation of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis are discussed. Such an explanation would place both forms of pancreatitis within the conceptual framework of an pancreatic disease due to enzyme autodigestion>.

  9. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using 3 H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined

  10. Having the stomach for it: a contribution to Neanderthal diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Laura T.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2014-07-01

    Due to the central position of diet in determining ecology and behaviour, much research has been devoted to uncovering Neanderthal subsistence strategies. This has included indirect studies inferring diet from habitat reconstruction, ethnographic analogy, or faunal assemblages, and direct methods, such as dental wear and isotope analyses. Recently, studies of dental calculus have provided another rich source of dietary evidence, with much potential. One of the most interesting results to come out of calculus analyses so far is the suggestion that Neanderthals may have been eating non-nutritionally valuable plants for medicinal reasons. Here we offer an alternative hypothesis for the occurrence of non-food plants in Neanderthal calculus based on the modern human ethnographic literature: the consumption of herbivore stomach contents.

  11. Fluorescence spectral properties of stomach tissues with pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lahina, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    Steady-state fluorescence and diffuse reflection spectra are measured for in vivo normal and pathological (chronic atrophic and ulcerating defects, malignant neoplasms) stomach mucous lining tissues. The degree of distortion of the fluorescence spectra is estimated taking light scattering and absorption into account. A combination of Gauss and Lorentz functions is used to decompose the fluorescence spectra. Potential groups of fluorophores are determined and indices are introduced to characterize the dynamics of their contributions to the resultant spectra as pathologies develop. Reabsorption is found to quench the fluorescence of structural proteins by as much as a factor of 3, while scattering of the light can increase the fluorescence intensity of flavin and prophyrin groups by as much as a factor of 2.

  12. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) dynamics in stomach cancer patients receiving cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, D.V.; Krupka, I.N.; V'yunitskaya, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunologic assays of blood serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level were conducted at major stages of treatment of gastric cancer by subtotal stomach resection and gastrectomy with preliminary cryotreatment and thawing of tumor. A short-term rise in CEA level occurred in 53.9 % of cases 3-4 days after combined therapy. A decrease in CEA concentration at discharge from hospital as compared with preoperative level and that registered 3-4 days after operation was observed in 50 and 75 % of cases of combined therapy, respectively, and 47.5 and 37.5 % of controls (surgery without cryotreatment). There was nocorrelation between cryotreatment and changes in CEA level in gastric ulcer patients

  13. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2015-01-01

    Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.

  14. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arrieta

    Full Text Available Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.

  15. Metaplasia in the Stomach-Precursor of Gastric Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroto; Hayakawa, Yoku; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-09-27

    Despite a significant decrease in the incidence of gastric cancer in Western countries over the past century, gastric cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most human gastric cancers develop after long-term Helicobacter pylori infection via the Correa pathway: the progression is from gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, to cancer. However, it remains unclear whether metaplasia is a direct precursor of gastric cancer or merely a marker of high cancer risk. Here, we review human studies on the relationship between metaplasia and cancer in the stomach, data from mouse models of metaplasia regarding the mechanism of metaplasia development, and the cellular responses induced by H. pylori infection.

  16. Symptomatic Primary (AL Amyloidosis of the Stomach and Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidar Fossmark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary (AL amyloidosis of the gastrointestinal tract is relatively rare, and symptomatic amyloidosis of the stomach is even more seldom. We present the case of a patient who was referred to upper endoscopy because of weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Large areas of intramucosal hemorrhages were seen, and biopsies resulted in profuse bleeding stopped with endoscopic clips. The biopsies showed amyloid depositions and further workup revealed that the patient also had cardiac and neuropathic involvements. The patient started treatment with dexamethasone, melphalan and bortezomib. After treatment was started the nausea and epigastric discomfort improved, and a reduction in the biochemical markers troponin T, NT-proBNP, and M-component was observed. Gastric amyloidosis is rarely seen at upper endoscopy in patients without a previously established diagnosis, but the unusual endoscopic findings and bleeding tendency after biopsy should be kept in mind by gastroenterologists.

  17. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia L. Senin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that gastric surgery is at the moment the most effective treatment to fight against obesity highlights the relevance of gastric derived proteins as potential targets to treat this pathology. Taking advantage of a previously established gastric explant model for endocrine studies, the proteomic analysis of gastric secretome was performed. To validate this gastric explant system for proteomic analysis, the identification of ghrelin, a classical gastric derived peptide, was performed by MS. In addition, the differential analysis of gastric secretomes under differential nutritional status (control feeding vs fasting vs re-feeding was performed. The MS identified proteins are showed in the present manuscript. The data supplied in this article is related to the research article entitled “Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status” [1].

  18. Stomach cancer screening in the adult health study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamakido, Michio; Otake, Masanori; Belsky, J.L.; Pastore, J.O.

    1978-04-01

    Examinations for parietal cell antibody (PCA) were performed on 1334 subjects of the Adult Health Study (AHS), Hiroshima, during a 1-year period. Findings revealed PCA in 112 subjects (8.4%), but no difference in frequency was noted by sex. The relationship of PCA to age showed the positive rate to be significantly higher in those age 50 or over than in those under 50. No correlation was noted between estimated A-bomb exposure dose and PCA frequency. PCA was found in 58 (11.6%) of the 502 cases presenting achlorhydria on tubeless gastric analysis, and particularly in the age 50 and over group, PCA was demonstrated in 43 (14.2%) of the 302 subjects presenting achlorhydria, which is a significant difference compared with the under 50 age group in which PCA was demonstrated in 15 (7.5%) of 200 such subjects. PCA was detected in 11 (7.2%) of 152 subjects with abnormal, or low, serum pepsinogen levels and in 20 (16.3%) of 123 subjects with high levels. The frequency of positive PCA was higher in patients diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal (GI) series as atrophic gastritis than in patients diagnosed as some other gastric disorder. PCA was negative in both of the two cases in whom a definite diagnosis of stomach cancer was established. However, in light of the finding of abnormal Diagnex Blue (DB) tests and positive PCA at a high frequency in the gastritis group and reports that gastritis provides the groundwork for stomach cancer, it is considered that care should be taken in cases with findings of abnormal DB test, abnormal serum pepsinogen levels, and positive PCA. (author)

  19. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems; Dose glandular e controle de qualidade da imagem em servicos de mamografia com sistema de radiografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  20. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  1. CT findings of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2008-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma is a rare tumor of the stomach with an incidence ranging from 0.04% to 0.4% of all diagnosed gastric cancers. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma in the stomach associated with hypertrophic gastropathy and observed as a huge mass and wall thickening on the greater curvature site by a multidetector CT

  2. A prospective cohort study on vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at the start in September 1986. Analyses were based on 282 incident stomach cancer cases after 6.3 years of follow-up. Age-

  3. The Pathological Changes of Stomach in Experimental Rats following Single Irradiation of Supervoltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myung Sun; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1984-01-01

    The pathological changes of stomach of the rat following 1,000 rad and 1,800 rad single exposure by Cobalt-60 has been made with 50 experimental rats. The dose of 1,000 rad and 6,000 rad in 6 weeks. Following single exposure, the groups of rat were terminated in 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks intervals and the stomach were fixed to formalin solution immediately after dissection. The pathological changes were as follows: 1. Following 1,000 rad single exposure, the stomach show only mild to moderate submucosal edema in 4, 8, 12 weeks group. 1 and 2 weeks group show no changes. 2. Following 1,800 rad single exposure, 32%(8/25) of rats were dead by radiation effect and all other groups of stomach revealed variable pathological changes such as submucosal edema, squamous dysplasia, squamous papilloma as well as squamous cell carcinoma. 3. Optimal tolerance dose to the stomach was 4,500-5,000 rad when irradiation given by supervoltage. The entire stomach was included within the irradiation field, the dose to the stomach should not exceed 6,000 rad. 4. In conclusion, the radiation injury to the stomach were more direct radiation effects to the gastric mucosa rather than secondary changes of radiation injured vessels

  4. Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 modulates urea hydrolysis in the murine stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Charlotte M; Loach, Diane; Lawley, Blair; Bell, Tracey; Sims, Ian M; O'Toole, Paul W; Zomer, Aldert; Tannock, Gerald W

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of in vivo (mouse stomach) and in vitro (laboratory culture) transcriptomes of Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 were made by microarray analysis. These comparisons revealed the upregulation of genes associated with acid tolerance, including urease production, in the mouse stomach.

  5. Increase of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation associated with cascade stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Akiyo; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Osamu; Akiyama, Junichi; Yamada, Masanobu; Akuzawa, Masako

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that cascade stomach was associated with reflux symptoms and esophagitis. Delayed gastric emptying has been believed to initiate transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR). We hypothesized that cascade stomach may be associated with frequent TLESR with delayed gastric emptying. Eleven subjects with cascade stomach and 11 subjects without cascade stomach were enrolled. Postprandial gastroesophageal manometry and gastric emptying using a continuous 13C breath system were measured simultaneously after a liquid test meal. TLESR events were counted in early period (0–60 min), late period (60–120 min), and total monitoring period. Three parameters of gastric emptying were calculated: the half emptying time, lag time, and gastric emptying coefficient. The median frequency of TLESR events in the cascade stomach and non-cascade stomach groups was 6.0 (median), 4.6 (interquartile range) vs 5.0, 3.0 in the early period, 5.0, 3.2 vs 3.0, 1.8 in the late period, and 10.0, 6.2 vs 8.0, 5.0 in the total monitoring period. TLESR events were significantly more frequent in the cascade stomach group during the late and total monitoring periods. In contrast, gastric emptying parameters showed no significant differences between the two groups. We concluded that TLESR events were significantly more frequent in persons with cascade stomach without delayed gastric emptying. PMID:28584403

  6. Proangiogenic Tie2+ Macrophages Infiltrate Human and Murine Endometriotic Lesions and Dictate Their Growth in a Mouse Model of the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Annalisa; Monno, Antonella; Cottone, Lucia; Venneri, Mary Anna; Biziato, Daniela; Di Puppo, Francesca; Ferrari, Stefano; De Palma, Michele; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis affects women of reproductive age, causing infertility and pain. Although immune cells are recruited in endometriotic lesions, their role is unclear. Tie2-expressing macrophages (TEMs) have nonredundant functions in promoting angiogenesis and growth of experimental tumors. Here we show that human TEMs infiltrate areas surrounding newly formed endometriotic blood vessels. We set up an ad hoc mouse model in which TEMs, and not Tie2-expressing endothelial cells, are targeted. We transplanted in wild-type recipients bone marrow cells expressing a suicide gene (Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase) under the Tie2 promoter/enhancer. TEMs infiltrated endometriotic lesions. TEM depletion by ganciclovir administration arrested the growth of established lesions, without toxicity. Lesion architecture was disrupted, with: i) loss of glandular organization, ii) reduced neovascularization, and iii) activation of caspase 3 in CD31+ endothelial cells. Thus, TEMs are important for maintaining the viability of newly formed vessels and represent a potential therapeutic target in endometriosis. PMID:21924227

  7. State of motor function of stomach in patients with cervix uteri carcinoma in combined radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidovtseva, M.I.; Shutilova, A.A.; Dynnik, M.S.; Lugovskaya, K.A.; Duma, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Data on studying stomach motor function in patients with carvix uteri carcinoma of 2 and 3 stages in combined radiotherapy are given. The patients were examined before radiotherapy and directly after it as well as in 1-2 years using the X-ray method for 50 patients and electrogastrography for 68 patients. Revealed changes in stomach motor function, being considered as a response to irradiation, were manifested more often in decreasing motility, evacuatory function and bioelectric stomach activity. These functional changes result in disturbance of general state of patients, appearance of symptomatology of stomach dysfunction and serve as indications for the prescription of correcting therapy, which includes diet and preparations strengthening stomach motor activity

  8. Evaluation of stomach tubes and gastric lavage for sampling diets from blue catfish and flathead catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, D.S.; Kwak, T.J.; Arnott, J.B.; Pine, William E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the ability to extract all stomach contents by using stomach tubes or gastric lavage to sample diets from blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus and flathead catfish Pylodictus olivarus. Pulsed gastric lavage (PGL) removed a significantly greater proportion of stomach content mass (95.6%) from blue catfish than did stomach tubes (14.6%). Percent mass of flathead catfish contents removed with PGL (96.0%) was not significantly different from that removed with stomach tubes (86.9%). Based on the greater effectiveness of PGL for blue catfish, combined with a shorter mean time required per sample (69 versus 118 s) and the better preservation of extracted diet material, we recommend using PGL as a nonlethal technique to collect diet samples from large catfishes.

  9. Pharmacological properties of traditional medicine (XXXII): protective effects of hangeshashinto and the combinations of its major constituents on gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Keiko; Fujimura, Yu; Makino, Toshiaki; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2006-09-01

    The protective effect of Hangeshashinto (HST) and its major constituents, baicalin (BA), berberine (BE), saponin fraction of ginseng (GS) and glycyrrhizin (GL) on rat gastric lesion induced by ethanol was examined to clarify its active ingredients and action mechanism. Oral treatment with HST at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg suppressed ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The mixture of BA, BE, GL and GS (4M), each of BE, GL and GS at the dosage corresponded to HST (125 mg/kg) also suppressed the ethanol-induced gastric lesion in rats, but BA did not. Treatment of ethanol augmented the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the stomach, which was significantly suppressed by the administration of HST, BE, GL and GS. These results suggest that the protective effect of HST on ethanol-induced gastric lesion was depended on BE, GL and GS, by, in part, the reduction of MPO activity in stomach.

  10. Intragastric laparoscopic surgery: An option for gastric lesions not resectable by endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Vázquez, Alba; Hernández Matías, Alberto; Bertomeu García, Agustín; Ruiz de Adana Belbel, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Gastric mucosal and submucosal lesions can be resected by endoscopy, laparoscopy or open surgery. Operative methods have varied depending on the location, endophytic growth and size of the lesion. Interest in minimally invasive surgery has increased and many surgeons are attempting laparoscopic approaches, especially in lesions of the stomach near the esophagogastric junction not amendable to endoscopic removal, because conventional surgery can produce stenosis and distort the postoperative anatomy, and increase morbimortality. We report our experience with laparoscopic intragastric surgery in 3 consecutive patients, with no complications. Laparoscopic intragastric surgery extends the surgeons' armamentarium to resect complex gastric lesions, while offering patients the benefits of minimal access surgery. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros que determinan la dosis glandular media en Mamografia utilizando diferentes detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: katicostabh@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  12. Dynamics of COX-2 Content in Mucosa of the Stomach and Duodenum on the Background of Medical Correction of NSAID Gastropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of immune histochemical study of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2 level in 120 patients with inflammatory and erosive lesions of the stomach and duodenum on the background of long-term use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs before and after treatment of damages of gastroduodenal zone are presented. Average level of COX-2 in patients with gastroduodenal lesions, caused by NSAIDs, decreased by 1.5 times and made up (2.02 ± 0.11 c.u. before treatment and (1.27 ± 0.09 c.u after treatment by the regimen № 1; it decreased by 2 times and made up (2.00 ± 0.16 c.u and (0.95 ± 0.09 c.u. relatively before and after the treatment by regimen № 2. Findings indicate the decrease of protective properties of the stomach and duodenum mucosa in case of a long-term use of NSAIDs.

  13. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach with Narrow Stalk-Like Based, Uneven Protruding Appearance Presenting with Severe Acute Anemia despite Small Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who had a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST of the stomach. She was admitted to our hospital for epigastric pain, nausea, and severe acute anemia (hemoglobin level 4.3 g/dl. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a narrow stalk-like based, hemorrhagic and uneven protruding lesion in the lesser curvature of the gastric upper corpus. Although the tumor was less than 2 cm in diameter and was probably a benign GIST according to histology, laparoscopy-assisted local resection was needed because the patient had continuous severe anemia and epigastric pain. Histological assessment showed that the elongated spindle-like tumor cells originated from the intrinsic muscle layer, and was shown with growth to the mucosal side, cropping out to the surface in most areas of the protruding lesion. Only a small part of the tumor was within nontumoral gastric mucosa. Most of the tumor cells demonstrated immunoreactivity for KIT and CD34 in the cytoplasm but not for αSMA, S100, and desmin. Mitotic activity (0/50 high power field and the labeling index for MIB-1 (about 1% were low. The GIST of the stomach described in this report was a rare case with a narrow stalk-like based, uneven protruding mass presenting with severe acute anemia despite small size.

  14. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Extent of lymph node dissection for adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; McCulloch, Peter; Kazi, Hussain; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquin J; Yuan, Yuhong; Nitti, Donato

    2015-08-12

    The impact of lymphadenectomy extent on the survival of patients with primary resectable gastric carcinoma is debated. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence on the impact of the three main types of progressively more extended lymph node dissection (that is, D1, D2 and D3 lymphadenectomy) on the clinical outcome of patients with primary resectable carcinoma of the stomach. The primary objective was to assess the impact of lymphadenectomy extent on survival (overall survival [OS], disease specific survival [DSS] and disease free survival [DFS]). The secondary aim was to assess the impact of lymphadenectomy on post-operative mortality. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE until 2001, including references from relevant articles and conference proceedings. We also contacted known researchers in the field. For the updated review, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2001 to February 2015. We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the three main types of lymph node dissection (i.e., D1, D2 and D3 lymphadenectomy) in patients with primary non-metastatic resectable carcinoma of the stomach. Two authors independently extracted data from the included studies. Hazard ratios (HR) and relative risks (RR) along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to measure differences in survival and mortality rates between trial arms, respectively. Potential sources of between-study heterogeneity were investigated by means of subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The same two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies according to the standards of the Cochrane Collaboration and the quality of the overall evidence based on the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria. Eight RCTs (enrolling 2515 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Three RCTs (all performed in Asian countries) compared D3 with D2 lymphadenectomy: data suggested no significant difference in OS

  16. Stem cells and cancer of the stomach and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vries, Robert G J; Huch, Meritxell; Clevers, Hans

    2010-10-01

    Cancer in the 21st century has become the number one cause of death in developed countries. Although much progress has been made in improving patient survival, tumour relapse is one of the important causes of cancer treatment failure. An early observation in the study of cancer was the heterogeneity of tumours. Traditionally, this was explained by a combination of genomic instability of tumours and micro environmental factors leading to diverse phenotypical characteristics. It was assumed that cells in a tumour have an equal capacity to propagate the cancer. This model is currently known as the stochastic model. Recently, the Cancer stem cell model has been proposed to explain the heterogeneity of a tumour and its progression. According to this model, the heterogeneity of tumours is the result of aberrant differentiation of tumour cells into the cells of the tissue the tumour originated from. Tumours were suggested to contain stem cell-like cells, the cancer stem cells or tumour-initiating cells, which are uniquely capable of propagating a tumour much like normal stem cells fuel proliferation and differentiation in normal tissue. In this review we discuss the normal stem cell biology of the stomach and intestine followed by both the stochastic and cancer stem cell models in light of recent findings in the gastric and intestinal systems. The molecular pathways underlying normal and tumourigenic growth have been well studied, and recently the stem cells of the stomach and intestine have been identified. Furthermore, intestinal stem cells were identified as the cells-of-origin of colon cancer upon loss of the tumour suppressor APC. Lastly, several studies have proposed the positive identification of a cancer stem cell of human colon cancer. At the end we compare the cancer stem cell model and the stochastic model. We conclude that clonal evolution of tumour cells resulting from genetic mutations underlies tumour initiation and progression in both cancer models. This

  17. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Schauvinhold, Ines; Larson, Matthew; Xu, Richard; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Schmidt, Adam; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-06-30

    We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce beta-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes.

  18. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  19. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome-based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome (GT) was carried out. In addition to the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPSs) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (three from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival lesions are frequently seen in the eye clinic, because the conjunctiva is readily ... anti-histamine drops and mast cell stabilisers can be used. e more severe cases have to be .... Ehlers J, Shah C . The Wills Eye Manual. Office and.

  2. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  3. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  4. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeerae Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries

  5. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  6. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined w...

  7. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Fan

    Full Text Available The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  8. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  9. Maxillomandibular giant osteosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino LEDESMA-MONTES

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs are a group of rarely reported intraosseous lesions. Their precise diagnosis is important since they can be confused with malignant neoplasms. Objective This retrospective study aimed to record and analyze the clinical and radiographic Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs detected in the maxillomandibular area of patients attending to our institution. Materials and Methods: Informed consent from the patients was obtained and those cases of 2.5 cm or larger lesions with radiopaque or mixed (radiolucid-radiopaque appearance located in the maxillofacial bones were selected. Assessed parameters were: age, gender, radiographic aspect, shape, borders, size, location and relations to roots. Lesions were classified as radicular, apical, interradicular, interradicular-apical, radicular-apical or located in a previous teeth extraction area. Additionally, several osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs were assessed. Results Seventeen radiopacities in 14 patients were found and were located almost exclusively in mandible and were two types: idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis. GOLs were more frequent in females, and in the anterior and premolar zones. 94.2% of GOLs were qualified as idiopathic osteosclerosis and one case was condensing osteitis. All studied cases showed different osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs. The most common were: Microdontia, hypodontia, pulp stones, macrodontia and variations in the mental foramina. Conclusions GOLs must be differentiated from other radiopaque benign and malignant tumors. Condensing osteitis, was considered an anomalous osseous response induced by a chronic low-grade inflammatory stimulus. For development of idiopathic osteosclerosis, two possible mechanisms could be related. The first is modification of the normal turnover with excessive osseous deposition. The second mechanism will prevent the normal bone resorption, arresting the

  10. In-plane visibility of lesions using breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timberg, P.; Baath, M.; Andersson, I.; Mattsson, S.; Tingberg, A.; Ruschin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the visibility of simulated lesions in 2D digital mammography (DM) and breast tomosynthesis (BT) images of patients. Methods: Images of the same women were acquired on both a DM system (Mammomat Novation, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and a BT prototype system adapted from the same type of DM system. Using the geometrical properties of the two systems, simulated lesions were projected and added to each DM image as well as to each BT projection image prior to 3D reconstruction. The same beam quality and approximately the same total absorbed dose to the glandular tissue were used for each breast image acquisition on the two systems. A series of four-alternative forced choice human observer experiments was conducted for each of five simulated lesion diameters: 0.2, 1, 3, 8, and 25 mm. An additional experiment was conducted for the 0.2 mm lesion in BT only at twice the dose level (BT 2x ). Threshold signal was defined as the lesion signal intensity required for a detectability index (d ' ) of 2.5. Four medical physicists participated in all experiments. One experiment, consisting of 60 cases, was conducted per test condition (i.e., lesion size and signal combination). Results: For the smallest lesions (0.2 mm), the threshold signal for DM was 21% lower than for BT at equivalent dose levels, and BT 2x was 26% lower than DM. For the lesions larger than 1 mm, the threshold signal increased linearly (in log space) with the lesion diameter for both DM and BT, with DM requiring around twice the signal as BT. The difference in the threshold signal between BT and DM at each lesion size was statistically significant, except for the 0.2 mm lesion between BT 2x and DM. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that low-signal lesions larger than 1.0 mm may be more visible in BT compared to DM, whereas 0.2 mm lesions may be better visualized with DM compared to BT, when compared at equal dose.

  11. Postnatal development of the myenteric plexus in cat stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolova, I; Itsev, D

    1983-01-01

    The postnatal development of the myenteric plexus in cat stomach has been studied at birth, on the 14th, 30th, 45th and 180th postnatal days, using light- and electronmicroscopic methods. In newborn kittens the main network of the Auerbach plexus is well formed, but the myenteric ganglia are composed of nerve cells with different maturity and a scarce neuropile. During the first two postnatal weeks the dimensions of the ganglia increase owing to the increase of the nerve bodies and the rising number of glials cells and intercellular fibres. This is accompanied by a potentiation of the AChE-activity, mainly in the nerve cell bodies and to a lesser extent in the neuropile. Impregnation reveals different in calibre and form nerve fibres and terminals. Different ultrastructural types of neurones are identified on the 14th day. Later development is expressed in the formation of large compact ganglia and thick connecting strands. The number of AChE-positive fibres in the neuropile increases. Owing to the increase in the cell organelles and their more advanced maturity, it is possible to define the ultrastructural type of an ever increasing number of neurones.

  12. The sensitivity of radiography of the postoperative stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.J.; Munitz, H.A.; Gelfand, D.W.; Lane, T.G.; Wu, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The results of radiology and endoscopy were compared in 140 patients who had undergone gastric surgery for ulcer disease. Of 74 patients who were examined with single-contrast radiography, 37 had abnormalities that were demonstrated endoscopically. The radiographic sensitivities in these patients were: gastritis 2/22 (9%); ulcer 3/5 (60%); obstruction 8/8 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 2/2 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnois of ulcer was 38%. Of the 66 patients who were examined with double-contrast radiography, 33 abnormalities were found with endoscopy. The radiographic sensitivities were: gastritis 3/13 (23%); ulcer 7/10 (70%); obstruction 4/4 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 6/6 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnosis of ulcer was 44%. Radiology appears to be unreliable in diagnosing gastritis and recurrent ulceration in the post-operation stomach. The double-contrast technique does not offer significant improvement over the single-contrast method in evaluating these postoperative problems

  13. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  14. Estimation of population doses from stomach mass screening, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Kato, Y; Maruyama, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kamata, R; Urahashi, S

    1977-06-01

    The population dose from mass photofluorography of stomach have been estimated on the basis of nation wide radiological survey. The number of photofluorographic examinations was 2.38 million for male and 1.74 million for female, with a total of 4.12 million. The gonad doses were determined with an ionization chamber, using a tissue equivalent phantom. The gonad dose for male was 10.4 mrad per examination and for female was 150 mrad per examination. The active bone marrow doses at 32 points of bone marrow in the whole body were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeter. The mean marrow dose per photofluorographic examination was 450 mrad for male and 390 mrad for female. The child expectancy factor and the leukemia significant factor were calculated based on the Vital Statistics 1975. The genetically significant dose (GSD) and per caput mean marrow dose (CMD) were calculated by the formulae presented from the United Nations Scientific Comittee of Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The resultant GSD was 0.15 mrad per person per year. The CMD was 16.5 mrad per person per year. The leukemia significant dose (LSD) was determined by adopting a weight factor, that is leukemia significant factor. The resultant LSD was 14.5 mrad per person per year. These population doses were compared with those from diagnostic medical x-ray examinations in 1974.

  15. Leiomyosarcoma of the stomach treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takao; Akahoshi, Kazuya; Tomoeda, Naru; Kinoshita, Norikatsu; Kubokawa, Masaru; Yodoe, Kentaro; Hiraki, Yuka; Oya, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Ihara, Eikichi

    2018-03-02

    There have been no reports of primary leiomyosarcoma of the stomach treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We report an extremely rare case of gastric leiomyosarcoma that was successfully treated by ESD. An asymptomatic 74-year-old female underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for screening in December 2013. A centrally depressed submucosal tumor 10 mm in diameter was detected at the posterior wall of the upper gastric body. Follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy conducted 5 months later showed that the tumor diameter had increased to 15 mm. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic mass located in the second to the middle of the third layer. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration demonstrated a myogenic tumor. The tumor was completely resected by ESD without complications. Immunohistopathological diagnosis of the resected specimen was gastric leiomyosarcoma derived from the muscularis mucosae, with negative lateral and vertical margins. No local recurrence or metastasis has been detected at 36 months after ESD. This is the first report of gastric leiomyosarcoma treated by ESD in the English language literature.

  16. [Watermelon stomach: Chronic renal failure and/or imatinib?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnac, Richard; Blaison, Dominique; Brahimi, Saïd; Schendel, Adeline; Levasseur, Thomas; Takin, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    Watermelon stomach or gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome is an uncommon cause of sometimes severe upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Essentially based on a pathognomonic endoscopic appearance, its diagnosis may be unrecognised because mistaken with portal hypertensive gastropathy, while treatment of these two entities is different. Its etiopathogeny remains still unclear, even if it is frequently associated with different systemic illnesses as hepatic cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders and chronic renal failure. The mechanism inducing these vascular ectasia may be linked with mechanical stress on submucosal vessels due to antropyloric peristaltic motility dysfunction modulated by neurohormonal vasoactive alterations. Because medical therapies are not very satisfactory, among the endoscopic modalities, argon plasma coagulation seems to be actually the first-line treatment because the most effective and safe. However, surgical antrectomy may be sometimes necessary. Recently GAVE syndrome appeared as a new adverse reaction of imatinib mesylate, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia, and we report here the observation of such a pathology in one patient treated at the same time by haemodialysis and by imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A., E-mail: kleinerr@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Holowaty, Eric [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Per [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Pukkala, Eero [Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki (Finland); Vaalavirta, Leila [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaijser, Magnus [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Michael [Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Storm, Hans [Cancer Prevention and Documentation, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  18. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric; Hall, Per; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita; Gilbert, Ethel; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Kaijser, Magnus; Andersson, Michael; Storm, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lynch, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P trend =.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P trend =.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P trend =.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

  19. Entomology contribution in animal immunity: Determination of the crude thoraxial glandular protein extract of Stomoxys calcitrans as an antibody production enhancer in young horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rumokoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the level of antigens protein contained in the crude thoraxial glandular protein (TGP extract of Stomoxys calcitrans which function as immunity enhancer in young horses. The detection of protein content of the thoraxial glandular samples was performed by using a spectrophotometer Nano Drop-1000. This result showed that the lowest level of antigen protein was 0.54 mg/mL, the highest was 72 mg/mL, and the average was 0.675 mg/mL. Six foals were used and divided into two groups. The first group was treated with a solution of 100 μg of TGP by subcutaneous injection, the other group acted as control. The TGP extract was injected on the first day of the experiment. Three ml of blood were sampled from the jugular vein on the 14th day after TGP injection. The blood sampled was centrifuged and its serum placed in micro-tubes to observe the IgG level. The injection of TGP had a significant effect on the IgG level of the experiment animals (P<0.05. This experiment emphasized an important relation between entomology and animal husbandry; health improvement in the young animals was observed after the injection of the insect antigen, so it can be concluded that crude thoraxial glandular proteins of S. calcitrans can be used to improve the immunoglobulin-G circulation in foals.

  20. Guideline for determining the mean glandular dose according to DIN 6868-162 and threshold contrast visibility according to the quality assurance guideline for digital mammography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, A; Schopphoven, S; Land, I; Blaser, D; Sobczak, T

    2014-05-01

    As part of the physico-technical quality assurance of the German breast cancer screening program, the threshold contrast visibility and the average glandular dose of every digital mammography system have to fulfill the requirements of the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" (4th Edition). To accomplish uniform measurements in all federal states of Germany, the physical board of the reference centers developed a special guideline in 2009. Due to recent changes in the guidelines and standards, a second version of the guideline was developed by the reference centers. This guideline describes the determination of the average glandular dose as well as the CDMAM image acquisition and the CDMAM image evaluation. The determination of the threshold contrast visibility can be performed visually or automatically. The determination of the average glandular dose is based on DIN 6868 - 162 and the threshold contrast visibility test is based on the German "Quality Assurance Guideline". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.