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Sample records for glandular chemical defence

  1. Chemical defences against herbivores

    Pavia, Henrik; Baumgartner, Finn; Cervin, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the recent and emerging research involving chemical defences against herbivory in aquatic primary producers. It provides an overview of plant chemical defence theories and highlights recent research on aquatic primary producers addressing a number of aspects...... of these theories, concluding with new chemical approaches to tackle the questions and suggestions for future research directions. It explains that aquatic primary producers are a taxonomically and functionally diverse group of organisms that includes macroalgae, microalgae, and vascular plants. It also states...... that despite the fact that aquatic primary producers constitute a large and diverse group of organisms that vary in their evolutionary histories, selection for chemical defences to resist or reduce grazing are commonplace across the phylogenetic boundaries....

  2. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    on each topic. The chapter reviews the some of the scientific and technical challenges in metabolic engineering and the new possibilities emerging from recent technological developments. It concludes by discussing the outlook for bioengineered chemical defences as part of crop protection strategies, also...... with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews...

  3. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...... are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points......, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two...

  4. Direct and indirect chemical defence of pine against folivorous insects

    Mumm, R.; Hilker, M.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical defence of pine against herbivorous insects has been intensively studied with respect to its effects on the performance and behaviour of the herbivores as well as on the natural enemies of pine herbivores. The huge variety of terpenoid pine components play a major role in mediating

  5. Chemical defence and toxins of plants

    Yamane, H.; Konno, K.; Sabelis, M.; Takabayashi, J.; Sassa, T.; Oikawa, H.; Mander, L.; Lui, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Higher plants protect themselves by producing a variety of secondary metabolites and proteins that are involved in defense against herbivores as well as microbial pathogens. Concerning microbial pathogenesis in plants, in many cases, it is known that phytotoxins that are produced by plant pathogens play an important role in disease development causing chlorosis, necrosis, or wilting. This chapter mainly focuses on the chemical structures, distribution, and biosynthesis of defense-related natu...

  6. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    landing on the plant. Glandular trichomes in catmint (Nepeta sp.) produce nepetalactone, closely related to the aphid sex pheromone, nepetalactol. Nepetalactone can be reduced to the corresponding nepetalactol. ... Plant glandular trichomes function either as repositories or releasing sites of various chemicals. Interest in ...

  7. Independently recruited oxidases from the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family enabled chemical defences in leaf beetle larvae (subtribe Chrysomelina) to evolve

    Rahfeld, Peter; Kirsch, Roy; Kugel, Susann; Wielsch, Natalie; Stock, Magdalena; Groth, Marco; Boland, Wilhelm; Burse, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of the leaf beetle subtribe Chrysomelina sensu stricto repel their enemies by displaying glandular secretions that contain defensive compounds. These repellents can be produced either de novo (iridoids) or by using plant-derived precursors (e.g. salicylaldehyde). The autonomous production of iridoids, as in Phaedon cochleariae, is the ancestral chrysomeline chemical defence and predates the evolution of salicylaldehyde-based defence. Both biosynthesis strategies include an oxidative step of an alcohol intermediate. In salicylaldehyde-producing species, this step is catalysed by salicyl alcohol oxidases (SAOs) of the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase superfamily, but the enzyme oxidizing the iridoid precursor is unknown. Here, we show by in vitro as well as in vivo experiments that P. cochleariae also uses an oxidase from the GMC superfamily for defensive purposes. However, our phylogenetic analysis of chrysomeline GMC oxidoreductases revealed that the oxidase of the iridoid pathway originated from a GMC clade different from that of the SAOs. Thus, the evolution of a host-independent chemical defence followed by a shift to a host-dependent chemical defence in chrysomeline beetles coincided with the utilization of genes from different GMC subfamilies. These findings illustrate the importance of the GMC multi-gene family for adaptive processes in plant–insect interactions. PMID:24943369

  8. Costs and benefits of chemical defence in the Red Alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera.

    Göran M Nylund

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that the production of chemical defences is costly in terrestrial vascular plants. However, these studies do not necessarily reflect the costs of defence production in macroalgae, due to structural and functional differences between vascular plants and macroalgae. Using a specific culturing technique, we experimentally manipulated the defence production in the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera to examine if the defence is costly in terms of growth. Furthermore, we tested if the defence provides fitness benefits by reducing harmful bacterial colonisation of the alga. Costly defences should provide benefits to the producer in order to be maintained in natural populations, but such benefits through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation have rarely been documented in macroalgae. We found that algae with experimentally impaired defence production, but with an externally controlled epibacterial load, grew significantly better than algae with normal defence production. We also found that undefended algae exposed to a natural epibacterial load experienced a substantial reduction in growth and a 6-fold increase in cell bleaching, compared to controls. Thus, this study provides experimental evidence that chemical defence production in macroalgae is costly, but that the cost is outweighed by fitness benefits provided through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation.

  9. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    Knudsen, Camilla

    Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several...... on hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism in the legume model plant Lotus japonicus. Lotus japonicus produces both cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides as chemical defence compounds. The cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are stored in the cell vacuole as inactive glycosides and, upon...... function and evolution. Further, it contributes to our understanding of the formation and role of biosynthetic gene clusters in plant chemical defence. The bifurcation in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis and catabolism observed in Lotus japonicus makes it a very suitable model system to study...

  10. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    Nicholas A Paul

    Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  11. Lepidopteran defence droplets - A composite physical and chemical weapon against potential predators

    Pentzold, S.; Zagrobelny, Mika; Khakimov, Bekzod

    2016-01-01

    Insects often release noxious substances for their defence. Larvae of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera) secrete viscous and cyanogenic glucoside-containing droplets, whose effectiveness was associated with their physical and chemical properties. The droplets glued mandibles and legs of potential...

  12. Chemical defence in chrysomelid eggs and neonate larvae

    Pasteels, Jacques M.; Daloze, D.; Rowell-Rahier, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Eggs and neonate larvae of chrysomelid beetles (sub-tribes Chrysomelina and Phyllodectina) were investigated for the presence of defensive substances. The two isoxazolinone glucosides (compounds 1 and 2), characteristic of the adult defence secretion, were detected in the eggs of all studied species. Compound 2, containing a nitropropionate, is always present in concentrations (above 10-2 M), which are highly deterrent to the ant Myrmica rubra. This compound is not at all or only slightly to...

  13. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea.

    Jonathan P Green

    Full Text Available Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  14. Chemicals on plant surfaces as a heretofore unrecognized, but ecologically informative, class for investigations into plant defence.

    LoPresti, Eric F

    2016-11-01

    Plants produce and utilize a great diversity of chemicals for a variety of physiological and ecological purposes. Many of these chemicals defend plants against herbivores, pathogens and competitors. The location of these chemicals varies within the plant, some are located entirely within plant tissues, others exist in the air- (or water-) space around plants, and still others are secreted onto plant surfaces as exudates. I argue herein that the location of a given defensive chemical has profound implications for its ecological function; specifically, I focus on the characteristics of chemical defences secreted onto plant surfaces. Drawing from a broad literature encompassing ecology, evolution, taxonomy and physiology, I found that these external chemical defences (ECDs) are common and widespread in plants and algae; hundreds of examples have been detailed, yet they are not delineated as a separate class from internal chemical defences (ICDs). I propose a novel typology for ECDs and, using existing literature, explore the ecological consequences of the hypothesized unique characteristics of ECDs. The axis of total or proportional investment in ECDs versus ICDs should be considered as one axis of investment by a plant, in the same way as quantitative versus qualitative chemical defences or induced versus constitutive defences is considered. The ease of manipulating ECDs in many plant systems presents a powerful tool to help test plant defence theory (e.g. optimal defence). The framework outlined here integrates various disciplines of botany and ecology and suggests a need for further examinations of exudates in a variety of contexts, as well as recognition of the effects of within-plant localization of defences. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence: plant β-glucosidases as the main target for herbivore adaptation.

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Fred; Bak, Søren

    2014-08-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists and specialists, and can act on different classes of defence compounds. We discuss how generalist and specialist insects appear to differ in their ability to use these different types of adaptations: in generalists, adaptations are often inducible, whereas in specialists they are often constitutive. Future studies are suggested to investigate in detail how insect adaptations act in combination to overcome plant chemical defences and to allow ecologically relevant conclusions.

  16. Project Swiftsure final report: Destruction of chemical agent waste at Defence Research Establishment Suffield. Special publication

    McAndless, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Project Swiftsure describes a three-year project at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield to safely destroy stockpiles of mustard lewisite, nerve agents and decontaminate scrap material which was stored on the DRES Experimental Proving Ground. Using both in-house and contracted resources, the agent waste was destroyed by chemical neutralization or incineration. With the exception of the arsenic byproducts from the lewisite neutralization process, all secondary waste generated by chemical neutralization was incinerated. Mustard in different forms was thermally destroyed using a transportable incinerator of commercial design. Extensive environmental monitoring and public consultation programs were conducted during the project. Results of the monitoring programs verified that the chemical warfare agents were destroyed in a safe, environmentally-responsible manner. jg p.329.

  17. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Chemical Defence: Effects of Colonisation on Aboveground and Belowground Metabolomes.

    Hill, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Lynne A; Abdul-Sada, Ali; Vanbergen, Adam J; Hodge, Angela; Hartley, Sue E

    2018-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonisation of plant roots is one of the most ancient and widespread interactions in ecology, yet the systemic consequences for plant secondary chemistry remain unclear. We performed the first metabolomic investigation into the impact of AMF colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis on the chemical defences, spanning above- and below-ground tissues, in its host-plant ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). We used a non-targeted metabolomics approach to profile, and where possible identify, compounds induced by AMF colonisation in both roots and shoots. Metabolomics analyses revealed that 33 compounds were significantly increased in the root tissue of AMF colonised plants, including seven blumenols, plant-derived compounds known to be associated with AMF colonisation. One of these was a novel structure conjugated with a malonyl-sugar and uronic acid moiety, hitherto an unreported combination. Such structural modifications of blumenols could be significant for their previously reported functional roles associated with the establishment and maintenance of AM colonisation. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), key anti-herbivore defence compounds in ragwort, dominated the metabolomic profiles of root and shoot extracts. Analyses of the metabolomic profiles revealed an increase in four PAs in roots (but not shoots) of AMF colonised plants, with the potential to protect colonised plants from below-ground organisms.

  18. Estimating average glandular dose by measuring glandular rate in mammograms

    Goto, Sachiko; Azuma, Yoshiharu; Sumimoto, Tetsuhiro; Eiho, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    The glandular rate of the breast was objectively measured in order to calculate individual patient exposure dose (average glandular dose) in mammography. By employing image processing techniques and breast-equivalent phantoms with various glandular rate values, a conversion curve for pixel value to glandular rate can be determined by a neural network. Accordingly, the pixel values in clinical mammograms can be converted to the glandular rate value for each pixel. The individual average glandular dose can therefore be calculated using the individual glandular rates on the basis of the dosimetry method employed for quality control in mammography. In the present study, a data set of 100 craniocaudal mammograms from 50 patients was used to evaluate our method. The average glandular rate and average glandular dose of the data set were 41.2% and 1.79 mGy, respectively. The error in calculating the individual glandular rate can be estimated to be less than ±3%. When the calculation error of the glandular rate is taken into consideration, the error in the individual average glandular dose can be estimated to be 13% or less. We feel that our method for determining the glandular rate from mammograms is useful for minimizing subjectivity in the evaluation of patient breast composition. (author)

  19. Impairment of the chemical defence of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by metacestodes (cysticeroids) of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Blankespoor, C L; Pappas, P W; Eisner, T

    1997-07-01

    The defensive glands of beetles, Tenebrio molitor, infected with metacestodes (cysticercoids) of Hymenolepis diminuta are everted less frequently upon stimulation, and contain less toluquinone (methylbenzoquinone) and m-cresol, than glands of uninfected controls. These differences, as shown in predation trials with wild rats, increase the likelihood that both cysticercoids and beetles will be ingested by the tapeworm's definitive host. This is the first documented case of a parasite inhibiting the chemical defence of an intermediate host, and one of only a few reports of parasite-induced manipulation of host biology supported by empirical evidence implicating facilitated parasite transmission between host species.

  20. Leaf habit does not determine the investment in both physical and chemical defences and pair-wise correlations between these defensive traits.

    Moreira, X; Pearse, I S

    2017-05-01

    Plant life-history strategies associated with resource acquisition and economics (e.g. leaf habit) are thought to be fundamental determinants of the traits and mechanisms that drive herbivore pressure, resource allocation to plant defensive traits, and the simultaneous expression (positive correlations) or trade-offs (negative correlations) between these defensive traits. In particular, it is expected that evergreen species - which usually grow slower and support constant herbivore pressure in comparison with deciduous species - will exhibit higher levels of both physical and chemical defences and a higher predisposition to the simultaneous expression of physical and chemical defensive traits. Here, by using a dataset which included 56 oak species (Quercus genus), we investigated whether leaf habit of plant species governs the investment in both physical and chemical defences and pair-wise correlations between these defensive traits. Our results showed that leaf habit does not determine the production of most leaf physical and chemical defences. Although evergreen oak species had higher levels of leaf toughness and specific leaf mass (physical defences) than deciduous oak species, both traits are essentially prerequisites for evergreenness. Similarly, our results also showed that leaf habit does not determine pair-wise correlations between defensive traits because most physical and chemical defensive traits were simultaneously expressed in both evergreen and deciduous oak species. Our findings indicate that leaf habit does not substantially contribute to oak species differences in plant defence investment. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Maternally derived chemical defences are an effective deterrent against some predators of poison frog tadpoles (Oophaga pumilio).

    Stynoski, Jennifer L; Shelton, Georgia; Stynoski, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Parents defend their young in many ways, including provisioning chemical defences. Recent work in a poison frog system offers the first example of an animal that provisions its young with alkaloids after hatching or birth rather than before. But it is not yet known whether maternally derived alkaloids are an effective defence against offspring predators. We identified the predators of Oophaga pumilio tadpoles and conducted laboratory and field choice tests to determine whether predators are deterred by alkaloids in tadpoles. We found that snakes, spiders and beetle larvae are common predators of O. pumilio tadpoles. Snakes were not deterred by alkaloids in tadpoles. However, spiders were less likely to consume mother-fed O. pumilio tadpoles than either alkaloid-free tadpoles of the red-eyed treefrog, Agalychnis callidryas, or alkaloid-free O. pumilio tadpoles that had been hand-fed with A. callidryas eggs. Thus, maternally derived alkaloids reduce the risk of predation for tadpoles, but only against some predators. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Defence biochemical mechanisms of the organisms against chemical pollution and ionizing radiations

    Olinescu, Radu

    2001-01-01

    Acute exposure to high concentrations / doses of chemical pollutants and ionizing radiation usually kills giving no chance for survival, if not immediately, than later followed by specific diseases. Fortunately, this acute exposure is accidental, but chronic, low level exposure is also damaging. The involvement of pollution, especially of chemically produced, one in the etiology of several diseases is still under intensive research. Compared to other kinds of pollution (radioactive, microbiological), the chemical one seldom kills suddenly; it acts slowly, silently, by accumulation into the tissues, eventually inducing a failure of certain organ. The body is continuously adapting to low level concentrations of chemicals from environment until a certain threshold. All organisms, including humans, have a limited capacity of resisting the effects of various types of pollutants. Extensive laboratory research, demonstrated that most of damaging organic pollutants cause the formation of free radicals when they penetrate into the body and are metabolized. Free radicals are very reactive and are known to damage tissues with potentially fatal results. Substantial experimental evidence in recent years has demonstrated that all organisms are endowed with versatile, efficient antioxidant systems, that provide protection against the formation or effects of free radicals. However, the antioxidant systems are limited and when their capacity of protection is exceeded, injury resulting in illness or death occurs. In most cases, the harmful effects of chemicals on organisms depend on the biotransformation step, where free radicals are produced as byproducts of the metabolic reactions. The damaging effects of chemical pollutants are mostly restricted to an important organ depending on the way of penetration, nature of the compound and concentration. The organisms possess specific and nonspecific defense systems, which act from the exposure step, with attempt to block the entry of

  3. TNO and CBRN defence

    2015-01-01

    Within the Defence, Safety & Security branch of TNO a dedicated department focuses on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Protection. This is a world class research department consisting of about 50 people and a High Tox laboratory that is the only facility in The Netherlands that

  4. Low environmental radiation background impairs biological defence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to chemical radiomimetic agents

    Satta, L.; Augusti-Tocco, G.; Ceccarelli, R.; Paggi, P.; Scarsella, G.; Esposito, A.; Fiore, M.; Poggesi, I.; Ricordy, R.; Cundari, E.

    1995-01-01

    Background radiation is likely to constitute one of the factors involved in biological evolution since radiations are able to affect biological processes. Therefore, it is possible to hypothesize that organisms are adapted to environmental background radiation and that this adaptation could increase their ability to respond to the harmful effects of ionizing radiations. In fact, adaptive responses to alkylating agents and to low doses of ionizing radiation have been found in many organisms. In order to test for effects of adaptation, cell susceptibility to treatments with high doses of radiomimetic chemical agents has been studied by growing them in a reduced environmental radiation background. The experiment has been performed by culturing yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7) in parallel in a standard background environment and in the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory, with reduced environmental background radiation. After a conditioning period, yeast cells were exposed to recombinogenic doses of methyl methanesulfonate. The yeast cells grown in the Gran Sasso Laboratory showed a higher frequency of radiomimetic induced recombination as compared to those grown in the standard environment. This suggests that environmental radiation may act as a conditioning agent

  5. The role of chemical antifouling defence in the invasion success of Sargassum muticum: A comparison of native and invasive brown algae.

    Nicole Schwartz

    Full Text Available Competition and fouling defence are important traits that may facilitate invasions by non-indigenous species. The 'novel weapons hypothesis' (NWH predicts that the invasive success of exotic species is closely linked to the possession of chemical defence compounds that the recipient community in the new range is not adapted to. In order to assess whether chemical defence traits contribute to invasion success, anti-bacterial, anti-quorum sensing, anti-diatom, anti-larval and anti-algal properties were investigated for the following algae: a the invasive brown alga Sargassum muticum from both, its native (Japan and invasive (Germany range, b the two non- or weak invasive species Sargassum fusiforme and Sargassum horneri from Japan, and c Fucus vesiculosus, a native brown alga from Germany. Crude and surface extracts and lipid fractions of active extracts were tested against common fouling organisms and zygotes of a dominant competing brown alga. Extracts of the native brown alga F. vesiculosus inhibited more bacterial strains (75% than any of the Sargassum spp. (17 to 29%. However, Sargassum spp. from Japan exhibited the strongest settlement inhibition against the diatom Cylindrotheca closterium, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and zygotes of the brown alga F. vesiculosus. Overall, extracts of S. muticum from the invasive range were less active compared to those of the native range suggesting an adaptation to lower fouling pressure and competition in the new range resulting in a shift of resource allocation from costly chemical defence to reproduction and growth. Non-invasive Sargassum spp. from Japan was equally defended against fouling and competitors like S. muticum from Japan indicating a necessity to include these species in European monitoring programs. The variable antifouling activity of surface and crude extracts highlights the importance to use both for an initial screening for antifouling activity.

  6. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. SMART DEFENCE AND DEFENCE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Teodor FRUNZETI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the Chicago Summit in May 2012. the Euro-Atlantic community has been imprinted, from the security and defence perspective. by me launch of a new initiative known as smart defence, a concept referring to the need to improve the way in which defence spending is made at the Alliance's level. Smart defence also has a corollary at EU's level — i.e., pooling and sharing - the two notions referring. Overall, to the same procedure and implying a crucial need for the two organizations to coordinate their efforts in this. This article approaches the conceptual meaning of smart defence, with special emphasis on its management dimension regarding the defence resources. As a consequence, it is approached in connection with Other similar concepts such as pooling and sharing', Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Evaluation System (PPBES, and the Connected Force Initiative.

  9. Immunohistochemical characterization of glandular elements in glandular cardiac myxoma: Study of six cases

    Devajit Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Glandular cardiac myxoma has varying clinical presentation with uncertain histogenesis and debatable immunohistochemical profile. Glandular epithelial differentiations are rare phenomenon known to be present as an intrinsic component of the tumor. The origin of the glands has been attributed to epithelial differentiation of a totipotent cardiomyogenic precursor cells or the entrapped foregut rests in the tumor. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study includes six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma collected over a perior of 4 years. Sections were examined to define the histogenesis, histological and immunohistochemical profile of the glandular elements. Results: Incidence of glandular cardiac myxoma was 6.6% with a male to female ratio of 1:2.Mean age was 49.9 years. Left atrium was the commonest site. Five were sporadic and one was familial. Chest pain and dyspnea were the commonest clinical symptoms. Histologically all myxoma showed well formed glandular structures with typical myxomatous area. No atypia, mitosis or necrosis was identified in the glandular elements. Markers in six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma were immunopositive for CK7, CK 19, EMA, CEA, focally for E-cadherin while immunonegative for CK20, Chromogranin, Synaptophysin, calretenin, vimentin, B-catenin, TTF-1 and GCDFP-15 favoring enteric differentiation. Conclusion: Glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare entity which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma with benign glandular elements showing enteric differentiation. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice with good prognosis. It is important to recognize this entity to avoid an erroneous diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  10. Genes, enzymes and chemicals of terpenoid diversity in the constitutive and induced defence of conifers against insects and pathogens.

    Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    Insects select their hosts, but trees cannot select which herbivores will feed upon them. Thus, as long-lived stationary organisms, conifers must resist the onslaught of varying and multiple attackers over their lifetime. Arguably, the greatest threats to conifers are herbivorous insects and their associated pathogens. Insects such as bark beetles, stem- and wood-boring insects, shoot-feeding weevils, and foliage-feeding budworms and sawflies are among the most devastating pests of conifer forests. Conifer trees produce a great diversity of compounds, such as an enormous array of terpenoids and phenolics, that may impart resistance to a variety of herbivores and microorganisms. Insects have evolved to specialize in resistance to these chemicals -- choosing, feeding upon, and colonizing hosts they perceive to be best suited to reproduction. This review focuses on the plant-insect interactions mediated by conifer-produced terpenoids. To understand the role of terpenoids in conifer-insect interactions, we must understand how conifers produce the wide diversity of terpenoids, as well as understand how these specific compounds affect insect behaviour and physiology. This review examines what chemicals are produced, the genes and proteins involved in their biosynthesis, how they work, and how they are regulated. It also examines how insects and their associated pathogens interact with, elicit, and are affected by conifer-produced terpenoids.

  11. Localization of a defensive volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one in the capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana

    Yanyun Tan; Desen Li; Juan Hua; Shihong Luo; Yan Liu; Shenghong Li

    2017-01-01

    Glandular trichomes of plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites which are considered as major defensive chemicals. The capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana (Onagraceae) were collected with laser microdissection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compound 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one (1) was identified. We found that compound 1 displays antimicrobial, insecticidal, and phytotoxic activities. These results suggest that compound 1 might function as a defensive compound in the capitate glandular trichomes of O. glazioviana against pathogens, insect herbivores, and presumably competitive plants as well.

  12. Localization of a defensive volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one in the capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana

    Yanyun Tan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glandular trichomes of plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites which are considered as major defensive chemicals. The capitate glandular trichomes of Oenothera glazioviana (Onagraceae were collected with laser microdissection and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The volatile compound 4-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-one (1 was identified. We found that compound 1 displays antimicrobial, insecticidal, and phytotoxic activities. These results suggest that compound 1 might function as a defensive compound in the capitate glandular trichomes of O. glazioviana against pathogens, insect herbivores, and presumably competitive plants as well.

  13. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Chen, Fangfang; Hao, Fuhua; Li, Changfu; Gou, Junbo; Lu, Dayan; Gong, Fujun; Tang, Huiru; Zhang, Yansheng

    2013-01-01

    Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin) were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  14. Identifying three ecological chemotypes of Xanthium strumarium glandular trichomes using a combined NMR and LC-MS method.

    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthanolides, as the sesquiterpene lactones, are reportedly the major components for the pharmacological properties of X. strumarium L. species. Phytochemical studies indicated that the glandular structures on the surface of plant tissues would form the primary sites for the accumulation of this class of the compounds. As the interface between plants and their natural enemies, glandular trichomes may vary with respect to which of their chemicals are sequestered against different herbivores in different ecologies. However, to date, no data are available on the chemical characterisation of X. strumarium glandular cells. In this study, the trichome secretions of the X. strumarium species originating from nineteen unique areas across eleven provinces in China, were analysed by HPLC, LC-ESI-MS and NMR. For the first time three distinct chemotypes of X. strumarium glandular trichomes were discovered along with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of their presence of xanthanolides; these were designated glandular cell Types I, II, and III, respectively. The main xanthanolides in Type I cells were 8-epi-xanthatin and xanthumin while no xanthatin was detected. Xanthatin, 8-epi-xanthatin, and xanthumin dominated in Type II cells with comparable levels of each being present. For Type III cells, significantly higher concentrations of 8-epi-xanthatin or xanthinosin (relative to xanthatin were detected with xanthinosin only being observed in this type. Further research will focus on understanding the ecological and molecular mechanism causing these chemotype differences in X. strumarium glandular structures.

  15. Diverse opportunities in defence

    Brown, Gareth

    2016-08-01

    Working at the UK's defence laboratory gives Gareth Brown the ability to apply his physics and mathematics knowledge to real-world applications - and not necessarily in the ways you might expect. This article is Crown copyright

  16. From Defence To Development

    From this perspective, high defence expenditure has been compared to dismantling ...... availability exceed evaporative demand and a state of permanent drought ...... In October 1993, South African authorities seized a container on a plot near ...

  17. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  18. Structure and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes on the ...

    The glandular trichomes were classified into two subpopulations, namely the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. The former was characterized by a short stalk and a large four-celled secretory head, while the latter was further subdivided into two groups; one has a short unicellular stalk and two-cellular head (type I), ...

  19. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  20. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  1. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  2. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A case report

    Tambawaia, Shahnaz S.; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Yadav, Archana; Sansare, Kaustubh; Sontakke, Subodh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai (India)

    2014-03-15

    Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are rare intrabony solitary or multiloculated cysts of odontogenic origin. The importance of GOCs lies in the fact that they exhibit a propensity for recurrence similar to keratocystic odontogenic tumors and that they may be confused microscopically with central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus, the oral and maxillofacial radiologists play an important role in definitive diagnosis of GOC based on distinctive cases; though they are rare. In large part, this is due to the GOC's complex and frequently non-specific histopathology. This report describes a case of GOC occurrence in the posterior mandibular ramus region in a 17-year-old female, which is a rare combination of site, age, and gender for occurrence.

  3. New materials in defence

    Khan, Sikandar S.; Khan, Shahid A.; Butt, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    National defence is very important and always needs new such materials which have technological and socio-economic development of human society. The types of materials used by a society reflect its level of sophistication. These modern materials are basically the same conventional materials but with a greater knowledge content which include superalloys, modern polymers, engineering ceramics and the advanced composite. The production and use of new materials is playing and important role in the recent development in the defence industry. (A.B.)

  4. NATO Defence Planning Process. Implications for defence posture

    Paweł Fleischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.

  5. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses.

    Begoña Martínez-Crego

    Full Text Available Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food, but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and

  6. Defence White Paper 2013

    2013-01-01

    nurtured, particularly in Australia’s highly competitive labour market. The Government recognises that Defence’s approach to its people must be... satisfaction , increase attraction and retention, improve cost-effectiveness and support the contemporary Total Force employment model. Defence White...improve job satisfaction and thereby increase attraction and retention in areas of critical skill. Recruiting 10.13 To ensure that we have the high

  7. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  8. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  9. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  10. Neurons of self-defence: neuronal innervation of the exocrine defence glands in stick insects.

    Stolz, Konrad; von Bredow, Christoph-Rüdiger; von Bredow, Yvette M; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Trenczek, Tina E; Strauß, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Stick insects (Phasmatodea) use repellent chemical substances (allomones) for defence which are released from so-called defence glands in the prothorax. These glands differ in size between species, and are under neuronal control from the CNS. The detailed neural innervation and possible differences between species are not studied so far. Using axonal tracing, the neuronal innervation is investigated comparing four species. The aim is to document the complexity of defence gland innervation in peripheral nerves and central motoneurons in stick insects. In the species studied here, the defence gland is innervated by the intersegmental nerve complex (ISN) which is formed by three nerves from the prothoracic (T1) and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), as well as a distinct suboesophageal nerve (Nervus anterior of the suboesophageal ganglion). In Carausius morosus and Sipyloidea sipylus, axonal tracing confirmed an innervation of the defence glands by this N. anterior SOG as well as N. anterior T1 and N. posterior SOG from the intersegmental nerve complex. In Peruphasma schultei, which has rather large defence glands, only the innervation by the N. anterior SOG was documented by axonal tracing. In the central nervous system of all species, 3-4 neuron types are identified by axonal tracing which send axons in the N. anterior SOG likely innervating the defence gland as well as adjacent muscles. These neurons are mainly suboesophageal neurons with one intersegmental neuron located in the prothoracic ganglion. The neuron types are conserved in the species studied, but the combination of neuron types is not identical. In addition, the central nervous system in S. sipylus contains one suboesophageal and one prothoracic neuron type with axons in the intersegmental nerve complex contacting the defence gland. Axonal tracing shows a very complex innervation pattern of the defence glands of Phasmatodea which contains different neurons in different nerves from two adjacent body segments

  11. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional ...

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... defence-related genes also supports constitutive activation of defence in cdd1. We screened T-DNA ..... identified through this work as novel plant defence regu- ... to drought stress than untransformed plants (Lee et al. 2012).

  12. Operational Analysis on Torpedo Defence

    Grootendorst, H.J.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Veldhoven, E.R. van

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998, TNO Defence, Security and Safety has performed operational analysis with the Underwater Warfare Testbed, which provides an environment for evaluation and validation of systems, concepts, and tactics. On top of this testbed the Torpedo Defence System TestBed has been built to simulate

  13. Evaluation of exposure in mammography: limitations of average glandular dose and proposal of a new quantity

    Geeraert, N.; Bosmans, H.; Klausz, R.; Muller, S.; Bloch, I.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation risk in mammography is traditionally evaluated using the average glandular dose. This quantity for the average breast has proven to be useful for population statistics and to compare exposure techniques and systems. However it is not indicating the individual radiation risk based on the individual glandular amount and distribution. Simulations of exposures were performed for six appropriate virtual phantoms with varying glandular amount and distribution. The individualised average glandular dose (iAGD), i.e. the individual glandular absorbed energy divided by the mass of the gland, and the glandular imparted energy (GIE), i.e. the glandular absorbed energy, were computed. Both quantities were evaluated for their capability to take into account the glandular amount and distribution. As expected, the results have demonstrated that iAGD reflects only the distribution, while GIE reflects both the glandular amount and distribution. Therefore GIE is a good candidate for individual radiation risk assessment. (authors)

  14. Average glandular dose in patients submitted to mammographic examinations

    Nogueira, M.S.; Silva, T.A. da; Oliveira, M. de; Joana, G.S.; Oliveira, A.L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Doses in mammography should be maintained as low as possible without reducing the high image quality needed to the early detection of the breast cancer. As the breast is composed of tissues with very soft composition and densities, it increases the difficulty to detect small changes in the normal anatomical structures that may be associated with breast cancer. To achieve the standards of resolution and contrast for mammography, the quality and intensity of the X-ray beam, the breast positioning and compression, the film screen system, and the film processing must be in optimal operational conditions. This study intended to evaluate the mean glandular dose of patients undergoing routine exams in one mammography unit. Patient image analyses were done by a radiologist doctor who took into account 10 evaluation criteria for each CC and MLO incidences. For estimating each patient glandular dose the radiographic technique parameters (kV and mAs) and the thickness of the compressed breast were recorded. European image quality criteria were adopted by the radiologist doctor to accept the image for diagnostic purpose. For breast densities of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues the incident air-kerma was measured and the glandular dose calculated considering the x-ray output during the exam. In the study of 50 patients the mean glandular dose varied from 0.90 to 3.27 mGy with a mean value of 1.98 mGy for CC incidences. For MLO incidences the mean glandular doses ranged from 0.97 to 3.98 mGy and a mean value of 2.60 mGy. (author)

  15. Evaluation of glandular dose in conventional and digital mammography systems

    Coutinho, Celia Maria Campos

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to estimate the average glandular dose (D g ) for patients undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of incident air kerma (K i ), patient age, compressed breast thickness and glandular tissue content. From 1183 cranio caudal mammograms clinical data were collected and doses were measured. The survey data included mammograms from six mammography equipment: two screen/film units (SFM), two computed radiography units (CR) and two full-field digital (DR). Mean value for patient age and compressed breast thickness were 57 +-12 y and 5.4 +-1.4 cm, respectively. To investigate the importance of technical characteristics of three different mammography systems and breast glandularity, K i and D g were measured for individual breast of 392 patients from the original sample with compressed breast thickness in the range of 5.5 cm to 6.5 cm using tissue-equivalent phantoms of different glandularities manufactured in this study to mimic both the attenuation and the density of breast tissues. Mean K i value was 10.0 +-3.6 mGy for SFM systems, 12.0 +-3.6 mGy for CR systems and 4.9 +-1.3 mGy for DR systems. Mean D g value was 1.4 +-0.5 mGy for S/F systems, 1.7 +-0.5 mGy for CR systems and 0.9 +-0.2 mGy for D R systems. Statistical analysis for differences in mean values of K i and D g between mammography systems showed significant effect of their technical characteristics (p i and D g , it was observed statistically significant differences between the group of patients with 0 to 50% glandularity and the group of patients with 50 to 100% glandularity. (author)

  16. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  17. Radiation protection in civil defence

    Ahlborn, K.

    The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.) [de

  18. Civil Defence Commission at the Federal German Ministry of the Interior

    1987-01-01

    The work of the Civil Defence Commission comprises also interdisciplinary questions of civil defence and disaster relief. The lectures are concerned with the causes and effects of radioactivity, medical practice in the event of disaster, toxicology and pathology, including even psychology in disaster as well as risk management and dosimetry. The subjects chemical accidents and disaster relief are marginally dealt with. (DG) [de

  19. Glandular trichomes in Connarus suberosus (Connaraceae: distribution, structural organization and probable functions

    João Donizete Denardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Connarus suberosus is a typical species of the Brazilian Cerrado biome, and its inflorescences and young vegetative branches are densely covered by dendritic trichomes. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of a previously undescribed glandular trichome of this species. The localization, origin and structure of these trichomes were investigated under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Collections were made throughout the year, from five adult specimens of Connarus suberosus near Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, including vegetative and reproductive apices, leaves and fruits in different developmental stages, as well as floral buds and flowers at anthesis. Glandular trichomes (GTs occurred on vegetative and reproductive organs during their juvenile stages. The GTs consisted of a uniseriate, multicellular peduncle, whose cells contain phenolic compounds, as well as a multicellular glandular portion that accumulates lipids. The glandular cell has thin wall, dense cytoplasm (with many mitochondria, plastids and dictyosomes, and a large nucleus with a visible nucleolus. The starch present in the plastids was hydrolyzed during the synthesis phase, reducing the density of the plastid stroma. Some plastids were fused to vacuoles, and some evidence suggested the conversion of plastids into vacuoles. During the final activity stages of the GTs, a darkening of the protoplasm was observed in some of the glandular cells, as a programmed cell death; afterwards, became caducous. The GTs in C. suberosus had a temporal restriction, being limited to the juvenile phase of the organs. Their presence on the exposed surfaces of developing organs and the chemical nature of the reserve products, suggest that these structures are food bodies. Field observations and detailed studies of plant-environment interactions, as well as chemical analysis of the reserve compounds, are still necessary to confirm the role of these GTs as feeding

  20. Genetic architecture of capitate glandular trichome density in florets of domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. Capitate glandular trichomes can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resist...

  1. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  2. Maxilary glandular odontogenic cyst: case report = Cisto odontogênico glandular em maxila: relato de caso

    Cardoso, Juliana Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente trabalho objetiva relatar um caso clínico de cisto odontogênico glandular (COG em maxila, cisto de desenvolvimento raro que pode apresentar comportamento agressivo e recidivante, dando ênfase no tratamento e proservação desta doença. Relato de Caso: Paciente faioderma, gênero feminino, 36 anos, foi encaminhada pelo Ortodontista por apresentar aumento de volume em maxila com abaulamento e crepitação. Foram realizadas radiografias e punção aspirativa. Uma vez observado o conteúdo da lesão, foi realizada a biópsia incisional e iniciada a descompressão com colocação de dreno rígido. Tendo a confirmação do diagnóstico para COG, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia para remoção do cisto maxilar, através da enucleação cirúrgica, curetagem e osteotomia periférica. Conclusões: O COG é uma patologia incomum, recentemente reconhecida, cujo comportamento biológico pouco ainda se sabe. Sugere-se, portanto, a realização de investigações futuras sobre critérios para classificação de variáveis comumente utilizadas em estudos epidemiológicos, na tentativa de padronizar e possibilitar comparação entre estudos, todavia, para auxiliar em um diagnóstico bem sucedido

  3. Defence in depth perspectives

    Veneau, Tania; Ferrier, Agnes; Barbaud, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The Defence in Depth (DiD) concept was introduced to the field of nuclear safety in the sixties and early seventies. Even though it was not well developed at the beginning, the principles rapidly became close to those currently used. The concept was then composed of 3 levels, and was already associated with operating conditions. These principles have progressed over time and now there are five levels, including progressively situations issued from design extension conditions, to cope with severe accidents and dealing with accident management off-site. Indeed, human and organizational features are considered as a part of the safety provisions at all levels in an integrated approach that is not just related to reactor design. That's the current vision from IAEA, addressed first in INSAG 3 then in INSAG 10, and in the IAEA standards requirements currently addressed by SSR-2/1 superseding NS-R-1). These five levels of DiD are also referred to in other texts including WENRA documents in Europe, but also in the national requirements from different countries. Thus, the application of DiD principle has become a recognized international practice. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accidents, even if they raised many questions on nuclear safety issues, confirmed the merits of the DiD concept. Indeed, lessons learned from the accidents have reinforced the use of the DiD concept to ensure adequate safety. The discussions focused more on the implementation of the concept (how it has been or can be used in practice) than the concept itself, and in particular on the following subjects: the notion of level robustness, generally addressed separately from the levels definition, but playing an important role for the efficiency of the concept; the notion of levels independence and the need for strengthening them; the role of diversity to achieve levels independence. However, a prescription of additional diversity and independence across all safety levels could result in inappropriately

  4. In Defence of Pashukanism

    R Koen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents an extended defence of the general theory of law formulated by the Bolshevik jurist, Evgeny Pashukanis, and published in his Law and Marxism: A General Theory in 1924. The general theory is a theory of the legal form. Although Pashukanis did not name his theory, it has become known as the commodity form theory of law because of its theorising the legal form as a homologue of the commodity form. However, despite having weighty Marxist and revolutionary Bolshevik credentials, the general theory has been subjected to sustained attack, especially from new left and neo-Marxist circles. This essay identifies and explicates six major objections to Pashukanism from its left critics. These are that the general theory is too abstract to comprehend the reality of legal relations; that it is infused with economic reductionism; that it derives the legal form wrongly from commodity exchange; that it classifies the legal form incorrectly as an attribute of capitalism only; that it lacks the generality required of a general theory of law; and that it is imbricated in the growth of anarchism and Stalinism. Following a brief exegetical exercise, the bulk of the essay is devoted to demonstrating in detail that each of the six objections to the general theory is without merit, and that none makes any serious incursion into its integrity as a theory of the legal form. The central submission of the essay is that the Pashukanist general theory of law is rooted in the first principles of classical Marxism and hence may lay claim legitimately to being the Marxist theory of law.

  5. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  6. Development of an excel spreadsheet formean glandular dose in mammography

    Nagoshi, Kazuyo; Fujisaki, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Excel spreadsheet to calculate mean glandular dose (D g ) in mammography using clinical exposure data. D g can be calculated as the product of incident air kerma (K a ) and D gN (i.e., D g =K a x D gN ). According to the method of Klein et al (Phys Med Biol 1997; 42: 651-671), K a was measured at the entrance surface with an ionization dosimeter. Normalized glandular dose (D gN ) coefficients, taking into account breast glandularity, were computed using Boone's method (Med Phys 2002; 29: 869-875). D gN coefficients can be calculated for any arbitrary X-ray spectrum. These calculation procedures were input into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The resulting Excel spreadsheet is easy to use and is always applicable in the field of mammography. The exposure conditions concerning D g in clinical practice were also investigated in 22 women. Four exposure conditions (target/filter combination and tube voltage) were automatically selected in this study. This investigation found that average D g for each exposure was 1.9 mGy. Because it is recommended that quality control of radiation dose management in mammography is done using an American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom, information about patient dose is not obtained in many facilities. The present Excel spreadsheet was accordingly considered useful for optimization of exposure conditions and explanation of mammography to patients. (author)

  7. Chemical defence and toxins of plants

    Yamane, H.; Konno, K.; Sabelis, M.; Takabayashi, J.; Sassa, T.; Oikawa, H.; Mander, L.; Lui, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Higher plants protect themselves by producing a variety of secondary metabolites and proteins that are involved in defense against herbivores as well as microbial pathogens. Concerning microbial pathogenesis in plants, in many cases, it is known that phytotoxins that are produced by plant pathogens

  8. The study of mean glandular dose in mammography in Yazd and the factors affecting it

    Bouzarjomehri, F.; Mostaar, A.; Ghasemi, A.; Ehramposh, M. H.; Khosravi, H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose resulting from mammography examinations in Yazd, southeastern Iran and to identify the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: This survey was conducted during May to December 2005 to estimate the mean glandular dose for women undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of dose. compressed breast thickness, glandular tissue content, and mammography technique used. The clinical data were collected from 946 mammograms taken from 246 women who were referred to four mammography centers. The mammography instruments in these centers were four modern units with a molybdenum anode and either molybdenum or rhodium filter. The exposure conditions of each mammogram were recorded. The breast glandular content of each mammogram was estimated by a radiologist. The mean glandular dose was calculated based on measuring the normalized entrance skin dose in air. half value layer, kVp, mAs, breast thickness and glandular content. Half value layer, kVp and entrance skin dose were measured by a solid-state detector. The analytical method of Sobol et al. was used for calculation of mean glandular dose . Results: The mean±SD mean glandular dose per film was.2±0.6 mGy for cranio caudal and 1.63±O.9 mGy for mediolateral oblique views. The mean±SD mean glandular dose per woman was 5.5 3.1.mGy. A positive correlation was found between the beam Half value layer with mean glandular dose (r=O.38) and the breast thickness with mean glandular dose (r=O.5). Conclusion: The mean±SD mean glandular dose per film of 1.42±0.8 mGy in present study was lower than most of similar reports. However, the mean mean glandular dose per woman was higher than that in other studies

  9. Operational Analysis on Torpedo Defence

    Grootendordt, H.J.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Veldhoven, E.R. van

    2008-01-01

    Surface vessels and submarines must be able to defend themselves against a torpedo attack. Self-defence can be approached as a modular concept. The first module involves 'Detection, Classification and Localisation (DCL)'. DCL triggers the second module: the 'evaluator'. This module starts the last

  10. Botulinum toxin for treatment of glandular hypersecretory disorders.

    Laing, T A

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: The use of botulinum toxin to treat disorders of the salivary glands is increasing in popularity in recent years. Recent reports of the use of botulinum toxin in glandular hypersecretion suggest overall favourable results with minimal side-effects. However, few randomised clinical trials means that data are limited with respect to candidate suitability, treatment dosages, frequency and duration of treatment. We report a selection of such cases from our own department managed with botulinum toxin and review the current data on use of the toxin to treat salivary gland disorders such as Frey\\'s syndrome, excessive salivation (sialorrhoea), focal and general hyperhidrosis, excessive lacrimation and chronic rhinitis.

  11. Method for determination of the mean fraction of glandular tissue in individual female breasts using mammography

    Jansen, J T M; Veldkamp, W J H; Thijssen, M A O; Woudenberg, S van; Zoetelief, J

    2005-01-01

    The nationwide breast cancer screening programme using mammography has been in full operation in the Netherlands since 1997. Quality control of the screening programme has been assigned to the National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening. Limits are set to the mean glandular dose and the centre monitors these for all facilities engaged in the screening programme. This procedure is restricted to the determination of the entrance dose on a 5 cm thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The mean glandular dose for a compressed breast is estimated from these data. Individual breasts may deviate largely from this 5 cm PMMA breast model. Not only may the compressed breast size vary from 2 to 10 cm, but breast composition varies also. The mean glandular dose is dependent on the fraction of glandular tissue (glandularity) of the breast. To estimate the risk related to individual mammograms requires the development of a method for determination of the glandularity of individual breasts. A method has been developed to derive the glandularity using the attenuation of mammography x-rays in the breast. The method was applied to a series of mammograms at a screening unit. The results, i.e., a glandularity of 93% within the range of 0 to 1, were comparable with data in the literature. The glandularity as a function of compressed breast thickness is similar to results from other investigators using differing methods

  12. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients; Dosis glandular en examenes de tomosintesis de mama: estudio preliminar con una muestra de pacientes

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  13. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Olgar, T. [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  14. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis

    Olgar, T.; Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital full-field mammography (2 D imaging mode) and in breast tomosynthesis (3 D imaging mode). Materials and Methods: Using the method described by Boone, the AGD was calculated from the exposure parameters of 2247 conventional 2 D mammograms and 984 mammograms in 3 D imaging mode of 641 patients examined with the digital mammographic system Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The breast glandular tissue content was estimated by the Hologic R2 Quantra automated volumetric breast density measurement tool for each patient from right craniocaudal (RCC) and left craniocaudal (LCC) images in 2 D imaging mode. Results: The mean compressed breast thickness (CBT) was 52.7 mm for craniocaudal (CC) and 56.0 mm for mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. The mean percentage of breast glandular tissue content was 18.0 % and 17.4 % for RCC and LCC projections, respectively. The mean AGD values in 2 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 1.57 mGy and 1.66 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for real breast composition were 1.82 mGy and 1.94 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. The mean AGD values in 3 D imaging mode per exposure for the standard breast were 2.19 mGy and 2.29 mGy, while the mean AGD values after correction for the real breast composition were 2.53 mGy and 2.63 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the AGD and CBT in 2 D imaging mode and a good correlation coefficient of 0.98 in 3 D imaging mode. Conclusion: In this study the mean calculated AGD per exposure in 3 D imaging mode was on average 34 % higher than for 2 D imaging mode for patients examined with the same CBT.

  15. The reconfiguration of the SA defence industry in the post-2015-defence review environment: prospects & challenges

    Khanyile, Moses

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IMPLICATIONS • Licence category (FSB) • Credit licence (NCR) • Forex Licence (SARB) Armscor & AMD Initiative: Establishment of the Defence Industry Fund (DIF) WAY FORWARD Finalisation of the Defence Industry Strategy Drafting...

  16. Piloting Snapchat for Finnish Defence Forces

    Immonen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about piloting Snapchat for Finnish Defence Forces. The goals for the thesis are to find out how Snapchat can be used as part of Finnish Defence Forces’ social media communication and strategy. Conscripts are the most important target group for social media communication in the Defence Forces. Young conscripts are the main target group for Snapchat. This thesis is theoretically based on organizational communication, stakeholder communication and social media communicati...

  17. Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals

    2016-06-10

    discuss the political agreement.90 The Defence Chief of Staff is interviewed in the same paper along the same lines, where he provides an in- depth ...DRIVING DANISH DEFENCE TOWARDS POLITICAL GOALS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  18. Enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation by mouse glandular kallikrein.

    Hu, Z Q; Murakami, K; Ikigai, H; Shimamura, T

    1992-03-01

    Mouse glandular kallikrein (mGK) strongly enhanced the spontaneous and mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. Both blast formation and 3H-TdR incorporation were dose-dependently enhanced at the same time many cells were killed. The enhancing activity was independent of EGF, because EGF-binding proteins (mGK-9 in mGK-6,9 mixture and mGK-13), renal kallikrein (mGK-6) and human kallikrein all displayed the same enhancement. A serine proteinase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, could block the enhancement by mGK. The new function suggests that mGK is important in the immune system as a regulatory molecule.

  19. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities.

    Kant, M R; Jonckheere, W; Knegt, B; Lemos, F; Liu, J; Schimmel, B C J; Villarroel, C A; Ataide, L M S; Dermauw, W; Glas, J J; Egas, M; Janssen, A; Van Leeuwen, T; Schuurink, R C; Sabelis, M W; Alba, J M

    2015-06-01

    exploitative competition and facilitation within ecological communities "inhabiting" a plant. Herbivores have evolved diverse strategies, which are not mutually exclusive, to decrease the negative effects of plant defences in order to maximize the conversion of plant material into offspring. Numerous adaptations have been found in herbivores, enabling them to dismantle or bypass defensive barriers, to avoid tissues with relatively high levels of defensive chemicals or to metabolize these chemicals once ingested. In addition, some herbivores interfere with the onset or completion of induced plant defences, resulting in the plant's resistance being partly or fully suppressed. The ability to suppress induced plant defences appears to occur across plant parasites from different kingdoms, including herbivorous arthropods, and there is remarkable diversity in suppression mechanisms. Suppression may strongly affect the structure of the food web, because the ability to suppress the activation of defences of a communal host may facilitate competitors, whereas the ability of a herbivore to cope with activated plant defences will not. Further characterization of the mechanisms and traits that give rise to suppression of plant defences will enable us to determine their role in shaping direct and indirect interactions in food webs and the extent to which these determine the coexistence and persistence of species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities

    Kant, M. R.; Jonckheere, W.; Knegt, B.; Lemos, F.; Liu, J.; Schimmel, B. C. J.; Villarroel, C. A.; Ataide, L. M. S.; Dermauw, W.; Glas, J. J.; Egas, M.; Janssen, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Schuurink, R. C.; Sabelis, M. W.; Alba, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    give rise to exploitative competition and facilitation within ecological communities “inhabiting” a plant. Conclusions Herbivores have evolved diverse strategies, which are not mutually exclusive, to decrease the negative effects of plant defences in order to maximize the conversion of plant material into offspring. Numerous adaptations have been found in herbivores, enabling them to dismantle or bypass defensive barriers, to avoid tissues with relatively high levels of defensive chemicals or to metabolize these chemicals once ingested. In addition, some herbivores interfere with the onset or completion of induced plant defences, resulting in the plant’s resistance being partly or fully suppressed. The ability to suppress induced plant defences appears to occur across plant parasites from different kingdoms, including herbivorous arthropods, and there is remarkable diversity in suppression mechanisms. Suppression may strongly affect the structure of the food web, because the ability to suppress the activation of defences of a communal host may facilitate competitors, whereas the ability of a herbivore to cope with activated plant defences will not. Further characterization of the mechanisms and traits that give rise to suppression of plant defences will enable us to determine their role in shaping direct and indirect interactions in food webs and the extent to which these determine the coexistence and persistence of species. PMID:26019168

  1. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda – more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging

    Wägele Heike

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. Results Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs, and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups.

  2. CSIR eNews: Defence peace safety and security

    CSIR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available , peace, safety and security. CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security provides a national defence S&T capability: supplying knowledge, advice and solutions in defence and matters of national security....

  3. Defence electro-optics: European perspective

    Hartikainen, Jari

    2011-11-01

    In 2009 the United States invested in defence R&T 3,6 times and in defence research and development 6,8 times as much as all member states of the European Defence Agency (EDA) combined while the ratio in the total defence expenditure was 2,6 in the US' favour. The European lack of investments in defence research and development has a negative impact on the competitiveness of European defence industry and on the European non-dependence. In addition, the efficiency of investment is reduced due to duplication of work in different member states. The Lisbon Treaty tasks EDA to support defence technology research, and coordinate and plan joint research activities and the study of technical solutions meeting future operational needs. This paper gives an overview how EDA meets the challenge of improving the efficiency of European defence R&T investment with an emphasis on electro-optics and describes shortly the ways that governmental and industrial partners can participate in the EDA cooperation. Examples of joint R&T projects addressing electro-optics are presented.

  4. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc

  5. The South African National Defence Force

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This research paper is an evaluation of The Souch African National Defence Force´s (SANDF) involvement in Peace Support Operations.......This research paper is an evaluation of The Souch African National Defence Force´s (SANDF) involvement in Peace Support Operations....

  6. Breast Glandularity in Malaysian Women from a Full-Field Digital Mammography System

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung; Siti Selina Abdul Hamid; Juliana Mahamad Napiah

    2014-01-01

    This study is undertaken to estimate breast glandularity in Malaysian women from a Full-Field Digital mammography System. This study involved 223 women (Malay=100;Chinese=101 and Indian=22) underwent voluntary screening mammography at Breast Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM Breast Centre) for the first quarter of year 2009. Those are women aged between 31 to 69 years old (median age, 49 years). Data on miliampere-seconds, kilo voltage and compressed breast thickness for each cranio caudal view are used to estimate breast glandularity for an individual breast. Breast glandularity is calculated using the fitted equation reported earlier. The difference in breast glandularity among ethnic groups was tested for significance using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The average breast glandularity estimated in our study, using FFDM system is 52.94±27.63 %. No significant difference was seen in breast glandularity among the ethnic groups (p>0.05, Kruskan Wallis test). Breast glandularity decrease as age increases, up to 60 years old. (author)

  7. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in glandular lesions of the urinary bladder.

    Vail, Eric; Zheng, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Ming; Yang, Ximing; Fallon, John T; Epstein, Jonathan I; Zhong, Minghao

    2015-10-01

    Glandular lesions of the urinary bladder include a broad spectrum of entities ranging from completely benign to primary and secondary malignancies. The accurate diagnosis of these lesions is both important and challenging. Recently, studies suggest that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations could be a biomarker for urothelial carcinoma (UC). We hypothesized that these mutations can distinguish UC with glandular differentiation from nephrogenic adenoma, primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder (PAUB), or secondary malignancies. Twenty-five cases of benign glandular lesions (including nephrogenic adenoma); 29 cases of UC with glandular differentiation; 10 cases of PAUB; and 10 cases each of metastatic colon cancer, prostatic carcinoma, and carcinoma from Mullerian origin were collected. Slides were reviewed and selected to make sure the lesion was at least 10% to 20% of all tissue. Macrodissection was performed in some of cases, and genomic DNA was extracted from the tissue. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were determined by standard polymerase chain reaction sequencing. Twenty-one cases (72%) of UC with glandular differentiation were positive for TERT promoter mutations. However, none of the remaining cases (total 65 cases of benign lesions, PAUB, and metastatic carcinomas) was positive for TERT promoter mutation. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations were highly associated with UC including UC with glandular differentiation but not other glandular lesions of bladder. Therefore, in conjunction with morphologic features, Immunohistochemistry stain profile, and clinical information, TERT promoter mutations could distinguish UC with glandular differentiation from other bladder glandular lesions. In addition, lack of TERT promoter mutations in primary adenocarcinoma of bladder suggests that this entity may have different origin or carcinogenesis from those of UC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. FORTRAN Code for Glandular Dose Calculation in Mammography Using Sobol-Wu Parameters

    Mowlavi A A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate computation of the radiation dose to the breast is essential to mammography. Various the thicknesses of breast, the composition of the breast tissue and other variables affect the optimal breast dose. Furthermore, the glandular fraction, which refers to the composition of the breasts, as partitioned between radiation-sensitive glandular tissue and the adipose tissue, also has an effect on this calculation. Fatty or fibrous breasts would have a lower value for the glandular fraction than dense breasts. Breast tissue composed of half glandular and half adipose tissue would have a glandular fraction in between that of fatty and dense breasts. Therefore, the use of a computational code for average glandular dose calculation in mammography is a more effective means of estimating the dose of radiation, and is accurate and fast. Methods: In the present work, the Sobol-Wu beam quality parameters are used to write a FORTRAN code for glandular dose calculation in molybdenum anode-molybdenum filter (Mo-Mo, molybdenum anode-rhodium filter (Mo-Rh and rhodium anode-rhodium filter (Rh-Rh target-filter combinations in mammograms. The input parameters of code are: tube voltage in kV, half-value layer (HVL of the incident x-ray spectrum in mm, breast thickness in cm (d, and glandular tissue fraction (g. Results: The average glandular dose (AGD variation against the voltage of the mammogram X-ray tube for d = 4 cm, HVL = 0.34 mm Al and g=0.5 for the three filter-target combinations, as well as its variation against the glandular fraction of breast tissue for kV=25, HVL=0.34, and d=4 cm has been calculated. The results related to the average glandular absorbed dose variation against HVL for kV = 28, d=4 cm and g= 0.6 are also presented. The results of this code are in good agreement with those previously reported in the literature. Conclusion: The code developed in this study calculates the glandular dose quickly, and it is complete and

  9. Breast dose in mammography is about 30% lower when realistic heterogeneous glandular distributions are considered

    Hernandez, Andrew M., E-mail: amhern@ucdavis.edu [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Current dosimetry methods in mammography assume that the breast is comprised of a homogeneous mixture of glandular and adipose tissues. Three-dimensional (3D) dedicated breast CT (bCT) data sets were used previously to assess the complex anatomical structure within the breast, characterizing the statistical distribution of glandular tissue in the breast. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of bCT-derived heterogeneous glandular distributions on dosimetry in mammography. Methods: bCT-derived breast diameters, volumes, and 3D fibroglandular distributions were used to design realistic compressed breast models comprised of heterogeneous distributions of glandular tissue. The bCT-derived glandular distributions were fit to biGaussian functions and used as probability density maps to assign the density distributions within compressed breast models. The MCNPX 2.6.0 Monte Carlo code was used to estimate monoenergetic normalized mean glandular dose “DgN(E)” values in mammography geometry. The DgN(E) values were then weighted by typical mammography x-ray spectra to determine polyenergetic DgN (pDgN) coefficients for heterogeneous (pDgN{sub hetero}) and homogeneous (pDgN{sub homo}) cases. The dependence of estimated pDgN values on phantom size, volumetric glandular fraction (VGF), x-ray technique factors, and location of the heterogeneous glandular distributions was investigated. Results: The pDgN{sub hetero} coefficients were on average 35.3% (SD, 4.1) and 24.2% (SD, 3.0) lower than the pDgN{sub homo} coefficients for the Mo–Mo and W–Rh x-ray spectra, respectively, across all phantom sizes and VGFs when the glandular distributions were centered within the breast phantom in the coronal plane. At constant breast size, increasing VGF from 7.3% to 19.1% lead to a reduction in pDgN{sub hetero} relative to pDgN{sub homo} of 23.6%–27.4% for a W–Rh spectrum. Displacement of the glandular distribution, at a distance equal to 10% of the

  10. Testing for the induction of anti-herbivory defences in four Portuguese macroalgae by direct and water-borne cues of grazing amphipods

    Yun, H. Y.; Cruz, J.; Treitschke, M.; Wahl, Martin; Molis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivory is a key factor in regulating plant biomass, thereby driving ecosystem performance. Algae have developed multiple adaptations to cope with grazers, including morphological and chemical defences. In a series of experiments we investigated whether several species of macroalgae possess anti-herbivore defences and whether these could be regulated to demand, i.e. grazing events. The potential of direct grazing on defence induction was assessed for two brown (Dictyopteris membranacea, Fuc...

  11. Glandular dose in breast tomosynthesis examinations: Preliminary study with a sample of patients

    Castillo, M.; Chevalier, M.; Calzado, A.; Valverde, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the mean glandular dose administered to a group of patients with a tomography system (Selenia Dimensions) service installed on a large hospital in which routine tests are done and screening. (Author)

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma associated with atypical glandular cells on liquid-based cervical cytology.

    Chummun, K

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, the management of women in Ireland with atypical glandular cells changed to immediate referral to colposcopy. The optimal management of these women is unclear. A balance between the detection of occult disease and overtreatment is required.

  13. Antioxidant defences of Norway spruce bark against bark beetles and its associated blue-stain fungus

    Felicijan Mateja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles and their fungal associates are integral parts of forest ecosystems, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus Linnaeus, 1758 and the associated pathogenic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM. C. MOREAU, are the most devastating pests regarding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. H. KARST.]. Bark beetles commonly inhabit weakened and felled trees as well as vital trees. They cause physiological disorders in trees by destroying a phloem and cambium or interrupt the transpiration -ow in the xylem. Conifers have a wide range of effective defence mechanisms that are based on the inner bark anatomy and physiological state of the tree. The basic function of bark defences is to protect the nutrient-and energy-rich phloem, the vital meristematic region of the vascular cambium, and the transpiration -ow in the sapwood. The main area of defence mechanisms is secondary phloem, which is physically and chemically protected by polyphenolic parenchyma (PP cells, sclerenchyma, calcium oxalate crystals and resin ducts. Conifer trunk pest resistance includes constitutive, inducible defences and acquired resistance. Both constitutive and inducible defences may deter beetle invasion, impede fungal growth and close entrance wounds. During a successful attack, systemic acquired resistance (SAR becomes effective and represents a third defence strategy. It gradually develops throughout the plant and provides a systemic change within the whole tree’s metabolism, which is maintained over a longer period of time. The broad range of defence mechanisms that contribute to the activation and utilisation of SAR, includes antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, which are generally linked to the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The presented review discusses the current knowledge on the antioxidant defence strategies of spruce inner bark against the bark beetle (Ips typographus and associated blue stain fungus (Ceratocystis polonica.

  14. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    Memmedov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm

  15. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

    Brodeur Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  16. De Nederlandse missile defence capaciteit: Strategisch onmisbaar

    Weimar, P.W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Surface based air & missile defence behelst enerzijds de verdediging tegen conventionele luchtdreigingen, zoals vliegtuigen, helikopters en onbemande vliegtuigen (luchtverdediging). Aan de andere kant houdt het de verdediging tegen ballistische raketten en kruisraketten in (raketverdediging). De

  17. Long-distance signalling in plant defence.

    Heil, Martin; Ton, Jurriaan

    2008-06-01

    Plants use inducible defence mechanisms to fend off harmful organisms. Resistance that is induced in response to local attack is often expressed systemically, that is, in organs that are not yet damaged. In the search for translocated defence signals, biochemical studies follow the physical movement of putative signals, and grafting experiments use mutants that are impaired in the production or perception of these signals. Long-distance signals can directly activate defence or can prime for the stronger and faster induction of defence. Historically, research has focused on the vascular transport of signalling metabolites, but volatiles can play a crucial role as well. We compare the advantages and constraints of vascular and airborne signals for the plant, and discuss how they can act in synergy to achieve optimised resistance in distal plant parts.

  18. Glandularity estimation in Japanese women by using a breast model made from mammographic findings of European women

    Kawaguchi, Ai; Matsunaga, Yuta; Chida, Koichi; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate breast glandularity in Japanese women using patient exposure conditions and tissue-equivalent materials by a conventional method. Typical glandularities in Japanese women were compared with those in European women to verify the validity of the average glandular dose estimation manual based on the EUREF protocol. Glandularity was estimated from the data of 600 patients and the model breast of the tissue-equivalent materials which had various amounts of glandular contents and thicknesses. The model breasts were measured to examine the relationships between the thickness of the glandular contents and tube loading by using an automatic exposure control system. Then, equations were established to determine glandularity from patient data. The mean glandularity in the highest compressed breast thickness (CBT) group of 36–45 mm was 72%. The mean CBT of the 184 (31%) patients with glandularities exceeding 100% was 31 mm. Glandularities in patients with CBT of 30–70 mm in the present study were higher compared to those in European women by approximately 10–20%. The results suggest that the model breast of European women might not be a suitable reference standard for more than 30% of Japanese women, who have breasts with lower CBT. (author)

  19. Mineral nutrient uptake from prey and glandular phosphatase activity as dual test of carnivory in semidesert plants with glandular leaves suspected of carnivory

    Plachno, B.J.; Adamec, Lubomír; Huet, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2009), s. 649-654 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mineral nutrient uptake * phosphatases * glandular leaves Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.501, year: 2009

  20. Dematerialization in the defence sector

    Hedberg, L.; During Aahs, C.; Eriksson, Bjoern; Jungmar, M. [Stockholm Univ. and Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden). Environmental Strategies Research Group

    2001-07-01

    The goal of dematerialization is to reduce flows of resources from the biosphere and the lithosphere to the technosphere, and to increase the efficiency within the technosphere. Dematerialization can be obtained in many different ways, for example through product design and changed or reduced use of products. Recycling and reuse of material or products are two ways to achieve more efficient use of resources and reduced exploitation of raw material. Substantial amounts of material are stored within the armed forces. An assessment of the total weight of the defence materiel has been made and the result amounts to about 230 000 tons, mainly different metals. The calculation is not complete and excludes for example munitions. The scrapping of the Bofors S-tank is studied as an example of a MIPS-analysis. The MIPS-analysis is a kind of material flow analysis where the weight of all material affected by human activity related to the life-cycle of a product or service utility is estimated. Each tank is assumed to give 20 tons of recycled steel. Recycling will also lead to avoidance of waste rock and slag from extraction, the 'rucksack'. Comparing recycling of an S-tank with landfilling a material flow of roughly 160 tons from the lithosphere to the technosphere is avoided.

  1. European Defence Community: origins of integration in the defence sphere

    Іван Васильович Яковюк

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency among non-historians to force «practioners» of the discipline to justify why the study of a particular episode of the past is so important and to articulate the lessons to be learned from the experience. The fate of international constitutions and treaties is particularly prone to demands of this kind. After all, «constitutional borrowing» has long been a common feature of international law and politics. This article will address one such Treaty from the past. But it does not aspire to preserving its historical integrity; rather to awaken interest in it in the first place.          The European Defence Community (EDC was an ambitious initiative in the first years of the 1950s. Leading European countries had different foreign policy agendas towards it. The EDC. could have been a crucial milestone on the long path towards European integration. European Defense Community (EDC, an abortive attempt by western European powers, with United States support, to counterbalance the overwhelming conventional military ascendancy of the Soviet Union in Europe by the formation of a supranational European army and, in the process, to subsume West German forces into a European force, avoiding the tendentious problem of West German rearmament. One can trace the U.S. influence from the very first stages of the EDC. negotiations. Even in the agreement of the EDC., the footprints of U.S. policies can be observed, bringing the NATO Alliance to the forefront. The EDC. is also interrelated with the Marshall Plan, which leads us to think that the EDC. was not solely a European dream as has been widely argued, but rather an instrument of U.S. foreign policy, which could be resorted to as and when needed.          Influenced by the Korean War, the French politician René Pleven evolved a plan that later was put forward by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman at a meeting of the Council of Europe in 1951. Though the weaker

  2. A calibration approach to glandular tissue composition estimation in digital mammography

    Kaufhold, J.; Thomas, J.A.; Eberhard, J.W.; Galbo, C.E.; Trotter, D.E. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    The healthy breast is almost entirely composed of a mixture of fatty, epithelial, and stromal tissues which can be grouped into two distinctly attenuating tissue types: fatty and glandular. Further, the amount of glandular tissue is linked to breast cancer risk, so an objective quantitative analysis of glandular tissue can aid in risk estimation. Highnam and Brady have measured glandular tissue composition objectively. However, they argue that their work should only be used for 'relative' tissue measurements unless a careful calibration has been performed. In this work, we perform such a 'careful calibration' on a digital mammography system and use it to estimate breast tissue composition of patient breasts. We imaged 0%, 50%, and 100% glandular-equivalent phantoms of varying thicknesses for a number of clinically relevant x-ray techniques on a digital mammography system. From these images, we extracted mean signal and noise levels and computed calibration curves that can be used for quantitative tissue composition estimation. In this way, we calculate the percent glandular composition of a patient breast on a pixelwise basis. This tissue composition estimation method was applied to 23 digital mammograms. We estimated the quantitative impact of different error sources on the estimates of tissue composition. These error sources include compressed breast height estimation error, residual scattered radiation, quantum noise, and beam hardening. Errors in the compressed breast height estimate contribute the most error in tissue composition--on the order of ±7% for a 4 cm compressed breast height. The spatially varying scattered radiation will contribute quantitatively less error overall, but may be significant in regions near the skinline. It is calculated that for a 4 cm compressed breast height, a residual scatter signal error is mitigated by approximately sixfold in the composition estimate. The error in composition due to the quantum noise, which is the limiting

  3. Investigation of mean glandular dose versus compressed breast thickness relationship for mammography

    Bor, D.; Tukel, S.; Olgar, T.; Toklu, T.; Aydin, E.; Akyol, O.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the compressed breast thickness (CBT) is commonly used for the presentation of mammographic dose survey results and could also be useful for the assessment of individual breast doses retrospectively in case of lack of necessary dosimetric instrumentation. The high data scattering from the best fit reduces the reliability of this technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of this relationship using the data collected from a patient survey and phantom experiment. Patients were divided into three different groups according to their breast glandularities, which were predicted from the inspection of previous mammograms. X-ray beam qualities that will be used in patient examinations were determined according to breast thickness and predicted glandularities. The MGD versus CBT relationship for all the examined patients resulted in a poor correlation (R 2 = 0.28). This relationship was separately obtained for each glandularity group and also for sub-groups of specific beam qualities. The best correlation (R 2 = 0.73) was obtained for the fatty breast group and Mo/Mo combination. A low correlation (R 2 = 0.34) was observed in the mid-glandularity group due to inclusion of a wide range of glandularities in this group. In the case of the dense breast group, although the glandularity range was narrow, there were e still high data scattering (R 2 = 0.25). This was probably due to the use of Mo/Rh and Mo/Mo combinations. This is validated by obtaining the MGD-CBT relationship specific to Mo/Mo combination (R 2 = 0.61). (authors)

  4. Computation of the glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Vedantham, Srinivasan; D'Orsi, Carl; Karellas, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Tomosynthesis of the breast is currently a topic of intense interest as a logical next step in the evolution of digital mammography. This study reports on the computation of glandular radiation dose in digital tomosynthesis of the breast. Previously, glandular dose estimations in tomosynthesis have been performed using data from studies of radiation dose in conventional planar mammography. This study evaluates, using Monte Carlo methods, the normalized glandular dose (D g N) to the breast during a tomosynthesis study, and characterizes its dependence on breast size, tissue composition, and x-ray spectrum. The conditions during digital tomosynthesis imaging of the breast were simulated using a computer program based on the Geant4 toolkit. With the use of simulated breasts of varying size, thickness and tissue composition, the D g N to the breast tissue was computed for varying x-ray spectra and tomosynthesis projection angle. Tomosynthesis projections centered about both the cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated. For each projection angle, the ratio of the glandular dose for that projection to the glandular dose for the zero degree projection was computed. This ratio was denoted the relative glandular dose (RGD) coefficient, and its variation under different imaging parameters was analyzed. Within mammographic energies, the RGD was found to have a weak dependence on glandular fraction and x-ray spectrum for both views. A substantial dependence on breast size and thickness was found for the MLO view, and to a lesser extent for the CC view. Although RGD values deviate substantially from unity as a function of projection angle, the RGD averaged over all projections in a complete tomosynthesis study varies from 0.91 to 1.01. The RGD results were fit to mathematical functions and the resulting equations are provided

  5. Normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients for flat-panel CT breast imaging

    Thacker, Samta C; Glick, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    The development of new digital mammography techniques such as dual-energy imaging, tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging will require investigation of optimal camera design parameters and optimal imaging acquisition parameters. In optimizing these acquisition protocols and imaging systems it is important to have knowledge of the radiation dose to the breast. This study presents a methodology for estimating the normalized glandular dose to the uncompressed breast using the geometry proposed for flat-panel CT breast imaging. The simulation uses the GEANT 3 Monte Carlo code to model x-ray transport and absorption within the breast phantom. The Monte Carlo software was validated for breast dosimetry by comparing results of the normalized glandular dose (DgN) values of the compressed breast to those reported in the literature. The normalized glandular dose was then estimated for a range of breast diameters from 10 cm to 18 cm using an uncompressed breast model with a homogeneous composition of adipose and glandular tissue, and for monoenergetic x-rays from 10 keV to 120 keV. These data were fit providing expressions for the normalized glandular dose. Using these expressions for the DgN coefficients and input variables such as the diameter, height and composition of the breast phantom, the mean glandular dose for any spectra can be estimated. A computer program to provide normalized glandular dose values has been made available online. In addition, figures displaying energy deposition maps are presented to better understand the spatial distribution of dose in CT breast imaging

  6. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  7. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  8. Cadmium induced changes in subcellular glutathione contents within glandular trichomes of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Kolb, Dagmar; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used an immunohistochemical approach combined with computer-supported transmission electron microscopy in order to measure changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during Cd-stress in mesophyll cells and cells of different glandular trichomes (long and short stalked) of Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: . Even though no ultrastructural alterations were observed in leaf and glandular trichome cells after the treatment of plants with 50 microM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 48 h, all cells showed a large decrease in glutathione contents. The strongest decrease was found in nuclei and the cytosol (up to 76%) in glandular trichomes which are considered as a major side of Cd accumulation in leaves. The ratio of glutathione between the cytosol and nuclei and the other cell compartments was strongly decreased only in glandular trichomes (more than 50%) indicating that glutathione in these two cell compartments is especially important for the detoxification of Cd in glandular trichomes. Additionally, these data indicate that large amounts of Cd are withdrawn from nuclei during Cd exposure. The present study gives a detailed insight into the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during Cd exposure in mesophyll cells and glandular trichomes of C. pepo L. plants.

  9. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  10. Evaluation of subject contrast and normalized average glandular dose by semi-analytical models

    Tomal, A.; Poletti, M.E.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, two semi-analytical models are described to evaluate the subject contrast of nodules and the normalized average glandular dose in mammography. Both models were used to study the influence of some parameters, such as breast characteristics (thickness and composition) and incident spectra (kVp and target-filter combination) on the subject contrast of a nodule and on the normalized average glandular dose. From the subject contrast results, detection limits of nodules were also determined. Our results are in good agreement with those reported by other authors, who had used Monte Carlo simulation, showing the robustness of our semi-analytical method.

  11. Defence in depth in nuclear safety

    Jayakumar, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear energy is clean and can prevent global warming and hence it has a lot of importance in the current world. In order for the safe and reliable operation of the NPP, a defence in depth concept has been practised, so that even one level of protection fails the subsequent one will contain the hazardous situation. Various levels, both from consideration of the physical barriers and implementation are described in this paper. Three major accidents happened in nuclear reactors are analysed from the defence in depth concept and shortcomings are discussed. (author)

  12. Inducible indirect defence of plants : from mechanisms to ecological functions

    Dicke, M.; Poecke, van R.M.P.; Boer, de J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Inducible defences allow plants to be phenotypically plastic. Inducible indirect defence of plants by attracting carnivorous enemies of herbivorous arthropods can vary with plant species and genotype, with herbivore species or instar and potentially with other environmental conditions. So far,

  13. Papel dos tricomas glandulares da folha do tomateiro na oviposição de Tuta absoluta Role of tomato leaf glandular trichomes on oviposition of Tuta absoluta

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os tricomas glandulares presentes nas folhas e ramos das plantas do gênero Lycopersicon são responsáveis pela secreção de metabólitos de diferentes naturezas. A presença de alguns desses compostos tem sido associada à resistência do tomate a diferentes insetos. A traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, é uma das pragas mais nocivas da América do Sul. O adulto oviposita sobre as folhas do tomate e suas larvas abrem galerias no mesófilo das folhas, ramos, flores e frutos. As espécies silvestres do tomate conservam a capacidade de biossintetizar compostos químicos que lhes conferem resistência a esta praga. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a preferência para oviposição desse inseto sobre folhas com e sem tricomas glandulares de L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, suscetível, e de L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, espécie silvestre afim ao tomate, e resistente à traça. Os resultados sugerem que as fêmeas ovipositam indistintamente sobre as folhas de ambas espécies, independentemente da presença, ou não, dos tricomas glandulares. E a presença destes e de seus exsudatos não têm efeito inibidor na oviposição do inseto.In the genus Lycopersicon, different metabolites are secreted by the glandular trichomes of leaves and stems. These compounds have been associated to different tomato pests resistance. The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, is one of the most harmful pests in South America. The females oviposit on tomato leaves and the larvae mine the leaf mesophyl, stems, flowers and fruits. Some wild accessions of Lycopersicon keep their capacity to synthesize allelochemicals that protect them from the pest. In this paper a comparison was made between the tomato pinworm oviposition on leaves with and without trichomes of L. esculentum (Mill. cv. Uco Plata, a susceptible cultivar, and L. hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull. PI 134417, a resistant wild accession. Results suggest that the female

  14. Armed rollers: does nestling's vomit function as a defence against predators?

    Deseada Parejo

    Full Text Available Chemical defences against predators are widespread in the animal kingdom although have been seldom reported in birds. Here, we investigate the possibility that the orange liquid that nestlings of an insectivorous bird, the Eurasian roller (Coracias garrulus, expel when scared at their nests acts as a chemical defence against predators. We studied the diet of nestling rollers and vomit origin, its chemical composition and deterrent effect on a mammal generalist predator. We also hypothesized that nestling rollers, as their main prey (i.e. grasshoppers do from plants, could sequester chemicals from their prey for their use. Grasshoppers, that also regurgitate when facing to a threat, store the harmful substances used by plants to defend themselves against herbivores. We found that nestling rollers only vomit after being grasped and moved. The production of vomit depended on food consumption and the vomit contained two deterrent chemicals (hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids stored by grasshoppers and used by plants to diminish herbivory, suggesting that they originate from the rollers' prey. Finally, we showed for the first time that the oral secretion of a vertebrate had a deterrent effect on a model predator because vomit of nestling rollers made meat distasteful to dogs. These results support the idea that the vomit of nestling rollers is a chemical defence against predators.

  15. Civil defence abroad. Pt. 3: The Warsaw Pact countries

    Schirrmeister, K.G.; Hofmann, H.

    1988-01-01

    Civil defence forms part of the national defence of the G.D.R., and belongs since 1976 to the responsibility of the Defence Ministry. Civil defence service is equal to military service. Civil defence services are organised on a territorial basis and a production-oriented basis: Double concept. Construction of shelters is propagated for 30 years now, maintenance of existing buildings is an obligation since 1965. Principles (triage) of military medical service are applied, and are valid for students and post-graduate medical training. Civil defence training is required in school and industry. Civil defence expenditure is increasing, although there is little acceptance by the population. The issue presents extensive documentation. - Civil defence in the Soviet Union covers services in times of peace and of war. Defence measures are prepared and held up to date in the entire territory. The civil defence service belongs to the responsibility of the Council of Ministers, and the deputy minister of defence is the head of services. The training schedules and principles are laid down by the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the government, and local party organisations and governmental authorities. Civil defence training is a general obligation for all citizens over 8 years of age. The main goal is: Protection of the population as the production force, of the economy, and resources. (orig.) [de

  16. CSIR eNews: Defence peace safety and security

    CSIR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR Defence peace safety and security research unit aims to provide a defence evaluation and research institute capability for the Department of Defence. It also serves as the 'in-house' S&T capability of key government departments and agencies...

  17. Civil defence and disaster control services

    Kolb, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Today's systems of civil defence and disaster control services are the result of a long process of development, which is outlined for the Federal Republic of Germany. The present organisational and legal systems are explained, together with the institutions concerned. (DG) [de

  18. Defence Output Measures: An Economics Perspective

    2011-11-01

    positive or negative impact of defence spending on growth and there is evidence supporting both impacts! The divergent results reflect the need for a...It also protects national interests, including independence and ‘appropriate sovereignty’ (e.g. protecting a nation’s interests in a globalised

  19. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy

  20. Probiotics: beneficial factors of the defence system.

    Antoine, Jean Michel

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics, defined as living micro-organisms that provide a health benefit to the host when ingested in adequate amounts, have been used traditionally as food components to help the body to recover from diarrhoea. They are commonly ingested as part of fermented foods, mostly in fresh fermented dairy products. They can interact with the host through different components of the gut defence systems. There is mounting clinical evidence that some probiotics, but not all, help the defence of the host as demonstrated by either a shorter duration of infections or a decrease in the host's susceptibility to pathogens. Different components of the gut barrier can be involved in the strengthening of the body's defences: the gut microbiota, the gut epithelial barrier and the immune system. Many studies have been conducted in normal free-living subjects or in subjects during common infections like the common cold and show that some probiotic-containing foods can improve the functioning of or strengthen the body's defence. Specific probiotic foods can be included in the usual balanced diet of consumers to help them to better cope with the daily challenges of their environment.

  1. The long road of antimissile defence

    Gere, Francois

    2001-01-01

    The author proposes a discussion of the elaboration of the National Missile Defence (NMD) by the new US administration in 2001. He first reports the evolution of this concept which resulted in 1999 with the National Missile Defence Act, produced by a commission chaired by Rumsfeld and aimed at the assessment of the threat of ballistic missiles in the world. Before that, in the 1960, the USA already tried to protect themselves by designing two type of missiles: long range interceptors (Nike Zeus), and short range missiles (Sprint). Later, Reagan launched the Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI). By the end of Cold War, the SDI was downgraded into smaller programmes. In a second part, the author discusses some elements of the NMD content: definition of objectives over 20 years, technical and strategic obstacles, definition of Rogue States. In a third part, he proposes an overview of the relationships between antimissile defence and nuclear deterrence, notably through the ABM Treaty, and with problem raised by Arms of Mass Destruction (AMD). In the last part, he comments reactions (mainly opposition) of different countries (Russia, China, European countries and particularly Germany), and proposes some possible true motivations for the creation of the NMD

  2. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are

  3. South Africa's Defence Industrial Participation in Perspective

    jvdyk

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... product and improved the economy through the retention of some ... and maintaining a defence industrial base (DIB) in those countries ... by the Department of Trade and Industry (dti) that focuses primarily ... work share on the purchased equipment (co-production), ..... These upgrades are now an integral.

  4. South Africa's Defence Industrial Participation in Perspective

    jvdyk

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... product and improved the economy through the retention of some 58 000 jobs. ... and maintaining a defence industrial base (DIB) in those countries that have the ... by the Department of Trade and Industry (dti) that focuses primarily on civil industry ... work share on the purchased equipment (co-production), ...

  5. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Do Parasites and the Immune System Choose their Dances? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 17-24 ...

  6. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Organize Itself so as to Connect Target Recognition to Expected Functions? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 25-38 ...

  7. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Recognize Everything Under the Sun? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 6-10 ...

  8. Host defence peptides in human burns.

    Kaus, Aljoscha; Jacobsen, Frank; Sorkin, Michael; Rittig, Andrea; Voss, Bruno; Daigeler, Adrien; Sudhoff, Holger; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to analyse expression profiles of human epithelial host defence peptides in burned and unburned skin tissue, samples of which were obtained during debridements and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Total RNA was isolated, and cDNA of epithelial host defence peptides and proteins (hCAP-18/LL-37, hBD1-hBD4, dermcidin, S100A7/psoriasin and RNAse7) was quantified by qRT-PCR. In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical staining localised gene expression of hCAP-18/LL-37, hBD2 and hBD3 in histological sections. Most of the analysed host defence peptides and proteins showed higher mRNA levels in partial-thickness burns than in unburned tissue. In situ hybridisation revealed expression of hCAP-18/LL-37, hBD2 and hBD3 at the surface of burns that was independent of burn depth. However, the finding of higher host defence peptide gene expression rates does not correlate with the incidence of wound infection in burns. We hypothesise that the epithelial innate immune response in burns is complex.

  9. Assessment methodology for air defence control systems

    Oosthuizen, R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Command and Control, humans have to make sense of the situation to support decision making on the required action. Development of an Air Defence Control system through a Systems Engineering process starts with assessment of existing systems...

  10. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  11. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT

  12. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Baer, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. He...

  13. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of phantom and patient data

    Bouwman, R. W.; van Engen, R. E.; Young, K. C.; den Heeten, G. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.; Schopphoven, S.; Jeukens, C. R. L. P. N.; Veldkamp, W. J. H.; Dance, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last

  14. Severe glandular tularemia in a patient treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor for psoriatic arthritis

    Ruxandra Calin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline–ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment.

  15. A Stochastic Polygons Model for Glandular Structures in Colon Histology Images.

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Snead, David R J; Rajpoot, Nasir M

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a stochastic model for glandular structures in histology images of tissue slides stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, choosing colon tissue as an example. The proposed Random Polygons Model (RPM) treats each glandular structure in an image as a polygon made of a random number of vertices, where the vertices represent approximate locations of epithelial nuclei. We formulate the RPM as a Bayesian inference problem by defining a prior for spatial connectivity and arrangement of neighboring epithelial nuclei and a likelihood for the presence of a glandular structure. The inference is made via a Reversible-Jump Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. To the best of our knowledge, all existing published algorithms for gland segmentation are designed to mainly work on healthy samples, adenomas, and low grade adenocarcinomas. One of them has been demonstrated to work on intermediate grade adenocarcinomas at its best. Our experimental results show that the RPM yields favorable results, both quantitatively and qualitatively, for extraction of glandular structures in histology images of normal human colon tissues as well as benign and cancerous tissues, excluding undifferentiated carcinomas.

  16. Energetic consequences of an inducible morphological defence in crucian carp.

    Pettersson, Lars B; Brönmark, Christer

    1999-10-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) increases in body depth in response to chemical cues from piscivores and the deeper body constitutes a morphological defence against gape-limited piscivores. In the field, deep-bodied individuals suffer a density-dependent cost when competing with shallow-bodied conspecifics. Here, we use hydrodynamic theory and swimming respirometry to investigate the proposed mechanism underlying this effect, high drag caused by the deep-bodied morphology. Our study confirms that drag is higher for deep-bodied crucian carp, both in terms of estimated theoretical drag and power curve steepness. However, deep-bodied fish swimming at the velocity associated with minimum cost of transport, U mc , did not experience higher costs of transport than shallow-bodied fish. Deep-bodied crucian carp had significantly lower standard metabolic rates, i.e. metabolic rates at rest, and also lower U mc , and the resulting costs of transport were similar for the two morphs. Nevertheless, when deep-bodied individuals deviate from U mc , e.g. when increasing foraging effort under competition, their steeper power curves will cause substantial energy costs relative to shallow-bodied conspecifics. Furthermore, there is evidence that reductions in standard metabolic rate incur costs in terms of lower stress tolerance, reduced growth rate, and life history changes. Thus, this work provides links between hydrodynamics, a cost-reducing mechanism, and a density-dependent fitness cost associated with an inducible defence.

  17. Public Private Business Models for Defence Acquisition - A Multiple Case Study of Defence Acquisition Projects in the UK

    Ekström, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Since the ending of the Cold War, the defence sector, particularly the areas of military logistics and defence acquisition, has been undergoing a comprehensive transformation. There are several factors that explain this transformation: changes in defence and security policies for nations and organisations; reductions in defence expenditure; participation in Peace Support Operations; Lessons Learned from these operations, especially in the area of logistics; revolutionary development in the ar...

  18. European defence industry consolidation and domestic procurement bias

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    2017-01-01

    How have European cross-border defence industrial mergers and acquisitions affected domestic procurement bias among the major EU powers? This article departs from the findings of Andrew Moravcsik more than two decades ago suggesting that major West European states had no ingrained preferences...... for defence industrial autarchy. When cross-national armament projects were derailed, this could be attributed to political efforts of national defence industrial champions favouring purely domestic projects. As former national champions join pan-European defence groups, their preferences are likely modified......-border defence industry consolidation will be analysed. Procurement bias is assessed in two industry segments characterised by pervasive consolidation....

  19. Uncovering the defence responses of Eucalyptus to pests and pathogens in the genomics age.

    Naidoo, Sanushka; Külheim, Carsten; Zwart, Lizahn; Mangwanda, Ronishree; Oates, Caryn N; Visser, Erik A; Wilken, Febé E; Mamni, Thandekile B; Myburg, Alexander A

    2014-09-01

    Long-lived tree species are subject to attack by various pests and pathogens during their lifetime. This problem is exacerbated by climate change, which may increase the host range for pathogens and extend the period of infestation by pests. Plant defences may involve preformed barriers or induced resistance mechanisms based on recognition of the invader, complex signalling cascades, hormone signalling, activation of transcription factors and production of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with direct antimicrobial or anti-insect activity. Trees have evolved some unique defence mechanisms compared with well-studied model plants, which are mostly herbaceous annuals. The genome sequence of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden has recently become available and provides a resource to extend our understanding of defence in large woody perennials. This review synthesizes existing knowledge of defence mechanisms in model plants and tree species and features mechanisms that may be important for defence in Eucalyptus, such as anatomical variants and the role of chemicals and proteins. Based on the E. grandis genome sequence, we have identified putative PR proteins based on sequence identity to the previously described plant PR proteins. Putative orthologues for PR-1, PR-2, PR-4, PR-5, PR-6, PR-7, PR-8, PR-9, PR-10, PR-12, PR-14, PR-15 and PR-17 have been identified and compared with their orthologues in Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray ex Hook and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The survey of PR genes in Eucalyptus provides a first step in identifying defence gene targets that may be employed for protection of the species in future. Genomic resources available for Eucalyptus are discussed and approaches for improving resistance in these hardwood trees, earmarked as a bioenergy source in future, are considered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis; Estimacion de la dosis glandular media en un equipo de tomosintesis

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-07-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  1. The European Security and Defence Policy

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), which is the operational military and civilian dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is today one of the most dynamic areas of the European Union. However, it is only recently that the EU has acquired explicit military decision....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons...

  2. The Kassel concept for river flood defence

    Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydraulic and Water-Resources Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Following an introduction referring to the history, the regulation of ''interference and compensation'' and the ''sustainable development'' as the foundation of future-oriented flood defence concepts are dealt with. The position of science and technology with respect to the employed planning methods: Models for the determination of spatial and temporal distribution of maximum precipitation, river basin models, methods for water level computation, benefit/cost analysis and environmental assessment are described and evaluated. Thereafter the Kassel Concept for River Flood Defence is presented. The basic principle is a mosaic of de-central, semi-central and central measures with reference to the specific project which are economically eligible and environment-compatible. (orig.)

  3. Immune Defence Factors In Human Milk

    Kumar Sanjeev

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence is accumulating to prove the nutritional, anti-infective, anti-fertility, psychosomal and economic advantages of breast-feeding. A number of studies have shown that breast milk protects against diarrheal, respiratory and other infections. Its value in protecting against allergy has also been established. This article reviews the studies on various immune defence factors present in the human milk. The available scientific knowledge makes a very strong case in favour of promoting breast-feeding.

  4. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent pathways. Cross-talk between the salicylic acid-dependent and the salicy...

  5. Radiation Protection and Civil defence Department

    Gomaa, M.A.; Elshinawy, R.M.K.; Abdelfattah, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables

  6. The Man-in-the-Middle Defence

    Anderson, Ross; Bond, Mike

    Eliminating middlemen from security protocols helps less than one would think. EMV electronic payments, for example, can be made fairer by adding an electronic attorney - a middleman which mediates access to a customer’s card. We compare middlemen in crypto protocols and APIs with those in the real world, and show that a man-in-the-middle defence is helpful in many circumstances. We suggest that the middleman has been unfairly demonised.

  7. The effect of aluminium added filter on mean glandular dose using mammography machine in MINT Medical Physics Laboratory

    Asmaliza Hashim; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various thickness of aluminium added filter on mean glandular dose in mammography is investigated for a standard breast phantom, 4.2 cm Perspex. A mammography machine in Medical Physics Laboratory MINT, Bennett Model DMF-150 is used to provide radiation in various kV range under clinical condition. The mean glandular dose on the phantom were measured based on technique recommended by AAPM protocol (1990) report no 29. The mean glandular dose was found reducing with increasing thickness of added filter. A more detail results of this study is presented in this paper. (Author)

  8. Monte Carlo simulation for the estimation of the glandular breast dose for a digital breast tomosynthesis system

    Rodrigues, Leonardo; Braz, Delson; Goncalves Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a screening and diagnostic modality that acquires images of the breast at multiple angles during a short scan. The Selenia Dimensions (Hologic, Bedford, Mass) DBT system can perform both full-field digital mammography and DBT. The system acquires 15 projections over a 15 deg. angular range (from -7.5 deg. to +7.5 deg.). An important factor in determining the optimal imaging technique for breast tomosynthesis is the radiation dose. In breast imaging, the radiation dose of concern is that deposited in the glandular tissue of the breast because this is the tissue that has a risk of developing cancer. The concept of the normalised mean glandular dose (DgN) has been introduced as the metric for the dose in breast imaging. The DgN is difficult to measure. The Monte Carlo techniques offer an alternative method for a realistic estimation of the radiation dose. The purpose of this work was to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX technique to generate monoenergetic glandular dose data for estimating the breast tissue dose in tomosynthesis for arbitrary spectra as well as to observe the deposited radiation dose by projection on the glandular portion of the breast in a Selenia Dimensions DBT system. A Monte Carlo simulation of the system was developed to compute the DgN in a craniocaudal view. Monoenergetic X-ray beams from 10 to 49 keV in 1-keV increments were used. The simulation utilised the assumption of a homogeneous breast composition and three compositions (0 % glandular, 50 % glandular and 100 % glandular). The glandular and adipose tissue compositions were specified according ICRU Report 44. A skin layer of 4 mm was assumed to encapsulate the breast on all surfaces. The breast size was varied using the chest wall-to-nipple distance (CND) and compressed breast thickness (t). In this work, the authors assumed a CND of 5 cm and the thicknesses ranged from 2 to 8 cm, in steps of 2 cm. The fractional energy absorption increases (up to 44

  9. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  10. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    Alsdurf, Jacob D; Ripley, Tayler J; Matzner, Steven L; Siemens, David H

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. Löve & D. Löve, a perennial wild relative of Arabidopsis, representing genetic variation within and among several low-elevation range margin populations. Boechera stricta is restricted to higher, moister elevations in temperate regions where generalist herbivores are often less common. Previous reports indicate a negative genetic correlation (genetic tradeoff) between chemical defence allocation and abiotic stress tolerance that may prevent the simultaneous evolution of defence and drought tolerance that would be needed for range expansion. In growth chamber experiments, the genetic tradeoff became undetectable among offspring sib-families whose parents had been drought treated, suggesting that the stress-induced trans-generational plasticity may circumvent the genetic tradeoff and thus enable range expansion. However, the trans-generational effects also included a conflict between plastic responses (environmental tradeoff); offspring whose parents were drought treated were more drought tolerant, but had lower levels of glucosinolate toxins that function in defence against generalist herbivores. We suggest that either the genetic or environmental tradeoff between defence allocation and stress tolerance has the potential to contribute to range limit development in upland mustards.

  11. Dopamine is a key regulator in the signalling pathway underlying predator-induced defences in Daphnia

    Weiss, Linda C.; Leese, Florian; Laforsch, Christian; Tollrian, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The waterflea Daphnia is a model to investigate the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity resulting from one differentially expressed genome. Daphnia develops adaptive phenotypes (e.g. morphological defences) thwarting predators, based on chemical predator cue perception. To understand the genomic basis of phenotypic plasticity, the description of the precedent cellular and neuronal mechanisms is fundamental. However, key regulators remain unknown. All neuronal and endocrine stimulants were able to modulate but not induce defences, indicating a pathway of interlinked steps. A candidate able to link neuronal with endocrine responses is the multi-functional amine dopamine. We here tested its involvement in trait formation in Daphnia pulex and Daphnia longicephala using an induction assay composed of predator cues combined with dopaminergic and cholinergic stimulants. The mere application of both stimulants was sufficient to induce morphological defences. We determined dopamine localization in cells found in close association with the defensive trait. These cells serve as centres controlling divergent morphologies. As a mitogen and sclerotization agent, we anticipate that dopamine is involved in proliferation and structural formation of morphological defences. Furthermore, dopamine pathways appear to be interconnected with endocrine pathways, and control juvenile hormone and ecdysone levels. In conclusion, dopamine is suggested as a key regulator of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:26423840

  12. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites Alta densidade de tricomas glandulares em tomateiro e aumento da repelência a ácaros rajados

    Wilson Roberto Maluf

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII, and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence to spider mites.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção para maior densidade de tricomas glandulares na resistência (repelência ao ácaro Tetranychus urticae, em populações de tomate derivadas do cruzamento interespecífico Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Foram avaliados 19 genótipos quanto à densidade de tricomas, que incluíram 12 derivados de populações avançadas de retrocruzamentos, obtidos a partir do cruzamento original L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Nas faces abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, realizaram-se as contagens e os tricomas foram classificados em glandulares tipo IV e VI, outros glandulares (tipo I e VII e não glandulares. A repelência aos ácaros foi medida pela distância média, percorrida pelo

  13. Second-harmonic generation as a DNA malignancy indicator of prostate glandular epithelial cells

    Zheng-Fei, Zhuang; Han-Ping, Liu; Zhou-Yi, Guo; Xiao-Yuan, Deng; Shuang-Mu, Zhuo; Bi-Ying, Yu

    2010-01-01

    This paper first demonstrates second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the intact cell nucleus, which acts as an optical indicator of DNA malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells. Within a scanning region of 2.7 μm×2.7 μm in cell nuclei, SHG signals produced from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC) tissues (mouse model C57BL/6) have been investigated. Statistical analyses (t test) of a total of 405 measurements (204 nuclei from BPH and 201 nuclei from PC) show that SHG signals from BPH and PC have a distinct difference (p < 0.05), suggesting a potential optical method of revealing very early malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells based upon induced biochemical and/or biophysical modifications in DNA. (geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics)

  14. Ultrastructure of the apical glandular region of the scolex of Proteocephalus torulosus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae)

    Žďárská, Zdeňka; Scholz, Tomáš; Nebesářová, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2004), s. 333-338 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cestoda * Proteocephalus torulosus * apical glandular region Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2004

  15. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  16. Severe glandular tularemia in a patient treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor for psoriatic arthritis.

    Calin, Ruxandra; Caumes, Eric; Reibel, Florence; Ali Mohamed, Anzime; Brossier, Florence; Foltz, Violaine; Boussouar, Samia; Fautrel, Bruno; Maurin, Max; Katlama, Christine; Pourcher, Valérie

    2017-07-01

    A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. MORPHOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE WALL OF THE GLANDULAR STOMACH OF YOUNG RABBITS (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    de Oliveira, Larissa Renata; Molinari, Sonia Lucy; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Michelan, Andrea Cristiane; Scapinello, Claúdio

    2001-01-01

    The morphology of the stomach may vary between species as a function of feeding habits, differences on the cellular composition of the mucosa of the stomach wall and the different functions it carries out. Morphofunctional variations of the stomach of several animals along phylogeny led us to investigate the morphology of the wall of the glandular stomach of rabbits. We used the stomachs of 32 young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from the White New Zealand strain, coming from the Experimenta...

  18. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  19. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation

    Marques, T.; Di Maria, S.; Vaz, P.; Ribeiro, A.; Belchior, A.; Cardoso, J.; Matela, N.; Oliveira, N.; Almeida, P.; Janeiro, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed. (authors)

  20. Atypical squamous and glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and AGUS) of the uterine cervix.

    Cenci, M; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    ASCUS (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance) and AGUS (Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance), or AGCUS, are two acronyms introduced in 1988 by The Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting borderline cytological changes in cervical cytology. ASCUS and AGUS categories should be subclassified. Five ASCUS subgroups were proposed: 1) ASCUS due to processing defects, 2) with "mature" cytoplasm, 3) in post-menopausal women (a--in the setting of atrophy and b--with estrogen stimulation), 4) atypical metaplasia, and 5) ASCUS with keratinized cytoplasm. AGUS subgroups may be subcategorized in endometrial or endocervical on the basis of origin. Endocervical AGUS should be further qualified, but the analysis of atypical glandular cells may be really difficult and the conclusive diagnosis is frequently "AGUS not otherwise specified". The subclassification of ASCUS and AGUS is useful for an appropriate clinical management, but pertinent patient information (such as age, date of last menstrual period, mechanical therapies, tamoxifen therapy, and others) is needed to avoid an overdiagnosis and consequently an overtreatment. In fact various subgroups require different clinical management. Therefore, an effective communication between cytopathologists and referring physicians is essential in the analysis of squamous and glandular atypias.

  1. Genetic Architecture of Capitate Glandular Trichome Density in Florets of Domesticated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kane, Nolan C; Hulke, Brent S; Reinert, Stephan; Pogoda, Cloe S; Tittes, Silas; Prasifka, Jarrad R

    2017-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. CGT can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resistance is effective to combat the specialist pest, sunflower moth. However, the genetic basis of CGT density is not well understood in sunflower. In this study, we identified two major QTL controlling CGT density in sunflower florets by using a F 4 mapping population derived from the cross HA 300 × RHA 464 with a genetic linkage map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data and composed of 2121 SNP markers. One major QTL is located on chromosome 5, which explained 11.61% of the observed phenotypic variation, and the second QTL is located on chromosome 6, which explained 14.06% of the observed phenotypic variation. The QTL effects and the association between CGT density and QTL support interval were confirmed in a validation population which included 39 sunflower inbred lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. We also identified two strong candidate genes in the QTL support intervals, and the functions of their orthologs in other plant species suggested their potential roles in regulating capitate glandular trichome density in sunflower. Our results provide valuable information to sunflower breeding community for developing host resistance to sunflower insect pests.

  2. CT measurement of breast glandular tissue and its association with testicular cancer

    Klang, Eyal [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Rozendorn, Noa; Raskin, Steve; Portnoy, Orith; Sklair, Miri; Marom, Edith M.; Konen, Eli; Amitai, Michal M. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the associations between breast glandular tissues diameters as determined by CT and b-hCG levels, histological types, tumour spread and prognosis in patients with testicular germ cell tumour. Ninety-four patients with pre-treatment CT scan and markers (b-hCG, AFP, LDH) were retrospectively collected. A radiologist measured diameters in all CT examinations and correlation between diameters and log (b-hCG) was assessed (Pearson's coefficient). The ability of measured diameters to predict lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread was evaluated (ROC curves). The associations between measured diameter cut-off values of 20 and 25 mm and International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification, lymphatic and distant haematogenous metastatic spread and histological subtypes were evaluated (chi squared test). Breast glandular diameters correlated to log(b-hCG) (r = 0.579) and predicted distant haematogenous metastatic spread (AUC = 0.78). Worse prognosis (intermediate or poor IGCCCG) was shown for 20 mm (27.3 vs. 4.2 %, p = 0.005) and 25 mm (33.3 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.014). A diameter of 25 mm was associated with non-seminoma (91.7 vs. 48.8 %, p = 0.005). Breast glandular tissue diameters correlated with log(b-hCG) and predicted distant haematogenous metastases. Twenty and 25 mm were associated with worse prognosis and 25 mm was able to distinguish between seminoma and non-seminoma. (orig.)

  3. Antibacterial, modulatory activity of antibiotics and toxicity from Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) (Anura: Bufonidae) glandular secretions.

    Sales, Débora Lima; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Santos, Antonia Thassya Lucas Dos; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Araujo Filho, João Antonio de; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra da; Saraiva, Rogério de Aquino; Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar de; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Costa, José Galberto Martins; Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    The increase in microorganisms with resistance to medications has caused a strong preoccupation within the medical and scientific community. Animal toxins studies, such as parotoid glandular secretions from amphibians, possesses a great potential in the development of drugs, such as antimicrobials, as these possess bioactive compounds. It was evaluated Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) glandular secretions against standard and multi-resistant bacterial strains; the effect of secretions combined with drugs; and determined the toxicity using two biologic in vivo models, and a in vitro model with mice livers. Standard strains were used for the determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), while for the modulatory activity of antibiotics, the clinical isolates Escherichia coli 06, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03 and Staphylococcus aureus 10 were used. Modulatory activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method with aminoglycosides and β-lactams as target antibiotics. The secretions in association with the antibiotics have a significant reduction in MIC, both the aminoglycosides and β-lactams. The toxicity and cytotoxicity results were lower than the values used in the modulation. R. jimi glandular secretions demonstrated clinically relevant results regarding the modulation of the tested antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of glandular kallikrein in human plasma after partial purification by immunoaffinity column

    Nishimura, Kazutaka; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Kokubu, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Glandular kallikrein in human plasma was partially purified by immunoaffinity column and was measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). Plasma was diluted with an equal volume of 10 mmol/l sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.9% NaCl (PBS) and was applied to an immunoaffinity column from which glandular kallikrein was eluted with 3 mol/l NaSCN (20 ml). The enzymic fraction was concentrated with an Amicon PM 10 filter and dialyzed against PBS. The final recovery of the enzyme was 51.6 ± 1.6%, determined by using [ 125 I]kallikrein. The usable range of the standard curve covered 2.5-100 ng/tube. The coefficient of variation within the series was 5.9%, and the coefficient of variation between the series was 7.6%. In healthy controls, the plasma content of glandular kallikrein was 1.36 ± 0.39 ng/ml. In patients with acute pancreatitis, the plasma concentration was 8.02 ± 6.15 ng/ml, significantly different from the control group. (Auth.)

  5. Impact of digitalization of mammographic units on average glandular doses in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Program

    De Hauwere, An; Thierens, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    The impact of digitalization on the average glandular doses in 49 mammographic units participating in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Program was studied. Screen-film was changed to direct digital radiography and computed radiography in 25 and 24 departments respectively. Average glandular doses were calculated before and after digitalization for different PMMA-phantom thicknesses and for groups of 50 successive patients. For the transition from screen-film to computed radiography both ph...

  6. Characterization of fibrillar collagens and extracellular matrix of glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules.

    Tyler M Bauman

    Full Text Available Recent studies have associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in men with prostatic fibrosis, but a definitive link between collagen deposition and LUTS has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to evaluate ECM and collagen content within normal glandular prostate tissue and glandular BPH, and to evaluate the association of clinical parameters of LUTS with collagen content.Fibrillar collagen and ECM content was assessed in normal prostate (48 patients and glandular BPH nodules (24 patients using Masson's trichrome stain and Picrosirius red stain. Second harmonic generation (SHG imaging was used to evaluate collagen content. Additional BPH tissues (n = 47 were stained with Picrosirius red and the association between clinical parameters of BPH/LUTS and collagen content was assessed.ECM was similar in normal prostate and BPH (p = 0.44. Total collagen content between normal prostate and glandular BPH was similar (p = 0.27, but a significant increase in thicker collagen bundles was observed in BPH (p = 0.045. Using SHG imaging, collagen content in BPH (mean intensity = 62.52; SEM = 2.74 was significantly higher than in normal prostate (51.77±3.49; p = 0.02. Total collagen content was not associated with treatment with finasteride (p = 0.47 or α-blockers (p = 0.52, pre-TURP AUA symptom index (p = 0.90, prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.86, post-void residual (PVR; p = 0.32, prostate size (p = 0.21, or post-TURP PVR (p = 0.51. Collagen content was not associated with patient age in patients with BPH, however as men aged normal prostatic tissue had a decreased proportion of thick collagen bundles.The proportion of larger bundles of collagen, but not total collagen, is increased in BPH nodules, suggesting that these large fibers may play a role in BPH/LUTS. Total collagen content is independent of clinical parameters of BPH and LUTS. If fibrosis and overall ECM deposition are

  7. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  8. Calculation of Absorbed Glandular Dose using a FORTRAN Program Based on Monte Carlo X-ray Spectra in Mammography

    Ali Asghar Mowlavi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Average glandular dose calculation in mammography with Mo-Rh target-filter and dose calculation for different situations is accurate and fast. Material and Methods: In this research, first of all, x-ray spectra of a Mo target bombarded by a 28 keV electron beam with and without a Rh filter were calculated using the MCNP code. Then, we used the Sobol-Wu parameters to write a FORTRAN code to calculate average glandular dose. Results: Average glandular dose variation was calculated against the voltage of the mammographic x-ray tube for d = 5 cm, HVL= 0.35 mm Al, and different value of g. Also, the results related to average glandular absorbed dose variation per unit roentgen radiation against the glandular fraction of breast tissue for kV = 28 and HVL = 0.400 mmAl and different values of d are presented. Finally, average glandular dose against d for g = 60% and three values of kV (23, 27, 35 kV with corresponding HVLs have been calculated. Discussion and Conclusion: The absorbed dose computational program is accurate, complete, fast and user friendly. This program can be used for optimization of exposure dose in mammography. Also, the results of this research are in good agreement with the computational results of others.

  9. Networks and network analysis for defence and security

    Masys, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security discusses relevant theoretical frameworks and applications of network analysis in support of the defence and security domains. This book details real world applications of network analysis to support defence and security. Shocks to regional, national and global systems stemming from natural hazards, acts of armed violence, terrorism and serious and organized crime have significant defence and security implications. Today, nations face an uncertain and complex security landscape in which threats impact/target the physical, social, economic

  10. Conversion policy principles of defence factory

    Fedik, I.I.; Deniskin, V.P.; Stepanov, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    1.Research Production Association 'LUCH' (RPA 'LUCH') have worked at atomic industry for 51 years. Now it is one of the leading scientific production centers of Russia Ministry of Atomic Energy. Not long ago it was a complex of Scientific Research Institute, experimental plant and Obyedenennaya Expedicia at the Semipalatinsk test site (now it is the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK). Basic directions of the complex activity are defence tasks. These tasks are to develop structure and technology of producing fuel assemblies for NRE (nuclear rocket engine) reactors. Also the tasks include testing the fuel assemblies at IWG-1, RWD and RA reactors. Also the tasks include structure and technology development, production and testing electric generating channels for nuclear thermal emission converters of nuclear energy into electric one (space board power engineering), power metal optics for powerful lasers, high temperature gas reactors. 2.Main directions of RPA 'LUCH' conversion were determined on the basis of possibilities for developing main achievements in defence technology directions.These directions are high temperature materials and constructions (carbides, refractory metals, measurements, optics, uranium compound, beryllium, molybdenum) 3.At present at RPA 'LUCH' there have been created experimental and industrial productions making temperature sensors for Atomic Electric Power Stations (AEPS). Also these manufactures release commercial products. They produce technological equipment of carbide-silicon for electronic industry as well as parts or X-ray tubes, vermiculite parts for cable driving of AEP stations (high temperature, fireproof ones) of thermal and electrical accumulators. Thus, a scientific-production center is being created. Core of it is a scientific engineers group and development directions, generated from orders of defence department, as well as new foreign technologies (along with investments).The example of the said above can be development of a

  11. CHEMICALS

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  12. Defence and illustration of nuclear deterrence

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    After having shown that nuclear deterrence has been efficient since 1945 (nuclear weapons prevented from war, nuclear deterrence contributed to the reduction of risks related to proliferation), the author discusses the amorality and illegality of nuclear deterrence (its ethics can indeed be a matter of discussion, as well as issues like self-defence and international humanitarian law). On another hand, he shows that deterrence costs remain acceptable and that substitutes to nuclear deterrence are not credible. He concludes that deterrence is therefore still useful and legitimate

  13. The role of moulting in parasite defence.

    Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-08-07

    Parasitic infections consist of a succession of steps during which hosts and parasites interact in specific manners. At each step, hosts can use diverse defence mechanisms to counteract the parasite's attempts to invade and exploit them. Of these steps, the penetration of parasites into the host is a key step for a successful infection and the epithelium is the first line of host defence. The shedding of this protective layer (moulting) is a crucial feature in the life cycle of several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, and is generally considered to make hosts vulnerable to parasites and predators. Here, we used the crustacean Daphnia magna to test whether moulting influences the likelihood of infection by the castrating bacterium Pasteuria ramosa. This parasite is known to attach to the host cuticula before penetrating into its body. We found that the likelihood of successful parasite infection is greatly reduced if the host moults within 12 h after parasite exposure. Thus, moulting is beneficial for the host being exposed to this parasite. We further show that exposure to the parasite does not induce hosts to moult earlier. We discuss the implications of our findings for host and parasite evolution and epidemiology.

  14. Civil defence information for every home

    Joutsi, L.

    1995-01-01

    In Finland, the local authorities and the central government are responsible for the general planning of civil defence and for joint protection measures, while individual citizens and corporations are responsible for individual protection measures. In practice, housing companies and employers are required to carry out the statutory preparations needed for civil defence. Preparation for accidents can be improved, for instance, by awareness of correct actions in each situation. The most important individual protection measures are first aid, basic fire extinguishing skills, provision of shelter, and acquisition of a reserve stock of provisions at home. A reserve stock means that there is a sufficient supply of non-perishable foodstuffs, medication and water vessels for a couple of days' needs at home. A warning of imminent danger is usually given by sounding a general alarm signal. Even slight changes in radiation are reported immediately. Shelter should primarily be sought indoors. Instructions may be given on the radio, on TV and by means of loudspeakers. If there is a radiation risk, the thyroid may be protected against radioactive iodine by taking iodine tablets, but they should not be taken until so instructed by the authorities. (2 figs.)

  15. Preconscious defence analysis, memory and structural change.

    Ross, John Munder

    2003-02-01

    Beginning with the ways in which the use of the couch lends 'depth to the surface' (Erikson, 1954), I explore the topography of the inter- and intrasubjective psychoanalytic situation and process. I suggest that defences are not by definition unconscious but rather can be observed operating at conscious and preconscious levels, particularly under these conditions. A focus on preconscious disavowal provides a window on what has become unconscious repression. As a result of eliciting and then verbalising the operation of such defences with regard to anxieties in the here-and-now transference, declarative memories of increasingly specific childhood fantasies and events begin to hold sway over unmanageable procedural remnants from the analysand's past. With this may even come the possibility of neuronal regeneration, the more generalisable enhancement of declarative and symbolic functions and the sense of identity with which these are associated. Herein may lie one enduring therapeutic effect of the 'talking cure' - putting feelings into words - as one among a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities.

  16. Thrips advisor: exploiting thrips-induced defences to combat pests on crops.

    Steenbergen, Merel; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed; Bleeker, Petra; Dicke, Marcel; Escobar-Bravo, Rocio; Cheng, Gang; Haring, Michel A; Kant, Merijn R; Kappers, Iris; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Leiss, Kirsten A; Legarrea, Saioa; Macel, Mirka; Mouden, Sanae; Pieterse, Corné M J; Sarde, Sandeep J; Schuurink, Robert C; De Vos, Martin; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Broekgaarden, Colette

    2018-04-09

    Plants have developed diverse defence mechanisms to ward off herbivorous pests. However, agriculture still faces estimated crop yield losses ranging from 25% to 40% annually. These losses arise not only because of direct feeding damage, but also because many pests serve as vectors of plant viruses. Herbivorous thrips (Thysanoptera) are important pests of vegetable and ornamental crops worldwide, and encompass virtually all general problems of pests: they are highly polyphagous, hard to control because of their complex lifestyle, and they are vectors of destructive viruses. Currently, control management of thrips mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides. However, thrips rapidly develop resistance to these pesticides. With the rising demand for more sustainable, safer, and healthier food production systems, we urgently need to pinpoint the gaps in knowledge of plant defences against thrips to enable the future development of novel control methods. In this review, we summarize the current, rather scarce, knowledge of thrips-induced plant responses and the role of phytohormonal signalling and chemical defences in these responses. We describe concrete opportunities for breeding resistance against pests such as thrips as a prototype approach for next-generation resistance breeding.

  17. Pareto Efficient Solution of Attack-Defence Trees

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as

  18. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT and E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  19. Fallout: the defence, industrial and technological benefits of nuclear deterrence

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In the current climate of budgetary restrictions, it is fair to question the weight of military nuclear defence spending. Upon examination, however, nuclear deterrence has numerous military, industrial, and technological benefits. It is, in fact, totally intertwined with the other elements of our defence system. (author)

  20. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results show...

  1. Considerations on Defence Thinking in Post-1994 South Africa with ...

    ... analyse and discuss the new comprehensive guidelines for defence force design in the Draft Defence Review 2012 and reflects on some of the most important policy implications for the SANDF in this regard – specifically given the demands placed on the SANDF in the field of post-conflict reconstruction and development.

  2. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios Conference

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    Attack-defence trees are a powerful technique for formally evaluating attack-defence scenarios. They represent in an intuitive, graphical way the interaction between an attacker and a defender who compete in order to achieve conflicting objectives. We propose a novel framework for the formal

  3. Infection biology and defence responses in sorghum against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    Puttalingaiah, Basavaraju; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Shetty, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the infection biology of Colletotrichum sublineolum (isolate CP2126) and defence responses in leaves of resistant (SC146), intermediately resistant (SC326) and susceptible (BTx623) sorghum genotypes. Methods and Results: Infection biology and defence responses were studied...

  4. Impacts of low doses of pesticide mixtures on liver cell defence systems

    Zucchini-Pascal, Nathalie; Dupont, Gwendoline; Razpotnik, Andrej; Fouche, Edwin; De Sousa, Georges; Rahmani, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Low amounts of residual pesticides are present in the environment, often as mixtures of chemicals which contaminate drinking water and food, being a source of chronic exposure for humans and a growing matter of concern in public health policy. Despite of the needs and growing investigation, little is known about the impact of low doses and mixtures of these chemicals on human health. The purpose of this study was to enlighten if modifications of liver cell metabolic- and/or defence-related ca...

  5. Getting prepared for future attack : induction of plant defences by herbivore egg deposition and consequences for the insect community

    Pashalidou, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved intriguing defences against insect herbivores. Compared to constitutive Plants have evolved intriguing defences against insect herbivores. Compared to constitutive defences that are always present, plants can respond with inducible defences when they are attacked. Insect

  6. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors; Resultados preliminares da dose glandular media na mama medida com TLDS e calculada atraves de fatores de conversao

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: ltsardo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claudio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D{sub G}. Measuring methods of D{sub G} were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D{sub G} from the measurement of incident air kerma, K{sub i}, and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D{sub G} measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  7. Assessment of mean glandular dose to patients from digital mammography systems

    Pwamang, Caroline K.

    2016-07-01

    Mean glandular dose assessment of patients undergoing digital mammography examination has been done. A total of 297 patient data was used for the study. Basic Quality Control tests were done to ascertain the performance of the equipment used. The results of Quality Control tests indicated that the three Mammography units used for this study were functioning within the internationally acceptable performance criteria. Patients with a breast thickness of 30 mm within the two age groups of 40-49 yrs and 50-64 yrs received doses slightly higher than the acceptable dose levels. A patient in the category 40-49 yrs with breast thickness of 30 mm received 1.83 mGy as calculated Mean Glandular Dose, 2.10 mGy was the recorded dose and 1.58 mGy was recorded under the age group 50-64 yrs. These values have deviated by -22%, -40%, and -5.33% respectively from 1.5 mGy which is the recommended dose for a breast thickness of 30 mm. Also patients with breast thickness of 70 mm under the age group 40–49 yrs had a recorded dose of 6.58 mGy, which deviated by -1.21% from the recommended value of 6.5 mGy for that breast thickness. Aside these values, all the other values were within the recommended dose values. The percentage deviation between the recommended values and the calculated values was within ±25% which was a working limit that was set for this work. Doses delivered by the Full-field Digital mammography equipment were higher than doses delivered by the Computered Radiography equipment. The calculated Mean Glandular Doses for the three facilities were within recommended dose values. (author)

  8. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  10. Impact of antimissile defence on nuclear strategies in Asia

    Delory, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    As antimissile defence has become a mean to compensate the limitations of nuclear deterrence in Asia, notably within the frame of the US-North Korea relationship, but has also influence on the relationships between countries which do not possess an actual operational antimissile defence like Pakistan and India, the author proposes an assessment of the consequences antimissile defence may have on deterrence logics in Asia. He also notices that various issues must be taken into account: arsenal sizes, the slow rate of ballistic modernisation processes, the weaknesses of C4ISR systems and advanced alarm systems. He recalls the peculiarities of antimissile defence, and then addresses the cases of North Korea, India and Pakistan, and China. For each country, he analyses and discusses the influence of a choice or of the existence of an antimissile defence on the nuclear strategy and doctrine, but also on the posture of other countries like the USA

  11. Shaping Baltic States Defence Strategy: Host Nation Support

    Otzulis Valdis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of NATO troops in the Baltic states has increased in the last years due to changing international environment, increased level of potential risks and threats, and necessity to enhance deterrence in the region. As a result of NATO’s Wales and Warsaw summits decisions, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are entitled to host a battalion size battle group. The article aims at investigating how host nation support (HNS can contribute to the national defence and, additionally, to the self-defence capabilities of the Baltic states. The concept of HNS is present in the national defence concepts of all three countries. However, its active application and utilization started in the last two years. The article argues that more intensive incorporation of an HNS system in national defence policies serve the capability development in fields like national military logistics, infrastructure, and civil-military cooperation. Those capabilities can serve as an extension of the national defence.

  12. Ecological mechanisms for the coevolution of mating systems and defence.

    Campbell, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of flowering plants is evident in two seemingly unrelated aspects of life history: sexual reproduction, exemplified by the stunning variation in flower form and function, and defence, often in the form of an impressive arsenal of secondary chemistry. Researchers are beginning to appreciate that plant defence and reproduction do not evolve independently, but, instead, may have reciprocal and interactive (coevolutionary) effects on each other. Understanding the mechanisms for mating-defence interactions promises to broaden our understanding of how ecological processes can generate these two rich sources of angiosperm diversity. Here, I review current research on the role of herbivory as a driver of mating system evolution, and the role of mating systems in the evolution of defence strategies. I outline different ecological mechanisms and processes that could generate these coevolutionary patterns, and summarize theoretical and empirical support for each. I provide a conceptual framework for linking plant defence with mating system theory to better integrate these two research fields.

  13. Estimation of the average glandular dose on a team of tomosynthesis

    Nunez Martinez, L. M. R.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.; Pizarro trigo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Seeking to improve the information that gives us an image of mammography the manufacturers have implemented tomosynthesis. With this method of acquisition and reconstruction of image we went from having a 2D to a 3D image image, in such a way that it reduces or eliminates the effect of overlap of tissues. The estimate of the dose, which is always a fundamental parameter in the control of quality of radiology equipment, is more in the case of mammography by the radiosensitivity of this body and the frequency of their use. The objective of this work is the determination of the mean in a team glandular dose of with tomosynthesis mammography. (Author)

  14. Estimate of average glandular dose (AGD) in national clinics of mammography

    Mora, Patricia; Segura, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The breast cancer represents the second cause of death by cancer in the femme population of our country. The specialized equipment for the obtaining of the mammographic images is higher every day and its use increases daily. The quality of the radiographic study is linked to the dose that this tissue intrinsically sensible receives to the ionizing radiations. The present work makes the first national study to quantify the average glandular doses and to connect them with the diagnostic quality and the recommendations to international scale. (Author) [es

  15. Preliminary results of the average glandular dose to the breast with TLDS measure is computed as the conversion factors

    Sardo, Luiz T.L.; Almeida, Claudio D.; Coutinho, Celia M.C.

    2013-01-01

    At mammography exams there is a risk of a breast cancer induced from the absorbed dose by the glandular tissue. According to the National Institute of Cancer, INCA, breast cancer is the second type most frequent in the world and the most common among women, therefore the necessity of monitoring the mean glandular dose, D G . Measuring methods of D G were established by some authors. Among the established methods the method of Dance is one of the most known. In this study was utilized a measurement method realized with TL dosimeters inserted in a breast tissue equivalent phantom, BTE, with 46% of glandularity and exposed using Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh target/filter combination and 28kV. To ensure this measurement method the results were compared with a calculation method, used by Dance, of D G from the measurement of incident air kerma, K i , and conversion factors to consider mainly the beam quality, the compressed thickness and the glandularity of the breast. The results of the comparison of the D G measurement with the obtained dose by the method of Dance demonstrated that for the thickness of 4.0 and 6.0 cm the doses were consistent. For the thickness of 5.0 cm the difference was higher, indicating that the glandularity may influence, suggesting further investigation. (author)

  16. THE SMART DEFENCE CONCEPT - A NEW APPROACH OF COMMON DEFENCE WITHIN NATO

    Liviu IONIȚĂ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Defence concept was introduced in the NATO policy in a time when the Alliance is confronted with new challenges generated by the global economic crisis, a lack of balance in the participation of the member states in the financing of common operations, threats coming from states that do not adhere to nuclear non-proliferation treaties, as well as the emergence of new state actors at the global level. By implementing the Smart Defence concept, the Alliance intends to adapt its own means of generating critical capabilities in accordance with the pooling and sharing paradigm, implemented with the European Union, an initiative that might lead to stronger cooperation between the two organisms and to a more efficient use of shared capabilities.

  17. How to address patients' defences: a pilot study of the accuracy of defence interpretations and alliance.

    Junod, Olivier; de Roten, Yves; Martinez, Elena; Drapeau, Martin; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2005-12-01

    This pilot study examined the accuracy of therapist defence interpretations (TAD) in high-alliance patients (N = 7) and low-alliance patients (N = 8). TAD accuracy was assessed in the two subgroups by comparing for each case the patient's most frequent defensive level with the most frequent defensive level addressed by the therapist when making defence interpretations. Results show that in high-alliance patient-therapist dyads, the therapists tend to address accurate or higher (more mature) defensive level than patients most frequent level. On the other hand, the therapists address lower (more immature) defensive level in low-alliance dyads. These results are discussed along with possible ways to better assess TAD accuracy.

  18. Raise your defence: a baseline for security

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    It is an unfair imbalance: the (computer) security of a system/service is only as strong as the weakest link in the chain of protection. This provides attackers with an incredible advantage: they can choose when to attack, where and with which means. The defence side is permanently under pressure: they must defend at all times all assets against all eventualities. For computer security, this means that every computer system, every account, every web site and every service must be properly protected --- always.   In particular, at CERN, those services visible to the Internet are permanently probed. Web sites and servers are permanently scanned by adversaries for vulnerabilities; attackers repeatedly try to guess user passwords on our remote access gateways like LXPLUS or CERNTS; computing services, e.g. for Grid computing, are analysed again and again by malicious attackers for weaknesses which can be exploited. Thanks to the vigilance of the corresponding system and service experts, these atta...

  19. Assessment of defence in depth for nuclear power plants

    2005-01-01

    Defence in depth is a comprehensive approach to safety that has been developed by nuclear power experts to ensure with high confidence that the public and the environment are protected from any hazards posed by the use of nuclear power for the generation of electricity. The concepts of defence in depth and safety culture have served the nuclear power industry well as a basic philosophy for the safe design and operation of nuclear power plants. Properly applied, defence in depth ensures that no single human error or equipment failure at one level of defence, nor even a combination of failures at more than one level of defence, propagates to jeopardize defence in depth at the subsequent level or leads to harm to the public or the environment. The importance of the concept of defence in depth is underlined in IAEA Safety Standards, in particular in the requirements set forth in the Safety Standards: Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (NS-R-1) and Safety Assessment and Verification for Nuclear Power Plants (NS-G-1.2). A specific report, Defence in Depth in Nuclear Safety (INSAG-10), describes the objectives, strategy, implementation and future development in the area of defence in depth in nuclear and radiation safety. In the report Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants (INSAG-12), defence in depth is recognized as one of the fundamental safety principles that underlie the safety of nuclear power plants. In consonance with those high level publications, this Safety Report provides more specific technical information on the implementation of this concept in the siting, design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. It describes a method for comprehensive and balanced review of the provisions required for implementing defence in depth in existing plants. This publication is intended to provide guidance primarily for the self-assessment by plant operators of the comprehensiveness and quality of defence in depth provisions. It can be used

  20. Glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: molecular evidence of a rare phenomenon.

    Jour, George; Liu, Yajuan; Ricciotti, Robert; Pritchard, Colin; Hoch, Benjamin L

    2015-09-01

    Epithelial glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma has not been described. Our patient was a 64-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer status post-radiation and hormonal therapy. On screening bone scan, he was found to have increased uptake in his right femoral shaft. Biopsy revealed intermediate-grade conventional chondrosarcoma. Subsequent femoral resection was remarkable for an intermediate-grade chondrosarcomatous component juxtaposed to an area composed of anastomosing nests and cords of malignant epithelial cells showing nuclear atypia and increased mitotic activity. A fibroblastic-appearing spindle cell population was intimately associated with the epithelial cells. The epithelial cells labeled with 34bE12, AE1/AE3, EMA, and Vimentin (both spindled and epithelial components) while being negative for prostate-specific antigen, prostate specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20, thyroid transcription factor-1, and CDX2. The patient developed local recurrence 9 months after the initial resection but has had no metastatic disease and consistently undetectable prostate-specific antigen levels. Deep parallel sequencing of the dedifferentiated component showed a nonsynonymous mutation at exon 4 of IDH1 gene at codon R132 leading to a substitution of arginine, with serine confirming glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin

    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

  2. Cloning of a sesquiterpene synthase from Lavandula x intermedia glandular trichomes.

    Sarker, Lukman S; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Lavandula is dominated by monoterpenes, but can also contain small amounts of sesquiterpenes, depending on species and environmental conditions. For example, the sesquiterpene 9-epi-caryophyllene can make up to 8 % of the EO in a few species, including those commercially propagated for EO production. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of 9-epi-caryophyllene synthase (LiCPS) from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia, cv. Grosso. The 1,617 bp open reading frame of LiCPS, which did not encode a transit peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. The ca. 60 kDa recombinant protein specifically converted farnesyl diphosphate to 9-epi-caryophyllene. LiCPS also produced a few monoterpenes when assayed with the monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP), but--unlike most monoterpene synthases--was not able to derive detectable amounts of any products from the cis isomer of GPP, neryl diphosphate. The LiCPS transcripts accumulated in developing L. x intermedia flowers and were highly enriched in glandular trichomes, but were not detected in leaves suggesting that the transcriptional expression of this gene is spatially and developmentally regulated.

  3. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  5. Average glandular dose in routine mammography screening using a Sectra Microdose Mammography unit

    Hemdal, B.; Herrnsdorf, L.; Andersson, I.; Bengtsson, G.; Heddson, B.; Olsson, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Sectra MicroDose Mammography system is based on direct photon counting (with a solid-state detector), and a substantially lower dose to the breast than when using conventional system can be expected. In this work absorbed dose measurements have been performed for the first unit used in routine mammography screening (at the Hospitals of Helsingborg (Sweden)). Two European protocols on dosimetry in mammography have been followed. Measurement of half value layer (HVL) cannot be performed as prescribed, but this study has demonstrated than non-invasive measurements of HVL can be performed accurately with a sensitive and well collimated solid-state detector with simultaneous correction for the energy dependence. The average glandular dose for a 50 mm standard breast with 50% glandularity, simulated by 45 mm polymethylmethacrylate, was found to be 0.21 and 0.28 mGy in March and December 2004, respectively. These values are much lower than for any other mammography system on the market today. It has to be stressed that the measurement were made using the current clinical settings and that no systematic optimisation of the relationship between absorbed dose and diagnostic image quality has been performed within the present study. In order to further increase the accuracy of absorbed dose measurements for this unit, the existing dose protocols should be revised to account also for the tungsten/aluminium anode/filter combination, the multi-slit pre-collimator device and the occurrence of a dose profile in the scanning direction. (authors)

  6. Gynecomastia: glandular-liposculpture through a single transaxillary one hole incision.

    Lee, Yung Ki; Lee, Jun Hee; Kang, Sang Yoon

    2018-04-01

    Gynecomastia is characterized by the benign proliferation of breast tissue in men. Herein, we present a new method for the treatment of gynecomastia, using ultrasound-assisted liposuction with both conventional and reverse-cutting edge tip cannulas in combination with a pull-through lipectomy technique with pituitary forceps through a single transaxillary incision. Thirty patients were treated with this technique at the author's institution from January 2010 to January 2015. Ten patients were treated with conventional surgical excision of the glandular/fibrous breast tissue combined with liposuction through a periareolar incision before January 2010. Medical records, clinical photographs and linear analog scale scores were analyzed to compare the surgical results and complications. The patients were required to rate their cosmetic outcomes based on the linear analog scale with which they rated their own surgical results; the mean overall average score indicated a good or high level of satisfaction. There were no incidences of skin necrosis, hematoma, infection and scar contracture; however, one case each of seroma and nipple inversion did occur. Operative time was reduced overall using the new technique since it is relatively simple and straightforward. According to the evaluation by the four independent researchers, the patients treated with this new technique showed statistically significant improvements in scar and nipple-areolar complex (NAC) deformity compared to those who were treated using the conventional method. Glandular liposculpture through a single transaxillary incision is an efficient and safe technique that can provide aesthetically satisfying and consistent results.

  7. A study on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose

    Lee, In Ja; Kim, Hak Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Huh, Joon

    2002-01-01

    We came to the following conclusion as the results of experiment on the image quality of mammography and the average glandular dose using 4 apparatuses at 3 hospital in Seoul. Whereas the measurement of half value layer showed no differences among the apparatuses, the measurement by an attenuation curve method showed some differences by 5.9%. There were 9.1% differences in the measurement by aluminum conversion method. The basic density of an automatic exposure control unit must be D = 1.40, but there was no automatic exposure unit adjusted precisely at any hospital. The unit at the B hospital exceeded the allowable limit by ± 0.15. In the photographing using an automatic exposure control unit and the management of an automatic film processor using a sensitometer, most automatic film processors were well kept. But in some cases the mean value of a fluctuation coefficient exceeded the allowable limit. There is a need for more cautious management. The image quality of breast phantom photography was affected by the screen/film system among the hospital. The average glandular dose at a breast of 4.2 cm thickness depended on the tube voltage, In the case of Mo/Mo, it was measured 0.26 ∼ 1.39 mGy less than ACR standard 3.0 mGy

  8. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast; Estimativa da dose glandular media em funcao da espessura da mama

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: lessandra.pertile@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient.

  9. Trichoderma harzianum T-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.

    Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Pascual, José A; Tittarelli, Fabio; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-08-30

    Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T-78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase. Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Based on the long-established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T-78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The Defence Medical Library Service and military medicine.

    Walker, S B

    2005-01-01

    The Defence Medical Library Service (DMLS) supports the clinical practice and career development of military health professionals across the world. Clinical governance and the need for medical knowledge to be evidence-based means the DMLS has a central role to play in support of defence medicine. The DMLS is important for enabling health professionals to make sense of the evidence-based pyramid and the hierarchy of medical knowledge. The Royal Centre for Defence Medicine (RCDM) in Birmingham is recognised as an international centre of excellence. The information, knowledge and research requirements of the RCDM will provide opportunities for the DMLS to support and engage with the academic community.

  11. Reinforcing Defence in Depth: A Practical Systemic Approach

    Watts, G.; Misak, J.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of defence in depth for ensuring nuclear safety of nuclear installations is often oversimplified and interpreted as a set of physical barriers, whose integrity is ensured by safety provisions in the form of the plant systems implemented independently at various levels of defence. However, the provisions established at each level of defence should in general terms include not only hardware components (active and passive systems), but more comprehensively, also inherent safety characteristics, safety margins, operating procedures and guidelines, quality assurance, safety culture, staff training, and many other organizational measures as parts of management of safety. Many of the above mentioned provisions belong to the category of human and organizational factors. While various hardware components are typically specific for different levels of defence, human and organizational factors may have an impact on several levels of defence. These factors are associated with large uncertainties and can result in latent weaknesses. Their implementation can negatively affect several levels of defence at the same time. The proposed paper will underline the need for a more comprehensive view of the defence in depth concept in order to provide a practical and effective tool for a systemic approach to safety. The paper will consist of two main parts. The first part will introduce a screening method developed by the IAEA as a tool for facilitating the assessment of the comprehensiveness of defence in depth. The method uses screening of safety provisions at five levels of defence to ensure integrity of the physical barriers and achievement of safety objectives at each level of defence. The second part of the paper will focus on human and organizational factors considered as provisions for reliable performance of safety functions. It will explain the significant shift in the demands on the human system between levels 3 and 4 of the defence in depth framework, and will

  12. EU Defence Industry Integration between Spillover and High Politics

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    on an intergovernmental base. In the past 10 years, however, the defence industries of the major EU powers have instigated a move from cross national collaboration to cross national consolidation. Cross border mergers and acquisitions has been carried out and pressures for regulatory mainstreaming is mounting....... This raises the question: are we witnessing an incursion of spillover mechanisms into the ‘High Politics' domain of the defence industry? What are the drivers eroding the ‘High Politics' character of defence industry integration? Are market forces at play? Does it reflect pressures for institutional...

  13. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    Porras-Chaverri, M; Galavis, P; Bakic, P; Vetter, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8 − +0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9 − 105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses current

  14. From Defence to Development: Redirecting Military Resources in ...

    Book cover From Defence to Development: Redirecting Military Resources in ... of the IDRC-funded project "Militarization and the Ecology of Southern Africa." ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows!

  15. 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications

    Sillitti, Alberto; Succi, Giancarlo; Messina, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents high-quality original contributions on new software engineering models, approaches, methods, and tools and their evaluation in the context of defence and security applications. In addition, important business and economic aspects are discussed, with a particular focus on cost/benefit analysis, new business models, organizational evolution, and business intelligence systems. The contents are based on presentations delivered at SEDA 2015, the 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, which was held in Rome, Italy, in May 2015. This conference series represents a targeted response to the growing need for research that reports and debates the practical implications of software engineering within the defence environment and also for software performance evaluation in real settings through controlled experiments as well as case and field studies. The book will appeal to all with an interest in modeling, managing, and implementing defence-related software devel...

  16. suicide prevention and management in the sa national defence force

    Rene

    DEFENCE FORCE: A PSYCHOLOGICAL. DISCUSSION ... military, among British veterans of the Falkland war and during the recent Iraq conflict.1 In the United ... Nye reported in her research on Vietnam combat veterans, that posttraumatic ...

  17. The role of thionins in rice defence against root pathogens.

    Ji, Hongli; Gheysen, Godelieve; Ullah, Chhana; Verbeek, Ruben; Shang, Chenjing; De Vleesschauwer, David; Höfte, Monica; Kyndt, Tina

    2015-10-01

    Thionins are antimicrobial peptides that are involved in plant defence. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the role of rice thionin genes in defence responses against two root pathogens: the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola and the oomycete Pythium graminicola. The expression of rice thionin genes was observed to be differentially regulated by defence-related hormones, whereas all analysed genes were consistently down-regulated in M. graminicola-induced galls, at least until 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). Transgenic lines of Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare overproducing OsTHI7 revealed decreased susceptibility to M. graminicola infection and P. graminicola colonization. Taken together, these results demonstrate the role of rice thionin genes in defence against two of the most damaging root pathogens attacking rice. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. The failing firm defence: merger policy and entry

    Mason, Robin; Weeds, Helen

    2003-01-01

    This Paper considers the 'failing firm defence'. Under this principle, found in most antitrust jurisdictions, a merger that would otherwise be blocked due to its adverse effect on competition is permitted when the firm to be acquired is a failing firm, and an alternative, less detrimental merger is unavailable. Competition authorities have shown considerable reluctance to accept the failing firm defence, and it has been successfully used in just a handful of cases. The Paper considers the def...

  19. China's nuclear arsenal and missile defence

    Rappai, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    Over the last few years, major focus of the nuclear debate has been turned towards the United States' proposal to erect a National Missile Defence (NMD) shield for itself. Of the existing nuclear weapon powers, China has been the most vociferous critic of this proposal. As and when this shield does become a reality, China will be the first to lose credibility as a deterrent against USA's existing nuclear arsenal. Therefore taking countermeasures against such a proposal is quite natural. China's approach towards non-proliferation mechanisms is steeped in realpolitik and its ability to manoeuvre them in its favour as a P5 and N5 power. Further, the Chinese leadership have been clear about the capabilities and limitations of nuclear weapons and treated them as diplomatic and political tools. The underlying aim is to preserve China's status as a dominant player in the international system while checkmating other possible challengers. Such a pragmatic approach is of far-reaching significance to all nations, especially those that possess nuclear weapons themselves. It will also be in India's long-term strategic interest to assess and take necessary corrective measures in its national security strategy, and make the composition of Indian nuclear strategy meet the desired goal. (author)

  20. Defence in Depth and Ageing Management

    Fabbri, S.; Vega, G.; Diluch, A.; Versaci, R., E-mail: versaci@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-10-15

    Accident prevention is the first safety priority of both designers and operators. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems and procedures in a plant operated by personnel who are committed to a strong safety culture. For future nuclear power plants, consideration of multiple failures and severe accidents will be achieved in a more systematic and complete way from the design stage. Defence in depth (DID) consists of a hierarchical deployment of different levels of equipment and procedures in order to maintain the effectiveness of physical barriers placed between radioactive materials and workers, the public or the environment, in normal operation, anticipated operational occurrences and, for some barriers, in accidents at the plant. The primary way of preventing accidents is to achieve a high quality in design, construction and operation of the plant, and thereby to ensure that deviations from normal operation are infrequent. The best way to meet these premises of effectiveness of the barriers and the Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) is to develop an ageing management programme to prevent potential failures and accidents. In this work we will refer to the ageing management programme for Atucha I and Atucha II power plants and to the Atucha I spent fuel storage. (author)

  1. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  2. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz (IR)

    Riabi, H. A.; Mehnati, P.; Mesbahi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. (authors)

  3. Mean glandular dose measurement on various breast phantom using mammography machine in MINT Medical Physics Laboratory

    Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, mammography have been the primary means of detecting early breast cancer. Although there is a risk of radiation- induced carcinogenesis associated with the x-ray examination of the female breast, but this risk is small compared to its benefits with modern equipment and technique. Therefore, it is important to determine the dose of the tissue at risk from radiation exposure by measuring the mean glandular dose (MGD). This can help minimize the risk to the patient. This paper describe the MGD measurement done on various types and thickness of breast phantom using a Bennett mammography machine model DMF-150 in the Medical Physics laboratory at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). Results of this study are discussed in this paper. (Author)

  4. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing...... uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461...... of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV....

  5. Relationship of Compressed Breast Thickness and Average Glandular Dose According to Focus/Filter

    Lee, In Ja

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between the compressed breast thickness and Average Glandular Dose (AGD) among 1,969 outpatients who went through breast X-ray in a university hospital for 10 months from July 1st, 2007 to April 30th, 2008. Then it analyzed the result acquired from 3,900 cases of Cranio-Caudal (CC) view, especially, when the breasts were compressed (13-15daN). The following is the conclusion driven from the relationship analysis. 1. The subjects aged in 40s and 50s were 2,679 out of 3,900 cases and this figure was 68.69% in all. 2. In terms of distribution depending on focus/filter, 41.0% was Mo/Mo, 34.8% was Mo/Rh, and 24.2% was Rh/Rh. 3. In terms of compressed breast thickness depending on focus/filter, the average thickness was 26.91 mm at Mo/Mo, 38.84 mm at Mo/Rh, and 48.80 mm at Rh/Rh. The average thickness of the entire cases was shown to be 36.27 mm. 4. AGD depending on focus/filter was 1.27 mGy at Mo/Mo, 1.55 mGy at Mo/Rh, and 1.42 mGy at Rh/Rh. The average glandular dose of the entire cases was shown to be 1.43 mGy. 5. The relationship of AGD depending on compressed breast thickness at Mo/Mo was y=0.0318x + 0.470 while it was y=0.0206x + 0.709 at Mo/Rh and y=0.0248x + 0.335 at Mo/Rh. It was highly influenced by the compressed breast thickness, however, more variation was detected at Mo/Mo depending on breast thickness.

  6. Determination of mean glandular dose on patients and phantom in X-ray mammography

    Avramova-Cholakova, S.; Vassileva, J.

    2008-01-01

    The statistics of breast cancer rate in Bulgaria show a tendency towards increase of the morbidity from this disease. Last years campaigns against breast cancer are organized yearly. This leads to an increased number of screening and diagnostic mammograms that are made in the country. The dose associated with the examination is very low but not slightingly small. The glandular tissue in the breast is considered to be the most sensitive in relation to the radiation exposure. Several publications propose different methods, measurement set up or conversion coefficients for the calculation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) delivered to the breast during the X-ray examination. The question about the standardization of the measurement procedures arises since the differences in the results obtained using different methodologies may be quite big. The aim of this work is to develop a standard procedure for the measurement of MGD based on the recommendations mentioned in the European protocol on dosimetry in mammography, the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening and the Code of practice: TRS 457 of the IAEA. Five contemporary film-screen mammography units were included in this study. Attention should be paid to the measurement set up. The reference point is chosen 6 cm from the chest wall edge laterally centered. If an ionization chamber is used for dose measurements the compression plate should be placed in close contact with it. If solid state detectors are used the compression plate should be put away from the detector and the output recalculated like if the plate is near the detector. The conversion coefficients for age dependence are not used in this study as not appropriate for the population included in it. PMMA measurements for the determination of diagnostic reference levels could be used but more correct results would be obtained with patient measurements

  7. Increased adrenocortical response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in sport horses with equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD).

    Scheidegger, M D; Gerber, V; Bruckmaier, R M; van der Kolk, J H; Burger, D; Ramseyer, A

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adrenocortical function would be altered in horses with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS). Twenty-six sport horses competing at national or international levels in eventing (n=15) or endurance (n=11) were subjected to a gastroscopic examination and an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline) and after (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150min) IV ACTH injection (1μg/kg bodyweight). Within EGUS, two distinct diseases, equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) and equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD), can be distinguished. ESGD was diagnosed in 8/11 (73%; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI], 43-92%) endurance horses and 5/15 (33%; 95% CI, 14-58%) eventing horses. EGGD was observed in 9/11 (82%; 95% CI, 53-96%) endurance horses and 9/15 (60%; 95% CI, 35-81%) eventing horses. The presence or severity of ESGD was unrelated to the presence or severity of EGGD. ACTH stimulation induced a larger increase in cortisol concentration in horses with moderate EGGD than in horses with mild EGGD. Cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period (total increase in cortisol concentration during the entire sampling period [dAUC], 31.1±6.4ng/mL) and the highest measured concentration at a single time point (maximal increase in cortisol concentration [dMAX], 10.3±2.3ng/mL) were increased (P=0.005 and P=0.038, respectively), indicating that horses with glandular gastric disease exhibited increased adrenocortical responses to ACTH stimulation. These results suggest that EGGD might be associated with an enhanced adrenocortical sensitivity. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association between adrenocortical sensitivity and EGGD and to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of mean glandular dose for patients who undergo mammography and studying the factors affecting it

    Barzanje, Sana L. N. H.; Harki, Edrees M. Tahir Nury

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine mean glandular dose (MGD) during diagnostic mammography. This study was done in two hospitals in Hawler city in Kurdistan -region /Iraq, the exposure parameters kVp and mAs was recorded for 40 patients under go mammography. The MGD estimated by multiplied ESD with normalized glandular dose (Dn). The ESD measured indirectly by measuring output radiation mGy/mAs by using PalmRAD 907 as a suitable detector (Gigger detector).the results; shown that the mean and its standard deviation of MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography are (0.95±0.18)mGy and (0.99±0.26)mGy, respectively. And there is a significant difference between MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography views (p≤0. 05). Also the mean value and its standard deviation of MGD for screen film mammography is (0.96±0.21) for CC projection and (1.03±0.3) mGy for MLO projection, but mean value and its standard deviation evaluated of MGD for digital mammography is (0.92±0.17) mGy for CC projection and (0.98±0.2) mGy for MLO projection. As well as, the effect of kVp and mAs in MGD were studied, shows that in general as kVp and mAs increased the MGD increased accordingly in both of mammography systems.

  9. PTEN phosphatase-independent maintenance of glandular morphology in a predictive colorectal cancer model system.

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-11-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  10. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Nanotechnologies for Detection and Defence

    Tsiulyanu, Dumitru; Popov, Cyril; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Advanced nanotechnologies for detection and defence against CBRN agents

    2018-01-01

    This volume gives a broad overview of advanced technologies for detection and defence against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) agents. It provides chapters addressing the preparation and characterization of different nanoscale materials (metals, oxides, glasses, polymers, carbon-based, etc.) and their applications in fields related to security and safety. In addition, it presents an interdisciplinary approach as the contributors come from different areas of research, such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A major feature of the book is the combination of longer chapters introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and shorter contributions highlighting specific applications in different security areas.

  12. Dual-energy digital mammography: Calibration and inverse-mapping techniques to estimate calcification thickness and glandular-tissue ratio

    Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C.

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer may manifest as microcalcifications in x-ray mammography. Small microcalcifications, essential to the early detection of breast cancer, are often obscured by overlapping tissue structures. Dual-energy imaging, where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Transmission measurements at two different kVp values were made on breast-tissue-equivalent materials under narrow-beam geometry using an indirect flat-panel mammographic imager. The imaging scenario consisted of variable aluminum thickness (to simulate calcifications) and variable glandular ratio (defined as the ratio of the glandular-tissue thickness to the total tissue thickness) for a fixed total tissue thickness--the clinical situation of microcalcification imaging with varying tissue composition under breast compression. The coefficients of the inverse-mapping functions used to determine material composition from dual-energy measurements were calculated by a least-squares analysis. The linear function poorly modeled both the aluminum thickness and the glandular ratio. The inverse-mapping functions were found to vary as analytic functions of second (conic) or third (cubic) order. By comparing the model predictions with the calibration values, the root-mean-square residuals for both the cubic and the conic functions were ∼50 μm for the aluminum thickness and ∼0.05 for the glandular ratio

  13. Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance cytology: a prospective study

    Wensveen, Celesta; Kagie, Marjolein; Veldhuizen, Roel; de Groot, Christianne; Denny, Lynette; Zwinderman, Koos; Trimbos, Baptist

    2003-01-01

    (1) To assess the prevalence of histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in patients with cervical smears diagnosed as atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance. (2) To evaluate the role of colposcopy and the presence of human papillomavirus in detecting

  14. Estimates of Average Glandular Dose with Auto-modes of X-ray Exposures in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Izdihar Kamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the average glandular dose (AGD of radiation among different breast compositions of glandular and adipose tissue with auto-modes of exposure factor selection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the National Cancer Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February 2012 and February 2013 using a tomosynthesis digital mammography X-ray machine. The entrance surface air kerma and the half-value layer were determined using a 100H thermoluminescent dosimeter on 50% glandular and 50% adipose tissue (50/50 and 20% glandular and 80% adipose tissue (20/80 commercially available breast phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA with auto-time, auto-filter and auto-kilovolt modes. Results: The lowest AGD for the 20/80 phantom with auto-time was 2.28 milliGray (mGy for two dimension (2D and 2.48 mGy for three dimensional (3D images. The lowest AGD for the 50/50 phantom with auto-time was 0.97 mGy for 2D and 1.0 mGy for 3D. Conclusion: The AGD values for both phantoms were lower against a high kilovolt peak and the use of auto-filter mode was more practical for quick acquisition while limiting the probability of operator error.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation studies for the determination of microcalcification thickness and glandular ratio through dual-energy mammography

    Del Lama, L. S.; Godeli, J.; Poletti, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of breast carcinomas can be associated to the presence of calcifications before the development of a mass. However, the overlapping tissues can obscure the visualization of microcalcification clusters due to the reduced contrast-noise ratio (CNR). In order to overcome this complication, one potential solution is the use of the dual-energy (DE) technique, in which two different images are acquired at low (LE) and high (HE) energies or kVp to highlight specific lesions or cancel out tissue background. In this work, the DE features were computationally studied considering simulated acquisitions from a modified PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. The employed irradiation geometry considered typical distances used in digital mammography, a CsI detection system and an updated breast model composed of skin, microcalcifications and glandular and adipose tissues. The breast thickness ranged from 2 to 6 cm with glandularities of 25%, 50% and 75%, where microcalcifications with dimensions from 100 up to 600 μm were positioned. In general, results pointed an efficiency index better than 87% for the microcalcification thicknesses and better than 95% for the glandular ratio. The simulations evaluated in this work can be used to optimize the elements from the DE imaging chain, in order to become a complementary tool for the conventional single-exposure images, especially for the visualization and estimation of calcification thicknesses and glandular ratios.

  16. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F.; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Terryn, C.; Castillon, N.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E.; Balossier, G.

    2005-01-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na + absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na + , Mg 2+ , P, S and Cl - ) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR inh -172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF

  17. Estimation of glandular content rate and statistical analysis of the influence of age group and compressed breast thickness on the estimated value

    Ohmori, Naoki; Ashida, Kenji; Fujita, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    Because the glandular content rate is an important factor in evaluating breast cancer detection and average glandular dose, it is important in mammography research to estimate and analyze this rate. The purpose of this study was to obtain a formula for statistical estimation of the glandular content rate, to clarify statistically the influence of age group and compressed breast thickness (CBT) on estimating the glandular content rate, and to show statistically the general relation between glandular content rate and the factors of age and CBT. The subjects were 740 Japanese women aged 20-91 years (mean±SD: 48.3±12.8 years) who had undergone mammography. In our study, the glandular content rate was statistically estimated from age group, mAs-value, and CBT when subjects underwent mammography, from a phantom simulation, and from MR images of the breast. In addition, multivariate analysis was carried to examine statistically the influence of age group and CBT on glandular content rate. The mean glandular content rate as estimated by age group was as follows: 35.6% for those in their 20s, 33.4% in the 30s, 27.5% in the 40s, 23.8% in the 50s, and 21.8% in those 60 and over. The rate for the subjects as a whole was 27.1%. This study indicated that overestimation occurred if the estimated value of the glandular content rate was not corrected in the 3D-measurement by MRI. In addition, this study showed that the statistical influence on glandular content rate was significantly larger for CBT than age. (author)

  18. Testing for the induction of anti-herbivory defences in four Portuguese macroalgae by direct and water-borne cues of grazing amphipods

    Yun, Hee Young; Cruz, Joana; Treitschke, Michaela; Wahl, Martin; Molis, Markus

    2007-09-01

    Herbivory is a key factor in regulating plant biomass, thereby driving ecosystem performance. Algae have developed multiple adaptations to cope with grazers, including morphological and chemical defences. In a series of experiments we investigated whether several species of macroalgae possess anti-herbivore defences and whether these could be regulated to demand, i.e. grazing events. The potential of direct grazing on defence induction was assessed for two brown ( Dictyopteris membranacea, Fucus vesiculosus) and two red seaweeds ( Gelidium sesquipedale, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius) from São Rafael and Ria Formosa, Portugal. Bioassays conducted with live algal pieces and agar-based food containing lipophilic algal extracts were used to detect changes in palatability after exposure to amphipod attacks (=treatment phase). Fucus vesiculosus was the only species significantly reducing palatability in response to direct amphipod-attacks. This pattern was observed in live F. vesiculosus pieces and agar-based food containing a lipophilic extract, suggesting that lipophilic compounds produced during the treatment phase were responsible for the repulsion of grazers. Water-borne cues of grazed F. vesiculosus as well as non-grazing amphipods also reduced palatability of neighbouring conspecifics. However, this effect was only observed in live tissues of F. vesiculosus. This study is the first to show that amphipods, like isopods, are capable to induce anti-herbivory defences in F. vesiculosus and that a seasonally variable effectiveness of chemical defences might serve as a dynamic control in alga-herbivore interactions.

  19. Innate immune defences in the human endometrium

    Kelly Rodney W

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human endometrium is an important site of innate immune defence, giving protection against uterine infection. Such protection is critical to successful implantation and pregnancy. Infection is a major cause of preterm birth and can also cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Natural anti-microbial peptides are key mediators of the innate immune system. These peptides, between them, have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity and are expressed at epithelial surfaces throughout the female genital tract. Two families of natural anti-microbials, the defensins and the whey acidic protein (WAP motif proteins, appear to be prominent in endometrium. The human endometrial epithelium expresses beta-defensins 1–4 and the WAP motif protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Each beta-defensin has a different expression profile in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle, providing potential protection throughout the cycle. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is expressed during the secretory phase of the cycle and has a range of possible roles including anti-protease and anti-microbial activity as well as having effects on epithelial cell growth. The leukocyte populations in the endometrium are also a source of anti-microbial production. Neutrophils are a particularly rich source of alpha-defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and the WAP motif protein, elafin. The presence of neutrophils during menstruation will enhance anti-microbial protection at a time when the epithelial barrier is disrupted. Several other anti-microbials including the natural killer cell product, granulysin, are likely to have a role in endometrium. The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.

  20. Cervical squamous and glandular intraepithelial neoplasia: identification and current management approaches Neoplasia intraepitelial cervical escamosa y glandular: identificación y estrategias de manejo

    V Cecil Wright

    2003-01-01

    realiza mediante la biopsia de cono, y el espécimen debe tener márgenes negativos para enfermedad. La histerectomía es un tratamiento probable, a menos que la fertilidad esté siendo buscada. La escisión, particularmente por electrocirugía (loop, puede interferir con la interpretación histológica en algunos casos o de ambos, particularmente en enfermedades escamosas y adenocarcinoma in situ. En este artículo se describe ampliamente el manejo de la neoplasia intraepitelial escamosa y glandular.

  1. Células glandulares atípicas em esfregaços cervicovaginais: significância e aspectos atuais Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: significance and current aspects

    Adriana Bittencourt Campaner

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Células glandulares atípicas (AGC em esfregaços cervicovaginais são achados citológicos raros, porém de significado representativo. Sua incidência varia, na literatura, de 0,08% a 0,81%. O sistema Bethesda de 2001 classifica estas lesões glandulares como AGCs sem outras especificações, AGCs provavelmente neoplásicas, adenocarcinoma cervical in situ (AIS e adenocarcinoma invasivo. Das mulheres portadoras de AGC, grande parte não apresentará qualquer tipo de alteração histológica em avaliação subseqüente. Entretanto, em 17,4% a 62,2% dos casos serão encontradas lesões histológicas significativas, como neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais, AIS, neoplasias escamosas e glandulares, cervicais e endometriais, bem como neoplasias de outras localizações. O risco de doença significativa está relacionado à subdivisão de AGC encontrada. Em virtude da elevada probabilidade de anormalidades histológicas significativas em casos de AGC, a simples repetição citológica é insuficiente para o seguimento dessa condição. Esta atualização descreve a epidemiologia, a avaliação e a conduta das pacientes portadoras dessa anormalidade citológica.Atypical glandular cells (AGC on cervical smears are unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The incidence of AGC ranges from 0.08% to 0.81 % of all cervical smears tests. The 2001 Bethesda System nomenclature classifies these glandular lesions as AGC not otherwise specified, AGC favor neoplasia, endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma. Of women with AGC smears, a great number will have no histologic abnormalities on further evaluation. However, 17.4% to 62.2% are found to have significant histologic lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, AIS, squamous and glandular cancers from sites farther the cervix and endometrium. The risk of significant disease is related to the AGC subclassification that was found. Because of the high likelihood that AGC

  2. Papel da 2-tridecanona e dos tricomas glandulares tipo VI na resistência do tomateiro a Tuta absoluta Role of 2-tridecanone and type VI glandular trichome on tomato resistance to Tuta absoluta

    Elsa Gilardón

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O metabólito secundário 2-tridecanona, secretado pelos tricomas glandulares tipo VI das folhas de tomateiro silvestre, Lycopersicon hirsutum L., confere-lhe resistência a uma grande variedade de insetos, inclusive a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de 2- tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro na cultivar suscetível 'Uco Plata' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., na linhagem resistente PI 134417 (L. hirsutum f. glabratum e em suas progênies F1 e F2. Foram avaliadas ainda as possíveis associações entre a concentração de 2-tridecanona, a densidade de tricomas glandulares tipo VI e o grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro. O grau médio de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro em 'Uco Plata' foi significativamente superior ao obtido em PI 134417. Ainda que a concentração de 2-tridecanona tenha sido significativamente superior no parental resistente, a presença deste metabólito somente explicaria parcialmente a resistência (R² = 8,17%. Não se detectaram diferenças significativas na densidade de tricomas tipo VI entre o parental suscetível e o resistente. Este comportamento ocorreu independentemente do conteúdo de 2-tridecanona e do grau de infestação da traça-do-tomateiro.The secondary metabolite 2-tridecanone, secreted by the type VI glandular trichomes present in the leaves of Lycopersicon hirsutum L., make it resistant to a great variety of insects, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. The 2-tridecanone concentration, the type VI glandular trichome densities and the pinworm infestation degree were evaluated on the Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. susceptible cultivar 'Uco Plata', on the Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum resistant accession PI 134417 and on their F1 and F2. The mean infestation degree with pinworm larvae was significantly higher in 'Uco Plata' than in PI 134417. The 2

  3. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Pareto Efficient Solutions of Attack-Defence Trees

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as proba......Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes......, such as probability or cost of attacks and defences. In case of multiple parameters most analytical methods optimise one parameter at a time, e.g., minimise cost or maximise probability of an attack. Such methods may lead to sub-optimal solutions when optimising conflicting parameters, e.g., minimising cost while...... maximising probability. In order to tackle this challenge, we devise automated techniques that optimise all parameters at once. Moreover, in the case of conflicting parameters our techniques compute the set of all optimal solutions, defined in terms of Pareto efficiency. The developments are carried out...

  5. Time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defences

    Buijs, F.A.; Hall, J.W.; Sayers, P.B.; Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying theory and a practical process for establishing time-dependent reliability models for components in a realistic and complex flood defence system. Though time-dependent reliability models have been applied frequently in, for example, the offshore, structural safety and nuclear industry, application in the safety-critical field of flood defence has to date been limited. The modelling methodology involves identifying relevant variables and processes, characterisation of those processes in appropriate mathematical terms, numerical implementation, parameter estimation and prediction. A combination of stochastic, hierarchical and parametric processes is employed. The approach is demonstrated for selected deterioration mechanisms in the context of a flood defence system. The paper demonstrates that this structured methodology enables the definition of credible statistical models for time-dependence of flood defences in data scarce situations. In the application of those models one of the main findings is that the time variability in the deterioration process tends to be governed the time-dependence of one or a small number of critical attributes. It is demonstrated how the need for further data collection depends upon the relevance of the time-dependence in the performance of the flood defence system.

  6. Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and accuracy motivation.

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2017-05-01

    When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Radiation protection and safety in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Very few organisations have to address such a diverse and complex range of radiation safety matters as the Australian Defence Organisation. The Australian Defence Force and the Department of Defence (its military and civilian branches) have to comply with strict regulations in normal peace time activities. The Surgeon-General, to whom responsibility for policy in radiation protection and safety falls, has established a Defence Radiation Safety Committee, which in turn oversees four specialist subcommittees. Their tasks include recommending policy and doctrine in relation to radiation safety, overseeing the implementation of appropriate regulations, monitoring their compliance. generating the relevant documentation (particularly on procedures to be followed), developing and improving any necessary training courses, and providing sound technical advice whenever and to whomever required. The internal Defence regulations do not permit radiation doses to exceed those limits recommended by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and precautions are taken to ensure during normal peace time duties that these levels are not exceeded. At times of national emergency, the Surgeon-General provides guidance and advice to military commanders on the consequences of receiving dose levels that would not be permitted during normal peace time activities. The paper describes the methods adopted to implement such arrangements

  8. Assessment of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography System with Different Anode-Filter Combinations Using MCNP Code.

    Gholamkar, Lida; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Athari, Mitra

    2016-10-01

    X-ray mammography is one of the general methods for early detection of breast cancer. Since glandular tissue in the breast is sensitive to radiation and it increases the risk of cancer, the given dose to the patient is very important in mammography. The aim of this study was to determine the average absorbed dose of X-ray radiation in the glandular tissue of the breast during mammography examinations as well as investigating factors that influence the mean glandular dose (MGD). One of the precise methods for determination of MGD absorbed by the breast is Monte Carlo simulation method which is widely used to assess the dose. We studied some different X-ray sources and exposure factors that affect the MGD. "Midi-future" digital mammography system with amorphous-selenium detector was simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) code. Different anode/filter combinations such as tungsten/silver (W/Ag), tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), and rhodium/aluminium (Rh/Al) were simulated in this study. The voltage of X-ray tube ranged from 24 kV to 32 kV with 2 kV intervals and the breast phantom thickness ranged from 3 to 8 cm, and glandular fraction g varied from 10% to 100%. MGD was measured for different anode/filter combinations and the effects of changing tube voltage, phantom thickness, combination and glandular breast tissue on MGD were studied. As glandular g and X-ray tube voltage increased, the breast dose increased too, and the increase of breast phantom thickness led to the decrease of MGD. The obtained results for MGD were consistent with the result of Boone et al. that was previously reported. By comparing the results, we saw that W/Rh anode/filter combination is the best choice in breast mammography imaging because of the lowest delivered dose in comparison with W/Ag and Rh/Al. Moreover, breast thickness and g value have significant effects on MGD.

  9. Assessment of mean glandular dose for patients in mammography in some Hospitals in Khartoum state

    Abu Elmola, Alaa Mahdi

    2016-12-01

    A mammography examination facilitates the early detection of breast cancer. However, the potential risk of radiation- induced carcinogenesis is also increased with such a procedure. Thus assessment of the breast dose is important. The objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose (MGD) resulting from cranio caudal(CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views in one breast and the total dose per woman in Sudan, and to identify the factors affecting it. Measurements were performed to estimate mean glandular doses for 60 patients who underwent mammography examination in two clinics in Khartoum, Sudan.Doses were studied in RCH and NDC, centers which were using computed radiography(CR)devices. The piranha system was used for determining the MGD in this work. The characteristics of the radiographic equipment and the exposure data of each patient were recorded using designed format. The MGD was calculated from the measured incident Air kerma using appropriate conversion coefficients. The range of CBT was (1-7)cm for two projections. The respective averages for the CC and MLO projections were (4.55±1.38)mGy and (4.15±1.33) mGy, respectively. The average MGD per image was (4.3±1.35)mGy. The MGD per women was (8.6±1.35)mGy. The mean±SD MGD per image in the present study was lower than most of similar reports. The average MGD values recorded in this study were above the limiting value of the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine(2.0 mGy) and American College of Radiology (3.0 mGy recommendation. This suggests that mammography x-ray generators in this case are not capable of achieving acceptable dose levels for patients safety. Therefore, with consideration of all other factors, quality control program tests must be carried out periodically and frequently of the mammography equipment.(Author)

  10. A Monte Carlo model for mean glandular dose evaluation in spot compression mammography.

    Sarno, Antonio; Dance, David R; van Engen, Ruben E; Young, Kenneth C; Russo, Paolo; Di Lillo, Francesca; Mettivier, Giovanni; Bliznakova, Kristina; Fei, Baowei; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the dependence of normalized glandular dose (DgN) on various breast model and image acquisition parameters during spot compression mammography and other partial breast irradiation conditions, and evaluate alternative previously proposed dose-related metrics for this breast imaging modality. Using Monte Carlo simulations with both simple homogeneous breast models and patient-specific breasts, three different dose-related metrics for spot compression mammography were compared: the standard DgN, the normalized glandular dose to only the directly irradiated portion of the breast (DgNv), and the DgN obtained by the product of the DgN for full field irradiation and the ratio of the mid-height area of the irradiated breast to the entire breast area (DgN M ). How these metrics vary with field-of-view size, spot area thickness, x-ray energy, spot area and position, breast shape and size, and system geometry was characterized for the simple breast model and a comparison of the simple model results to those with patient-specific breasts was also performed. The DgN in spot compression mammography can vary considerably with breast area. However, the difference in breast thickness between the spot compressed area and the uncompressed area does not introduce a variation in DgN. As long as the spot compressed area is completely within the breast area and only the compressed breast portion is directly irradiated, its position and size does not introduce a variation in DgN for the homogeneous breast model. As expected, DgN is lower than DgNv for all partial breast irradiation areas, especially when considering spot compression areas within the clinically used range. DgN M underestimates DgN by 6.7% for a W/Rh spectrum at 28 kVp and for a 9 × 9 cm 2 compression paddle. As part of the development of a new breast dosimetry model, a task undertaken by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the European Federation of Organizations of Medical Physics

  11. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  12. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  13. SiC fibre by chemical vapour deposition on tungsten filament

    Unknown

    SiC fibre by chemical vapour deposition on tungsten filament ... CMCs), in defence and industrial applications. SiC has attractive ... porosity along with chemical purity. This is lacking .... reactor. Since mercury is very toxic it should be removed.

  14. Células glandulares atípicas e câncer de colo uterino: revisão sistemática Atypical glandular cells and cervical cancer: systematic review

    Juliana Pedrosa de Holanda Marques

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atipias de células glandulares em esfregaços cervicovaginais é um achado citológico na rotina de rastreamento do câncer cervical, que aumentou nas últimas décadas. Sua constatação é importante clinicamente, pois é alta a percentagem de casos associados com doença cervical e endometrial de alto grau e câncer. Este trabalho avaliou, por meio de uma revisão sistemática, estudos que investigaram o perfil das lesões de colo uterino em avaliações histológicas de seguimento de pacientes já diagnosticadas com células glandulares atípicas. Foram excluídos os estudos cuja investigação diagnóstica não incluísse o diagnóstico histopatológico. Realizou-se uma busca abrangente de publicações no período de 1966 a 2009, nas bases do LILACS, SciELO, PubMed/Medline e Old Medline. Os artigos omitidos na busca eletrônica também foram incluídos. Estavam de acordo com os critérios de inclusão 19 artigos, que foram selecionados. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar se a atipia celular glandular observada inicialmente na citologia relacionava-se histologicamente com a presença de lesões benignas, pré-neoplásicas ou neoplásicas. Dos 19 estudos selecionados, 11 mostraram maior correlação entre atipia glandular com patologias benignas e seis com lesões escamosas pré-malignas.Atypical glandular cells are a common finding in cervical cytology in cervical cancer screening and its occurrence has increased in the last decades. The identification of these cells is clinically very important due to its association with cervical and endometrial dysplasic lesions and cancer. Using a systematic approach, this article reviewed studies investigating cervical lesions that are characteristic in patients previously diagnosed as having atypical glandular cells. Studies in which diagnostic investigation did not include histopathological diagnosis were excluded. A comprehensive search for available material in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed/ Medline

  15. Defence in front of challenges related to climate disruption

    Alex, Bastien

    2015-03-01

    As the Pentagon already noticed a relationship between security and climate change in a report published more than ten years ago, climate change is now considered as a threat multiplier, and is therefore a major stake for industrial, institutional and military actors of defence. The author first describes the relationship between national security and climatic security, how risks related to global warming have also an actual potential of destabilisation. He describes how this issue is increasingly addressed by defence actors, notably with a strategic approach initiated by the USA, a still holding back France, discussions about the impact of operational capabilities, and a trend for a carbon print decrease for the defence sector. In the next part, the author examines whether policies of adaptation to climate change could involve threats, evokes the development of geo-engineering, and briefly outlines that a failed adaptation could increase vulnerability

  16. Nuclear power reactors: reactor safety and military and civil defence

    Hvinden, T.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of fission products and plutonium in reactors is briefly described, followed by a short general discussion of reactor safety. The interaction of reactor safety and radioactive release considerations with military and civil defence is thereafter discussed. Reactors and other nuclear plants are factors which must be taken into account in the defence of the district around the site, and as potential targets of both conventional and guerilla attacks and sabotage, requiring special defence. The radiological hazards arising from serious damage to a power reactor by conventional weapons are briefly discussed, and the benefits of underground siting evaluated. Finally the author discusses the significance of the IAEA safeguards work as a preventive factor. (JIW)

  17. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  18. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Estimation of average glandular dose depending on the thickness of the breast

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da; Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Pertile, Alessandra S.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is, to date, the most efficient method for detecting an abnormality in the patient's breast. It is a technique of imaging diagnostic that requires special care because radiographs without adequate quality may lead to a false diagnosis and lead to the need for a repeat examination, increasing the dose of radiation in the patient. This study aimed to evaluate the average glandular dose (AGD), depending on the breast thickness in patients undergoing routine tests, with a digital computer radiography processing system. Analyzed 30 exhibitions in patients aged (65 ± 12) years, in the right and left caudal skull projections, for breasts with thicknesses between 45 mm and 50 mm. The calculated value of the AGD for this track thickness was (1.600 ± 0.009) mGy. The performance of mammography quality control tests was satisfactory and the AGD values obtained for the chosen thickness range is acceptable, since the threshold achievable is 1.6 mGy and the acceptable is 2 mGy. In Brazil, it is only required the input dose calculation in skin for 45 mm breasts. However, the calculation of AGD is required for different thicknesses of the breast, to identify the best mammographic pattern aiming at better image quality at the lowest dose provided the patient

  20. 20-year Follow-up of Recurrent Glandular Odontogenic Cyst Mimicking a Periapical Lesion.

    de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; Yamamoto-Silva, Fernanda Paula; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; Silva Sant'Ana, Simone Sousa; Mariano-Júnior, Wilson José; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Periapical lesions usually are caused by root canal infection; nevertheless, other pathologies may eventually involve the tooth apex, making the correct diagnosis more difficult. Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are uncommon and, despite their cystic nature, may present an aggressive behavior and a high recurrence rate. This report describes a recurrent GOC mimicking a periapical lesion that was followed up for 20 years. A 45-year-old woman described tooth discomfort for several years in the anterior region of the mandible that was not exacerbated during eating or occlusion. Clinical examination revealed no signs of swelling, redness, or inflammation in the gingival or surrounding soft tissue. Nevertheless, periapical radiography showed a well-defined large radiolucent lesion in the periapical region of teeth #22, #23, #24, and #25. The pulp test confirmed that all these teeth were vital. An incisional biopsy was performed, and with the histopathological diagnosis of an odontogenic cyst, the lesion was enucleated surgically. After recurrence, the extensive periapical multilocular lesions were again surgically removed. Based on the microscopic findings, the final diagnosis was GOC. One year later, there were no signs of recurrence. GOCs associated with the root apex may mimic periapical inflammatory diseases. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are essential for the diagnosis of inconclusive radiolucent findings in the periapical region. Biopsy specimens should be sent to a specialized oral pathology laboratory. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo; Yoon, Jung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  2. Comparison of anode/filter combinations in digital mammography with respect to the average glandular dose

    Uhlenbrock, D.F.; Mertelmeier, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the average glandular dose (AGD) applied for clinical digital mammograms acquired with the anode/filter combinations molybdenum/molybdenum (Mo/Mo), molybdenum/rhodium (Mo/Rh), and tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh). Using the method of Dance, the AGD was evaluated from the exposure data of 4867 digital mammograms at two sites equipped with a full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system based on an amorphous selenium detector. 1793 images were acquired and analyzed with Mo/Mo, 643 with Mo/Rh, and 2431 with W/Rh. In the Mo/Mo cases the mean compressed breast thickness was 46 ± 10 mm with an average AGD of 2.29 ± 1.31 mGy. For the Mo/Rh cases with a mean compressed thickness of 64 ± 9 mm, we obtained 2.76 ± 1.31 mGy. The W/Rh cases with a mean compressed thickness of 52 ± 13 mm resulted in 1.26 ± 0.44 mGy. The image quality was assessed as normal and adequate for diagnostic purposes in all cases. (orig.)

  3. Glandular odontogenic cyst mimicking ameloblastoma in a 78 year old female: A case report

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Kwon, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Moon Ki; Choi, Eun Joo [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare, potentially aggressive jaw lesion. The common radiographic features include a well-defined radiolucency with distinct borders, presenting a uni- or multilocular appearance. A cystic lesion in the posterior mandible of a 78-year-old female was incidentally found. Radiographs showed a unilocular lesion with a scalloped margin, external root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and cortical perforation. This lesion had changed from a small ovoid shape to a more expanded lesion in a period of four years. The small lesion showed unilocularity with a smooth margin and a well-defined border, but the expanded lesion produced cortical perforation and a lobulated margin. The provisional diagnosis was an ameloblastoma, whereas the histopathological examination revealed a GOC. This was a quite rare case, given that this radiographic change was observed in the posterior mandible of an elderly female. This case showed that a GOC can grow even in people in their seventies, changing from the unilocular form to an expanded, lobulated lesion. Here, we report a case of GOC with characteristic radiographic features.

  4. Accident management-defence in depth in Indian PHWRS

    Jagannad, V.B.L.; Reddy, V.V.; Hajela, Sameer; Bhatia, C.M.; Nair, Suma

    2015-01-01

    Defence in Depth (DiD) is the established safety principle for the design of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi had highlighted the importance of provisions at Level-4 and 5 of DiD. Post Fukushima accident, on-site measures have been strengthened for Indian Nuclear Power Plants. On procedural front, Accident Management Guidelines have been introduced to handle events more severe than design basis accidents. This paper elaborates enhancement of Defence in Depth provisions for Indian Nuclear Power Plants. (author)

  5. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    analysis of quantitative properties of complex attack-defence scenarios, using an extension of attack-defence trees which models temporal ordering of actions and allows explicit dependencies in the strategies adopted by attackers and defenders. We adopt a game-theoretic approach, translating attack...... which guarantee or optimise some quantitative property, such as the probability of a successful attack, the expected cost incurred, or some multi-objective trade-off between the two. We implement our approach, building upon the PRISM-games model checker, and apply it to a case study of an RFID goods...

  6. [Treatment of gynecomastia by a combined method of liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection].

    Liu, Su; Kuang, Ruixia; Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Huichao; Zhang, Weina; Wang, Zhiguo; Miao, Yuanxin; Chen, Lu

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of the combined method of liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection in the treatment of gynecomastia. From June 2004 to June 2006, 40 patients, aged 11-41 years old, were treated, with no-nodule (n = 10), nodule (n = 22) and female-breast-like with nodules (n = 8). Three patients were unilateral and 37 ones were bilateral. The levels of serum prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, testosterone and cortisol were normal in 38 patients, while in the other 2 patients, the levels of serum prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol were higher than normal, and the testosterone level was lower. Liposuction alone was performed in 10 no-nodule patients (lipo-type), and combined liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection were conducted in the other 30 patients (lipo-glandular type). RESULTS; Except for 2 cases in which hematoma and a small amount of effusion were found on the first and second day postoperatively and then obtained healing by first intention right after hematoma removal in time, all the other patients incisions obtained healing by first intention. Nipple numbness occurred in 3 cases on the first day postoperatively and no special treatment was conducted. There was still nipple hypesthesia in these 3 cases after 6-month follow-up. There were no complications such as hematoma, effusion, nipple and mammary areola necrosis, and nipple hypesthesia in other patients. All the 40 patients were followed up for 6-24 months (13 months on average). They were satisfied with their chest figures and no recurrence was observed. The combined method of liposuction and semicircular periareolar incision glandular organ partial resection in the treatment of gynecomastia has many advantages, such as safe, micro-scars, natural and beautiflhl male breast figures as well as high patients' satisfaction.

  7. Comparison of average glandular dose in screen-film and digital mammography using breast tissue-equivalent phantom

    Shin, Gwi Soon; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, You Hyun; Choi, Jong Hak; Kim, Chang Kyun

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, mammography system is changed rapidly from conventional screen-film system to digital system for application to screening and diagnosis. Digital mammography system provides several advantages over screen-film mammography system. According to the information provided by the manufacturer, digital mammography system offers radiation dose reduction in comparison with screen-film mammography system, because of digital detector, particularly direct digital detector has higher x-ray absorption efficiency than screen-film combination or imaging plate (IP). We measured average glandular doses (ADG) in screen-film mammography (SFM) system with slow screen-film combination, computed mammography (CM) system, indirect digital mammography (IDM) system and direct digital mammography (DDM) system using breast tissue-equivalent phantom (glandularity 30%, 50% and 70%). The results were shown as follows: AGD values for DDM system were highest than those for other systems. Although automatic exposure control (AEC) mode was selected, the curve of the AGD values against thickness or glandularity increased significantly for the SFM system with the uniform target/filter (Mo/Mo) combination. Therefore, the AGD values for the high energy examinations were highest in the SFM system, and those for the low energy examinations were highest in the DDM system. But the curve of the AGD values against thickness and glandularity increased gently for CM system with the automatic selection of the target/filter combination (from Mo/Mo to Mo/Rh or from Mo/Rh to Rh/Rh), and the AGD values were lowest. Consequently, the parameters in mammography for each exposure besides detection efficiency play an important role in order to estimate a patient radiation dose

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    Allison L Speer

    Full Text Available The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10 and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b, in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22 except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  9. CINtec PLUS immunocytochemistry as a tool for the cytologic diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

    Ravarino, Alberto; Nemolato, Sonia; Macciocu, Elena; Fraschini, Matteo; Senes, Giancarlo; Faa, Gavino; Negri, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Cytologic findings of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri are often difficult to evaluate. We studied the usefulness of CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain (mtm laboratories, Heidelberg, Germany) for the diagnosis of glandular lesions. The study included 47 abnormal results on liquid-based cytologic tests with a subsequent histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ or with early invasion, and 16 samples with negative results on follow-up. All samples were stained with CINtec PLUS p16/Ki-67 double stain. Of the neoplastic samples, 7 were excluded because of insufficient residual cellularity or loss of neoplastic cells. Of the samples that were adequate, 92.5% were stained with CINtec PLUS, whereas 7.5% were judged inconclusive. All inconclusive cases were at least 3 years old. Of the 16 negative samples, 15 (93.8%) stained negative and only 1 (6.2%) showed several positive clusters of cells. Our study shows that CINtec PLUS is a robust and useful tool for the diagnosis of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.

  10. [Markers of stromal invasion during background and precancerous changes of the glandular epithelium and in adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri].

    Danilova, N V; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Zavalishina, L É; Mal'kov, P G

    2012-01-01

    It is very difficult to identify stromal invasion when the glandular epithelium of the cervix uteri is involved. It is necessary to draw a clear distinction between its glandular structures and adenocarcinoma in situ, involving the preexisting crypts and invasive glands. An attempt was made to assess the possibilities of using as markers of invasion the following stromal proteins and adhesion molecules: CD44, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, tenascin, and laminin. Fifty-three cases of benign glandular changes, 66 cases of dysplasias and adenocarcinomas in situ, and 47 cases of invasive adenocarcinoma were examined. An immunohistochemical study was performed according to the standard protocol using the antibodies to CD44, laminin, tenascin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin and a semiquantitative assessment of results was made. CD44 was found to be redistributed from the cells to the tumor stroma. CD44 was not detected in the stroma surrounding the intact glands, so were benign epithelial changes. In the tumor environment, there was, on the contrary, a reaction with CD44 in 74.5% of invasive adenocarcinomas cases (p 0.05). CD44 and tenascin are of great diagnostic value in examining invasive and microinvasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri. E-cadherin and beta-catenin are of no diagnostic value in the study groups of pathological processes. Laminin is a potential marker of stromal invasion; however, its expression calls for further investigation.

  11. Genetics and biochemistry of collagen binding-triggered glandular differentiation in a human colon carcinoma cell line

    Pignatelli, M.; Bodmer, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have examined the interaction between collagen binding and epithelial differentiation by using a human colon carcinoma cell line (SW1222) that can differentiate structurally when grown in a three-dimensional collagen gel to form glandular structures. As much as 66% inhibition of glandular differentiation can be achieved by addition to the culture of a synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr (RGDT) sequence, which is a cell recognition site found in collagen. Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr also inhibited the cell attachment to collagen-coated plates. Chromosome 15 was found in all human-mouse hybrid clones that could differentiate in the collagen gel and bind collagen. Both binding to collagen and glandular differentiation of the hybrid cells were also inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr as for the parent cell line SW1222. The ability of SW1222 cells to express the differentiated phenotype appears, therefore, to be determined by an Arg-Gly-Asp-directed collagen receptor on the cell surface that is controlled by a gene on chromosome 15

  12. The role of strategic missile defence in the global architecture de ballistic non proliferation

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Whereas some think that missile defence is a proliferation agent by nature and therefore undermines the already fragile regime of ballistic non proliferation, some others think that missile defence could underpin the non proliferation regime. The author thus discusses these issues and both points of view by commenting the ambiguous discursive relationships between missile defence and arms control, and by highlighting the various roles and missions given to missile defence, notably in treaties (like the ABM treaty) and postures adopted by concerned countries

  13. A cellular backline: specialization of host membranes for defence.

    Faulkner, Christine

    2015-03-01

    In plant-pathogen interactions, the host plasma membrane serves as a defence front for pathogens that invade from the extracellular environment. As such, the lipid bilayer acts as a scaffold that targets and delivers defence responses to the site of attack. During pathogen infection, numerous changes in plasma membrane composition, organization, and structure occur. There is increasing evidence that this facilitates the execution of a variety of responses, highlighting the regulatory role membranes play in cellular responses. Membrane microdomains such as lipid rafts are hypothesized to create signalling platforms for receptor signalling in response to pathogen perception and for callose synthesis. Further, the genesis of pathogen-associated structures such as papillae and the extra-haustorial membrane necessitates polarization of membranes and membrane trafficking pathways. Unlocking the mechanisms by which this occurs will enable greater understanding of how targeted defences, some of which result in resistance, are executed. This review will survey some of the changes that occur in host membranes during pathogen attack and how these are associated with the generation of defence responses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Exploiting Modelling and Simulation in Support of Cyber Defence

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Boltjes, B.; Croom-Jonson, S.; Jonat, F.; Çankaya, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly evolving environment of Cyber threats against the NATO Alliance has necessitated a renewed focus on the development of Cyber Defence policy and capabilities. The NATO Modelling and Simulation Group is looking for ways to leverage Modelling and Simulation experience in research, analysis

  15. CSIR eNews: Defence, peace, safety and security

    CSIR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available At the CSIR, science and technology (S&T) is hard at work for a peaceful, safe and prosperous South Africa. The organisation has developed strong S&T capabilities through its associations with key players in defence, safety and security...

  16. Successive Evolutions of the Defence in Depth Concept

    Poulat, B., E-mail: B.Poulat@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-15

    Following Fukushima Daiichi accident, the Defence-in-depth concept, which is usually defined as a combination of a number of consecutive and independent levels of protection that would have to fail before harmful effects could be caused, has been confirmed as an essential element to be applied in the design of a nuclear facility to protect people and the environment. However, and although the implementation of the defence in depth concept had been required for long, the Fukushima Daiichi accident and the “stress tests” conducted in different countries have revealed deficiencies in its implementation. Consequently within the review of the IAEA safety requirements requested by Member states, it was important to check whether this concept was appropriately defined in order to be properly understood and fully implemented by vendors and operating organizations. By screening the successive definitions of the defence in depth principle and concept, this paper emphasizes the few issues which have been gradually clarified and enhanced to ensure effectiveness of the defence in depth as expressed from its original statement. (author)

  17. Polymorphism at selected defence gene analogs (DGAs) of Musa ...

    One of the major diseases affecting banana is Sigatoka or leaf spot disease that comprises three species, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, Mycosphaerella musicola and Mycosphaerella eumusae. Plants have a large number of defence related genes which trigger a cascade of defense responses that halt the spread of pathogens.

  18. Phytoplankton defence mechanisms: traits and trade-offs

    Pančić, Marina; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    mechanisms in phytoplankton are diverse and include physiological (e.g. toxicity, bioluminescence), morphological (e.g. silica shell, colony formation), and behavioural (e.g. escape response) traits. However, the function of many of the proposed defence mechanisms remains elusive, and the costs and benefits...

  19. Alcohol misuse in patients attending a defence force general ...

    Results: Of the 658 patients approached, 40 (6%) declined to fill in the questionnaire. 42% of the 618 patients surveyed were ... 38,1% of male apprentices at the technical college and 40,0% of male current defence force members staying on the base scored 8 or more on the AUDIT. In the group scoring less than 8 on the ...

  20. Probabilistic Design of Coastal Flood Defences in Vietnam

    Mai Van, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study further develops the method of probabilistic design and to address a knowledge gap in its application regarding safety and reliability, risk assessment and risk evaluation to the fields of flood defences. The thesis discusses: - a generic probabilistic design framework for assessing flood

  1. Developmental Trends of the Defence of Superior Order: Acritical ...

    Developmental Trends of the Defence of Superior Order: Acritical Appraisal of the Statute of the International Criminal Court. Eni E Alobo. Abstract. No Abstract. LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research, 9(3), 107-125, 2012. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  2. Post-secretory fate of host defence components in mucus.

    Salathe, Matthias; Forteza, Rosanna; Conner, Gregory E

    2002-01-01

    Airway mucus is a complex mixture of secretory products that provide a multifaceted defence against infection. Among many antimicrobial substances, mucus contains a peroxidase identical to milk lactoperoxidase (LPO) that is produced by goblet cells and submucosal glands. Airway secretions contain the substrates for LPO, namely thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide, at concentrations sufficient for production of the biocidal compound hypothiocyanite, a fact confirmed by us in vitro. In vivo, inhibition of airway LPO in sheep significantly inhibits bacterial clearance, suggesting that the LPO system is a major contributor to host defences. Since secretory products including LPO are believed to be steadily removed by mucociliary clearance, their amount and availability on the surface is thought to be controlled solely by secretion. In contrast to this paradigm, new data suggest that LPO and other substances are retained at the ciliary border of the airway epithelium by binding to surface-associated hyaluronan, thereby providing an apical, fully active enzyme pool. Thus, hyaluronan, secreted from submucosal gland cells, plays a previously unrecognized pivotal role in mucosal host defence by retaining LPO and possibly other substances important for first line host defence at the apical surface 'ready for use' and protected from ciliary clearance.

  3. 240 THE RELEVANCE OF THE DEFENCE OF ALIBI IN CRIMINAL ...

    Fr. Ikenga

    It is this unique defence that we seek to analyse in this work. ... been guilty'3 According to the Supreme Court in Eke v State4 alibi means ... 3 E. Jowitt, Dictionary of English Law Vol 1 (London, Sweet and Maxwell 1959) pg 156 ... (a) Every person who actually does the act or makes the omission which constitutes the offence ...

  4. Interdepartmental Cooperation in Defence Issues and Strategic Intelligence

    Nebojsa Nikolic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this paper comes from one successfully conducted empirical research about motivation of potential candidates to serve in the active reserve as a kind of military service which is recently introduced in the Serbian Army. The research team was faced with a set of problems related to the deadlines, resources and mandate issues. A solution was found in agile interdepartmental cooperation. Firstly, we started with identification of missing resources and mandates of our research team. Then, we investigated where we could find the missing issues. After that, we established lines for cooperation with other departments in the MoD. The clarity of interdepartmental communication and concretisation of demands and expectations were crucial for success. In the end we realized the full potential of interdepartmental cooperation and started to think about that phenomenon in the wider context of defence and security issues. We found some other examples of interdepartmental cooperation in earlier efforts of the defence sector reform, as well as some results in other armies. The paper presents strengths and opportunities of interdepartmental cooperation through temporary engaged working groups in the specific defence sector environment, as well as potential obstacles. In a wider aspect, interdepartmental cooperation in defence and security issues becomes more and more important because of new security challenges we are facing today.

  5. Currency crises with the threat of an interest rate defence

    Daniels, T.R.; Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.

    2011-01-01

    While virtually all currency crisis models recognise that the decision to abandon a peg depends on how tenaciously policy makers defend it, this is seldom modelled explicitly. We add the threat of an interest rate defence to the global game model of Morris and Shin (American Economic Review 88,

  6. Defence in Depth - Applied to the Nuclear System

    Weightman, M., E-mail: mike_weightman@hotmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Normally, the Defence in Depth concept is applied to the technical barriers that provide protection to the public and workers from nuclear accidents. This allows designers, operators and regulators to challenge (along with using other design principles such as independence, redundancy, diversity, single point failure, etc) the technical systems provided to see whether more needs to be done to provide adequate defence in depth to ensure risks are reduced so far as is reasonably practical. Post Fukushima, much thought has gone into reconsidering whether the effectiveness of the defence in depth concept can be enhanced by, for example, rebalancing the attention between prevention and mitigation or enhancing the independence of protective measures such as providing extremely robust standalone emergency cooling capability. This presentation argues that Fukushima teaches us a more fundamental lesson - that the defence in depth concept (along with other design principles') should be applied to the nuclear system to see whether more should be done to enhance the institutional barriers in any particular nuclear system. These barriers are at three main levels: industry, regulators and stakeholders each with sub-barriers. It reinforces the need for industry and regulators to be independent, open and transparent so that the nuclear system can work effectively. Examples are given where the application of the model identifies areas for improvement in existing systems. (author)

  7. Psychiatric, Psychological and “Witchcraft” Defences to Murder in ...

    Background: Expert psychiatric testimony may be relevant in certain instances of homicide especially murder. However, the exposure of most psychiatric trainees may be inadequate in relation to the range of psychological defences available to an offender accused of homicide. Aim: To describe the psychiatric and ...

  8. CSIR eNews: Defence peace safety and security

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available At the CSIR, science and technology (S&T) is hard at work for a peaceful, safe and prosperous South Africa. The organisation has developed strong S&T capabilities through its associations with key players in defence, safety and security...

  9. "Contributory intent" as a defence limiting delictual liability | Ahmed ...

    In terms of delictual liability, the term "fault" generally refers to the defendant's conduct, whereas "contributory fault" refers to the plaintiff's conduct. "Contributory intent" is a form of "contributory fault" and may apply as a defence limiting delictual liability within the ambit of the Apportionment of Damages Act 34 of 1956 ...

  10. The South African Defence Force and Horse Mounted Infantry ...

    Jacques

    2003-03-26

    Mar 26, 2003 ... Department of Defence in Pretoria, and oral history interviews with military .... were created almost from scratch and 'refined on the hoof' in the first three ... would culminate in a three or four day, thirty five or forty five kilometre .... organisation of 202 Bn. to be adjusted so as to accommodate horse and dog.

  11. Torpedo and countermeasures modelling in the Torpedo Defence System Testbed

    Benders, F.P.A.; Witberg, R.R.; H.J. Grootendorst, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several years ago, TNO-FEL started the development of the Torpedo Defence System Testbed (TDSTB) based on the TORpedo SIMulation (TORSIM) model and the Maritime Operations Simulation and Evaluation System (MOSES). MOSES provides the simulation and modelling environment for the evaluation and

  12. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of flavonoids in glandular trichomes of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae).

    Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P

    2008-12-01

    This paper reports a method for the analysis of secondary metabolites stored in glandular trichomes, employing negative ion 'chip-based' nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The analyses of glandular trichomes from Lychnophora ericoides, a plant endemic to the Brazilian 'cerrado' and used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, led to the identification of five flavonoids (chrysin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin and 3-O-acetylpinobanksin) by direct infusion of the extracts of glandular trichomes into the nanospray ionisation source. All the flavonoids have no oxidation at ring B, which resulted in a modification of the fragmentation pathways compared with that of the oxidised 3,4-dihydroflavonoids already described in the literature. The absence of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant di-C-glucosylflavone vicenin-2, or any other flavonoid glycosides, in the glandular trichomes was also demonstrated. The use of the 'chip-based' nanospray QqTOF apparatus is a new fast and useful tool for the identification of secondary metabolites stored in the glandular trichomes, which can be useful for chemotaxonomic studies based on metabolites from glandular trichomes.

  14. Oncoplastic Resection of Retroareolar Breast Cancer: Central Quadrantectomy and Reconstruction by Local Skin-Glandular Flap

    Naguib, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients with central breast neoplasms account for 5 to 20% of breast cancer cases and, for a long time, they have been denied Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) and conventionally treated with mastectomy. The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result. With the help of Oncoplastic Surgical Techniques, BCS can be offered to these patients. In this study central quadrantectomy and breast reconstruction by an infero-Iaterally based pedicled flap were evaluated. Patients and Methods: This study comprised 23 women with central breast tumors treated at the National Cancer Institute (NC]), Cairo University and at the Aswan Cancer Center, Egyptian Ministry of Health. Their ages ranged from 31 to 62 years (mean: 48.4±10.2 years). Twenty-two had a palpable mass, while only I had Paget's disease of the nipple without mass. The size of their tumors ranged from 4 to 33mm (mean: 16.9±8.6mm). Only 9 women showed clinical suspicion of NAC involvement in the form of nipple retraction. Seventeen cases had their tumors strictly in the retro-areolar region, while 5 had tumors extending for a maximum of I.5Cm beyond the areolar edge. All patients underwent central quadrantec-tomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection. Advancement of an infero-Iaterally based skin-glandular flap was then carried out. All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Results: Fourteen patients showed pathological evidence of nipple infiltration (60.8%). The free safety margin (SM) ranged from 9 to 13mm (mean: 10. 0.9mm). This could be accomplished from the first attempt in 18 patients; however, in 5 patients a second wider excision was needed to obtain an adequate

  15. Histology and cell wall biochemistry of stone cells in the physical defence of conifers against insects.

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Henderson, Hannah; Schuetz, Mathias; Skyba, Oleksandr; Yuen, Macaire Man Saint; King, John; Samuels, A Lacey; Mansfield, Shawn D; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    Conifers possess an array of physical and chemical defences against stem-boring insects. Stone cells provide a physical defence associated with resistance against bark beetles and weevils. In Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), abundance of stone cells in the cortex of apical shoots is positively correlated with resistance to white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi). We identified histological, biochemical and molecular differences in the stone cell phenotype of weevil resistant (R) or susceptible (S) Sitka spruce genotypes. R trees displayed significantly higher quantities of cortical stone cells near the apical shoot node, the primary site for weevil feeding. Lignin, cellulose, xylan and mannan were the most abundant components of stone cell secondary walls, respectively. Lignin composition of stone cells isolated from R trees contained a higher percentage of G-lignin compared with S trees. Transcript profiling revealed higher transcript abundance in the R genotype of coumarate 3-hydroxylase, a key monolignol biosynthetic gene. Developing stone cells in current year apical shoots incorporated fluorescent-tagged monolignol into the secondary cell wall, while mature stone cells of previous year apical shoots did not. Stone cell development is an ephemeral process, and fortification of shoot tips in R trees is an effective strategy against insect feeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Results of a 2011 national questionnaire for investigation of mean glandular dose from mammography in Japan.

    Asada, Y; Suzuki, S; Minami, K; Shirakawa, S

    2014-03-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for mammography have yet to be created in Japan. A national questionnaire investigation into radiographic conditions in Japan was carried out for the purpose of creating DRLs. Items investigated included the following: tube voltage; tube current; current-time product; source-image distance; craniocaudal view; automatic exposure control (AEC) settings; name of mammography unit; image receptor system (computed radiography (CR), flat panel detector (FPD), or film/screen (F/S)); and supported or unsupported monitor diagnosis (including monitor resolution). Estimation of the mean glandular dose (MGD) for mammography was performed and compared with previous investigations. The MGD was 1.58(0.48) mGy, which did not significantly differ from a 2007 investigation. In relation to image receptors, although no difference in average MGD values was observed between CR and FPD systems, F/S systems had a significantly decreased value compared to both CR and FPDs. Concerning digital systems (FPDs), the MGD value of the direct conversion system was significantly higher than the indirect conversion system. No significant difference in MGD value was evident concerning type of monitor diagnosis for either the CR or the FPD digital systems; however, hard copies were used more often in CR. No significant difference in the MGD value was found in relation to monitor resolution. This report suggests ways to lower the doses patients undergoing mammography receive in Japan, and serves as reference data for 4.2 cm compressed breast tissue of 50% composition DRLs. Furthermore, our findings suggest that further optimisation of FPD settings can promote a reduction in the MGD value.

  17. Average glandular dose in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of phantom and patient data

    Bouwman, R W; Van Engen, R E; Den Heeten, G J; Broeders, M J M; Veldkamp, W J H; Young, K C; Dance, D R; Schopphoven, S; Jeukens, C R L P N

    2015-01-01

    For the evaluation of the average glandular dose (AGD) in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) phantoms simulating standard model breasts are used. These phantoms consist of slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or a combination of PMMA and polyethylene (PE). In the last decades the automatic exposure control (AEC) increased in complexity and became more sensitive to (local) differences in breast composition. The question is how well the AGD estimated using these simple dosimetry phantoms agrees with the average patient AGD. In this study the AGDs for both dosimetry phantoms and for patients have been evaluated for 5 different x-ray systems in DM and DBT modes. It was found that the ratios between patient and phantom AGD did not differ considerably using both dosimetry phantoms. These ratios averaged over all breast thicknesses were 1.14 and 1.15 for the PMMA and PMMA-PE dosimetry phantoms respectively in DM mode and 1.00 and 1.02 in the DBT mode. These ratios were deemed to be sufficiently close to unity to be suitable for dosimetry evaluation in quality control procedures. However care should be taken when comparing systems for DM and DBT since depending on the AEC operation, ratios for particular breast thicknesses may differ substantially (0.83–1.96). Although the predictions of both phantoms are similar we advise the use of PMMA  +  PE slabs for both DM and DBT to harmonize dosimetry protocols and avoid any potential issues with the use of spacers with the PMMA phantoms. (paper)

  18. Lessons Learned from Process Safety Management: A Practical Guide to Defence in Depth

    Langerman, N., E-mail: neal@chemical-safety.com [Advanced Chemical Safety, Inc., San Diego (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Beginning with the experiences of Alfred Nobel, the chemical enterprise has learned from failures and implemented layers of protection to prevent unwanted incidents. Nobel developed dynamite as a more stable alternative to nitroglycerin, a process we would today call “inherently safer technology”. In recent years, the USA has issued regulations requiring formal “risk management plans” to identify and mitigate production risks. The USA set up the “Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board” as an independent investigator of serious chemical enterprise incidents with a mission to issue recommendations aimed at preventing repeated incidents based on lessons learned. Following a particularly violent explosion in Texas in 1989, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued the “Process Safety Management” (PSM) rule. PSM is a singular guide to defence in depth for preventing large-scale production incidents. The formalism is equally applicable to the chemical enterprise and the nuclear installation enterprise. This presentation will discuss the key elements of PSM and offer suggestions on using PSM as a guide to developing multiple layers of protection. The methods of PSM are applicable to Nuclear Generating Stations, research reactors, fuel reprocessing plants and fissile material storage and handling. Examples from both the chemical and nuclear enterprises will be used to illustrate key points. (author)

  19. Evading plant defence: Infestation of poisonous milkweed fruits (Asclepiadaceae) by the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Schneider, Michael; Wunder, Cora; Reuss, Esther; Toennes, Stefan W; Mebs, Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    To cope with toxic metabolites plants use for defence, herbivorous insects employ various adaptive strategies. For oviposition, the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Tephritidae) uses milkweed plants of the genus Gomphocarpus (Asclepiadaceae) by circumventing the plant's physical (gluey latex) and chemical (toxic cadenolides) defence. With its long, telescope-like ovipositor, the fly penetrates the exo- and endocarp of the fruit and places the eggs on the unripe seeds located in the centre of the fruit. Whereas most plant parts contain high concentrations of cardenolides such as gomphoside, calotropin/calacatin and gomphogenin, only the seeds exhibit low cardenolide levels. By surmounting physical barriers (fruit membranes, latex), the fly secures a safe environment and a latex-free food source of low toxicity for the developing larvae. One amino acid substitution (Q111V) at the cardenolide binding site of the fly's Na + , K + -ATPase was detected, but the significance of that substitution: reducing cardenolide sensitivity or not, is unclear. However, poisoning of the larvae by low levels of cardenolides is assumed to be prevented by non-resorption and excretion of the polar cardenolides, which cannot passively permeate the midgut membrane. This example of an insect-plant interaction demonstrates that by morphological and behavioural adaptation, a fruit fly manages to overcome even highly effective defence mechanisms of its host plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Variation in the effectiveness of biotic defence: the case of an opportunistic ant-plant protection mutualism.

    Giusto, Bruno; Anstett, Marie-Charlotte; Dounias, Edmond; McKey, Doyle B

    2001-11-01

    Benefits to plants in facultative ant protection mutualisms are highly variable. This allows examination of the sources of this variation and the mechanisms by which ants protect plants. We studied opportunistic interactions between ants and an extrafloral nectary-bearing vine, Dioscorea praehensilis, during 3 different years. Variation in plant protection among years was striking. Several factors affected the effectiveness of the biotic defence. Stems recently emerged from the underground tuber were self-supporting, contacting no other plants and encountering few foraging ants. Stems then became lianescent, and contact with supporting plants greatly increased ant recruitment. Both species and number of ant workers influenced the effect of ants on the major herbivore, the chrysomelid beetle Lilioceris latipennis. Protective actions included limitation of oviposition (reduction in the number of eggs laid on the plant) and predation, leading to increased larval mortality. The probability of successful predation was strongly dependent on larval size. If temporarily low ant-patrolling activity allows larvae to grow beyond a critical size, their mechanical (thick integument) or chemical (plant-derived compounds in a fecal shield) defences become more effective against ants. Secondary metabolites derived from the host plant thus appear to be important for the anti-predator mechanisms of this beetle, being necessary for its survival and reproduction on a host plant that actively recruits ants as a biotic defence against herbivores.

  1. Can Plant Defence Mechanisms Provide New Approaches for the Sustainable Control of the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae?

    Blas Agut

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous mite which causes economic losses in both agricultural and ornamental plants. Some traits of T. urticae hamper its management, including a short life cycle, arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, its haplodiploid sex determination system, and its extraordinary ability to adapt to different hosts and environmental conditions. Currently, the use of chemical and biological control are the major control methods used against this mite. In recent years, some studies have focused on plant defence mechanisms against herbivores. Various families of plant compounds (such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, or acyl sugars have been shown to behave as acaricides. Plants can be induced upon appropriate stimuli to increase their resistance against spider mites. This knowledge, together with the understanding of mechanisms by which T. urticae detoxifies and adapts to pesticides, may complement the control of this pest. Herein, we describe plant volatile compounds (VOCs with repellent activity, and new findings about defence priming against spider mites, which interfere with the T. urticae performance. The use of VOCs and defence priming can be integrated into current management practices and reduce the damage caused by T. urticae in the field by implementing new, more sustainable crop management tools.

  2. Defence Chemistry Modulation by Light and Temperature Shifts and the Resulting Effects on Associated Epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus

    Saha, Mahasweta; Rempt, Martin; Stratil, Stephanie B.; Wahl, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Weinberger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2) to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C) and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%), respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds - dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), fucoxanthin and proline – were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP) were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C. PMID:25360717

  3. Defence chemistry modulation by light and temperature shifts and the resulting effects on associated epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus.

    Saha, Mahasweta; Rempt, Martin; Stratil, Stephanie B; Wahl, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Weinberger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2) to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C) and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%), respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds--dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), fucoxanthin and proline--were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP) were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C.

  4. Defence chemistry modulation by light and temperature shifts and the resulting effects on associated epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus.

    Mahasweta Saha

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were (1 to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2 to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%, respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds--dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP, fucoxanthin and proline--were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C.

  5. Filipino peasant women in defence of life.

    Ayupan, L B; Oliveros, T G

    1992-01-01

    AMIHAN, the Peasant Women's Federation, is working to counteract the devastating impact on agricultural workers and the environment of the Philippine government policy of appropriating farm land for industrial development purposes. Peasant women organized by AMIHAN have, in some cases, forced survey teams and tractors prepared to clear the land to turn away. A major target for protest has been the Calabarzon development project, which seeks to construct industrial estates for export processing in the fertile agricultural areas surrounding Metro Manila. This process will require the displacement of 100,000 peasant families without any guarantee of compensation. Lacking any other means of feeding their children, peasant women in the areas covered by the Calabarzon project are selling their bodies to engineers, soldiers, and other project staff in exchange for rice. Not only are Filipino peasant women facing economic displacement and degradation, they also are witnessing the long-term effects of prolonged exposure to the pesticides and chemical fertilizers that were forced upon them during the so-called Green Revolution. Increased rates of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths, as well as chronic health problems, have been recorded. Many of the foreign-based corporations that will be setting up plants in the project area have been shut down in their own countries due to pollution hazards, meaning that such health problems will intensify further. Moreover, since the project area is a leading fruit, coconut, and rice producing region, food self-sufficiency will become a national crisis and the percentage share of land devoted to food crops versus cash crops will decline dramatically from the 1989 level of 63%. Biodiversity and soil fertility are threatened in the upland areas to which peasants are migrating. AMIHAN is working to end the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides through integrated pest management and is promoting organic farming methods to restore soil

  6. Defence Industrial Policies and Their Impact on Acquisition Outcomes: A Comparative Analysis of the United Kingdom and Australia

    2012-09-01

    average costs for firms in that industry but nonetheless support a positive (or non- negative ) level of profit. Defence industrial policies & their...prompted by increasing pressure on defence budgets; consolidation of the UK defence industry; “ globalisation ” of UK defence companies & threat of exit

  7. Instar-specific sensitivity of specialist Manduca sexta larvae to induced defences in their host plant Nicotiana attenuata

    Van Dam, N.M.; Hermenau, U.; Baldwin, I.T.

    2001-01-01

    1. The time delay associated with the activation of induced defences is thought to be a liability for this type of defence because it allows herbivores to remove biomass before the defence is fully induced. When defences are costly and plants grow with competitors, however, it may be more

  8. Life-history constraints in grassland plant species: a growth-defence trade-off is the norm

    E.M. Lind; E.T. Borer; E.W. Seabloom; P.B. Adler; J.D. Bakker; D.M. Blumenthal; M. Crawley; K.F. Davies; J. Firn; D.S. Gruner; S. Harpole; Y. Hautier; H. Hillebrand; J.M.H. Knops; B.A. Melbourne; B. Mortensen; A.C. Risch; M. Schuetz; C.J. Stevens; P.D. Wragg

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth can be limited by resource acquisition and defence against consumers, leading to contrasting trade-off possibilities. The competition-defence hypothesis posits a trade-off between competitive ability and defence against enemies (e.g. herbivores and pathogens). The growth-defence hypothesis suggests that strong competitors for nutrients are also defended...

  9. Image quality, threshold contrast and mean glandular dose in CR mammography

    Jakubiak, R R; Gamba, H R; Neves, E B; Peixoto, J E

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, computed radiography (CR) systems represent the majority of equipment used in digital mammography. This study presents a method for optimizing image quality and dose in CR mammography of patients with breast thicknesses between 45 and 75 mm. Initially, clinical images of 67 patients (group 1) were analyzed by three experienced radiologists, reporting about anatomical structures, noise and contrast in low and high pixel value areas, and image sharpness and contrast. Exposure parameters (kV, mAs and target/filter combination) used in the examinations of these patients were reproduced to determine the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD). The parameters were also used to radiograph a CDMAM (version 3.4) phantom (Artinis Medical Systems, The Netherlands) for image threshold contrast evaluation. After that, different breast thicknesses were simulated with polymethylmethacrylate layers and various sets of exposure parameters were used in order to determine optimal radiographic parameters. For each simulated breast thickness, optimal beam quality was defined as giving a target CNR to reach the threshold contrast of CDMAM images for acceptable MGD. These results were used for adjustments in the automatic exposure control (AEC) by the maintenance team. Using optimized exposure parameters, clinical images of 63 patients (group 2) were evaluated as described above. Threshold contrast, CNR and MGD for such exposure parameters were also determined. Results showed that the proposed optimization method was effective for all breast thicknesses studied in phantoms. The best result was found for breasts of 75 mm. While in group 1 there was no detection of the 0.1 mm critical diameter detail with threshold contrast below 23%, after the optimization, detection occurred in 47.6% of the images. There was also an average MGD reduction of 7.5%. The clinical image quality criteria were attended in 91.7% for all breast thicknesses evaluated in both

  10. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S.; Araujo T, M. H.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2014-08-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D G ) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D G values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D G values were derived from the incident air kerma (K i ) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K i measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D G values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This work contributes to

  11. Validation of mean glandular dose values provided by a digital breast tomosynthesis system in Brazil

    Beraldo O, B.; Paixao, L.; Donato da S, S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H. [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an emerging imaging modality that provides quasi-three-dimensional structural information of the breast and has strong promise to improve the differentiation of normal tissue and suspicious masses reducing the tissue overlaps. DBT images are reconstructed from a sequence of low-dose X-ray projections of the breast acquired at a small number of angles over a limited angular range. The Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system is equipped with an amorphous Selenium (a-Se) detector layer of 250 μm thickness and a 70 μm pixel pitch. Studies are needed to determine the radiation dose of patients that are undergoing this emerging procedure to compare with the results obtained in DBT images. The mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) is the dosimetric quantity used in quality control of the mammographic systems. The aim of this work is to validate D{sub G} values for different breast thicknesses provided by a Ho logic Selen ia Dimensions system using a DBT mode in comparison with the same results obtained by a calibrated 90 X 5-6M-model Radcal ionization chamber. D{sub G} values were derived from the incident air kerma (K{sub i}) measurements and tabulated conversion coefficients that are dependent on the half value layer (HVL) of the X-ray spectrum. Voltage and tube loading values were recorded in irradiations using W/Al anode/filter combination, automatic exposure control mode and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs which simulate different breast thicknesses. For K{sub i} measurements, the ionization chamber was positioned at 655 mm from the focus and the same radiographic technique values were selected with the manual mode. D{sub G} values for a complete procedure ranged from 0.9 ± 0.1 to 3.7 ± 0.4 mGy. The results for different breast thicknesses are in accordance with values obtained by DBT images and with acceptable levels established by the Commission of the European Communities (Cec) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  12. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  13. Aqueous extract from Vitis vinifera tendrils is able to enrich keratinocyte antioxidant defences.

    Fraternale, Daniele; De Bellis, Roberta; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Potenza, Lucia; Cucchiarini, Luigi; Mancini, Umberto; Dachà, Marina; Ricci, Donata

    2011-09-01

    An aqueous extract of V. vinifera L. tendrils was evaluated for its ability to enrich the antioxidant capacity of cultured cells. The long-time antioxidant capability of the extract was measured by in vitro chemical methods, and its influence on reduced glutathione levels and plasma membrane oxido reductase activity was determined in cultured human keratinocytes (NCTC 2544). Keratinocytes are cells normally exposed to oxidative stress, and for this reason adequately equipped with antioxidant defences. However, it has long been suggested that exogenous antioxidants may play an important role in minimizing the adverse effects of oxidative stress on skin.We demonstrated that V. vinifera tendril aqueous extract was able to increase, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, the reduced glutathione concentration and activity of trans plasma membrane oxido reductase as an indirect evaluation of the intracellular redox status of the cells demonstrating a relevant antioxidant activity of this phytocomplex.

  14. The key role of peltate glandular trichomes in symbiota comprising clavicipitaceous fungi of the genus periglandula and their host plants.

    Steiner, Ulrike; Kucht, Sabine Hellwig neé; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Grundmann, Nicola; Li, Shu-Ming; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2015-04-16

    Clavicipitaceous fungi producing ergot alkaloids were recently discovered to be epibiotically associated with peltate glandular trichomes of Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa, dicotyledonous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Mediators of the close association between fungi and trichomes may be sesquiterpenes, main components in the volatile oil of different convolvulaceous plants. Molecular biological studies and microscopic investigations led to the observation that the trichomes do not only secrete sesquiterpenes and palmitic acid but also seem to absorb ergot alkaloids from the epibiotic fungal species of the genus Periglandula. Thus, the trichomes are likely to have a dual and key function in a metabolic dialogue between fungus and host plant.

  15. SU-F-I-01: Normalized Mean Glandular Dose Values for Dedicated Breast CT Using Realistic Breast-Shaped Phantoms

    Hernandez, A [Department of Radiology, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States); Boone, J [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engeering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate normalized mean glandular dose values for dedicated breast CT (DgN-CT) using breast CT-derived phantoms and compare to estimations using cylindrical phantoms. Methods: Segmented breast CT (bCT) volume data sets (N=219) were used to measure effective diameter profiles and were grouped into quintiles by volume. The profiles were averaged within each quintile to represent the range of breast sizes found clinically. These profiles were then used to generate five voxelized computational phantoms (V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 for the small to large phantom sizes, respectively), and loaded into the MCNP6 lattice geometry to simulate normalized mean glandular dose coefficients (DgN-CT) using the system specifications of the Doheny-prototype bCT scanner in our laboratory. The DgN-CT coefficients derived from the bCT-derived breast-shaped phantoms were compared to those generated using a simpler cylindrical phantom using a constant volume, and the following constraints: (1) Length=1.5*radius; (2) radius determined at chest wall (Rcw), and (3) radius determined at the phantom center-of-mass (Rcm). Results: The change in Dg-NCT coefficients averaged across all phantom sizes, was - 0.5%, 19.8%, and 1.3%, for constraints 1–3, respectively. This suggests that the cylindrical assumption is a good approximation if the radius is taken at the breast center-of-mass, but using the radius at the chest wall results in an underestimation of the glandular dose. Conclusion: The DgN-CT coefficients for bCT-derived phantoms were compared against the assumption of a cylindrical phantom and proved to be essentially equivalent when the cylinder radius was set to r=1.5/L or Rcm. While this suggests that for dosimetry applications a patient’s breast can be approximated as a cylinder (if the correct radius is applied), this assumes a homogenous composition of breast tissue and the results may be different if the realistic heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue is considered

  16. Necessity, private defence and the killing of Mary.

    Rogers, J

    2001-07-01

    This article examines the reasons used by the Court of Appeal in Re A (Children) to authorise and justify an operation which would inevitably kill the weaker of a pair of conjoined twins in order to offer the stronger twin a good chance of a long and happy life. The crux of the judgment was that a utilitarian theory of necessity could justify this operation. This article seeks to define the criminal law defences at issue in the case and to argue that utilitarian necessity is such a dangerous doctrine that it should never be employed if there is any other defence which can be made to serve the same purpose--as there was in the present case.

  17. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    Das, Kaushik

    Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity of conven......Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity......, one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  18. Nelson Mandela's defence: A psychological capital documentary analysis

    Rene van Wyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative documentary analysis examines Nelson Mandela�s defence statement at the Rivonia Trial, Pretoria Supreme Court, on 20 April 1964. The defence document is analysed through the psychological capital lens, depicting themes that support the constructs of hope, efficacy, resilience and optimism. Psychological capital characteristics played a major role in the initial non-violent policies of negotiation. The inevitable establishment of Umkhonto we Sizwe followed, as a result of the increased restrictions and unwillingness of government to negotiate and collaborate. Mandela showed a determined spirit to unite the country. The discussion gives insight into Mandela�s authentic psychological capital leadership under difficult political and personal circumstances. Some implications are indicated in adopting Mandela�s psychological characteristics for personal reform.

  19. The Morality and Economics of Safety in Defence Procurement

    Clement, Tim

    Ministry of Defence policy is to conform as closely as possible to UK health and safety legislation in all its operations. We consider the implications of the law and the guidance provided by the Health and Safety Executive for the arguments we need to make for the safety of defence procurements, and extract four general principles to help in answering the questions that arise when considering the safety of systems with complex behaviour. One of these principles is analysed further to identify how case law and the guidance interpret the requirement for risks to be reduced so far as is reasonably practicable. We then apply the principles to answer some questions that have arisen in our work as Independent Safety Auditors, including the limits to the tolerability of risk to armed forces personnel and civilians in wartime, and the acceptability of the transfer of risk from one group to another when controls on risk are introduced.

  20. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-)cult...

  1. KYPO – A Platform for Cyber Defence Exercises

    Čeleda Pavel; Čegan Jakub; Vykopal Jan; Tovarňák Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Correct and timely responses to cyber attacks are crucial for the effective implementation of cyber defence strategies and policies. The number of threats and ingenuity of attackers is ever growing, as is the need for more advanced detection tools, techniques and skilled cyber security professionals. KYPO – Cyber Exercise & Research Platform is focused on modelling and simulating complex computer systems and networks in a virtualized and separated environment. The platform enables realist...

  2. Signalling network construction for modelling plant defence response.

    Dragana Miljkovic

    Full Text Available Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2 triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be

  3. The Advent of Representative Associations in the Irish Defence Forces

    1992-06-05

    year period from 1975 to 1988. The Submission Group had difficulty finding appropriate groups in the Irish labour market against which to compare the...in the Irish Labour market , the average male industrial worker was chosen. In choosing the male industrial worker, it was not suggested that this...Defence Forces to have all young officers attend University College Galway ( UCG ) or a similar third level institute for the purpose of acquiring a

  4. Aerial Refueling For NATO’s Smart Defence Initiative

    2012-04-01

    Rome: NATO Defense College, 2012, 148. 40 David A. Brown , "NATO Studying Development of Dedicated Refueling Unit Similar to Early Warning Force...accessed March 1, 2012). Brown , David A. "NATO Studying Development of Dedicated Refueling Unit Similar to Early Warning Force." Aviation Week...Aircraft. Coulsdon, Surrey: IHS Global Limited, 2011. Jennings, Gareth . "Nations Pool for NATO C-17A Fleet." Jane’s Defence Weekly, October 2008

  5. A Primer on Recent Canadian Defence Budgeting Trends and Implications

    David Perry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a dangerous world, the federal government has made recapitalizing and updating Canada’s armed forces a priority. Unfortunately, fiscal pressures obliged the government to deviate from its Canada First Defence Strategy, cutting staff and delaying military hardware acquisitions. However, the introduction this year of the Defence Procurement Strategy should allow Ottawa to use improved approaches to buy equipment that would otherwise have been purchased already under the DND’s opaque capital expenditure system. At present, DND capital funds are mostly subject to accrual accounting. Capital costs are charged against the defence budget as annual amortization expenses over equipment lifecycles. While this enables multiple capital projects to go ahead simultaneously, not all of the money covering capital costs is treated this way. Traditional A-Base Vote 5 expenses are still charged to the budget the year the expenditure is made — and the DND consistently underspends the Vote 5 funds available by as much as 28 percent. Since 2007/8, an estimated $6.42 billion wasn’t used as intended. While some of this can be carried forward, there are limits. Leftover funds exceeding them are returned to the Treasury and are thereby lost. It’s up to the DND to make up losses out of future funding. Just as bad, the accrual method doesn’t fully account for inflation, so when schedules slip, project purchasing power diminishes by hundreds of millions of dollars. Ambitious initiatives like the Joint Support Ship and (likely the Canadian Surface Combatant end up taking hits to reflect harsh budgetary realities; the capabilities of Canada’s soldiers suffer. This policy brief draws on research and confidential interviews to highlight the pressing need for reform in Canadian defence procurement.

  6. Can the failing firm defence rule be counterproductive?

    Helder Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    The present paper investigates the role of the failing firm defence (FFD) concept in the merger control process within a Cournot setting where (i) endogenous mergers are motivated by prospective efficiency gains and (ii) mergers must be submitted to an antitrust authority that might demand partial divestiture for approval. The findings show that when the FFD concept is one of the tools available for controlling the merger process, firms can strategically embark on a merger that makes other fi...

  7. 2015 Status Report on Major Defence Equipment Procurements

    David Perry

    2015-01-01

    Federal elections may be good for democracy, but the campaigns — particularly the lengthy one recently held in Canada — can be crippling for plans to better arm our military. Just before the election was called, there were public signs of important progress being made in what has long been a frustratingly slow and bureaucratically complex procurement process. But then the campaign left the Department of National Defence and other federal departments unable to secure approvals from either a de...

  8. Mapping a product-service-system delivering defence avionics availability

    Settanni, E.; Thenent, N.; Newnes, L.; Parry, G.; Goh, Y. M.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term support agreements such as availability-based contracts are often associated with the servitization of business models in such sectors as defence aerospace. In practice, there is no unambiguous way of linking availability and service outcomes from an operational perspective; rather, the focus tends to be placed almost exclusively on product-related metrics. To address this gap, this paper outlines a conceptual model of how advanced service outcomes should be delivered under an avail...

  9. Defence and security applications of quantum cascade lasers

    Grasso, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) have seen tremendous recent application in the realm of Defence and Security. And, in many instances replacing traditional solid state lasers as the source of choice for Countermeasures, Remote Sensing, In-situ Sensing, Through-Barrier Sensing, and many others. Following their development and demonstration in the early 1990's, QCL's reached some maturity and specific defence and security application prior to 2005; with much initial development fostered by DARPA initiatives in the US, dstl, MoD, and EOARD funding initiatives in the UK, and University level R&D such as those by Prof Manijeh Razeghi at Northwestern University [1], and Prof Ted Masselink at Humboldt University [2]. As QCL's provide direct mid-IR laser output for electrical input, they demonstrate high quantum efficiency compared with diode pumped solid state lasers with optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) to generate mid-Infrared output. One particular advantage of QCL's is their very broad operational bandwidth, extending from the terahertz to the near-infrared spectral regions. Defence and Security areas benefiting from QCL's include: Countermeasures, Remote Sensing, Through-the-Wall Sensing, and Explosive Detection. All information used to construct this paper obtained from open sources.

  10. Transgenerational effects alter plant defence and resistance in nature.

    Colicchio, J

    2017-04-01

    Trichomes, or leaf hairs, are epidermal extensions that take a variety of forms and perform many functions in plants, including herbivore defence. In this study, I document genetically determined variation, within-generation plasticity, and a direct role of trichomes in herbivore defence for Mimulus guttatus. After establishing the relationship between trichomes and herbivory, I test for transgenerational effects of wounding on trichome density and herbivore resistance. Patterns of interannual variation in herbivore density and the high cost of plant defence makes plant-herbivore interactions a system in which transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (TPP) is apt to evolve. Here, I demonstrate that parental damage alters offspring trichome density and herbivore resistance in nature. Moreover, this response varies between populations. This is among the first studies to demonstrate that TPP contributes to variation in nature, and also suggests that selection can modify TPP in response to local conditions. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Defence nuclear waste disposal in Russia. International perspective

    Stenhouse, M.J.; Kirko, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Significant amounts of liquid and solid radioactive waste have been generated in Russia during the production of nuclear weapons, and there is an urgent need to find suitable ways to manage these wastes in a way that protects both the current population and future generations. This book contains contributions from pure and applied scientists and other representatives from Europe, North America, and Russia, who are, or have been, actively involved in the field of radioactive waste management and disposal. First-hand experience of specific problems associated with defence-related wastes in the USA and the Russian Federation is presented, and current plans are described for the disposal of solid wastes arising from civilian nuclear power production programmes in other countries, including Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Germany and the UK. The book provides a good insight into ongoing research at local and national level within Russia, devoted to the safe disposal of defence-related radioactive waste. It also demonstrates how existing expertise and technology from civilian nuclear waste management programmes can be applied to solving the problems created by nuclear defence programmes. Contributions address methods of immobilisation, site selection methodology, site characterisation techniques and data interpretation, the key elements of safety/performance assessments of planned deep (geological) repositories for radioactive waste, and radionuclide transport modelling. Concerns associated with certain specific nuclear waste disposal concepts and repository sites are also presented. refs

  12. Anosognosia as motivated unawareness: the 'defence' hypothesis revisited.

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Solms, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Anosognosia for hemiplegia has seen a century of almost continuous research, yet a definitive understanding of its mechanism remains elusive. Essentially, anosognosic patients hold quasi-delusional beliefs about their paralysed limbs, in spite of all the contrary evidence, repeated questioning, and logical argument. We review a range of findings suggesting that emotion and motivation play an important role in anosognosia. We conclude that anosognosia involves (amongst other things) a process of psychological defence. This conclusion stems from a wide variety of clinical and experimental investigations, including data on implicit awareness of deficit, fluctuations in awareness over time, and dramatic effects upon awareness of psychological interventions such as psychotherapy, reframing of the emotional consequences of the paralysis, and first versus third person perspectival manipulations. In addition, we review and refute the (eight) arguments historically raised against the 'defence' hypothesis, including the claim that a defence-based account cannot explain the lateralised nature of the disorder. We argue that damage to a well-established right-lateralised emotion regulation system, with links to psychological processes that appear to underpin allocentric spatial cognition, plays a key role in anosognosia (at least in some patients). We conclude with a discussion of implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Defence in depth by 'Leittechnique' systems with graded intelligence

    Aleite, W.

    1983-01-01

    In the past, only two types of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems were in use in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG): safety systems and operational systems. Present nuclear power plant 'Leittechnique' systems in the FRG have been expanded from this 'black-and-white' status to multiple-grade systems with respect to safety, qualification requirements and intelligence. The extensive experience of the past has encouraged the rule-making committees - representing all parties working in the nuclear field - to differentiate between the protection limitations and condition limitations of the reactor protection system on one hand and the information systems (including the accident monitoring and alarm system) of different safety importance on the other, assuming additional extensive application of non-safety-grade operational Leittechnique systems. These definitions of categories are in accordance with international practice and enable designers to apply 'echelons of defence', composed of equipment of all categories, in accordance with 'defence-in-depth' concepts. They also simplify the introduction of computerized equipment, especially in the lower safety categories. Status, background and reasons of the introduction, as well as typical defence-in-depth modes, of the first running Leittechnique system of this kind (in the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant) and especially their different tasks in disturbance handling are described. The international situation and future developments are briefly characterized. (author)

  14. Trans-nipple removal of fibro-glandular tissue in gynaecomastia surgery without additional scars: An innovative approach

    R K Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The established techniques that have been used to treat gynaecomastia are said to have relatively less patient satisfaction rate as they leave some visible scars or mild elevation over the nipple areola complex, resulting in aesthetically unsatisfactory results. Even the slightest elevation or smallest scar over nipple areola complex leave patients extremely self conscious and in a dilemma of having a second intervention to get rid of that blemish. Aims: The aim of the study is to achieve - A flat chest without adding a scar and with no chances of re-occurrence of the condition. This article suggests an innovative approach to address the problem. Materials and Methods: The author presents trans-nipple incision approach for the delivery of fibro-glandular tissue component following liposuction for maximum patient satisfaction. This method consists of a unique small criss-cross incision right on the nipple itself for retrieving any volume of tough fibro-glandular tissues. Between the duration of January 2012 to October 2013, 28 male patients of different ages were operated with this technique. Results: The surgery resulted in well-shaped, symmetric chest contour without any visible elevation or additional scars on nipple areola complex. No complications were noticed in any of the patients. Conclusions: The presented technique is proved to have a high patient satisfaction rate and to be promising method to achieve good aesthetic results in gynaecomastia surgery.

  15. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and image of digital mammography and film mammography in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Nogueira, M.; Leyton, F.; Rodrigue, L. L.C.; Oliveira, M.A.; Joana, G.S.; Silva, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. Mammography is the best method for breast-cancer screening and is capable of reducing mortality rates To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. Digital mammography has been proposed as a substitute for film mammography given the benefits inherent to digital technology. The purpose of our study was to compare the technical performance of digital mammographic and screen-film mammography. A PMMA phantom with objects to simulate breast structures. For the screen/film (SF) technique the results showed that 54% mammography units did not achieve the minimum acceptable performance as far the image quality. Besides, 67% services showed inadequate performance in their processing systems, which had significant influence on the image quality. At the mean glandular dose only 44% of digital systems evaluated were compliant in all thicknesses of PMMA. The average glandular dose AGD was 90 % higher than in screen/film systems. (authors)

  16. 2015 Status Report on Major Defence Equipment Procurements

    David Perry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Federal elections may be good for democracy, but the campaigns — particularly the lengthy one recently held in Canada — can be crippling for plans to better arm our military. Just before the election was called, there were public signs of important progress being made in what has long been a frustratingly slow and bureaucratically complex procurement process. But then the campaign left the Department of National Defence and other federal departments unable to secure approvals from either a defence minister or the Treasury Board, until the election ended and the new prime minister appointed the current cabinet. There had already been upheaval prior to that: In the first seven months of 2015, the three senior leaders at the Canadian Forces and the Defence Department (including the minister had been replaced, along with many other people critical to the procurement process. In addition, there had been changes in the Public Works Department and the Defence Procurement Strategy Secretariat. Frustrating and disappointing delays have long been a matter of course in Canada’s defence procurement process. In 2014/15, the number of ministerial or Treasury Board approvals to allow projects to proceed was half of that in 2009/10. Yet the demand for approvals has not abated. In addition to the turnover of key figures involved in the procurement and approval process, delays have come from a number of major steps added to the process, making an already lengthy and complex system even more so. To be sure, these steps were added in the pursuit of improved financial management and project management, with the aim of addressing longstanding problems. But it will take years to see if those objectives have been realized. An irony here is that the budget for military procurement has increased. Between 2004 and 2009, the Defence Department’s procurement budget nearly doubled. But the funding was never matched by the capacity to manage it. In 2003, the Material

  17. Aerodynamic Test Facility Requirements for Defence R&D to 2000 and Beyond.

    1982-09-01

    Defence Force. Following its review of science and technology, the Australian Science and Technology Council ( ASTEC ) reported I that the present pattern...Organisation (DSTO) within the Department of Defence. Accordingly, ASTEC recommended to the Prime Minister that the Department of Defence be asked to develop...DSTO2 as well as by ASTEC 1 . An additional reason for choosing aerodynamics for early consideration in response to ASTEC’s recommendation is that wind

  18. United Kingdom's defence procurement: a period of smart enlightenment or halting culture

    O Callaghan, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to map predominant cultures and examine their compatibility with the Smart Procurement Initiative. An initiative that was identified in the Strategic Defence Review to address the limitations of UK's defence procurement process that had previously failed to deliver defence equipment to cost, time and specification. The introduction reviews those factors, which influenced procurement since World War 11. The background to UK's current procurement process...

  19. Rosatom Corporation at the All-Russian civil defence training exercise

    Glukhikh, E.N.; Glazunov, A.V.; Tyurin, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The 80th anniversary of civil defence in Russia was marked by the All-Russian civil defence exercise attended by representatives of federal executive authorities, regional and local executive authorities. During the exercise performance of the following activities was verified: introduction of increased preparedness mode for local air-defence emergency-response forces, activities of emergency-response and fire safety commissions, information collection and exchange during implementation of top-priority civil defence measures, etc. The paper describes the activities carried out during the exercise [ru

  20. Was It Really Worth Pain? Refurbishment of Mercedes-Benz Trucks by Botswana Defence Force

    Rangobana, Samuel A; Alkebaisi, Hussain K

    2005-01-01

    .... Logistics statistics, for refurbished trucks returned to user units, are also gathered from the asset management software database, Mincom Ellipse, in use by the Botswana Defence Force Mechanical...

  1. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  2. Comportamento da dose glandular versus contraste do objeto em mamografia: determinação de formalismo semi-empírico para diferentes combinações alvo-filtro Behavior of subject contrast versus glandular dose in mammography: determination of a semi-empirical formalism for different target-filter combinations

    Gabriela Hoff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da mudança no contraste do objeto, tempo de exposição e dose de radiação quando diferentes espessuras de filtração de molibdênio (Mo e ródio (Rh são empregadas em mamógrafos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se medidas da exposição na entrada da pele com uma câmara de ionização para diferentes espessuras para os filtros de Mo e Rh. Para determinar a dose glandular média foi utilizado simulador de BR12 (50% tecido adiposo e 50% tecido glandular de diferentes espessuras (4 cm e 8 cm. Energias na faixa de 24 kVp a 34 kVp foram empregadas e filmes Kodak MinR 2000 foram utilizados. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram dados de contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para diferentes espessuras de filtros adicionais e diferentes tensões. Esses dados indicaram aumento nos valores de contraste do objeto e tempo de exposição, com o aumento da espessura dos filtros. A dose glandular apresentou comportamento com diferentes tendências para cada caso analisado. Equações foram definidas para possibilitar a estimativa do contraste do objeto, dose glandular e tempo de exposição para os casos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados possibilitaram a estimativa de equações que auxiliam na verificação do comportamento do contraste do objeto e da dose glandular para simuladores com espessura de 4 cm e 8 cm e para os filtros de Rh e Mo. Dessa forma, torna-se possível estimar a figura de mérito (razão entre o contraste do objeto e a dose glandular, podendo auxiliar na análise da relação risco-benefício dos casos estudados.OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to verify the effect of changes in subject contrast, exposure time and radiation dose when different thicknesses of molybdenum (Mo and rhodium (Rh filters are used in mammography equipments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Entrance skin exposure measurements were performed with an ionization chamber for different thicknesses of Mo and Rh filters

  3. Analogical Arguments in Ethics and Law: A Defence of Deductivism

    Fábio Perin Shecaira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a qualified defence of Bruce Waller’s deductivist schema for a priori analogical arguments in ethics and law. One crucial qualification is that the schema represents analogical arguments as complexes composed of one deductive inference (hence “deductivism” but also of one non-deductive subargument. Another important qualification is that the schema is informed by normative assumptions regarding the conditions that an analogical argument must satisfy in order for it to count as an optimal instance of its kind. Waller’s schema (in qualified form is defended from criticisms formulated by Trudy Govier, Marcello Guarini and Lilian Bermejo-Luque.

  4. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    as it constitute a rendezvous of traditional market-based efficiency logics and concerns over sovereignty. Moreover, the defence industry has been an institutional island still exhibiting all the national protectionist mechanisms that European integration mostly has done away with in other sectors. The paper...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...

  5. Bacteriophages use hypermodified nucleosides to evade host's defence systems

    Kot, Witold; Olsen, Nikoline S.; Carstens, Alexander Byth

    developed several strategies to evade these defence mechanisms. Ultimately, this led to the oldest and still running arms race - microorganisms vs. their molecular parasites. We here describe a remarkable new strategy used by the recently isolated Escherichia coli phage CAjan belonging to...... to investigate this mechanism in detail we have used several methods including direct plaque sequencing, restriction endonuclease analysis and CRISPR-Cas genome editing. Through generation of specific mutants, we were able to introduce a restriction sensitive phenotype in the CAjan bacteriophage providing new...

  6. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  7. Automated Breast Density Computation in Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Influence on Mean Glandular Dose and BIRADS Density Categorization.

    Castillo-García, Maria; Chevalier, Margarita; Garayoa, Julia; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Alejandro; García-Pinto, Diego; Valverde, Julio

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to compare the breast density estimates from two algorithms on full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and to analyze the clinical implications. We selected 561 FFDM and DBT examinations from patients without breast pathologies. Two versions of a commercial software (Quantra 2D and Quantra 3D) calculated the volumetric breast density automatically in FFDM and DBT, respectively. Other parameters such as area breast density and total breast volume were evaluated. We compared the results from both algorithms using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test and the Spearman's rank coefficient for data correlation analysis. Mean glandular dose (MGD) was calculated following the methodology proposed by Dance et al. Measurements with both algorithms are well correlated (r ≥ 0.77). However, there are statistically significant differences between the medians (P density median values from FFDM are, respectively, 8% and 77% higher than DBT estimations. Both algorithms classify 35% and 55% of breasts into BIRADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) b and c categories, respectively. There are no significant differences between the MGD calculated using the breast density from each algorithm. DBT delivers higher MGD than FFDM, with a lower difference (5%) for breasts in the BIRADS d category. MGD is, on average, 6% higher than values obtained with the breast glandularity proposed by Dance et al. Breast density measurements from both algorithms lead to equivalent BIRADS classification and MGD values, hence showing no difference in clinical outcomes. The median MGD values of FFDM and DBT examinations are similar for dense breasts (BIRADS d category). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  9. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Crasta, Julian A; Chaitra, V; Simi, Cm; Correa, Marjorie

    2009-04-01

    Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81%) of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  10. Manic Defences in Contemporary Society. The Psychocultural Approach.

    Rudan, Dusko; Jakovljevic, Miro; Marcinko, Darko

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the impact of contemporary culture on the individual's personality. We used the "psychocultural" approach whose key feature is the amalgamation of theories and methods belonging to psychodynamic and psychosocial studies, as well as those used in the field of media and cultural studies. The idea of a potentially therapeutic effect of culture (therapy culture) can already been seen in Freud's and Lacan's texts, and it is often used in critical analyses of contemporary corporate culture, which is more or less developed in some parts of the world. In their criticisms, many contemporary authors emphasize that modern societies have a tendency towards the weakening of basic commitment, or lack thereof, to a social equivalent of Winnicott's concept of environmental provisions as an inalienable democratic right essential for human emotional and mental progress or emotional well-being. The article describes frequent resorting to the so-called manic defences that defensively distort, deny and obscure the awareness that a human being is not the omnipotent source of life, but instead depends on other human beings, and often tries to compensate for loss through various activities. The article describes excessive shopping as an activity that often serves as an attempt to find what was lost, i.e. to fill an emotional void. This solution (resorting to manic defences) is encouraged by contemporary culture, especially through promotional material (e.g. advertising). The main theses of this article are supported by quotations and data from world literature.

  11. How Strong Is Europeanisation, Really? The Danish Defence Administration and the Opt-Out from the European Security and Defence Policy

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2011-01-01

    The article questions how strong Europeanisation is as an explanation of administrative changes in EU member states. Denmark has an opt-out from the European cooperation on defence, and, therefore, its defence administration represents a critical or a less likely case to test the Europeanisation...... thesis. The article shows that in spite of the opt-out, the administrative structures and the policy processes in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) have adapted to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European security and defence policy (ESDP). Surprisingly, the administrative...... structures and the decision-making processes in the Ministry of Defence (MoD) have also adapted to the ESDP. The latter example emphasises the strength of top-down Europeanisation as a possible explanation of domestic administrative changes in member states. It is argued that Europeanisation per se...

  12. Are bacteriophage defence and virulence two sides of the same coin in Campylobacter jejuni?

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); P. van Baarlen (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe continuous battle for survival in the environment has led to the development or acquisition of sophisticated defence systems in bacteria. These defence systems have contributed to the survival of the bacterial species in the environment for millions of years. Some systems appear to

  13. A laws of war review of contemporary land-based missile defence ...

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent military ...

  14. Modelling the effects of a CBRN defence system using a Bayesian Belief Model

    Phillipson, F.; Bastings, I.C.L.; Vink, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a Bayes model to quantify the effects of a passive CBRN defence system is presented. The model gives insight in the way of the mutual influence of all the elements of passive CBRN defence, by the use of detailed scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis and root cause analysis. This can

  15. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Client-Oriented Volume

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  16. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Executive Leaflet

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  17. Environmental Effects on Constitutive and Inducible Resin Defences of Pinus taeda

    Maria L. Lombardero; Matthew P. Ayres; Peter L. Lorio; Jonathan J. Ruel

    2000-01-01

    The ecological literature abounds with studies of environmental effects on plant antiherbivore defences. While various models have been proposed (e.g. plant stress, optimal allocation, growth-differentiation balance), each has met with mixed support. One possible explanation for the mixed results is that constitutive and induced defences are differentialiy affected by...

  18. A SNARE-protein has opposing functions in penetration resistance and defence signalling pathways

    Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...

  19. Computational intelligence methods for the efficient reliability analysis of complex flood defence structures

    Kingston, Greer B.; Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Gouldby, Ben P.; van Gelder, Pieter H.A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    With the continual rise of sea levels and deterioration of flood defence structures over time, it is no longer appropriate to define a design level of flood protection, but rather, it is necessary to estimate the reliability of flood defences under varying and uncertain conditions. For complex

  20. Between a rock and a hard place: Environmental and engineering considerations when designing coastal defence structures

    Firth, L.B.; Thompson, R.C.; Bohn, K.; Abbiati, M.; Airoldi, L.; Bouma, T.J.; Bozzeda, F.; Ceccherelli, V.U.; Colangelo, M.A.; Evans, A.; Ferrario, F.; Hanley, M.E.; Hinz, H.; Hoggart, S.P.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Moore, P.; Morgan, E.H.; Perkol-Finkel, S.; Skov, M.W.; Strain, E.M.; van Belzen, J.; Hawkins, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal defence structures are proliferating as a result of rising sea levels and stormier seas. With the realisation that most coastal infrastructure cannot be lost or removed, research is required into ways that coastal defence structures can be built to meet engineering requirements, whilst also

  1. the role of the south african national defence force in policing

    mosesm

    the history and socioeconomic realities of our society. For ... White Paper on National Defence for the Republic of South Africa of 19962 and ... Reading the 1998 Defence Review,5 it was clearly assumed, without any ... year regarding the crime situation in South Africa. ..... approaches need to be augmented by the SANDF.

  2. The combined use of Pochonia chlamydosporia and plant defence activators - a potential sustainable control strategy for Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    Maria Clara VIEIRA DOS SANTOS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable strategies are required for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi to reduce dependence on toxic chemical pesticides. The efficacy of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia in biocontrol could be enhanced by integration with control measures that reduce initial nematode infestations. The use of foliar sprays with plant defence activators can reduce the susceptibility of potato plants to M. chitwoodi. This study assessed effects of combined soil application of P. chlamydosporia with foliar sprays of benzothiadiazole (BTH or cis-jasmone on infection of potatoes by M. chitwoodi. Solanum tuberosum, cv. Désirée plants were grown in soil mixed with 5000 chlamydospores g-1 of soil, sprayed twice with BTH or cis-jasmone and inoculated with 300 M. chitwoodi second-stage juveniles. Forty-five days after inoculation, nematode reproduction, numbers of colony-forming units of the fungus g-1 of soil and g-1 of root, and egg parasitism were assessed by standard techniques. Foliar sprays of BTH or cis-jasmone combined with the fungus reduced nematode reproduction (P<0.05, LSD. The presence of the fungus slightly increased the efficacy of cis-jasmone, as the number of eggs per egg mass was less in plants treated both with cis-jasmone and the fungus than in the plants treated only with the defence activator. The proportion of parasitized eggs was greater in the cis-jasmone treatment where rhizosphere colonisation was less, suggesting that P. chlamydosporia became a poorer rhizosphere coloniser but a more efficient nematode parasite. The addition of P. chlamydosporia to soil in combination with application of inducers of plant defence could be an alternative control strategy to be used against M. chitwoodi in potato.

  3. Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma with Glandular Differentiation That Confirmed the Response by Autopsy Specimen to Second-Line mFOLFOX6 (Fluorouracil, Oxaliplatin, and Leucovorin plus Bevacizumab Chemotherapy

    Taku Naiki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic significance of glandular differentiation in urothelial carcinoma (UC is controversial, and thus far there is no established treatment strategy against metastasis of glandular component. We describe here a case of metastatic UC with glandular differentiation that had histological disappearance of adenocarcinoma components at autopsy after sequential chemotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin (CDDP and with mFOLFOX6 (fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin plus bevacizumab (mFOLFOX6+Bev. A 62-year-old Asian male was diagnosed with invasive UC with glandular differentiation (T2N0M0 by radical cystectomy and ileal conduit, and careful follow-up observation was made. Eight years after radical operation, peritoneal metastases occurred, and a biopsy specimen using colon fiber revealed high-grade adenocarcinomas with an immunohistochemical profile that included positivity for cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and negativity for cytokeratin 20 (CK20 and uroplakin, which was identical to the radical cystectomy specimen. Thus, he received combination chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and CDDP; however, the peritoneal metastasis worsened after 2 cycles. Therefore, second-line mFOLFOX6+Bev chemotherapy was performed for a total of 5 courses. In spite of this, the patient died, and the final diagnosis by autopsy was multiple metastases of infiltrating pure UC to the lung, bone, and peritoneum. Interestingly, there were no pathological findings of adenocarcinoma, and the immunohistochemical profile of the metastatic lesions was identical to that of the previous specimens from the bladder and colon. This suggests that sequential chemotherapy of S-1 and CDDP and second-line mFOLFOX6+Bev might be a feasible option in metastatic UC with glandular differentiation.

  4. Monte Carlo evaluation of glandular dose in cone-beam X-ray computed tomography dedicated to the breast: Homogeneous and heterogeneous breast models.

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni; Tucciariello, Raffaele M; Bliznakova, Kristina; Boone, John M; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Di Lillo, Francesca; Russo, Paolo

    2018-06-07

    In cone-beam computed tomography dedicated to the breast (BCT), the mean glandular dose (MGD) is the dose metric of reference, evaluated from the measured air kerma by means of normalized glandular dose coefficients (DgN CT ). This work aimed at computing, for a simple breast model, a set of DgN CT values for monoenergetic and polyenergetic X-ray beams, and at validating the results vs. those for patient specific digital phantoms from BCT scans. We developed a Monte Carlo code for calculation of monoenergetic DgN CT coefficients (energy range 4.25-82.25 keV). The pendant breast was modelled as a cylinder of a homogeneous mixture of adipose and glandular tissue with glandular fractions by mass of 0.1%, 14.3%, 25%, 50% or 100%, enveloped by a 1.45 mm-thick skin layer. The breast diameter ranged between 8 cm and 18 cm. Then, polyenergetic DgN CT coefficients were analytically derived for 49-kVp W-anode spectra (half value layer 1.25-1.50 mm Al), as in a commercial BCT scanner. We compared the homogeneous models to 20 digital phantoms produced from classified 3D breast images. Polyenergetic DgN CT resulted 13% lower than most recent published data. The comparison vs. patient specific breast phantoms showed that the homogeneous cylindrical model leads to a DgN CT percentage difference between -15% and +27%, with an average overestimation of 8%. A dataset of monoenergetic and polyenergetic DgN CT coefficients for BCT was provided. Patient specific breast models showed a different volume distribution of glandular dose and determined a DgN CT 8% lower, on average, than homogeneous breast model. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Indirect Defence Trait Mediated through Egg-Induced Maize Volatiles from Neighbouring Plants.

    Daniel M Mutyambai

    Full Text Available Attack of plants by herbivorous arthropods may result in considerable changes to the plant's chemical phenotype with respect to emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs. These HIPVs have been shown to act as repellents to the attacking insects as well as attractants for the insects antagonistic to these herbivores. Plants can also respond to HIPV signals from other plants that warn them of impending attack. Recent investigations have shown that certain maize varieties are able to emit volatiles following stemborer egg deposition. These volatiles attract the herbivore's parasitoids and directly deter further oviposition. However, it was not known whether these oviposition-induced maize (Zea mays, L. volatiles can mediate chemical phenotypic changes in neighbouring unattacked maize plants. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the effect of oviposition-induced maize volatiles on intact neighbouring maize plants in 'Nyamula', a landrace known to respond to oviposition, and a standard commercial hybrid, HB515, that did not. Headspace volatile samples were collected from maize plants exposed to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae egg deposition and unoviposited neighbouring plants as well as from control plants kept away from the volatile emitting ones. Behavioural bioassays were carried out in a four-arm olfactometer using egg (Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and larval (Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids. Coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS was used for volatile analysis. For the 'Nyamula' landrace, GC-MS analysis revealed HIPV production not only in the oviposited plants but also in neighbouring plants not exposed to insect eggs. Higher amounts of EAG-active biogenic volatiles such as (E-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene were emitted from these plants compared to control plants. Subsequent behavioural assays with female T. bournieri and

  6. Glandular dose and image quality control in mammography facilities with computerized radiography systems; Dose glandular e controle de qualidade da imagem em servicos de mamografia com sistema de radiografia computadorizada

    Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida

    2010-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. However, even though SF combinations have been improved and optimized over the years for breast imaging, there are some critical limitations, including a narrow exposure range, image artifacts, film processing problems, and inflexibility in image processing and film management. In recent years, digital mammography has been introduced in cancer screening programmes with the screen/film techniques gradually being phased out. Computed radiography (CR), also commonly known as photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging or storage phosphor, employs reusable imaging plates and associated hardware and software to acquire and to display digital projection radiographs. In this work, a protocol model was tested for performing image quality control and average glandular dose (AGD) evaluation in 19 institutions with computed radiography systems for mammography. The protocol was validated through tests at the Laboratorio de Radioprotecao Aplicada a Mamografia (LARAM) from the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN). The image quality visual evaluation of CDMAM phantom showed that 53% of the facilities were able to produce images of excellent quality. Furthermore, the automated evaluation of image quality, using the analyze software cdcom.exe, showed that 57% of the images were considered to be of good quality. The detector linearity test showed that the CR response is very linear, where 95% of facilities evaluated were considered to be compliant. For the image noise was found that only 20% of facilities are in agreement with the parameters established for this test. The average glandular doses, which patients may be getting to perform an examination, were below the action levels

  7. State Aid as a Defence for Public Authorities?

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    court’s perception. As the contracts had been declared to be in force by a declaratory judgment that was res judicata, the dispute before the CJEU concerned the national interpretation of the principle of res judicata and its application in a State aid context. The CJEU first turned to the principle......In the annotated judgment a public authority uses the existence of State aid as a defence in a legal action, where its contractual partner aimed to achieve damages and fulfilment of the contracts. The public authority claimed that the contracts were not on market terms, which also was the national...... of consistent interpretation, which it considered could provide various solutions for the national court to draw all the necessary consequences of the possible breach of the duty to notify State aid. In the alternative, the CJEU considered the principle of effectiveness and found that due to the fundamental...

  8. Defence-in-depth concept for the EU-ABWR

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Fuchs, Steffen; Takada, Toshiaki; Kataoka, Kazuyoshi [Toshiba International Limited (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The current defence-in-depth (DiD) concept has been established by the Reactor Harmonization Working Group (RHWG) of Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA). Principally the DiD concept was already part of the very early power reactor designs. However, additional considerations have been done in order to take plant conditions into account which are beyond the original design basis. The most recent advancements have been done based on major lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident. Especially for new nuclear reactors it has to be demonstrated that DiD aspects have been considered in their design. Currently Toshiba is adapting its Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) for the European market, at first in Finland. This presentation aims to describe how the new DiD concept has been applied to achieve the safety goals for a modern reactor type and to ensure a design that can be licensed in Western Europe. (orig.)

  9. Prioritizing Defence Industry Capabilities: Lessons for Canada from Australia

    J. Craig Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of Canadian acquisition announcements over the past few years have generated significant debate about a variety of issues like whether or not Canada should have a separate procurement agency, whether or not industrial and regional benefits are appropriate and whether or not Canadian companies should be given preference over international companies. In discussions about improving our procurement process Australia is often used as an example because the nations are generally considered to be similar in size with respect to GDP, population and military. This study examines Australia’s approach to establishing a defence industry policy with a set of Priority Industry Capabilities and how that policy connects with military procurement in order to identify those lessons that might be useful for Canada as it seeks to improve its own procurement process and its relationship with the defence industry. The study looks at some important background information on the Australian experience and then looks more specifically at the most recent articulation of policies in Australia. Although Australia is not without its own challenges, there are a number of lessons that stand out for Canada. This study discusses the lessons for Canada and recommends that government spends the time and effort required to connect a series of related policy documents that provides industry and others with an articulation of what the government of the day intends to do and what their priorities are moving forward. It also recommends a holistic review of the entire procurement process to determine what is working well and what actually needs fixing would be useful.

  10. Interculturalism in the post-multicultural debate: a defence.

    Zapata-Barrero, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to formulate a defence of the emerging intercultural policy paradigm for the benefit of those who are still somewhat reluctant to accept its proper place within the current migration-related diversity policy debate. My defence will take two main lines of argumentation: Firstly, I will state that the increasing intensity of the intercultural policy paradigm must be placed in the present-day post-multicultural period, which recognizes the strengths ​​of the multicultural policy paradigm but also the limits to its process for recognizing differences. The role played by the emerging national civic policy paradigm (a renovated version of assimilation), prioritizing duties before rights, will also be considered crucial to better contextualize interculturalism. Secondly, I will try to identify the main distinctive features of interculturalism, which legitimize its proper place within the diversity debate today. Without rejecting rights-based and duties-based policy approaches, interculturalism places more emphasis on a contacts-based policy approach, aimed at fostering communication and relationships among people from different backgrounds, including national citizens. This approach focuses on common bonds rather than differences. It also views diversity as an advantage and a resource, and centres its policy goals on community cohesion and reframing a common public culture that places diversity within rather than outside the so-called Unity. In reviewing the current literature and the origins of the intercultural policy paradigm, I restate its contribution towards resolving current trends in transnationalism, changing identities, superdiversity and the rise of populist anti-immigrant parties. These are issues the old multicultural project has struggled to deal with, which has provoked the current disillusionment. Lastly, I will propose a research avenue to further consolidate interculturalism as a distinctive and legitimate policy

  11. Ionising radiation safety training in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation. However, most are designated as radiation protection officers as a secondary duty. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A Training Course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasize, basic radiation theory and protection, operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO, an understanding of the Ionising Radiation Safety Manual, day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments, and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved successful, both for the students and the ADO generally. To seek national accreditation of the course through the Australian National Training Authority, as a first step, competency standards have been proposed. (authors)

  12. Ionising radiation safety training in the Australian defence organisation (ADO)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation, while others may be designated as radiation protection officers in remote units with few duties to perform in this role. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A training course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasise: basic radiation theory and protection; operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO; an understanding of the Safety Manual; day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments; and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved sufficiently successful, both for the students and the ADO generally, to seek national accreditation through the Australian National Training Authority and, as a first step, competency standards have been identified

  13. Defence syndromes in lodgepole - whitebark pine ecosystems relate to degree of historical exposure to mountain pine beetles.

    Raffa, Kenneth F; Mason, Charles J; Bonello, Pierluigi; Cook, Stephen; Erbilgin, Nadir; Keefover-Ring, Ken; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Villari, Caterina; Townsend, Philip A

    2017-09-01

    Warming climate is allowing tree-killing bark beetles to expand their ranges and access naïve and semi-naïve conifers. Conifers respond to attack using complex mixtures of chemical defences that can impede beetle success, but beetles exploit some compounds for host location and communication. Outcomes of changing relationships will depend on concentrations and compositions of multiple host compounds, which are largely unknown. We analysed constitutive and induced chemistries of Dendroctonus ponderosae's primary historical host, Pinus contorta, and Pinus albicaulis, a high-elevation species whose encounters with this beetle are transitioning from intermittent to continuous. We quantified multiple classes of terpenes, phenolics, carbohydrates and minerals. Pinus contorta had higher constitutive allocation to, and generally stronger inducibility of, compounds that resist these beetle-fungal complexes. Pinus albicaulis contained higher proportions of specific monoterpenes that enhance pheromone communication, and lower induction of pheromone inhibitors. Induced P. contorta increased insecticidal and fungicidal compounds simultaneously, whereas P. albicaulis responses against these agents were inverse. Induced terpene accumulation was accompanied by decreased non-structural carbohydrates, primarily sugars, in P. contorta, but not P. albicaulis, which contained primarily starches. These results show some host species with continuous exposure to bark beetles have more thoroughly integrated defence syndromes than less-continuously exposed host species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros que determinan la dosis glandular media en Mamografia utilizando diferentes detectores

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: katicostabh@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  15. Collective defence portfolios of ant hosts shift with social parasite pressure.

    Jongepier, Evelien; Kleeberg, Isabelle; Job, Sylwester; Foitzik, Susanne

    2014-09-22

    Host defences become increasingly costly as parasites breach successive lines of defence. Because selection favours hosts that successfully resist parasitism at the lowest possible cost, escalating coevolutionary arms races are likely to drive host defence portfolios towards ever more expensive strategies. We investigated the interplay between host defence portfolios and social parasite pressure by comparing 17 populations of two Temnothorax ant species. When successful, collective aggression not only prevents parasitation but also spares host colonies the cost of searching for and moving to a new nest site. However, once parasites breach the host's nest defence, host colonies should resort to flight as the more beneficial resistance strategy. We show that under low parasite pressure, host colonies more likely responded to an intruding Protomognathus americanus slavemaker with collective aggression, which prevented the slavemaker from escaping and potentially recruiting nest-mates. However, as parasite pressure increased, ant colonies of both host species became more likely to flee rather than to fight. We conclude that host defence portfolios shift consistently with social parasite pressure, which is in accordance with the degeneration of frontline defences and the evolution of subsequent anti-parasite strategies often invoked in hosts of brood parasites. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of Defence Plans in Europe: Current Status, Strengths and Opportunities

    De Boeck, Steven; Van Hertem, Dirk; Das, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    interconnected, a contingency in one area can affect the whole power system and possibly lead to a wide area black out. Therefore adequate defence plans need to be designed and in place to handle these situations. This paper starts with an overview of the terminology used in defence plans. Subsequently...... the current status of defence plans in Europe and the preferred sequence of actions to mitigate contingencies, is given based on a survey conducted among several European TSOs. Furthermore his paper gives an overview of how the ongoing changes with renewables, phasor measurement units (PMUs), power flow...

  17. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton — actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement — have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence. PMID:26292640

  18. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate.

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Schauvinhold, Ines; Larson, Matthew; Xu, Richard; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Schmidt, Adam; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-06-30

    We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce beta-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes.

  19. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  20. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome-based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome (GT) was carried out. In addition to the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPSs) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (three from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  3. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    Fan, Rongyan; Li, Yuanjun; Li, Changfu; Zhang, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium) is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined w...

  4. Differential microRNA Analysis of Glandular Trichomes and Young Leaves in Xanthium strumarium L. Reveals Their Putative Roles in Regulating Terpenoid Biosynthesis.

    Rongyan Fan

    Full Text Available The medicinal plant Xanthium strumarium L. (X. strumarium is covered with glandular trichomes, which are the sites for synthesizing pharmacologically active terpenoids such as xanthatin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of 21-24 nucleotide (nt non-coding RNAs, most of which are identified as regulators of plant growth development. Identification of miRNAs involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites remains limited. In this study, high-throughput Illumina sequencing, combined with target gene prediction, was performed to discover novel and conserved miRNAs with potential roles in regulating terpenoid biosynthesis in X. strumarium glandular trichomes. Two small RNA libraries from leaves and glandular trichomes of X. strumarium were established. In total, 1,185 conserved miRNAs and 37 novel miRNAs were identified, with 494 conserved miRNAs and 18 novel miRNAs being differentially expressed between the two tissue sources. Based on the X. strumarium transcriptome data that we recently constructed, 3,307 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that some of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR6435, miR5021 and miR1134, might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in the X. strumarium glandular trichomes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in X. strumarium, which forms the basis for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation on terpenoid biosynthesis.

  5. Inducible defences in Acacia sieberiana in response to giraffe ...

    . The resultant browsing pressure has led to the evolution of both physical and chemical responses in Acacia trees. In an observational study, we investigated the physical and chemical defenses in Acacia sieberiana var. woodii in response to ...

  6. Entomology contribution in animal immunity: Determination of the crude thoraxial glandular protein extract of Stomoxys calcitrans as an antibody production enhancer in young horses

    L. Rumokoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the level of antigens protein contained in the crude thoraxial glandular protein (TGP extract of Stomoxys calcitrans which function as immunity enhancer in young horses. The detection of protein content of the thoraxial glandular samples was performed by using a spectrophotometer Nano Drop-1000. This result showed that the lowest level of antigen protein was 0.54 mg/mL, the highest was 72 mg/mL, and the average was 0.675 mg/mL. Six foals were used and divided into two groups. The first group was treated with a solution of 100 μg of TGP by subcutaneous injection, the other group acted as control. The TGP extract was injected on the first day of the experiment. Three ml of blood were sampled from the jugular vein on the 14th day after TGP injection. The blood sampled was centrifuged and its serum placed in micro-tubes to observe the IgG level. The injection of TGP had a significant effect on the IgG level of the experiment animals (P<0.05. This experiment emphasized an important relation between entomology and animal husbandry; health improvement in the young animals was observed after the injection of the insect antigen, so it can be concluded that crude thoraxial glandular proteins of S. calcitrans can be used to improve the immunoglobulin-G circulation in foals.

  7. Guideline for determining the mean glandular dose according to DIN 6868-162 and threshold contrast visibility according to the quality assurance guideline for digital mammography systems.

    Sommer, A; Schopphoven, S; Land, I; Blaser, D; Sobczak, T

    2014-05-01

    As part of the physico-technical quality assurance of the German breast cancer screening program, the threshold contrast visibility and the average glandular dose of every digital mammography system have to fulfill the requirements of the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" (4th Edition). To accomplish uniform measurements in all federal states of Germany, the physical board of the reference centers developed a special guideline in 2009. Due to recent changes in the guidelines and standards, a second version of the guideline was developed by the reference centers. This guideline describes the determination of the average glandular dose as well as the CDMAM image acquisition and the CDMAM image evaluation. The determination of the threshold contrast visibility can be performed visually or automatically. The determination of the average glandular dose is based on DIN 6868 - 162 and the threshold contrast visibility test is based on the German "Quality Assurance Guideline". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Maritime defence and the South African Navy to the cancellation of ...

    The Union of South Africa's declaration of war against Germany on 6. September 1939 ... available only address the history of the British Royal Navy, imperial defence ..... The effect of British naval mastery was also illustrated by the fact that the.

  9. Introducing 'The Diverse Nature of Defence Healthcare' university module for DMS personnel.

    Carter, Chris; Blake, L

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 10 years the UK Defence Medical Services has deployed healthcare personnel to a variety of operational areas in support of UK Operations. The unique nature of every operational deployment, in conjunction with the wide variety of roles which healthcare staff undertake, necessitates bespoke educational preparation of the military healthcare force. This paper explores the creation and development of one of the four modules which comprise the BSc (Hons) in Defence Health Care studies, entitled 'The Diverse Nature of Defence Healthcare'. It demonstrates the unique contribution that the Defence School of Healthcare Education makes towards Generation and Preparation of the Force for deployment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Five Key Changes for the Management of UK Defence - An Agenda for Research?

    Tatham, Peter; Taylor, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    .... Given the paucity of academic research into the general area of defence management, it is suggested that there is considerable potential for focused application of ideas and concepts from a broad...

  11. Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade ...

    Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade liberalisation and ... of United States-measures affecting the production and sale of clove cigarettes. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad.

  12. Development of a single logistic process for the South African National Defence Force

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) contracted the CSIR to investigate and propose methods to improve its logistics and inventory accounting capabilities. The CSIR proposed that a supply chain management approach should be followed...

  13. The correlated evolution of antipredator defences and brain size in mammals

    Stankowich, Theodore; Romero, Ashly N.

    2017-01-01

    Mammals that possess elaborate antipredator defences such as body armour, spines and quills are usually well protected, intermediate in size, primarily insectivorous and live in simple open environments. The benefits of such defences seem clear and may relax selection on maintaining cognitive abilities that aid in vigilance and predator recognition, and their bearers may accrue extensive production and maintenance costs. Here, in this comparative phylogenetic analysis of measurements of encep...

  14. The Strategic Failure of UK Defence Reform and What Still Needs to Be Done

    2016-04-04

    from the previous Labour Government, see HM Government, “Defence Secretary Balances MoD Budget,” https://www.gov.uk/government/news/defence-secretary...conceptualize the different levels of strategy required in a modern environment, inclusive of grand strategy...Learning Under Fire: Military Change in Wartime. Lecture to selected JAWS students , Norfolk, VA, March 2015. HM Government. A Strong Britain in an Age

  15. The Audit of Explosives Storage and Transport Within the Australian Defence Force

    1994-08-01

    Headquarters Australian Defence Force Australian Ordnance Council THE AUDIT OF EXPLOSIVES STORAGE AND TRANSPORT WITHIN THE AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE...control number. 1. REPORT DATE AUG 1994 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1994 to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Audit of Explosives...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 THE AUDIT OF EXPLOSIVES STORAGE AND TRANSPORT WITHIN THE AUSTRALIAN DFFENCE FORCE - by R.W. Johnson and M.J

  16. Some practical examples of defence in depth analysis for category IV gamma irradiators

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The Defence in Depth concept provides a major contribution to the safety philosophy of irradiation facilities. But problems occur when somebody tries to understand or analyse a safety system or develop a new one because there is a lack of practical examples in Safety Series 107 or other IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) publications for irradiation facilities. This paper tries to fill this lack of information by providing a series of practical examples and explanations about Defence in Depth concepts. (author)

  17. Some practical examples of defence in depth analysis for category IV gamma irradiators

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo, E-mail: aryarj@ig.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    The Defence in Depth concept provides a major contribution to the safety philosophy of irradiation facilities. But problems occur when somebody tries to understand or analyse a safety system or develop a new one because there is a lack of practical examples in Safety Series 107 or other IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) publications for irradiation facilities. This paper tries to fill this lack of information by providing a series of practical examples and explanations about Defence in Depth concepts. (author)

  18. Variation in maternal solitary bee nest defence related to nest state

    Peterson , Jason H.; Hoffmeister , Thomas S.; Roitberg , Bernard D.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractParental protection of offspring is found in numerous animal species. Protection provides offspring with a greater chance of surviving to be able to reproduce, while at the same time, often posing a cost to the parent. Therefore, the net value of defence for the parent can vary depending on the developmental stage of the offspring and their ability to defend themselves. For example, in commonly studied organisms (e.g. birds), defence level increases over time u...

  19. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  20. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Along- side this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aes- thetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activi- ties are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice that has consequences beyond the digital, the semi- otic, and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment.

  1. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology

    Smith, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture‐independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive‐aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic‐acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non‐Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine‐tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. PMID:27373840

  2. Risk management as a social defence against anxiety

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study is to describe how risk management unconsciously influences behaviour when doing business in an African country. Motivation for the study: Operational risk management is a rational management imperative. However, this does not take cognisance of the unconscious role of risk management. A systems-psychodynamic perspective might be particularly relevant if the anxiety implied in risk management is not appropriately contained. Awareness of these dynamics may provide an opportunity for addressing them and allow for a more holistic way of managing risk. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study as a qualitative case study in an African country. They used purposive sampling and analysed the data using qualitative content analysis. Main findings: Viewing risk management from a systems-psychodynamic perspective allowed the researchers to identify the influence of risk management on the behaviour of people. The emerging hypothesis was that, if businesses do not address the anxiety underlying risk management, managing risk becomes a social defence against the anxiety. Practical/managerial implications: Awareness of the anxiety involved in risk management may assist businesses to manage risk in a more realistic way, making provision for, and even capitalising on, the human element. Contributions/value-add: The article provides a systems-psychodynamic, and hence a more complete, perspective of operational risk management when doing business in an African country.

  3. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology.

    Smith, Steven B; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-01-15

    The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture-independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive-aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic-acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine-tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  4. Diving bradycardia: a mechanism of defence against hypoxic damage.

    Alboni, Paolo; Alboni, Marco; Gianfranchi, Lorella

    2011-06-01

    A feature of all air-breathing vertebrates, diving bradycardia is triggered by apnoea and accentuated by immersion of the face or whole body in cold water. Very little is known about the afferents of diving bradycardia, whereas the efferent part of the reflex circuit is constituted by the cardiac vagal fibres. Diving bradycardia is associated with vasoconstriction of selected vascular beds and a reduction in cardiac output. The diving response appears to be more pronounced in mammals than in birds. In humans, the bradycardic response to diving varies greatly from person to person; the reduction in heart rate generally ranges from 15 to 40%, but a small proportion of healthy individuals can develop bradycardia below 20 beats/min. During prolonged dives, bradycardia becomes more pronounced because of activation of the peripheral chemoreceptors by a reduction in the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (O2), responsible for slowing of heart rate. The vasoconstriction is associated with a redistribution of the blood flow, which saves O2 for the O2-sensitive organs, such as the heart and brain. The results of several investigations carried out both in animals and in humans show that the diving response has an O2-conserving effect, both during exercise and at rest, thus lengthening the time to the onset of serious hypoxic damage. The diving response can therefore be regarded as an important defence mechanism for the organism.

  5. Development of 63Ni sources for defence related applications

    Udhayakumar, J.; Pardeshi, G.S.; Gandhi, Shyamala S.; Dash, A.; Venkatesh, Meera

    2004-01-01

    63 Ni is seen as a good substitute for the conventional sources of ionization used in electron capture detectors in Gas Chromatography applications. It has advantages such as source stability, reasonably long shelf life due to its long half-life and viable for safe and easy handling due to low energy beta emission. At the special request from the Defence Establishments in India for supply of 63 Ni beta source on special dimension of a curved inner copper ring area, the new electro-deposition cell was designed and used for routine preparation and supply of such sources. The paper describes the procedure for fabrication of 63 Ni beta sources by electro-deposition method. Activity up to ∼370 MBq (∼10 mCi) was electrodeposited exclusively on inner curved area of ∼4 sq.cm. Copper annular ring, using Boric acid electrolyte bath solution at a temperature range of 50 deg - 60 deg C with a current density of ∼ 6 ma/sq.cm. For this purpose, a new electro depositing cell was specially designed and used. The paper discusses the details regarding source requirement, source preparation parameters, film thickness and its impact on beta output, source quality control aspects and other applications of the sources. The paper also highlights the demand and supply scenario of such electrodeposited sources, in terms of commercial supply sale value, as an import substitute. (author)

  6. Peer-to-Peer Enclaves for Improving Network Defence

    David W. Archer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about cyberthreats within networks spreads slowly relative to the speed at which those threats spread. Typical "threat feeds" that are commercially available also disseminate information slowly relative to the propagation speed of attacks, and they often convey irrelevant information about imminent threats. As a result, hosts sharing a network may miss opportunities to improve their defence postures against imminent attack because needed information arrives too late or is lost in irrelevant noise. We envision timely, relevant peer-to-peer sharing of threat information – based on current technologies – as a solution to these problems and as a useful design pattern for defensive cyberwarfare. In our setting, network nodes form communities that we call enclaves, where each node defends itself while sharing information on imminent threats with peers that have similar threat exposure. In this article, we present our vision for this solution. We sketch the architecture of a typical node in such a network and how it might interact with a framework for sharing threat information; we explain why certain defensive countermeasures may work better in our setting; we discuss current tools that could be used as components in our vision; and we describe opportunities for future research and development.

  7. Caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence.

    Kageyama, Azusa; Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Caterpillar hairs are thought to act as a physical barrier against natural enemies, including parasitoids. However, very few studies have experimentally demonstrated how hairs protect caterpillars from parasitoid oviposition. To clarify the importance of caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence, we observed the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking both smooth and hairy caterpillars under laboratory conditions. A female Meteorus pulchricornis uses its ovipositor to inject venom and lay a single egg inside host larvae. We placed a smooth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caterpillar or a hairy Lymantria dispar japonica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) caterpillar in front of parasitoid females. We observed that 100 % and 84 % of the parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into the smooth larvae of S. litura and first instars of the hairy caterpillar L. dispar japonica, respectively. However, only 24 % of parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into second-instar L. dispar japonica. A higher rate of successful stabs (94 %) by parasitoids was obtained by cutting the hairs of second instar L. dispar japonica much shorter than the parasitoid ovipositor. The results demonstrate that the long, thick hairs of second and later instars of L. dispar japonica function as a physical barrier against parasitoid oviposition.

  8. Double checking medicines: defence against error or contributory factor?

    Armitage, Gerry

    2008-08-01

    The double checking of medicines in health care is a contestable procedure. It occupies an obvious position in health care practice and is understood to be an effective defence against medication error but the process is variable and the outcomes have not been exposed to testing. This paper presents an appraisal of the process using data from part of a larger study on the contributory factors in medication errors and their reporting. Previous research studies are reviewed; data are analysed from a review of 991 drug error reports and a subsequent series of 40 in-depth interviews with health professionals in an acute hospital in northern England. The incident reports showed that errors occurred despite double checking but that action taken did not appear to investigate the checking process. Most interview participants (34) talked extensively about double checking but believed the process to be inconsistent. Four key categories were apparent: deference to authority, reduction of responsibility, automatic processing and lack of time. Solutions to the problems were also offered, which are discussed with several recommendations. Double checking medicines should be a selective and systematic procedure informed by key principles and encompassing certain behaviours. Psychological research may be instructive in reducing checking errors but the aviation industry may also have a part to play in increasing error wisdom and reducing risk.

  9. Limiting immunopathology: Interaction between carotenoids and enzymatic antioxidant defences.

    Babin, A; Saciat, C; Teixeira, M; Troussard, J-P; Motreuil, S; Moreau, J; Moret, Y

    2015-04-01

    The release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) during the inflammatory response generates damages to host tissues, referred to as immunopathology, and is an important factor in ecological immunology. The integrated antioxidant system, comprising endogenous antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase SOD, and catalase CAT) and dietary antioxidants (e.g. carotenoids), helps to cope with immune-mediated oxidative stress. Crustaceans store large amounts of dietary carotenoids for yet unclear reasons. While being immunostimulants and antioxidants, the interaction of these pigments with antioxidant enzymes remains unclear. Here, we tested the interaction between dietary supplementation with carotenoids and immune challenge on immune defences and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT, in the amphipod crustacean Gammarus pulex. Dietary supplementation increased the concentrations of circulating carotenoids and haemocytes in the haemolymph, while the immune response induced the consumption of circulating carotenoids and a drop of haemocyte density. Interestingly, supplemented gammarids exhibited down-regulated SOD activity but high CAT activity compared to control ones. Our study reveals specific interactions of dietary carotenoids with endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and further underlines the potential importance of carotenoids in the evolution of immunity and/or of antioxidant mechanisms in crustaceans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improvement interventions: To what extent are they manifestations of social defences?

    Jeremias J. de Klerk

    2012-02-01

    Research purpose: The aim is to provide an explanation to the lure behind interventions and to contribute to building a theory on plausible systems psychodynamic drivers and mechanisms of recurrent change interventions. Motivation for the study: This study provides insights into social defences in ways that did not receive much attention previously; specifically how defence mechanisms act as drivers for new change and improvement interventions. Research design, approach and method: A literature study, consisting of a literature review and a phenomenological analysis. The study was conducted from the systems psychodynamic approach. Main findings: Improvement interventions often represent defences that serve to contain anxieties or maintain fantasies. Four specific themes emerged: interventions defend the perception of being in control, they maintain the fantasy that one is busy with worthy actions to overcome challenges, they are defences against boredom or contain anxieties about incompetence, and they maintain the fantasy of being heroic leaders. Practical/managerial implications: The findings can assist leaders to understand their own defences in order to avoid embarking on non-essential interventions. This can free up much time, energy and effort to spend on other priorities, assisting organisations to achieve better results. Contribution/value-add: The study refutes the notion that improvement interventions are always rational coping mechanisms and highlights the role of improvement interventions as defences to reduce anxiety, even though they may contribute little to organisational survival in real terms.

  11. Parental risk management in relation to offspring defence: bad news for kids.

    Mahr, Katharina; Riegler, Georg; Hoi, Herbert

    2015-01-07

    Do parents defend their offspring whenever necessary, and do self-sacrificing parents really exist? Studies recognized that parent defence is dynamic, mainly depending on the threat predators pose. In this context, parental risk management should consider the threat to themselves and to their offspring. Consequently, the observed defence should be a composite of both risk components. Surprisingly, no study so far has determined the influence of these two threat components on parental decision rules. In a field experiment, we investigated parental risk taking in relation to the threat posed to themselves and their offspring. To disentangle the two threat components, we examined defence behaviours of parent blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus towards three different predators and during different nestling developmental stages. Nest defence strategies in terms of alarm call intensity and nearest predator approach differed between the three predators. Defence intensity was only partly explained by threat level. Most importantly, parental risk management varied in relation to their own, but not offspring risk. Parent defence investment was independent of nestling risk when parents followed a high-risk strategy. However, parents considered nestling as well as parental risk when following a low-risk strategy. Our findings could have general implications for the economy of risk management and decision-making strategies in living beings, including humans. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The correlated evolution of antipredator defences and brain size in mammals.

    Stankowich, Theodore; Romero, Ashly N

    2017-01-11

    Mammals that possess elaborate antipredator defences such as body armour, spines and quills are usually well protected, intermediate in size, primarily insectivorous and live in simple open environments. The benefits of such defences seem clear and may relax selection on maintaining cognitive abilities that aid in vigilance and predator recognition, and their bearers may accrue extensive production and maintenance costs. Here, in this comparative phylogenetic analysis of measurements of encephalization quotient and morphological defence scores of 647 mammal species representing nearly every order, we found that as lineages evolve stronger defences, they suffer a correlated reduction in encephalization. The only exceptions were those that live in trees-a complex three-dimensional world probably requiring greater cognitive abilities. At the proximate level, because brain tissue is extremely energetically expensive to build, mammals may be trading off spending more on elaborate defences and saving by building less powerful brains. At the ultimate level, having greater defences may also reduce the need for advanced cognitive abilities for constant assessment of environmental predation risk, especially in simple open environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. The correlated evolution of antipredator defences and brain size in mammals

    Romero, Ashly N.

    2017-01-01

    Mammals that possess elaborate antipredator defences such as body armour, spines and quills are usually well protected, intermediate in size, primarily insectivorous and live in simple open environments. The benefits of such defences seem clear and may relax selection on maintaining cognitive abilities that aid in vigilance and predator recognition, and their bearers may accrue extensive production and maintenance costs. Here, in this comparative phylogenetic analysis of measurements of encephalization quotient and morphological defence scores of 647 mammal species representing nearly every order, we found that as lineages evolve stronger defences, they suffer a correlated reduction in encephalization. The only exceptions were those that live in trees—a complex three-dimensional world probably requiring greater cognitive abilities. At the proximate level, because brain tissue is extremely energetically expensive to build, mammals may be trading off spending more on elaborate defences and saving by building less powerful brains. At the ultimate level, having greater defences may also reduce the need for advanced cognitive abilities for constant assessment of environmental predation risk, especially in simple open environments. PMID:28077771

  14. The Cellient automated cell block system is useful in the differential diagnosis of atypical glandular cells in Papanicolaou tests.

    Xing, Wei; Hou, April Y; Fischer, Andrew; Owens, Christopher L; Jiang, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Atypical glandular cells (AGC) is a very important diagnosis in gynecological cytology. In the current study, the authors investigated the usefulness of Cellient cell blocks (CB) for characterizing AGC on Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. A total of 148 patients with an AGC diagnosis based on Pap tests by cytotechnologists and referred to cytopathologists were studied. Among these patients, there were 68 patients with CB preparations and 80 patients with Pap tests only (TP-AGC group). Follow-up results by Pap tests or biopsies were obtained in 117 of 148 patients. The median follow-up was 13 months (range, 1 month-36 months). Of the 68 patients with CBs, 31 (46%) were reclassified as negative for dysplasia or low-grade intraepithelial lesion; 30 patients (44%) retained a diagnosis of AGC (CB-AGC group); and 7 patients (10%) were given specific diagnoses of high-grade intraepithelial lesion (3 patients), endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (1 patient), and invasive adenocarcinoma (3 patients). On follow-up, the CB-AGC group was found to have a significantly lower rate of negative/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion diagnoses compared with the TP-AGC group (55% vs 85%; P= .006). The CB-AGC group had a significantly higher rate of endocervical or endometrial adenocarcinoma compared with the TP-AGC group (36% vs 8%; P= .003) at the time of follow-up. The rates of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were not found to be statistically different between these 2 groups (9% vs 7%; P= .66). The Cellient CB is a useful technique to further categorize a diagnosis of AGC on Pap tests. Using the Cellient CB system, the pathologist has the ability to improve the diagnostic accuracy of AGC so that unnecessary colposcopic evaluation or biopsies can be avoided. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  15. Lepidopteran defence droplets - a composite physical and chemical weapon against potential predators

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Khakimov, Bekzod

    2016-01-01

    predators together and immobilised them. Droplets were characterised by a matrix of an aqueous solution of glycine-rich peptides (H-WG11 -NH2) with significant amounts of proteins and glucose. Among the proteins, defensive proteins such as protease inhibitors, proteases and oxidases were abundant...

  16. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    Heil, M; Staehelin, C; McKey, D

    2000-12-01

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants.

  17. Chemical defence in avian brood parasites: production and function of repulsive secretions in common cuckoo chicks

    Trnka, A.; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Čapek, Miroslav; Honza, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2016), s. 288-293 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * common cuckoo Cuculus canorus * malodorous secretion * nest predation * repellency Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2016

  18. Molecular evolution of the Li/li chemical defence polymorphism in white clover (Trifolium repens L.).

    Olsen, K M; Sutherland, B L; Small, L L

    2007-10-01

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is naturally polymorphic for cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release following tissue damage). The ecological factors favouring cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants have been examined in numerous studies over the last half century, making this one of the best-documented examples of an adaptive polymorphism in plants. White clover cyanogenesis is controlled by two, independently segregating Mendelian genes: Ac/ac controls the presence/absence of cyanogenic glucosides; and Li/li controls the presence/absence of their hydrolysing enzyme, linamarase. In this study, we examine the molecular evolution and population genetics of Li as it relates to the cyanogenesis polymorphism. We report here that Li exists as a single-copy gene in plants possessing linamarase activity, and that the absence of enzyme activity in li/li plants is correlated with the absence of much or all of the gene from the white clover genome. Consistent with this finding, we confirm by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that Li gene expression is absent in plants lacking enzyme activity. In a molecular population genetic analysis of Li and three unlinked genes using a worldwide sample of clover plants, we find an absence of nucleotide variation and statistically significant deviations from neutrality at Li; these findings are consistent with recent positive directional selection at this cyanogenesis locus.

  19. Eales′ disease: Oxidant stress and weak antioxidant defence

    Ramakrishnan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eales′ disease (ED is an idiopathic retinal periphlebitis characterized by capillary non-perfusion and neovascularization. In addition to the existing system, a new staging system has been proposed by Saxena et al . Immunological, molecular biological and biochemical studies have indicated the role of human leucocyte antigen, retinal S antigen autoimmunity, Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, free radical damage and possibly hyperhomocysteinemia in its etiopathogenesis, which appears multifactorial. Oxidant stress has been shown by increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid oxidation in the vitreous, erythrocytes, platelets, and monocytes. A decrease in vitamins E and C both in active and healed vasculitis, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase showed a weakened antioxidant defence. Epiretinal membrane from patients of ED who underwent surgery showed, by immunolocalization, presence of carboxy methyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product formed by glycoxidation and is involved in angiogenesis. OH· free radical accumulation in monocytes has been directly shown by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Free radical damage to DNA and of protein was shown by the accumulation of 8 hydroxy 2 deoxyguanosine (in leucocytes and nitrotyrosine (in monocytes, respectively. Nitrosative stress was shown by increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in monocytes in which levels of iron and copper were increased while those of zinc decreased. A novel 88 kDa protein was found in serum and vitreous in inflammatory condition and had antioxidant function. Platelet fluidity was also affected. Oral, methotrexate in low dosage (12.5 mg/week for 12 weeks as well as oral vitamin E (400 IU and C (500 mg daily for 8 weeks are reported to have beneficial effects.

  20. Effectiveness evaluation of flood defence structures in different geomorphological contexts

    Morelli, Stefano; Pazzi, Veronica; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    The flood risk in different geomorphological contexts of two less developed countries are investigated in order to evaluate the efficacy of the existing flood defence structures. In particular, a recent floodplain crossed by a wide meandering river and a narrow mountain valley flowed by creek with a torrential regime have been chosen for such analysis in North Albania and central Mexico, respectively. Both areas have been affected by disastrous floods in past years with considerable damages to properties and people. Some safety countermeasures have been performed over time, even if in a non-systematic way. For this reason, the current inclination to flood risk was assessed by means of a freeware software designed to perform one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling for a full network of natural and anthropic channels (HEC-RAS software by Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System). This new analyses take into account: i) the natural morphological variability along the river path, ii) the anthropic interventions on the fluvial dynamics, iii) the landscape appearance after the soil exploitation in the past years, and iv) all the changes induced by an exceeded informal urbanization. The reconstruction of the river and bordering areas geometric data was carried out according to the physical characteristics of the local environment: a bathymetric survey and near-river DGPS acquisitions for the open spaces of the Albanian floodplain, and traditional topographic methods for the highly vegetated Mexican valley. In both cases, the results show that the existing works are, on their own, poorly efficient in containing the predictable floods. Albanians levees seem underdimensioned, while the channelling works are too narrow to contain large amounts of water and solid transport as typical of the Mexican study area. Evidently, a new territorial planning is required in these areas, and some projects are now in place. However, it would be desirable that local authorities

  1. A Defence of Constructionism: Philosophy as Conceptual Engineering

    Luciano Floridi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a broad account and a defence of constructionism, both as a metaphilosophical approach and as a philosophical methodology, with some references to the philosophical tradition that has inspired it, the so-called «maker’s knowledge» tradition. The main thesis defended is that Plato’s «user’s knowledge tradition» should be complemented, if not replaced, by a constructionist approach to philosophical problems in general and to knowledge in particular. To put it simply, an epistemic agent knows something when that agent is able to build (reproduce, simulate, model, construct etc. that something and plug the obtained information in the correct network of relations that account for it. Or in even more intuitive terms, an agent qualifies as an epistemic agent not when she is a passive user of some information, but when she is a critical producer of it. Her epistemic expertise increases in relation to the scope and depth of the questions that is able to ask and answer on a particular topic. The maker’s knowledge is knowledge of the ontology of the semantic artefact and this is a fundamental epistemological lesson we can learn from poietic disciplines such as computer science and economics. So constructionism shifts the focus away from the mimetic, passive and declarative knowledge that something is the case, in order to concentrate more on the poietic, interactive and practical knowledge of something being the case, that is, of semantic artefacts. Once applied to the interpretation of philosophy itself, constructionism suggests adding conceptual engineering to conceptual analysis as a fundamental method.

  2. Nutrient Induced Type 2 and Chemical Induced Type 1 Experimental Diabetes Differently Modulate Gastric GLP-1 Receptor Expression

    Olga Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available T2DM patients demonstrate reduced GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R expression in their gastric glands. Whether induced T2DM and T1DM differently affect the gastric GLP-1R expression is not known. This study assessed extrapancreatic GLP-1R system in glandular stomach of rodents with different types of experimental diabetes. T2DM and T1DM were induced in Psammomys obesus (PO by high-energy (HE diet and by streptozotocin (STZ in Sprague Dawly (SD rats, respectively. GLP-1R expression was determined in glandular stomach by RT PCR and immunohistomorphological analysis. The mRNA expression and cellular association of the GLP-1R in principal glands were similar in control PO and SD rats. However, nutrient and chemical induced diabetes resulted in opposite alterations of glandular GLP-1R expression. Diabetic PO demonstrated increased GLP-1R mRNA expression, intensity of cellular GLP-1R immunostaining, and frequency of GLP-1R positive cells in the neck area of principal glands compared with controls. In contrast, SD diabetic rats demonstrated decreased GLP-1 mRNA, cellular GLP-1R immunoreactivity, and frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells in the neck area compared with controls. In conclusion, nutrient and chemical induced experimental diabetes result in distinct opposite alterations of GLP-1R expression in glandular stomach. These results suggest that induced T1DM and T2DM may differently modulate GLP-1R system in enteropancreatic axis.

  3. Nuclear Belief Systems and Individual Policy-Makers: Duncan Sandys, Unmanned Weaponry, and the Impossibility of Defence

    Betts, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    This thesis attempts to explore the influence that Duncan Sandys' experiences of the Second World War had on his policy preferences, and policy-making, in relation to British defence policy during his years in government. This is a significant period in British nuclear policy which began with thermonuclear weaponry being placed ostentatiously at the centre of British defence planning in the 1957 Defence White Paper, and ended with the British acquiring the latest American nuclear weapon techn...

  4. Change in phenotypic plasticity of a morphological defence in Daphnia galeata (Crustacea: Cladocera in a selection experiment

    Koichi FUJII

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Some water fleas Daphnia change their head morphology to reduce predation risk in response to chemical substances (kairomones released from larvae of the invertebrate predator Chaoborus (Insecta: Diptera. We tested for evidence of the costs associated with elongation of the head spine in Daphnia galeata and the consequences of these costs on the inducibility of head spine elongation in predictable and unpredictable environments. We exposed D. galeata in outdoor experimental ponds to conditions under which predation pressure by Chaoborus larvae and the concentration of kairomones from this predator were controlled for about 70 days. In the laboratory, we then used Daphnia clones collected from the outdoor ponds to investigate the inducibility of head spine formation in response to Chaoborus kairomones. The inducibility of head spine formation increased in D. galeata from the ponds that had contained both predators and kairomones, whereas in water fleas from the ponds containing only kairomones the plasticity (inducibility of head spine formation decreased compared with that in the control ponds. These results suggest that the production of a defensive head spine, its phenotypic plasticity, or both entail some costs. Contrary to our predictions, exposure to Chaoborus kairomones in the laboratory resulted in head lengths that were not significantly different among any of the clones from the three outdoor treatments. We found no evidence for costs associated with head spine elongation in terms of fecundity, time to maturity, or intrinsic rate of natural population increase. Average within-clone partial correlations calculated for head length and intrinsic rate of natural population increase, corrected for body length, were not significantly negative, indicating no cost of defence. This was probably because food conditions in the laboratory were so good that the costs of defence could not be detected. Furthermore, community-level changes, such as

  5. Chemical systematics of Neotropical termite genera with symmetrically snapping soldiers (Termitidae: Termitinae)

    Kyjaková, Pavlína; Roy, V.; Jirošová, Anna; Krasulová, Jana; Dolejšová, Klára; Křivánek, Jan; Hadravová, Romana; Rybáček, Jiří; Pohl, Radek; Roisin, Y.; Sillam-Dusses, D.; Hanus, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 1 (2017), s. 66-81 ISSN 0024-4082 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-25354P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : chemical defence * frontal gland * termites * chemical systematics * Termitinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2016

  6. Crowd-out of defence and health spending: is Israel different from other industrialised nations?

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2013-04-22

    Does high defence spending limit the growth of public health investment? Using comparative data from 31 OECD countries between 1980 and 2010, we find little evidence that defence crowds out public health spending. Whether measured in terms of long-term levels or short-term changes, per capita defence and health spending positively and significantly correlate. To investigate the possibility that countries with high security needs such as Israel exhibit differing patterns, we also compare crowd-out among countries experiencing violent conflicts as well as current high military-spending countries. We observed a greater positive correlation between changes in health and defence spending among conflict-countries (r = 0.65, p military spending countries, Israel's politicians reduced defence spending while increasing health expenditure during its recent recession. These analyses reveal that while Israel's politicians have chronically underinvested in public health, there are modest steps being taken to rectify the country's unique and avoidable crowding out of public health from its high military spending.

  7. Induced defences alter the strength and direction of natural selection on reproductive traits in common milkweed.

    Thompson, K A; Cory, K A; Johnson, M T J

    2017-06-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long sought to understand the ecological processes that generate plant reproductive diversity. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive antiherbivore defences can alter natural selection on reproductive traits, but it is unclear whether induced defences will have the same effect and whether reduced foliar damage in defended plants is the cause of this pattern. In a factorial field experiment using common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., we induced plant defences using jasmonic acid (JA) and imposed foliar damage using scissors. We found that JA-induced plants experienced selection for more inflorescences that were smaller in size (fewer flowers), whereas control plants only experienced a trend towards selection for larger inflorescences (more flowers); all effects were independent of foliar damage. Our results demonstrate that induced defences can alter both the strength and direction of selection on reproductive traits, and suggest that antiherbivore defences may promote the evolution of plant reproductive diversity. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Defence in Depth: Assessment of Comprehensiveness and Further Strengthening of the Concept

    Misak, J., E-mail: Jozef.Misak@ujv.cz

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Defence in depth concept based on multiple levels of protection of the workers, public and the environment against radiation harm is and should remain an essential strategy for ensuring safety of nuclear power plants. This strategy should be comprehensively implemented through all stages of the plant lifetime, from the siting through construction and operation up to decommissioning. First part of the presentation will introduce a screening method developed by the IAEA as a tool facilitating the assessment of the comprehensiveness of defence in depth and will indicate further possibilities for using and updating the approach by taking into account recent lessons learned. Although it is clear that it is not possible for any industrial facility including nuclear power plants to fully eliminate the risk, further strengthening the defence in depth in particular at level 4 dealing with design extension conditions gives very high confidence in prevention and effective mitigation of severe accidents so that they are either practically eliminated or their consequences are limited in area and time. Second part of the presentation will discuss several issues associated with current efforts for strengthening the defence in depth, including the issues of practical elimination, independence and diversity of safety provisions at different levels of defence. (author)

  9. "New Sport" in the street: self-defence, security and space in belle epoque Paris.

    Freundschuh, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Near the turn of the twentieth century, traditional self-defence methods (for example, jiu-jitsu) were revamped into a more accessible and practical set of techniques and tactics for everyday use in urban public space. Framed as a "new sport" with broad public utility, early urban self-defence developed against the backdrop of heightening fears of violent crime and a burgeoning politics of security, as well as tensions provoked by the increasingly common appearance of unchaperoned, middle-class women in public. Self-defence masters pitched their innovations in an inclusive rhetoric, always with separate lessons for men and women and their respective spaces of risk. This article places modern self-defence practices in tension with historical transformations in the urban landscape, arguing that urban self-defence posited a certain subjective relation to the city that tapped simultaneously into the desire for empowerment, fantasies of criminal danger and a law-and-order tone that shaded into urban vigilantism.

  10. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue

    Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Kochman, Agata; Gamian, Elżbieta; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Lipiński, Tomasz; Seweryn, Ewa; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia) and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma). Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is a new marker

  11. Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (ASTERACEAE - EUPATORIEAE) - uma planta endêmica do Cerrado de Goiás

    Trindade, Luma Mota Palmeira

    2013-01-01

    Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (Asteraceae - Eupatorieae) – Uma planta endêmica do cerrado de Goiás - A família Asteraceae é amplamente distribuída, possuindo 24.000 espécies e 1.600 a 1700 gêneros, constituindo uma das maiores famílias de fanerógamas. No Cerrado, dentre as fanerógamas, é a segunda maior família em quantidade de espécies. Dentre as inúmeras espécies de Asteraceae está presente Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker, pertence à tr...

  12. Male Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia) Nest Defence Correlates with Female Ornament Size

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d-old nest......We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d...... defence factor was significantly related only to female breast patch size. We argue that male rock sparrows apparently make parental investment decisions according to their mate's quality, and examine possible alternative hypotheses....

  13. BUILDING HIGH PERFORMANCE STRATEGY OF MILITARY EXPENDITURES: THE UTILITY FUNCTION IN THE MIDDLE OF DEFENCE BUDGETING

    MARITANA SEDYSHEVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes tasks and methods which can be used in process of discovering the most expedient variants of the perspective and effective strategy development process of the defence spending in the Republic of Estonia.The author offers a part of strategy model named “Financial Perspective” as one of the improvement tools for the system of planning military expenditures and effective utilization of budgetary funds. The Balanced Scorecard application by using the “utility function” will allow the Estonian Defence Forces to overcome important barriers to strategy implementation by interrelation of military planning and budgeting processes. The Balanced Scorecard might be used as a very strong practical application. It will improve the calculations of long-term perspective plans and the development of the military budgetary policy by taking into account the features of national defence expenses.

  14. A defence in depth approach to safety assessment of existing nuclear power plant

    Butcher, P.; Holloway, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The safety assessment of plant built to earlier standards requires an approach to prioritisation of upgrades that is based on sound engineering and safety principles. The principles of defence in depth are universally accepted and can form the basis of a prioritisation scheme for safety issues, and hence for the upgrading required to address them. The described scheme includes criteria for acceptability and issue prioritisation that are based on the number of lines of defence and the consequences of their failure. They are thus equivalent in concept to risk criteria, but are based on deterministic principles. This scheme has been applied successfully to the RBMK plant at Ignalina in Lithuania, for which a Western-style Safety Analysis Report has recently been produced and reviewed by joint Western and Eastern teams. An extended Safety Improvement Programme (SIP2) has been developed and agreed, based on prioritisations from the defence in depth assessment. (author)

  15. Families of returned defence force personnel: a changing landscape of challenges.

    Berle, David; Steel, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to identify the key challenges experienced by the families of defence force personnel following deployment. We undertook a selective review of four post-deployment challenges to the families of defence force personnel: (1) changes to relationships; (2) changes to family member roles and responsibilities; (3) adjustment of children and parenting challenges; and (4) anger, family conflict and violence. Emerging issues in the area of post-deployment adjustment are also discussed. Empirical studies of post-deployment family adjustment are lacking. Each of the reviewed challenges can contribute to psychological difficulties and precipitate contact with mental health services. The challenges faced by defence force personnel when returning from deployment arise within a family context. Clinicians should thoroughly assess these factors in families following deployment, but also recognise family strengths and resilience to these challenges. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  16. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. The bile acid deoxycholate elicits defences in Arabidopsis and reduces bacterial infection.

    Zarattini, Marco; Launay, Alban; Farjad, Mahsa; Wénès, Estelle; Taconnat, Ludivine; Boutet, Stéphanie; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Fagard, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    Disease has an effect on crop yields, causing significant losses. As the worldwide demand for agricultural products increases, there is a need to pursue the development of new methods to protect crops from disease. One mechanism of plant protection is through the activation of the plant immune system. By exogenous application, 'plant activator molecules' with elicitor properties can be used to activate the plant immune system. These defence-inducing molecules represent a powerful and often environmentally friendly tool to fight pathogens. We show that the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) induces defence in Arabidopsis and reduces the proliferation of two bacterial phytopathogens: Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. We describe the global defence response triggered by this new plant activator in Arabidopsis at the transcriptional level. Several induced genes were selected for further analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We describe the kinetics of their induction and show that abiotic stress, such as moderate drought or nitrogen limitation, does not impede DCA induction of defence. Finally, we investigate the role in the activation of defence by this bile acid of the salicylic acid biosynthesis gene SID2, of the receptor-like kinase family genes WAK1-3 and of the NADPH oxidase-encoding RbohD gene. Altogether, we show that DCA constitutes a promising molecule for plant protection which can induce complementary lines of defence, such as callose deposition, reactive oxygen species accumulation and the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling pathways. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Growth and Transformation of the South African defence industry: A state owned enterprise perspective

    Kleynhans, Theo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available % localisation • R&D and intellectual property development investment of R550m to R800m annually • 62% of our employees are black and about 30% of our local procurement spend were to black suppliers. • Knowledge-based value added advanced manufacturing A... Confidential Shift In Defence Investments & Smart Layer Add-ons Smart Layer / Add-ons Smart Defence Products + = Critical Focus Area Good Progress On-going SECURE Up- Smarting of Products • Shift in R&D Investments towards Disruptive Technologies...

  19. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  20. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the eleven representative concepts of small and medium sized reactors. (author)

  1. Interactions between nutritional approaches and defences against microbial diseases in small ruminants.

    Caroprese, M; Giannenas, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Objective of this review is to discuss the role of small ruminant diet in the defence of these animals against microbial diseases, in relation to different experimental approaches and various stressors acting on animals. The effects of various diets in immune reactions and animal defences are presented. Also, effects in relation to the species studied and the type of stressors acting on animals are discussed. Evidence is provided about the significance of the diet in enhancing immune responses of small ruminants during specific conditions, e.g., around parturition, during lactation, as well as in growing lambs or kids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Western European Nuclear Regulators’ Association (WENRA) Views on Defence-in-Depth for New Reactors

    Reiman, L.; Routamo, T. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Féron, F., E-mail: lasse.reiman@stuk.fi [ASN (France)

    2014-10-15

    WENRA published in 2010 a statement on safety objectives for new NPPs. Based on these objectives, WENRA decided to develop common positions, compiled in a booklet (available on www.wenra.org), on selected key safety issues for the design of new NPPs. One position presents WENRA’s Defence-in-Depth approach, describing WENRA’s expectation that multiple failure events and core melt accidents are considered in the original design of new nuclear power plants; another position presents expectations on the independence between different levels of Defence-in-Depth. (author)

  3. Pathogenesis and host defence against Mucorales: the role of cytokines and interaction with antifungal drugs.

    Roilides, Emmanuel; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Simitsopoulou, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Innate immune response, including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells and their respective receptors, plays an important role in host defences against Mucorales with differential activity against specific fungal species, while adaptive immunity is not the first line of defence. A number of endogenous and exogenous factors, such as cytokines and growth factors as well as certain antifungal agents have been found that they influence innate immune response to these organisms. Used alone or especially in combination have been shown to exert antifungal effects against Mucorales species. These findings suggest novel ways of adjunctive therapy for patients with invasive mucormycosis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. NRT/PTR transporters are essential for translocation of glucosinolate defence compounds to seeds

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Burow, Meike

    2012-01-01

    glucosinolates in seeds and had more than tenfold over-accumulation in source tissues such as leaves and silique walls, indicating that both plasma membrane-localized transporters are essential for long-distance transport of glucosinolates. We propose that GTR1 and GTR2 control the loading of glucosinolates from......In plants, transport processes are important for the reallocation of defence compounds to protect tissues of high value, as demonstrated in the plant model Arabidopsis, in which the major defence compounds, glucosinolates, are translocated to seeds on maturation. The molecular basis for long...

  5. Evolution of host innate defence: insights from Caenorhabditis elegans and primitive invertebrates.

    Irazoqui, Javier E; Urbach, Jonathan M; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2010-01-01

    The genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was first used to model bacterial virulence in vivo a decade ago. Since then, great strides have been made in identifying the host response pathways that are involved in its defence against infection. Strikingly, C. elegans seems to detect, and respond to, infection without the involvement of its homologue of Toll-like receptors, in contrast to the well-established role for these proteins in innate immunity in mammals. What, therefore, do we know about host defence mechanisms in C. elegans and what can they tell us about innate immunity in higher organisms?

  6. Evolution of host innate defence: insights from C. elegans and primitive invertebrates

    Irazoqui, Javier E.; Urbach, Jonathan M.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    Preface The genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was first used to model bacterial virulence in vivo a decade ago. Since then, great strides have been made in the identification of host response pathways that are involved in the defence against infection. Strikingly, C. elegans seems to detect and respond to infection without the involvement of its Toll-like receptor homologue, in contrast to the well-established role for these proteins in innate immunity in mammals. What, therefore, do we know about host defence mechanisms in C. elegans, and what can they tell us about innate immunity in higher organisms? PMID:20029447

  7. People's Front in Defence of Land, San Salvador Atenco: A testimony

    Martha Pérez Pineda

    2011-01-01

    Martha Pérez Pineda gives her statement of the Peoples Front in Defence of the Land (The Peoples Front in Defence of Land (Frente del Pueblo en Defensa de la Tierra, FPDT) was formed in 2002, by residents of San Salvador Atenco, to resist their forced displacement by the federal government of Mexico and Estado de Mexico. The government planned to displace them to make way for the new Mexico City Airport. The people of San Salvador Atenco refused and battled, the most common fights were disput...

  8. A unique case of a huge mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of non-endobronchial origin with a peripheral growth

    Kei Yabuki

    Full Text Available We report a case of a huge solitary non-endobronchial pulmonary tumor in a 76-year-old male smoker. The tumor measured 11 × 10 × 8 cm. It was ill-defined, and it was located periphery of the right lower lobe with the subpleural cystic spaces. He underwent right lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection and is free from tumor 30 months after surgery. Microscopically, it was composed of a proliferation of squamous and ciliated columnar epithelial cells with a few mucous cells. These cells were arranged in a papillary growth fashion extending along the fibrously thickened alveolar septa together with metaplastic bronchiolar and squamous epithelia displaying an usual interstitial pneumonia-pattern. Although the histologic features of the tumor were that of a mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (MSCGP, it was peripherally located and showed a lepidic growth, and it was much larger than previously reported MSCGPs. It is possible that the tumor developed in association with bronchial metaplasia in the periphery of the lung, and then extended along the surface of the reconstructed air spaces, which resulted in its unique histologic appearance. Further investigations of respiratory papilloma are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of these lesions. Keywords: Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma, Non-endobronchial, Cytology, Interstitial pneumonia, Pulmonary tumor

  9. Effects of reflex-based self-defence training on police performance in simulated high-pressure arrest situations

    Renden, Peter G.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of reflex-based self-defence training on police performance in simulated high-pressure arrest situations. Police officers received this training as well as a regular police arrest and self-defence skills training (control training) in a crossover design. Officers’

  10. An uncertain future: South Africa’s National Defence Force caught between foreign-policy ambitions and domestic development

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In June 2015, the South African Parliament passed the long-awaited defence review (DR2015). The aim of the review was to stop the decline of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) and to create an economical and sustainable force structure capable of continuing to fulfil its constitutio...

  11. The association between self-image and defence mechanisms in a group of adolescent patients receiving psychiatric treatment.

    Treger, Bartosz; Matusiak, Feliks; Pilecki, Maciej; Rogoż, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between various areas of self-image and defence mechanisms in adolescents. The study included a division into groups according to whether or not they were receiving psychiatric treatment. Data were obtained from two groups: a clinical group (30 persons), consisting of adolescent patients of the Adolescent Inpatient Ward of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic and a control group (40 persons), adolescents attending upper secondary school. The Defence Style Questionnaire DSQ-40 and the Offer Self Image Questionnaire were used in the study. Results showed no differences, in the maturity levels of the defence mechanisms, between the two groups. Subjects from the clinical group had a significantly lower self-image of themselves than subjects from the control group.. In both groups, the use of mature defence mechanisms was accompanied by a positive self-image, while the use of less mature defence mechanisms was associated with a lower self-image. Comparison of the groups revealed different relationships between the aspects of self-image and used defence mechanisms, in particular the mechanism of projection. Number of significant correlations was greater in the clinical group. In the context of lower self-image, the study revealed the importance of such defence mechanisms as projection, acting out, somatization or schizoid fantasies. The obtained results seem to confirm a hypothesis that the assessment of the maturity of defence mechanisms in the period of adolescence is less clear and clinically useful.

  12. The possibilities to develop the logistics of electrical and electronic waste in the military defence system of the Republic of Serbia

    Dragutin V. Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    substances. The adopted Directives should improve the management of e-waste and make its treatment safer. Experience of developed countries in dealing with electrical and electronic waste Most of the management of e-waste in the developed countries of Europe and the world is organized around the existing municipal waste collection points. A common thing is the existence of three primary channels for collecting e-waste: municipal collection points, retail stores and direct return to the manufacturer. There is a great diversity in the amount of collected and treated electrical and electronic waste, although different categories of devices and the size of the population were considered. In addition to quantitative measures, various qualitative measures for the management of e-waste are defined: -        Environmentally acceptable treatment (Denmark, -        Adequate treatment in accordance with the regulations (Norway, -        Pre-treatment of waste prior to disposal in landfills (Sweden, Switzerland, -        Minimum standards for the treatment, recovery of metals and incineration of chemicals that cannot be restored (Switzerland, -        Division of devices into reusable and non-reusable ones (Belgium. Production of electronic and electrical waste in the defence system During the development and technological modernization of the military and defence system as a whole, a substantial part of electrical and electronic equipment and devices is coming into the state when it is either replaced by newer equipment or rejected. Most of such equipment and devices become e-waste. The specificity of e-waste generated in the defence system is its complexity and speed with which electrical products become obsolete and replaced by new ones. Due to rapid technology development, faulty equipment and devices are rarely repaired, but rather replaced with new ones, because it is simpler and often more cost-effective. The average life span of computers has

  13. Modelling joint air defence doctrinal issues with a LinkZA-based integration of two C2 simulators – a case study

    Nel, JJ

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the integration between two command and control simulators in order to clarify doctrinal issues surrounding Joint Air Defence using as example the uncertainty of roles and responsibilities between the Air Defence Cell...

  14. Pyrethrum secondary metabolism: biosynthesis, localization and ecology of defence compounds

    Ramirez, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of botanical insecticides is in today’s world an attractive alternative to the less safe and environmentally malign synthetic chemicals, whose overall longer persistence in the environment does not only make them more contaminant, but also increases their chances of causing a rapid

  15. union defence forces : statistics of the wounded and prisoners of war ...

    UNION DEFENCE FORCES : STATISTICS OF THE. WOUNDED AND PRISONERS OF WAR DURING. THE SECOND WORLD WAR 1939-1945. Compiled by Captain J.E. Loraine-Grews. In 1943, after active service as ROMS of Die Middellandse Regiment in the Western Desert during which he escaped capture at Tobruk ...

  16. Jamali lauds PAEC contribution to scientific development defence needs of country

    2003-01-01

    "The Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali has appreciated role of Pakistan Atomic Energy Council (PAEC) for its contribution to the scientific development and defence needs of the country. He directed that all resources and energy be devoted to the development of human resource and infrastructure for socio-economic uplift of the nation" (1 page).

  17. Christina Isajiw. Negotiating Human Rights: In Defence of Dissidents during the Soviet Era. A Memoir.

    Barbara Martin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Christina Isajiw. Negotiating Human Rights: In Defence of Dissidents during the Soviet Era. A Memoir. Edmonton and Toronto: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 2014. xxx, 407 pp. Foreword by Bohdan Nahaylo. Introduction. Illustrations. Appendices on separate CD-Rom. Index. Paper.

  18. On combining coastal defence and aquaculture: opportunities in the Southwest Delta of the Netherlands

    Sluis, van C.J.; Ysebaert, T.

    2012-01-01

    In reaction to an extreme flooding event in 1953 in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the Dutch shortened and strengthened their estuarine coastline with dams, dikes and land reclamation. In retrospect, the construction of these large scale artificial coastal defence structures and the

  19. In Vitro Activities against Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens of Synthetic Host Defence Propeptides Processed by Neutrophil Elastase.

    Desgranges, Stephane

    2011-02-22

    The antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of a host defence peptide can be controlled by modification as a propeptide of reduced net charge which can be processed by neutrophil elastase, a serine protease involved in chronic airway inflammation and infections associated with cystic fibrosis.

  20. Mechanisms involved in the evasion of the host defence by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an extracellular opportunistic pathogen, utilizes two major mechanisms to evade the host defence system. One of these mechanisms is the production of a large number of extracellular products, such as proteases, toxins, and lipases. The two proteases, alkaline protease and ...

  1. Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient

    Dostálek, T.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Maršík, P.; Rezek, J.; Skuhrovec, J.; Pavela, R.; Münzbergová, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, Jul 11 (2016), č. článku plw026. ISSN 2041-2851 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Climate change * Lamiaceae * VOCs * defence strategies * elevation * greenhouse experiment * insect herbivory * plant–animal interactions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  2. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening

  3. The Party Politics of Legislative-Executive Relations in Security and Defence Policy

    Wagner, W.M.; Herranz-Surralles, A.; Kaarbo, J.; Ostermann, F.

    2017-01-01

    The move from territorial defence to ‘wars of choice’ has influenced the domestic politics of military interventions. This paper examines the extent to which both the substance and the procedure of military interventions are contested among political parties. Regarding the substance, our analysis of

  4. Defence responses of arabidopsis thaliana to infection by pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock

    Bhardwaj, Vaibhav; Meier, Stuart; Petersen, Lindsay N.; Ingle, Robert A.; Roden, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition

  5. Artificial intelligence and finite element modelling for monitoring flood defence structures

    Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Kozionov, A.; Kusherbaeva, V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid approach to monitoring the stability of flood defence structures equipped with sensors. This approach combines the finite element modelling with the artificial intelligence for real-time signal processing and anomaly detection. This combined method has been developed for the

  6. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant–microbe–insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. 2. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore

  7. Protect and Survive: "Whiteness" and the Middle-Class Family in Civil Defence Pedagogies

    Preston, John

    2008-01-01

    "Civil defence pedagogies" normalise continuous emergency through educational channels such as school, community and adult education. Using critical whiteness studies, and critiques of white supremacy from critical race theory, as a conceptual base, the protection of whiteness, and particularly the white middle-class family, is considered to be…

  8. The defence architecture of the superficial cells of the oral mucosa

    Asikainen, P.; Ruotsalainen, T.J.; Mikkonen, J.J.W.; Koistinen, A.; ten Bruggenkate, C.M.; Kullaa, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The oral epithelium together with the saliva and its components forms a complex structure which is the first line of defence in the oral cavity. The surface of superficial cells of the oral epithelium contains ridge-like folds, microplicae (MPL), which are typical of the surfaces of areas covered

  9. Application of Defence of Insanity in Nigerian Courts: The Missing Link

    Aim: This paper is aimed at appraising the import of forensic psychology to the legal trials of mentally ill people. Method: Nigeria laws are replete with Criminal Codes and Criminal Procedure Acts but there are numerous failed cases of insanity defences in Nigeria. The research technique of content analysis of insanity ...

  10. Jasmonate-deficient plants have reduced direct and indirect defences against herbivores

    Thaler, J.S.; Farag, M.A.; Paré, P.W.; Dicke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Plants employ a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which act directly by having a negative effect on herbivores and others that act indirectly by attracting natural enemies of herbivores. In this study we asked if a common jasmonate-signalling pathway links the regulation of direct and indirect

  11. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona sequentially induces JA and SA defence pathways in tomato

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Gary W. Felton; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2010-01-01

    While plant responses to herbivores and pathogens are well characterized, responses to attack by other plants remain largely unexplored. We measured phytohormones and C18 fatty acids in tomato attacked by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona, and used transgenic and mutant plants to explore the roles of the defence-related phytohormones salicylic...

  12. Anticipatory action in self-defence: essence and limits under international law

    Tibori Szabó, K.

    2011-01-01

    The legality of preemptive strikes is one of the most controversial questions of contemporary international law. At the core of this controversy stands the temporal dimension of self-defence: when and for how long can a state defend itself against an armed attack? Can it resort to armed force before

  13. Ebola expert says building up health systems is best defence | IDRC ...

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... Ebola expert says building up health systems is best defence ... community of public health experts to control viral epidemics in several countries. ... says the problem of infectious diseases has grown in the past 30 years, but ...

  14. An Analysis of SE and MBSE Concepts to Support Defence Capability Acquisition

    2014-09-01

    Architecture Review Meeting ATM Automatic Teller Machine AUSDAF Australian Defence Architecture Framework (also known as DAF) BOK Body of Knowledge BPMN ...behaviour trees, • business process modelling notation ( BPMN ™), • flowcharts, • IDEFx™ family of diagrams, and • Architecture Description...model diagraming of the ilk of BPMN , UML and SysML33 is heavily rules- 32 Architecture

  15. Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

    Gols, R.; Wagenaar, R.; Poelman, E.H.; Kruidhof, H.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an 'indirect defence'. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been

  16. The state and the defence committees in the Ghanaian revolution, 1981-1984

    Konings, P.J.J.; Hesseling, G.S.C.M.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Reyntjens, F.

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to overcome some of the shortcomings of the theory of the postcolonial state, this study analyses the relationship between the 'revolutionary' leadership in Ghana and the 'revolutionary' mass organizations established by the new regime, the Defence Committees. The contradictions

  17. Did fleshy fruit pulp evolve as a defence against seed loss rather ...

    dispersers. Most seed dispersal studies are ecological and examine the role of fruit pulp in promoting seed dispersal. ... Introduction. Endozoochory, the interaction between fleshy-fruited plants ... adaptations for seed defence may have led to the evolution ..... Eriksson O and Bremer B 1992 Pollination systems, dispersal.

  18. Post-translational modification of host proteins in pathogen-triggered defence signalling in plants

    Stulemeijer, I.J.E.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial plant pathogens impose a continuous threat to global food production. Similar to animals, an innate immune system allows plants to recognize pathogens and swiftly activate defence. To activate a rapid response, receptor-mediated pathogen perception and subsequent downstream signalling

  19. Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient

    Dostálek, Tomáš; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Skuhrovec, J.; Pavela, R.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, Jul 11 (2016), č. článku plw026. ISSN 2041-2851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-10850P Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : climate change * plant–animal interactions * defence strategies Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  20. Interactive effects of above- and belowground herbivory and plant competition on plant growth and defence

    Jing, Y.; Raaijmakers, C.; Kostenko, O.; Kos, M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Competition and herbivory are two major factors that can influence plant growth and plant defence. Although these two factors are often studied separately, they do not operate independently. We examined how aboveground herbivory by beet armyworm larvae (Spodoptera exigua) and belowground herbivory

  1. Comparing Presidents and Their Actions "To Provide for the Common Defence"

    O'Brien, Joe; Hood, Jack

    2009-01-01

    As noted by Onosko, the nature of the social studies curriculum typically results in superficial and disconnected coverage of the content with few opportunities for in-depth investigation and discussion of that content. Engaging students in a comparative study of U.S. Presidents and actions they took "to provide for the common defence"…

  2. Implementation of defence in depth for next generation light water reactors

    1997-12-01

    The publication of this IAEA technical document represents the conclusion of a task, initiated in 1995, devoted to defence in depth in future reactors. It focuses mainly on the next generation of LWRs, although many general considerations may also apply to other types of reactors

  3. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W; Reguero, Borja G; Losada, Iñigo J; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost

  4. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Siddharth Narayan

    Full Text Available There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences and (ii analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become

  5. PM2.5, oxidant defence and cardiorespiratory health: a review.

    Weichenthal, Scott A; Godri-Pollitt, Krystal; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2013-05-04

    Airborne fine particle mass concentrations (PM2.5) are used for ambient air quality management worldwide based in part on known cardiorespiratory health effects. While oxidative stress is generally thought to be an important mechanism in determining these effects, relatively few studies have specifically examined how oxidant defence may impact susceptibility to particulate air pollution. Here we review studies that explore the impact of polymorphisms in anti-oxidant related genes or anti-oxidant supplementation on PM2.5-induced cardiorespiratory outcomes in an effort to summarize existing evidence related to oxidative stress defence and the health effects of PM2.5. Recent studies of PM-oxidative burden were also examined. In total, nine studies were identified and reviewed and existing evidence generally suggests that oxidant defence may modify the impact of PM2.5 exposure on various health outcomes, particularly heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic function) which was the most common outcome examined in the studies reviewed. Few studies examined interactions between PM2.5 and oxidant defence for respiratory outcomes, and in general studies focused primarily on acute health effects. Therefore, further evaluation of the potential modifying role of oxidant defence in PM2.5-induced health effects is required, particularly for chronic outcomes. Similarly, while an exposure metric that captures the ability of PM2.5 to cause oxidative stress may offer advantages over traditional mass concentration measurements, little epidemiological evidence is currently available to evaluate the potential benefits of such an approach. Therefore, further evaluation is required to determine how this metric may be incorporated in ambient air quality management.

  6. Deimatic display in the European swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits.

    Olofsson, Martin; Eriksson, Stephan; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to aid the evolution of deimatic behaviours in harmless and palatable prey.

  7. Deimatic display in the European swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits.

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally.In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable.We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to aid the evolution of deimatic behaviours in harmless and palatable prey.

  8. Deimatic Display in the European Swallowtail Butterfly as a Secondary Defence against Attacks from Great Tits

    Olofsson, Martin; Eriksson, Stephan; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Background Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey’s primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly’s startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the swallowtail’s startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to aid the

  9. Bruce NGS a loss of flow analysis for effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth provisions

    Won, W.; Jiang, Y.; Kwee, M.; Xue, J.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of defence-in-depth is applied to CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor designs and operations to provide series of levels of defence to prevent accidents progressing and to provide protection for reactor and public safety. The level 2 defence-in-depth provisions are designed to detect and intercept deviation from normal operation in order to prevent anticipated operating occurrences (AOOs) from escalating to accident conditions, and to return the plant to a state of normal operations, according to the Canada Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulatory document RD-337. Historically, safety analysis has focused on the effectiveness of level 3 defence-in-depth provisions in accident conditions, and the effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth has not been assessed. In this study, the effectiveness of Level 2 defence-in-depth is assessed for loss of flow (LOF) events for Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) A reactors. The level 2 defence-in-depth in Bruce NGS A design is identified to be the stepback function of reactor regulating system (RRS). The behavior of RRS stepback following the initiation of loss of flow event is simulated using RFSP/TUF/RRS - em coupled code. The behavior of full system and single channel is simulated and assessed against the acceptance criteria - fitness for service of systems, structures and components (SSCs). (author)

  10. Bruce NGS a loss of flow analysis for effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth provisions

    Won, W. [AMEC NSS, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jiang, Y.; Kwee, M.; Xue, J. [Bruce Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The concept of defence-in-depth is applied to CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor designs and operations to provide series of levels of defence to prevent accidents progressing and to provide protection for reactor and public safety. The level 2 defence-in-depth provisions are designed to detect and intercept deviation from normal operation in order to prevent anticipated operating occurrences (AOOs) from escalating to accident conditions, and to return the plant to a state of normal operations, according to the Canada Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulatory document RD-337. Historically, safety analysis has focused on the effectiveness of level 3 defence-in-depth provisions in accident conditions, and the effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth has not been assessed. In this study, the effectiveness of Level 2 defence-in-depth is assessed for loss of flow (LOF) events for Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) A reactors. The level 2 defence-in-depth in Bruce NGS A design is identified to be the stepback function of reactor regulating system (RRS). The behavior of RRS stepback following the initiation of loss of flow event is simulated using RFSP/TUF/RRS{sub -}em coupled code. The behavior of full system and single channel is simulated and assessed against the acceptance criteria - fitness for service of systems, structures and components (SSCs). (author)

  11. Excess antibody immunoassays for rat glandular kallikreins. Measurement of kallikrein from different organs in the presence of cross-reacting antigens

    Johansen, L.; Oerstavik, T.B.; Holck, M.; Nustad, K.

    1983-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay has previously been developed for measurement of rat glandular kallikrein. In the present paper, further studies on the specificity and sensitivity of the method are described. Problems of interference of immunologically cross-reacting antigens were overcome by proper preabsorption of the antibody. A method was thus established in which enzymatic activity of the immunoreactive kallikrein could be measured even in the presence of enzymes sharing immunological determinants and substrate specificity with kallikrein. Two variants of the immunoradiometric assay have been evaluated. A simplified version with simultaneous addition of all reagents gave results equal to those obtained in the original assay. A further modification with delayed addition of the solid-phase antibody, gave considerable improvement in assay sensitivity. (Auth.)

  12. Self-Defence as a Circumstance Precluding the Wrongfulness of the Use of Force

    Cliff Farhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Ago, the International Law Commission’s second Special Rapporteur on the topic of state responsibility for internationally wrongful acts, defined self-defence as a faculté of a state to use force in response to an act of another state through which a breach of the principal obligation under Article 2(4 Charter is committed. On this basis, he then inserted a provision in Chapter V to Part One of the Draft Articles on State Responsibility expressing self-defence as a specific factual circumstance precluding the wrongfulness of the use of force which constitutes a response to state aggression. This conception of self-defence, although misunderstood from the onset, remained in the backdrop of the study of the law of state responsibility for a considerable period. It was only dismantled during the reign of the last Special Rapporteur on the topic of state responsibility, James Crawford. The last Rapporteur, at the onset, submitted that it is not the function of the Draft Articles to specify the content of the primary rules, including that referred to in Article 51 Charter. He then redefined the function of the circumstance of self-defence as that of precluding the wrongfulness of non-performance of certain obligations other than the general prohibition insofar as such non-performance is connected with the exercise of the right under Article 51 Charter.This contribution first scrutinises this paradigmatic shift and finds it to be symptomatic of the conviction on the part of Crawford that the notion of self-defence could also encompass the use of force against speculative threats of state origin as well as actual threats that emanate from individuals or groups which are disconnected from the organisation of any state. It then uses this finding as a springboard towards the examination of the controversy surrounding the notion of self-defence under international law. In that connection, it first outlines the findings of the World Court on the

  13. Distinct Ezrin Truncations Differentiate Metastases in Sentinel Lymph Nodes from Unaffected Lymph Node Tissues, from Primary Breast Tumors, and from Healthy Glandular Breast Tissues

    Claudia Röwer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis status is a prognostic factor for further lymph node involvement and for patient survival in breast cancer patients. Frozen section analysis of lymph nodes is a reliable method for detection of macro-metastases. However, this method is far less effective in detecting micro-metastases, requesting improved diagnostic procedures. METHODS: We investigated expression and truncation of ezrin in (i sentinel lymph node metastases, (ii unaffected axillary lymph nodes, (iii primary breast tumors, and (iv healthy glandular breast tissues using 2D gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry in addition to Western blotting. RESULTS: Full-length ezrin (E1; amino acids 1–586 is present in all four investigated tissues. Two truncated ezrin forms, one missing about the first hundred amino acids (E2a and the other lacking about 150 C-terminal amino acids (E2b were detectable in primary tumor tissues and in sentinel lymph node metastases but not in glandular tissues. Strikingly, an ezrin truncation (E3 which consists approximately of amino acids 238–586 was found strongly expressed in all sentinel lymph node metastases. Moreover, an N-terminal ezrin fragment (E4 that consists approximately of amino acids 1–273 was identified in sentinel lymph node metastases as well. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time the existence of tissue-dependent specific ezrin truncations. The distinguished strong Western blot staining of ezrin E3 in sentinel lymph node metastases underlines its capability to substantiate the occurrence of lymph node (micrometastases in breast cancer patients.

  14. Usefulness of p16ink4a, ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of glandular dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    Negri, Giovanni; Bellisano, Giulia; Carico, Elisabetta; Faa, Gavino; Kasal, Armin; Antoniazzi, Sonia; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Piccin, Andrea; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Vittadello, Fabio

    2011-07-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria of in-situ and invasive adenocarcinomas of the cervix uteri are well established, the differentiation from benign mimics may be difficult and the morphologic features of the precursors of endocervical adenocarcinoma are still debated. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of p16ink4a (p16), ProEX C, and Ki-67 for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma and its precursors. Immunohistochemistry with p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67 was performed in 82 glandular lesions including 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, 29 adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS), 22 non-neoplastic samples, and 16 cases of glandular dysplasia (GD), which showed significant nuclear abnormalities but did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AIS. The immunohistochemical expression pattern was scored according to the percentage of the stained cells (0, 1+, 2+, and 3+ when 0% to 5%, 6% to 25%, 26% to 50%, and more than 50% of the cells were stained, respectively) and was evaluated for each antibody. p16 was at least focally expressed (1+ or more) in 14 of 15 invasive adenocarcinomas, in all AIS and in 7 negative samples. ProEX C and Ki-67 both scored 1+ or more in all adenocarcinomas and AIS and in 8 and 6 negative samples, respectively. Of the GD 15, 14, and 15 expressed p16, ProEX C, and Ki-67, respectively. The score differences between neoplastic and non-neoplastic samples were highly significant for each marker (Pcervix uteri and may also improve the diagnostic accuracy of endocervical GD. In particularly problematic cases, the combination of p16 and a proliferation marker can provide additional help for the interpretation of these lesions.

  15. The Failing Firm Defence in EU Merger Control and the Effects of the Economic Crisis on its Development

    Ranta, Pontus

    2016-01-01

    In the fall of 2013 the European Commission cleared two mergers, Nynas/Shell/Harburg Refinery and Aegean/Olympic II, on the basis of the failing firm defence. Since the European Commission had only twice before accepted a concentration on the basis of this defence these clearances raised the question whether the Commission’s interpretation of the failing firm defence had become more lenient. Such a change of practice would have been welcomed both by those who believed that the Commission’s fa...

  16. Plasminogen-independent initiation of the pro-urokinase activation cascade in vivo. Activation of pro-urokinase by glandular kallikrein (mGK-6) in plasminogen-deficient mice

    List, K; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Bugge, T H

    2000-01-01

    )-antitrypsin. We suggest that mouse glandular kallikrein mGK-6 is an activator of pro-uPA in the mouse urinary tract in vivo. Since this kallikrein is expressed in a number of tissues and also occurs in plasma, it can also be considered a candidate for a physiological pro-uPA activator in other locations....

  17. System of Budget Planning, Programming, Development and Execution and the Defence Resources Management Model (DRMM

    Davor Čutić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The system of budget planning, programming, development and execution of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia (henceforth: the Croatian acronym SPPIIP is the basic system for the strategic management of defence resources through which an effective and rational distribution of available resources is conducted, based on the goals of national security of the Republic of Croatia. This system sets the principles of transparency and democratic management of defence resources while respecting the specificities of the defence system. The SPPIIP allows for decision making based on complete information about alternatives and the choice of the most economical and most efficient way to reach the goal. It unites the strategic plan, program and budget. It consists of four continuous, independent and interconnected phases: planning, programming, development and the execution of the budget. The processes of the phases are dynamic and cyclic. In addition to the SPPIIP, the Defence Resources Management Model (DRMM, Croatian acronym: MURO has also been developed. This is an analytic tool which serves as a decision support system in the SPPIIP. The DRMM is a complex computer model showing graph and tabular overviews in a multi-year period. The model examines three areas: the strength of the forces, expenses and defence programs. The purpose of the model is cost and strength analysis and the analysis of compromise and feasibility, i.e. how sensitive the programs are to fiscal movements in the sphere of the MoD budget in the course of a multiyear cycle, until a certain project ends. The analysis results are an easily understandable basis for decision making. The SPPIIP and the DRMM are mutually independent systems, but they complement each other well. The SPPIIP uses the DRMM in designing and resource allocation based on the goals set. The quality of the DRMM depends on the amount and quality of data in its database. The DRMM can be used as a basis for

  18. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-02: Accuracy in Converting the Average Breast Dose Into the Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) Using the F-Factor in Cone Beam Breast CT- a Monte Carlo Study Using Homogeneous and Quasi-Homogeneous Phantoms

    Lai, C; Zhong, Y; Wang, T; Shaw, C [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy in estimating the mean glandular dose (MGD) for homogeneous breast phantoms by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor in cone beam breast CT. Methods: EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo codes were used to estimate the MGDs. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm high hemi-ellipsoids were used to simulate pendant-geometry breasts. Two different types of hemi-ellipsoidal models were employed: voxels in quasi-homogeneous phantoms were designed as either adipose or glandular tissue while voxels in homogeneous phantoms were designed as the mixture of adipose and glandular tissues. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volume glandular fractions (VGFs), defined as the ratio of glandular tissue voxels to entire breast voxels in the quasi-homogeneous phantoms, were studied. These VGFs were converted into glandular fractions by weight and used to construct the corresponding homogeneous phantoms. 80 kVp x-rays with a mean energy of 47 keV was used in the simulation. A total of 109 photons were used to image the phantoms and the energies deposited in the phantom voxels were tallied. Breast doses in homogeneous phantoms were averaged over all voxels and then used to calculate the MGDs using the F-factors evaluated at the mean energy of the x-rays. The MGDs for quasi-homogeneous phantoms were computed directly by averaging the doses over all glandular tissue voxels. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were normalized to the free-in-air dose at the iso-center and compared. Results: The normalized MGDs were 0.756 and 0.732 mGy/mGy for the 25% and 50% VGF homogeneous breasts and 0.761 and 0.733 mGy/mGy for the corresponding quasi-homogeneous breasts, respectively. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were similar within 1% in this study. Conclusion: MGDs for homogeneous breast models may be adequately estimated by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor.

  19. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-02: Accuracy in Converting the Average Breast Dose Into the Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) Using the F-Factor in Cone Beam Breast CT- a Monte Carlo Study Using Homogeneous and Quasi-Homogeneous Phantoms

    Lai, C; Zhong, Y; Wang, T; Shaw, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy in estimating the mean glandular dose (MGD) for homogeneous breast phantoms by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor in cone beam breast CT. Methods: EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo codes were used to estimate the MGDs. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm high hemi-ellipsoids were used to simulate pendant-geometry breasts. Two different types of hemi-ellipsoidal models were employed: voxels in quasi-homogeneous phantoms were designed as either adipose or glandular tissue while voxels in homogeneous phantoms were designed as the mixture of adipose and glandular tissues. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volume glandular fractions (VGFs), defined as the ratio of glandular tissue voxels to entire breast voxels in the quasi-homogeneous phantoms, were studied. These VGFs were converted into glandular fractions by weight and used to construct the corresponding homogeneous phantoms. 80 kVp x-rays with a mean energy of 47 keV was used in the simulation. A total of 109 photons were used to image the phantoms and the energies deposited in the phantom voxels were tallied. Breast doses in homogeneous phantoms were averaged over all voxels and then used to calculate the MGDs using the F-factors evaluated at the mean energy of the x-rays. The MGDs for quasi-homogeneous phantoms were computed directly by averaging the doses over all glandular tissue voxels. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were normalized to the free-in-air dose at the iso-center and compared. Results: The normalized MGDs were 0.756 and 0.732 mGy/mGy for the 25% and 50% VGF homogeneous breasts and 0.761 and 0.733 mGy/mGy for the corresponding quasi-homogeneous breasts, respectively. The MGDs estimated for the two types of phantoms were similar within 1% in this study. Conclusion: MGDs for homogeneous breast models may be adequately estimated by converting from the average breast dose using the F-factor

  20. Chemical Peels

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