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Sample records for glands epithelia stroma

  1. Expression of Autoactivated Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Glands of Transgenic Mice Leads to a Reactive Stroma During Early Development

    Thomasset, N.; Lochter, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Lund, L.R.; Williams, D.R.; Behrendtsen, O.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-04-24

    Extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinases play a key role in interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme during mammary gland development and disease. In patients with breast cancer, the mammary mesenchyme undergoes a stromal reaction, the etiology of which is unknown. We previously showed that targeting of an autoactivating mutant of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 to mammary epithelia of transgenic mice resulted in reduced mammary function during pregnancy and development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Here we examine the cascade of alterations before breast tumor formation in the mammary gland stroma once the expression of the stromelysin-1 transgene commences. Beginning in postpubertal virgin animals, low levels of transgene expression in mammary epithelia led to increased expression of endogenous stromelysin-1 in stromal fibroblasts and up-regulation of other matrix metalloproteinases, without basement membrane disruption. These changes were accompanied by the progressive development of a compensatory reactive stroma, characterized by increased collagen content and vascularization in glands from virgin mice. This remodeling of the gland affected epithelial-mesenchymal communication as indicated by inappropriate expression of tenascin-C starting by day 6 of pregnancy. This, together with increased transgene expression, led to basement membrane disruption starting by day 15 of pregnancy. We propose that the highly reactive stroma provides a prelude to breast epithelial tumors observed in these animals. Epithelial development depends on an exquisite series of inductive and instructive interactions between the differentiating epithelium and the mesenchymal (stromal) compartment. The epithelium, which consists of luminal and myoepithelial cells, is separated from the stroma by a basement membrane (BM), which plays a central role in mammary gland homeostasis and gene expression. In vivo, stromal

  2. Efficient Gene Delivery to Pig Airway Epithelia and Submucosal Glands Using Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    Huibi Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat patients with life-threatening lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. However, this strategy has to be evaluated in large animal preclinical studies in order to translate it to human applications. Because of anatomic and physiological similarities between the human and pig lungs, we utilized pig as a large animal model to examine the safety and efficiency of airway gene delivery with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors. Helper-dependent vectors carrying human CFTR or reporter gene LacZ were aerosolized intratracheally into pigs under bronchoscopic guidance. We found that the LacZ reporter and hCFTR transgene products were efficiently expressed in lung airway epithelial cells. The transgene vectors with this delivery can also reach to submucosal glands. Moreover, the hCFTR transgene protein localized to the apical membrane of both ciliated and nonciliated epithelial cells, mirroring the location of wild-type CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Aerosol delivery procedure was well tolerated by pigs without showing systemic toxicity based on the limited number of pigs tested. These results provide important insights into developing clinical strategies for human CF lung gene therapy.

  3. TGF-β1 induces an age-dependent inflammation of nerve ganglia and fibroplasia in the prostate gland stroma of a novel transgenic mouse.

    David A Barron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is overexpressed in wound repair and in most proliferative disorders including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The stromal microenvironment at these sites is reactive and typified by altered phenotype, matrix deposition, inflammatory responses, and alterations in nerve density and biology. TGF-β1 is known to modulate several stromal responses; however there are few transgenic models to study its integrated biology. To address the actions of TGF-β1 in prostate disorders, we targeted expression of an epitope tagged and constitutively active TGF-β1 via the enhanced probasin promoter to the murine prostate gland epithelium. Transgenic mice developed age-dependent lesions leading to severe, yet focal attenuation of epithelium, and a discontinuous basal lamina. These changes were associated with elevated fibroplasia and frequency of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini, along with an induced inflammation in nerve ganglia and small vessels. Elevated recruitment of CD115+ myeloid cells but not mature macrophages was observed in nerve ganglia, also in an age-dependent manner. Similar phenotypic changes were observed using a human prostate epithelium tissue recombination xenograft model, where epithelial cells engineered to overexpress TGF-β1 induced fibrosis and altered matrix deposition concurrent with inflammation in the stromal compartment. Together, these data suggest that elevated TGF-β1 expression induces a fibroplasia stromal response associated with breach of epithelial wall structure and inflammatory involvement of nerve ganglia and vessels. The novel findings of ganglia and vessel inflammation associated with formation of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini is important as each of these are observed in human prostate carcinoma and may play a role in disease progression.

  4. Corneal stroma microfibrils.

    Hanlon, Samuel D; Behzad, Ali R; Sakai, Lynn Y; Burns, Alan R

    2015-03-01

    Elastic tissue was first described well over a hundred years ago and has since been identified in nearly every part of the body. In this review, we examine elastic tissue in the corneal stroma with some mention of other ocular structures which have been more thoroughly described in the past. True elastic fibers consist of an elastin core surrounded by fibrillin microfibrils. However, the presence of elastin fibers is not a requirement and some elastic tissue is comprised of non-elastin-containing bundles of microfibrils. Fibers containing a higher relative amount of elastin are associated with greater elasticity and those without elastin, with structural support. Recently it has been shown that the microfibrils, not only serve mechanical roles, but are also involved in cell signaling through force transduction and the release of TGF-β. A well characterized example of elastin-free microfibril bundles (EFMBs) is found in the ciliary zonules which suspend the crystalline lens in the eye. Through contraction of the ciliary muscle they exert enough force to reshape the lens and thereby change its focal point. It is believed that the molecules comprising these fibers do not turn-over and yet retain their tensile strength for the life of the animal. The mechanical properties of the cornea (strength, elasticity, resiliency) would suggest that EFMBs are present there as well. However, many authors have reported that, although present during embryonic and early postnatal development, EFMBs are generally not present in adults. Serial-block-face imaging with a scanning electron microscope enabled 3D reconstruction of elements in murine corneas. Among these elements were found fibers that formed an extensive network throughout the cornea. In single sections these fibers appeared as electron dense patches. Transmission electron microscopy provided additional detail of these patches and showed them to be composed of fibrils (∼10 nm diameter). Immunogold evidence clearly

  5. Corneal stroma microfibrils

    Hanlon, Samuel D.

    2015-03-01

    Elastic tissue was first described well over a hundred years ago and has since been identified in nearly every part of the body. In this review, we examine elastic tissue in the corneal stroma with some mention of other ocular structures which have been more thoroughly described in the past. True elastic fibers consist of an elastin core surrounded by fibrillin microfibrils. However, the presence of elastin fibers is not a requirement and some elastic tissue is comprised of non-elastin-containing bundles of microfibrils. Fibers containing a higher relative amount of elastin are associated with greater elasticity and those without elastin, with structural support. Recently it has been shown that the microfibrils, not only serve mechanical roles, but are also involved in cell signaling through force transduction and the release of TGF-β. A well characterized example of elastin-free microfibril bundles (EFMBs) is found in the ciliary zonules which suspend the crystalline lens in the eye. Through contraction of the ciliary muscle they exert enough force to reshape the lens and thereby change its focal point. It is believed that the molecules comprising these fibers do not turn-over and yet retain their tensile strength for the life of the animal. The mechanical properties of the cornea (strength, elasticity, resiliency) would suggest that EFMBs are present there as well. However, many authors have reported that, although present during embryonic and early postnatal development, EFMBs are generally not present in adults. Serial-block-face imaging with a scanning electron microscope enabled 3D reconstruction of elements in murine corneas. Among these elements were found fibers that formed an extensive network throughout the cornea. In single sections these fibers appeared as electron dense patches. Transmission electron microscopy provided additional detail of these patches and showed them to be composed of fibrils (~10nm diameter). Immunogold evidence clearly

  6. The Functional Role of Reactive Stroma in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Schauer, Isaiah G.; Rowley, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The human prostate gland is one of the only internal organs that continue to enlarge throughout adulthood. The specific mechanisms that regulate this growth, as well as the pathological changes leading to the phenotype observed in the disease benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are essentially unknown. Recent studies and their associated findings have made clear that many complex alterations occur, involving persistent and chronic inflammation, circulating hormonal level deregulation, and aberrant wound repair processes. BPH has been etiologically characterized as a progressive, albeit discontinuous, hyperplasia of both the glandular epithelial and stromal cell compartments coordinately yielding an expansion of the prostate gland and clinical symptoms. Interestingly, the inflammatory and repair responses observed in BPH are also key components of general wound repair in post-natal tissues. These responses include altered expression of chemokines, cytokines, matrix remodeling factors, chronic inflammatory processes, altered immune surveillance and recognition, as well as the formation of a prototypical ‘reactive’ stroma which is similar to that observed across various fibroplasias and malignancies of a variety of tissue sites. Stromal tissue, both embryonic mesenchyme, and adult reactive stroma myofibroblasts, has been shown to exert potent and functional regulatory control over epithelial proliferation and differentiation as well as immunoresponsive modulation. Thus, the functional biology of a reactive stroma, within the context of an adult disease typified by epithelial and stromal aberrant hyperplasia, is critical to understand within the context of prostate disease and beyond. The mechanisms that regulate reactive stroma biology in BPH represent targets of opportunity for new therapeutic approaches that may extend to other tissue contexts. Accordingly, this review seeks to address the dissection of important factors, signaling pathways, genes, and other

  7. IL-33 activates tumor stroma to promote intestinal polyposis.

    Maywald, Rebecca L; Doerner, Stephanie K; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M; Dawson, Emily P; Lanza, Denise G; Berger, Nathan A; Markowitz, Sanford D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H; Pizarro, Theresa T; Heaney, Jason D

    2015-05-12

    Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in Apc(Min/+) polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in Apc(Min/+) polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment.

  8. Bidirectional Signaling of Mammary Epithelium and Stroma: Implications for Breast Cancer—Preventive Actions of Dietary Factors

    The mammary gland is composed of two major cellular compartments: a highly dynamic epithelium that undergoes cycles of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in response to local and endocrine signals and the underlying stroma comprised of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and adipocytes that c...

  9. Targeted deletion of Atg5 reveals differential roles of autophagy in keratin K5-expressing epithelia

    Sukseree, Supawadee [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok (Thailand); Rossiter, Heidemarie; Mildner, Michael [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Pammer, Johannes [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Buchberger, Maria; Gruber, Florian [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Watanapokasin, Ramida [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok (Thailand); Tschachler, Erwin [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Eckhart, Leopold, E-mail: leopold.eckhart@meduniwien.ac.at [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated mice lacking Atg5 and autophagy in keratin K5-positive epithelia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of autophagy in thymic epithelium was not associated with signs of autoimmunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy was required for normal terminal differentiation of preputial gland cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy-deficient cells of the preputial glands degraded nuclear DNA prematurely. -- Abstract: Autophagy contributes to the homeostasis of many tissues, yet its role in epithelia is incompletely understood. A recent report proposed that Atg5-dependent autophagy in thymic epithelial cells is essential for their function in the negative selection of self-reactive T-cells and, thus, for the suppression of tissue inflammation. Here we crossed mice carrying floxed alleles of the Atg5 gene with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the keratin K5 promoter to suppress autophagy in all K5-positive epithelia. The efficiency of autophagy abrogation was confirmed by immunoanalyses of LC3, which was converted to the autophagy-associated LC3-II form in normal but not Atg5-deficient cells, and of p62, which accumulated in Atg5-deficient cells. Mice carrying the epithelium-specific deletion of Atg5 showed normal weight gain, absence of tissue inflammation, and a normal morphology of the thymic epithelium. By contrast, autophagy-deficient epithelial cells of the preputial gland showed aberrant eosinophilic staining in histology and premature degradation of nuclear DNA during terminal differentiation. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that autophagy is dispensable for the suppression of autoimmunity by thymic epithelial cells but essential for normal differentiation of the preputial gland in mice.

  10. Interlobular and intralobular mammary stroma: Genotype may not reflect phenotype

    Meltzer PS

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The normal growth and function of mammary epithelial cells depend on interactions with the supportive stroma. Alterations in this communication can lead to the progression or expansion of malignant growth. The human mammary gland contains two distinctive types of fibroblasts within the stroma. The epithelial cells are surrounded by loosely connected intralobular fibroblasts, which are subsequently surrounded by the more compacted interlobular fibroblasts. The different proximity of these fibroblasts to the epithelial cells suggests distinctive functions for these two subtypes. In this report, we compared the gene expression profiles between the two stromal subtypes. Methods Fresh normal breast tissue was collected from reduction mammoplasty patients and immediately placed into embedding medium and frozen on dry ice. Tissue sections were subjected to laser capture microscopy to isolate the interlobular from the intralobular fibroblasts. RNA was prepared and subjected to microarray analysis using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 GeneChip®. Data was analyzed using the Affy and Limma packages available from Bioconductor. Findings from the microarray analysis were validated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results No statistically significant difference was detected between the gene expression profiles of the interlobular and intralobular fibroblasts by microarray analysis and RT-PCR. However, for some of the genes tested, the protein expression patterns between the two subtypes of fibroblasts were significantly different. Conclusion This study is the first to report the gene expression profiles of the two distinct fibroblast populations within the human mammary gland. While there was no significant difference in the gene expression profiles between the groups, there was an obvious difference in the expression pattern of several proteins tested. This report also highlights the importance of studying gene regulation at both the

  11. The postmenopausal ovary as an androgen-producing gland; hypothesis on the etiology of endometrial cancer

    Jongen, V. H. W. M.; Sluijmer, A. V.; Heineman, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    Postmenopausal estrogens originate from the peripheral conversion of androgens, which are produced by the adrenal glands and the ovaries. Estrogens are considered to contribute to the neoplastic development of endometrium. Hyperplasia of ovarian stroma is associated with an increased androgen

  12. Regulation of corneal stroma extracellular matrix assembly.

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J; Birk, David E

    2015-04-01

    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Streaming submandibular gland

    Zajicek, G.; Yagil, C.; Michaeli, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty female young adult rats were injected with tritiated thymidine ( 3 HTdR). The animals were then killed in groups of five, at the following times: 1 hour, and 4, 16, and 23 days. Autoradiograms of sections through the submandibular gland were prepared, and the location of labelled cells in relationship to tubuli and acini was recorded. The different tubular and acinar cross sections could be distinguished by their cell number. Narrow tubuli had fewer nuclei than the wider ones. The nuclear number of a cross section was defined as its class and the location of a labelled epithelial cell was expressed in relationship to the class where it was found. The location of a labelled stromal cell was determined by the class of its neighboring tubular or acinar cross sections. The mean cell numbers of intercalated, granular, and striated duct cross sections were, respectively, 4.7, 10.5, and 10.2, while the average cell content of acini was 4.7 cells. One hour after labelling most labelled tubular epithelial and stromal cells were found in tubular cross sections (or low tubular classes), while in the acini, labelled epithelial and stromal cells were found mainly in wider cross sections (or higher acinar classes). Within the next 23 days labelled tubular cells and stroma proceeded into higher classes, while labelled acinar epithelium and stroma cells were displaced into narrower cross sections (or lower classes). The displaced tubular epithelium and stroma covered daily 0.26 classes. At this velocity the cell will reach the highest tubular class in 62 days and the estimated maximal tubular cell life span is 62 days

  14. Combined gene expression analysis of whole-tissue and microdissected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma identifies genes specifically overexpressed in tumor epithelia.

    Badea, Liviu; Herlea, Vlad; Dima, Simona Olimpia; Dumitrascu, Traian; Popescu, Irinel

    2008-01-01

    The precise details of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) pathogenesis are still insufficiently known, requiring the use of high-throughput methods. However, PDAC is especially difficult to study using microarrays due to its strong desmoplastic reaction, which involves a hyperproliferating stroma that effectively "masks" the contribution of the minoritary neoplastic epithelial cells. Thus it is not clear which of the genes that have been found differentially expressed between normal and whole tumor tissues are due to the tumor epithelia and which simply reflect the differences in cellular composition. To address this problem, laser microdissection studies have been performed, but these have to deal with much smaller tissue sample quantities and therefore have significantly higher experimental noise. In this paper we combine our own large sample whole-tissue study with a previously published smaller sample microdissection study by Grützmann et al. to identify the genes that are specifically overexpressed in PDAC tumor epithelia. The overlap of this list of genes with other microarray studies of pancreatic cancer as well as with the published literature is impressive. Moreover, we find a number of genes whose over-expression appears to be inversely correlated with patient survival: keratin 7, laminin gamma 2, stratifin, platelet phosphofructokinase, annexin A2, MAP4K4 and OACT2 (MBOAT2), which are all specifically upregulated in the neoplastic epithelia, rather than the tumor stroma. We improve on other microarray studies of PDAC by putting together the higher statistical power due to a larger number of samples with information about cell-type specific expression and patient survival.

  15. Hierarchy of stroma-derived factors in supporting growth of stroma-dependent hemopoietic cells: membrane-bound SCF is sufficient to confer stroma competence to epithelial cells.

    Friel, Jutta; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Bergholz, Ulla; Jücker, Manfred; Stocking, Carol; Harrison, Paul; Ostertag, Wolfram

    2002-03-01

    Hemopoiesis takes place in a microenvironment where hemopoietic cells are closely associated with stroma by various interactions. Stroma coregulates the proliferation and differentiation of hemopoietic cells. Stroma-hemopoietic-cell contact can be supported by locally produced membrane associated growth factors. The stroma derived growth factor, stem cell factor (SCF) is important in hemopoiesis. We examined the different biological interactions of membrane bound and soluble SCF with human hemopoietic cells expressing the SCF receptor, c-kit. To analyze the function of the SCF isoforms in inducing the proliferation of hemopoietic TF1 or Cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells we used stroma cell lines that differ in their presentation of no SCF, membrane SCF, or soluble SCF. We established a new coculture system using an epithelial cell line that excludes potential interfering effects with other known stroma encoded hemopoietic growth factors. We show that soluble SCF, in absence of membrane-bound SCF, inhibits long term clonal growth of primary or established CD34+ hemopoietic cells, whereas membrane-inserted SCF "dominantly" induces long term proliferation of these cells. We demonstrate a hierarchy of these SCF isoforms in the interaction of stroma with hemopoietic TF1 cells. Membrane-bound SCF is "dominant" over soluble SCF, whereas soluble SCF acts epistatically in interacting with hemopoietic cells compared with other stroma derived factors present in SCF deficient stroma. A hierarchy of stroma cell lines can be arranged according to their presentation of membrane SCF or soluble SCF. In our model system, membrane-bound SCF expression is sufficient to confer stroma properties to an epithelial cell line but soluble SCF does not.

  16. Endocrine glands

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  17. P2X receptors in epithelia

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2015-01-01

    P2X receptors are ubiquitously expressed in all epithelial tissues but their functional roles are less well studied. Here we review the current state of knowledge by focusing on functional effects of P2X receptor in secretory and in absorptive tissues. In glandular tissue like the parotid gland...

  18. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Expression of GLUT1 in stratified squamous epithelia and oral carcinoma from humans and rats

    Voldstedlund, M; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1997-01-01

    mucosa from rat and man, and a human oral carcinoma by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. The results showed that GLUT1 was expressed in the basal and parabasal layers of the different stratified squamous epithelia, with some variations between keratinized and non-keratinized subtypes. GLUT1...... was also expressed in ductal- and myoepithelial cells of minor salivary glands and perineural sheath located in the lamina propra, and furthermore in the cells of an oral carcinoma. GLUT4 was not expressed in any of the tissues examined. This distribution of GLUT1 does not fit with the idea of GLUT1......Most cells express facilitative glucose transporters. Four isoforms (GLUT1-4) transporting D-glucose across the plasma membrane show a specific tissue distribution, which is the basis for tissue-specific patterns in glucose metabolism. GLUT1 is expressed at high levels in tissue barriers...

  20. Single-cell RNA-Seq reveals cell heterogeneity and hierarchy within mouse mammary epithelia.

    Sun, Heng; Miao, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Xin; Chan, Un In; Su, Sek Man; Guo, Sen; Wong, Chris Koon Ho; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2018-04-17

    The mammary gland is very intricately and well organized into distinct tissues, including epithelia, endothelia, adipocytes, and stromal and immune cells. Many mammary gland diseases, such as breast cancer arise from abnormalities in the mammary epithelium, which is mainly composed of two distinct lineages, the basal and luminal cells. Because of the limitation of traditional transcriptome analysis of bulk mammary cells, the hierarchy and heterogeneity of mammary cells within these two lineages remain unclear. To this end, using single-cell RNA-Seq coupled with FACS analysis and principal component analysis, we determined gene expression profiles of mammary epithelial cells of virgin and pregnant mice. These analyses revealed a much higher heterogeneity among the mammary cells than has been previously reported and enabled cell classification into distinct subgroups according to signature gene markers present in each group. We also identified and verified a rare CDH5+ cell subpopulation within a basal cell lineage as quiescent mammary stem cells (MaSCs). Moreover, using pseudo-temporal analysis, we reconstructed the developmental trajectory of mammary epithelia and uncovered distinct changes in gene expression and in biological functions of mammary cells along the developmental process. In conclusion, our work greatly refines the resolution of the cellular hierarchy in developing mammary tissues. The discovery of CDH5+ cells as MaSCs in these tissues may have implications for our understanding of the initiation, development, and pathogenesis of mammary tumors. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Na+ -K+ -2Cl- Cotransporter (NKCC) Physiological Function in Nonpolarized Cells and Transporting Epithelia.

    Delpire, Eric; Gagnon, Kenneth B

    2018-03-25

    Two genes encode the Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporters, NKCC1 and NKCC2, that mediate the tightly coupled movement of 1Na + , 1K + , and 2Cl - across the plasma membrane of cells. Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport is driven by the chemical gradient of the three ionic species across the membrane, two of them maintained by the action of the Na + /K + pump. In many cells, NKCC1 accumulates Cl - above its electrochemical potential equilibrium, thereby facilitating Cl - channel-mediated membrane depolarization. In smooth muscle cells, this depolarization facilitates the opening of voltage-sensitive Ca 2+ channels, leading to Ca 2+ influx, and cell contraction. In immature neurons, the depolarization due to a GABA-mediated Cl - conductance produces an excitatory rather than inhibitory response. In many cell types that have lost water, NKCC is activated to help the cells recover their volume. This is specially the case if the cells have also lost Cl - . In combination with the Na + /K + pump, the NKCC's move ions across various specialized epithelia. NKCC1 is involved in Cl - -driven fluid secretion in many exocrine glands, such as sweat, lacrimal, salivary, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. NKCC1 is also involved in K + -driven fluid secretion in inner ear, and possibly in Na + -driven fluid secretion in choroid plexus. In the thick ascending limb of Henle, NKCC2 activity in combination with the Na + /K + pump participates in reabsorbing 30% of the glomerular-filtered Na + . Overall, many critical physiological functions are maintained by the activity of the two Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporters. In this overview article, we focus on the functional roles of the cotransporters in nonpolarized cells and in epithelia. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:871-901, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  3. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  4. Aquaporins and Gland Secretion.

    Delporte, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes. This book chapter will focus on summarizing the current knowledge on AQPs expression and function in the gastrointestinal tract , including salivary glands, gastric glands, Duodenal Brunner's gland, liver and gallbladder, intestinal goblets cells, exocrine and endocrine pancreas, as well as few other secretory glands including airway submucosal glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands and eccrine sweat glands.

  5. Bioactive self-assembled peptide nanofibers for corneal stroma regeneration.

    Uzunalli, G; Soran, Z; Erkal, T S; Dagdas, Y S; Dinc, E; Hondur, A M; Bilgihan, K; Aydin, B; Guler, M O; Tekinay, A B

    2014-03-01

    Defects in the corneal stroma caused by trauma or diseases such as macular corneal dystrophy and keratoconus can be detrimental for vision. Development of therapeutic methods to enhance corneal regeneration is essential for treatment of these defects. This paper describes a bioactive peptide nanofiber scaffold system for corneal tissue regeneration. These nanofibers are formed by self-assembling peptide amphiphile molecules containing laminin and fibronectin inspired sequences. Human corneal keratocyte cells cultured on laminin-mimetic peptide nanofibers retained their characteristic morphology, and their proliferation was enhanced compared with cells cultured on fibronectin-mimetic nanofibers. When these nanofibers were used for damaged rabbit corneas, laminin-mimetic peptide nanofibers increased keratocyte migration and supported stroma regeneration. These results suggest that laminin-mimetic peptide nanofibers provide a promising injectable, synthetic scaffold system for cornea stroma regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early postradiation recovery of precursor cells of hemopoietic stroma

    Todriya, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    Ability of stroma precursor cells to early postradiation recovery was studied in male mices using the method of fraction irradiation of bone marrow. Donor mices of bone marrow were irradiated in vivo once by the total dose (nonfraction irradiation) and fractionally with 6 h interval between two irradiation doses. The cumulative irradiation doses equal to 10, 12, 14, 16 Gr were investigated. Irradiation was carried out using gamma facility. Bone marrow of the femur was implanted immediately after irradiation under kidney capsule of nonirradiated syngeneic recipient. The ability of stroma precursor cells to intracellular repair (repair index) was evaluated according to the ratio of the number of hemopoietic cells formed in heterotropic transplants in groups with fraction irradiation to the same one in groups with nonfraction irradiation. The obtained results testify to the fact that slowly regenerated highly radioresistant population of precursor cells of hemopoietic stroma is capable to early postradiation recovery

  7. Relationship between histology, development and tumorigenesis of mammary gland in female rat

    LÍŠKA, Ján; BRTKO, Július; DUBOVICKÝ, Michal; MACEJOVÁ, Dana; KISSOVÁ, Viktória; POLÁK, Štefan; UJHÁZY, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes structural and functional changes associated with growth, reproduction, and post-menopausal regression. The postnatal transformations of the epithelium and stromal cells of the mammary gland may contribute to its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The increased cancer incidence in mammary glands of humans and similarly of rodents in association with their development is believed to be partly explained by proliferative activity together with lesser degree of differentiation, but it is not completely understood how the virgin gland retains its higher susceptibility to carcinogenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer. An early first full-term pregnancy may have a protective effect. Rodent models are useful for investigating potential breast carcinogens. The purpose of this review is to help recognizing histological appearance of the epithelium and the stroma of the normal mammary gland in rats, and throughout its development in relation to tumorigenic potential. PMID:26424555

  8. Effect of 241-americium on bone marrow stroma

    Heuvel, R. van den

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of haemopoiesis occurs via complex interactions between the stroma and the haemopoietic cells. An attempt to further clarifying the mechanisms and the exact role of the stroma in the regulation was made in a study. Results revealed that the murine bone marrow stromal cells are highly radiosensitive after injection with 241-americium and can thus be considered as a target population after internal contamination. In addition, observations are made which may be important for risk estimation for the developing animal and during pregnancy. Contamination in utero and by lactation shows persistent damage up to 1 year after contamination at an average annual dose of 5 cGy. (author)

  9. Influences of tumor stroma on the malignant phenotype

    Nielsen, Jørgen Dau; Moeslund, Mette; Wandall, Hans H

    2008-01-01

    and laminin 5 was investigated. RESULTS: We found that expression of glycosylated oncofetal fibronectin was increased in the invasive phenotype of oral carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore we demonstrated that certain concentrations of collagen in the connective tissue equivalent, appears to stimulate......, fibronectin and laminin 5 are all characteristics of the tumor stroma. Less is, however, known of the significance of the biophysical properties of the tumor stroma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how cellular and mechanical properties of the three-dimensional collagen matrix may...

  10. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    ... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands, located on the top of ... as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not ...

  11. Hormonal homeostasis during radiotherapy in patients with mammary gland cancer

    Lozins'ka, Yi.M.; Yakimova, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    248 patients with mammary gland cancer (stages 2 and 3) were studied. In 3 stage patients, inhibition of the thyroid gland function, increase of somatotropic hormones (STH) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration, when compared with the respective data in stage 2 patients, were noted. Radiotherapy at stages 2 and 3 of the disease causes various changes of the above-mentioned values. Increase of CEA blood concentration results in inhibition of cellular immune reactions in the tumor stroma and its bed, which influences 5-years' survival of the patients. The authors suggest that at stage 3 mammary gland cancer, homeostasis state occurs in the organism; it differs from that occurring at stage 3 of the disease. Thus, different approaches to treatment at these two stages of the disease are required

  12. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    Kwon, Kyung Yun; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Dong Youn; Choi, Karp Shik

    1997-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

  13. Gross and Fine Dissection of Inner Ear Sensory Epithelia in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Liang, Jin; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2009-01-01

    Neurosensory epithelia in the inner ear are the crucial structures for hearing and balance functions. Therefore, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular features of the epithelia, which are mainly composed of two types of cells: hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Here we choose to study the inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish not only because the epithelial structures are highly conserved in all vertebrates studied, but also because the adult zebrafish is...

  14. Valve spindle gland

    Burda, Z.; Harazim, A.; Kerlin, K.

    1979-01-01

    A gland is proposed of the valve spindle designed for radioactive or otherwise harmful media, such as in nuclear power plant primary circuits. The gland is installed in the valve cover and consists of a primary and a secondary part and of a gland case partitioning the gland space into two chambers. The bottom face of the gland case is provided with a double-sided collar for controlling the elements of the bottom primary gland while the top face is provided with a removable flange. (M.S.)

  15. Evolutionary Dynamics of Tumor-Stroma Interactions in Multiple Myeloma.

    Javad Salimi Sartakhti

    Full Text Available Cancer cells and stromal cells cooperate by exchanging diffusible factors that sustain tumor growth, a form of frequency-dependent selection that can be studied in the framework of evolutionary game theory. In the case of multiple myeloma, three types of cells (malignant plasma cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts exchange growth factors with different effects, and tumor-stroma interactions have been analysed using a model of cooperation with pairwise interactions. Here we show that a model in which growth factors have autocrine and paracrine effects on multiple cells, a more realistic assumption for tumor-stroma interactions, leads to different results, with implications for disease progression and treatment. In particular, the model reveals that reducing the number of malignant plasma cells below a critical threshold can lead to their extinction and thus to restore a healthy balance between osteoclast and osteoblast, a result in line with current therapies against multiple myeloma.

  16. Stroma cell priming in enteric lymphoid organ morphogenesis

    Manuela eFerreira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The lymphoid system is equipped with a network of specialized platforms located at strategic sites, which grant strict immune-surveillance and efficient immune responses. The development of these peripheral secondary lymphoid organs occurs mainly in utero, while tertiary lymphoid structures can form in adulthood generally in response to persistent infection and inflammation. Regardless of the lymphoid tissue and intrinsic cellular and molecular differences, it is now well established that the recruitment of fully functional Lymphoid Tissue inducer (LTi cells to presumptive lymphoid organ sites, and their consequent close and reciprocal interaction with resident stroma cells, are central to secondary lymphoid organ formation. In contrast, the nature of events that initially prime resident sessile stroma cells to recruit and retain LTi cells remains poorly understood.

  17. Mechanisms of Reactive Stroma-Induced Tumorigenesis in Prostate Cancer

    2016-11-01

    type I receptor blocker (SI Appendix, Fig. S9). Together, these results further support the concept that TGF-β1–expressing prostate cancer cells induce...of NBT-II bladder carcinoma cells to condi- tioned medium from normal fetal urogenital sinus. Cancer Res 47(11):2955–2960. 22. Nimmo R, Woollard A...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0197 TITLE: Mechanisms of Reactive Stroma - Induced Tumorigenesis in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  18. Prognostic markers for colorectal cancer: estimating ploidy and stroma.

    Danielsen, H E; Hveem, T S; Domingo, E; Pradhan, M; Kleppe, A; Syvertsen, R A; Kostolomov, I; Nesheim, J A; Askautrud, H A; Nesbakken, A; Lothe, R A; Svindland, A; Shepherd, N; Novelli, M; Johnstone, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerr, R; Kerr, D J

    2018-03-01

    We report here the prognostic value of ploidy and digital tumour-stromal morphometric analyses using material from 2624 patients with early stage colorectal cancer (CRC). DNA content (ploidy) and stroma-tumour fraction were estimated using automated digital imaging systems and DNA was extracted from sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for analysis of microsatellite instability. Samples were available from 1092 patients recruited to the QUASAR 2 trial and two large observational series (Gloucester, n = 954; Oslo University Hospital, n = 578). Resultant biomarkers were analysed for prognostic impact using 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) as the clinical end point. Ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction were significantly prognostic in a multivariate model adjusted for age, adjuvant treatment, and pathological T-stage in stage II patients, and the combination of ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction was found to stratify these patients into three clinically useful groups; 5-year CSS 90% versus 83% versus 73% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.77 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13-2.77) and HR = 2.95 (95% CI: 1.73-5.03), P < 0.001]. A novel biomarker, combining estimates of ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction, sampled from FFPE tissue, identifies stage II CRC patients with low, intermediate or high risk of CRC disease specific death, and can reliably stratify clinically relevant patient sub-populations with differential risks of tumour recurrence and may support choice of adjuvant therapy for these individuals.

  19. Modeling and inferring cleavage patterns in proliferating epithelia.

    Ankit B Patel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cleavage plane orientation is one of the key mechanisms driving epithelial morphogenesis. Still, many aspects of the relationship between local cleavage patterns and tissue-level properties remain poorly understood. Here we develop a topological model that simulates the dynamics of a 2D proliferating epithelium from generation to generation, enabling the exploration of a wide variety of biologically plausible cleavage patterns. We investigate a spectrum of models that incorporate the spatial impact of neighboring cells and the temporal influence of parent cells on the choice of cleavage plane. Our findings show that cleavage patterns generate "signature" equilibrium distributions of polygonal cell shapes. These signatures enable the inference of local cleavage parameters such as neighbor impact, maternal influence, and division symmetry from global observations of the distribution of cell shape. Applying these insights to the proliferating epithelia of five diverse organisms, we find that strong division symmetry and moderate neighbor/maternal influence are required to reproduce the predominance of hexagonal cells and low variability in cell shape seen empirically. Furthermore, we present two distinct cleavage pattern models, one stochastic and one deterministic, that can reproduce the empirical distribution of cell shapes. Although the proliferating epithelia of the five diverse organisms show a highly conserved cell shape distribution, there are multiple plausible cleavage patterns that can generate this distribution, and experimental evidence suggests that indeed plants and fruitflies use distinct division mechanisms.

  20. Remodeling of Tumor Stroma and Response to Therapy

    Johansson, Anna; Ganss, Ruth, E-mail: ganss@waimr.uwa.edu.au [Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, Centre for Medical Research, University of Western Australia, Perth 6000 (Australia)

    2012-03-27

    Solid tumors are intrinsically resistant to therapy. Cancer progression occurs when tumor cells orchestrate responses from diverse stromal cell types such as blood vessels and their support cells, inflammatory cells, and fibroblasts; these cells collectively form the tumor microenvironment and provide direct support for tumor growth, but also evasion from cytotoxic, immune and radiation therapies. An indirect result of abnormal and leaky blood vessels in solid tumors is high interstitial fluid pressure, which reduces drug penetration, but also creates a hypoxic environment that further augments tumor cell growth and metastatic spread. Importantly however, studies during the last decade have shown that the tumor stroma, including the vasculature, can be modulated, or re-educated, to allow better delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs or enhance the efficiency of active immune therapy. Such remodeling of the tumor stroma using genetic, pharmacological and other therapeutic approaches not only enhances selective access into tumors but also reduces toxic side effects. This review focuses on recent novel concepts to modulate tumor stroma and thus locally increase therapeutic efficacy.

  1. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro [Chiba University, Department of Frontier Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Kazama, Toshiki [Chiba University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  2. Remodeling of Tumor Stroma and Response to Therapy

    Johansson, Anna; Ganss, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Solid tumors are intrinsically resistant to therapy. Cancer progression occurs when tumor cells orchestrate responses from diverse stromal cell types such as blood vessels and their support cells, inflammatory cells, and fibroblasts; these cells collectively form the tumor microenvironment and provide direct support for tumor growth, but also evasion from cytotoxic, immune and radiation therapies. An indirect result of abnormal and leaky blood vessels in solid tumors is high interstitial fluid pressure, which reduces drug penetration, but also creates a hypoxic environment that further augments tumor cell growth and metastatic spread. Importantly however, studies during the last decade have shown that the tumor stroma, including the vasculature, can be modulated, or re-educated, to allow better delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs or enhance the efficiency of active immune therapy. Such remodeling of the tumor stroma using genetic, pharmacological and other therapeutic approaches not only enhances selective access into tumors but also reduces toxic side effects. This review focuses on recent novel concepts to modulate tumor stroma and thus locally increase therapeutic efficacy

  3. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kazama, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  4. Low-dose BPA exposure alters the mesenchymal and epithelial transcriptomes of the mouse fetal mammary gland.

    Perinaaz R Wadia

    Full Text Available Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα, we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2 on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development.

  5. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  6. The mammary gland in small ruminants: major morphological and functional events underlying milk production – a review

    Lérias, Joana R; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Suárez-Trujillo, Aridany

    2014-01-01

    the modifications occurring in the mammary gland through the lactation period in production animals, particularly in the small ruminants, sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Nevertheless, understanding the different mammary gland patterns throughout lactation is essential to improve dairy production......, as well as a reduction of stroma, corresponding macroscopically to the increase in mammary gland volume. Throughout late lactation, the mammary gland volume decreases owing to the regression of the secretory structure. In general, common mammary gland patterns have been shown for both goats and sheep...... throughout the several lactation stages, although the number of studies is limited. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the colostrogenesis and lactogenesis processes as well as to highlight the mammary gland morphological patterns underlying milk production during the lactation cycle...

  7. Comparison of ion transport by cultured secretory and absorptive canine airway epithelia

    Boucher, R C; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1988-01-01

    The use of primary cell culture techniques to predict the function of native respiratory epithelia was tested in studies of dog airway epithelia. Epithelial cells from Cl- secretory (tracheal) and Na+ absorptive (bronchial) airway regions were isolated by enzymatic digestion, plated on collagen...

  8. Molecular polymorphism of a cell surface proteoglycan: distinct structures on simple and stratified epithelia.

    Sanderson, R D; Bernfield, M

    1988-12-01

    Epithelial cells are organized into either a single layer (simple epithelia) or multiple layers (stratified epithelia). Maintenance of these cellular organizations requires distinct adhesive mechanisms involving many cell surface molecules. One such molecule is a cell surface proteoglycan, named syndecan, that contains both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains. This proteoglycan binds cells to fibrillar collagens and fibronectin and thus acts as a receptor for interstitial matrix. The proteoglycan is restricted to the basolateral surface of simple epithelial cells, but is located over the entire surface of stratified epithelial cells, even those surfaces not contacting matrix. We now show that the distinct localization in simple and stratified epithelia correlates with a distinct proteoglycan structure. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia (modal molecular size, 160 kDa) is larger than that from stratified epithelia (modal molecular size, 92 kDa), but their core proteins are identical in size and immunoreactivity. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia has more and larger heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains than the proteoglycan from stratified epithelia. Thus, the cell surface proteoglycan shows a tissue-specific structural polymorphism due to distinct posttranslational modifications. This polymorphism likely reflects distinct proteoglycan functions in simple and stratified epithelia, potentially meeting the different adhesive requirements of the cells in these different organizations.

  9. Expression of blood group-related glycoconjugates in the junctional and other oral epithelia of rodents

    Mackenzie, I C; Dabelsteen, Erik; Rittman, G

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The junctional epithelium (JE) attaches the gingiva to the non-vital tooth surface and has other unusual properties which protect the underlying periodontal tissues. The JE differs from other gingival and oral epithelia in its unusual expression of cytokeratins typical of both...... and provide an alternative marker system for regionally-differing patterns of cell maturation. RESULTS: Markers that are typical of basal cells in other stratifying epithelia were expressed by all cell strata of JE. JE lacked differentiation markers typical of other stratifying oral epithelial but showed...... suprabasal expression of markers typically expressed by simple epithelia and specialized epithelia, such as taste buds. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype of rodent JE differs from that of other oral epithelia and the pattern of differentiation assessed by its expression of glycoconjugates parallels that for other...

  10. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia.

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    2015-02-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur unidirectionally, with the arrows 'pointing away' from the stem cell. Recent studies, all based on genetic lineage tracing, describe various strategies employed by epithelial stem cell hierarchies to replace damaged or lost cells. While transdifferentiation from one tissue type into another ('metaplasia') appears to be generally forbidden in nonpathological contexts, plasticity within an individual tissue stem cell hierarchy may be much more common than previously appreciated. In this review, we discuss recent examples of such plasticity in selected mammalian epithelia, highlighting the different modes of regeneration and their implications for our understanding of cellular hierarchy and tissue self-renewal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mammary stem cells: angels or demons in mammary gland?

    Chen, Xueman; Liu, Qiang; Song, Erwei

    2017-01-01

    A highly dynamic development process exits within the epithelia of mammary gland, featuring morphogenetic variation during puberty, pregnancy, lactation, and regression. The identification of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) via lineage-tracing studies has substantiated a hierarchical organization of the mammary epithelia. A single MaSC is capable of reconstituting the entirely functional mammary gland upon orthotopic transplantation. Although different mammary cell subpopulations can be candidate cells-of-origin for distinct breast tumor subtypes, it still lacks experimental proofs whether MaSCs, the most primitive cells, are the 'seeds' of malignant transformation during most, if not all, tumorigenesis in the breast. Here, we review current knowledge of mammary epithelial hierarchy, highlighting the roles of mammary stem/progenitor cells and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) along with their key molecular regulators in organ development and cancer evolution. Clarifying these issues will pave the way for developing novel interventions toward stem/progenitor cells in either prevention or treatment of breast cancer (BrCa).

  12. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Gupta Ruchika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

  13. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mammary gland in a dog.

    Nakahira, R; Michishita, M; Yoshimura, H; Hatakeyama, H; Takahashi, K

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old female border collie was presented with a mass (2 cm diameter) in the fifth mammary gland. The mass was located in the subcutis and the cut surface was grey-white in colour. Microscopically, the mass was composed of tumour cells arranged in nests of various sizes separated by delicate fibrovascular stroma. The tumour cells had small, round hypochromatic nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. Metastases were observed in the inguinal lymph node. Immunohistochemically, most tumour cells expressed cytokeratin (CK) 20, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and oestrogen receptor-β, but not low molecular weight CK (CAM5.2), p63 and insulin. Ultrastructurally, the tumour cells contained a large number of electron-dense granules corresponding to neuroendocrine granules. Based on these findings, this case was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mammary gland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus

    Firdous Ahmad Dar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was targeted to form the baseline data of normal morphological and histological picture of parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks.Materials and Methods: A Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland was carried out in twelve adult female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus of 20 weeks of age. Birds reared semintensively were procured from Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Poultry and Duck Farm and sacrificed humanely. Glands were collected and gross parameters were recorded. The glands were fixed in 10 percent neutral buffered formalin. The small sized glands were processed as such by routine histological methods, paraffin blocks were prepared and sectioned to a thickness of 5µ. The tissues were stained by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E for routine histological studies and Gomori's rapid one step trichrome method for connective tissue fibres. Micrometric parameters were recorded using ocular micrometer. Results: Parathyroid glands in Kuttanad ducks lay just caudal to the division of the innominate artery into the subclavian and common carotid arteries. Parathyroids were oval to spherical in shape, yellow in colour and smaller than thyroid gland of the representative sides. The arterial blood supply was from common carotid artery and blood from gland was drained directly into jugular vein. Although it lied close to the thyroid, thymus and ultimobranchial gland, parathyroid tissue did not merge to any of the above mentioned three glands. Parenchyma was composed irregular anatomizing cords of cells supplied by connective tissue stroma penetrated by blood capillaries. Parenchyma was predominantly made of lightly stained cell, the chief cell. The nuclei were round and contain one or two nucleoli. Oxyphil cells present in parathyroid glands of other mammals were not seen in the present study. Conclusion: Histomorphological features or characteristics of Parathyroid gland in Kuttanad duck were

  15. Myoepithelial Cells: Their Origin and Function in Lacrimal Gland Morphogenesis, Homeostasis, and Repair.

    Makarenkova, Helen P; Dartt, Darlene A

    2015-09-01

    Lacrimal gland (LG) is an exocrine tubuloacinar gland that secretes the aqueous layer of the tear film. LG epithelium is composed of ductal, acinar, and myoepithelial cells (MECs) bordering the basal lamina and separating the epithelial layer from the extracellular matrix. Mature MECs have contractile ability and morphologically resemble smooth muscle cells; however, they exhibit features typical for epithelial cells, such as the presence of specific cytokeratin filaments. Increasing evidence supports the assertion that myoepithelial cells (MECs) play key roles in the lacrimal gland development, homeostasis, and stabilizing the normal structure and polarity of LG secretory acini. MECs take part in the formation of extracellular matrix gland and participate in signal exchange between epithelium and stroma. MECs have a high level of plasticity and are able to differentiate into several cell lineages. Here, we provide a review on some of the MEC characteristics and their role in LG morphogenesis, maintenance, and repair.

  16. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Homeostatic Mass Control in Gastric Non-Neoplastic Epithelia under Infection of Helicobacter pylori: An Immunohistochemical Analysis of Cell Growth, Stem Cells and Programmed Cell Death

    Kato, Kenji; Hasui, Kazuhisa; Wang, Jia; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Aikou, Takashi; Murata, Fusayoshi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated homeostatic mass control in non-neoplastic gastric epithelia under Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in the macroscopically normal-appearing mucosa resected from the stomach with gastric cancer, immunohistochemically analyzing the proliferation, kinetics of stem cells and programmed cell death occurring in them. Ki67 antigen-positive proliferating cells were found dominantly in the elongated neck portion, sparsely in the fundic areas and sporadically in the stroma with chronic infiltrates. CD117 could monitor the kinetics of gastric stem cells and showed its expression in two stages of gastric epithelial differentiation, namely, in transient cells from the gastric epithelial stem cells to the foveolar and glandular cells in the neck portion and in what are apparently progenitor cells from the gastric stem cells in the stroma among the infiltrates. Most of the nuclei were positive for ssDNA in the almost normal mucosa, suggesting DNA damage. Cleaved caspase-3-positive foveolar cells were noted under the surface, suggesting the suppression of apoptosis in the surface foveolar cells. Besides such apoptosis of the foveolar cells, in the severely inflamed mucosa apoptotic cells were found in the neck portion where most of the cells were Ki67 antigen-positive proliferating cells. Beclin-1 was recognized in the cytoplasm and in a few nuclei of the fundic glandular cells, suggesting their autophagic cell death and mutated beclin-1 in the nuclei. Taken together, the direct and indirect effects of HP infection on the gastric epithelial proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death suggested the in-situ occurrence of gastric cancer under HP infection

  18. Dosimetry of paranasal sinus and mastoid epithelia in radium-exposed humans

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Dose calculations for 228 Ra and 226 Ra are presented for the sinus and mastoid epithelia and lead to the conclusion that the isotopes are of comparable dosimetric significance for the production of carcinomas in patients exposed to comparable levels

  19. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure on Carcinogenic Properties of Epithelia.

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Kim, Young Hak; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki; Furuse, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. The inflammation increases the permeability of blood vessels and consequently elevates pressure in the interstitial tissues. However, there have been only a few reports on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on cultured cells, and the relationship between elevated hydrostatic pressure and cell properties related to malignant tumors is less well understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the cultured epithelial cells seeded on permeable filters. Surprisingly, hydrostatic pressure from basal to apical side induced epithelial stratification in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) I and Caco-2 cells, and cavities with microvilli and tight junctions around their surfaces were formed within the multi-layered epithelia. The hydrostatic pressure gradient also promoted cell proliferation, suppressed cell apoptosis, and increased transepithelial ion permeability. The inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) promoted epithelial stratification by the hydrostatic pressure whereas the activation of PKA led to suppressed epithelial stratification. These results indicate the role of the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the regulation of various epithelial cell functions. The findings in this study may provide clues for the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of the carcinoma.

  20. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  2. Active Roles of Tumor Stroma in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Khamis, Z.I.; Sang, Q.A.; Sahab, Z.J.

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of death for breast cancer patients. Tumors are heterogenous cellular entities composed of cancer cells and cells of the microenvironment in which they reside. A reciprocal dynamic interaction occurs between the tumor cells and their surrounding stroma under physiological and pathological conditions. This tumor-host communication interface mediates the escape of tumor cells at the primary site, survival of circulating cancer cells in the vasculature, and growth of metastatic cancer at secondary site. Each step of the metastatic process is accompanied by recruitment of stromal cells from the microenvironment and production of unique array of growth factors and chemokines. Stromal microenvironment may play active roles in breast cancer metastasis. Elucidating the types of cells recruited and signal pathways involved in the crosstalk between tumor cells and stromal cells will help identify novel strategies for cotargeting cancer cells and tumor stromal cells to suppress metastasis and improve patient outcome

  3. Active Roles of Tumor Stroma in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Zahraa I. Khamis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death for breast cancer patients. Tumors are heterogenous cellular entities composed of cancer cells and cells of the microenvironment in which they reside. A reciprocal dynamic interaction occurs between the tumor cells and their surrounding stroma under physiological and pathological conditions. This tumor-host communication interface mediates the escape of tumor cells at the primary site, survival of circulating cancer cells in the vasculature, and growth of metastatic cancer at secondary site. Each step of the metastatic process is accompanied by recruitment of stromal cells from the microenvironment and production of unique array of growth factors and chemokines. Stromal microenvironment may play active roles in breast cancer metastasis. Elucidating the types of cells recruited and signal pathways involved in the crosstalk between tumor cells and stromal cells will help identify novel strategies for cotargeting cancer cells and tumor stromal cells to suppress metastasis and improve patient outcome.

  4. Extrahepatic biliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma: a true biliary cystadenoma? A case report.

    Hennessey, Derek B

    2012-02-01

    Biliary cystadenomas are benign but potentially malignant cystic neoplasms, which classically contain mesenchymal stroma similar to ovarian tissue. We report a case of an extra-hepatic biliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma along with a discussion of current pathological opinion. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old female presented with abdominal pain, abnormal liver function tests and a mass on ultrasound. Computerized Tomography identified a complex multi-locular cyst in the common hepatic duct. Radical excision of the lesion and a Roux-en-Y loop bilio-enteric anastomosis was performed. Histology confirmed the presence of a benign biliary cystadenoma with ovarian type stroma. CONCLUSION: Biliary cystadenomas classically contain mesenchymal stroma similar to ovarian tissue. It now appears that cystadenomas without mesenchymal stroma appear to be more akin to similar cystic lesions of the pancreas, and may represent a dissimilar neoplasm. Therefore, malignant transformation can occur, so complete excision is recommended.

  5. Involvement of host stroma cells and tissue fibrosis in pancreatic tumor development in transgenic mice.

    Itai Spector

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stroma cells and extracellular matrix (ECM components provide the pivotal microenvironment for tumor development. The study aimed to evaluate the importance of the pancreatic stroma for tumor development. METHODS: Pancreatic tumor cells were implanted subcutaneously into green fluorescent protein transgenic mice, and stroma cells invading the tumors were identified through immunohistochemistry. Inhibition of tumor invasion by stroma cells was achieved with halofuginone, an inhibitor of TGFβ/Smad3 signaling, alone or in combination with chemotherapy. The origin of tumor ECM was evaluated with species-specific collagen I antibodies and in situ hybridization of collagen α1(I gene. Pancreatic fibrosis was induced by cerulean injection and tumors by spleen injection of pancreatic tumor cells. RESULTS: Inhibition of stroma cell infiltration and reduction of tumor ECM levels by halofuginone inhibited development of tumors derived from mouse and human pancreatic cancer cells. Halofuginone reduced the number only of stroma myofibroblasts expressing both contractile and collagen biosynthesis markers. Both stroma myofibroblasts and tumor cells generated ECM that contributes to tumor growth. Combination of treatments that inhibit stroma cell infiltration, cause apoptosis of myofibroblasts and inhibit Smad3 phosphorylation, with chemotherapy that increases tumor-cell apoptosis without affecting Smad3 phosphorylation was more efficacious than either treatment alone. More tumors developed in fibrotic than in normal pancreas, and prevention of tissue fibrosis greatly reduced tumor development. CONCLUSIONS: The utmost importance of tissue fibrosis and of stroma cells for tumor development presents potential new therapy targets, suggesting combination therapy against stroma and neoplastic cells as a treatment of choice.

  6. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  7. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  8. Distribution of Y-receptors in murine lingual epithelia.

    Maria D Hurtado

    Full Text Available Peptide hormones and their cognate receptors belonging to neuropeptide Y (NPY family mediate diverse biological functions in a number of tissues. Recently, we discovered the presence of the gut satiation peptide YY (PYY in saliva of mice and humans and defined its role in the regulation of food intake and body weight maintenance. Here we report the systematic analysis of expression patterns of all NPY receptors (Rs, Y1R, Y2R, Y4R, and Y5R in lingual epithelia in mice. Using four independent assays, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and RT PCR, we show that the morphologically different layers of the keratinized stratified epithelium of the dorsal layer of the tongue express Y receptors in a very distinctive yet overlapping pattern. In particular, the monolayer of basal progenitor cells expresses both Y1 and Y2 receptors. Y1Rs are present in the parabasal prickle cell layer and the granular layer, while differentiated keratinocytes display abundant Y5Rs. Y4Rs are expressed substantially in the neuronal fibers innervating the lamina propria and mechanoreceptors. Basal epithelial cells positive for Y2Rs respond robustly to PYY(3-36 by increasing intracellular Ca(2+ suggesting their possible functional interaction with salivary PYY. In taste buds of the circumvallate papillae, some taste receptor cells (TRCs express YRs localized primarily at the apical domain, indicative of their potential role in taste perception. Some of the YR-positive TRCs are co-localized with neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, suggesting that these TRCs may have synaptic contacts with nerve terminals. In summary, we show that all YRs are abundantly expressed in multiple lingual cell types, including epithelial progenitors, keratinocytes, neuronal dendrites and TRCs. These results suggest that these receptors may be involved in the mediation of a wide variety of functions, including proliferation, differentiation, motility, taste perception

  9. [METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF CHORNOBYL FACTOR INFLUENCE ON PROSTATE GLAND OF COAL MINERS-- THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER FIGHTERS].

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 25 parameters in a prostate gland at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of prostate gland was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of a prostate gland tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine.

  10. Morphology and morphometry of the human sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements of edentulous patients

    Josiane Costa Rodrigues de SA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic mouth floor enlargements may be observed in edentulous patients. These masses, which protrude from the mouth floor, may complicate the fitting of dentures and require surgery. Whether this "entity" may be considered an anatomical variation of the mouth floor or represent specific alterations in the sublingual gland is not known. Objective: The aim of this work is to investigate the morphological and morphometric aspects of the sublingual glands of edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements and compare the glands of these patients with the sublingual glands of human cadavers. Material and Methods: Microscopic evaluation was performed on human sublingual glands from edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements (n=20 and edentulous cadavers (n=20. The patients and cadavers were of similar ages. The data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact and Student's t tests (p0.05. Only the variables "autolysis" and "congested blood vessels" presented statistical difference between groups (p=0.014; p=0.043. The morphometric study revealed that the volume densities of acini, ducts, stroma and adipose tissue were similar between the groups (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The microscopic characteristics of the sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements in edentulous patients correspond to characteristics associated with the normal aging process. The glands are not pathological and represent an age-related alteration that occurs with or without the presence of the mouth floor enlargements.

  11. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  12. Assessment of Hypoxia in the Stroma of Patient-Derived Pancreatic Tumor Xenografts

    Lohse, Ines; Lourenco, Corey; Ibrahimov, Emin; Pintilie, Melania [Ontario Cancer Institute and Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, 610 University Ave., Toronto, ON M5G2M9 (Canada); Tsao, Ming-Sound [Ontario Cancer Institute and Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, 610 University Ave., Toronto, ON M5G2M9 (Canada); Department of Pathology, University Health Network, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, ON M5G2C4 (Canada); Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, 27 King’s College Circle, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S1A1 (Canada); Hedley, David W., E-mail: david.hedley@uhn.ca [Ontario Cancer Institute and Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, 610 University Ave., Toronto, ON M5G2M9 (Canada); Departments of Medical Biophysics University of Toronto, 610 University Ave., Toronto, ON M5G2M9 (Canada); Departments of Medicine, University of Toronto, 610 University Ave., Toronto, ON M5G2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, 610 University Ave., Toronto, ON M5G2M9 (Canada)

    2014-02-26

    The unusually dense stroma of pancreatic cancers is thought to play an important role in their biological aggression. The presence of hypoxia is also considered an adverse prognostic factor. Although it is usually assumed that this is the result of effects of hypoxia on the epithelial component, it is possible that hypoxia exerts indirect effects via the tumor stroma. We therefore measured hypoxia in the stroma of a series of primary pancreatic cancer xenografts. Nine patient-derived pancreatic xenografts representing a range of oxygenation levels were labeled by immunohistochemistry for EF5 and analyzed using semi-automated pattern recognition software. Hypoxia in the tumor and stroma was correlated with tumor growth and metastatic potential. The extent of hypoxia varied from 1%–39% between the different models. EF5 labeling in the stroma ranged from 0–20% between models, and was correlated with the level of hypoxia in the tumor cell area, but not microvessel density. Tumor hypoxia correlated with spontaneous metastasis formation with the exception of one hypoxic model that showed disproportionately low levels of hypoxia in the stroma and was non-metastatic. Our results demonstrate that hypoxia exists in the stroma of primary pancreatic cancer xenografts and suggest that stromal hypoxia impacts the metastatic potential.

  13. Ultrastructure Organization of Collagen Fibrils and Proteoglycans of Stingray and Shark Corneal Stroma

    Saud A. Alanazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the ultrastructural organization of collagen fibrils (CF and proteoglycans (PGs of the corneal stroma of both the stingray and the shark. Three corneas from three stingrays and three corneas from three sharks were processed for electron microscopy. Tissues were embedded in TAAB 031 resin. The corneal stroma of both the stingray and shark consisted of parallel running lamellae of CFs which were decorated with PGs. In the stingray, the mean area of PGs in the posterior stroma was significantly larger than the PGs of the anterior and middle stroma, whereas, in the shark, the mean area of PGs was similar throughout the stroma. The mean area of PGs of the stingray was significantly larger compared to the PGs, mean area of the shark corneal stroma. The CF diameter of the stingray was significantly smaller compared to the CF diameter in the shark. The ultrastructural features of the corneal stroma of both the stingray and the shark were similar to each other except for the CFs and PGs. The PGs in the stingray and shark might be composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS/dermatan sulfate (DS PGs and these PGs with sutures might contribute to the nonswelling properties of the cornea of the stingray and shark.

  14. Tumor del estroma gastrointestinal Tumor of the gastrointestinal stroma

    Jorge Felipe Montero León

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal, conocidos según sus siglas en inglés como GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors, son tumores mesenquimales que aparecen en cualquier lugar a lo largo del tracto intestinal. Este trabajo tiene el propósito de presentar una paciente de 60 años de edad que asiste a la consulta de ginecología del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología, por presentar dolor en el epigastrio, que se irradia al flanco derecho, con un aumento de volumen en la fosa iliaca derecha, y por ultrasonografía se plantea un tumor de ovario derecho, que se proyecta hacia el epigastrio y a hipocondrio derecho. Se describe la intervención quirúrgica y los hallazgos encontrados en estudios macro y microscópicos, así como en estudios posteriores por inmunohistoquímica de la lesión. Se concluye con un diagnóstico de tumor del estroma gastrointestinal y los resultados de las intervenciones quirúrgicas y medicamentosas realizadas. Se recomienda valorar la importancia de una estrecha relación entre cirujanos generales y ginecólogos frente a enfermedades inesperadas, por su difícil diagnóstico preoperatorio, que conllevan a un tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado, y que por la complejidad que requieren, necesitan de la competencia de ambas especialidades quirúrgicas.The tumors of the gastrointestinal stroma, known in English language as GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors appearing in any place throughout the intestinal tract. The objective of present paper is to present the case of a female patient aged 60 came to Genecology consultation of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology due pain in epigastrium irradiating to right flank with increase of volume in the right iliac fossa and by ultrasonography it is a tumor of right ovarium projecting to epigastrium and the right hypochondrium. The surgical intervention is described as well as the findings noted in macro- and microscopic studies

  15. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    ... Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Causes of adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors ...

  16. Mammary gland stem cells

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  17. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  18. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  19. Gross and fine dissection of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Liang, Jin; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-05-08

    Neurosensory epithelia in the inner ear are the crucial structures for hearing and balance functions. Therefore, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular features of the epithelia, which are mainly composed of two types of cells: hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Here we choose to study the inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish not only because the epithelial structures are highly conserved in all vertebrates studied, but also because the adult zebrafish is able to regenerate HCs, an ability that mammals lose shortly after birth. We use the inner ear of adult zebrafish as a model system to study the mechanisms of inner ear HC regeneration in adult vertebrates that could be helpful for clinical therapy of hearing/balance deficits in human as a result of HC loss. Here we demonstrate how to do gross and fine dissections of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish. The gross dissection removes the tissues surrounding the inner ear and is helpful for preparing tissue sections, which allows us to examine the detailed structure of the sensory epithelia. The fine dissection cleans up the non-sensory-epithelial tissues of each individual epithelium and enables us to examine the heterogeneity of the whole epithelium easily in whole-mount epithelial samples.

  20. Dynamic stroma reorganization drives blood vessel dysmorphia during glioma growth.

    Mathivet, Thomas; Bouleti, Claire; Van Woensel, Matthias; Stanchi, Fabio; Verschuere, Tina; Phng, Li-Kun; Dejaegher, Joost; Balcer, Marly; Matsumoto, Ken; Georgieva, Petya B; Belmans, Jochen; Sciot, Raf; Stockmann, Christian; Mazzone, Massimiliano; De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Gerhardt, Holger

    2017-12-01

    Glioma growth and progression are characterized by abundant development of blood vessels that are highly aberrant and poorly functional, with detrimental consequences for drug delivery efficacy. The mechanisms driving this vessel dysmorphia during tumor progression are poorly understood. Using longitudinal intravital imaging in a mouse glioma model, we identify that dynamic sprouting and functional morphogenesis of a highly branched vessel network characterize the initial tumor growth, dramatically changing to vessel expansion, leakage, and loss of branching complexity in the later stages. This vascular phenotype transition was accompanied by recruitment of predominantly pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages in the early stages, followed by in situ repolarization to M2-like macrophages, which produced VEGF-A and relocate to perivascular areas. A similar enrichment and perivascular accumulation of M2 versus M1 macrophages correlated with vessel dilation and malignancy in human glioma samples of different WHO malignancy grade. Targeting macrophages using anti-CSF1 treatment restored normal blood vessel patterning and function. Combination treatment with chemotherapy showed survival benefit, suggesting that targeting macrophages as the key driver of blood vessel dysmorphia in glioma progression presents opportunities to improve efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that vessel dysfunction is not simply a general feature of tumor vessel formation, but rather an emergent property resulting from a dynamic and functional reorganization of the tumor stroma and its angiogenic influences. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  1. Rag defects and thymic stroma: lessons from animal models

    Veronica eMarrella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells (TECs cross-talk is essential to support T-cell development and preserve thymic architecture and maturation of TECs and Foxp3+ natural regulatory T (nTreg cells. Accordingly, disruption of thymic lymphostromal cross-talk may have major implications on the thymic mechanisms that govern T cell tolerance. Several genetic defects have been described in humans that affect early stages of T cell development (leading to Severe Combined Immune Deficiency, SCID or late stages in thymocyte maturation (resulting in combined immunodeficiency. Hypomorphic mutations in SCID-causing genes may allow for generation of a limited pool of T lymphocytes with a restricted repertoire. These conditions are often associated with infiltration of peripheral tissues by activated T cells and immune dysregulation, as best exemplified by Omenn syndrome (OS. In this review, we will discuss our recent findings on abnormalities of thymic microenvironment in OS with a special focus of defective maturation of TECs, altered distribution of thymic dendritic cells (DCs and impairment of deletional and non-deletional mechanisms of central tolerance. Here, taking advantage of mouse models of OS and atypical SCID, we will discuss how modifications in stromal compartment impact and shape lymphocyte differentiation, and vice versa how inefficient T cell signalling results in defective stromal maturation. These findings are instrumental to understand the extent to which novel therapeutic strategies should act on thymic stroma to achieve full immune reconstitution.

  2. ATF4-Induced Metabolic Reprograming Is a Synthetic Vulnerability of the p62-Deficient Tumor Stroma.

    Linares, Juan F; Cordes, Thekla; Duran, Angeles; Reina-Campos, Miguel; Valencia, Tania; Ahn, Christopher S; Castilla, Elias A; Moscat, Jorge; Metallo, Christian M; Diaz-Meco, Maria T

    2017-12-05

    Tumors undergo nutrient stress and need to reprogram their metabolism to survive. The stroma may play a critical role in this process by providing nutrients to support the epithelial compartment of the tumor. Here we show that p62 deficiency in stromal fibroblasts promotes resistance to glutamine deprivation by the direct control of ATF4 stability through its p62-mediated polyubiquitination. ATF4 upregulation by p62 deficiency in the stroma activates glucose carbon flux through a pyruvate carboxylase-asparagine synthase cascade that results in asparagine generation as a source of nitrogen for stroma and tumor epithelial proliferation. Thus, p62 directly targets nuclear transcription factors to control metabolic reprogramming in the microenvironment and repress tumorigenesis, and identifies ATF4 as a synthetic vulnerability in p62-deficient tumor stroma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone marrow stroma in idiopathic myelofibrosis and other haematological diseases. An immunohistochemical study

    Lisse, I; Hasselbalch, H; Junker, P

    1991-01-01

    Bone marrow stroma was investigated immunohistochemically in 31 patients with haematological diseases, mainly idiopathic myelofibrosis (n = 8) and related chronic myeloproliferative disorders (n = 14). The bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and some CML patients showed marked...

  4. Quantification and distribution of big conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in kidney epithelia

    Grunnet, Morten; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Klaerke, Dan A

    2005-01-01

    and immunohistochemical studies. In cortical collecting ducts, BK channels were exclusively located in principal cells while no channels could be found in intercalated cells. The abundant and distinct distribution in kidney epithelia talks in favor for BK channels being important contributors in maintaining salt......Big conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels (BK channels) is an abundant channel present in almost all kind of tissue. The accurate quantity and especially the precise distribution of this channel in kidney epithelia are, however, still debated. The aim of the present study has therefore been...... to examine the presence of BK channels in kidney epithelia and determine the actual number and distribution of these channels. For this purpose, a selective peptidyl ligand for BK channels called iberiotoxin or the radiolabeled double mutant analog 125I-IbTX-D19Y/Y36F has been employed. The presence of BK...

  5. Motile cilia of human airway epithelia contain hedgehog signaling components that mediate noncanonical hedgehog signaling.

    Mao, Suifang; Shah, Alok S; Moninger, Thomas O; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Lu, Lin; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Thornell, Ian M; Reznikov, Leah R; Ernst, Sarah E; Karp, Philip H; Tan, Ping; Keshavjee, Shaf; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H; Welsh, Michael J

    2018-02-06

    Differentiated airway epithelia produce sonic hedgehog (SHH), which is found in the thin layer of liquid covering the airway surface. Although previous studies showed that vertebrate HH signaling requires primary cilia, as airway epithelia mature, the cells lose primary cilia and produce hundreds of motile cilia. Thus, whether airway epithelia have apical receptors for SHH has remained unknown. We discovered that motile cilia on airway epithelial cells have HH signaling proteins, including patched and smoothened. These cilia also have proteins affecting cAMP-dependent signaling, including Gα i and adenylyl cyclase 5/6. Apical SHH decreases intracellular levels of cAMP, which reduces ciliary beat frequency and pH in airway surface liquid. These results suggest that apical SHH may mediate noncanonical HH signaling through motile cilia to dampen respiratory defenses at the contact point between the environment and the lung, perhaps counterbalancing processes that stimulate airway defenses. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Constitutive and inducible expression of SKALP/elafin provides anti-elastase defense in human epithelia.

    Pfundt, R; van Ruissen, F; van Vlijmen-Willems, I M; Alkemade, H A; Zeeuwen, P L; Jap, P H; Dijkman, H; Fransen, J; Croes, H; van Erp, P E; Schalkwijk, J

    1996-01-01

    Skin-derived antileukoproteinase (SKALP), also known as elafin, is a serine proteinase inhibitor first discovered in keratinocytes from hyperproliferative human epidermis. In addition to the proteinase inhibiting domain which is directed against polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) derived enzymes such as elastase and proteinase 3, SKALP contains multiple transglutaminase (TGase) substrate domains which enable crosslinking to extracellular and cell envelope proteins. Here we show that SKALP is constitutively expressed in several epithelia that are continuously subjected to inflammatory stimuli, such as the oral cavity and the vagina where it co-localizes with type 1 TGase. All epithelia from sterile body cavities are negative for SKALP. In general, stratified squamous epithelia are positive, whereas pseudostratified epithelia, simple/glandular epithelia and normal epidermis are negative. SKALP was found in fetal tissues of the oral cavity from 17 wk gestation onwards where it continued to be expressed up to adult life. Remarkably, in fetal epidermis SKALP was found from week 28 onwards, but was downregulated to undetectable levels in neonatal skin within three months, suggesting a role during pregnancy in feto-maternal interactions or in the early maturation phase of the epidermis. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the presence of SKALP in secretory vesicles including the lamellar granules. In culture models for epidermal keratinocytes we found that expression of the endogenous SKALP gene provided protection against cell detachment caused by purified elastase or activated PMNs. Addition of exogenous recombinant SKALP fully protected the keratinocytes against PMN-dependent detachment whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase were only marginally effective. These findings strongly suggest that the constitutive expression of SKALP in squamous epithelia, and the inducible expression in epidermis participate in the control of epithelial integrity, by inhibiting PMN

  7. Histamine H1 receptors are expressed in mouse and frog semicircular canal sensory epithelia.

    Botta, Laura; Tritto, Simona; Perin, Paola; Laforenza, Umberto; Gastaldi, Giulia; Zampini, Valeria; Zucca, Gianpiero; Valli, Stefano; Masetto, Sergio; Valli, Paolo

    2008-03-05

    Histamine-related drugs are commonly used in the treatment of vertigo and related vestibular disorders. Their site and mechanism of action, however, are still poorly understood. To increase our knowledge of the histaminergic system in the vestibular organs, we have investigated the expression of H1 and H3 histamine receptors in the frog and mouse semicircular canal sensory epithelia. Analysis was performed by mRNA reverse transcriptase-PCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry experiments. Our data show that both frog and mouse vestibular epithelia express H1 receptors. Conversely no clear evidence for H3 receptors expression was found.

  8. Concurrent breast stroma sarcoma and breast carcinoma: a case report

    Carvalho Teresa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is one of the most important health problems in the world and affects a great number of women over the entire globe. This group of tumors rarely presents as bilateral disease and, when it does happen, normally occurs within the same histological type. We report a rare case of concurrent bilateral breast cancer with two different histology types, a breast carcinoma and a breast sarcoma, in a 42-year-old woman referred to our hospital. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman admitted to our institute in August 1999, presented with a nodule in the left breast of 3.0 × 2.5 cm, and, in the right breast, one of 1.0 cm, suspected of malignancy and with a clinically negative armpit. Biopsies had revealed invasive mammary carcinoma (right breast and sarcoma (left breast. She was submitted to bilateral modified radical mastectomy. A histological study showed an invasive mammary carcinoma degree II lobular pleomorphic type with invasion of seven of the 19 excised axillary nodes in the right breast and, in the left breast, a sarcoma of the mammary stroma, for which the immunohistochemistry study was negative for epithelial biomarkers and positive for vimentin. Later, she was submitted for chemotherapy (six cycles of 75 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by radiotherapy of the thoracic wall and axillary nodes on the left. Hormone receptors were positive in the tumor of the right breast, and tamoxifen, 20 mg, was prescribed on a daily basis (five years followed by letrozole, 2.5 mg, also daily (five years. She presented no sign of negative evolution in the last consultation. Conclusion The risk of development of bilateral breast cancer is about 1% each year within a similar histological type, but it is higher in tumors with lobular histology. In this case, the patient presented, simultaneously, two histologically distinct tumors, thus evidencing a rare situation.

  9. Imaging appearance of well-differentiated liposarcomas with myxoid stroma.

    Morag, Yoav; Yablon, Corrie; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Jacobson, Jon; Lucas, David

    2018-04-16

    Describe the imaging appearance of well-differentiated liposarcoma with myxoid stroma (WDLMS) and correlate with histopathology. A keyword search of the institution medical records was performed from 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2017. The histopathology slides of cases identified in this fashion were then reviewed by a pathologist. Additional cases were prospectively collected from extramural referrals and tumor boards. Diagnostic imaging studies of pathologically proven cases of WDLMS were then reviewed in consensus and correlated with pathology. Ten cases of pathologically proven WDLMS were identified (7 men, 3 women, ages 26-81). Tumor location included the retroperitoneum (n = 5), thigh (n = 4), and the shin (n = 1). Nine patients had macroscopic fat on imaging. The nonlipomatous components had a variable appearance, including septal, nodular, and lacelike patterns. Two cases included two distinct areas that were predominantly myxoid or lipomatous ("bi-morphic"). One tumor had no macroscopic fat on imaging. On CT, the nonlipomatous nodular components were hypodense/had hypodense areas. On MRI, the nodular components had intermediate/bright T2W signal. Interval nonlipomatous nodular growth was identified in 3 cases. WDLMS may present on imaging as a mass with variable morphology and amounts of nonlipomatous components. Histopathological diagnosis of WDLMS is challenging and imaging correlation may be helpful, as this tumor may have ≥50% fatty volume, may have a myxoid nodular component or bi-morphic appearance, or may be located in the retroperitoneum, features that are unusual for myxoid liposarcoma. WDLMS with a nodular component cannot be distinguished from dedifferentiated liposarcoma based on imaging alone.

  10. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  11. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  12. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in comparison with human (Homo sapiens: quantitative and functional implications.

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5 µm(3 and 7.02×10(5 µm(3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  13. Association of bone morphogenetic protein 6 with exocrine gland dysfunction in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and in mice.

    Yin, Hongen; Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Lai, Zhenan; Michael, Drew; Weller, Melodie; Swaim, William D; Liu, Xibao; Catalán, Marcelo A; Rocha, Eduardo M; Ismail, Nevien; Afione, Sandra; Rana, Noreen A; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu; Illei, Gabor G; Chiorini, John A

    2013-12-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is characterized by autoimmune activation and loss of function in secretory epithelia. The present study was undertaken to investigate and characterize changes in the epithelia associated with the loss of gland function in primary SS. To identify changes in epithelial gene expression, custom microarrays were probed with complementary RNA (cRNA) isolated from minor salivary glands (MSGs) of female patients with primary SS who had low focus scores and low salivary flow rates, and the results were compared with those obtained using cRNA from the MSGs of sex-matched healthy volunteers. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) on salivary gland function was tested using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer to the salivary glands of C57BL/6 mice. A significant increase in expression of BMP-6 was observed in RNA isolated from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers. Overexpression of BMP-6 locally in the salivary or lacrimal glands of mice resulted in the loss of fluid secretion as well as changes in the connective tissue of the salivary gland. Assessment of the fluid movement in either isolated acinar cells from mice overexpressing BMP-6 or a human salivary gland cell line cultured with BMP-6 revealed a loss in volume regulation in these cells. Lymphocytic infiltration in the submandibular gland of BMP-6 vector-treated mice was increased. No significant changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines or autoantibodies associated with SS (anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB) were found after BMP-6 overexpression. In addition to identifying BMP-6 expression in association with xerostomia and xerophthalmia in primary SS, the present results suggest that BMP-6-induced salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction in primary SS is independent of the autoantibodies and immune activation associated with the disease. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Association of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 With Exocrine Gland Dysfunction in Patients With Sjögren’s Syndrome and in Mice

    Yin, Hongen; Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Lai, Zhenan; Michael, Drew; Weller, Melodie; Swaim, William D.; Liu, Xibao; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Rocha, Eduardo M.; Ismail, Nevien; Afione, Sandra; Rana, Noreen A.; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu; Illei, Gabor G.; Chiorini, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is characterized by autoimmune activation and loss of function in secretory epithelia. The present study was undertaken to investigate and characterize changes in the epithelia associated with the loss of gland function in primary SS. Methods To identify changes in epithelial gene expression, custom microarrays were probed with complementary RNA (cRNA) isolated from minor salivary glands (MSGs) of female patients with primary SS who had low focus scores and low salivary flow rates, and the results were compared with those obtained using cRNA from the MSGs of sex-matched healthy volunteers. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) on salivary gland function was tested using adeno-associated virus–mediated gene transfer to the salivary glands of C57BL/6 mice. Results A significant increase in expression of BMP-6 was observed in RNA isolated from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers. Overexpression of BMP-6 locally in the salivary or lacrimal glands of mice resulted in the loss of fluid secretion as well as changes in the connective tissue of the salivary gland. Assessment of the fluid movement in either isolated acinar cells from mice overexpressing BMP-6 or a human salivary gland cell line cultured with BMP-6 revealed a loss in volume regulation in these cells. Lymphocytic infiltration in the submandibular gland of BMP-6 vector–treated mice was increased. No significant changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines or autoantibodies associated with SS (anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB) were found after BMP-6 overexpression. Conclusion In addition to identifying BMP-6 expression in association with xerostomia and xerophthalmia in primary SS, the present results suggest that BMP-6–induced salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction in primary SS is independent of the autoantibodies and immune activation associated with the disease. PMID:23982860

  15. Lacrimal gland ductal carcinomas

    Andreasen, Simon; Grauslund, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    and xerophtalmia; case 2: A 53-year-old man, presented with headache, proptosis and chemosis and case 3: A 73-year-old man, presenting with chemosis and a corneal abscess. All three cases were characterized morphologically including immunohistochemistry and genetically with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH...... HER2 amplification was found in cases 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: This study identified a spectrum of genetic events and pattern of protein expression in DC of the lacrimal gland similar to a subset of carcinomas of the breast and ductal carcinomas of the salivary glands. For therapeutic purposes...

  16. Immunodetection of aquaporin 5 in sheep salivary glands related to pasture vegetative cycle

    Silvana Arrighi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian aquaporins (AQPs are a family of at least 13 integral membrane proteins expressed in various epithelia, where they function as channels to permeate water and small solutes. AQP5 is widely expressed in the exocrine gland where it is likely involved in providing an appropriate amount of fluid to be secreted with granular contents. As regards AQP5 expression in the salivary glands, literature is lacking concerning domestic animal species. This study was chiefly aimed at immunohistochemically investigating the presence and localization of AQP5 in sheep mandibular and parotid glands. In addition, AQP5 immunoreactivity was comparatively evaluated in animals fed with forage containing different amounts of water related to the pasture vegetative cycle, in order to shed light on the possible response of the gland to environmental modifications. Moderate AQP5-immunoreactivity was shown at the level of the lateral surface of mandibular serous demilune cells, not affected by the pasture vegetative cycle or water content. On the contrary, the parotid gland arcinar cells showed AQP5-immunoreactivity at the level of apical and lateral plasma membrane, which was slight to very strong, according to the pasture vegetative development and interannual climatic variations. AQP5 expression is likely due to its involvement in providing appropriate saliva fluidity. Indeed, the lowest AQP5 immunoreactivity was noticed when food water content increased. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 458–464

  17. Postmitotic basal cells in squamous cell epithelia are identified with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin - functional consequences

    Hrdličková-Celá, E.; Plzák, J.; Holíková, Z.; Dvořánková, B.; Smetana, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 10 (2001), s. 714-720 ISSN 0903-4641 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : squamous cell epithelia * carcinoma * lectin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.924, year: 2001

  18. Slow spontaneous [Ca2+]i oscillations reflect nucleotide release from renal epithelia

    Geyti, Christine Stride; Odgaard, Elvin V. P.; Overgaard, Morten Thaarup

    2008-01-01

    Renal epithelia can be provoked mechanically to release nucleotides, which subsequently increases the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i) through activation of purinergic (P2) receptors. Cultured cells often show spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations, a feature suggested to involve nucl...

  19. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human Ciliary Body Epithelia

    Janssen, Sarah F.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; Bossers, Koen; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Nagtegaal, Martijn; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular

  20. Major salivary glands

    Mancuso, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with two important features of treatment of malignant tumors of the parotid and submandibular gland: the lack of a satisfactory means of staging these lesions, and the all-important treatment considerations relative to the facial nerve in parotid gland malignancies. The imaging physician and the clinician should also consider that many suspected parotid mass lesions turn out to arise from structures extrinsic to the gland. The authors discuss in detail the sources of such mass lesions as well as how CT can be used to differentiate these from intrinsic lesions in the parotid and submandibular glands. Computed tomography and, perhaps in the near future, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will provide us with a means to diagnose these tumors earlier. This is especially true when studies are used in situations such as unexplained peripheral seventh nerve paralysis or in the early screening of patients with parotid or periparotid masses. Unfortunately, it is usually patient delay that leads to late diagnosis of palpable mass lesions in this region, and there is little that any imaging study can do to reduce this factor

  1. Manipulation of Cell Physiology Enables Gene Silencing in Well-differentiated Airway Epithelia

    Sateesh Krishnamurthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of RNA interference-based gene silencing to the airway surface epithelium holds great promise to manipulate host and pathogen gene expression for therapeutic purposes. However, well-differentiated airway epithelia display significant barriers to double-stranded small-interfering RNA (siRNA delivery despite testing varied classes of nonviral reagents. In well-differentiated primary pig airway epithelia (PAE or human airway epithelia (HAE grown at the air–liquid interface (ALI, the delivery of a Dicer-substrate small-interfering RNA (DsiRNA duplex against hypoxanthine–guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT with several nonviral reagents showed minimal uptake and no knockdown of the target. In contrast, poorly differentiated cells (2–5-day post-seeding exhibited significant oligonucleotide internalization and target knockdown. This finding suggested that during differentiation, the barrier properties of the epithelium are modified to an extent that impedes oligonucleotide uptake. We used two methods to overcome this inefficiency. First, we tested the impact of epidermal growth factor (EGF, a known enhancer of macropinocytosis. Treatment of the cells with EGF improved oligonucleotide uptake resulting in significant but modest levels of target knockdown. Secondly, we used the connectivity map (Cmap database to correlate gene expression changes during small molecule treatments on various cells types with genes that change upon mucociliary differentiation. Several different drug classes were identified from this correlative assessment. Well-differentiated epithelia treated with DsiRNAs and LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, significantly improved gene silencing and concomitantly reduced target protein levels. These novel findings reveal that well-differentiated airway epithelia, normally resistant to siRNA delivery, can be pretreated with small molecules to improve uptake of synthetic oligonucleotide and RNA interference (RNAi responses.

  2. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... are malignant, most frequently ACC with a high rate of metastatic spread. The diagnostic value of FNAC in SGTs seems inferior to what is found for other major salivary glands. DSS is determined by stage and T-stage and not by histopathological parameters. International collaboration is warranted to confirm...

  3. In vitro extracellular matrix model to evaluate stroma cell response to transvaginal mesh.

    Wu, Ming-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Hui; Long, Cheng-Yu; Yang, Chau-Chen; Tong, Yat-Ching

    2014-04-01

    The use of surgical mesh for female pelvic floor reconstruction has increased in recent years. However, there is paucity of information about the biological responses of host stroma cells to different meshes. This study was aimed to establish an in vitro experimental model to study the micro-environment of extracellular matrix (ECM) with embedded mesh and the stroma cell behaviors to different synthetic meshes. Matrigel multi-cellular co-culture system with embedded mesh was used to evaluate the interaction of stroma cells and synthetic mesh in a simulated ECM environment. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and NIH3T3 fibroblasts were inoculated in the system. The established multi-cellular Matrigel co-culture system was used to detect stroma cell recruitment and tube formation ability for different synthetic meshes. HUVEC and NIH3T3 cells were recruited into the mesh interstices and organized into tube-like structures in type I mesh material from Perigee, Marlex and Prolift 24 hr after cell inoculation. On the contrary, there was little recruitment of HUVEC and NIH3T3 cells into the type III mesh of intra-vaginal sling (IVS). The Matrigel multi-cellular co-culture system with embedded mesh offers a useful in vitro model to study the biological behaviors of stroma cells in response to different types of synthetic meshes. The system can help to select ideal mesh candidates before actual implantation into the human body. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pituitary gland tumors

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [de

  5. [Pituitary gland tumors].

    Jesser, J; Schlamp, K; Bendszus, M

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15% of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65% of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50% secrete prolactin, 10% secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6% secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10% of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland.

  6. Malignant lympho-epithelial lesion of salivary gland: a case report and review of literature

    Borg, M.F.; Benjamin, C.S.; Morton, R.; Llewellyn, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Malignant lympho-epithelial lesion of the salivary gland is an undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma which is associated with a prominent lymphocyte-rich stroma. This study reviews the current literature pertaining to this rare tumour with reference to the single recorded case of malignant lympho-epithelial lesion of the salivary gland presenting in Auckland, New Zealand. Forty-one per cent of patients present with regional lymph node metastases and 20% with distant metastases. Given the rarity of this disease, treatment is controversial. Current data suggest that early radical combined modality treatment using surgery and radiotherapy leads to prolonged survival and cure with 5 year survival rates greater than 50%. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Regulated expression of homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 in mouse mammary gland development suggests a role in hormone action and epithelial-stromal interactions.

    Friedmann, Y; Daniel, C W

    1996-07-10

    The murine homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are related to the Drosophila msh gene and are expressed in a variety of tissues during mouse embryogenesis. We now report the developmentally regulated expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in the mouse mammary gland and show that their expression patterns point toward significant functional roles. Msx-1 and Msx-2 transcripts were present in glands of virgin mice and in glands of mice in early pregnancy, but transcripts decreased dramatically during late pregnancy. Low levels of Msx-1 transcripts were detected in glands from lactating animals and during the first days of involution, whereas Msx-2 expression was not detected during lactation or early involution. Expression of both genes increased gradually as involution progressed. Msx-2 but not Msx-1 expression was decreased following ovariectomy or following exposure to anti-estrogen implanted directly into the gland. Hormonal regulation of Msx-2 expression was confirmed when transcripts returned to normal levels after estrogen was administered to ovariectomized animals. In situ molecular hybridization for Msx-1 showed transcripts localized to the mammary epithelium, whereas Msx-2 expression was confined to the periductal stroma. Mammary stroma from which mammary epithelium had been removed did not transcribe detectable amounts of Msx-2, showing that expression is regulated by contiguous mammary epithelium, and indicating a role for these homeobox genes in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during mammary development.

  8. Warthin's Tumor of the Parotid Gland: CT and MR Features

    Lee, Yun Hee; Yu, In Kyu; Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Min Sun; Han, Moon Hee; Song, Chang Joon

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the imaging features of Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland with the use of CT and MR imaging. CT (n = 30) and MR (n = 7) images of 26 patients (M:F=23:3; age range, 38-76 years; mean age, 58 years) with surgically-proven Warthin's tumor (n = 37) were reviewed with a focus on bilaterality, multiplicity, location, size, demarcation, margin, enhancement pattern and MR signal intensity. Lesions were bilateral in seven patients (27%), multiple in nine patients (35%) and unilateral multiple in four patients (15%). Tumors were located in the superficial lobe (65%), deep lobe (24%) and both lobes (11%) of the parotid gland. Most tumors had a clear (95%) and smooth margin (95%) with a round or oval shape. Tumors mainly showed a solid and cystic composition (n = 24, 65%) and all solid stroma showed poor or weak enhancement on both CT and MR images. Papillary projections from the peripheral wall were clearly seen (n = 6, 86%). Warthin's tumor is frequently seen in the parotid superficial lobe of older males with a higher bilateral and multiple tendency. Warthin's tumor shows cystic portions with papillary projections at the wall on CT images and focal high signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted images with dense nodular enhancement on MR images

  9. High-Dimensional Phenotyping Identifies Age-Emergent Cells in Human Mammary Epithelia

    Fanny A. Pelissier Vatter

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Aging is associated with tissue-level changes in cellular composition that are correlated with increased susceptibility to disease. Aging human mammary tissue shows skewed progenitor cell potency, resulting in diminished tumor-suppressive cell types and the accumulation of defective epithelial progenitors. Quantitative characterization of these age-emergent human cell subpopulations is lacking, impeding our understanding of the relationship between age and cancer susceptibility. We conducted single-cell resolution proteomic phenotyping of healthy breast epithelia from 57 women, aged 16–91 years, using mass cytometry. Remarkable heterogeneity was quantified within the two mammary epithelial lineages. Population partitioning identified a subset of aberrant basal-like luminal cells that accumulate with age and originate from age-altered progenitors. Quantification of age-emergent phenotypes enabled robust classification of breast tissues by age in healthy women. This high-resolution mapping highlighted specific epithelial subpopulations that change with age in a manner consistent with increased susceptibility to breast cancer. : Vatter et al. find that single-cell mass cytometry of human mammary epithelial cells from 57 women, from 16 to 91 years old, depicts an in-depth phenotyping of aging mammary epithelia. Subpopulations of altered luminal and progenitor cells that accumulate with age may be at increased risk for oncogenic transformation. Keywords: human mammary epithelia, aging, mass cytometry, single-cell analysis, heterogeneity, breast cancer

  10. The thermosensitive TRPV3 channel contributes to rapid wound healing in oral epithelia.

    Aijima, Reona; Wang, Bing; Takao, Tomoka; Mihara, Hiroshi; Kashio, Makiko; Ohsaki, Yasuyoshi; Zhang, Jing-Qi; Mizuno, Atsuko; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamashita, Yoshio; Masuko, Sadahiko; Goto, Masaaki; Tominaga, Makoto; Kido, Mizuho A

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity provides an entrance to the alimentary tract to serve as a protective barrier against harmful environmental stimuli. The oral mucosa is susceptible to injury because of its location; nonetheless, it has faster wound healing than the skin and less scar formation. However, the molecular pathways regulating this wound healing are unclear. Here, we show that transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), a thermosensitive Ca(2+)-permeable channel, is more highly expressed in murine oral epithelia than in the skin by quantitative RT-PCR. We found that temperatures above 33°C activated TRPV3 and promoted oral epithelial cell proliferation. The proliferation rate in the oral epithelia of TRPV3 knockout (TRPV3KO) mice was less than that of wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated the contribution of TRPV3 to wound healing using a molar tooth extraction model and found that oral wound closure was delayed in TRPV3KO mice compared with that in WT mice. TRPV3 mRNA was up-regulated in wounded tissues, suggesting that TRPV3 may contribute to oral wound repair. We identified TRPV3 as an essential receptor in heat-induced oral epithelia proliferation and wound healing. Our findings suggest that TRPV3 activation could be a potential therapeutic target for wound healing in skin and oral mucosa. © FASEB.

  11. Differential and Cooperative Cell Adhesion Regulates Cellular Pattern in Sensory Epithelia.

    Togashi, Hideru

    2016-01-01

    Animal tissues are composed of multiple cell types arranged in complex and elaborate patterns. In sensory epithelia, including the auditory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, different types of cells are arranged in unique mosaic patterns. These mosaic patterns are evolutionarily conserved, and are thought to be important for hearing and olfaction. Recent progress has provided accumulating evidence that the cellular pattern formation in epithelia involves cell rearrangements, movements, and shape changes. These morphogenetic processes are largely mediated by intercellular adhesion systems. Differential adhesion and cortical tension have been proposed to promote cell rearrangements. Many different types of cells in tissues express various types of cell adhesion molecules. Although cooperative mechanisms between multiple adhesive systems are likely to contribute to the production of complex cell patterns, our current understanding of the cooperative roles between multiple adhesion systems is insufficient to entirely explain the complex mechanisms underlying cellular patterning. Recent studies have revealed that nectins, in cooperation with cadherins, are crucial for the mosaic cellular patterning in sensory organs. The nectin and cadherin systems are interacted with one another, and these interactions provide cells with differential adhesive affinities for complex cellular pattern formations in sensory epithelia, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism.

  12. Reduced supportive capacity of bone marrow stroma upon chemotherapy is mediated via changes in glycosaminoglycan profile

    Zweegman, Sonja; Kessler, Floortje L.; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Heimerikx, Mike; Celie, Johanna W. A. M.; Janssen, Jeroen J. W. M.; Huijgens, Peter C.; Drager, Angelika M.; van den Born, Jacob

    High dose chemotherapy and radiation have been found to impair the hematopoiesis-supportive capacity of bone marrow stroma. We now provide evidence for an important role of chemotherapy-induced alterations in stromal glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in reduction of the supportive properties of stromal

  13. Context-Dependent Development of Lymphoid Stroma from Adult CD34+ Adventitial Progenitors

    Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Wendland, Kerstin; Weishaupt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite the key role of primary and secondary lymphoid organ stroma in immunity, our understanding of the heterogeneity and ontogeny of these cells remains limited. Here, we identify a functionally distinct subset of BP3-PDPN+PDGFRβ+/α+CD34+ stromal adventitial cells in both lymph nodes (LNs...

  14. Tumor stroma-containing 3D spheroid arrays: A tool to study nanoparticle penetration

    Priwitaningrum, Dwi L.; Priwitaningrum, Dwi Lestari; Blondé, Jean-Baptiste Gabriel Marie; Blonde, Jean-Baptiste G.; Sridhar, Adithya; van Baarlen, Joop; Hennink, Wim E.; Storm, Gerrit; le Gac, Severine; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle penetration through tumor tissue after extravasation is considered as a key issue for tumor distribution and therapeutic effects. Most tumors possess abundant stroma, a fibrotic tissue composed of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and extracellular matrix (ECM), which acts as a

  15. Expression changes in the stroma of prostate cancer predict subsequent relapse.

    Zhenyu Jia

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are needed to address overtreatment that occurs for the majority of prostate cancer patients that would not die of the disease but receive radical treatment. A possible barrier to biomarker discovery may be the polyclonal/multifocal nature of prostate tumors as well as cell-type heterogeneity between patient samples. Tumor-adjacent stroma (tumor microenvironment is less affected by genetic alteration and might therefore yield more consistent biomarkers in response to tumor aggressiveness. To this end we compared Affymetrix gene expression profiles in stroma near tumor and identified a set of 115 probe sets for which the expression levels were significantly correlated with time-to-relapse. We also compared patients that chemically relapsed shortly after prostatectomy (<1 year, and patients that did not relapse in the first four years after prostatectomy. We identified 131 differentially expressed microarray probe sets between these two categories. 19 probe sets (15 genes overlapped between the two gene lists with p<0.0001. We developed a PAM-based classifier by training on samples containing stroma near tumor: 9 rapid relapse patient samples and 9 indolent patient samples. We then tested the classifier on 47 different samples, containing 90% or more stroma. The classifier predicted the risk status of patients with an average accuracy of 87%. This is the first general tumor microenvironment-based prognostic classifier. These results indicate that the prostate cancer microenvironment exhibits reproducible changes useful for predicting outcomes for patients.

  16. Epigenetically Aberrant Stroma in MDS Propagates Disease via Wnt/β-Catenin Activation.

    Bhagat, Tushar D; Chen, Si; Bartenstein, Matthias; Barlowe, A Trevor; Von Ahrens, Dagny; Choudhary, Gaurav S; Tivnan, Patrick; Amin, Elianna; Marcondes, A Mario; Sanders, Mathijs A; Hoogenboezem, Remco M; Kambhampati, Suman; Ramachandra, Nandini; Mantzaris, Iaonnis; Sukrithan, Vineeth; Laurence, Remi; Lopez, Robert; Bhagat, Prafullla; Giricz, Orsi; Sohal, Davendra; Wickrema, Amittha; Yeung, Cecilia; Gritsman, Kira; Aplan, Peter; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Yu, Yiting; Pradhan, Kith; Zhang, Jinghang; Greally, John M; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Pellagatti, Andrea; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Will, Britta; Steidl, Ulrich; Raaijmakers, Marc H G P; Deeg, H Joachim; Kharas, Michael G; Verma, Amit

    2017-09-15

    The bone marrow microenvironment influences malignant hematopoiesis, but how it promotes leukemogenesis has not been elucidated. In addition, the role of the bone marrow stroma in regulating clinical responses to DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) is also poorly understood. In this study, we conducted a DNA methylome analysis of bone marrow-derived stromal cells from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients and observed widespread aberrant cytosine hypermethylation occurring preferentially outside CpG islands. Stroma derived from 5-azacytidine-treated patients lacked aberrant methylation and DNMTi treatment of primary MDS stroma enhanced its ability to support erythroid differentiation. An integrative expression analysis revealed that the WNT pathway antagonist FRZB was aberrantly hypermethylated and underexpressed in MDS stroma. This result was confirmed in an independent set of sorted, primary MDS-derived mesenchymal cells. We documented a WNT/β-catenin activation signature in CD34 + cells from advanced cases of MDS, where it associated with adverse prognosis. Constitutive activation of β-catenin in hematopoietic cells yielded lethal myeloid disease in a NUP98-HOXD13 mouse model of MDS, confirming its role in disease progression. Our results define novel epigenetic changes in the bone marrow microenvironment, which lead to β-catenin activation and disease progression of MDS. Cancer Res; 77(18); 4846-57. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. RKIP Suppresses Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Bone by Regulating Stroma-Associated Genes

    Bevilacqua, E.; Frankenberger, C.A.; Rosner, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade cancer research has recognized the importance of tumor stroma interactions for the progression of primary tumors to an aggressive and invasive phenotype and for colonization of new organs in the context of metastasis. The dialogue between tumor cells and the surrounding stroma is a complex and dynamic phenomenon, as many cell types and soluble factors are involved. While the function of many of the players involved in this cross talk have been studied, the regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways that control their expression have not been investigated in depth. By using a novel, interdisciplinary approach applied to the mechanism of action of the metastasis suppressor, Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP), we identified a signaling pathway that suppresses invasion and metastasis through regulation of stroma-associated genes. Conceptually, the approach we developed uses a master regulator and expression arrays from breast cancer patients to formulate hypotheses based on clinical data. Experimental validation is followed by further bioinformatics analysis to establish the clinical significance of discoveries. Using RKIP as an example we show here that this multi-step approach can be used to identify gene regulatory mechanisms that affect tumor-stroma interactions that in turn influence metastasis to the bone or other organs

  18. Structural alterations of the mucosa stroma in the Barrett's esophagus metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lord, Reginald V N

    2012-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the extracellular matrix play important roles in intercellular communications and contribute to the development of a number of diseases, including diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The present study examined the structural characteristics and alterations of the extracellular matrix of the mucosa stroma in the Barrett's esophagus metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. A total of 41 esophageal tissue specimens (15 esophageal adenocarcinoma, 10 Barrett's esophagus intestinal metaplasia, seven dysplasia and nine normal esophagus) were studied. The present study used transmission electron microscopy and computerized quantitative electron-microscopic analysis in order to investigate the characteristics of the extracellular matrix of the mucosa. The study revealed that marked structural alterations of the mucosa stroma, relating to changes in the distribution and appearance of collagen fibers as well as to changes in numbers of matrix microvesicles, occur in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. It was found that there were 3.1 times more microvesicles in the stroma in Barrett's esophagus than in the stroma of the normal esophagus (P<0.0001) and that there were 5.8 times more microvesicles in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in the normal esophagus (P<0.0001). There were 1.9 times more microvesicles in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in Barrett's esophagus (P=0.0043). The study demonstrates distinctive alterations of the mucosa stroma extracellular matrix in the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. The findings suggest that the redistribution of collagen fibers and increases in numbers of matrix microvesicles may play roles in the formation of specialized intestinal metaplasia and the development of adenocarcinoma. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Effects of the Loss of Conjunctival Muc16 on Corneal Epithelium and Stroma in Mice

    Shirai, Kumi; Okada, Yuka; Cheon, Dong-Joo; Miyajima, Masayasu; Behringer, Richard R.; Yamanaka, Osamu; Saika, Shizuya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the role of conjunctival Muc16 in the homeostasis of the ocular surface epithelium and stroma using Muc16-null knockout (KO) mice. Methods. We used KO mice (n = 58) and C57/BL6 (WT) mice (n = 58). Histology and immunohistochemistry were employed to analyze the phenotypes in the ocular surface epithelium. The expression of phospho-Stat3, AP-1 components, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in the cornea and conjunctiva was examined. The shape of the nuclei of corneal epithelial cells was examined to evaluate intraepithelial cell differentiation. Epithelial cell proliferation was studied using bromo-deoxyuridine labeling. Finally, the wound healing of a round defect (2-mm diameter) in the corneal epithelium was measured. The keratocyte phenotype and macrophage invasion in the stroma were evaluated after epithelial repair. Results. The loss of Muc16 activated Stat3 signal, affected JunB signal, and upregulated the expression of IL-6 in the conjunctiva. Basal-like cells were observed in the suprabasal layer of the corneal epithelium with an increase in proliferation. The loss of Muc16 accelerated the wound healing of the corneal epithelium. The incidence of myofibroblast appearance and macrophage invasion were more marked in KO stroma than in WT stroma after epithelial repair. Conclusions. The loss of Muc16 in the conjunctiva affected the homeostasis of the corneal epithelium and stroma. The mechanism might include the upregulation of the inflammatory signaling cascade (i.e., Stat3 signal, and IL-6 expression in the KO conjunctiva). Current data provides insight into the research of the pathophysiology of dry eye syndrome. PMID:24812549

  20. Elastic microfibril distribution in the cornea: Differences between normal and keratoconic stroma.

    White, Tomas L; Lewis, Philip N; Young, Robert D; Kitazawa, Koji; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Meek, Keith M

    2017-06-01

    The optical and biomechanical properties of the cornea are largely governed by the collagen-rich stroma, a layer that represents approximately 90% of the total thickness. Within the stroma, the specific arrangement of superimposed lamellae provides the tissue with tensile strength, whilst the spatial arrangement of individual collagen fibrils within the lamellae confers transparency. In keratoconus, this precise stromal arrangement is lost, resulting in ectasia and visual impairment. In the normal cornea, we previously characterised the three-dimensional arrangement of an elastic fiber network spanning the posterior stroma from limbus-to-limbus. In the peripheral cornea/limbus there are elastin-containing sheets or broad fibers, most of which become microfibril bundles (MBs) with little or no elastin component when reaching the central cornea. The purpose of the current study was to compare this network with the elastic fiber distribution in post-surgical keratoconic corneal buttons, using serial block face scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We have demonstrated that the MB distribution is very different in keratoconus. MBs are absent from a region of stroma anterior to Descemet's membrane, an area that is densely populated in normal cornea, whilst being concentrated below the epithelium, an area in which they are absent in normal cornea. We contend that these latter microfibrils are produced as a biomechanical response to provide additional strength to the anterior stroma in order to prevent tissue rupture at the apex of the cone. A lack of MBs anterior to Descemet's membrane in keratoconus would alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue, potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... crinology with short stature, delayed bone age and biochemical features suggestive of hypo pituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated a flattened anterior pituitary gland within the sella, associated with absence of the infundibular stalk and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland (Fig.

  2. Phenylbutyrate counteracts Shigella mediated downregulation of cathelicidin in rabbit lung and intestinal epithelia: a potential therapeutic strategy.

    Protim Sarker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathelicidins and defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs that are downregulated in the mucosal epithelia of the large intestine in shigellosis. Oral treatment of Shigella infected rabbits with sodium butyrate (NaB reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18 in the large intestinal epithelia. AIMS: To develop novel regimen for treating infectious diseases by inducing innate immunity, we selected sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB, a registered drug for a metabolic disorder as a potential therapeutic candidate in a rabbit model of shigellosis. Since acute respiratory infections often cause secondary complications during shigellosis, the systemic effect of PB and NaB on CAP-18 expression in respiratory epithelia was also evaluated. METHODS: The readouts were clinical outcomes, CAP-18 expression in mucosa of colon, rectum, lung and trachea (immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR and release of the CAP-18 peptide/protein in stool (Western blot. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Significant downregulation of CAP-18 expression in the epithelia of rectum and colon, the site of Shigella infection was confirmed. Interestingly, reduced expression of CAP-18 was also noticed in the epithelia of lung and trachea, indicating a systemic effect of the infection. This suggests a causative link to acute respiratory infections during shigellosis. Oral treatment with PB resulted in reduced clinical illness and upregulation of CAP-18 in the epithelium of rectum. Both PB and NaB counteracted the downregulation of CAP-18 in lung epithelium. The drug effect is suggested to be systemic as intravenous administration of NaB could also upregulate CAP-18 in the epithelia of lung, rectum and colon. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PB has treatment potential in human shigellosis. Enhancement of CAP-18 in the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory tract by PB or NaB is a novel discovery. This could mediate protection from

  3. Phenylbutyrate counteracts Shigella mediated downregulation of cathelicidin in rabbit lung and intestinal epithelia: a potential therapeutic strategy.

    Sarker, Protim; Ahmed, Sultan; Tiash, Snigdha; Rekha, Rokeya Sultana; Stromberg, Roger; Andersson, Jan; Bergman, Peter; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Agerberth, Birgitta; Raqib, Rubhana

    2011-01-01

    Cathelicidins and defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are downregulated in the mucosal epithelia of the large intestine in shigellosis. Oral treatment of Shigella infected rabbits with sodium butyrate (NaB) reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. To develop novel regimen for treating infectious diseases by inducing innate immunity, we selected sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB), a registered drug for a metabolic disorder as a potential therapeutic candidate in a rabbit model of shigellosis. Since acute respiratory infections often cause secondary complications during shigellosis, the systemic effect of PB and NaB on CAP-18 expression in respiratory epithelia was also evaluated. The readouts were clinical outcomes, CAP-18 expression in mucosa of colon, rectum, lung and trachea (immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR) and release of the CAP-18 peptide/protein in stool (Western blot). Significant downregulation of CAP-18 expression in the epithelia of rectum and colon, the site of Shigella infection was confirmed. Interestingly, reduced expression of CAP-18 was also noticed in the epithelia of lung and trachea, indicating a systemic effect of the infection. This suggests a causative link to acute respiratory infections during shigellosis. Oral treatment with PB resulted in reduced clinical illness and upregulation of CAP-18 in the epithelium of rectum. Both PB and NaB counteracted the downregulation of CAP-18 in lung epithelium. The drug effect is suggested to be systemic as intravenous administration of NaB could also upregulate CAP-18 in the epithelia of lung, rectum and colon. Our results suggest that PB has treatment potential in human shigellosis. Enhancement of CAP-18 in the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory tract by PB or NaB is a novel discovery. This could mediate protection from secondary respiratory infections that frequently are the lethal causes in

  4. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  5. Chapter 13. Adrenal glands

    Roux, H.; Paulin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of isotopic methods to the functional and morphological exploration of the adrenal glands is shown, with emphasis on the fact that althought the cortico-adrenal responds to these methods the same does not apply to the medullo-adrenal, which expresses its morphological changes by producing deformations on the cortical image. Funtional tests, mainly directed at the cortico-adrenal, are described first: study of exchangeable sodium and potassium; determination of the plasma concentration and metabolic clearance of some steroid hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone); evaluation of the renin activity. These tests are based on competitive analysis and radioimmunological methods. Morphological tests are examined next. Adrenal scintigraphy uses a simple technique (intraveinous administration of 131 I 19-iodocholesterol with no special preliminary preparation) which gives good images and is only limited now by the need to avoid over exposure of the gonads to ionising radiations [fr

  6. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

    Marlon A. Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  7. Proteomic analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestinal epithelia: physiological acclimation to short-term starvation.

    Baumgarner, Bradley L; Bharadwaj, Anant S; Inerowicz, Dorota; Goodman, Angela S; Brown, Paul B

    2013-03-01

    The intestinal epithelia form the first line of defense against harmful agents in the gut lumen of most monogastric vertebrates, including teleost fishes. Previous investigations into the effect of starvation on the intestinal epithelia of teleost fishes have focused primarily on changes in morphological characteristics and targeted molecular analysis of specific enzymes. The goal of this study was to use a comprehensive approach to help reveal how the intestinal epithelia of carnivorous teleost fishes acclimate to short-term nutrient deprivation. We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to conduct the proteomic analysis of the mucosal and epithelial layer of the anterior gut intestinal tract (GIT) from satiation fed vs. 4 week starved rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total of 40 proteins were determined to be differentially expressed and were subsequently picked for in-gel trypsin digestion. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis was conducted using matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight/time-of-flight. Nine of the 11 positively identified proteins were directly related to innate immunity. The expression of α-1 proteinase inhibitor decreased in starved vs. fed fish. Also, the concentration of one leukocyte elastase inhibitor (LEI) isomer decreased in starved fish, though the concentration of another LEI isomer increased in due to starvation. In addition, starvation promoted an increased concentration of the important xenobiotic-transporter p-glycoprotein. Finally, starvation resulted in a significant increase in type II keratin E2. Overall, our results indicate that starvation promoted a reduced capacity to inhibit enzymatic stress but increased xenobiotic resistance and paracellular permeability of epithelial cells in the anterior intestine of rainbow trout. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression pattern of adhesion molecules in junctional epithelium differs from that in other gingival epithelia.

    Hatakeyama, S; Yaegashi, T; Oikawa, Y; Fujiwara, H; Mikami, T; Takeda, Y; Satoh, M

    2006-08-01

    The gingival epithelium is the physiologically important interface between the bacterially colonized gingival sulcus and periodontal soft and mineralized connective tissues, requiring protection from exposure to bacteria and their products. However, of the three epithelia comprising the gingival epithelium, the junctional epithelium has much wider intercellular spaces than the sulcular epithelium and oral gingival epithelium. Hence, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cell adhesion structure in the junctional epithelium compared with the other two epithelia. Gingival epithelia excised at therapeutic flap surgery from patients with periodontitis were examined for expression of adhesion molecules by immunofluorescence. In the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but not in the junctional epithelium, desmoglein 1 and 2 in cell-cell contact sites were more abundant in the upper than the suprabasal layers. E-cadherin, the main transmembranous molecule of adherens junctions, was present in spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but was scarce in the junctional epithelium. In contrast, desmoglein 3 and P-cadherin were present in all layers of the junctional epithelium as well as the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium. Connexin 43 was clearly localized to spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium, sulcular epithelium and parts of the junctional epithelium. Claudin-1 and occludin were expressed in the cell membranes of a few superficial layers of the oral gingival epithelium. These findings indicated that the junctional epithelium contains only a few desmosomes, composed of only desmoglein 3; adherens junctions are probably absent because of defective E-cadherin. Thus, the anchoring junctions connecting junctional epithelium cells are lax, causing widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, the oral gingival epithelium, which has a few tight junctions, functions as a barrier.

  9. The urokinase receptor homolog Haldisin is a novel differentiation marker of stratum granulosum in squamous epithelia

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Mette C; Hertz, Emil P

    2013-01-01

    Several members of the Ly-6/uPAR (LU)-protein domain family are differentially expressed in human squamous epithelia. In some cases, they even play important roles in maintaining skin homeostasis, as exemplified by the secreted single domain member, SLURP-1, the deficiency of which is associated....... In accordance with its expression pattern, we denote this protein product, which is encoded by the LYPD5 gene, as Haldisin (human antigen with LU-domains expressed in skin). Two of the five human glycolipid-anchored membrane proteins with multiple LU-domains characterized so far are predominantly confined...

  10. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  11. Digital histologic analysis reveals morphometric patterns of age-related involution in breast epithelium and stroma.

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Chollet-Hinton, Lynn; Kirk, Erin L; Midkiff, Bentley; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-02-01

    Complete age-related regression of mammary epithelium, often termed postmenopausal involution, is associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, most studies have qualitatively assessed involution. We quantitatively analyzed epithelium, stroma, and adipose tissue from histologically normal breast tissue of 454 patients in the Normal Breast Study. High-resolution digital images of normal breast hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were partitioned into epithelium, adipose tissue, and nonfatty stroma. Percentage area and nuclei per unit area (nuclear density) were calculated for each component. Quantitative data were evaluated in association with age using linear regression and cubic spline models. Stromal area decreased (P = 0.0002), and adipose tissue area increased (P epithelium. Epithelial nuclear density is a quantitative measure of age-related breast involution that begins to decline in the early premenopausal period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyaluronan and hyaluronectin in the extracellular matrix of human brain tumour stroma.

    Delpech, B; Maingonnat, C; Girard, N; Chauzy, C; Maunoury, R; Olivier, A; Tayot, J; Creissard, P

    1993-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) and the hyaluronan-binding glycoprotein hyaluronectin (HN) were measured in 23 gliomas and 8 meningiomas and their location was revisited in 35 tumours. A clear-cut difference was found in the HN/HA ratio values of glioblastomas (below 0.5) and that of astrocytomas (above 0.5 P edification of the extracellular matrix. In meningiomas only the stroma would be responsible for HA and HN production.

  13. Prognostic value of podoplanin expression in intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of uterine cervical carcinomas

    Carvalho, Filomena M; Zaganelli, Fabricia L; Almeida, Bernardo G L; Goes, Joao Carlos Sampaio; Baracat, Edmund C; Carvalho, Jesus P

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological significance of podoplanin expression in the intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of early stage uterine cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 143 patients with clinical stage I and IIA uterine cervical carcinomas underwent surgery between 2000 and 2007. Clinicopathological data and slides associated with these cases were retrospectively reviewed. Immunodetection of podoplanin expression in histologic sections of tissue microarray blocks was performed using the monoclonal antibody D2‐40. RESULTS: Expression of podoplanin was detected in neoplastic cells in 31/143 (21.6%) cases, with 29/31 (93.5%) of these cases diagnosed as squamous carcinoma. For all of the cases examined, the strongest signal for podoplanin expression was observed at the proliferating edge of the tumor nests. The rate of positive podoplanin expression for node‐positive cases was lower than that of node‐negative (18.9% vs. 22.6%, respectively). Furthermore, the rate of positive podoplanin expression in fatal cases was 10.5% vs. 21.6%, respectively. In 27/143 (18.8%) cases, podoplanin expression was detected in fibroblasts of the intratumoral stroma, and this expression did not correlate with patient age, clinical stage, tumor size, histologic type, depth of infiltration, or vascular involvement. Moreover, expression of podoplanin in intratumoral stroma fibroblasts was only negatively associated with nodal metastasis. A greater number of fatal cases was observed among negative intratumoral stroma fibroblasts (15.5% vs. 3.7%, respectively), although this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that podoplanin may have a role in host‐tumor interactions and, as a result, may represent a favorable prognostic factor for squamous cervical carcinomas. PMID:21340215

  14. Prognostic value of podoplanin expression in intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of uterine cervical carcinomas

    Filomena M Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological significance of podoplanin expression in the intratumoral stroma and neoplastic cells of early stage uterine cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 143 patients with clinical stage I and IIA uterine cervical carcinomas underwent surgery between 2000 and 2007. Clinicopathological data and slides associated with these cases were retrospectively reviewed. Immunodetection of podoplanin expression in histologic sections of tissue microarray blocks was performed using the monoclonal antibody D2-40. RESULTS: Expression of podoplanin was detected in neoplastic cells in 31/143 (21.6% cases, with 29/31 (93.5% of these cases diagnosed as squamous carcinoma. For all of the cases examined, the strongest signal for podoplanin expression was observed at the proliferating edge of the tumor nests. The rate of positive podoplanin expression for node-positive cases was lower than that of node-negative (18.9% vs. 22.6%, respectively. Furthermore, the rate of positive podoplanin expression in fatal cases was 10.5% vs. 21.6%, respectively. In 27/143 (18.8% cases, podoplanin expression was detected in fibroblasts of the intratumoral stroma, and this expression did not correlate with patient age, clinical stage, tumor size, histologic type, depth of infiltration, or vascular involvement. Moreover, expression of podoplanin in intratumoral stroma fibroblasts was only negatively associated with nodal metastasis. A greater number of fatal cases was observed among negative intratumoral stroma fibroblasts (15.5% vs. 3.7%, respectively, although this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that podoplanin may have a role in host-tumor interactions and, as a result, may represent a favorable prognostic factor for squamous cervical carcinomas.

  15. Malignant tumour stroma gonads Sertoli-Leydig:a communication clinic case and bibliographic review

    Krygier Waltier, G.; Rodriguez Lemes, R.; Carlevaro Elizondo, T.

    1995-01-01

    The malignant tumors of the stroma gonads represent 0.2% of all the tumors of the testicle, and they are almost exclusive of the relatively refractory to the radiotherapy and the chemotherapy, and the medium survive of the illness is of two years. it presents a clinical case of tumour to cells of Sertoli-Leydig in a 45 year-old man that heI consulted for sterility . A review of the literature it is made for finish [es

  16. Cytologic diagnosis of hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma during intraoperative consultation: a case report.

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Szeto, Oliver J; Tabbara, Sana O

    2010-01-01

    Hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma (HCMS) is a rare cystic tumor characterized by a layer of mucinous cuboidal to columnar epithelium situated on top of a basement membrane resting on an ovarian-like stroma. Cytologic features of this entity have not been extensively studied. We present a case of HCMS with emphasis on cytologic material obtained at the time of intraoperative consultation (IOC). A 51-year-old woman had partial resection of a liver cyst. Seven months later she sought further medical attention and presented for surgical reevaluation and reexcision of the same lesion. Initial computed tomography revealed a multiloculated liver cyst. Five months after reexcision the lesion recurred and was again excised. During IOC, scrape cytology revealed both biliary epithelial and mesenchymal stromal cells in a cystic background. Permanent sections showed histologic features of HCMS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cytologic description of such a neoplasm to include both epithelial and mesenchymal stromal elements. The use of scrape cytology during IOC can be a fast and effective way of identifying both the epithelium and mesenchymal stroma when HCMS is in the differential diagnosis of a cystic liver lesion.

  17. Epithelium-Stroma Classification via Convolutional Neural Networks and Unsupervised Domain Adaptation in Histopathological Images.

    Huang, Yue; Zheng, Han; Liu, Chi; Ding, Xinghao; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2017-11-01

    Epithelium-stroma classification is a necessary preprocessing step in histopathological image analysis. Current deep learning based recognition methods for histology data require collection of large volumes of labeled data in order to train a new neural network when there are changes to the image acquisition procedure. However, it is extremely expensive for pathologists to manually label sufficient volumes of data for each pathology study in a professional manner, which results in limitations in real-world applications. A very simple but effective deep learning method, that introduces the concept of unsupervised domain adaptation to a simple convolutional neural network (CNN), has been proposed in this paper. Inspired by transfer learning, our paper assumes that the training data and testing data follow different distributions, and there is an adaptation operation to more accurately estimate the kernels in CNN in feature extraction, in order to enhance performance by transferring knowledge from labeled data in source domain to unlabeled data in target domain. The model has been evaluated using three independent public epithelium-stroma datasets by cross-dataset validations. The experimental results demonstrate that for epithelium-stroma classification, the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art deep neural network model, and it also achieves better performance than other existing deep domain adaptation methods. The proposed model can be considered to be a better option for real-world applications in histopathological image analysis, since there is no longer a requirement for large-scale labeled data in each specified domain.

  18. Confocal microscopy of corneal stroma and endothelium after LASIK and PRK.

    Amoozadeh, Javad; Aliakbari, Soheil; Behesht-Nejad, Amir-Houshang; Seyedian, Mohammad-Amin; Rezvan, Bijan; Hashemi, Hassan

    2009-10-01

    To compare with confocal microscopy the changes in stromal keratocyte density and endothelial cell count due to photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and LASIK. In this prospective study, 32 eyes (16 myopic patients) were examined with the NIDEK Confoscan 3 confocal microscope before and 6 months after PRK and LASIK. The preoperative mean myopia was -2.85+/-0.99 diopters (D) (range: -1.00 to -4.00 D) in 24 eyes that underwent PRK and -2.94+/-0.96 D (range: -2.00 to -4.25 D) in 8 eyes that underwent LASIK. Keratocyte density in the anterior and posterior stroma and the endothelial cell count were measured. Statistically significant changes were assessed using the t test. PPRK group. Postoperatively, the percentages were 52.96+/-7.55 and 53.34+/-10.2, respectively. Six months postoperatively, keratocyte density changed by 367.12+/-103.35 cells/mm(2) (34.7% reduction) in the anterior stroma (P.05) for the LASIK group. In the PRK group, these values were 319.71+/-83.45 cells/mm(2) (31.13% reduction) in the anterior stroma (P.05). The changes in keratocyte densities were not statistically significant between groups (P>.05). The mean number of keratocytes decreased by 37.2% in the retroablation zone of the LASIK group (PPRK groups (P>.05). Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  20. Regulating temporospatial dynamics of morphogen for structure formation of the lacrimal gland by chitosan biomaterials.

    Hsiao, Ya-Chuan; Yang, Tsung-Lin

    2017-01-01

    The lacrimal gland is an important organ responsible for regulating tear synthesis and secretion. The major work of lacrimal gland (LG) is to lubricate the ocular surface and maintain the health of eyes. Functional deterioration of the lacrimal gland happens because of aging, diseases, or therapeutic complications, but without effective treatments till now. The LG originates from the epithelium of ocular surface and develops by branching morphogenesis. To regenerate functional LGs, it is required to explore the way of recapitulating and facilitating the organ to establish the intricate and ramified structure. In this study, we proposed an approach using chitosan biomaterials to create a biomimetic environment beneficial to the branching structure formation of developing LG. The morphogenetic effect of chitosan was specific and optimized to promote LG branching. With chitosan, increase in temporal expression and local concentration of endogenous HGF-related molecules creates an environment around the emerging tip of LG epithelia. By efficiently enhancing downstream signaling of HGF pathways, the cellular activities and behaviors were activated to contribute to LG branching morphogenesis. The morphogenetic effect of chitosan was abolished by either ligand or receptor deprivation, or inhibition of downstream signaling transduction. Our results elucidated the underlying mechanism accounting for chitosan morphogenetic effects on LG, and also proposed promising approaches with chitosan to assist tissue structure formation of the LG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  2. Internal epithelia in Drosophila display rudimentary competence to form cytoplasmic networks of transgenic human vimentin.

    Gullmets, Josef; Torvaldson, Elin; Lindqvist, Julia; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Taimen, Pekka; Meinander, Annika; Eriksson, John E

    2017-12-01

    Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (cIFs) are found in all eumetazoans, except arthropods. To investigate the compatibility of cIFs in arthropods, we expressed human vimentin (hVim), a cIF with filament-forming capacity in vertebrate cells and tissues, transgenically in Drosophila Transgenic hVim could be recovered from whole-fly lysates by using a standard procedure for intermediate filament (IF) extraction. When this procedure was used to test for the possible presence of IF-like proteins in flies, only lamins and tropomyosin were observed in IF-enriched extracts, thereby providing biochemical reinforcement to the paradigm that arthropods lack cIFs. In Drosophila , transgenic hVim was unable to form filament networks in S2 cells and mesenchymal tissues; however, cage-like vimentin structures could be observed around the nuclei in internal epithelia, which suggests that Drosophila retains selective competence for filament formation. Taken together, our results imply that although the filament network formation competence is partially lost in Drosophila , a rudimentary filament network formation ability remains in epithelial cells. As a result of the observed selective competence for cIF assembly in Drosophila , we hypothesize that internal epithelial cIFs were the last cIFs to disappear from arthropods.-Gullmets, J., Torvaldson, E., Lindqvist, J., Imanishi, S. Y., Taimen, P., Meinander, A., Eriksson, J. E. Internal epithelia in Drosophila display rudimentary competence to form cytoplasmic networks of transgenic human vimentin. © FASEB.

  3. Prolactin and teleost ionocytes: new insights into cellular and molecular targets of prolactin in vertebrate epithelia

    Breves, Jason P.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone prolactin is a functionally versatile hormone produced by the vertebrate pituitary. Comparative studies over the last six decades have revealed that a conserved function for prolactin across vertebrates is the regulation of ion and water transport in a variety of tissues including those responsible for whole-organism ion homeostasis. In teleost fishes, prolactin was identified as the “freshwater-adapting hormone”, promoting ion-conserving and water-secreting processes by acting on the gill, kidney, gut and urinary bladder. In mammals, prolactin is known to regulate renal, intestinal, mammary and amniotic epithelia, with dysfunction linked to hypogonadism, infertility, and metabolic disorders. Until recently, our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of prolactin action in fishes has been hampered by a paucity of molecular tools to define and study ionocytes, specialized cells that control active ion transport across branchial and epidermal epithelia. Here we review work in teleost models indicating that prolactin regulates ion balance through action on ion transporters, tight-junction proteins, and water channels in ionocytes, and discuss recent advances in our understanding of ionocyte function in the genetically and embryonically accessible zebrafish (Danio rerio). Given the high degree of evolutionary conservation in endocrine and osmoregulatory systems, these studies in teleost models are contributing novel mechanistic insight into how prolactin participates in the development, function, and dysfunction of osmoregulatory systems across the vertebrate lineage.

  4. BMP4 signaling is involved in the generation of inner ear sensory epithelia

    Wang Yucheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robust expression of BMP4 in the incipient sensory organs of the inner ear suggests possible roles for this signaling protein during induction and development of auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia. Homozygous BMP4-/- animals die before the inner ear's sensory organs develop, which precludes determining the role of BMP4 in these organs with simple gene knockout experiments. Results Here we use a chicken otocyst culture system to perform quantitative studies on the development of inner ear cell types and show that hair cell and supporting cell generation is remarkably reduced when BMP signaling is blocked, either with its antagonist noggin or by using soluble BMP receptors. Conversely, we observed an increase in the number of hair cells when cultured otocysts were treated with exogenous BMP4. BMP4 treatment additionally prompted down-regulation of Pax-2 protein in proliferating sensory epithelial progenitors, leading to reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Conclusion Our results implicate BMP4 in two events during chicken inner ear sensory epithelium formation: first, in inducing the switch from proliferative sensory epithelium progenitors to differentiating epithelial cells and secondly, in promoting the differentiation of hair cells within the developing sensory epithelia.

  5. Nobiletin Stimulates Chloride Secretion in Human Bronchial Epithelia via a cAMP/PKA-Dependent Pathway

    Yuan Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from tangerines, alters ion transport functions in intestinal epithelia, and has antagonistic effects on eosinophilic airway inflammation of asthmatic rats. The present study examined the effects of nobiletin on basal short-circuit current (ISC in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-, and characterized the signal transduction pathways that allowed nobiletin to regulate electrolyte transport. Methods: The ISC measurement technique was used for transepithelial electrical measurements. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and cAMP were also quantified. Results: Nobiletin stimulated a concentration-dependent increase in ISC, which was due to Cl- secretion. The increase in ISC was inhibited by a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitor (CFTRinh-172, but not by 4,4'-diisothiocyano-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS, Chromanol 293B, clotrimazole, or TRAM-34. Nobiletin-stimulated ISC was also sensitive to a protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor, H89, and an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, MDL-12330A. Nobiletin could not stimulate any increase in ISC in a cystic fibrosis (CF cell line, CFBE41o-, which lacked a functional CFTR. Nobiletin stimulated a real-time increase in cAMP, but not [Ca2+]i. Conclusion: Nobiletin stimulated transepithelial Cl- secretion across human bronchial epithelia. The mechanisms involved activation of adenylate cyclase- and cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways, leading to activation of apical CFTR Cl- channels.

  6. beta1 integrins are not required for the maintenance of lymphocytes within intestinal epithelia

    Marsal, Jan; Brakebusch, Cord; Bungartz, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    beta(1) integrins are thought to play a central role in maintaining lymphocytes within mucosal epithelia via their interactions with extracellular matrix proteins and subepithelial cellular components within and underlying the basement membrane. In the current study type a (CD8alphabetaTCRalphabe......beta(1) integrins are thought to play a central role in maintaining lymphocytes within mucosal epithelia via their interactions with extracellular matrix proteins and subepithelial cellular components within and underlying the basement membrane. In the current study type a (CD8alphabeta......TCRalphabeta) and type b (CD8alphaalphaTCRgammadelta and CD8alphaalphaTCRalphabeta) intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) subsets within the mouse small intestine were found to express functional beta(1) integrin and the beta(1) integrin alpha chain partners alpha(1), alpha(2), and alpha(4). Using inducible beta(1) integrin......-knockout bone marrow-chimeric mice we demonstrate that IEL expression of alpha(1) and alpha(2) but not alpha(4) is dependent on expression of the beta(1) chain. Importantly, deletion of the beta(1) chain in IEL did not alter the number or composition of lymphocytes within the intestinal epithelium. Thus, while...

  7. Redefining the expression and function of the inhibitor of differentiation 1 in mammary gland development.

    Radhika Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of poorly differentiated cells is a hallmark of breast neoplasia and progression. Thus an understanding of the factors controlling mammary differentiation is critical to a proper understanding of breast tumourigenesis. The Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1 protein has well documented roles in the control of mammary epithelial differentiation and proliferation in vitro and breast cancer progression in vivo. However, it has not been determined whether Id1 expression is sufficient for the inhibition of mammary epithelial differentiation or the promotion of neoplastic transformation in vivo. We now show that Id1 is not commonly expressed by the luminal mammary epithelia, as previously reported. Generation and analysis of a transgenic mouse model of Id1 overexpression in the mammary gland reveals that Id1 is insufficient for neoplastic progression in virgin animals or to prevent terminal differentiation of the luminal epithelia during pregnancy and lactation. Together, these data demonstrate that there is no luminal cell-autonomous role for Id1 in mammary epithelial cell fate determination, ductal morphogenesis and terminal differentiation.

  8. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD56 and ALDH1 in Common Salivary Gland Tumors

    Safoura Seifi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural killer (NK cells, of which CD56 is a specific marker, play an important role in host defense against tumors. Cancer stem cells, of which aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1 (ALDH1 is an immunohistochemical marker, are a group of tumorigenic cells which are involved in migration and tumor recurrences. We aimed to evaluate the expression of ALDH1 and CD56 in common salivary gland tumors, as well as their relationship with each other and with a number of clinicopathologic factors.   Materials and Methods: Forty-five paraffin blocks of salivary gland tumors (pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, 15 samples each were selected. Malignant tumors were classified into two groups: low-grade (including mucoepidermoid carcinoma grade I and high-grade (including mucoepidermoid carcinoma grade III and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining for ALDH1 and CD56 markers was performed. Data were analyzed using SPSS (20 and the Chi-square test.   Results: CD56 expression was significantly higher in benign and high-grade malignant tumors (P=0.01. ALDH1 overexpressed in all three salivary tumors, but not to statistically significant degree (P=0.54. There was no statistically significant correlation between ALDH1 and CD56 expression with demographic factors (age, gender, or location of tumor; P>0.05.   Conclusion: It appears that the number of NK cells and their function change in different types of salivary gland tumors (benign/malignant and stroma. NK cells are important components of the anti-tumor system; therefore immune dysfunction is associated with tumor progression in tumors of the salivary gland. ALDH1 overexpression suggests its role in tumorogenesis, but ALDH1 is not involved in the morphogenesis of salivary gland tumors.

  9. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Morphology and Histology of Sex Pheromone Gland of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Female

    El-Degwi, M.S.; Salem, H.M.; El-Maasarawy, S.A.S.; Ismail, I.I.

    2008-01-01

    The pheromone gland in normal adult female of C. maculatus consists of an internal lobe composed of glandular epithelia cells, connected dorsally with the abdominal tip. It has many tubule opening dorsally in large sets which have a groove. The size of pheromone gland of 4-day old females increased than 2-day old females. There is no difference between the gland size of 6-day old females and 4-day ones, but it decreased in females of 8-day old. In this age the gland divided into two separate parts. When females 4-day old irradiated with 100 Gy the glandular cells were separated and the nuclei were not clear. The fat bodies were less in numbers than in unirradiated ones and the glandular cell membrane is irregular. After increasing the radiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular cells destroyed and become undistinguished. All the tubule were closed. The glandular cells in the irradiated 6-day old females with 100 Gy were compact. The nuclei and cytoplasm are very difficult to distinguished, the cytoplasm is deteriorated. As increasing the irradiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular tissue completely damaged and appeared as narrow ribbon. Scanning electron micrographs of the abdominal tip of C.maculatus showed that the sex pheromone releasing area contains a mammiform, also it has a large number of large setae which has groove

  10. Columnar cell lesions and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia like stroma: is there an epithelial-stromal interaction?

    Recavarren, Rosemary A; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Dabbs, David J

    2009-10-10

    The significance of association between cancer and its microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. It has been shown in animal models that interaction between neoplastic epithelial cells and adjacent stroma can modulate tumor behavior. Carcinoma associated stromal cells can transform normal epithelial cells into neoplastic cells. In breast, columnar cell lesions are non-obligate precursors of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Columnar cell lesions can be seen intimately associated with PASH-like-stroma, a lesion we termed as CCPLS. Our aim is to investigate epithelial-stromal interactions in CCPLS and compare them to PASH without columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies. Normal terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) epithelium was seen in association with columnar cell lesions as well as PASH. Eight (8) cases of each category were examined by a panel of immunostains: CD117 (C-kit), CD34, CD105, bFGF, AR, ER-beta, MIB-1. We observed a markedly decreased expression of c-kit in columnar cell lesions compared to TDLU-epithelium. CD105 showed a quantitative increase in activated vessels in CCPLS compared to PASH. A subset of CCPLS and PASH were androgen receptor positive. A strong nuclear positivity for ER-beta is observed in the epithelium and stroma of all CCPLS cases. We conclude that (1) activated blood vessels predominate in CCPLS; (2) A molecular alteration is signified by c-kit loss in columnar cell lesions; (3) ER-beta and androgen receptor positivity indicate CCPLS are hormonally responsive lesions. Our study suggests an intimate vascular and hormone dependent epithelial-stromal interaction exists in CCPLS lesions.

  11. Mimicking corneal stroma using keratocyte-loaded photopolymerizable methacrylated gelatin hydrogels.

    Kilic Bektas, Cemile; Hasirci, Vasif

    2018-04-01

    Cell-laden methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels with high (approximately 90%) transparency were prepared to mimic the natural form and function of corneal stroma. They were synthesized from GelMA with a methacrylation degree of 70% as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Hydrogels were strong enough to withstand handling. Stability studies showed that 87% of the GelMA hydrogels remained after 21 days in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Cell viability in the first 2 days was over 90% for the human keratocytes loaded in the gels as determined with the live-dead analysis. Cells in the hydrogel elongated and connected to each other as observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images and scanning electron microscope analysis after 3 weeks in the culture medium and cells were seen to be distributed throughout the hydrogel bulk. Cells were found to synthesize collagen Types I and V, decorin, and biglycan (representative collagens and proteoglycans of human corneal stroma, respectively) showing that keratocytes maintained their functions and preserved their phenotypes in the hydrogels. Transparency of cell-loaded and cell-free hydrogels after 21 days was found to be over 90% at all time points in the visible light range and was comparable to the transparency of the native cornea. The corneal stroma equivalent produced in this study that has cells entrapped in it leads to a product with homogenous distribution of cells. It was transparent at the very beginning and is expected to allow better vision than nontransparent substrates. It, therefore, has a significant potential to be used as an alternative to the current products used to treat corneal blindness. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Impaired endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and dysfunctional bone marrow stroma in diabetes mellitus.

    Westerweel, Peter E; Teraa, Martin; Rafii, Shahin; Jaspers, Janneke E; White, Ian A; Hooper, Andrea T; Doevendans, Pieter A; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2013-01-01

    Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) levels are reduced in diabetes mellitus. This may be a consequence of impaired mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow. We hypothesized that under diabetic conditions, mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow to the circulation is impaired -at least partly- due to dysfunction of the bone marrow stromal compartment. Diabetes was induced in mice by streptozotocin injection. Circulating Sca-1(+)Flk-1(+) EPC were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry at baseline and after mobilization with G-CSF/SCF injections. In vivo hemangiogenic recovery was tested by 5-FU challenge. Interaction within the bone marrow environment between CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and supporting stroma was assessed by co-cultures. To study progenitor cell-endothelial cell interaction under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions, a co-culture model using E4Orf1-transfected human endothelial cells was employed. In diabetic mice, bone marrow EPC levels were unaffected. However, circulating EPC levels in blood were lower at baseline and mobilization was attenuated. Diabetic mice failed to recover and repopulate from 5-FU injection. In vitro, primary cultured bone marrow stroma from diabetic mice was impaired in its capacity to support human CFU-forming HPC. Finally, hyperglycemia hampered the HPC supportive function of endothelial cells in vitro. EPC mobilization is impaired under experimental diabetic conditions and our data suggest that diabetes induces alterations in the progenitor cell supportive capacity of the bone marrow stroma, which could be partially responsible for the attenuated EPC mobilization and reduced EPC levels observed in diabetic patients.

  13. Impaired endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and dysfunctional bone marrow stroma in diabetes mellitus.

    Peter E Westerweel

    Full Text Available Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC levels are reduced in diabetes mellitus. This may be a consequence of impaired mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow. We hypothesized that under diabetic conditions, mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow to the circulation is impaired -at least partly- due to dysfunction of the bone marrow stromal compartment.Diabetes was induced in mice by streptozotocin injection. Circulating Sca-1(+Flk-1(+ EPC were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry at baseline and after mobilization with G-CSF/SCF injections. In vivo hemangiogenic recovery was tested by 5-FU challenge. Interaction within the bone marrow environment between CD34(+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC and supporting stroma was assessed by co-cultures. To study progenitor cell-endothelial cell interaction under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions, a co-culture model using E4Orf1-transfected human endothelial cells was employed.In diabetic mice, bone marrow EPC levels were unaffected. However, circulating EPC levels in blood were lower at baseline and mobilization was attenuated. Diabetic mice failed to recover and repopulate from 5-FU injection. In vitro, primary cultured bone marrow stroma from diabetic mice was impaired in its capacity to support human CFU-forming HPC. Finally, hyperglycemia hampered the HPC supportive function of endothelial cells in vitro.EPC mobilization is impaired under experimental diabetic conditions and our data suggest that diabetes induces alterations in the progenitor cell supportive capacity of the bone marrow stroma, which could be partially responsible for the attenuated EPC mobilization and reduced EPC levels observed in diabetic patients.

  14. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical localization of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 4 in Ca2+-transporting epithelia

    Alexander, R Todd; Beggs, Megan R; Zamani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    role in transcellular Ca(2+) flux and investigated the localization and regulation of Pmca4 in Ca(2+)-transporting epithelia. Using antibodies directed specifically against Pmca4, we found it expressed only in the smooth muscle layer of mouse and human intestine, while pan-specific Pmca antibodies...... the cortical thick ascending limbs, macula densa, and early distal tubules as well as smooth muscle layers surrounding renal vessels. In human kidney, a similar pattern of distribution was observed, with highest PMCA4 expression in NCC positive tubules. Electron microscopy demonstrated Pmca4 localization...... in distal nephron cells at both the basolateral membrane and intracellular perinuclear compartments, but not submembranous vesicles, suggesting rapid trafficking to the plasma membrane is unlikely to occur in vivo. Pmca4 expression was not altered by perturbations in Ca(2+) balance, pointing...

  15. Semi-Solid and Solid Dosage Forms for the Delivery of Phage Therapy to Epithelia

    Petrovski, Steve; Chan, Hiu Tat; Angove, Michael J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The delivery of phages to epithelial surfaces for therapeutic outcomes is a realistic proposal, and indeed one which is being currently tested in clinical trials. This paper reviews some of the known research on formulation of phages into semi-solid dosage forms such as creams, ointments and pastes, as well as solid dosage forms such as troches (or lozenges and pastilles) and suppositories/pessaries, for delivery to the epithelia. The efficacy and stability of these phage formulations is discussed, with a focus on selection of optimal semi-solid bases for phage delivery. Issues such as the need for standardisation of techniques for formulation as well as for assessment of efficacy are highlighted. These are important when trying to compare results from a range of experiments and across different delivery bases. PMID:29495355

  16. MiR-21 expression in the tumor stroma of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Hedbäck, Nora; Jensen, David H; Specht, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients have a high mortality rate; thus, new clinical biomarkers and therapeutic options are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression and are commonly deregulated in OSCC and other cancers. Micro......-stage) in a multivariate analysis. In summary, we have shown that miR-21 is located in the carcinoma cells, stroma and blood vessels of tumors, and its expression specifically in the stromal compartment has a negative prognostic value in OSCC....

  17. Stroma-regulated HMGA2 is an independent prognostic marker in PDAC and AAC

    Strell, Carina; Norberg, Karin Jessica; Mezheyeuski, Artur

    2017-01-01

    was more frequent in patients with PDAC than with AAC. The HMGA2 status in tumour cells significantly correlated with the abundance of PDGFRβ-defined stroma cells. In vivo co-injection of Panc-1 cancer cells with pancreatic stellate cells increased tumour growth in a manner associated with increased HMGA2...... expression. Furthermore, in vitro treatment of Panc-1 with conditioned media from PDGF-BB-activated stellate cells increased their ability to form tumour spheroids.Conclusions:This study identifies HMGA2 expression in tumour cells as an independent prognostic marker in PDAC and AAC. Correlative data analysis...

  18. Altered Proteomic Polymorphisms in the Caterpillar Body and Stroma of Natural Cordyceps sinensis during Maturation

    Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. Methods The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). Results: SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%–4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Conclusion Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments

  19. Biochemical characterization of nuclear receptors for vitamin D3 and glucocorticoids in prostate stroma cell microenvironment

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A.; Montecinos, Viviana P.; Paredes, Roberto; Godoy, Alejandro S.; McNerney, Eileen M.; Tovar, Heribelt; Pantoja, Diego; Johnson, Candace; Trump, Donald; Onate, Sergio A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fibroblasts from benign and carcinoma-associated stroma were biochemically characterized for VDR and GR function as transcription factors in prostate stroma cell microenvironment. → Decreased SRC-1/CBP coactivators recruitment to VDR and GR may result in hormone resistance to 1,25D 3 in stromal cell microenvironment prostate cancer. → 1a,25-Dyhidroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25D 3 ) and glucocorticoids, either alone or in combination, may not be an alternative for 'some' advanced prostate cancers that fails androgen therapies. -- Abstract: The disruption of stromal cell signals in prostate tissue microenvironment influences the development of prostate cancer to androgen independence. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25D 3 ) and glucocorticoids, either alone or in combination, have been investigated as alternatives for the treatment of advanced prostate cancers that fails androgen therapies. The effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Similarly, the effect of 1,25D 3 is mediated by the 1,25D 3 nuclear receptor (VDR). In this study, fibroblasts from benign- (BAS) and carcinoma-associated stroma (CAS) were isolated from human prostates to characterize VDR and GR function as transcription factors in prostate stroma. The VDR-mediated transcriptional activity assessed using the CYP24-luciferase reporter was limited to 3-fold induction by 1,25D 3 in 9 out of 13 CAS (70%), as compared to >10-fold induction in the BAS clinical sample pair. Expression of His-tagged VDR (Ad-his-VDR) failed to recover the low transcriptional activity of the luciferase reporter in 7 out of 9 CAS. Interestingly, expression of Ad-his-VDR successfully recovered receptor-mediated induction in 2 out of the 9 CAS analyzed, suggesting that changes in the receptor protein itself was responsible for decreased response and resistance to 1,25D 3 action. Conversely, VDR-mediated transcriptional activity was more efficient in 4 out of 13 CAS (30

  20. 3D is not enough: Building up a cell instructive microenvironment for tumoral stroma microtissues.

    Brancato, Virginia; Garziano, Alessandro; Gioiella, Filomena; Urciuolo, Francesco; Imparato, Giorgia; Panzetta, Valeria; Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo A

    2017-01-01

    We fabricated three-dimensional microtissues with the aim to replicate in vitro the composition and the functionalities of the tumor microenvironment. By arranging either normal fibroblasts (NF) or cancer-activated fibroblasts (CAF) in two different three dimensional (3D) configurations, two kinds of micromodules were produced: spheroids and microtissues. Spheroids were obtained by means of the traditional cell aggregation technique resulting in a 3D model characterized by high cell density and low amount of extracellular proteins. The microtissues were obtained by culturing cells into porous gelatin microscaffolds. In this latter configuration, cells assembled an intricate network of collagen, fibronectin and hyaluronic acid. We investigated the biophysical properties of both 3D models in terms of cell growth, metabolic activity, texture and composition of the extracellular matrix (via histological analysis and multiphoton imaging) and cell mechanical properties (via Particle Tracking Microrheology). In the spheroid models such biophysical properties remained unchanged regardless to the cell type used. In contrast, normal-microtissues and cancer-activated-microtissues displayed marked differences. CAF-microtissues possessed higher proliferation rate, superior contraction capability, different micro-rheological properties and an extracellular matrix richer in collagen fibronectin and hyaluronic acid. At last, multiphoton investigation revealed differences in the collagen network architecture. Taken together, these results suggested that despite to cell spheroids, microtissues better recapitulate the important differences existing in vivo between normal and cancer-activated stroma representing a more suitable system to mimic in vitro the stromal element of the tumor tissues. This work concerns the engineering of tumor tissue in vitro. Tumor models serve as biological equivalent to study pathologic progression and to screen or validate the drugs efficacy. Tumor

  1. Iso-effect tables and therapeutic ratios for epidermoid cancer and normal tissue stroma

    Cohen, L.; Creditor, M.

    1983-01-01

    Available literature on radiation injury to normal tissue stroma and ablation of epidermoid carcinoma was surveyed. Computer programs (RAD3 and RAD1) were then used to derive cell kinetic parameters and generate iso-effect tables for the relevant tissues. The two tables provide a set of limiting doses for tolerance of normal connective tissue (16% risk of injury) and for ablation of epidermoid cancer (16% risk of recurrence) covering a wide range of treatment schedules. Calculating the ratios of normal tissue tolerance to tumor control doses for each treatment scheme provides an array of therapeutic ratios, from which appropriate treatment schemes can be selected

  2. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Molecular adaptation of ruminal epithelia to highly fermentable diets.

    Penner, G B; Steele, M A; Aschenbach, J R; McBride, B W

    2011-04-01

    Feeding highly fermentable diets to ruminants is one strategy to increase energy intake. The increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and reduced ruminal pH associated with highly fermentable diets imposes a challenge to the metabolism and the regulation of intracellular pH homeostasis of ruminal epithelia. The ruminal epithelia respond to these challenges in a coordinated manner. Whereas the enlargement of absorptive surface area is well documented, emerging evidence at the mRNA and transporter and enzyme activity levels indicate that changes in epithelial cell function may be the initial response. It is not surprising that gene expression analysis has identified pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism, ion transport, and intracellular homeostasis to be the pathways dominantly affected during adaptation and after adaptation to a highly fermentable diet. These findings are important because the intraepithelial metabolism of SCFA, particularly butyrate, helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the cytosol and lumen, thereby facilitating absorption. Butyrate metabolism also controls the intracellular availability of butyrate, which is widely regarded as a signaling molecule. Current data indicate that for butyrate metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase are potential regulatory points with transient up- and downregulation during diet adaptation. In addition to nutrient transport and utilization, genes involved in the maintenance of cellular tight junction integrity and induction of inflammation have been identified as differentially expressed genes during adaptation to highly fermentable diets. This may have important implications on ruminal epithelial barrier function and the inflammatory response often associated with subacute ruminal acidosis. The objective of this review is to summarize ruminal epithelial adaptation to highly fermentable diets focusing on the changes at the enzyme and

  3. Hidradenocarcinoma: A Rare Sweat Gland Neoplasm Presenting as Small Turban Tumor of the Scalp.

    Asati, Dinesh P; Brahmachari, Swagata; Kudligi, Chandramohan; Gupta, Chandramohan

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  4. Hidradenocarcinoma: A rare sweat gland neoplasm presenting as small turban tumor of the scalp

    Dinesh P Asati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  5. Tenascin and fibronectin in pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland Tenascina e fibronectina em adenoma pleomórfico de glândula salivar

    Patrícia Meira Bento

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the expression and distribution pattern of extracellular matrix components in pleomorphic adenomas of the major and minor salivary glands and to compare the morphological findings of these tumors with the immunohistochemical expression, considering the different types of stroma predominating in each case. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of tenascin (TN and fibronectin (FN was analyzed in 23 cases of pleomorphic adenomas, 11 major and 12 minor salivary gland tumors, by the streptavidin-biotin method using anti-tenascin and anti-fibronectin antibodies. In addition, the immunohistochemical results were correlated with the morphological findings of the lesions. All cases analyzed were immunoreactive for the antibodies used. Fibronectin showed strong labeling in fibrous and chondroid stroma, while labeling was weak in hyaline and myxoid stroma. Tenascin expression was more intense in fibrous and chondroid stroma and moderate in hyaline and myxoid stroma. CONCLUSIONS: No difference in the expression of these proteins was observed between major and minor salivary gland tumors.OBJETIVO: Analisar a expressão e o padrão de distribuição de componentes da matriz extracelular em adenomas pleomórficos de glândula salivar maior e menor e comparar os achados morfológicos destes tumores com a expressão imuno-histoquímica considerando os diferentes tipos de estromas presentes em cada caso. MÉTODOS E RESULTADOS: A expressão da tenascina (TN e fibronectina (FN foi analisada em 23 casos de adenomas pleomórficos, sendo 11 tumores em glândula salivar maior e 12 em glândula salivar menor, utilizando-se o método da estreptoavidina-biotina para os anticorpos anti-tenascina e anti-fibronectina. Os resultados imuno-histoquimicos foram correlacionados com os achados morfológicos das lesões. Todos os casos foram imunorreativos para a fibronectina mostrando forte expressão nos estromas fibrosos e condróides, embora fraca marca

  6. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented.

  7. Identification of prognostic molecular features in the reactive stroma of human breast and prostate cancer.

    Anne Planche

    Full Text Available Primary tumor growth induces host tissue responses that are believed to support and promote tumor progression. Identification of the molecular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and elucidation of its crosstalk with tumor cells may therefore be crucial for improving our understanding of the processes implicated in cancer progression, identifying potential therapeutic targets, and uncovering stromal gene expression signatures that may predict clinical outcome. A key issue to resolve, therefore, is whether the stromal response to tumor growth is largely a generic phenomenon, irrespective of the tumor type or whether the response reflects tumor-specific properties. To address similarity or distinction of stromal gene expression changes during cancer progression, oligonucleotide-based Affymetrix microarray technology was used to compare the transcriptomes of laser-microdissected stromal cells derived from invasive human breast and prostate carcinoma. Invasive breast and prostate cancer-associated stroma was observed to display distinct transcriptomes, with a limited number of shared genes. Interestingly, both breast and prostate tumor-specific dysregulated stromal genes were observed to cluster breast and prostate cancer patients, respectively, into two distinct groups with statistically different clinical outcomes. By contrast, a gene signature that was common to the reactive stroma of both tumor types did not have survival predictive value. Univariate Cox analysis identified genes whose expression level was most strongly associated with patient survival. Taken together, these observations suggest that the tumor microenvironment displays distinct features according to the tumor type that provides survival-predictive value.

  8. Soft tissue masses with myxoid stroma: Can conventional magnetic resonance imaging differentiate benign from malignant tumors?

    Crombe, A., E-mail: amandine.crombe@ens-lyon.fr [Department of Radiology, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Alberti, N. [Department of Radiology, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Stoeckle, E. [Department of Surgery, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Brouste, V. [Clinical and Epidemiological Research Unit, Institut Bergonié, 33000 Bordeaux (France); Buy, X. [Department of Radiology, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Coindre, J-M. [Department of Pathology, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Kind, M. [Department of Radiology, Institut Bergonié, 229 cours de l’Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)

    2016-10-15

    Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of morphological signs observed on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to differentiate benign from malignant peripheral solid tumors of soft tissue with myxoid stroma. Methods: MR images from 95 consecutive histopathologically proven tumors (26 benign and 69 malignant) of soft tissues with myxoid components were evaluated in our tertiary referral center. Two radiologists, blind to pathology results, independently reviewed conventional MR sequences including at least a) one T2-weighted sequence with or without fat suppression; b) one T1-weighted sequence without fat suppression; and c) one T1-weighted sequence with gadolinium-complex contrast enhancement and fat suppression. Multiple criteria were defined to analyze morphology, margins, architecture and tumor periphery and evaluated for each lesion. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and Odds ratios were calculated for each criterion. Results: The most relevant and reproducible criteria to significantly predict malignancy were: (1) ill-defined tumor margins, (2) a hemorrhagic component, (3) intra-tumoral fat, (4) fibrosis and (5) the “tail sign”. A lesion is classified as malignant if any of these 5 criteria is present, and benign if none of them are observed. Therefore, this combination provides a sensitivity of 92.9% and a specificity of 93.3%. Conclusion: Conventional MR imaging provides reproducible criteria that can be combined to differentiate between benign and malignant solid tumors of soft tissue with myxoid stroma.

  9. Game Theory of Tumor–Stroma Interactions in Multiple Myeloma: Effect of Nonlinear Benefits

    Javad Salimi Sartakhti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells and stromal cells often exchange growth factors with paracrine effects that promote cell growth: a form of cooperation that can be studied by evolutionary game theory. Previous models have assumed that interactions between cells are pairwise or that the benefit of a growth factor is a linear function of its concentration. Diffusible factors, however, affect multiple cells and generally have nonlinear effects, and these differences are known to have important consequences for evolutionary dynamics. Here, we study tumor–stroma paracrine signaling using a model with multiplayer collective interactions in which growth factors have nonlinear effects. We use multiple myeloma as an example, modelling interactions between malignant plasma cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Nonlinear benefits can lead to results not observed in linear models, including internal mixed stable equilibria and cyclical dynamics. Models with linear effects, therefore, do not lead to a meaningful characterization of the dynamics of tumor–stroma interactions. To understand the dynamics and the effect of therapies it is necessary to estimate the shape of the benefit functions experimentally and parametrize models based on these functions.

  10. Twist and snai1 expression in pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma stroma is related to cancer progression

    Jouppila-Mättö, Anna; Närkiö-Mäkelä, Mervi; Soini, Ylermi; Pukkila, Matti; Sironen, Reijo; Tuhkanen, Hanna; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process in tumorigenesis since tumor cells attain fibroblast-like features enabling them to invade to surrounding tissue. Two transcription factors, TWIST and SNAI1, are fundamental in regulating EMT. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of TWIST and SNAI1 in 109 pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Tumors with intense stromal staining of TWIST relapsed more frequently (p = 0.04). Tumors with both positive TWIST and SNAI1 immunoreactivity in the stroma were at least Stage II (p = 0.05) and located more often in hypopharynx (p = 0.035). Tumors with negative immunostaining of TWIST and SNAI1 in the stromal compartment were smaller (T1-2) (p = 0.008), less advanced (SI-II) (p = 0.031) and located more often in the oropharynx (p = 0.007). Patients with negative SNAI1 and TWIST immunostaining in tumor stroma had a better 5-year disease-specific and overall survival (p = 0.037 and p = 0.014 respectively). TWIST and SNAI1 expression in stromal cells is associated with clinical and histopathological characteristics that indicate progressive disease. Negative expression of these EMT-promoting transcription factors predicts a better outcome

  11. Does the peritumoral stroma of basal cell carcinoma recapitulate the follicular connective tissue sheath?

    Sellheyer, Klaus; Krahl, Dieter

    2011-07-01

    There are compelling embryologic and anatomic relationships within adnexal tumors. However, these are mostly perceived within the epithelial component while the stromal component of the tumors is frequently overlooked. In postnatal skin, nestin is almost exclusively expressed in the perifollicular mesenchyme. This study examines the expression of this neuroepithelial stem cell protein in trichoblastoma/trichoepithelioma and in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), which is increasingly being viewed as follicular in nature. We employed standard immunohistochemical methods with three different antibodies to examine the expression of nestin in 25 BCCs and compared the staining pattern with that of 7 trichoblastomas and 11 trichoepitheliomas. Nestin is expressed in the peritumoral stroma of all tumors examined and is limited to the immediate layer of mesenchymal cells surrounding the tumor epithelium. In BCC, nestin-immunoreactive cells are found as a sheath of thin, spindled fibroblasts, while reactive cells are plump in trichoepitheliomas/trichoblastomas. We postulate that the peritumoral stroma of BCC imitates the perifollicular connective tissue sheath, while in contrast that of trichoepithelioma/trichoblastoma is similar to the papillary and immediate peripapillary follicular mesenchyme. Further functional and animal experimental studies are needed to test this hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Incessant Builders and Destroyers of the Cancer Stroma

    Liguori, Manuela; Solinas, Graziella; Germano, Giovanni; Mantovani, Alberto; Allavena, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAM) are key components of the reactive stroma of tumors. In most, although not all cancers, their presence is associated with poor patient prognosis. In addition to releasing cytokines and growth factors for tumor and endothelial cells, a distinguished feature of TAM is their high-rate degradation of the extra-cellular matrix. This incessant stroma remodelling favours the release of matrix-bound growth factors and promotes tumor cell motility and invasion. In addition, TAM produce matrix proteins, some of which are typical of the neoplastic tissues. The gene expression profile of TAM isolated from human tumors reveals a matrix-related signature with the up-regulation of genes coding for different matrix proteins, as well as several proteolytic enzymes. Among ECM components are: osteopontin, osteoactivin, collagens and fibronectin, including also a truncated isoform of fibronectin termed migration stimulation factor. In addition to serve as structural proteins, these matrix components have key functions in the regulation of the vessel network, in the inductionof tumor cell motility and degradation of cellular debris. Among proteolytic enzymes are: matrix metalloproteases, cathepsins, lysosomal and ADAM proteases, and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator. The degrading activity of TAM, coupled to the production of bio-active ECM proteins, co-operate to the build-up and maintenance of an inflammatory micro-environment which eventually promotes tumor progression

  13. Tumor-Associated Macrophages as Incessant Builders and Destroyers of the Cancer Stroma

    Liguori, Manuela; Solinas, Graziella; Germano, Giovanni [Department of Immunology and Inflammation Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 113, Rozzano-Milano 20089 (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Immunology and Inflammation Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 113, Rozzano-Milano 20089 (Italy); Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milano, Milano 20089 (Italy); Allavena, Paola, E-mail: paola.allavena@humanitasresearch.it [Department of Immunology and Inflammation Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 113, Rozzano-Milano 20089 (Italy)

    2011-09-28

    Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAM) are key components of the reactive stroma of tumors. In most, although not all cancers, their presence is associated with poor patient prognosis. In addition to releasing cytokines and growth factors for tumor and endothelial cells, a distinguished feature of TAM is their high-rate degradation of the extra-cellular matrix. This incessant stroma remodelling favours the release of matrix-bound growth factors and promotes tumor cell motility and invasion. In addition, TAM produce matrix proteins, some of which are typical of the neoplastic tissues. The gene expression profile of TAM isolated from human tumors reveals a matrix-related signature with the up-regulation of genes coding for different matrix proteins, as well as several proteolytic enzymes. Among ECM components are: osteopontin, osteoactivin, collagens and fibronectin, including also a truncated isoform of fibronectin termed migration stimulation factor. In addition to serve as structural proteins, these matrix components have key functions in the regulation of the vessel network, in the inductionof tumor cell motility and degradation of cellular debris. Among proteolytic enzymes are: matrix metalloproteases, cathepsins, lysosomal and ADAM proteases, and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator. The degrading activity of TAM, coupled to the production of bio-active ECM proteins, co-operate to the build-up and maintenance of an inflammatory micro-environment which eventually promotes tumor progression.

  14. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe...

  15. [Brunners gland hiperplasia. Report of two cases].

    Padilla Ruiz, Maykel

    2014-04-01

    Brunner's gland hyperplasia is an infrequent benign injury located on the first or second portion of the duodenum. The disease spectrum includes diffuse nodular hyperplasia, circumscribed nodular hyperplasia, and Brunner's gland adenoma. We report two cases, one with an adenoma of Brunner's glands as a duodenal polyp and the other as a diffuse nodular hyperplasia of the duodenal bulb.

  16. Qualitative analysis of connective tissue stroma in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A histochemical study

    Smitha Kullage

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of oral cancer at an early stage is of utmost importance to decrease morbidity and mortality. Tumor stroma plays a critical role during carcinogenesis. There is lack of information regarding the characteristics of the stroma in relation to the invading malignant epithelial cells and the interdependence between stroma and tumor cells in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Aim: The present study was aimed to analyze and compare the nature of stroma in the vicinity of invading tumor islands in different grades of OSCC, using a histochemical technique picrosirius-polarization method. The present study also evaluated and correlated the possible role of inflammatory response in determining the nature of the stroma. Subjects and Methods: The study included thirty cases of different grades of histologically diagnosed OSCC and ten sections of normal buccal mucosa as a control group. Nature of collagen was analyzed using picrosirius-polarization method, and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltrate was recorded using ImageJ software (1.42q, NIH, USA. The results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Normal oral mucosa showed predominantly reddish birefringence. All cases of well-differentiated OSCC showed reddish-orange color. Nearly 70% moderately differentiated cases showed yellowish-orange (YO and 60% of poorly differentiated cases, showed greenish-yellow (GY. The mean inflammatory cell count was highest in well-differentiated group. There was shift to YO and GY collagen when the cell differentiation and inflammatory cell count decreased in moderate and poorly differentiated cases. Conclusion: Both inflammatory cells and tumor cells have a role in determining the nature of the collagen fibers in tumor stroma of OSCC, probably with opposing effects on stromal behavior and hence both are significant in predicting prognosis.

  17. Blood sampling from adrenal gland vein

    Sun Yong; Ni Caifang

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal gland vein sampling is an interventional method to get the blood samples from the adrenal gland vein. The blood is obtained via a catheter which is selectively inserted in the adrenal gland vein. This technique is mainly used to be diagnostic for primary hyperaldosteronism. A full knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the adrenal gland vein, serious preoperative preparation and skilled catheterization manipulation are necessary for obtaining sufficient blood sample and for reducing the occurrence of complications. Providing the physicians with definite diagnostic evidence and being technically feasible, adrenal gland vein sampling should become one of the routine examinations for clarifying the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. (authors)

  18. Role of stroma and Wound Healing in carcinoma response to ionizing radiation

    Arshad, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing and carcinogenesis are defined as complex, adaptive processes which are controlled by intricate communications between the host and the tissue microenvironment. A number of phenotypic similarities are shared by wounds and cancers in cellular signaling and gene expression. Radiotherapy is the second most effective modality of cancer treatment after surgery and can be used, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Recent findings suggest that radiotherapy apart from tumor cell death also rapidly and persistently modifies the tissue microenvironment. These modifications affect cell phenotype, tissue metabolism, bidirectional exchanges and signaling events between cells. The complex interactions between stromal cells and cancer cells are of immense interest and in The First Part of My Thesis, I tried to explore the crosstalk between stromal and carcinoma cells in response to radiotherapy by genetic modulation of the stroma and irradiation. We found that fibroblasts, irrespective of their RhoB status, do not modulate intrinsic radiosensitivity of TC-1 but produce diffusible factors able to modify tumor cell fate. Then we found that Wt and RhoB deficient fibroblasts stimulated TC-1 migration through distinct mechanisms respectively, TGF-β1 and MMP-mediated. We also found that co-irradiation of fibroblasts and TC-1 abrogated the pro-migratory phenotype by repression of TGF-β and MMP secretion. This result is highly relevant to the clinical situation and suggests that conversely to, the current view; irradiated stroma would not enhance carcinoma migration and could be manipulated to promote anti-tumor immune response. Secondly, our in vivo experiments, tends to confirm the in vitro data showing that irradiated tumor bed does not stimulate tumor growth and escape. Our results also challenges the view that irradiated stroma would promote migration of carcinoma cells as we show that independently from their genotype co-irradiation of fibroblasts and

  19. Submandibular gland function and parotid gland function in Bell's palsy, 3

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kato, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1986-01-01

    With the use of sup(99m)Tc, we attempted to measure simultaneously submandibular gland function and parotid gland function, which is thought not to be controlled by the facial nerve, in patients with unilateral Bell's palsy. For comparison, the lachrymal gland function of some patients was measured by the thread method. We found that facial palsy sometimes affects parotid gland function as well as submandibular gland function. In 60 % of the patients the function of the two glands tended to be affected in the same way. Lachrymal gland function tended to be affected in a similar way to parotid gland function. We conclude that the chorda tympani and the greater petrosal nerve may influence parotid gland function. (author)

  20. Pituitary gland development: an update.

    Bancalari, Rodrigo E; Gregory, Louise C; McCabe, Mark J; Dattani, Mehul T

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic development of the pituitary gland involves a complex and highly spatio-temporally regulated network of integrating signalling molecules and transcription factors. Genetic mutations in any of these factors can lead to congenital hypopituitarism in association with a wide spectrum of craniofacial/midline defects ranging from incompatibility with life to holoprosencephaly (HPE) and cleft palate and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). Increasing evidence supports a genotypic overlap with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal disorders such as Kallmann syndrome, which is consistent with the known overlap in phenotypes between these disorders. This chapter reviews the cascade of events leading up to the successful development of the pituitary gland and to highlight key areas where genetic variations can occur thus leading to congenital hypopituitarism and associated defects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A Role for PPARβ/δ in Tumor Stroma and Tumorigenesis

    Rolf Müller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ is a transcription factor that is activated by endogenous fatty acid ligands and by synthetic agonists. Its role in the regulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid catabolism, glucose homeostasis, and cellular differentiation has been established in multiple studies. On the contrary, a role for PPARβ/δ in tumorigenesis is less clear because there are contradictory reports in the literature. However, the majority of these studies have not examined the role of PPARβ/δ in the tumor stroma. Recent evidence suggests that stromal PPARβ/δ regulates tumor endothelial cell proliferation and promotes differentiation leading to the properly orchestrated events required for tumor blood vessel formation. This review briefly summarizes the significance of these studies that may provide clues to help explain the reported discrepancies in the literature regarding the role of PPARβ/δ in tumorigenesis.

  2. Anti-S100A4 antibody suppresses metastasis formation by blocking stroma cell invasion

    Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Beck, Mette K

    2012-01-01

    microenvironment, making it an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy. In this study, we produced a function-blocking anti-S100A4 monoclonal antibody with metastasis-suppressing activity. Antibody treatment significantly reduced metastatic burden in the lungs of experimental animals by blocking the recruitment...... of T cells to the site of the primary tumor. In vitro studies demonstrated that this antibody efficiently reduced the invasion of T cells in a fibroblast monolayer. Moreover, it was capable of suppressing the invasive growth of human and mouse fibroblasts. We presume therefore that the antibody exerts...... its activity by suppressing stroma cell recruitment to the site of the growing tumor. Our epitope mapping studies suggested that the antibody recognition site overlaps with the target binding interface of human S100A4. We conclude here that this antibody could serve as a solid basis for development...

  3. Tumor-stroma ratio predicts recurrence in patients with colon cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Kjær-Frifeldt, Sanne; Lindebjerg, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy represents a new treatment approach to locally advanced colon cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) to predict disease recurrence in patients with locally advanced colon cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included 65 patients with colon cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a phase II trial. All patients were planned for three cycles of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before surgery. Hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections from surgically resected primary tumors...... was 55%, compared to 94% in the group of patients with a high TSR. CONCLUSIONS: TSR assessed in the surgically resected primary tumor from patients with locally advanced colon cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides prognostic value and may serve as a relevant parameter in selecting...

  4. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Ccdc85C, a causative protein for hydrocephalus and subcortical heterotopia, is expressed in the systemic epithelia with proliferative activity in rats.

    Tanaka, Natsuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yamate, Jyoji; Kuwamura, Mitsuru

    2015-07-01

    Coiled-coil domain containing 85c (Ccdc85c) is a causative gene for spontaneous mutant mouse with non-obstructive hydrocephalus and subcortical heterotopia. Detailed functions of Ccdc85C protein have not been clarified. To reveal roles of Ccdc85C, we examined the distribution and expression pattern of Ccdc85C in the systemic developing organs in rats. Ccdc85C was expressed in various simple epithelia but not stratified epithelia. In the various epithelia, Ccdc85C was localized at cell-cell junctions and its expression was strong at apical junctions. Furthermore, intense expression was seen at developing period and gradually decreased with advancing development. Distribution of Ccdc85C coincides with that of proliferating epithelial cells. These results suggest that Ccdc85C plays an important role in the proliferative property of simple epithelia.

  6. Iron transport across the skin and gut epithelia of Pacific hagfish: Kinetic characterisation and effect of hypoxia.

    Glover, Chris N; Niyogi, Som; Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2016-09-01

    In most animals, the acquisition of the essential trace metal iron (Fe) is achieved by the gut, but in hagfishes, the skin is a nutrient absorbing epithelium, and thus may also play a role in Fe uptake. In the current study, the absorption of Fe, as Fe(II), across the intestinal and cutaneous epithelia of Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus cirrhatus) was investigated. Both epithelia absorbed Fe, with saturation at lower tested concentrations, superseded by a diffusive component at higher Fe exposure concentrations. Affinity constants (Km) of 9.4 and 137μM, and maximal Fe transport rates (Jmax) of 0.81 and 0.57nmolcm(-2)h(-1) were determined for the skin and the gut, respectively. This characterises the skin as a relatively high-affinity Fe transport epithelium. The majority of the absorbed Fe in the skin remained in the tissue, whereas in the gut, most absorbed Fe was found in the serosal fluid, suggesting distinct mechanisms of Fe handling between the two epithelia. To determine if reduced dissolved oxygen altered Fe transport, hagfish were subjected to hypoxia for 24h, before Fe transport was again assessed. Hypoxia had no effect on Fe transport across gut or skin, likely owing to the relative lack of change in haematological variables, and thus an unaltered Fe demand under such conditions. These data are the first to kinetically characterise the absorption of a nutritive trace metal across the epithelia of hagfish and add to the growing understanding of the role of the skin in nutritive transport in this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia.

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S H; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-06-29

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies.

  8. Drosophila as a Model for Human Diseases-Focus on Innate Immunity in Barrier Epithelia.

    Bergman, P; Seyedoleslami Esfahani, S; Engström, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila. This review describes the current knowledge on Drosophila as a model for human diseases, with a special focus on innate immune-related disorders of the gut, lung, and skin. The discovery of antimicrobial peptides, the crucial role of Toll and Toll-like receptors, and the evolutionary conservation of signaling to the immune systems of both human and Drosophila are described in a historical perspective. Similarities and differences between human and Drosophila are discussed; current knowledge on receptors, signaling pathways, and effectors are reviewed, including antimicrobial peptides, reactive oxygen species, as well as autophagy. We also give examples of human diseases for which Drosophila appears to be a useful model. In addition, the limitations of the Drosophila model are mentioned. Finally, we propose areas for future research, which include using the Drosophila model for drug screening, as a validation tool for novel genetic mutations in humans and for exploratory research of microbiota-host interactions, with relevance for infection, wound healing, and cancer. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Response of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelia to Alcohol Exposure and Klebsiella pneumoniae Challenge

    Sammeta V. Raju

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary infection. It is not fully defined how alcohol contributes to the host defense compromise. Here primary human airway epithelial cells were cultured at an air-liquid interface to form a differentiated and polarized epithelium. This unique culture model allowed us to closely mimic lung infection in the context of alcohol abuse by basolateral alcohol exposure and apical live bacterial challenge. Application of clinically relevant concentrations of alcohol for 24 h did not significantly alter epithelial integrity or barrier function. When apically challenged with viable Klebsiella pneumoniae, the cultured epithelia had an enhanced tightness which was unaffected by alcohol. Further, alcohol enhanced apical bacterial growth, but not bacterial binding to the cells. The cultured epithelium in the absence of any treatment or stimulation had a base-level IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Apical bacterial challenge significantly elevated the basolateral secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. However, alcohol suppressed the observed cytokine burst in response to infection. Addition of adenosine receptor agonists negated the suppression of IL-6 and TNF-α. Thus, acute alcohol alters the epithelial cytokine response to infection, which can be partially mitigated by adenosine receptor agonists.

  10. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies.

  11. Tumor stroma with senescence-associated secretory phenotype in steatohepatitic hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Jee San Lee

    Full Text Available Senescence secretome was recently reported to promote liver cancer in an obese mouse model. Steatohepatitic hepatocellular carcinoma (SH-HCC, a new variant of HCC, has been found in metabolic syndrome patients, and pericellular fibrosis, a characteristic feature of SH-HCC, suggests that alteration of the tumor stroma might play an important role in SH-HCC development. Clinicopathological characteristics and tumor stroma showing senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP were investigated in 21 SH-HCCs and 34 conventional HCCs (C-HCCs. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, p21Waf1/Cif1, γ-H2AX, and IL-6 was investigated by immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence. SH-HCCs were associated with older age, higher body mass index, and a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome, compared to C-HCC (P <0.05, all. The numbers of α-SMA-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs (P = 0.049 and α-SMA-positive CAFs co-expressing p21Waf1/Cif1 (P = 0.038, γ-H2AX (P = 0.065, and IL-6 (P = 0.048 were greater for SH-HCCs than C-HCCs. Additionally, non-tumoral liver from SH-HCCs showed a higher incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and a higher number of α-SMA-positive stellate cells expressing γ-H2AX and p21Waf1/Cif1 than that from C-HCCs (P <0.05, all. In conclusion, SH-HCCs are considered to occur more frequently in metabolic syndrome patients. Therein, senescent and damaged CAFs, as well as non-tumoral stellate cells, expressing SASP including IL-6 may contribute to the development of SH-HCC.

  12. Non-multipotent stroma inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro.

    Rosu-Myles, Michael; Fair, Joel; Pearce, Nelson; Mehic, Jelica

    2010-10-01

    The ability to expand and maintain bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vitro is an important aspect of their therapeutic potential. Despite this, the exact composition of stromal cell types within these cultures and the potential effects of non-stem cells on the maintenance of MSC are poorly understood. C57BL/6J BM stroma was investigated as a model to determine the relationship between MSC and non-multipotent cells in vitro. Whole BM and single-cell derived cultures were characterized using flow cytometry and cell sorting combined with multipotent differentiation. Proliferation of individual stromal populations was evaluated using BrdU. At a single-cell level, MSC were distinguished from committed progenitors, and cells lacking differentiation ability, by the expression of CD105 (CD105+). A 3-fold reduction in the percentage of CD105+ cells was detected after prolonged culture and correlated with loss of MSC. Depletion of CD105+ cells coincided with a 10-20% increase in the frequency of proliferating CD105(-) cells. Removal of CD105(-) stroma caused increased proliferation in CD105+ cells, which could be diminished by conditioned media from parent cultures. Comparison of the multipotent differentiation potential in purified and non-purified CD105+ cells determined that MSC were detectable for at least 3 weeks longer when cultured in the absence of CD105(-) cells. This work identifies a simple model for characterizing the different cellular components present in BM stromal cultures and demonstrates that stromal cells lacking multipotent differentiating capacity greatly reduce the longevity of MSC.

  13. Effect of culture medium on propagation and phenotype of corneal stroma-derived stem cells.

    Sidney, Laura E; Branch, Matthew J; Dua, Harminder S; Hopkinson, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The limbal area of the corneal stroma has been identified as a source of mesenchymal-like stem cells, which have potential for exploitation as a cell therapy. However, the optimal culture conditions are disputed and few direct media comparisons have been performed. In this report, we evaluated several media types to identify the optimal for inducing an in vitro stem cell phenotype. Primary human corneal stroma-derived stem cells (CSSCs) were extracted from corneoscleral rims. Culture in seven different media types was compared: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS); M199 with 20% FBS; DMEM-F12 with 20% serum replacement, basic fibroblast growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor (SCM); endothelial growth medium (EGM); semi-solid MethoCult; serum-free keratinocyte medium (K-SFM); and StemPro-34. Effects on proliferation, morphology, protein and messenger RNA expression were evaluated. All media supported proliferation of CSSCs with the exception of K-SFM and StemPro-34. Morphology differed between media: DMEM produced large cells, whereas EGM produced very small cells. Culture in M199 produced a typical mesenchymal stromal cell phenotype with high expression of CD105, CD90 and CD73 but not CD34. Culture in SCM produced a phenotype more reminiscent of a progenitor cell type with expression of CD34, ABCG2, SSEA-4 and PAX6. Culture medium can significantly influence CSSC phenotype. SCM produced a cell phenotype closest to that of a pluripotent stem cell, and we consider it to be the most appropriate for development as a clinical-grade medium for the production of CSSC phenotypes suitable for cell therapy. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of two distinct dendritic-like APCs in the context of splenic stroma

    Pravin ePeriasamy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine splenic stroma has been found to provide an in vitro niche for hematopoiesis of dendritic-like APCs (APC. Two distinct cell types have been characterised. The novel ‘L-DC’ subset, has cross presenting capacity leading to activation of CD8+ T cells, but do not activate CD4+ T cells consistent with their CD11cloCD11bhiMHC-II- phenotype. For L-DC, an equivalent tissue-specific APC has been found only in spleen. A second population of CD11chiCD11bloMHC-II+ cells resembling conventional dendritic cells (cDC can activate both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Production of L-DC but not cDC-like cells is now shown to be dependent on contact between the L-DC progenitor and stroma such that the presence of a Transwell membrane can prevent L-DC development. Since L-DC can be produced continuously in vitro in stromal co-cultures overlaid with bone marrow (BM progenitors, it was hypothesised that L-DC progenitors are self-renewing. The L-DC progenitor is shown here to be defined by the Flt3-c-kit+Lin-Sca-1+ (F-KLS subset of adult BM which contains primitive HSC. Since the less primitive F+KLS HSC subset also contains L-DC progenitors, Flt3 does not appear to be a defining marker for this progenitor. Precursors of the cDC-like subset are found only within the F+KLS subset and seed production of a transient population of APC. All data identify differentiation of L-DC from HSC, and of cDC-like cells from DC precursors, which occurs independently of inflammatory signals and is dependent on a splenic stromal microenvironment.

  15. Chemokine receptor expression in tumour islets and stroma in non-small cell lung cancer

    Ohri, Chandra M; Shikotra, Aarti; Green, Ruth H; Waller, David A; Bradding, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that tumour islet infiltration by macrophages is associated with extended survival (ES) in NSCLC. We therefore hypothesised that patients with improved survival would have high tumour islet expression of chemokine receptors known to be associated with favourable prognosis in cancer. This study investigated chemokine receptor expression in the tumour islets and stroma in NSCLC. We used immunohistochemistry to identify cells expressing CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR5 and CCR1 in the tumour islets and stroma in 20 patients with surgically resected NSCLC. Correlations were made with macrophage and mast cell expression. There was increased expression of CXCR2, CXCR3, and CCR1 in the tumour islets of ES compared with poor survival (PS) patients (p = 0.007, 0.01, and 0.002, respectively). There was an association between 5 year survival and tumour islet CXCR2, CXCR3 and CCR1 density (p = 0.02, 0.003 and <0.001, respectively) as well as stromal CXCR3 density (p = 0.003). There was a positive correlation between macrophage density and CXCR3 expression (r s = 0.520, p = 0.02) and between mast cell density and CXCR3 expression (r s = 0.499, p = 0.03) in the tumour islets. Above median expression of CXCR2, CXCR3 and CCR1 in the tumour islets is associated with increased survival in NSCLC, and expression of CXCR3 correlates with increased macrophage and mast cell infiltration in the tumour islets

  16. Prognosis and submandibular gland function

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Hanaoka, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1984-01-01

    Submandibular gland function was tested with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan 10 days and 3-4 weeks after the onset Bell's palsy, and the results and prognoses were correlated. In the first report we divided the cases into groups A, B and C, and this time group D classified in S.S.R. was poor. Groups A and D can be differentiated by submandibular gland scan within 10 days after the onset; that is to say, the prognosis of more than half the cases can be determined in this early phase. Especially, it is noticeable that group D showing the poor prognosis is differentiated within 10 days after the onset. This method was compared with other tests of facial palsy. Four to five weeks after the onset all tests were of equal accuracy in predicting the prognosis of each group. Within 10 days after the onset, however, submandibular gland scan seems to be more useful than the other tests. (author)

  17. Rac1 Controls Both the Secretory Function of the Mammary Gland and Its Remodeling for Successive Gestations.

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Li, Weiping; Mironov, Aleksander; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-09-12

    An important feature of the mammary gland is its ability to undergo repeated morphological changes during each reproductive cycle with profound tissue expansion in pregnancy and regression in involution. However, the mechanisms that determine the tissue's cyclic regenerative capacity remain elusive. We have now discovered that Cre-Lox ablation of Rac1 in mammary epithelia causes gross enlargement of the epithelial tree and defective alveolar regeneration in a second pregnancy. Architectural defects arise because loss of Rac1 disrupts clearance in involution following the first lactation. We show that Rac1 is crucial for mammary alveolar epithelia to switch from secretion to a phagocytic mode and rapidly remove dying neighbors. Moreover, Rac1 restricts the extrusion of dying cells into the lumen, thus promoting their eradication by live phagocytic neighbors while within the epithelium. Without Rac1, residual milk and cell corpses flood the ductal network, causing gross dilation, chronic inflammation, and defective future regeneration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizing human vestibular sensory epithelia for experimental studies: new hair bundles on old tissue and implications for therapeutic interventions in ageing

    Taylor, Ruth R.; Jagger, Daniel J.; Saeed, Shakeel R.; Axon, Patrick; Donnelly, Neil; Tysome, James; Moffatt, David; Irving, Richard; Monksfield, Peter; Coulson, Chris; Freeman, Simon R.; Lloyd, Simon K.; Forge, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Balance disequilibrium is a significant contributor to falls in the elderly. The most common cause of balance dysfunction is loss of sensory cells from the vestibular sensory epithelia of the inner ear. However, inaccessibility of inner ear tissue in humans severely restricts possibilities for experimental manipulation to develop therapies to ameliorate this loss. We provide a structural and functional analysis of human vestibular sensory epithelia harvested at trans-labyrinthine surgery. We ...

  19. Promotion of colon cancer metastases in rat liver by fish oil diet is not due to reduced stroma formation

    Klieverik, L.; Fehres, O.; Griffini, P.; van Noorden, C. J.; Frederiks, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce 10-fold more metastases in number and 1000-fold in volume in an animal model of colon cancer metastasis in rat liver. It was observed that tumors of rats on a fish oil diet lacked peritumoral stroma unlike

  20. Association between tumor-stroma ratio and prognosis in solid tumor patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Wu, Jiayuan; Liang, Caixia; Chen, Manyu; Su, Wenmei

    2016-10-18

    Tumor-related stroma plays an active role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) in the pathologic specimen has drawn increasing attention from the field of predicting tumor prognosis. However, the prognostic value of TSR in solid tumors necessitates further elucidation. We conducted a meta-analysis on 14 studies with 4238 patients through a comprehensive electronic search on databases updated on May 2016 to explore the relationship between TSR and prognosis of solid tumors. The overall hazard ratio showed that rich stroma in tumor tissue was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (14 studies, 4238 patients) and disease-free survival (DFS) (9 studies, 2235 patients) of patients with solid tumors. The effect of low TSR on poor OS was observed among various cancer types, but not in the early stage of cervical caner. A significant relationship between low TSR and poor OS was also observed in the subgroup analyses based on study region, blinding status, and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) score. Subgroup analyses indicated that cancer type, clinical stage, study region, blinding status, and NOS score did not affect the prognostic value of TSR for DFS. Moreover, low TSR was significantly correlated with the serious clinical stage, advanced depth of invasion, and positive lymph node metastasis. These findings indicate that a high proportion of stroma in cancer tissue is associated with poor clinical outcomes in cancer patients, and TSR may serve as an independent prognostic factor for solid tumors.

  1. Novel protein phosphorylation site identification in spinach stroma membranes by titanium dioxide microcolumns and tandem mass spectrometry

    Rinalducci, Sara; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2006-01-01

    In this work, spinach stroma membrane, instead of thylakoid, has been investigated for the presence of phosphorylated proteins. We identified seven previously unknown phosphorylation sites by taking advantage of TiO(2) phosphopeptides enrichment coupled to mass spectrometric analysis. Upon...

  2. Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways

    Lund, Leif R; Romer, John; Thomasset, Nicole; Solberg, Helene; Pyke, Charles; Bissell, Mina J; Dano, Keld; Werb, Zena

    1996-01-01

    Postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by two distinct physiological events: apoptosis of the secretory, epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death, and proteolytic degradation of the mammary gland basement membrane. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of apoptotic cells in relation to those of proteinases during involution of the BALB/c mouse mammary gland. Apoptosis was almost absent during lactation but became evident at day 2 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was still high. Apoptotic cells were then seen at least up to day 8 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was being extinguished. Expression of sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2), interleukin-1{beta} converting enzyme (ICE) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 was upregulated at day 2, when apoptotic cells were seen initially. Expression of the matrix metalloproteinases gelatinase A and stromelysin-1 and the serine proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which was low during lactation, was strongly upregulated in parallel starting at day 4 after weaning, coinciding with start of the collapse of the lobulo-alveolar structures and the intensive tissue remodeling in involution. The major sites of mRNA synthesis for these proteinases were fibroblast-like cells in the periductal stroma and stromal cells surrounding the collapsed alveoli, suggesting that the degradative phase of involution is due to a specialized mesenchymal-epithelial interaction. To elucidate the functional role of these proteinases during involution, at the onset of weaning we treated mice systemically with the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone, which is known to inhibit mammary gland involution. Although the initial wave of apoptotic cells appeared in the lumina of the gland, the dramatic regression and tissue remodeling usually evident by day 5 was substantially inhibited by systemic treatment with hydrocortisone. mRNA and protein for gelatinase A, stromelysin

  3. Mechanism of primitive duct formation in the pancreas and submandibular glands: a role for SDF-1

    Courtoy Pierre J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exocrine pancreas is composed of a branched network of ducts connected to acini. They are lined by a monolayered epithelium that derives from the endoderm and is surrounded by mesoderm-derived mesenchyme. The morphogenic mechanisms by which the ductal network is established as well as the signaling pathways involved in this process are poorly understood. Results By morphological analyzis of wild-type and mutant mouse embryos and using cultured embryonic explants we investigated how epithelial morphogenesis takes place and is regulated by chemokine signaling. Pancreas ontogenesis displayed a sequence of two opposite epithelial transitions. During the first transition, the monolayered and polarized endodermal cells give rise to tissue buds composed of a mass of non polarized epithelial cells. During the second transition the buds reorganize into branched and polarized epithelial monolayers that further differentiate into tubulo-acinar glands. We found that the second epithelial transition is controlled by the chemokine Stromal cell-Derived Factor (SDF-1. The latter is expressed by the mesenchyme, whereas its receptor CXCR4 is expressed by the epithelium. Reorganization of cultured pancreatic buds into monolayered epithelia was blocked in the presence of AMD3100, a SDF-1 antagonist. Analyzis of sdf1 and cxcr4 knockout embryos at the stage of the second epithelial transition revealed transient defective morphogenesis of the ventral and dorsal pancreas. Reorganization of a globular mass of epithelial cells in polarized monolayers is also observed during submandibular glands development. We found that SDF-1 and CXCR4 are expressed in this organ and that AMD3100 treatment of submandibular gland explants blocks its branching morphogenesis. Conclusion In conclusion, our data show that the primitive pancreatic ductal network, which is lined by a monolayered and polarized epithelium, forms by remodeling of a globular mass of non

  4. Radiotherapy for a cystadenolymphoma of the parotid gland (Warthin's tumor)

    Stallmann, C.; Vacha, P.; Vesely, H.; Richter, E.; Feyerabend, T.

    2001-01-01

    Background: With 17.6% of all primary parotid neoformations the benign Warthin's tumor (cystadenolymphoma) is the second common parotid gland tumor. Males > 50 years are affected predominantly. After surgery the recurrence rate is less than 5%. Histomorphologically the tumor is characterized by cystoid ducts lined by epithelial cells as well as lymphoid stroma. The lymphoid component has been described as radioresponsive whereas the epithelial parts are less radiosensitive. Since 1960 only one patient treated by primary radiotherapy has been published. Case report: A 77-year-old woman suffered from cystadenolymphoma (maximal diameter 7 cm). Because of its extension and the reduced performance status of the patient surgery was no option. Radiotherapy was performed with a total dose of 50 Gy. Clinically, the tumor regressed completely after 30 Gy, which was confirmed by CT at 6 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. After 6 and 12 months the patient stayed free of tumor. Epicrisis: In our case the cystadenolymphoma was unusually large (7 cm). Radiotherapy with 50 Gy induced complete tumor regression. The good clinical response after 30 Gy suggests that the necessary dose may be lower for less extended cystadenolymphomas. Conclusion: We present a case of cystadenolymphoma treated by radiotherapy with 50 Gy resulting in a complete remission. Due to missing published experiences no common recommendation for the total dose can be given. In the following situations radiotherapy should be considered: 1. high surgical risk of damage to the facial nerve, 2. unfavorable cosmetic outcome after surgery, 3. inoperability for internal risks, 4. refusal of operation. (orig.) [de

  5. Radiological diagnosis of the adrenal glands

    Engelbrecht, V.

    2005-01-01

    The adrenal gland is a common site of disease involving hormonal dysfunction as well as benign and malignant masses. Radiology, especially computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR), plays a critical role in detecting and characterizing diseases affecting the adrenal gland. This paper contains a summary of the most important diseases of the adrenal gland and presents criteria for differentiating between benign and malignant masses as well as an algorithm for the diagnostic steps in incidentaloma. (orig.)

  6. Secreted aspartic proteases are not required for invasion of reconstituted human epithelia by Candida albicans.

    Lermann, Ulrich; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2008-11-01

    A well-known virulence attribute of the human-pathogenic yeast Candida albicans is the secretion of aspartic proteases (Saps), which may contribute to colonization and infection of different host niches by degrading tissue barriers, destroying host defence molecules, or digesting proteins for nutrient supply. The role of individual Sap isoenzymes, which are encoded by a large gene family, for the pathogenicity of C. albicans has been investigated by assessing the virulence of mutants lacking specific SAP genes and by studying the expression pattern of the SAP genes in various models of superficial and systemic infections. We used a recombination-based genetic reporter system to detect the induction of the SAP1-SAP6 genes during infection of reconstituted human vaginal epithelium. Only SAP5, but none of the other tested SAP genes, was detectably activated in this in vitro infection model. To directly address the importance of the SAP1-SAP6 genes for invasion of reconstituted human epithelia (RHE), we constructed a set of mutants of the wild-type C. albicans model strain SC5314 in which either single or multiple SAP genes were specifically deleted. Even mutants lacking all of the SAP1-SAP3 or the SAP4-SAP6 genes displayed the same capacity to invade and damage both oral and vaginal RHE as their wild-type parental strain, in contrast to a nonfilamentous efg1Delta mutant that was avirulent under these conditions. We therefore conclude from these results that the secreted aspartic proteases Sap1p-Sap6p are not required for invasion of RHE by C. albicans.

  7. Retention of differentiated characteristics by cultures of defined rabbit kidney epithelia.

    Wilson, P D; Anderson, R J; Breckon, R D; Nathrath, W; Schrier, R W

    1987-02-01

    epithelia in the kidney.

  8. Sidestream smoke exposure increases the susceptibility of airway epithelia to adenoviral infection.

    Priyanka Sharma

    Full Text Available Although significant epidemiological evidence indicates that cigarette smoke exposure increases the incidence and severity of viral infection, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of the respiratory tract to viral pathogens are unclear. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses and important causative agents of acute respiratory disease. The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR is the primary receptor for many adenoviruses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure increases epithelial susceptibility to adenovirus infection by increasing the abundance of apical CAR.Cultured human airway epithelial cells (CaLu-3 were used as a model to investigate the effect of sidestream cigarette smoke (SSS, mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS, or control air exposure on the susceptibility of polarized respiratory epithelia to adenoviral infection. Using a Cultex air-liquid interface exposure system, we have discovered novel differences in epithelial susceptibility between SSS and MSS exposures. SSS exposure upregulates an eight-exon isoform of CAR and increases adenoviral entry from the apical surface whilst MSS exposure is similar to control air exposure. Additionally, the level of cellular glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β is downregulated by SSS exposure and treatment with a specific GSK3β inhibitor recapitulates the effects of SSS exposure on CAR expression and viral infection.This is the first time that SSS exposure has been shown to directly enhance the susceptibility of a polarized epithelium to infection by a common respiratory viral pathogen. This work provides a novel understanding of the impact of SSS on the burden of respiratory viral infections and may lead to new strategies to alter viral infections. Moreover, since GSK3β inhibitors are under intense clinical investigation as therapeutics for a diverse range of diseases, studies such as these might provide insight to extend the use of clinically relevant

  9. Effects of airway surface liquid height on the kinetics of extracellular nucleotides in airway epithelia.

    Amarante, Tauanne D; da Silva, Jafferson K L; Garcia, Guilherme J M

    2014-12-21

    Experimental techniques aimed at measuring the concentration of signaling molecules in the airway surface liquid (ASL) often require an unrealistically large ASL volume to facilitate sampling. This experimental limitation, prompted by the difficulty of pipetting liquid from a very shallow layer (~15 μm), leads to dilution and the under-prediction of physiologic concentrations of signaling molecules that are vital to the regulation of mucociliary clearance. Here, we use a computational model to describe the effect of liquid height on the kinetics of extracellular nucleotides in the airway surface liquid coating respiratory epithelia. The model consists of a reaction-diffusion equation with boundary conditions that represent the enzymatic reactions occurring on the epithelial surface. The simulations reproduce successfully the kinetics of extracellular ATP following hypotonic challenge for ASL volumes ranging from 25 μl to 500 μl in a 12-mm diameter cell culture. The model reveals that [ATP] and [ADO] reach 1200 nM and 2200 nM at the epithelial surface, respectively, while their volumetric averages remain less than 200 nM at all times in experiments with a large ASL volume (500 μl). These findings imply that activation of P2Y2 and A2B receptors is robust after hypotonic challenge, in contrast to what could be concluded based on experimental measurements of volumetric concentrations in large ASL volumes. Finally, given the central role that ATP and ADO play in regulating mucociliary clearance, we investigated which enzymes, when inhibited, provide the greatest increase in ATP and ADO concentrations. Our findings suggest that inhibition of NTPDase1/highTNAP would cause the greatest increase in [ATP] after hypotonic challenge, while inhibition of the transporter CNT3 would provide the greatest increase in [ADO]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment with Entinostat Heals Experimental Cholera by Affecting Physical and Chemical Barrier Functions of Intestinal Epithelia.

    Sarker, Protim; Banik, Atanu; Stromberg, Roger; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Raqib, Rubhana; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2017-07-01

    We have shown previously that oral treatment with sodium butyrate or phenylbutyrate in an experimental model of shigellosis improves clinical outcomes and induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide CAP-18 in the large intestinal epithelia. In a subsequent study, we found that entinostat, an aroylated phenylenediamine compound, has similar therapeutic potential against shigellosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate entinostat as a potential candidate for host-directed therapy against cholera in an experimental model. Vibrio cholerae -infected rabbits were treated with two different dose regimens of entinostat: either 0.5 mg twice daily for 2 days or 1 mg once daily for 2 days. The effects of treatment on clinical outcomes and V. cholerae shedding (CFU count in stool) were observed. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to assess CAP-18 expression in ileal and jejunal mucosae. The serum zonulin level was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to evaluate gut permeability. Infection of rabbits with V. cholerae downregulated CAP-18 expression in the ileal epithelium; the expression was replenished by oral treatment with entinostat at either dose regimen. The level of zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, in serum was upregulated after infection, and this upregulation was counteracted after treatment with entinostat. Entinostat treatment also led to recovery from cholera and a decline in the V. cholerae count in stool. In conclusion, the improved clinical outcome of cholera for rabbits treated with entinostat is associated with the induction of CAP-18 and the reduction of gut epithelial permeability. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human ciliary body epithelia.

    Sarah F Janssen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The ciliary body (CB of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE and pigmented (PE neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular signatures for the NPE and PE and studied possible new clues for glaucoma. METHODS: We isolated NPE and PE cells from seven healthy human donor eyes using laser dissection microscopy. Next, we performed RNA isolation, amplification, labeling and hybridization against 44×k Agilent microarrays. For microarray conformations, we used a literature study, RT-PCRs, and immunohistochemical stainings. We analyzed the gene expression data with R and with the knowledge database Ingenuity. RESULTS: The gene expression profiles and functional annotations of the NPE and PE were highly similar. We found that the most important functionalities of the NPE and PE were related to developmental processes, neural nature of the tissue, endocrine and metabolic signaling, and immunological functions. In total 1576 genes differed statistically significantly between NPE and PE. From these genes, at least 3 were cell-specific for the NPE and 143 for the PE. Finally, we observed high expression in the (NPE of 35 genes previously implicated in molecular mechanisms related to glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Our gene expression analysis suggested that the NPE and PE of the CB were quite similar. Nonetheless, cell-type specific differences were found. The molecular machineries of the human NPE and PE are involved in a range of neuro-endocrinological, developmental and immunological functions, and perhaps glaucoma.

  12. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lacrimal Gland Pathologies from an Anatomical Perspective

    Mahmut Sinan Abit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients in our daily practice have one or more ocular surface disorders including conjucntivitis, keratitis, dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact lens related symptoms, refractive errors,computer vision syndrome. Lacrimal gland has an important role in all above mentioned pathologies due to its major secretory product. An anatomical and physiological knowledge about lacrimal gland is a must in understanding basic and common ophthalmological cases. İn this paper it is aimed to explain the lacrimal gland diseases from an anatomical perspective.

  14. Exocrine glands of Schwarziana quadripunctata (Hymenoptera, Apinae, Meliponini

    C. CRUZ-LANDIM

    Full Text Available This article describes the location, anatomy, histology and ontogeny of adult Schwarziana quadripunctata exocrine glands. These glands appear either as individualized organs (salivary gland system and Dufour gland or as epidermis differentiation (tegumentary glands. Variations in the occurrence and degree of development among colony components with regard to their degree of maturity are also described.

  15. Monitoring In-Vivo the Mammary Gland Microstructure during Morphogenesis from Lactation to Post-Weaning Using Diffusion Tensor MRI.

    Nissan, Noam; Furman-Haran, Edna; Shapiro-Feinberg, Myra; Grobgeld, Dov; Degani, Hadassa

    2017-09-01

    Lactation and the return to the pre-conception state during post-weaning are regulated by hormonal induced processes that modify the microstructure of the mammary gland, leading to changes in the features of the ductal / glandular tissue, the stroma and the fat tissue. These changes create a challenge in the radiological workup of breast disorder during lactation and early post-weaning. Here we present non-invasive MRI protocols designed to record in vivo high spatial resolution, T 2 -weighted images and diffusion tensor images of the entire mammary gland. Advanced imaging processing tools enabled tracking the changes in the anatomical and microstructural features of the mammary gland from the time of lactation to post-weaning. Specifically, by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) it was possible to quantitatively distinguish between the ductal / glandular tissue distention during lactation and the post-weaning involution. The application of the T 2 -weighted imaging and DTI is completely safe, non-invasive and uses intrinsic contrast based on differences in transverse relaxation rates and water diffusion rates in various directions, respectively. This study provides a basis for further in-vivo monitoring of changes during the mammary developmental stages, as well as identifying changes due to malignant transformation in patients with pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC).

  16. Morphological Features of the Porcine Lacrimal Gland and Its Compatibility for Human Lacrimal Gland Xenografting

    Henker, Robert; Scholz, Michael; Gaffling, Simone; Asano, Nagayoshi; Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian; Hornegger, Joachim; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain ...

  17. SU-E-J-248: Contributions of Tumor and Stroma Phenotyping in Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    Li, H; Lan, L; Sennett, C; Giger, M [Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To gain insight into the role of parenchyma stroma in the characterization of breast tumors by incorporating computerized mammographic parenchyma assessment into breast CADx in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. Methods: This study was performed on 182 biopsy-proven breast mass lesions, including 76 benign and 106 malignant lesions. For each full-field digital mammogram (FFDM) case, our quantitative imaging analysis was performed on both the tumor and a region-of-interest (ROI) from the normal contralateral breast. The lesion characterization includes automatic lesion segmentation and feature extraction. Radiographic texture analysis (RTA) was applied on the normal ROIs to assess the mammographic parenchymal patterns of these contralateral normal breasts. Classification performance of both individual computer extracted features and the output from a Bayesian artificial neural network (BANN) were evaluated with a leave-one-lesion-out method using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with area under the curve (AUC) as the figure of merit. Results: Lesion characterization included computer-extracted phenotypes of spiculation, size, shape, and margin. For parenchymal pattern characterization, five texture features were selected, including power law beta, contrast, and edge gradient. Merging of these computer-selected features using BANN classifiers yielded AUC values of 0.79 (SE=0.03) and 0.67 (SE=0.04) in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions using only tumor phenotypes and texture features from the contralateral breasts, respectively. Incorporation of tumor phenotypes with parenchyma texture features into the BANN yielded improved classification performance with an AUC value of 0.83 (SE=0.03) in the task of differentiating malignant from benign lesions. Conclusion: Combining computerized tumor and parenchyma phenotyping was found to significantly improve breast cancer diagnostic accuracy

  18. Tumor-stroma metabolic relationship based on lactate shuttle can sustain prostate cancer progression

    Sanità, Patrizia; Capulli, Mattia; Teti, Anna; Galatioto, Giuseppe Paradiso; Vicentini, Carlo; Chiarugi, Paola; Bologna, Mauro; Angelucci, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cell adopts peculiar metabolic strategies aimed to sustain the continuous proliferation in an environment characterized by relevant fluctuations in oxygen and nutrient levels. Monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 can drive such adaptation permitting the transport across plasma membrane of different monocarboxylic acids involved in energy metabolism. Role of MCTs in tumor-stroma metabolic relationship was investigated in vitro and in vivo using transformed prostate epithelial cells, carcinoma cell lines and normal fibroblasts. Moreover prostate tissues from carcinoma and benign hypertrophy cases were analyzed for individuating clinical-pathological implications of MCT1 and MCT4 expression. Transformed prostate epithelial (TPE) and prostate cancer (PCa) cells express both MCT1 and MCT4 and demonstrated variable dependence on aerobic glycolysis for maintaining their proliferative rate. In glucose-restriction the presence of L-lactate determined, after 24 h of treatment, in PCa cells the up-regulation of MCT1 and of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1), and reduced the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase respect to untreated cells. The blockade of MCT1 function, performed by si RNA silencing, determined an appreciable antiproliferative effect when L-lactate was utilized as energetic fuel. Accordingly L-lactate released by high glycolytic human diploid fibroblasts WI-38 sustained survival and growth of TPE and PCa cells in low glucose culture medium. In parallel, the treatment with conditioned medium from PCa cells was sufficient to induce glycolytic metabolism in WI-38 cells, with upregulation of HIF-1a and MCT4. Co-injection of PCa cells with high glycolytic WI-38 fibroblasts determined an impressive increase in tumor growth rate in a xenograft model that was abrogated by MCT1 silencing in PCa cells. The possible interplay based on L-lactate shuttle between tumor and stroma was confirmed also in human PCa tissue where we observed a positive

  19. The presence of tumor associated macrophages in tumor stroma as a prognostic marker for breast cancer patients

    Medrek, Catharina; Pontén, Fredrik; Jirström, Karin; Leandersson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are alternatively activated macrophages that enhance tumor progression by promoting tumor cell invasion, migration and angiogenesis. TAMs have an anti-inflammatory function resembling M2 macrophages. CD163 is regarded as a highly specific monocyte/macrophage marker for M2 macrophages. In this study we evaluated the specificity of using the M2 macrophage marker CD163 as a TAM marker and compared its prognostic value with the more frequently used pan-macrophage marker CD68. We also analyzed the prognostic value of the localization of CD163 + and CD68 + myeloid cells in human breast cancer. The extent of infiltrating CD163 + or CD68 + myeloid cells in tumor nest versus tumor stroma was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays with tumors from 144 breast cancer cases. Spearman’s Rho and χ 2 tests were used to examine the correlations between CD163 + or CD68 + myeloid cells and clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the impact of CD163 + and CD68 + myeloid cells in tumor stroma and tumor nest, respectively, on recurrence free survival, breast cancer specific and overall survival. We found that infiltration of CD163 + and CD68 + macrophages into tumor stroma, but not into tumor nest, were of clinical relevance. CD163 + macrophages in tumor stroma positively correlated with higher grade, larger tumor size, Ki67 positivity, estrogen receptor negativity, progesterone receptor negativity, triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer and inversely correlated with luminal A breast cancer. Some CD163 + areas lacked CD68 expression, suggesting that CD163 could be used as a general anti-inflammatory myeloid marker with prognostic impact. CD68 + macrophages in tumor stroma positively correlated to tumor size and inversely correlated to luminal A breast cancer. More importantly, CD68 in tumor stroma was an independent prognostic factor for reduced breast cancer

  20. Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland in young woman: from clinical and radiological to pathological study

    Brankica Krstevska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid tumors are neoplasms of mesothelial origin, usually occurring in the male and female genital tracts. Extragenital localization sites such as adrenal glands are rare but have been reported. When found in the adrenals, they represent great clinical, radiological and pathological diagnostic challenge, with wide range of differential diagnoses to be considered. We present a case of a 30 years old female, with incidental ultrasound finding of unilateral tumor in the right adrenal gland. Multi slices CT scan was of value in localizing this tumor, but not in the precise diagnosis. The tumor ranged from 5.6 cm to 6.4 cm in greatest diameter. Clinical and hormonal examinations excluded Sy. Cushing, M. Conn and pheochromocytoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. A large tumor (d: 8×7×3 cm was removed showing no infiltration of the adrenal cortex or medulla, or extra-adrenal extension into the periadrenal adipose tissue. Histological examination showed numerous cystic spaces lined by flattened cubical epithelial cells. The small cystic spaces were separated by edematous fibrovascular stroma with rare epithelial cells with vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining was positive with vimentin (+, S100 (+, MCA mesothelial Ag (+, CD 68 (+ and negative with acitin (-, CK7 (-, CD3 (-. Adenomatoid tumor is a rare benign neoplasm that should be added in the differential diagnosis of any adrenal tumor occurring in adrenal gland. The histological and immunohistochemical profiles of this adrenal adenomatoid tumor are very supportive in reaching the diagnosis of this benign tumor of a mesothelial cell origin, helping to avoid invasive treatment.

  1. Pituitary gland imaging and outcome.

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Gallizia, Anna Lisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes. The identification of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, now considered a marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, has been the most striking advance for the diagnosis and understanding of anterior and posterior pituitary diseases. The advent of MRI has in fact led to a significant improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders that affect the hypothalamo-pituitary area. Today, there is convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that marked MRI differences in pituitary morphology indicate a diverse range of disorders which affect the organogenesis and function of the anterior pituitary gland with different prognoses. Furthermore, the association of extrapituitary malformations accurately defined by MRI has supported a better definition of several conditions linked to pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline defects. MRI is a very informative procedure that should be used to support a diagnosis of hypopituitarism. It is useful in clinical management, because it helps endocrinologists determine which patients to target for further molecular studies and genetic counselling, which ones to screen for additional hormone deficits, and which ones may need growth hormone replacement into adult life. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Schwannoma of the adrenal gland

    Anunayi Jeshtadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral schwannomas are extremely rare and are usually discov-ered incidentally on USG/CT-Scan. Primary schwannomas of the adrenal gland are extremely uncommon. It has been theorized that they originate from Schwann cells that insulate the nerve fi-bers innervating the adrenal medulla. Histopathological examina-tion coupled with immunohistochemistry provides the definitive diagnosis. A 55 year old normotensive female presented with pain in the right loin since 5 months. Her renal parameters were normal. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen showed a well delineated 6.5 x 5cms mass at upper pole of her right kidney. 24-hour urinary metanephrine was slightly elevated (3.07mg/24hrs. A decline in Serum cortisol levels was observed following a dexamethasone suppression test (18.89nmol/l. Histopathological examination revealed a spindle cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed strong and diffuse positive staining for S-100 with negative expression for CD-117, desmin, CD-34, HMB-45, synaptophysin, chromogranin, cytokeratin, and SMA. Ki-67 index was 2%.A diagnosis of cellular schwannoma of adrenal gland was confirmed.

  3. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium.

    Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy

    Full Text Available The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2(d/d, the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2(d/d mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy.

  4. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium.

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Li, Quanxi; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2(d/d)), the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2(d/d) mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy.

  5. Interference figures of polarimetric interferometry analysis of the human corneal stroma.

    Rodolfo Mastropasqua

    Full Text Available A rotating polarimetric 90°-cross linear-filter interferometry system was used to detect the morphological characteristics and features of interference patterns produced in in-vivo corneal stroma in healthy human corneas of 23 subjects. The characteristic corneal isogyres presenting with an evident cross-shaped pattern, grossly aligned with the fixation axis, were observed in all patients with centers within the pupillary dark area, impeding the exact determination of the center point. During the rotational scan in 78.3% of the eyes the cross-shaped pattern of the isogyre gradually separated to form two distinct hyperbolic arcs in opposite quadrants, reaching their maximal separation at 45 degrees with respect to angle of cross-shaped pattern formation. The corneal cross and hyperbolic-pattern repeated every 90° throughout the 360° rotational scan. While the interpretation of the isogyres presents particular difficulties, two summary parameters can be extracted for each cornea: the presence/orientation of a single or two dark areas in post-processed images and isochromes. However, the development of dedicated software for semi-quantitative analysis of these parameters and enantiomorphism may become available in the near future. The possible application of polarimetric interferometry in the field of both corneal pathologies and corneal surgery may be of great interest for clinical purposes.

  6. Functional and Homeostatic Impact of Age-Related Changes in Lymph Node Stroma

    Heather L. Thompson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adults over 65 years of age are more vulnerable to infectious disease and show poor responses to vaccination relative to those under 50. A complex set of age-related changes in the immune system is believed to be largely responsible for these defects. These changes, collectively termed immune senescence, encompass alterations in both the innate and adaptive immune systems, in the microenvironments where immune cells develop or reside, and in soluble factors that guide immune homeostasis and function. While age-related changes in primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, and, in particular, the thymus, which involutes in the first third of life have been long appreciated, changes affecting aging secondary lymphoid organs, and, in particular, aging lymph nodes (LNs have been less well characterized. Over the last 20 years, LN stromal cells have emerged as key players in maintaining LN morphology and immune homeostasis, as well as in coordinating immune responses to pathogens. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the contributions of LN stromal cells to immune senescence. We discuss approaches to understand the mechanisms behind the decline in LN stromal cells and conclude by considering potential strategies to rejuvenate aging LN stroma to improve immune homeostasis, immune responses, and vaccine efficacy in the elderly.

  7. The Complex Interaction of Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Migration of Cancer Cells through Breast Tissue Stroma

    Kerry J. Davies

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer mortality is directly linked to metastatic spread. The metastatic cell must exhibit a complex phenotype that includes the capacity to escape from the primary tumour mass, invade the surrounding normal tissue, and penetrate into the circulation before proliferating in the parenchyma of distant organs to produce a metastasis. In the normal breast, cellular structures change cyclically in response to ovarian hormones leading to regulated cell proliferation and apoptosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of zinc dependent endopeptidases. Their primary function is degradation of proteins in the extracellular matrix to allow ductal progression through the basement membrane. A complex balance between matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors regulate these changes. These proteinases interact with cytokines, growth factors, and tumour necrosis factors to stimulate branching morphologies in normal breast tissues. In breast cancer this process is disrupted facilitating tumour progression and metastasis and inhibiting apoptosis increasing the life of the metastatic cells. This paper highlights the role of matrix metalloproteinases in cell progression through the breast stroma and reviews the complex relationships between the different proteinases and their inhibitors in relation to breast cancer cells as they metastasise.

  8. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  9. Ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    Eriksen, H E; Greisen, O; Hastrup, N

    1987-06-01

    A case of ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland is described. The medical literature contains only 13 previous reports on this kind of adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The tumour is characterized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinomas of the breast and prostate. The course of previously described cases suggests that this tumour has a highly aggressive biological behaviour.

  10. Technical and theoretical considerations about gradient perfusion culture for epithelia used in tissue engineering, biomaterial testing and pharmaceutical research

    Minuth, Will W [Department of Molecular and Cellular Anatomy, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, University Street 31 (Germany); Strehl, Raimund [Cellartis AB, S-41346 Goeteborg, Arvid Wallgrens Backe 20 (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Epithelia act as biological barriers, which are exposed to different environments at the luminal and basal sides. To simulate this situation and to improve functional features an in vitro gradient perfusion culture technique was developed in our laboratory. This innovative technique appears to be simple at first sight, but the performance needs practical and theoretical knowledge. To harvest intact epithelia after a long-term gradient culture period of many days, leakage, edge damage and pressure differences in the system have to be avoided so that the epithelial barrier function is maintained continuously. Unexpectedly, one of the major obstacles are micro-injuries in the epithelia caused by gas bubbles, which arise during transportation of the medium or due to respiration of the cultured tissue. Gas bubbles randomly accumulate either at the luminal or basal fluid flow of the gradient perfusion culture container. This phenomenon results in fluid pressure differences between the luminal and basal perfusion compartments of the gradient container, which in turn leads to damage of the barrier function. Consequently, the content of gas bubbles in the transported culture medium has to be minimized. Thus, our technical concept is the reduction of gas bubbles while keeping the content of oxygen constant. To follow this strategy we developed a new type of screw cap for media bottles specifically designed to allow fluid contact only with tube and not with cap material. Furthermore, a gas expander module separates gas bubbles from the liquid phase during transportation of the medium. Finally, a new type of gradient culture container allows a permanent elimination of transported gas bubbles. Application of this innovative equipment optimizes the parallel transportation of fluid in the luminal and basal compartments of a gradient culture container. (topical review)

  11. An in vitro biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver binding to cultured gill epithelia of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Zhou Bingsheng; Nichols, Joel; Playle, Richard C.; Wood, Chris M.

    2005-01-01

    'Reconstructed' gill epithelia on filter supports were grown in primary culture from dispersed gill cells of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This preparation contains both pavement cells and chloride cells, and after 7-9 days in culture, permits exposure of the apical surface to true freshwater while maintaining blood-like culture media on the basolateral surface, and exhibits a stable transepithelial resistance (TER) and transepithelial potential (TEP) under these conditions. These epithelia were used to develop a possible in vitro version of the biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver; the in vivo BLM uses short-term gill binding of the metal to predict acute silver toxicity as a function of freshwater chemistry. Radio-labeled silver ( 110m Ag as AgNO 3 ) was placed on the apical side (freshwater), and the appearance of 110m Ag in the epithelia (binding) and in the basolateral media (flux) over 3 h were monitored. Silver binding (greater than the approximate range 0-100 μg l -1 ) and silver flux were concentration-dependent with a 50% saturation point (apparent K d ) value of about 10 μg l -1 or 10 -7 M, very close to the 96-h LC50 in vivo in the same water chemistry. There were no adverse effects of silver on TER, TEP, or Na + , K + -ATPase activity, though the latter declined over longer exposures, as in vivo. Silver flux over 3 h was small ( + and dissolved organic carbon (humic acid) concentrations, increased by elevations in freshwater Cl - and reductions in pH, and insensitive to elevations in Ca 2+ . With the exception of the pH response, these effects were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to in vivo BLM responses. The results suggest that an in vitro BLM approach may provide a simple and cost-effective way for evaluating the protective effects of site-specific waters

  12. Technical and theoretical considerations about gradient perfusion culture for epithelia used in tissue engineering, biomaterial testing and pharmaceutical research

    Minuth, Will W; Strehl, Raimund

    2007-01-01

    Epithelia act as biological barriers, which are exposed to different environments at the luminal and basal sides. To simulate this situation and to improve functional features an in vitro gradient perfusion culture technique was developed in our laboratory. This innovative technique appears to be simple at first sight, but the performance needs practical and theoretical knowledge. To harvest intact epithelia after a long-term gradient culture period of many days, leakage, edge damage and pressure differences in the system have to be avoided so that the epithelial barrier function is maintained continuously. Unexpectedly, one of the major obstacles are micro-injuries in the epithelia caused by gas bubbles, which arise during transportation of the medium or due to respiration of the cultured tissue. Gas bubbles randomly accumulate either at the luminal or basal fluid flow of the gradient perfusion culture container. This phenomenon results in fluid pressure differences between the luminal and basal perfusion compartments of the gradient container, which in turn leads to damage of the barrier function. Consequently, the content of gas bubbles in the transported culture medium has to be minimized. Thus, our technical concept is the reduction of gas bubbles while keeping the content of oxygen constant. To follow this strategy we developed a new type of screw cap for media bottles specifically designed to allow fluid contact only with tube and not with cap material. Furthermore, a gas expander module separates gas bubbles from the liquid phase during transportation of the medium. Finally, a new type of gradient culture container allows a permanent elimination of transported gas bubbles. Application of this innovative equipment optimizes the parallel transportation of fluid in the luminal and basal compartments of a gradient culture container. (topical review)

  13. Propagation of respiratory viruses in human airway epithelia reveals persistent virus-specific signatures.

    Essaidi-Laziosi, Manel; Brito, Francisco; Benaoudia, Sacha; Royston, Léna; Cagno, Valeria; Fernandes-Rocha, Mélanie; Piuz, Isabelle; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Huang, Song; Constant, Samuel; Boldi, Marc-Olivier; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

    2018-06-01

    The leading cause of acute illnesses, respiratory viruses, typically cause self-limited diseases, although severe complications can occur in fragile patients. Rhinoviruses (RVs), respiratory enteroviruses (EVs), influenza virus, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs), and coronaviruses are highly prevalent respiratory pathogens, but because of the lack of reliable animal models, their differential pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. We sought to compare infections by respiratory viruses isolated from clinical specimens using reconstituted human airway epithelia. Tissues were infected with RV-A55, RV-A49, RV-B48, RV-C8, and RV-C15; respiratory EV-D68; influenza virus H3N2; RSV-B; and human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43. Replication kinetics, cell tropism, effect on tissue integrity, and cytokine secretion were compared. Viral adaptation and tissue response were assessed through RNA sequencing. RVs, RSV-B, and HCoV-OC43 infected ciliated cells and caused no major cell death, whereas H3N2 and EV-D68 induced ciliated cell loss and tissue integrity disruption. H3N2 was also detected in rare goblet and basal cells. All viruses, except RV-B48 and HCoV-OC43, altered cilia beating and mucociliary clearance. H3N2 was the strongest cytokine inducer, and HCoV-OC43 was the weakest. Persistent infection was observed in all cases. RNA sequencing highlighted perturbation of tissue metabolism and induction of a transient but important immune response at 4 days after infection. No majority mutations emerged in the viral population. Our results highlight the differential in vitro pathogenesis of respiratory viruses during the acute infection phase and their ability to persist under immune tolerance. These data help to appreciate the range of disease severity observed in vivo and the occurrence of chronic respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised hosts. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years

  15. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  16. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    Ezaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Takeichi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

  17. Expression of Wnt-1, TGF-β and related cell–cell adhesion components following radiotherapy in salivary glands of patients with manifested radiogenic xerostomia

    Hakim, Samer George; Ribbat, Julika; Berndt, Alexander; Richter, Petra; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Benedek, Geza A.; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Trenkle, Thomas; Sieg, Peter; Rades, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common symptom following radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies, which significantly impairs the patient’s quality of life. In this cross-sectional study, human salivary glands were investigated to assess the role of Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β pathways in the pathogenic process of radiogenic impairment of salivary function. Methods: Irradiated human salivary glands were investigated in patients with manifested xerostomia. Alteration of Wnt-1 and cell–cell adhesion was evaluated immunohistologically as well as changes in the expression of TGF-β were assessed in salivary gland tissue. Results: We assessed two alteration patterns in which Wnt-1 expression represents one change along with up-regulation of β-catenin and E-cadherin in irradiated but viable acinar cells. Increased expression of tenascin-C was observed in sites of epithelial–mesenchymal interaction and loss of cell–cell adhesion was assessed in translocated epithelial cells in the stroma. Conclusion: Increased transdifferentiation and remodeling of acinar structures was associated with decrease of viable acinar structures. The role of Wnt and TGF signaling may provide a potential therapeutic approach to prevent radiation-induced damage to salivary glands during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurement of ovarian stroma: A potential tool for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Samanci, C; Alis, D; Ustabasioglu, F E; Ozmen, E; Ucar, A K; Aslan, M; Habibi, H A; Bakan, S; Ozcabi, B; Evliyaoğlu, S O; Adaletli, I

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of ovarian stroma in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from each women. A total of 17 women (mean age, 22.2 years±5.1 [SD]; range, 16-33 years) with a diagnosis of PCOS according to the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society criteria and 18 healthy women (mean age, 22.8 years±5.2 [SD]; range, 16-31 years) who served as a control group were included in this prospective study. ADC values of the ovarian stroma during the early follicular phase were calculated by two observers in the two groups. Comparisons were performed using the Student t-test. The mean ADC value in woman with PCOS (1.29±0.27×10 -3  mm 2 /s; range: 0.59×10 -3 - 1.88×10 -3  mm 2 /s) was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.48±0.17×10 -3 mm 2 /s; range: 1.12×10 -3 - 1.86×10 -3 mm 2 /s) (Povarian stroma are lower in patients with PCOS than in control subjects. ADC measurement of ovarian stroma in women with PCOS might help improve the diagnosis of PCOS. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer-associated stroma affects FDG uptake in experimental carcinomas. Implications for FDG-PET delineation of radiotherapy target

    Farace, Paolo; Merigo, Flavia; Galie, Mirco; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marzola, Pasquina [University of Verona, Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, Section of Anatomy and Histology, Verona (Italy); D' Ambrosio, Daniela; Nanni, Cristina; Spinelli, Antonello; Fanti, Stefano [Policlinico ' S. Orsola-Malpighi' , Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Degrassi, Anna [Nerviano Medical Sciences, Milan (Italy); Rubello, Domenico [' S. Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, PET Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rovigo (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    To analyse the influence of cancer-associated stroma on FDG-uptake in two carcinoma models characterized by different stromal degrees. Eight nude mice were subcutaneously injected with DU-145 prostate cancer cells or BXPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, and underwent FDG-PET imaging about 2 weeks after implantation. After the mice were killed, histology, and CD31 and GLUT1 immunohistochemistry were performed. To further evaluate the highly stromalized carcinoma using perfusion-sensitive imaging, four BXPC-3 tumours underwent two successive albumin-binding (MS-325) MRI scans during tumour growth. FDG uptake was significantly higher in the DU-145 than in the BXPC-3 tumours, which were hardly distinguishable from adjacent normal tissue. In the BXPC-3 tumours, histology confirmed the widespread presence of aberrant infiltrated stroma, embedded with numerous vessels marked by CD31. In both tumour types, the stromal matrix was negative for GLUT1. In DU-145 tumour cells, GLUT1 immunostaining was greater than in BXPC-3 tumour cells, but not homogeneously, since it was less evident in the tumour cells which were nearer to vessels and stroma. Finally, MS-325 MRI always clearly showed areas of enhancement in the BXPC-3 tumours. Cancer-associated stroma has been reported to be capable of aerobic metabolism with low glucose consumption. Furthermore, it has been proposed that regions with high vascular perfusion exhibit a significantly lower FDG uptake, suggesting some vascular/metabolic reciprocity. Since our results are consistent with these recent findings, they signal a risk of tumour volume underestimation in radiotherapy if FDG uptake alone is used for target delineation of carcinomas, which suggests that additional evaluation should be performed using vasculature/perfusion-sensitive imaging. (orig.)

  20. Cancer-associated stroma affects FDG uptake in experimental carcinomas. Implications for FDG-PET delineation of radiotherapy target.

    Farace, Paolo; D'Ambrosio, Daniela; Merigo, Flavia; Galiè, Mirco; Nanni, Cristina; Spinelli, Antonello; Fanti, Stefano; Degrassi, Anna; Sbarbati, Andrea; Rubello, Domenico; Marzola, Pasquina

    2009-04-01

    To analyse the influence of cancer-associated stroma on FDG-uptake in two carcinoma models characterized by different stromal degrees. Eight nude mice were subcutaneously injected with DU-145 prostate cancer cells or BXPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, and underwent FDG-PET imaging about 2 weeks after implantation. After the mice were killed, histology, and CD31 and GLUT1 immunohistochemistry were performed. To further evaluate the highly stromalized carcinoma using perfusion-sensitive imaging, four BXPC-3 tumours underwent two successive albumin-binding (MS-325) MRI scans during tumour growth. FDG uptake was significantly higher in the DU-145 than in the BXPC-3 tumours, which were hardly distinguishable from adjacent normal tissue. In the BXPC-3 tumours, histology confirmed the widespread presence of aberrant infiltrated stroma, embedded with numerous vessels marked by CD31. In both tumour types, the stromal matrix was negative for GLUT1. In DU-145 tumour cells, GLUT1 immunostaining was greater than in BXPC-3 tumour cells, but not homogeneously, since it was less evident in the tumour cells which were nearer to vessels and stroma. Finally, MS-325 MRI always clearly showed areas of enhancement in the BXPC-3 tumours. Cancer-associated stroma has been reported to be capable of aerobic metabolism with low glucose consumption. Furthermore, it has been proposed that regions with high vascular perfusion exhibit a significantly lower FDG uptake, suggesting some vascular/metabolic reciprocity. Since our results are consistent with these recent findings, they signal a risk of tumour volume underestimation in radiotherapy if FDG uptake alone is used for target delineation of carcinomas, which suggests that additional evaluation should be performed using vasculature/perfusion-sensitive imaging.

  1. Cancer-associated stroma affects FDG uptake in experimental carcinomas. Implications for FDG-PET delineation of radiotherapy target

    Farace, Paolo; Merigo, Flavia; Galie, Mirco; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marzola, Pasquina; D'Ambrosio, Daniela; Nanni, Cristina; Spinelli, Antonello; Fanti, Stefano; Degrassi, Anna; Rubello, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    To analyse the influence of cancer-associated stroma on FDG-uptake in two carcinoma models characterized by different stromal degrees. Eight nude mice were subcutaneously injected with DU-145 prostate cancer cells or BXPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, and underwent FDG-PET imaging about 2 weeks after implantation. After the mice were killed, histology, and CD31 and GLUT1 immunohistochemistry were performed. To further evaluate the highly stromalized carcinoma using perfusion-sensitive imaging, four BXPC-3 tumours underwent two successive albumin-binding (MS-325) MRI scans during tumour growth. FDG uptake was significantly higher in the DU-145 than in the BXPC-3 tumours, which were hardly distinguishable from adjacent normal tissue. In the BXPC-3 tumours, histology confirmed the widespread presence of aberrant infiltrated stroma, embedded with numerous vessels marked by CD31. In both tumour types, the stromal matrix was negative for GLUT1. In DU-145 tumour cells, GLUT1 immunostaining was greater than in BXPC-3 tumour cells, but not homogeneously, since it was less evident in the tumour cells which were nearer to vessels and stroma. Finally, MS-325 MRI always clearly showed areas of enhancement in the BXPC-3 tumours. Cancer-associated stroma has been reported to be capable of aerobic metabolism with low glucose consumption. Furthermore, it has been proposed that regions with high vascular perfusion exhibit a significantly lower FDG uptake, suggesting some vascular/metabolic reciprocity. Since our results are consistent with these recent findings, they signal a risk of tumour volume underestimation in radiotherapy if FDG uptake alone is used for target delineation of carcinomas, which suggests that additional evaluation should be performed using vasculature/perfusion-sensitive imaging. (orig.)

  2. Local lymphocytes and nitric oxide synthase in the uterine cervical stroma of patients with grade III cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Cléber Sergio da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Precancerous and cancerous cells can trigger an immune response that may limit tumor development and can be used as a prognostic marker. The aims of the present study were to quantify the presence of B and T lymphocytes, macrophages and cells expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the cervical stroma of women with grade III cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III or in the intratumoral and peritumoral tissue of women with stage I invasive carcinoma. METHODS: Cervical tissue specimens were obtained from 60 women (20 each from control tissues, CIN III and invasive carcinomas. The average ages in the control, CIN III and invasive groups were 43.9 (± 4.3, 35.5 (± 9.5, and 50 (± 11.2 years, respectively. The specimens were immunohistochemically labeled with antibodies to identify T lymphocytes (CD3, cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD8, B lymphocytes (CD20, macrophages (CD68 and iNOS. We evaluated the markers in the stroma above the squamocolumnar junction (control, at the intraepithelial lesion (CIN cases, and in the nfiltrating tumor. Two independent observers performed the immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages and iNOS were present more frequently (P<0.05 in the stroma of peritumoral invasive tumors compared to the controls and intratumoral invasive cancer samples. CD3+ and CD20+ lymphocytes were present more frequently in CIN III patients compared to samples from patients with intratumoral invasive cancer (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: High numbers of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages and iNOS-expressing cells in the peritumoral stroma of the invasive tumors were observed. Cell migration appeared to be proportional to the progression of the lesion.

  3. Insulin/IGF-driven cancer cell-stroma crosstalk as a novel therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.

    Mutgan, Ayse Ceren; Besikcioglu, H Erdinc; Wang, Shenghan; Friess, Helmut; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Demir, Ihsan Ekin

    2018-02-23

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unrivalled the deadliest gastrointestinal cancer in the western world. There is substantial evidence implying that insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis prompt PDAC into an advanced stage by enhancing tumor growth, metastasis and by driving therapy resistance. Numerous efforts have been made to block Insulin/IGF signaling pathway in cancer therapy. However, therapies that target the IGF1 receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF subtypes (IGF-1 and IGF-2) have been repeatedly unsuccessful. This failure may not only be due to the complexity and homology that is shared by Insulin and IGF receptors, but also due to the complex stroma-cancer interactions in the pancreas. Shedding light on the interactions between the endocrine/exocrine pancreas and the stroma in PDAC is likely to steer us toward the development of novel treatments. In this review, we highlight the stroma-derived IGF signaling and IGF-binding proteins as potential novel therapeutic targets in PDAC.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Individual Stromal Cell Populations Identifies Stroma-Tumor Crosstalk in Mouse Lung Cancer Model

    Hyejin Choi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging studies have begun to demonstrate that reprogrammed stromal cells play pivotal roles in tumor growth, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. However, the contribution of stromal cells to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC has remained underexplored. We used an orthotopic model of Kras-driven NSCLC to systematically dissect the contribution of specific hematopoietic stromal cells in lung cancer. RNA deep-sequencing analysis of individually sorted myeloid lineage and tumor epithelial cells revealed cell-type-specific differentially regulated genes, indicative of activated stroma. We developed a computational model for crosstalk signaling discovery based on ligand-receptor interactions and downstream signaling networks and identified known and novel tumor-stroma paracrine and tumor autocrine crosstalk-signaling pathways in NSCLC. We provide cellular and molecular insights into components of the lung cancer microenvironment that contribute to carcinogenesis. This study has the potential for development of therapeutic strategies that target tumor-stroma interactions and may complement conventional anti-cancer treatments.

  5. Cellular proliferation rate and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and IGFBP-3 and estradiol receptor alpha expression in the mammary gland of dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes during development.

    Perri, A F; Dallard, B E; Baravalle, C; Licoff, N; Formía, N; Ortega, H H; Becú-Villalobos, D; Mejia, M E; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary ductal morphogenesis during prepuberty occurs mainly in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and estradiol stimulation. Dairy heifers infected with gastrointestinal nematodes have reduced IGF-1 levels, accompanied by reduced growth rate, delayed puberty onset, and lower parenchyma-stroma relationship in their mammary glands. Immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to determine variations in cell division rate, IGF-1 system components, and estradiol receptors (ESR) during peripubertal development in the mammary glands of antiparasitic-treated and untreated Holstein heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Mammary biopsies were taken at 20, 30, 40, and 70 wk of age. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunolabeling, evident in nuclei, tended to be higher in the parenchyma of the glands from treated heifers than in those from untreated. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) type 2 and type 3 immunolabeling was cytoplasmic and was evident in stroma and parenchyma. The IGFBP2-labeled area was lower in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, a maximal expression of this protein was seen at 40 wk of age, whereas in the untreated group the labeling remained constant. No differences were observed for IGFBP3 between treatment groups or during development. Immunolabeling for α ESR (ESR1) was evident in parenchymal nuclei and was higher in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, ESR1 peaked at 30 wk of age and then decreased. These results demonstrate that the parasite burden in young heifers negatively influence mammary gland development, affecting cell division rate and parameters related to estradiol and IGF-1 signaling in the gland. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The metapleural gland of ants

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-01-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions......-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG...... is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional...

  7. Ultrastructural study on the effects of retrograde infusion of water-soluble contrast medium the rabbit submandibular gland

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Park, Tae Won

    1987-01-01

    The author observed the effects of retrograde infusion of water soluble contrast media (Telebrix 30) on the rabbit submandibular glands and compared the effects of different degrees of filling. 26 rabbit were divided into 2 group of 1 2 each as experimental and 1 group of 2 as normal controls. One experimental group was filed with 0.2 ml and the other with 0.4 ml. Right submandibular gland of each rabbit was infused with contrast media and left one with physiologic saline as a ex perimental control, at a constant rate of 0.12 ml/min. Using an infusion pump via the main excretory duct. Immediately after the inclusion of contrast media, oblique lateral radiographs of the glands were made with occlusal film in order to confirm the glandular filling. The rabbit were sacrificed after varying periods (1, 8, 24 hours and 3, 6, 10 days) and the tissues were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. The results were as follows: 1. In glands filled with 0.2 ml contrast media, the initial changes were a few vacuole formation in the acini and slight dilation of the intralobular duct. The moderately severe changes such as vacuole formation in the acini, the abnormal substructure within the secretory granule, dilation of acinar and intercalated duct lumen, scalloping of striated duct lumen and inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed at 3 days. The general appearance was successively recovered, so the tissue had a normal appearance at 10 days. 2. In glands filled with 0.4 ml contrast media, the most prominent alterations such as severe acinar atrophy, decreased number of secretory granules, proliferation of connective tissue stroma and pronounced inflammatory cell infiltrates appeared at 6 days. Although the general appearance returned to be almost normal at 10 days, acinar cells showed some atrophy and decreased secretory granules. 3. In glands subjected to 0.4 ml infusion, the alterations were more severe and recovery was slower than those seen in the glands

  8. How Mucosal Epithelia Deal with Stress: Role of NKG2D/NKG2D Ligands during Inflammation

    Fabrizio Antonangeli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal epithelia encounter both physicochemical and biological stress during their life and have evolved several mechanisms to deal with them, including regulation of immune cell functions. Stressed and damaged cells need to be cleared to control local inflammation and trigger tissue healing. Engagement of the activating NKG2D receptor is one of the most direct mechanisms involved in the recognition of stressed cells by the immune system. Indeed, injured cells promptly express NKG2D ligands that in turn mediate the activation of lymphocytes of both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. This review focuses on different conditions that are able to modulate NKG2D ligand expression on the epithelia. Special attention is given to the mechanisms of immunosurveillance mediated by natural killer cells, which are finely tuned by NKG2D. Different types of stress, including viral and bacterial infections, chronic inflammation, and cigarette smoke exposure, are discussed as paradigmatic conditions for NKG2D ligand modulation, and the implications for tissue homeostasis are discussed.

  9. Adenovirus entry from the apical surface of polarized epithelia is facilitated by the host innate immune response.

    Poornima L N Kotha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Recently, an alternate isoform of CAR, CAREx8, has been identified at the apical surface of polarized airway epithelia and is implicated in viral infection from the apical surface. We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity. We show that IL-8, a proinflammatory cytokine and a neutrophil chemoattractant, stimulates the protein expression and apical localization of CAREx8 via activation of AKT/S6K and inhibition of GSK3β. Apical CAREx8 tethers infiltrating neutrophils at the apical surface of a polarized epithelium. Moreover, neutrophils present on the apical-epithelial surface enhance adenovirus entry into the epithelium. These findings suggest that adenovirus evolved to co-opt an innate immune response pathway that stimulates the expression of its primary receptor, apical CAREx8, to allow the initial infection the intact epithelium. In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection.

  10. Autoradiographic investigations on the question of diurnal variations of cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice

    Herterich, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    In this work the question was investigated whether the proliferation activity of the crypt epithelia of the small intestine of mice is subject to diurnal variations. The results published so far to settle this question are contradictory. The flow rate at the beginning and end of the S phase was measured as a function of daytime for the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice following a double labelling with 3-H and 14-C-TdR. The quotient of the cell flow rate in and out of the S phase is supposed to be = 1 over the whole day if there are no diurnal variations. The method of measurements of the cell flow rate was chosen above all because the quotient is largely independent of the variation from animal to animal. The experiments provided dues as to the presence of deviations of the quotient of cell flow rate at the end and beginning of the S phase and of the mitotic index from the daily mean value. However, on account of the relatively large statistical variations of the values at the different daytimes it is not possible to state clearly whether the cell proliferation of the jejunal epithelium is subject to diurnal variations. Should there be such variations, then they are not large at any rate. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Cell density and N-cadherin interactions regulate cell proliferation in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear.

    Warchol, Mark E

    2002-04-01

    Sensory hair cells in the inner ears of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate after injury. In many species, replacement hair cells are produced by the proliferation of epithelial supporting cells. Thus, the ability of supporting cells to undergo renewed proliferation is a key determinant of regenerative ability. The present study used cultures of isolated inner ear sensory epithelia to identify cellular signals that regulate supporting cell proliferation. Small pieces of sensory epithelia from the chicken utricle were cultured in glass microwells. Under those conditions, cell proliferation was inversely related to local cell density. The signaling molecules N-cadherin, beta-catenin, and focal adhesion kinase were immunolocalized in the cultured epithelial cells, and high levels of phosphotyrosine immunoreactivity were present at cell-cell junctions and focal contacts of proliferating cells. Binding of microbeads coated with a function-blocking antibody to N-cadherin inhibited ongoing proliferation. The growth of epithelial cells was also affected by the density of extracellular matrix molecules. The results suggest that cell density, cell-cell contact, and the composition of the extracellular matrix may be critical influences on the regulation of sensory regeneration in the inner ear.

  12. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo

    Masatoshi Hirayama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy.

  13. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report

    Stokić Edita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  14. Primary parotid gland lymphoma: a case report

    Paraskevas Katsaronis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are the most common lymphomas of the salivary glands. The benign lymphoepithelial lesion is also a lymphoproliferative disease that develops in the parotid gland. In the present case report, we describe one case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion with a subsequent low transformation to grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma appearing as a cystic mass in the parotid gland. Case presentation A 78-year-old Caucasian female smoker was referred to our clinic with a non-tender left facial swelling that had been present for approximately three years. The patient underwent resection of the left parotid gland with preservation of the left facial nerve through a preauricular incision. The pathology report was consistent with a low-grade marginal-zone B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma following benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the gland. Conclusions Salivary gland mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic or bilateral salivary gland lesions. Parotidectomy is recommended in order to treat the tumor and to ensure histological diagnosis for further follow-up planning. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in association with surgery in disseminated forms or after removal.

  15. Detecting thermal phase transitions in corneal stroma by fluorescence micro-imaging analysis

    Matteini, P.; Rossi, F.; Ratto, F.; Bruno, I.; Nesi, P.; Pini, R.

    2008-02-01

    Thermal modifications induced in corneal stroma were investigated by the use of fluorescence microscopy. Freshly extracted porcine corneas were immersed for 5 minutes in a water bath at temperatures in the 35-90°C range and stored in formalin. The samples were then sliced in 200-μm-thick transversal sections and analyzed under a stereomicroscope to assess corneal shrinkage. Fluorescence images of the thermally treated corneal samples were acquired using a slow-scan cooled CCD camera, after staining the slices with Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescent dye which allowed to detect fluorescence signal from the whole tissue. All measurements were performed using an inverted epifluorescence microscope equipped with a mercury lamp. The thermally-induced modifications to the corneal specimens were evaluated by studying the grey level distribution in the fluorescence images. For each acquired image, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and entropy analyses were performed. The spatial distribution of DFT absolute value indicated the spatial orientation of the lamellar planes, while entropy was used to study the image texture, correlated to the stromal structural transitions. As a result, it was possible to indicate a temperature threshold value (62°C) for high thermal damage, resulting in a disorganization of the lamellar planes and in full agreement with the measured temperature for corneal shrinkage onset. Analysis of the image entropy evidenced five strong modifications in stromal architecture at temperatures of ~45°C, 53°C, 57°C, 66°C, 75°C. The proposed procedure proved to be an effective micro-imaging method capable of detecting subtle changes in corneal tissue subjected to thermal treatment.

  16. Thyroid Gland in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    B T Turumhambetova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the main parameters of thyroid status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as particularities of course of this disease depending on of thyroid gland function disorder. Materials and methods. 52 women with RA were examined. The first group consisted of 11 women with subclinical and manifestive hypothyroidism the second one 41 women without thyroid gland function disorder. The group comparison was conducted on main indexes of thyroid gland condition the hormon level, AT-TPO, ultrasonic data, as well as clinical and laboratory RA data. Results. In women with hypothyroidism the systemic manifestations of RA were more often truely diagnosed; DAS28 indexes, ESR, the number ot swollen joints were higher. The high level ot AT-TPO was diagnosed in 54,55% – I group and in 31,7% – II group TTG level was really less in patients receiving synthetic glycocorticoids. Small thyroid gland volume was diagnosed in 23,07% of examined patients. The thyroid gland status indexes in them did not differ from patients with normal thyroid gland volume. Reliable increasing of the peripheral resistance index was revealed in lower thyroid artery according to the ultrasonic study data under the reduced thyroid gland size. Conclusions. High incidence of hypothyroidism and AT-TPO carriage in RA was revealed. Hypothyroidism development is accompanied by high clinic-laboratory RA activity. The reduction of the thyroid gland volumes in RA is possibly stipulated not only by autoimmunal pathology, but also chronic ischemia of the organ in the conditions of immune-complex vasculitis and early atherosclerosis. The TTG level in patients with RA is defined not only by pathology of the thyroid gland, but glycocorticoid therapy as well.

  17. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    Frometa Neirai, Carlos; Gonzalez Gomez, Juan Manuel; Arredondo Lopez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  18. Hydatid disease of the submandibular gland

    Ullah, N.; Yousaf, N.

    2001-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a tissue infection of the human caused by the larval stage of echinococcus granulosus or E. multilocularis. Hydatid cyst of the head and neck region is uncommon and the involvement of salivary glands, especially the submandibular gland, is very rare. A case of submandibular gland hydatid cyst is reported in this article, in a patient who was presented with swelling of this area of three months' duration. Examination revealed a soft, non-tender, mobile mass measuring 6x4 cm. Chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasonography were normal. Excision of the whole mass was performed and pathological examination confirmed the fine needle aspiration cytology report. (author)

  19. [Salivary gland drainage into the thyroglossal duct].

    Siem, G; Natvig, K; Kolbenstvedt, A; Lømo, J

    2001-01-20

    Failure in regression of the thyroglossal duct is one of the most common reasons for midline swellings in the neck. Several authors have described recurrent thyroglossal duct remnants with persisting draining sinuses. However, few have described accessory salivary glands that drain into the thyroglossal duct. In this article we report two such cases with midline salivary glands in the floor of the mouth. These two patients were subsequently successfully treated with radical tissue resection in the area between the hyoid bone and foramen cecum. Preoperative fistulography or sinography was useful to demonstrate the ductal ramification of the salivary glands, and use of methylene blue during surgery proved of significant value for the result.

  20. Msx-2 expression and glucocorticoid-induced overexpression in embryonic mouse submandibular glands.

    Jaskoll, T; Luo, W; Snead, M L

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that the process of branching morphogenesis requires epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. One outstanding model for the study of tissue interactions during branching morphogenesis is the embryonic mouse submandibular gland (SMG). Although it has been clearly demonstrated that the branching pattern is dependent on interactions between the epithelium and the surrounding mesenchyme, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the branching process. One group of transcription factors that likely participates in the control of epithelial-mesenchymal inductive interactions are the Msx-class of homeodomain-containing proteins. In this paper, we focus on Msx-2 because its developmental expression is correlated with inductive interactions, suggesting that Msx-2 may play a functional role during cell-cell interactions. We demonstrate the expression of Msx-2 mRNA and protein to be primarily in the branching epithelia with progressive embryonic (E13 to E15) SMG development and, to a lesser extent, in the mesenchyme. We also show that Msx-2 is expressed by embryonic SMG primordia cultured under defined conditions. In addition, to begin to delineate a functional role for Msx-2, we employed an experimental strategy by using exogenous glucocorticoid (CORT) treatment of embryonic SMGs in vitro and in vivo to significantly enhance branching morphogenesis and evaluate the effect of CORT treatment on embryonic SMG Msx-2 expression. A marked increase in Msx-2 transcripts and protein is detected with in vitro and in vivo CORT treatment. Our studies indicate that one mechanism of CORT regulation of salivary gland morphogenesis is likely through the modulation of Msx-2 gene expression.

  1. Cytokeratin expression in mouse lacrimal gland germ epithelium.

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Liu, Ying; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The lacrimal gland secretes tear fluids that protect the ocular surface epithelium, and its dysfunction leads to dry eye disease (DED). The functional restoration of the lacrimal gland by engraftment of a bioengineered lacrimal gland using lacrimal gland germ epithelial cells has been proposed to cure DED in mice. Here, we investigate the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium to clarify their unique characteristics. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to clarify the expression profile of cytokeratin in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. The mRNA expression of keratin (KRT) 5, KRT8, KRT14, KRT15, and KRT18 in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was increased compared with that in mouse embryonic stem cells and the lacrimal gland germ mesenchyme, as analyzed by Q-PCR. The expression level of KRT15 increased in the transition from stem cells to lacrimal gland germ epithelium, then decreased as the lacrimal gland matured. IHC revealed that the expression set of these cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was different from that in the adult lacrimal gland. The expression of KRT15 was observed in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium, and it segmentalized into some of the basal cells in the intercanulated duct in mature gland. We determined the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland epithelium, and identified KRT15 as a candidate unique cellular marker for the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Observations on the oesophageal glands in some Tanzanian anurans

    in Hyla, Rana, BUfo, Pelobates and Triturus more pep- sinogen was produced in these glands than in the gastric glands. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the occurrence of oesophageal glands in selected anurans from Tanzania and to compare their structure with the better known gastric glands. Materials ...

  3. Laminin and biomimetic extracellular elasticity enhance functional differentiation in mammary epithelia

    Alcaraz, Jordi; Xu, Ren; Mori, Hidetoshi; Nelson, Celeste M.; Mroue, Rana; Spencer, Virginia A.; Brownfield, Doug; Radisky, Derek C.; Bustamante, Carlos; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-10-20

    In the mammary gland, epithelial cells are embedded in a 'soft' environment and become functionally differentiated in culture when exposed to a laminin-rich extracellular matrix gel. Here, we define the processes by which mammary epithelial cells integrate biochemical and mechanical extracellular cues to maintain their differentiated phenotype. We used single cells cultured on top of gels in conditions permissive for {beta}-casein expression using atomic force microscopy to measure the elasticity of the cells and their underlying substrata. We found that maintenance of {beta}-casein expression required both laminin signalling and a 'soft' extracellular matrix, as is the case in normal tissues in vivo, and biomimetic intracellular elasticity, as is the case in primary mammary epithelial organoids. Conversely, two hallmarks of breast cancer development, stiffening of the extracellular matrix and loss of laminin signalling, led to the loss of {beta}-casein expression and non-biomimetic intracellular elasticity. Our data indicate that tissue-specific gene expression is controlled by both the tissues unique biochemical milieu and mechanical properties, processes involved in maintenance of tissue integrity and protection against tumorigenesis.

  4. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the submandibular gland

    A Saneem Ahamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial cysts are benign, slowly growing unilocular or multilocular lesions that appear in the head and neck. They are also called Branchial cyst. The head and neck sites are the salivary glands(more commonly parotid and rarely submandibular gland and the oral cavity (usually the floor of the mouth. there are various methods of investigation available today, of which Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC can be used to provide an immediate diagnosis of a lymphoepithelial cyst. The other investigations include, Ultrasonogram,and Computed tomography.It usually occurs due to the process of lymphocyte-induced cystic ductular dilatation and the confirmatory diagnosis is always made postoperatively by histopathological examination. The mainstay in the treatment of a lymphoepithelial cyst remains the surgical approach, which includes complete enucleation of the cyst along with total excision of the involved salivary gland. This is a report of a lymphoepithelial cyst involving the submandibular salivary gland and its management.

  5. The surgical management of lacrimal gland pseudotumors

    Mombaerts, I.; Schlingemann, R. O.; Goldschmeding, R.; Noorduyn, L. A.; Koornneef, L.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Lacrimal gland pseudotumors belong to the group of orbital pseudotumor. Systemic corticosteroids are advocated as the primary treatment of choice in orbital pseudotumor, but recurrent and refractory cases are commonly described. In this retrospective study, the authors evaluate alteerative

  6. Computed tomographic diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

    Matsunaga, Hitoki; Nishimura, Tadao; Takasu, Akihiko; Yagizawa, Mikio; Suzuki, Akio

    1983-01-01

    Investigation with CT has been performed on 20 cases of parotid gland tumors. The intravenous contrast enhancement method was performed in all cases. Six cases were examined by CT and simultaneous sialography. The results were as follows: 1) If and when the margin of the tumor was indistinct and irregular, malignancy was suspected. However, it was difficult to diagnose malignancy by CT examination only. 2) CT for parotid gland tumor was effective in indentifying invasion of tumor into the parapharyngeal space and intracranial space. 3) CT with simultaneous sialography was very effective in locating the parotid gland tumor. 4) CT of axial sections for parotid gland tumor was more reliable if coronaly sections are taken together. 5) CT of malignant and benign tumors were diffusely enhanced by the intravenous contrast enhancement method. However, this was not an indispensable method. (author)

  7. The labral gland on termite soldiers

    Palma-Onetto, V.; Hošková, K.; Křížková, B.; Krejčířová, R.; Pflegerová, Jitka; Bubeníčková, F.; Plarre, R.; Dahlsjö, C. A. L.; Synek, J.; Bourguignon, T.; Sillam-Dusses, D.; Šobotník, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 3 (2018), s. 535-544 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : exocrine gland * hypopharynx * labrum Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Entomology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  8. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized.

  9. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Kato, Kazuo; Wada, Takuro; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  10. [Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland].

    Allelein, S; Feldkamp, J; Schott, M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Infiltration of the thyroid gland with cytotoxic T‑cells can lead to an initial thyrotoxicosis und during the course to hypothyroidism due to destruction of the thyroid gland. Substitution with Levothyroxine is indicated for manifest hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with increased thyroid antibodies with the intention of normalizing the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Graves' disease is characterized by the appearance of stimulating TSH receptor antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism. Endocrine ophthalmopathy may also occur. Ablative therapy with radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy is administered to patients with Graves' disease without remission after at least 1 year of antithyroid drug therapy.

  11. Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic aspect

    Moya, M.I.; Vilas, I.; Menargues, M.A.; Hernandez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Subclinical amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland is very common. However, amyloidosis rarely provokes thyroid symptoms. We describe a case of goiter due to secondary amyloidosis and review the characteristic ultrasound findings associated with this condition. (Author) 6 refs

  12. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...... prognostic factors in salivary gland carcinomas was insignificant. Conclusions:  Salivary gland carcinomas express OPN. The expression does not correlate with known prognostic factors....

  13. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphology and diversity of exocrine glands in lepidopteran larvae.

    Vegliante, Francesca; Hasenfuss, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of 21 exocrine glands and 13 supposedly exocrine structures recorded for lepidopteran larvae is reviewed. The epitracheal glands, for which a double role (exocrine and endocrine) has been demonstrated, are examined as well. Function is well known for at least 8 glands but completely unknown for 6 glands, for 10 putative glandular structures, and for the exocrine component of the epitracheal glands. Functional studies on the remaining structures are insufficient; in some cases (mandibular gland and adenosma) homologous glands may play a different role depending on the species, and only a few taxa have been examined. The secretions of 13 glandular types have been analyzed chemically. The histology of 11 glands is known at the ultrastructural level, whereas that of 6 glands and 7 putative glandular structures is completely unknown. Comparative anatomical studies of the osmeterium, adenosma, and Verson's glands may yield useful information for phylogenetic reconstructions. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  15. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    Memon, J.M.; Sheikh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  16. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CT of submandibular gland sialolithiasis

    Avrahami, E.; Englender, M.; Chen, E.; Shabtay, D.; Katz, R.; Harell, M.

    1996-01-01

    We emphasise the importance of high-resolution CT with reconstruction in the demonstration of submandibular gland (SMG) sialolithiasis and its role in monitoring treatment. We studied 76 patients with swollen and tender SMG, some with fever. They underwent conventional radiography, sonography (US) and high-resolution CT with reconstructions. Conventional radiographs demonstrated single stones in 29 patients. Axial CT, before reconstructions, demonstrated single stones in 63 patients and multiple stones in another 5. Following CT reconstructions, multiple stones were demonstrated in 37 patients. On US stones were diagnosed in only 33 patients, and multiple stones in only 1. All 68 patients with stones shown on imaging and 2 without stones underwent surgery, with good clinical results. Total removal of the SMG and its duct was performed in patients with multiple stones, chronic inflammatory changes in the SMG, or a solitary stone in the SMG or deep in the duct. A small incision for removal of a solitary stone in the distal aspects of Wharton's duct was performed in 15 patients, with excellent clinical results. Another 14 patients with multiple salivary glad stones, diagnosed on CT reconstructions, did not improve following this procedure and needed further surgery; clinical improvement occurred following excision of the SMG and Wharton's duct. Histological examination in all of these confirmed the presence of additional stones. Conservative anti-inflammatory treatment was recommended for 6 patients in whom CT reconstructions did not demonstrate stones. (orig.)

  18. [Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid gland carcinomas].

    Zivaljevic, V; Zivic, R; Diklic, A; Krgovic, K; Kalezic, N; Vekic, B; Stevanovic, D; Paunovic, I

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid gland carcinomas usually appear as afunctional and hypofunctional lesions on thyroid scintigrams, but some rare cases of thyroid carcinoma with scintigraphic hyperfunctional lesions have also been reported. The aim of our retrospective study was to elucidate the frequency of carcinomas in patients operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules and to represent their demographic and clinical features. During one decade (1997/2006), 308 patients were operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules in the Centre for Endocrine Surgery in Belgrade. Malignancy was revealed in 9 cases (about 3 %) by histopathological examination. In 6 cases papillary microcarcinomas were found adjacent to dominant hyperfunctional adenomas, while in 3 cases (about 1 %) real hyperfunctional carcinomas were confirmed. Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 cases and papillary carcinoma in one. All 3 patients were preoperatively hyperthyroid. In both patients with follicular carcinoma we performed lobectomies. In the third case we carried out a total thyroidectomy considering the intraoperative frozen section finding of a papillary carcinoma. According to our results the frequency of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinomas is about 1 %, so that the possibility that a hyperfunctional nodule is malignant should be considered in the treatment of such lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  19. Development of lacrimal gland spheroids for lacrimal gland tissue regeneration.

    Massie, Isobel; Spaniol, Kristina; Barbian, Andreas; Geerling, Gerd; Metzger, Marco; Schrader, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Severe dry eye syndrome resulting from lacrimal gland (LG) dysfunction can cause blindness, yet treatments remain palliative. In vitro reconstruction of LG tissue could provide a curative treatment. We aimed to combine epithelial cells with endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to form a 3D functional unit. Epithelial cells and MSCs were isolated from porcine LG; endothelial cells were isolated from human foreskin. MSCs were characterised (flow cytometry and differentiation potential assays). All 3 cell types were combined on Matrigel and spheroid formation observed. Spheroids were characterised [immunohistochemistry (IHC) and transmission electron microscopy] and function assessed (β-hexosaminidase assay). Spheroids were transferred to decellularised jejunum (SIS-Muc) in dynamic cultures for 1 week before further characterisation. MSCs did not express CD31 but expressed CD44 and CD105 and differentiated towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Spheroids formed on Matrigel within 18 hr, contracting to ~10% of the well area (p function was increased in spheroids cf. monolayer controls (p function (p < .05), viability (p < .05), and proliferation decreased, whilst apoptosis increased. On SIS-Muc under dynamic culture, however, spheroids continued to proliferate to repopulate SIS-Muc. IHC revealed LG epithelial cells coexpressing pan-cytokeratin and lysozyme, as well as endothelial cells and MSCs and cells remained capable of responding to carbachol (p < .05). These spheroids could form the basis of a regenerative medicine treatment approach for dry eye syndrome. In vivo studies are required to evaluate this further. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [Surgical management of minor salivary gland tumors].

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.

  1. Lacrimal Gland Radiosensitivity in Uveal Melanoma Patients

    Muller, Karin; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Naus, Nicole; Pan, Connie de; Santen, Cornelis A. van; Levendag, Peter; Luyten, Gre P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To find a dose-volume effect for inhomogeneous irradiated lacrimal glands. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2006, 72 patients (42 men and 30 women) were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial (median follow-up, 32 months). A total dose of 50 Gy was given on 5 consecutive days. The mean of all Schirmer test results obtained ≥6 months after treatment was correlated with the radiation dose delivered to the lacrimal gland. Also, the appearance of dry eye syndrome (DES) was related to the lacrimal gland dose distribution. Results: Of the 72 patients, 17 developed a late Schirmer value <10 mm; 9 patients developed DES. A statistically significant relationship was found between the received median dose in the lacrimal gland vs. reduced tear production (p = 0.000) and vs. the appearance of DES (p = 0.003), respectively. A median dose of 7 Gy/fraction to the lacrimal gland caused a 50% risk of low Schirmer results. A median dose of 10 Gy resulted in a 50% probability of DES. Conclusion: We found a clear dose-volume relationship for irradiated lacrimal glands with regard to reduced tear production and the appearance of DES.

  2. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  3. Development of a reactive stroma associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in EAF2 deficient mice.

    Laura E Pascal

    Full Text Available ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2 is an androgen-responsive tumor suppressor frequently deleted in advanced prostate cancer that functions as a transcription elongation factor of RNA Pol II through interaction with the ELL family proteins. EAF2 knockout mice on a 129P2/OLA-C57BL/6J background developed late-onset lung adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, B-cell lymphoma and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. In order to further characterize the role of EAF2 in the development of prostatic defects, the effects of EAF2 loss were compared in different murine strains. In the current study, aged EAF2(-/- mice on both the C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ backgrounds exhibited mPIN lesions as previously reported on a 129P2/OLA-C57BL/6J background. In contrast to the 129P2/OLA-C57BL/6J mixed genetic background, the mPIN lesions in C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ EAF2(-/- mice were associated with stromal defects characteristic of a reactive stroma and a statistically significant increase in prostate microvessel density. Stromal inflammation and increased microvessel density was evident in EAF2-deficient mice on a pure C57BL/6J background at an early age and preceded the development of the histologic epithelial hyperplasia and neoplasia found in the prostates of older EAF2(-/- animals. Mice deficient in EAF2 had an increased recovery rate and a decreased overall response to the effects of androgen deprivation. EAF2 expression in human cancer was significantly down-regulated and microvessel density was significantly increased compared to matched normal prostate tissue; furthermore EAF2 expression was negatively correlated with microvessel density. These results suggest that the EAF2 knockout mouse on the C57BL/6J and FVB/NJ genetic backgrounds provides a model of PIN lesions associated with an altered prostate microvasculature and reactive stromal compartment corresponding to that reported in human prostate tumors.

  4. OP9 bone marrow stroma cells differentiate into megakaryocytes and platelets.

    Yumiko Matsubara

    Full Text Available Platelets are essential for hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. The mechanisms of megakaryocyte (MK differentiation and subsequent platelet production from stem cells remain only partially understood. The manufacture of megakaryocytes (MKs and platelets from cell sources including hematopoietic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells have been highlighted for studying the platelet production mechanisms as well as for the development of new strategies for platelet transfusion. The mouse bone marrow stroma cell line OP9 has been widely used as feeder cells for the differentiation of stem cells into MK lineages. OP9 cells are reported to be pre-adipocytes. We previously reported that 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiated into MKs and platelets. In the present study, we examined whether OP9 cells differentiate into MKs and platelets using MK lineage induction (MKLI medium previously established to generate MKs and platelets from hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and pre-adipocytes. OP9 cells cultured in MKLI medium had megakaryocytic features, i.e., positivity for surface markers CD41 and CD42b, polyploidy, and distinct morphology. The OP9-derived platelets had functional characteristics, providing the first evidence for the differentiation of OP9 cells into MKs and platelets. We then analyzed gene expressions of critical factors that regulate megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. The gene expressions of p45NF-E2, FOG, Fli1, GATA2, RUNX1, thrombopoietin, and c-mpl were observed during the MK differentiation. Among the observed transcription factors of MK lineages, p45NF-E2 expression was increased during differentiation. We further studied MK and platelet generation using p45NF-E2-overexpressing OP9 cells. OP9 cells transfected with p45NF-E2 had enhanced production of MKs and platelets. Our findings revealed that OP9 cells differentiated into MKs and platelets in vitro. OP9 cells have critical factors for megakaryopoiesis and

  5. Prognostic and functional role of subtype-specific tumor-stroma interaction in breast cancer.

    Merlino, Giuseppe; Miodini, Patrizia; Callari, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Francesca; Cappelletti, Vera; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2017-10-01

    None of the clinically relevant gene expression signatures available for breast cancer were specifically developed to capture the influence of the microenvironment on tumor cells. Here, we attempted to build subtype-specific signatures derived from an in vitro model reproducing tumor cell modifications after interaction with activated or normal stromal cells. Gene expression signatures derived from HER2+, luminal, and basal breast cancer cell lines (treated by normal fibroblasts or cancer-associated fibroblasts conditioned media) were evaluated in clinical tumors by in silico analysis on published gene expression profiles (GEPs). Patients were classified as microenvironment-positive (μENV+ve), that is, with tumors showing molecular profiles suggesting activation by the stroma, or microenvironment-negative (μENV-ve) based on correlation of their tumors' GEP with the respective subtype-specific signature. Patients with estrogen receptor alpha (ER)+/HER2-/μENV+ve tumors were characterized by 2.5-fold higher risk of developing distant metastases (HR = 2.546; 95% CI: 1.751-3.701, P = 9.84E-07), while μENV status did not affect, or only suggested the risk of distant metastases, in women with HER2+ (HR = 1.541; 95% CI: 0.788-3.012, P = 0.206) or ER-/HER2- tumors (HR = 1.894; 95% CI: 0.938-3.824; P = 0.0747), respectively. In ER+/HER2- tumors, the μENV status remained significantly associated with metastatic progression (HR = 2.098; CI: 1.214-3.624; P = 0.00791) in multivariable analysis including size, age, and Genomic Grade Index. Validity of our in vitro model was also supported by in vitro biological endpoints such as cell growth (MTT assay) and migration/invasion (Transwell assay). In vitro-derived gene signatures tracing the bidirectional interaction with cancer activated fibroblasts are subtype-specific and add independent prognostic information to classical prognostic variables in women with ER+/HER2- tumors. © 2017 The Authors. Published

  6. Migration of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells into human bone marrow stroma.

    Makrynikola, V; Bianchi, A; Bradstock, K; Gottlieb, D; Hewson, J

    1994-10-01

    fibronectin (ligands of VLA-4 and VLA-5) did not prevent leukemic cell migration. These results indicate that ALL cells are highly motile and capable of rapid migration within marrow stroma, an effect largely mediated by VLA-4 and VLA-5. In the case of precursor-B ALL, this process may reflect a homing mechanism to areas of selective growth advantage within the bone marrow microenvironment.

  7. Stromal progesterone receptors mediate induction of Indian Hedgehog (IHH) in uterine epithelium and its downstream targets in uterine stroma.

    Simon, Liz; Spiewak, Kerry A; Ekman, Gail C; Kim, Jaeyeon; Lydon, John P; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C; DeMayo, Francesco J; Cooke, Paul S

    2009-08-01

    Uterine receptivity to embryo implantation depends on appropriate progesterone (P4) and estrogen stimulation. P4 rapidly stimulates production of the morphogen Indian hedgehog (IHH) in murine uterine epithelium as well as downstream molecules in the hedgehog pathway such as Patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) and nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2 (NR2F2) in uterine stroma. Studies using IHH-null mice indicate that IHH is obligatory for the normal P4 response in the uterus. To determine whether IHH induction in uterine epithelium is mediated through P4 receptor (PR) in epithelium (E) and/or stroma (S), we produced tissue recombinants using uteri from neonatal PR knockout (ko) mice and wild-type (wt) mice containing PR in S and/or E or lacking PR altogether using a tissue recombinant methodology and assessed their response to P4. In tissue recombinants containing wt-S (wt-S + wt-E and wt-S + ko-E), P4 induced Ihh mRNA expression at 6 h that was 6-fold greater than in oil-treated controls (P Ihh mRNA expression was unaffected by P4 in ko-S + ko-E and ko-S + wt-E grafts despite epithelial PR expression in the latter. Nr2f2 and Ptch1 mRNA expression was similar in that it was stimulated by P4 only in recombinants containing stromal PR. These results indicate that stromal PR is both necessary and sufficient for P4 stimulation of epithelial IHH as well as downstream events such as PTCH1 and NR2F2 increases in stroma.

  8. Biochemical characterization of nuclear receptors for vitamin D{sub 3} and glucocorticoids in prostate stroma cell microenvironment

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A. [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Department of Physiopathology, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, NY (United States); Montecinos, Viviana P.; Paredes, Roberto; Godoy, Alejandro S.; McNerney, Eileen M.; Tovar, Heribelt; Pantoja, Diego [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Department of Physiopathology, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Johnson, Candace [Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, NY (United States); Trump, Donald [Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Onate, Sergio A., E-mail: sergio.onate@udec.cl [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Department of Physiopathology, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Department of Urology, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Fibroblasts from benign and carcinoma-associated stroma were biochemically characterized for VDR and GR function as transcription factors in prostate stroma cell microenvironment. {yields} Decreased SRC-1/CBP coactivators recruitment to VDR and GR may result in hormone resistance to 1,25D{sub 3} in stromal cell microenvironment prostate cancer. {yields} 1a,25-Dyhidroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) and glucocorticoids, either alone or in combination, may not be an alternative for 'some' advanced prostate cancers that fails androgen therapies. -- Abstract: The disruption of stromal cell signals in prostate tissue microenvironment influences the development of prostate cancer to androgen independence. 1{alpha},25-Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) and glucocorticoids, either alone or in combination, have been investigated as alternatives for the treatment of advanced prostate cancers that fails androgen therapies. The effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Similarly, the effect of 1,25D{sub 3} is mediated by the 1,25D{sub 3} nuclear receptor (VDR). In this study, fibroblasts from benign- (BAS) and carcinoma-associated stroma (CAS) were isolated from human prostates to characterize VDR and GR function as transcription factors in prostate stroma. The VDR-mediated transcriptional activity assessed using the CYP24-luciferase reporter was limited to 3-fold induction by 1,25D{sub 3} in 9 out of 13 CAS (70%), as compared to >10-fold induction in the BAS clinical sample pair. Expression of His-tagged VDR (Ad-his-VDR) failed to recover the low transcriptional activity of the luciferase reporter in 7 out of 9 CAS. Interestingly, expression of Ad-his-VDR successfully recovered receptor-mediated induction in 2 out of the 9 CAS analyzed, suggesting that changes in the receptor protein itself was responsible for decreased response and resistance to 1,25D{sub 3} action. Conversely, VDR

  9. The Distribution of Stroma and Antral Follicles Differs between Insulin-Resistance and Hyperandrogenism-Related Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Alviggi, Carlo; Conforti, Alessandro; De Rosa, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    groups based on specific transvaginal ultrasound parameters: subjects with more than half of the follicles measuring between 5 and 9 mm in diameter, an ultrasonographic determined stroma/total area (S/A) > 0.34 and a "necklace" sign of antral follicles (Group A); and subjects with more than half...... of the antral follicles measuring between 2 and 4 mm in diameter, an S/A ≤ 0.34; no "necklace" sign but ubiquitously distributed follicles determined by ultrasound (Group B). The association between these ultrasound patterns and the presence of insulin resistance was also evaluated. RESULTS: Seventy...

  10. Identification of genes with altered expression in medullary breast cancer vs. ductal breast cancer and normal breast epithelia

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Benoit, Vivian; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    to both immunological and endogenous cellular factors, although little is known about the distinct biology of MCB that may contribute to the improved outcome of MCB patients. To identify candidate genes, we performed gene array expression analysis of cell lines of MCB, ductal breast cancer and normal......Medullary breast cancer (MCB) is a morphologically and biologically distinct subtype that, despite cytologically highly malignant characteristics, has a favorable prognosis compared to the more common infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma. MCB metastasizes less frequently, which has been attributed...... breast epithelia, and the differential expression of a panel of candidate genes was further validated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical analysis of cell lines and tumor biopsies. A limited number of genes, including several members of the GAGE and insulin growth factor binding protein (IGFBP...

  11. Submucosal chromoendoscopy: a technique that highlights epithelia and differentiates histological components, and renders colon polypectomy easier and safer

    Carlos Dolz-Abadía

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Submucosal chromoendoscopy involves the injection of a solution containing a vital stain, usually indigo carmine, into the intestinal wall submucosal layer. This allows to: Better delimit and characterize the various epithelia present (colonic mucosa, adenoma, hyperplastic polyp, serrated polyp, small bowel mucosa; expose and delimit lesion implantation areas; cooperate in the lifting of resectable lesions; ensure section across the submucosal plane; identify intestinal wall structures; render complex polypectomy feasible; and facilitate the identification of perforations. The present paper offers information on the endoscopic technique for submucosal injection, solution preparation and concentration, and on the potential benefits it may provide for polypectomy or endocopic mucosal resection whether en block or piecemeal. This endoscopic technique simultaneously combines a diagnostic and a therapeutic aspect, since lesion lifting in association with better delimited contours may improve not only accuracy but also endoscopic resection safety and feasibility.

  12. Modulation of mammary gland development in pre-pubertal mice as affected by soya and milk protein supplements.

    Alston-Mills, Brenda; Lepri, J J; Martin, C A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of soya and whey milk protein, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), on mammary gland morphology and the structural support of the gland, in pre-pubertal mice after 7 d of treatment. In Expt 1, weaned (day 21) CD1 mice were given one of the four treatments, three included dietary supplements: (1) control diet, casein, (2) soya, (3) α-LA and (4) subcutaneous injection of 2·5 μg oestradiol benzoate in 20 μl maize oil and fed the control diet. All diets were isoenergetic with equal protein concentrations. All groups that were not treated with oestradiol received the vehicle. Whole-mount analyses were performed to determine longitudinal ductal growth and terminal end bud development. DNA was extracted from the gland and assessed by spectrophotometry (260/280 nm). Tissue extracts for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP(2)), tissue inhibitor of MMP(2) (TIMP(2)), and serum oestradiol and mammary tissue epidermal growth factors (EGF) were measured by immunoassays. Expt 2 utilised the Her2/neu transgenic strain, with the same protocols. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA. From Expt 1 and 2, soya and α-LA significantly increased ductal elongation when compared with the oestrogen and control groups. These results were corroborated by data on total DNA and the ratio of MMP(2):TIMP(2). The ratio of MMP(2):TIMP(2) was affected by α-LA. Serum oestradiol was decreased only in the oestradiol-treated groups in both experiments. Soya is known to be oestrogenic and can act on epithelia directly. The mechanism by which α-LA affects glandular development is by modulating the ECM or by promoting the synthesis/activity of EGF.

  13. Inhibition by TNF-alpha and IL-4 of cationic lipid mediated gene transfer in cystic fibrosis tracheal gland cells.

    Bastonero, Sonia; Gargouri, Myriem; Ortiou, Sandrine; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Merten, Marc D

    2005-11-01

    In vivo, tracheal gland serous cells highly express the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cftr) gene. This gene is mutated in the lethal monogenic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Clinical trials in which the human CFTR cDNA was delivered to the respiratory epithelia of CF patients have resulted in weak and transient gene expression. As CF is characterized by mucus inspissation, airway infection, and severe inflammation, we tested the hypothesis that inflammation and especially two cytokines involved in the Th1/Th2 inflammatory response, interleukin 4 (IL-4) and TNFalpha, could inhibit gene transfer efficiency using a model of human CF tracheal gland cells (CF-KM4) and Lipofectamine reagent as a transfection reagent. The specific secretory defects of CF-KM4 cells were corrected by Lipofectamine-mediated human CFTR gene transfer. However, this was altered when cells were pre-treated with IL-4 and TNFalpha. Inhibition of luciferase reporter gene expression by IL-4 and TNFalpha pre-treated CF-KM4 cells was measured by activity and real-time RT-PCR. Both cytokines induced similar and synergistic inhibition of transgene expression and activity. This cytokine-mediated inhibition could be prevented by anti-inflammatory agents such as glucocorticoids but not by non-steroidal (NSAI) agents. This data suggests that an inflammatory context generated by IL-4 and TNFalpha can inhibit human CFTR gene transfer in CF tracheal gland cells and that glucocorticoids may have a protecting action. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of the 2,4-D herbicide on gills epithelia and liver of the fish Poecilia vivipara

    Ana F. Vigário

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, usually named 2,4-D is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Acute toxicity of 2,4-D herbicide was investigated through its effects on guppies (Poecilia vivipara Bloch et Schneider 1801. Fish were exposed to the herbicide at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40µl per liter of water for 24 hours to determine its effects on gills and liver epithelia. The estimated LC50 was 34.64µl of 2,4-D per liter of water. Histochemical analyses and Feulgen's reaction were conducted to detect glycoconjugates and DNA, respectively, in gills and liver epithelia. Histochemistry revealed qualitative variations of glycoconjugates present on mucous cells and granules. The four types of mucous cells contained neutral granules, acids, or both. Increasing amounts of syalomucins were observed from the control group to the group exposed to the highest concentration of 2,4-D, suggesting increased mucous viscosity and the formation of plaques that could inhibit gas exchange and osmoregulation. Lamellar fusion observed in the group exposed to 40µl of 2,4-D suggests a defense mechanism. Hepatocytes showed vacuolization in the 10 and 20µl/L groups. The 40 µl/L group showed normal hepatocytes as well as changed ones, many Ito cells, micronuclei, and nuclear swelling. These effects may be associated with toxicity or adaptative processes to cellular stress. The data from this study indicates the importance of assessing similar risks to aquatic species and suggests that Poecilia vivipara is an adequate biological model for analysis of environmental contamination.

  15. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Mammary Gland Composition and Inflammation.

    Khadge, Saraswoti; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Sharp, John Graham; McGuire, Timothy R; Klassen, Lynell W; Black, Paul N; DiRusso, Concetta C; Talmadge, James E

    2018-03-25

    Studies in rodents have shown that dietary modifications as mammary glands (MG) develop, regulates susceptibility to mammary tumor initiation. However, the effects of dietary PUFA composition on MGs in adult life, remains poorly understood. This study investigated morphological alterations and inflammatory microenvironments in the MGs of adult mice fed isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets with varying compositions of omega (ω)-6 and long-chain (Lc)-ω3FA that were pair-fed. Despite similar consumption levels of the diets, mice fed the ω-3 diet had significantly lower body-weight gains, and abdominal-fat and mammary fat pad (MFP) weights. Fatty acid analysis showed significantly higher levels of Lc-ω-3FAs in the MFPs of mice on the ω-3 diet, while in the MFPs from the ω-6 group, Lc-ω-3FAs were undetectable. Our study revealed that MGs from ω-3 group had a significantly lower ductal end-point density, branching density, an absence of ductal sprouts, a thinner ductal stroma, fewer proliferating epithelial cells and a lower transcription levels of estrogen receptor 1 and amphiregulin. An analysis of the MFP and abdominal-fat showed significantly smaller adipocytes in the ω-3 group, which was accompanied by lower transcription levels of leptin, IGF1, and IGF1R. Further, MFPs from the ω-3 group had significantly decreased numbers and sizes of crown-like-structures (CLS), F4/80+ macrophages and decreased expression of proinflammatory mediators including Ptgs2, IL6, CCL2, TNFα, NFκB, and IFNγ. Together, these results support dietary Lc-ω-3FA regulation of MG structure and density and adipose tissue inflammation with the potential for dietary Lc-ω-3FA to decrease the risk of mammary gland tumor formation.

  16. Morphological features of the porcine lacrimal gland and its compatibility for human lacrimal gland xenografting.

    Henker, Robert; Scholz, Michael; Gaffling, Simone; Asano, Nagayoshi; Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian; Hornegger, Joachim; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations.

  17. Morphological features of the porcine lacrimal gland and its compatibility for human lacrimal gland xenografting.

    Robert Henker

    Full Text Available In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations.

  18. An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A ...

    An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A Short Communication. H B O'Hara, D Oduor-Okele, S Gombe. Abstract. No Abstract. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 15 1991: pp. 45-46. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    Křížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the reactive stroma of a prostate cancer xenograft by side population analysis

    Santamaria-Martinez, Albert [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Barquinero, Jordi [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Banc de Sang i Teixits, Barcelona (Spain); Barbosa-Desongles, Anna; Hurtado, Antoni; Pinos, Tomas [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Seoane, Joan [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Medical Oncology program, Vall d' Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Poupon, Marie-France [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Morote, Joan [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Servei d' Urologia. Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Reventos, Jaume [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Munell, Francina, E-mail: fmunell@ir.vhebron.net [Institut de Recerca Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Cancer stem cells are a distinct cellular population that is believed to be responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Recent data suggest that solid tumors also contain another type of stem cells, the mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which contribute to the formation of tumor-associated stroma. The Hoechst 33342 efflux assay has proved useful to identify a rare cellular fraction, named Side Population (SP), enriched in cells with stem-like properties. Using this assay, we identified SP cells in a prostate cancer xenograft containing human prostate cancer cells and mouse stromal cells. The SP isolation, subculture and sequential sorting allowed the generation of single-cell-derived clones of murine origin that were recognized as MSC by their morphology, plastic adherence, proliferative potential, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation ability and immunophenotype (CD45{sup -}, CD81{sup +} and Sca-1{sup +}). We also demonstrated that SP clonal cells secrete transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and that their inhibition reduces proliferation and accelerates differentiation. These results reveal the existence of SP cells in the stroma of a cancer xenograft, and provide evidence supporting their MSC nature and the role of TGF-{beta}1 in maintaining their proliferation and undifferentiated status. Our data also reveal the usefulness of the SP assay to identify and isolate MSC cells from carcinomas.

  1. Biocompatibility and Biomechanical Effect of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Implanted in the Corneal Stroma: A Proof of Concept Investigation

    Alfredo Vega-Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal ectatic disorders are characterized by a progressive weakening of the tissue due to biomechanical alterations of the corneal collagen fibers. Carbon nanostructures, mainly carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene, are nanomaterials that offer extraordinary mechanical properties and are used to increase the rigidity of different materials and biomolecules such as collagen fibers. We conducted an experimental investigation where New Zealand rabbits were treated with a composition of CNTs suspended in balanced saline solution which was applied in the corneal tissue. Biocompatibility of the composition was assessed by means of histopathology analysis and mechanical properties by stress-strain measurements. Histopathology samples stained with blue Alcian showed that there were no fibrous scaring and no alterations in the mucopolysaccharides of the stroma. It also showed that there were no signs of active inflammation. These were confirmed when Masson trichrome staining was performed. Biomechanical evaluation assessed by means of tensile test showed that there is a trend to obtain higher levels of rigidity in those corneas implanted with CNTs, although these changes are not statistically significant (p>0.05. Implanting CNTs is biocompatible and safe procedure for the corneal stroma which can lead to an increase in the rigidity of the collagen fibers.

  2. Quantitative diffusion weighted imaging parameters in tumor and peritumoral stroma for prediction of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    He, Ting; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Peng; Li, Hui; Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang; Li, Lihua

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer can be classified into four molecular subtypes of Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 and Basal-like, which have significant differences in treatment and survival outcomes. We in this study aim to predict immunohistochemistry (IHC) determined molecular subtypes of breast cancer using image features derived from tumor and peritumoral stroma region based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). A dataset of 126 breast cancer patients were collected who underwent preoperative breast MRI with a 3T scanner. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were recorded from DWI, and breast image was segmented into regions comprising the tumor and the surrounding stromal. Statistical characteristics in various breast tumor and peritumoral regions were computed, including mean, minimum, maximum, variance, interquartile range, range, skewness, and kurtosis of ADC values. Additionally, the difference of features between each two regions were also calculated. The univariate logistic based classifier was performed for evaluating the performance of the individual features for discriminating subtypes. For multi-class classification, multivariate logistic regression model was trained and validated. The results showed that the tumor boundary and proximal peritumoral stroma region derived features have a higher performance in classification compared to that of the other regions. Furthermore, the prediction model using statistical features, difference features and all the features combined from these regions generated AUC values of 0.774, 0.796 and 0.811, respectively. The results in this study indicate that ADC feature in tumor and peritumoral stromal region would be valuable for estimating the molecular subtype in breast cancer.

  3. CCL2/CCL5 secreted by the stroma induce IL-6/PYK2 dependent chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Gosset, Marie; Geyl, Caroline; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Chevrot, Audrey; Pocard, Marc; Mirshahi, Massoud; Lis, Raphael; Rafii, Arash; Touboul, Cyril

    2018-02-19

    Minimal residual disease is the main issue of advanced ovarian cancer treatment. According to the literature and previous results, we hypothesized that Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) could support this minimal residual disease by protecting ovarian cancer cells (OCC) from chemotherapy. In vitro study confirmed that MSC could induce OCC chemoresistance without contact using transwell setting. Further experiments showed that this induced chemoresistance was dependent on IL-6 OCC stimulation. We combined meticulous in vitro profiling and tumor xenograft models to study the role of IL-6 in MSC/OCC intereactions. We demonstrated that Tocilizumab® (anti-IL-6R therapy) in association with chemotherapy significantly reduced the peritoneal carcinosis index (PCI) than chemotherapy alone in mice xenografted with OCCs+MSCs. Further experiments showed that CCL2 and CCL5 are released by MSC in transwell co-culture and induce OCCs IL-6 secretion and chemoresistance. Finally, we found that IL-6 induced chemoresistance was dependent on PYK2 phosphorylation. These findings highlight the potential key role of the stroma in protecting minimal residual disease from chemotherapy, thus favoring recurrences. Future clinical trials targeting stroma could use anti-IL-6 therapy in association with chemotherapy.

  4. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Expression in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer and Tumor-Associated Stroma

    Michael I. Koukourakis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which enters into the Krebs cycle, providing adenosine triphosphate (ATP to the cell. PDH activity is under the control of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs. Under hypoxic conditions, conversion of pyruvate to lactate occurs, a reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5. In cancer cells, however, pyruvate is transformed to lactate occurs, regardless of the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis/Warburg effect. Although hypoxic intratumoral conditions account for HIFia stabilization and induction of anaerobic metabolism, recent data suggest that high pyruvate concentrations also result in HIFia stabilization independently of hypoxia. In the present immunohistochemical study, we provide evidence that the PDH/PDK pathway is repressed in 73% of non small cell lung carcinomas, which may be a key reason for HIFia stabilization and “aerobic glycolysis.” However, about half of PDHdeficient carcinomas are not able to switch on the HIF pathway, and patients harboring these tumors have an excellent postoperative outcome. A small subgroup of clinically aggressive tumors maintains a coherent PDH and HIF/LDH5 expression. In contrast to cancer cells, fibroblasts in the tumor-supporting stroma exhibit an intense PDH but reduced PDK1 expression favoring maximum PDH activity. This means that stroma may use lactic acid produced by tumor cells, preventing the creation of an intolerable intratumoral acidic environment at the same time.

  5. Mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility.

    Sordillo, Lorraine M; Streicher, Katie L

    2002-04-01

    Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating mammals, but is especially problematic for dairy cattle. The most recent estimates from the National Mastitis Council suggest that mastitis affects one third of all dairy cows and will cost the dairy industry over 2 billion dollars annually in the United States in lost profits (National Mastitis Council (1996) Current Concepts in Bovine Mastitis, National Mastitis Council, Madison, WI). The overall impact of mastitis on the quality and quantity of milk produced for human consumption has provided the impetus to better understand the pathophysiology of the mammary gland and develop ways to enhance disease resistance through immunoregulation. As such, the bovine species has played a critical and prominent role in our current understanding of mammary gland immunobiology. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of mammary gland immunity and how the stage of lactation can impact important host defenses While this review emphasizes the bovine system, comparisons to humans and other domestic mammals will be addressed as well.

  6. Transvaginal ultrasound assessment of myometrial and cervical stroma invasion in women with endometrial cancer -interobserver reproducibility among ultrasound experts and gynaecologists

    Eriksson, LS; Lindqvist, PG; Flöter Rådestad, A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess interobserver reproducibility among ultrasound experts and gynaecologists in the prediction of deep myometrial- and cervical stroma invasion by transvaginal ultrasound in women with endometrial cancer. METHODS: Video-clips of the corpus- and cervix uteri of 53 women...... with endometrial cancer, examined preoperatively by the same ultrasound expert, were integrated in a digitalized survey. Nine ultrasound experts and 9 gynaecologists evaluated presence or absence of deep myometrial- and cervical stroma invasion. Histopathology from hysterectomy specimen was used as gold standard.......001). CONCLUSION: Preoperative ultrasound assessment of deep myometrial- and cervical stroma invasion in endometrial cancer is best performed by ultrasound experts, as they show a higher degree of agreement to histopathology and higher interobserver reproducibility in the assessment of cervical stromal invasion....

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland with calcification

    Song, Haeng Eun; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital complaining of facial palsy and palpable mass on the right parotid gland area. Clinical examination showed non-specific findings of the intraoral region, but showed asymmetrical facial appearance. Panoramic view showed a large amorphous calcified mass on the posterior to the mandibular ramus and thin cortical plate of the posterior ramus. Sialogram showed constriction of the main duct and no further filling of striated, intercalated ducts and parenchymal areas. CT scans demonstrated an irregular, infiltrating mass with slight enhancement in the right parotid gland. The mass showed necrotic areas and calcifications. Bone scan showed marked accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP on the right posterior maxilla. Microscopic findings demonstrated the minimal morphologic alterations and rare mitotic figures within tumor cells, and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (NOS, Grade II). This report could be aid in the diagnosis of calcified lesions of the salivary gland.

  8. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland with calcification

    Song, Haeng Eun; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2002-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital complaining of facial palsy and palpable mass on the right parotid gland area. Clinical examination showed non-specific findings of the intraoral region, but showed asymmetrical facial appearance. Panoramic view showed a large amorphous calcified mass on the posterior to the mandibular ramus and thin cortical plate of the posterior ramus. Sialogram showed constriction of the main duct and no further filling of striated, intercalated ducts and parenchymal areas. CT scans demonstrated an irregular, infiltrating mass with slight enhancement in the right parotid gland. The mass showed necrotic areas and calcifications. Bone scan showed marked accumulation of 99m Tc-MDP on the right posterior maxilla. Microscopic findings demonstrated the minimal morphologic alterations and rare mitotic figures within tumor cells, and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (NOS, Grade II). This report could be aid in the diagnosis of calcified lesions of the salivary gland.

  9. Computed tomography of the pituitary gland

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written entirely to include the imaging of the pituitary gland by computed tomography (CT). The first three chapters illustrated technical aspects of scanning, anatomic depiction of the gland by CT, and the use of dynamic CT scanning for detecting and displaying abnormalities. The chapters discuss and illustrate various types of pathologic processes in and around the pituitary gland. One short but very helpful chapter demonstrates potential pitfalls due to the combination of anatomic variants and the geometry of CT sections. Some illustrations of disease processed are depicted by magnetic resonance imaging. All major types of pituitary diseases are illustrated. Lists of readily available English-language references are available. A small subject index is provided at the end of the book in which the illustrations are identified by use of a special numeric front

  10. Computed tomography of the adrenal glands

    Buck, J.; Reiser, U.; Heuck, F.

    1982-01-01

    Whole body CT opens a third dimension - in addition with the advantage of being a non-invasive method with relatively negligible risk. Both, the normal CT findings of the adrenal gland and the normal variants in shape and position are described. With help of morphometry and image processing measurements of the size of the adrenal gland of 20 healthy patients were made and are listed; not only the respective normal variants but also hypo-hyperplasia are pointed out. Some examples are suitable for the illustration of pathologic conditions, such as inflammation and benign and malignant primary and secondary neoplasis. Finally, the value of adrenal gland CT is discussed with reference to the other radiologic methods. (orig.)

  11. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  12. The Role of Pineal Gland and Exogenous Melatonin on the Irradiation Stress Response of Suprarenal Gland

    Selma Aličelebić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role. Its main hormone, melatonin, has radio protective effect on endocrine and other dynamic tissues. In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland. Four months after pinealectomy (experimental group or shampinealectomy (control group, adult Wistar male rats were daily treated with 0,2 mg of melatoninintraperitoneally, during two weeks. Thereafter, all animals were totally irradiated with 8 Gy of Gamma rays produced from Cobalt 60. Animals who survived were sacrificed on the 17(th post irradiation day. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods. The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

  13. [Isolated thyroid gland sarcoidosis and hyperthyroidism].

    Langsteger, W; Lind, P; Beham, A; Költringer, P; Eber, O

    1989-04-29

    A case of isolated sarcoidosis of the thyroid gland, associated with hyperthyroidism, is reported in a 28-year-old male patient whose thyroid was removed for hyperthyroid multinodular goitre. Histology revealed a regressive adenoma and sarcoidosis in non-adenomatous thyroid residue. Further diagnosis, therapeutic management and a 3-year follow-up did not disclose any specific changes or involvement of other tissues. Isolated thyroidal sarcoidosis with hyperthyroid alterations are extremely rare and mostly chance findings; simultaneous occurrence of thyroid sarcoidosis and hyperthyroidism may be a symptom of gland infiltration for which an adequate explanation is still lacking.

  14. MR imaging of the parotid gland

    Vogl, T.; Dresel, S.; Lissner, J.; Grevers, G.; Riederer, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this study MR imaging combined with Gd-DTPA as a new effective diagnostic tool is compared with plain MR imaging. Seventy-two patients with lesions of the parotid gland were examined. In the author's patient group, they found 25 malignant tumors, 19 benign lesions, 20 Sjogren syndromes, and eight inflamed parotid glands. Axial and coronal images were acquired with long (TR = 1,600 msec, TE = 25/90 msec) and short (TR = 500 msec, TE = 25 msec) spin-echo sequences before and after Gd-DTPA

  15. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Satoh, Michinao; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Uematsu, Minoru; Kusano, Shoichi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10 -3 , n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

  16. [The staphylococcal enterotoxin burden determines the ultrastructure of ciliated epithelia and inflammatory changes in maxillary sinus mucosa of rabbits].

    Wei, Hongqi; Zhu, Zhengwen; Cao, Zhongsheng; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Xiaofan; Yuan, Hui

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the ultrastructure of ciliated epithelia and inflammatory changes upon repeated exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) of different concentrations in the maxillary sinus mucosa of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (24 rabbits per group): low-dose SEA group and high-dose SEA group. The low-dose SEA group and high-dose SEA group received daily injections of 0.6 ng of SEA (2 ml) and 60 ng of SEA (2 ml) into the left maxillary sinus of rabbits for 28 days, respectively. Concurrent treatment of the right maxillary sinus with normal saline was used as control. Six rabbits chosen randomly in two groups were examined by computed tomography (CT) scans and then sacrificed to obtain the sinus mucosa from the two-side of maxillary sinuses for histological assessment on days 3, 7, 14 and 28. To characterize the inflammatory changes of the sinus mucosa examined using light microscope, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and toluidine blue staining was performed. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed to observe ultrastructure of ciliated epithelia in the maxillary sinus mucosa. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. On days 14 and 28, CT images showed opacification of the left maxillary sinus in the high-dose SEA group. The percentage of epithelial disruption was (22.73 ± 5.72) % and (30.79 ± 4.30)% in the high-dose SEA group respectively, and were significantly greater than those in the low-dose SEA group (5.12% ± 1.98% and 5.38% ± 1.64%, q value was 10.079 and 19.132) and control group (4.08% ± 1.29% and 4.81% ± 1.62%, q value was 11.016 and 19.592, respectively, all P microscope, loss of cilia was observed, a few compound cilia and cytoplasmic protrusion were found, an obvious stretching of the endoplasmic reticulum and an obvious turgescence of the mitochondria was also observed. However, in the low-dose SEA group on days 14 and 28, CT scan of the left maxillary sinus showed transparency; light

  17. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    ... until the adrenal glands start functioning normally again. Addison's Disease This rare disorder develops when the adrenal glands ... not make enough cortisol. In most cases of Addison's disease, the body also doesn't make enough of ...

  18. Salivary gland tumors in Uganda: clinical pathological study ...

    African Health Sciences ... salivary gland tumors as defined by WHO classification (1991), is accepted world-wide but little is available in the literature ... Objective: To outline the clinicopathological features of salivary gland tumors in Uganda.

  19. Visualization of HIV-1 interactions with penile and foreskin epithelia: clues for female-to-male HIV transmission.

    Minh H Dinh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To gain insight into female-to-male HIV sexual transmission and how male circumcision protects against this mode of transmission, we visualized HIV-1 interactions with foreskin and penile tissues in ex vivo tissue culture and in vivo rhesus macaque models utilizing epifluorescent microscopy. 12 foreskin and 14 cadaveric penile specimens were cultured with R5-tropic photoactivatable (PA-GFP HIV-1 for 4 or 24 hours. Tissue cryosections were immunofluorescently imaged for epithelial and immune cell markers. Images were analyzed for total virions, proportion of penetrators, depth of virion penetration, as well as immune cell counts and depths in the tissue. We visualized individual PA virions breaching penile epithelial surfaces in the explant and macaque model. Using kernel density estimated probabilities of localizing a virion or immune cell at certain tissue depths revealed that interactions between virions and cells were more likely to occur in the inner foreskin or glans penis (from local or cadaveric donors, respectively. Using statistical models to account for repeated measures and zero-inflated datasets, we found no difference in total virions visualized at 4 hours between inner and outer foreskins from local donors. At 24 hours, there were more virions in inner as compared to outer foreskin (0.0495 +/- 0.0154 and 0.0171 +/- 0.0038 virions/image, p = 0.001. In the cadaveric specimens, we observed more virions in inner foreskin (0.0507 +/- 0.0079 virions/image than glans tissue (0.0167 +/- 0.0033 virions/image, p<0.001, but a greater proportion was seen penetrating uncircumcised glans tissue (0.0458 +/- 0.0188 vs. 0.0151 +/- 0.0100 virions/image, p = 0.099 and to significantly greater mean depths (29.162 +/- 3.908 vs. 12.466 +/- 2.985 μm. Our in vivo macaque model confirmed that virions can breach penile squamous epithelia in a living model. In summary, these results suggest that the inner foreskin and glans epithelia may be important sites

  20. Detection surgical treatment and its results in children's thyroid gland

    Polyakov, V.G.; Lebedev, V.I.; Belkina, B.M.; Shishkov, R.V.; Makarova, I.S.; Durnov, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    208 patients with thyroid gland cancer were observed in 1975-1993 . The morphological investigations point to an absolute prevalence of highly differentiated forms of thyroid gland cancer in children. The radiation diagnostic techniques included ultrasound investigations of neck organs, chest roentgenography, thyroid gland scintigraphy. It is shown that the surgical method is the basic technique of treating thyroid gland cancer in children. 5-year survival rate of patients depending on the stage of disease development and scope of surgical treatment is analysed

  1. Evaluating cotton seed gland initiation by microscopy

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands and helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. However, gossypol is toxic to many animals, so the seed is used mainly in cattle feed, as ruminants are tolerant to the effects of gossypol. In order to develop strat...

  2. Gigantic enlargement of the thymus gland

    Regal, Mohamed A.

    2007-01-01

    True massive thymic hyperplasia is a very rare entity, characterized by an increase in the size and weight of the thymus gland without an apparent cause. Surgery has been required in patients with severe respiratory distress. We present an idiopathic true massive thymic hyperplasia in a 5-month-old boy. (author)

  3. Insulin receptors in the mammary gland

    Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding studies were conducted using mammary membrane preparations to further the authors understanding of insulin's role in regulating mammary metabolism, particularly ruminant mammary metabolism. Specific objectives were to: (1) characterize insulin binding to bovine mammary microsomes and determine if the specificity and kinetics of binding indicate the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland; (2) examine and compare insulin binding by liver and mammary microsomes of the pig and dairy cow; (3) examine insulin binding to bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and evaluate this model's usefulness in assessing insulin receptor regulation in the mammary gland of the cow; (4) examine the effect of dietary fat in insulin binding by rat mammary and liver microsomes. The specificity and kinetics of 125 I-insulin binding of bovine mammary microsomes indicated the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland. Bovine liver and mammary microsomes specifically bound less 125 I-insulin than did the corresponding porcine microsomes, and mammary microsomes, regardless of species, specifically bound less 125 I-insulin than did liver microsomes. These differences in binding suggest differences in insulin responsiveness between pigs and cattle, as well as between the liver and mammary glands

  4. Parotid gland lipoma: two case report

    Islim, F.; Ors, S.; Salik, A.; Selcuk, H.; Sever, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Lipoma is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the human body but very rarely in the parotid gland. Objective: The aim of this study was to document retrospectively the imaging findings of lipomas with the use of computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Material and methods: Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging were performed to the patients after clinical evaluation and physical examination. Both for two patients after fine needle aspiration biopsy, surgical excisions were practiced. Case 1: 14-wear-old woman was applied to the hospital with swelling of the right jaw. In physical examination a palpable mass was detected on the parotid gland. In sonography, heterogeneous, hypoechoic solid lesion was observed. This tumor produced strong signals on T1- and T2-weighted MR images and weak signals on fat suppression images. Case 2: 65-wear-old man presented with a 10 month history of a painless, slow growing mass in the left preauricular area. In sonography, heterogeneous, hypoechoic solid lesion with hyperechoic areas was observed. Also this tumor produced strong signals on T1- and T2-weighted MR images and weak signals on fat suppression images with low ADC level. Both for two patients after fine-needle aspiration biopsy, surgical excisions were practiced, superficial parotidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed parotid lipoma. Conclusion: Lipomas are common soft tissue neoplasms but found very rarely in the parotid gland, and so, are after not considered in the initial differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

  5. Current concepts of salivary gland tumors

    Raj Kumar Badam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development of salivary glands is a complex process that creates compact, highly organized secretory organs with functions essential for oral health. The development is an example of branching morphogenesis, recent research found to involve unexpectedly dynamic cell motility, and novel regulatory pathways. Numerous growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, gene regulatory pathways, and mechanical forces contribute to salivary gland morphogenesis, but local gene regulation and morphological changes appear to play particularly notable roles. Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare groups of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to the heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. Frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms makes us sometimes even to differentiate benign and malignant lesions leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Here, we review and summarize the current concepts regarding the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  6. Carcinoma of the parathyroid gland with hyperparathyroidism

    Trevino Canamar, G.; Vogel, H.

    1983-02-01

    A patient with an endocrine-active carcinoma of the parathyroid gland was observed. The typical signs of hyperthyroidism could be seen in the skelettal system. Symptoms of bone and kidney diseases dominated the clinical picture. The symptomatology corresponded to a subchronic primary hyperparathyroidism.

  7. Carcinoma of the parathyroid gland with hyperparathyroidism

    Trevino Canamar, G.; Vogel, H.

    1983-01-01

    A patient with an endocrine-active carcinoma of the parathyroid gland was observed. The typical signs of hyperthyroidism could be seen in the skelettal system. Symptoms of bone and kidney diseases dominated the clinical picture. The symptomatology corresponded to a subchronic primary hyperparathyroidism. (orig.) [de

  8. Salivary gland enlargement during oesophageal stricture dilatation.

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    A case of recurrent salivary gland enlargement occurring during fibreoptic oesophagoscopy and oesophageal stricture dilatation with Eder-Puestow dilators is described. The genesis of this condition is discussed and its transient and usually benign nature emphasized. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7393809

  9. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    of the lacrimal gland, displacement of the eyeball, reduced eye motility and diplopia. Pain and symptoms of short duration before the first ophthalmic consultation are characteristic of malignant tumours. The histological diagnosis determines the subsequent treatment regimen and provides important clues regarding...

  10. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Most salivary gland tumors in children are benign (not cancer) and do not spread to other tissues, but some are malignant (cancer). The prognosis for salivary gland cancer in children is usually good. Get information about of the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of salivary gland tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of normal pituitary gland

    Yamanaka, Masami; Uozumi, Tohru; Sakoda, Katsuaki; Ohta, Masahiro; Kagawa, Yoshihiro; Kajima, Toshio.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable procedure for diagnosing such midline-positioned lesions as pituitary adenomas. To differentiate them from microadenomas fifty-seven cases (9 - 74 years old, 29 men and 28 women), including 50 patients without any sellar or parasellar diseases and seven normal volunteers, were studied in order to clarify the MR findings of the shape, height, and signal intensity of the normal pituitary gland, especially at the median sagittal section. The height of a normal pituitary gland varied from 2 to 9 mm (mean: 5.7 mm); the upper surface of the gland was convex in 19.3 %, flat in 49.1 %, and concave in 31.6 %. The mean height of the gland in women in their twenties was 7.5 mm, and the upper convex shape appeared exclusively in women of the second to fourth decades. Nine intrasellar pituitary adenomas (PRL-secreting: 4, GH-secreting: 4, ACTH-secreting: 1), all verified by surgery, were diagnosed using a resistive MR system. The heights of the gland in these cases were from 7 to 15 mm (mean: 11.3 mm); the upper surface was convex in 7 cases. A localized bulging of the upper surface of the gland and a localized depression of the sellar floor were depicted on the coronal and sagittal sections in most cases. Although the GH- and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases showed homogeneous intrasellar contents, in all the PRL-secreting adenoma cases a low-signal-intensity area was detected in the IR images. The mean T1 values of the intrasellar content of the normal volunteers, the PRL-, GH-, and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases, were 367, 416, 355, and 411 ms respectively. However, in the PRL-secreting adenoma cases, the mean T1 value of the areas showing a low signal intensity on IR images was 455 ms; this was a significant prolongation in comparison with that of a normal pituitary gland. (J.P.N.)

  12. Magnetic resonance-guided regional gene delivery strategy using a tumor stroma-permeable nanocarrier for pancreatic cancer

    Wang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qingbing Wang,1,2 Jianfeng Li,3 Sai An,3 Yi Chen,1 Chen Jiang,3 Xiaolin Wang1,2 1Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 2Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, 3Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Gene therapy is a very promising technology for treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. However, its application has been limited by the abundant stromal response in the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study was to prepare a dendrimer-based gene-free loading vector with high permeability in the tumor stroma and explore an imaging-guided local gene delivery strategy for PDAC to promote the efficiency of targeted gene delivery.Methods: The experimental protocol was approved by the animal ethics committee of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. Third-generation dendrigraft poly-L-lysines was selected as the nanocarrier scaffold, which was modified by cell-penetrating peptides and gadolinium (Gd chelates. DNA plasmids were loaded with these nanocarriers via electrostatic interaction. The cellular uptake and loaded gene expression were examined in MIA PaCa-2 cell lines in vitro. Permeability of the nanoparticles in the tumor stroma and transfected gene distribution in vivo were studied using a magnetic resonance imaging-guided delivery strategy in an orthotopic nude mouse model of PDAC.Results: The nanocarriers were synthesized with a dendrigraft poly-L-lysine to polyethylene glycol to DTPA ratio of 1:3.4:8.3 and a mean diameter of 110.9±7.7 nm. The luciferases were strictly expressed in the tumor, and the luminescence intensity in mice treated by Gd-DPT/plasmid luciferase (1.04×104±9.75×102 p/s/cm2/sr was significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those treated with Gd-DTPA (9.56×102±6.15×10 p/s/cm2/sr and Gd-DP (5.75×103± 7.45×102 p/s/cm2/sr

  13. Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Therapeutic Targets Revealed by Tumor-Stroma Cross-Talk Analyses in Patient-Derived Xenografts

    Rémy Nicolle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical models based on patient-derived xenografts have remarkable specificity in distinguishing transformed human tumor cells from non-transformed murine stromal cells computationally. We obtained 29 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC xenografts from either resectable or non-resectable patients (surgery and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate, respectively. Extensive multiomic profiling revealed two subtypes with distinct clinical outcomes. These subtypes uncovered specific alterations in DNA methylation and transcription as well as in signaling pathways involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. The analysis of these pathways indicates therapeutic opportunities for targeting both compartments and their interactions. In particular, we show that inhibiting NPC1L1 with Ezetimibe, a clinically available drug, might be an efficient approach for treating pancreatic cancers. These findings uncover the complex and diverse interplay between PDAC tumors and the stroma and demonstrate the pivotal role of xenografts for drug discovery and relevance to PDAC.

  14. Expression profiles of aquaporins in rat conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland and Meibomian gland.

    Yu, Dongfang; Thelin, William R; Randell, Scott H; Boucher, Richard C

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate aquaporin (AQP) family member mRNA expression and protein expression/localization in the rat lacrimal functional unit. The mRNA expression of all rat AQPs (AQP0-9, 11-12) in palpebral, fornical, and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, and Meibomian gland was measured by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR. Antibodies against AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 11 were used in Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to determine protein expression and distribution. Our study demonstrated characteristic AQP expression profiles in rat ocular tissues. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 mRNA were detected in conjunctiva. AQP0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, and 12 mRNA were expressed in cornea. AQP0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 11 mRNA were detected in lacrimal gland. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 mRNA were identified in Meibomian gland. By Western blot, AQP1, 3, 5, and 11 were detected in conjunctiva; AQP1, 3, 5, and 11 were identified in cornea; AQP1, 3, 4, 5, and 11 were detected in lacrimal gland; and AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 11 were present in Meibomian gland. Immunohistochemistry localized AQPs to distinct sites in the various tissues. This study rigorously analyzed AQPs expression and localization in rat conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, and Meibomian gland tissues. Our findings provide a comprehensive platform for further investigation into the physiological or pathophysiological relevance of AQPs in ocular surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deposition in the human thyroid gland

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1979-01-01

    Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131 I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131 I concentration in cattle milk was 437 pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131 I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

  16. Gene expression profiling supports the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as ovarian cancer initiating cells

    Matyunina Lilya V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence suggests that somatic stem cells undergo mutagenic transformation into cancer initiating cells. The serous subtype of ovarian adenocarcinoma in humans has been hypothesized to arise from at least two possible classes of progenitor cells: the ovarian surface epithelia (OSE and/or an as yet undefined class of progenitor cells residing in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Methods Comparative gene expression profiling analyses were carried out on OSE removed from the surface of normal human ovaries and ovarian cancer epithelial cells (CEPI isolated by laser capture micro-dissection (LCM from human serous papillary ovarian adenocarcinomas. The results of the gene expression analyses were randomly confirmed in paraffin embedded tissues from ovarian adenocarcinoma of serous subtype and non-neoplastic ovarian tissues using immunohistochemistry. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed using gene ontology, molecular pathway, and gene set enrichment analysis algorithms. Results Consistent with multipotent capacity, genes in pathways previously associated with adult stem cell maintenance are highly expressed in ovarian surface epithelia and are not expressed or expressed at very low levels in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. Among the over 2000 genes that are significantly differentially expressed, a number of pathways and novel pathway interactions are identified that may contribute to ovarian adenocarcinoma development. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as the origin of ovarian adenocarcinoma. While our findings do not rule out the possibility that ovarian cancers may also arise from other sources, they are inconsistent with claims that ovarian surface epithelia cannot serve as the origin of ovarian cancer initiating cells.

  17. Growth and characterization of different human rhinovirus C types in three-dimensional human airway epithelia reconstituted in vitro

    Tapparel, Caroline; Sobo, Komla; Constant, Samuel; Huang, Song; Van Belle, Sandra; Kaiser, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    New molecular diagnostic tools have recently allowed the discovery of human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) that may be overrepresented in children with lower respiratory tract complications. Unlike HRV-A and HRV-B, HRV-C cannot be propagated in conventional immortalized cell lines and their biological properties have been difficult to study. Recent studies have described the successful amplification of HRV-C15, HRV-C11, and HRV-C41 in sinus mucosal organ cultures and in fully differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Consistent with these studies, we report that a panel of clinical HRV-C specimens including HRV-C2, HRV-C7, HRV-C12, HRV-C15, and HRV-C29 types were all capable of mediating productive infection in reconstituted 3D human primary upper airway epithelial tissues and that the virions enter and exit preferentially through the apical surface. Similar to HRV-A and HRV-B, our data support the acid sensitivity of HRV-C. We observed also that the optimum temperature requirement during HRV-C growth may be type-dependent. - Highlights: • A 3D human upper airway epithelia reconstituted in vitro supports HRV-C growth. • HRV-Cs enter and exit preferentially at the apical side of this ALI culture system. • HRV-Cs are acid sensitive. • Temperature sensitivity may be type-dependent for HRV-Cs

  18. Growth and characterization of different human rhinovirus C types in three-dimensional human airway epithelia reconstituted in vitro

    Tapparel, Caroline, E-mail: Caroline.Tapparel@hcuge.ch [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases and Division of Laboratory Medicine, University of Geneva Hospitals, 4 Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Sobo, Komla [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases and Division of Laboratory Medicine, University of Geneva Hospitals, 4 Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Constant, Samuel; Huang, Song [Epithelix sárl, 14 Chemin des Aulx, 1228 Plan les Ouates, Geneva (Switzerland); Van Belle, Sandra; Kaiser, Laurent [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases and Division of Laboratory Medicine, University of Geneva Hospitals, 4 Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2013-11-15

    New molecular diagnostic tools have recently allowed the discovery of human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) that may be overrepresented in children with lower respiratory tract complications. Unlike HRV-A and HRV-B, HRV-C cannot be propagated in conventional immortalized cell lines and their biological properties have been difficult to study. Recent studies have described the successful amplification of HRV-C15, HRV-C11, and HRV-C41 in sinus mucosal organ cultures and in fully differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Consistent with these studies, we report that a panel of clinical HRV-C specimens including HRV-C2, HRV-C7, HRV-C12, HRV-C15, and HRV-C29 types were all capable of mediating productive infection in reconstituted 3D human primary upper airway epithelial tissues and that the virions enter and exit preferentially through the apical surface. Similar to HRV-A and HRV-B, our data support the acid sensitivity of HRV-C. We observed also that the optimum temperature requirement during HRV-C growth may be type-dependent. - Highlights: • A 3D human upper airway epithelia reconstituted in vitro supports HRV-C growth. • HRV-Cs enter and exit preferentially at the apical side of this ALI culture system. • HRV-Cs are acid sensitive. • Temperature sensitivity may be type-dependent for HRV-Cs.

  19. Toward automatic segmentation and quantification of tumor and stroma in whole-slide images of H&E stained rectal carcinomas

    Geessink, Oscar; Baidoshvili, Alexi; Baidoshvili, Alexi; Freling, Gerard; Klaase, Joost M.; Slump, Cornelis H.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    2015-01-01

    Visual estimation of tumor and stroma proportions in microscopy images yields a strong, Tumor-(lymph)Node- Metastasis (TNM) classification-independent predictor for patient survival in colorectal cancer. Therefore, it is also a potent (contra)indicator for adjuvant chemotherapy. However,

  20. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the ultrastructure of chloroplast thylakoid membranes - Periodicity and structural flexibility of the stroma lamellae

    Posselt, Dorthe; Nagy, Gergely; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J. K.

    2012-01-01

    The multilamellar organization of freshly isolated spinach and pea chloroplast thylakoid membranes was studied using small-angle neutron scattering. A broad peak at similar to 0.02 angstrom(-1) is ascribed to diffraction from domains of ordered, unappressed stroma lamellae, revealing a repeat dis...

  1. Transcriptional profiling reveals gland-specific differential expression in the three major salivary glands of the adult mouse.

    Gao, Xin; Oei, Maria S; Ovitt, Catherine E; Sincan, Murat; Melvin, James E

    2018-04-01

    RNA-Seq was used to better understand the molecular nature of the biological differences among the three major exocrine salivary glands in mammals. Transcriptional profiling found that the adult murine parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands express greater than 14,300 protein-coding genes, and nearly 2,000 of these genes were differentially expressed. Principle component analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed three distinct clusters according to gland type. The three salivary gland transcriptomes were dominated by a relatively few number of highly expressed genes (6.3%) that accounted for more than 90% of transcriptional output. Of the 912 transcription factors expressed in the major salivary glands, greater than 90% of them were detected in all three glands, while expression for ~2% of them was enriched in an individual gland. Expression of these unique transcription factors correlated with sublingual and parotid specific subsets of both highly expressed and differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology analyses revealed that the highly expressed genes common to all glands were associated with global functions, while many of the genes expressed in a single gland play a major role in the function of that gland. In summary, transcriptional profiling of the three murine major salivary glands identified a limited number of highly expressed genes, differentially expressed genes, and unique transcription factors that represent the transcriptional signatures underlying gland-specific biological properties.

  2. Characterizing human vestibular sensory epithelia for experimental studies: new hair bundles on old tissue and implications for therapeutic interventions in ageing.

    Taylor, Ruth R; Jagger, Daniel J; Saeed, Shakeel R; Axon, Patrick; Donnelly, Neil; Tysome, James; Moffatt, David; Irving, Richard; Monksfield, Peter; Coulson, Chris; Freeman, Simon R; Lloyd, Simon K; Forge, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Balance disequilibrium is a significant contributor to falls in the elderly. The most common cause of balance dysfunction is loss of sensory cells from the vestibular sensory epithelia of the inner ear. However, inaccessibility of inner ear tissue in humans severely restricts possibilities for experimental manipulation to develop therapies to ameliorate this loss. We provide a structural and functional analysis of human vestibular sensory epithelia harvested at trans-labyrinthine surgery. We demonstrate the viability of the tissue and labeling with specific markers of hair cell function and of ion homeostasis in the epithelium. Samples obtained from the oldest patients revealed a significant loss of hair cells across the tissue surface, but we found immature hair bundles present in epithelia harvested from patients >60 years of age. These results suggest that the environment of the human vestibular sensory epithelium could be responsive to stimulation of developmental pathways to enhance hair cell regeneration, as has been demonstrated successfully in the vestibular organs of adult mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  4. Image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Kuriyama, Keiko; Kozuka, Takahiro; Morimoto, Shizuo; Ikezoe, Junpei; Arisawa, Jun; Akira, Masanori; Koide, Takuo; Oka, Toshitsugu; Sone, Shusuke.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the neck were performed in 12 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-eight of 44 excised parathyroid glands were visualized by US preoperatively (64 %). By CT, 20 parathyroid glands were detected (45 %). US was superior to CT for demonstrating parathyroid glands weighing between 500 and 1500 mg. There was no difference between US and CT for demonstrating parathyroid glands weighing more than 1500 mg and less than 500 mg. For definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism and preoperative localization, US is modality of choice initially, and then CT can be employed to search for mediastinal parathyroid gland. (author)

  5. Characterization of novel tumor stroma markers identified by gene expression profiling of human cancer tissues and 3D co-culture models

    Rupp, C.

    2010-01-01

    The tumor stroma plays an important role in tumorigenesis. During cancer progression it undergoes changes in architecture, gene expression and secretion of proteolytic enzymes that are essential for the invasive and metastatic phenotype of malignant tumors. Cancer associated fibroblasts (Cafes) represent the major cellular component of the stroma and recent studies demonstrated the prognostic and therapeutic significance of CaF-related molecular signatures. The identification and characterization of genes and signaling pathways involved in the molecular interactions between tumor and stromal cells has been the focus of this study. For that purpose we have used two complementary approaches: the identification of novel tumor stroma targets in human colon cancer samples using whole genome Affymetrix GeneChip analysis and the validation of theses targets in a newly established of 3D co-culture model that mimics the cellular and molecular heterogeneity of human cancers. We have demonstrated increased expression of gene sets related to hypoxia, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and TGFβ pathway activation in CAFs vs their normal counterparts in both systems. The putative TGFβ target IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7) was identified as a tumor stroma marker of epithelial cancers and as a tumor antigen in mesenchyme-derived sarcomas. IGFPB7 was shown to promote anchorage-independent growth in malignant mesenchymal cells and malignant epithelial cells with an EMT-phenotype, whereas a tumor suppressor function was observed in tumor epithelial cells. In summary, we have demonstrated that a number of important signaling pathways involved in cancer progression and metastasis are specifically dysregulated in the tumor stroma both in our in vivo screen and in the in vitro 3D model, illustrating the value of these approaches for the identification and characterization of novel stromal markers. (author) [de

  6. Biological adhesion of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano relies on a duo-gland system and is mediated by a cell type-specific intermediate filament protein.

    Lengerer, Birgit; Pjeta, Robert; Wunderer, Julia; Rodrigues, Marcelo; Arbore, Roberto; Schärer, Lukas; Berezikov, Eugene; Hess, Michael W; Pfaller, Kristian; Egger, Bernhard; Obwegeser, Sabrina; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ladurner, Peter

    2014-02-12

    Free-living flatworms, in both marine and freshwater environments, are able to adhere to and release from a substrate several times within a second. This reversible adhesion relies on adhesive organs comprised of three cell types: an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an anchor cell, which is a modified epidermal cell responsible for structural support. However, nothing is currently known about the molecules that are involved in this adhesion process. In this study we present the detailed morphology of the adhesive organs of the free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. About 130 adhesive organs are located in a horse-shoe-shaped arc along the ventral side of the tail plate. Each organ consists of exactly three cells, an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an anchor cell. The necks of the two gland cells penetrate the anchor cell through a common pore. Modified microvilli of the anchor cell form a collar surrounding the necks of the adhesive- and releasing glands, jointly forming the papilla, the outer visible part of the adhesive organs. Next, we identified an intermediate filament (IF) gene, macif1, which is expressed in the anchor cells. RNA interference mediated knock-down resulted in the first experimentally induced non-adhesion phenotype in any marine animal. Specifically, the absence of intermediate filaments in the anchor cells led to papillae with open tips, a reduction of the cytoskeleton network, a decline in hemidesmosomal connections, and to shortened microvilli containing less actin. Our findings reveal an elaborate biological adhesion system in a free-living flatworm, which permits impressively rapid temporary adhesion-release performance in the marine environment. We demonstrate that the structural integrity of the supportive cell, the anchor cell, is essential for this adhesion process: the knock-down of the anchor cell-specific intermediate filament gene resulted in the inability of the animals to adhere. The RNAi

  7. Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland

    Takahashi, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Takenori; Adachi, Tosihide; Enomoto, Kenichi; Ishii, Hidenori; Yoshida, Chikako; Hokunan, Kazuhiko; Bando, Nobuyuki; Shigyo, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

  8. High resolution computed tomography of the post partum pituitary gland

    Hinshaw, D.B.; Hasso, A.N.; Thompson, J.R.; Davidson, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eight volunteer post partum female patients were examined with high resolution computed tomography during the week immediately after delivery. All patients received high dose (40-70 gm) intravenous iodine contrast administration. The scans were examined for pituitary gland height, shape and homogeneity. All of the patients had enlarged glands by the traditional standards (i.e. gland height of 8 mm or greater). The diaphragma sellae in every call bulged upward with a convex domed appearance. The glands were generally inhomogeneous. One gland had a 4 mm focal well defined area of decreased attenuation. Two patients who were studied again months later had glands which had returned to ''normal'' size. The enlarged, upwardly convex pituitary gland appears to be typical and normal for the recently post partum period. (orig.)

  9. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  10. Necrotizing sialometaplasia-like change of the esophageal submucosal glands is associated with Barrett's esophagus.

    Braxton, David R; Nickleach, Dana C; Liu, Yuan; Farris, Alton B

    2014-08-01

    The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) protect the squamous epithelium from insults such as gastroesophageal reflux disease by secreting mucins and bicarbonate. We have observed metaplastic changes within the SMG acini that we have termed oncocytic glandular metaplasia (OGM), and necrotizing sialometaplasia-like change (NSMLC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the associated clinicopathological parameters of, and to phenotypically characterize the SMG metaplasias. Esophagectomy specimens were retrospectively assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections and assigned to either a Barrett's esophagus (BE) or non-BE control group. Clinicopathologic data was collected, and univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to assess the adjusted associations with NSMLC and OGM. Selected cases of SMG metaplasia were characterized. SMG were present in 82 esophagi that met inclusion criteria. On univariate analysis, NSMLC was associated with BE (p = 0.002). There was no relationship between NSMLC and patient age, sex, tumor size, or treatment history. OGM was associated with BE (p = 0.031). No relationship was found between OGM and patient age, sex, or tumor size. On multivariate analysis, BE was independently associated with NSMLC (odds ratio [OR] 4.95, p = 0.003). Treatment history was also independently associated with OGM (p = 0.029), but not NSMLC. Both NSMLC and OGM were non-mucinous ductal type epithelia retaining a p63-smooth muscle actin co-positive myoepithelial cell layer. NSMLC and OGM were present in endoscopic mucosal resection specimens. Our study suggests that SMG metaplasia is primarily a reflux-induced pathology. NSMLC may pose diagnostic dilemmas in resection specimens or when only partially represented in mucosal biopsies or endoscopic resection specimens.

  11. [Identification and preservation of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts].

    Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António; Carvalho, Lina

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to know the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck in order to minimize the rate of thyroid surgery morbidity, especially the lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves. The aim of this study was the identification of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts and their histological confirmation. Twenty cadaver parts were used to simulate thyroidectomies. During dissection, the thyroid glands and eventual parathyroid glands were isolated and then submitted to histological study. Twenty cadaver parts (anterior cervical organs) were used for macroscopic dissection during which 48 fragments that corresponded to eventual parathyroid glands were isolated, 35 of which were effectively confirmed through histological observation to be parathyroid glands. The 20 cadaver parts were then divided into three groups according to the number of histologically confirmed parathyroid glands. In the first group, composed of 11 cases, all eventual parathyroid glands were confirmed. In the second group, composed of six cases, only some glands were confirmed. In the third group, composed of three cases, none of the possible glands were confirmed. In seven of the 20 isolated thyroid glands, eight parathyroid glands were identified during histological study: four subcapsular, three extra-capsular, one intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical relation in the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. The knowledge of the anatomy of the central visceral compartment of the neck and its most frequent variations reduces but doesn't eliminate thyroid surgery morbidity, especially parathyroid iatrogenic excision, difficulty which has been demonstrated during the dissection of cadaver parts.

  12. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    Malik, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  13. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  14. Historical overview of imaging the meibomian glands

    William Ngo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing knowledge of the role of the meibomian glands in dry eye disease and contact lens discomfort has resulted in a surge of interest in visualizing these glands within the eyelids. This manuscript provides an overview of the many different visualization methods that have evolved over the past 30–40 years. Some of the visualization methods covered in this review include lid transillumination, video and non-contact meibography, and imaging methods employing confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography and ultrasound. This review has also highlighted all the studies to date that have employed meibography as part of their methods. An overview of the available meibography dropout grading systems will also be provided.

  15. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  16. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  17. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1999-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...... is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....

  18. FRACTAL DIMENSIONALITY ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND THERMOGRAMS

    Yu. E. Lyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermography may enable early detection of a cancer tumour within a mammary gland at an early, treatable stage of the illness, but thermogram analysis methods must be developed to achieve this goal. This study analyses the feasibility of applying the Hurst exponent readings algorithm for evaluation of the high dimensionality fractals to reveal any possible difference between normal thermograms (NT and malignant thermograms (MT.

  19. Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

    Sen, Debraj; Arora, Vijinder

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a very rare developmental anomaly that is often associated with other anomalies – the DPG-plus syndrome and occurs due to splitting of the rostral notochord and prechordal plate during blastogenesis. DPG with the constellation of associated anomalies as in our patient has not been reported previously. This article illustrates the importance of imaging the brain in all patients with obvious midline facial anomalies and the complementary role of MRI and CT in such cases

  20. Paratiroid gland adenoma and single pulmonary fibroma

    Aguirre Carpio, Roberto; Jimenez Torres, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The case of a 62 year old woman with diagnose of parathyroid gland adenoma and single pulmonary fibroma admitted at the ION SOLCA in Quito by the surgery service. At her admission she was classified as a paraneoplasic syndrome associated witha a pulmonary mass + hypercalcemia. This case was presented because of the importance of the primary hyperparathyroidism as one of the principal endocrine pathologies, that in oncology are associated with the multiple neoplasia syndromes. (The author)

  1. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma

  2. Benign Fibrous Tumour of the Parotid Gland

    S.S. Sreetharan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 44-year-old man with left parotid enlargement that was initially diagnosed as cementifying fibroma is presented. The lesion was found in the deep lobe of the parotid gland and was successfully removed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered well with intact facial nerve function and remained asymptomatic after 1 year. Subsequent histology revealed the mass to be a benign fibrous tumour. The diagnosis and management of this rare entity are discussed.

  3. Morphometric study of the avian adrenal gland.

    Aire, T A

    1980-01-01

    The interrenal and medullary cords as well as the blood vessels and connective tissue proportions in the adrenal glands of the male Nigerian fowl (Gallus domesticus) and guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris) were studied by microstereological techniques. Laying domestic fowl of the Rhode Island Red breed were entirely defeathered and maintained in a hot, humid pen for a period of three months, after which the adrenal glands were also studied microstereologically. Interrenal cord width was also measured in all the birds studied. The interrenal cords of the subscapular zone were consistently wider than those cords in the inner zone of the adrenal glands. This clearly suggested morphological zoning. The proportion of interrenal tissue was significantly greater in the guinea-fowl than in the Nigerian fowl, but the medullary tissue and the blood vessels and connective tissue were not significantly different. Interrenal hypoplasia or medullary hyperplasia occurred in the defeathered Rhode Island Red fowl as compared to the control birds of the same breed and sex. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:7440402

  4. Emerging treatment options for meibomian gland dysfunction

    Qiao J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jing Qiao, Xiaoming YanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Peking University First Hospital, Key Laboratory of Vision Loss and Restoration, Ministry of Education, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD is one of the most common diseases observed in clinics; it influences a great number of people, and is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye. Given the increased recognition of the importance of MGD, a great amount of attention has been paid to therapies targeting this condition. The traditional treatments of MGD consist of warm compresses and lid hygiene for removing an obstructed meibum, as well as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents to improve the quality of the meibum. However, each of these treatments has a different shortcoming and the treatment of MGD remains challenging. Despite the numerous possible treatment options for MGD, it is still difficult to obtain complete relief of signs and symptoms. This review focuses on current emerging treatment options for MGD including intraductal meibomian gland probing, emulsion eye drops containing lipids, the LipiFlow® thermal pulsation system, N-acetyl-cysteine, azithromycin, oral supplementation with omega-3 essential fatty acids, and cyclosporine A.Keywords: meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye, emerging treatment

  5. Differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses

    Szolar, D.H.M.; Unger, B.; Preidler, K.; Ranner, G.; Heinz-Peer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are first line modalities in the evaluation of patients with adrenal gland masses, and have the potential to be very accurate for the localization of adrenal gland masses in patients with diseases associated with hyperfunctioning conditions of the adrenal gland. Both CT and MR imaging allow a specific diagnosis of acute adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal myelolipoma, and adrenal cysts. CT is also helpful in the assessment of patients with Addision's disease, particularly the subacute from secondary to granulomatous diseases. Quantitative evaluation of adrenal masses on unenhanced CT scans and/or qualitative analysis on chemical-shift MR imaging have been shown to be accurate in distinguishing adrenal adenomas from non-adenomas. Attenuation of 11 HE or less on unenhanced CT scans and/or signal loss on opposed phase MR images indicate adenoma with a high specificity and acceptable sensitivity. More recently, delayed-enhanced CT has yielded higher sensitivity and specificity values in distinguishing between adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas than both unenhanced CT and chemical-shift MR imaging do. On delayed-enhanced CT scans, adrenal adenomas exhibit a greater washout of contrast material than do adrenal non-adenomas. Therefore, adrenal non-adenomas have significantly higher attenuation than adenomas on delayed-enhanced CT scans obtained at several arbitrarily chosen time points (3-60 min) after the initiation of contrast material administration. (orig.) [de

  6. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Associated With Periocular Radiotherapy.

    Woo, Young Jun; Ko, JaeSang; Ji, Yong Woo; Kim, Tae-Im; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of periocular radiotherapy on meibomian glands. We evaluated 28 patients (40 eyes) who received radiotherapy (RT group) for conjunctival or orbital lymphoma and 30 age-matched control subjects (60 eyes). Subjects underwent slit-lamp examination of the eyelids, Schirmer test, meibography, and evaluation of tear film breakup time (TBUT), Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores, meibomian glands evaluation (meiboscore, meibum expressibility, and lid margin abnormality scores), and tear film lipid layer thickness using an ocular surface interferometer. These parameters were compared between subjects in the RT and control groups. Meiboscores as well as meibum expressibility and OSDI scores in the RT group were significantly higher compared with those in the control group (1.6 ± 0.9 vs. 0.4 ± 0.6, 1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4, and 48.1 ± 21.4 vs. 6.2 ± 4.4, respectively, P radiotherapy exhibited relatively high tear film instability induced by meibomian gland dysfunction, contributing to the high severity of dry eye symptoms.

  7. Bilateral parotid gland tuberculosis: A rare occurrence

    Rajendra Takhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parotid gland tuberculosis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, even in countries where tuberculosis is endemic like India; however, it should be included as one of the differentials of discrete parotid swelling as it generally presents as a slow-growing mass indistinguishable from a malignancy and even imaging too, can’t differentiate these clearly. The majority of the previously reported cases were mostly unilateral and diagnosed by histopathological examination of post parotidectomy specimens. Here we are describing a case of tuberculosis of both parotid glands in a 25 year-old male who was referred to us with bilateral parotid region swelling of two month duration. Tubercular parotiditis was confirmed by demonstration of epithelioid granuloma and caseous necrosis compatible with TB on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. He was treated with four drug anti-TB regimen (2HERZ + 4HR leading to full recovery and complete disappearance of swelling and symptoms with no recurrence till one year of follow up. Apart from rarity due to bilateral involvement, this case report highlights the clinical presentation, ultrasonography and other imaging findings, and significance of FNAC in diagnosis of this uncommon entity reinforcing the fact that the diagnosis of parotid gland tuberculosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion.

  8. Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy in Prostate Glands 3

    Mayadev, Jyoti; Merrick, Gregory S.; Reed, Joshua R.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetry, treatment-related morbidity, and biochemical outcomes for brachytherapy in patients with prostate glands 3 . Methods and Materials: From November 1996 to October 2006, 104 patients with prostate glands 3 underwent brachytherapy. Multiple prostate, urethral, and rectal dosimetric parameters were evaluated. Treatment-related urinary and rectal morbidity were assessed from patient questionnaires. Cause-specific survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival were recorded. Results: The median patient age, follow up, and pre-treatment ultrasound volume was 64 years, 5.0 years and 17.6cm 3 , respectively. Median day 0 dosimetry was significant for the following: V100 98.5%, D90 126.1% and R100 <0.5% of prescription dose. The mean urethral and maximum urethral doses were 119.6% and 133.8% of prescription. The median time to International Prostate Symptom Score resolution was 4 months. There were no RTOG grade III or IV rectal complications. The cause-specific survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival rates were 100%, 92.5%, and 77.8% at 9 years. For biochemically disease-free patients, the median most recent postbrachytherapy PSA value was 0.02 ng/mL. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that brachytherapy for small prostate glands is highly effective, with an acceptable morbidity profile, excellent postimplant dosimetry, acceptable treatment-related morbidity, and favorable biochemical outcomes.

  9. Submandibular Gland Involvement in Early Stage Oral Cavity Carcinomas: Can the Gland be left behind

    Ashfaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, A.; Khan, M.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of submandibular gland involvement in early oral cavity tumors. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Data of 110 oral cavity tumors operated over 2008 - 2011 was retrieved from ENT OPD, tumor registry in AFIP and from Head and Neck Oncology Forum Registry. Cases of oral cavity tumors that had undergone elective neck dissections were retrospectively studied for invasion of the submandibular gland, TNM Staging, perineural, perivascular, lymphovascular invasion, site specific frequency of oral cavity tumors and frequency of lymph node metastasis. Results: Tumors of tongue were the most common constituting 42%, squamous cell carcinoma was the histological diagnosis in 90% cases. Sixty eight (61.8%) cases were node negative. Selective neck dissection was done in 55.5% of the cases. Submandibular gland was involved in 2 cases (1.8%). Conclusion: Submandibular gland metastasis from early oral cavity tumors is rare; any neoplastic involvement of the gland usually occurs via direct spread. (author)

  10. Role of Stroma-Derived Extracellular Matrix in Regulation of Growth and Hormonal Responsiveness of Normal and Cancerous Human Breast Epithelium

    Woodward, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and their cellular receptors (integrins) are required for normal mammary gland morphogenesis and differentiation, while their expression is dramatically altered during tumorigenesis...

  11. Current concepts in diagnosis of unusual salivary gland tumors

    Ajay Kumar Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland tumors are relatively uncommon and account for approximately 3-6% of all neoplasms of the head and neck. Tumors mostly involve the major salivary glands, 42.9-90% of which occur in the parotid glands and 8-19.5% in the sub-mandibular glands; tumors in the sub-lingual glands being uncommon. Despite the plethora of different malignant salivary gland tumor presented to pathologists for diagnosis, there is consensus on a limited number of pathologic observations that determine treatment and outcome. There are few absolutes in salivary gland tumor diagnosis given the marked spectrum and overlap of differentiated cell types that participate in the numerous benign and malignant tumors. Thus, there are enumerating antibodies that may be helpful in resolving difficult differential diagnoses when applied with astute morphologic correlation. In general, immunohistochemistry as an ancillary diagnostic tool should be used sparingly and wisely as a morphologic adjunct because of the lack of specificity of many markers for specific histologic tumor types. The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular profiling of salivary gland neoplasms and correlate this with histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms. We have elected to discuss and illustrate some of the unusual salivary gland tumors that the practicing pathologist find difficult to diagnose. These have been selected because they readily simulate each other but have very different clinical therapies and, therefore, should be included routinely in differential diagnosis.

  12. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    Christopher D. Conrady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction.

  13. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  14. Tumour imaging by the detection of fibrin clots in tumour stroma using an anti-fibrin Fab fragment

    Obonai, Toshifumi; Fuchigami, Hirobumi; Furuya, Fumiaki; Kozuka, Naoyuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of early and aggressive types of cancer is important for providing effective cancer therapy. Cancer-induced fibrin clots exist only within lesions. Previously, we developed a monoclonal antibody (clone 102-10) that recognizes insoluble fibrin but not fibrinogen or soluble fibrin and confirmed that fibrin clots form continuously in various cancers. Here, we describe the development of a Fab fragment probe of clone 102-10 for tumour imaging. The distribution of 102-10 Fab was investigated in genetically engineered mice bearing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and its effect on blood coagulation was examined. Immunohistochemical and ex vivo imaging revealed that 102-10 Fab was distributed selectively in fibrin clots in PDAC tumours 3 h after injection and that it disappeared from the body after 24 h. 102-10 Fab had no influence on blood coagulation or fibrinolysis. Tumour imaging using anti-fibrin Fab may provide a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of invasive cancers by detecting fibrin clots in tumour stroma. PMID:27009516

  15. IGF-1 receptor targeted nanoparticles for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer.

    Zhou, Hongyu; Qian, Weiping; Uckun, Fatih M; Zhou, Zhiyang; Wang, Liya; Wang, Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2016-04-17

    Low drug delivery efficiency and drug resistance from highly heterogeneous cancer cells and tumor microenvironment represent major challenges in clinical oncology. Growth factor receptor, IGF-1R, is overexpressed in both human tumor cells and tumor associated stromal cells. The level of IGF-1R expression is further up-regulated in drug resistant tumor cells. We have developed IGF-1R targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) carrying multiple anticancer drugs into human tumors. This IGF-1R targeted theranostic nanoparticle delivery system has an iron core for non-invasive MR imaging, amphiphilic polymer coating to ensure the biocompatibility as well as for drug loading and conjugation of recombinant human IGF-1 as targeting molecules. Chemotherapy drugs, Doxorubicin (Dox), was encapsulated into the polymer coating and/or conjugated to the IONP surface by coupling with the carboxyl groups. The ability of IGF1R targeted theranostic nanoparticles to penetrate tumor stromal barrier and enhance tumor cell killing has been demonstrated in human pancreatic cancer patient tissue derived xenograft (PDX) models. Repeated systemic administrations of those IGF-1R targeted theranostic IONP carrying Dox led to breaking the tumor stromal barrier and improved therapeutic effect. Near infrared (NIR) optical and MR imaging enabled noninvasive monitoring of nanoparticle-drug delivery and therapeutic responses. Our results demonstrated that IGF-1R targeted nanoparticles carrying multiple drugs are promising combination therapy approaches for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer, such as pancreatic cancer.

  16. Can We Predict Phyllodes Tumor among Fibroepithelial Lesions with Cellular Stroma Diagnosed at Breast Core Needle Biopsy?

    Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Rho, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, CHA University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Byeong Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    To evaluate the surgical outcomes of fibroepithelial lesion with cellular stroma (FELCS) diagnosed at sonography guided core needle biopsy of breast masses, and to determine whether the clinical and imaging features of this lesion could predict the presence of a phyllodes tumor. We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic results of sonography guided core needle biopsy of solid breast masses. A total of 55 FELCS diagnosed with this procedure that underwent subsequent surgical excision were included in this study; their medical records and radiologic images were retrospectively reviewed. The results of the surgical excision revealed 22 (40%) phyllodes tumors and 33 (60%) non-phyllodes tumors: 30 (54.6%) fibroadenomas, 1 (1.8%) adenosis, 1 (1.8%) fibrocystic changes and 1 (1.8%) fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. Lesion size and patient age were significantly different between phyllodes tumors and nonphyllodes tumors groups (32.2 {+-} 14.07 mm/22.4 {+-} 13.64 mm, p=0.0078, 43.5 {+-} 11.60 years/36.5 {+-} 10.25 years, p=0.0207). Among the sonographic features, only cleft was significantly more visible in phyllodes tumors than in non-phyllodes tumors (n=14 (70%)/n=6 (30%), p=0.0016). The size of the lesions, the age of the patients, and the sonographic features of cleft were the significant helpful variables to predict phyllodes tumors among FELCS diagnosed at breast core biopsy.

  17. Can We Predict Phyllodes Tumor among Fibroepithelial Lesions with Cellular Stroma Diagnosed at Breast Core Needle Biopsy?

    Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Rho, Ji Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Byeong Woo

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcomes of fibroepithelial lesion with cellular stroma (FELCS) diagnosed at sonography guided core needle biopsy of breast masses, and to determine whether the clinical and imaging features of this lesion could predict the presence of a phyllodes tumor. We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic results of sonography guided core needle biopsy of solid breast masses. A total of 55 FELCS diagnosed with this procedure that underwent subsequent surgical excision were included in this study; their medical records and radiologic images were retrospectively reviewed. The results of the surgical excision revealed 22 (40%) phyllodes tumors and 33 (60%) non-phyllodes tumors: 30 (54.6%) fibroadenomas, 1 (1.8%) adenosis, 1 (1.8%) fibrocystic changes and 1 (1.8%) fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. Lesion size and patient age were significantly different between phyllodes tumors and nonphyllodes tumors groups (32.2 ± 14.07 mm/22.4 ± 13.64 mm, p=0.0078, 43.5 ± 11.60 years/36.5 ± 10.25 years, p=0.0207). Among the sonographic features, only cleft was significantly more visible in phyllodes tumors than in non-phyllodes tumors (n=14 (70%)/n=6 (30%), p=0.0016). The size of the lesions, the age of the patients, and the sonographic features of cleft were the significant helpful variables to predict phyllodes tumors among FELCS diagnosed at breast core biopsy.

  18. Abnormalities of thymic stroma may contribute to immune dysregulation in murine models of leaky severe combined immunodeficiency

    Francesca eRucci

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lymphostromal cross-talk in the thymus is essential to allow generation of a diversified repertoire of T lymphocytes and to prevent autoimmunity by self-reactive T cells. Hypomorphic mutations in genes that control T cell development have been associated with immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation both in humans and in mice. We have studied T cell development and thymic stroma architecture and maturation in two mouse models of leaky SCID, carrying hypomorphic mutations in Rag1 and Lig4 genes. Defective T cell development was associated with abnormalities of thymic architecture that predominantly affect the thymic medulla, with reduction of the pool of mature medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs. While the ability of mTECs to express Aire is preserved in mutant mice, the frequency of mature mTECs expressing Aire and tissue-specific antigens (TSAs is severely reduced. Similarly, the ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells is preserved in Rag1 and Lig4 mutant mice, but their number is greatly reduced. These data indicate that hypomorphic defects in T cell development may cause defective lymphostromal cross-talk and impinge on thymic stromal cells maturation, and thus favor immune dysregulation.

  19. Cells from the adult corneal stroma can be reprogrammed to a neuron-like cell using exogenous growth factors

    Greene, Carol Ann; Chang, Chuan-Yuan; Fraser, Cameron J.; Nelidova, Dasha E.; Chen, Jing A.; Lim, Angela; Brebner, Alex; McGhee, Jennifer; Sherwin, Trevor; Green, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    Cells thought to be stem cells isolated from the cornea of the eye have been shown to exhibit neurogenic potential. We set out to uncover the identity and location of these cells within the cornea and to elucidate their neuronal protein and gene expression profile during the process of switching to a neuron-like cell. Here we report that every cell of the adult human and rat corneal stroma is capable of differentiating into a neuron-like cell when treated with neurogenic differentiation specifying growth factors. Furthermore, the expression of genes regulating neurogenesis and mature neuronal structure and function was increased. The switch from a corneal stromal cell to a neuron-like cell was also shown to occur in vivo in intact corneas of living rats. Our results clearly indicate that lineage specifying growth factors can affect changes in the protein and gene expression profiles of adult cells, suggesting that possibly many adult cell populations can be made to switch into another type of mature cell by simply modifying the growth factor environment. - Highlights: • Adult corneal stromal cells can differentiated into neuron-like cells. • Neuronal specification of the adult stromal cell population is stochastic. • Neuronal specification in an adult cell population can be brought about by growth factors

  20. Cells from the adult corneal stroma can be reprogrammed to a neuron-like cell using exogenous growth factors

    Greene, Carol Ann, E-mail: carol.greene@auckland.ac.nz; Chang, Chuan-Yuan; Fraser, Cameron J.; Nelidova, Dasha E.; Chen, Jing A.; Lim, Angela; Brebner, Alex; McGhee, Jennifer; Sherwin, Trevor; Green, Colin R.

    2014-03-10

    Cells thought to be stem cells isolated from the cornea of the eye have been shown to exhibit neurogenic potential. We set out to uncover the identity and location of these cells within the cornea and to elucidate their neuronal protein and gene expression profile during the process of switching to a neuron-like cell. Here we report that every cell of the adult human and rat corneal stroma is capable of differentiating into a neuron-like cell when treated with neurogenic differentiation specifying growth factors. Furthermore, the expression of genes regulating neurogenesis and mature neuronal structure and function was increased. The switch from a corneal stromal cell to a neuron-like cell was also shown to occur in vivo in intact corneas of living rats. Our results clearly indicate that lineage specifying growth factors can affect changes in the protein and gene expression profiles of adult cells, suggesting that possibly many adult cell populations can be made to switch into another type of mature cell by simply modifying the growth factor environment. - Highlights: • Adult corneal stromal cells can differentiated into neuron-like cells. • Neuronal specification of the adult stromal cell population is stochastic. • Neuronal specification in an adult cell population can be brought about by growth factors.

  1. Predictive value of ovarian stroma measurement for cardiovascular risk in polycyctic ovary syndrome: a case control study

    Loverro Giuseppe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To verify the feasibility of ovarian stromal evaluation and correlate ovarian parameteres (echogenicity and volume with hyperandrogenism, and both cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in PCOS. Methods Twenty four young PCOS patients and twelve age-matched control women were enrolled. Diagnosis of PCOS was based on the Rotterdam criteria. Ultrasound ovarian study included ovarian volume, stromal volume, stromal area and stromal area/total ovarian area ratio (S/A. Concerning hormones, insulin, LH, FSH, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, DHEAS, 17-hydroxy-progesterone, and SHBG were measured during the early follicular phase (days 2-5. Cardiovascular risk factors were represented by fasting plasma levels of glucose, lipids (total and HDL-cholesterol, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, von-Willebrand factor (vWF, and adiponectin. Carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT was measured as a parameter of cardiovascular risk. Results A positive correlation between the S/A ratio and plasma levels of testosterone (p Conclusions This study shows that the ultrasound measurement of ovarian stroma is a predicting factor of hyperandrogenism degree, prothrombotic factors and cardiovascular risk in patients with PCOS.

  2. IGF-1 receptor targeted nanoparticles for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer

    Zhou, Hongyu; Qian, Weiping; Uckun, Fatih M.; Zhou, Zhiyang; Wang, Liya; Wang, Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2016-05-01

    Low drug delivery efficiency and drug resistance from highly heterogeneous cancer cells and tumor microenvironment represent major challenges in clinical oncology. Growth factor receptor, IGF-1R, is overexpressed in both human tumor cells and tumor associated stromal cells. The level of IGF-1R expression is further up-regulated in drug resistant tumor cells. We have developed IGF-1R targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) carrying multiple anticancer drugs into human tumors. This IGF-1R targeted theranostic nanoparticle delivery system has an iron core for non-invasive MR imaging, amphiphilic polymer coating to ensure the biocompatibility as well as for drug loading and conjugation of recombinant human IGF-1 as targeting molecules. Chemotherapy drugs, Doxorubicin (Dox), was encapsulated into the polymer coating and/or conjugated to the IONP surface by coupling with the carboxyl groups. The ability of IGF1R targeted theranostic nanoparticles to penetrate tumor stromal barrier and enhance tumor cell killing has been demonstrated in human pancreatic cancer patient tissue derived xenograft (PDX) models. Repeated systemic administrations of those IGF-1R targeted theranostic IONP carrying Dox led to breaking the tumor stromal barrier and improved therapeutic effect. Near infrared (NIR) optical and MR imaging enabled noninvasive monitoring of nanoparticle-drug delivery and therapeutic responses. Our results demonstrated that IGF-1R targeted nanoparticles carrying multiple drugs are promising combination therapy approaches for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer, such as pancreatic cancer.

  3. Quantitation of Murine Stroma and Selective Purification of the Human Tumor Component of Patient-Derived Xenografts for Genomic Analysis.

    Valentina E Schneeberger

    Full Text Available Patient-derived xenograft (PDX mouse models are increasingly used for preclinical therapeutic testing of human cancer. A limitation in molecular and genetic characterization of PDX tumors is the presence of integral murine stroma. This is particularly problematic for genomic sequencing of PDX models. Rapid and dependable approaches for quantitating stromal content and purifying the malignant human component of these tumors are needed. We used a recently developed technique exploiting species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplicon length (ssPAL differences to define the fractional composition of murine and human DNA, which was proportional to the fractional composition of cells in a series of lung cancer PDX lines. We compared four methods of human cancer cell isolation: fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS, an immunomagnetic mouse cell depletion (MCD approach, and two distinct EpCAM-based immunomagnetic positive selection methods. We further analyzed DNA extracted from the resulting enriched human cancer cells by targeted sequencing using a clinically validated multi-gene panel. Stromal content varied widely among tumors of similar histology, but appeared stable over multiple serial tumor passages of an individual model. FACS and MCD were superior to either positive selection approach, especially in cases of high stromal content, and consistently allowed high quality human-specific genomic profiling. ssPAL is a dependable approach to quantitation of murine stromal content, and MCD is a simple, efficient, and high yield approach to human cancer cell isolation for genomic analysis of PDX tumors.

  4. The evaluation of computed tomography of the normal adrenal glands

    Baek, Seung Yon; Kook, Shin Ho; Lee, Cho Hye; Choi, Kyung Hee; Rhee, Chung Sik [Ewha Womens University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    Radiology plays an important role in evaluating patients with suspected adrenal gland pathology. Morphologic delineation of adrenal gland is especially valuable in patients with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of a disturbance in adrenal function. Many diagnostic radiologic methods are available for demonstrating adrenal lesions. Computed tomography overcomes many of the disadvantages of these other radiologic techniques. The high degree of spatial and density resolution allows precise demonstration of the normal adrenal glands as well as detection of both small and large tumors in almost all patients. So CT of adrenal gland is an excellent noninvasive screening method and definitive imaging technique. The anthers have investigated the capability of CT to image the normal size, location and shape of both glands. Knowledge of the range of normal is useful for optimal interpretation of CT scans in patients with suspected adrenal pathology. We reviewed CT scan of 150 cases without evidence of adrenal disease. The following results were obtained; 1. There were 90 male and 60 female patients. 2. Their ages ranged from 20 to 60 years. 3. On CT, both glands were shown in 135 (90.0%), the right in 143 (95.3%), the left in 142 (94.6%). 4. In the shape of adrenal glands, most of right adrenal gland was linear or comet shaped; 68 (47.6%), most of left adrenal gland was inverted-Y shaped; 103 (72.6%). 5. In the length of adrenal glands, the right was 2.5{+-}0.77cm, the left was 2.9{+-}0.75cm. 6. In the width of adrenal glands, the right was 3.2{+-}0.74cm, the left was 2.7{+-}0.57cm. 7. In the thickness of adrenal glands, the right was 0.5{+-}0.14cm, the left was 0.6{+-}0.16cm.

  5. Lipoxin A4 stimulates calcium-activated chloride currents and increases airway surface liquid height in normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl(-) secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA(4) is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA(4) are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA(4) produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca(2+). We have investigated, the effect of LXA(4) on Cl(-) secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA(4) stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca(2+) increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA(4) stimulated whole-cell Cl(-) currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl(-) channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca(2+)) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA(4) increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA(4) effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. The LXA(4) stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+), whole-cell Cl(-) currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX\\/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA(4) in the stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signalling leading to Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia.

  6. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland

    A. Salibian

    Full Text Available This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms.

  7. Gland system, especially for nuclear power plant circulation pumps

    Skalicky, A.; Vesely, M.

    1975-01-01

    The invention claims a gland system suitable especially for the circulation pumps of nuclear power plants. The system prevents the release of the radioactive high-pressure cooling liquid in the atmosphere. The gland system consists of at least two mechanical glands arranged in series and of the closed circuit of the cooling high-pressure medium. The respective mechanical glands are linked with by-pass branches and discharge piping. The by-pass branches accommodating control manometers and flowmeters are linked with the storage reservoir with drain pipes provided with stop fittings. (Oy)

  8. Computed tomography of the adrenal glands in Addision's disease

    Rzymski, K.; Sobieszczyk, S.; Kosowicz, J.; Akademia Medyczna, Poznan

    1984-01-01

    In 30 cases of chronic adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) CT of the adrenal glands was performed using a fourth generation scanner and a 2 mm slice thickness. Adrenal glands were visualized in all the cases. In 26 patients the adrenals were atrophied; the adrenal shape was abnormal in 21 patients. In 15 patients CT disclosed calcifications in one or both glands, which were particularly frequent in patients over the age of 50. Atrophy of adrenal glands was of high occurrence in cases of autoimmune origin. (orig.) [de

  9. The Aging Lacrimal Gland: Changes in Structure and Function

    Rocha, Eduardo M.; Alves, Monica; Rios, J. David; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2008-01-01

    The afferent nerves of the cornea and conjunctiva, efferent nerves of the lacrimal gland, and the lacrimal gland are a functional unit that works cooperatively to produce the aqueous component of tears. A decrease in the lacrimal gland secretory function can lead to dry eye disease. Because aging is a risk factor for dry eye disease, study of the changes in the function of the lacrimal gland functional unit with age is important for developing treatments to prevent dry eye disease. No one mec...

  10. Note on glands present in meliponinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae bees legs

    Carminda da Cruz-Landim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the presence of glandular structures in legs of some stingless bee species. The glands appear as: the epidermis transformation in a glandular epithelium as in basitarsus, an epithelial sac inside the segment as in the femur of queens or in the last tarsomere, as round glandular cells, scattered or forming groupments. The saculiform gland of femur is present only in queens, the other glands are present in males, queens and workers of the studied species, apparently without any type of polymorphism. This occurrence seems indicate that the function of these glands have not to do with the sociality or specific behavior of castes.

  11. [Application scintigraphy in evaluation of salivary gland function].

    Mojsak, Małgorzata Natalia; Rogowski, Franciszek

    2010-03-01

    The salivary glands belong to the exocrine glands. There are tree main pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Several modalities are used for salivary gland imaging, such as sonography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of these methods is mainly to present morphological impairment. Parenchymal function and excretion function of all salivary glands can be quantified by scintigraphy. After single intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate sequential images are acquired up to 25-40 minutes. Usually about fifteen minutes postinjection 3 ml of lemon juice are administered intraorally as sialogogue. Salivary scintigraphy can estimate the severity of salivary gland involvement and function disorders, which may not be accurately reflected by the morphological damage. The clinical impact of scintigraphy has been reported in multiple salivary glands diseases, such as Sjogren's syndrome, sialolithiasis with or without parenchymal damage, iatrogenic irradiation of the salivary glands for therapy of head and neck tumors or radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer. No other method can give so much information about function of salivary glands. Scintigraphy is noninvasive examination, easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient.

  12. Mouse 3T3 fibroblasts under the influence of fibroblasts isolated from stroma of human basal cell carcinoma acquire properties of multipotent stem cells

    Szabo, Pavol; Kolář, Michal; Dvořánková, B.; Lacina, L.; Štork, J.; Vlček, Čestmír; Strnad, Hynek; Tvrdek, M.; Smetana, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 5 (2011), s. 233-248 ISSN 0248-4900 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06106; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : basal cell carcinoma (BCC) * stem cell * tumour stroma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.600, year: 2011

  13. Fibroblast growth factor-2-induced host stroma reaction during initial tumor growth promotes progression of mouse melanoma via vascular endothelial growth factor A-dependent neovascularization.

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo

    2007-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 has been considered to play a critical role in neovascularization in several tumors; however, its precise role in tumor progression is not fully understood. In the present study, we have characterized the role of FGF-2 in B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells, focusing on effects during the initial phase of tumor growth. FGF-2 was injected at the tumor inoculation site of dorsal skin during the initial phase. FGF-2 induced marked tumor growth and lymph node metastasis. This was well correlated with an increase in neovascularization in the host stroma. FGF-2 also recruited inflammatory and mesenchymal cells in host stroma. Marked tumor growth, pulmonary metastasis and intensive neovascularization in tumor parenchyma were also observed after a single injection of FGF-2 into the footpad inoculation site. In contrast, repeated injections of FGF-2 at a site remote from the footpad tumor were ineffective in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. These promoting activities of FGF-2 were blocked by local injections of a glucocorticoid hormone, suggesting that host inflammatory responses induced by FGF-2 are associated with FGF-2-induced tumor progression. In addition, although FGF-2 did not promote cellular proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA expression in B16-BL6 cells in vitro, FGF-2 induced VEGFA expression in host stroma rather than tumor tissue, and local injections of a neutralizing antibody against VEGFA inhibited these activities of FGF-2 in vivo. These results indicate that abundant FGF-2 during the initial phase of tumor growth induces VEGFA-dependent intensive neovascularization in host stroma, and supports marked tumor growth and metastasis.

  14. Pituitary gland volumes in bipolar disorder.

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Goodwin, Guy M

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorder has been associated with increased Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function. The mechanism is not well understood, but there may be associated increases in pituitary gland volume (PGV) and these small increases may be functionally significant. However, research investigating PGV in bipolar disorder reports mixed results. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to assess PGV in two novel samples of patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Second, to perform a meta-analysis comparing PGV across a larger sample of patients and matched controls. Sample 1 consisted of 23 established patients and 32 matched controls. Sample 2 consisted of 39 medication-naïve patients and 42 matched controls. PGV was measured on structural MRI scans. Seven further studies were identified comparing PGV between patients and matched controls (total n; 244 patients, 308 controls). Both novel samples showed a small (approximately 20mm(3) or 4%), but non-significant, increase in PGV in patients. Combining the two novel samples showed a significant association of age and PGV. Meta-analysis showed a trend towards a larger pituitary gland in patients (effect size: .23, CI: -.14, .59). While results suggest a possible small difference in pituitary gland volume between patients and matched controls, larger mega-analyses with sample sizes greater even than those used in the current meta-analysis are still required. There is a small but potentially functionally significant increase in PGV in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. Results demonstrate the difficulty of finding potentially important but small effects in functional brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager.

    Jandali, Danny; Heilingoetter, Ashley; Ghai, Ritu; Jeffe, Jill; Al-Khudari, Samer

    2018-01-01

    Lipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager. A 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence. This is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  16. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager

    Danny Jandali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager.Case presentationA 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence.ConclusionThis is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  17. Anterograde trafficking of KCa3.1 in polarized epithelia is Rab1- and Rab8-dependent and recycling endosome-independent.

    Claudia A Bertuccio

    Full Text Available The intermediate conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1 targets to the basolateral (BL membrane in polarized epithelia where it plays a key role in transepithelial ion transport. However, there are no studies defining the anterograde and retrograde trafficking of KCa3.1 in polarized epithelia. Herein, we utilize Biotin Ligase Acceptor Peptide (BLAP-tagged KCa3.1 to address these trafficking steps in polarized epithelia, using MDCK, Caco-2 and FRT cells. We demonstrate that KCa3.1 is exclusively targeted to the BL membrane in these cells when grown on filter supports. Following endocytosis, KCa3.1 degradation is prevented by inhibition of lysosomal/proteosomal pathways. Further, the ubiquitylation of KCa3.1 is increased following endocytosis from the BL membrane and PR-619, a deubiquitylase inhibitor, prevents degradation, indicating KCa3.1 is targeted for degradation by ubiquitylation. We demonstrate that KCa3.1 is targeted to the BL membrane in polarized LLC-PK1 cells which lack the μ1B subunit of the AP-1 complex, indicating BL targeting of KCa3.1 is independent of μ1B. As Rabs 1, 2, 6 and 8 play roles in ER/Golgi exit and trafficking of proteins to the BL membrane, we evaluated the role of these Rabs in the trafficking of KCa3.1. In the presence of dominant negative Rab1 or Rab8, KCa3.1 cell surface expression was significantly reduced, whereas Rabs 2 and 6 had no effect. We also co-immunoprecipitated KCa3.1 with both Rab1 and Rab8. These results suggest these Rabs are necessary for the anterograde trafficking of KCa3.1. Finally, we determined whether KCa3.1 traffics directly to the BL membrane or through recycling endosomes in MDCK cells. For these studies, we used either recycling endosome ablation or dominant negative RME-1 constructs and determined that KCa3.1 is trafficked directly to the BL membrane rather than via recycling endosomes. These results are the first to describe the anterograde and retrograde trafficking of KCa3

  18. The small intestinal epithelia of beef steers differentially express sugar transporter messenger ribonucleic acid in response to abomasal versus ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate.

    Liao, S F; Harmon, D L; Vanzant, E S; McLeod, K R; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the absorption of monosaccharides from small intestinal lumen involves at least 3 sugar transporters (SugT): sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1; gene SLC5A1) transports glucose and galactose, whereas glucose transporter (GLUT) 5 (GLUT5; gene SLC2A5) transports fructose, across the apical membrane of enterocytes. In contrast, GLUT2 (gene SLC2A2) transports all of these sugars across basolateral and apical membranes. To compare the distribution patterns and sensitivity with nutritional regulation of these 3 SugT mRNA in beef cattle small intestinal tissue, 18 ruminally and abomasally catheterized Angus steers (BW approximately 260 kg) were assigned to water (control), ruminal cornstarch (partially hydrolyzed by alpha-amylase; SH), or abomasal SH infusion treatments (n = 6) and fed an alfalfa-cube-based diet at 1.3 x NE(m) requirement. The SH infusions amounted to 20% of ME intake. After 14- or 16-d of infusion, steers were killed; duodenal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia harvested; and total RNA extracted. The relative amount of SugT mRNA in epithelia was determined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification methods. Basal expression of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA was greater (P content of GLUT5 mRNA was greater (P content of GLUT5 mRNA in small intestinal epithelia was not affected (P > or = 0.16) by either SH infusion treatment. In contrast, GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA content in the ileal epithelium was increased (P content also was increased (P = 0.07) by 64% after ruminal SH infusion. These results demonstrate that the ileum of beef cattle small intestine adapts to an increased luminal supply of glucose by increasing SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA content, whereas increased ruminal SH supply results in duodenal upregulation of SGLT1 mRNA content. These adaptive responses of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA to abomasal or ruminal SH infusion suggest that beef cattle can adapt to increase their carbohydrate assimilation through small intestinal epithelia, assuming

  19. Membrane lipid microenvironment modulates thermodynamic properties of the Na+-K+-ATPase in branchial and intestinal epithelia in euryhaline fish in vivo

    Mario Diaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the effects of different native membrane lipid composition on the thermodynamic properties of the Na+-K+-ATPase in different epithelia from the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata. Thermodynamic parameters of activation for the Na+-K+-ATPase, as well as contents of lipid classes and fatty acids from polar lipids were determined for gill epithelia and enterocytes isolated from pyloric caeca, anterior intestine and posterior intestine. Arrhenius analyses of control animals revealed differences in thermal discontinuity values (Td and activation energies determined at both sides of Td between intestinal and gill epithelia. Eyring plots disclosed important differences in enthalpy of activation (H‡ and entropy of activation (S‡ between enterocytes and branchial cells. Induction of n-3 LCPUFA deficiency dramatically altered membrane lipid composition in enterocytes, being the most dramatic changes the increase in 18:1n-9 (oleic acid and the reduction of n-3 LCPUFA (mainly DHA, docosahexaenoic acid. Strikingly, branchial cells were much more resistant to diet-induced lipid alterations than enterocytes, indicating the existence of potent lipostatic mechanisms preserving membrane lipid matrix in gill epithelia. Paralleling lipid alterations, values of Ea1, H‡ and S‡ for the Na+-K+-ATPase were all increased, while Td values vanished, in LCPUFA deficient enterocytes. In turn, Differences in thermodynamic parameters were highly correlated with specific changes in fatty acids, but not with individual lipid classes including cholesterol in vivo. Thus, Td was positively related to 18:1n-9 and negatively to DHA. Td, Ea1 and H‡ were exponentially related to DHA/18:1n-9 ratio. The exponential nature of these relationships highlights the strong impact of subtle changes in the contents of oleic acid and DHA in setting the thermodynamic properties of epithelial Na+-K+-ATPase in vivo. The effects are consistent with physical

  20. Effects of topical steroids on tight junction proteins and spongiosis in esophageal epithelia of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Katzka, David A; Tadi, Ravikanth; Smyrk, Thomas C; Katarya, Eesha; Sharma, Anamay; Geno, Deborah M; Camilleri, Michael; Iyer, Prasad G; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Buttar, Navtej S

    2014-11-01

    The allergic response associated with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) occurs when food antigens permeate tight junction-mediated epithelial dilated intercellular spaces. We assessed whether levels of tight junction proteins correlate with the dilation of intercellular spaces (spongiosis) and the effects of topical steroids on these parameters. We assessed esophageal biopsy samples from 10 patients with active EoE treated with topical fluticasone, 10 untreated patients, and 10 patients without esophageal disease (controls) for degree of spongiosis. Immunohistochemical assays were used to determine the levels of the tight junction proteins filaggrin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, and claudin-1. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were assessed blindly, with levels of tight junction proteins and degree of spongiosis rated on scales of 0 to 3. The mean degrees of spongiosis in untreated and treated patients with EoE were 1.3 and 0.4, respectively (P = .016). Esophageal epithelia did not stain significantly for ZO-1 or ZO-2. Filaggrin was observed in a predominant cytoplasmic pattern, compared with the cytoplasmic and membranous patterns of ZO-3 and claudin-1. In biopsy specimens from patients with active EoE, the mean staining intensities for filaggrin, ZO-3, and claudin-1 were 1.6, 1.4, and 0.7, respectively. In biopsy specimens from patients treated with fluticasone, levels of filaggrin, ZO-3, and claudin-1 were 2.8 (P = .002 compared with untreated patients), 1.7 (P = .46 compared with untreated patients), and 1.3 (P = .25 compared with untreated patients), respectively. The correlation between the level of filaggrin and the degree of spongiosis was r = 0.23, and between ZO-3 staining and the degree of spongiosis was r = .016 (P = .001 for filaggrin vs ZO-3 staining). Filaggrin, ZO-3, and claudin-1 (but not ZO-1 or ZO-2) are detected in the esophageal mucosa of patients with EoE treated with steroids and individuals without esophageal disease

  1. Partial Aminoglycoside Lesions in Vestibular Epithelia Reveal Broad Sensory Dysfunction Associated with Modest Hair Cell Loss and Afferent Calyx Retraction.

    Sultemeier, David R; Hoffman, Larry F

    2017-01-01

    at 2 and 6 months post-administration. We found no evidence of morphologic or physiologic recovery. These results indicate that gentamicin-induced partial lesions to vestibular epithelia include hair cell loss (ostensibly reflecting an apoptotic effect ) that is far less extensive than the compromise to stimulus-evoked afferent discharge modulation and retraction of afferent calyces (reflecting non-apoptotic effects ). Additionally, calyx retraction cannot be completely accounted for by loss of type I hair cells, supporting the possibility for direct action of gentamicin on the afferent dendrite.

  2. The function of 7D-cadherins: a mathematical model predicts physiological importance for water transport through simple epithelia

    Walcher Sebastian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 7D-cadherins like LI-cadherin are cell adhesion molecules and represent exceptional members of the cadherin superfamily. Although LI-cadherin was shown to act as a functional Ca2+-dependent adhesion molecule, linking neighboring cells together, and to be dysregulated in a variety of diseases, the physiological role is still enigmatic. Interestingly 7D-cadherins occur only in the lateral plasma membranes of cells from epithelia of water transporting tissues like the gut, the liver or the kidney. Furthermore LI-cadherin was shown to exhibit a highly cooperative Ca2+-dependency of the binding activity. Thus it is tempting to assume that LI-cadherin regulates the water transport through the epithelium in a passive fashion by changing its binding activity in dependence on the extracellular Ca2+. Results We developed a simple mathematical model describing the epithelial lining of a lumen with a content of variable osmolarity covering an interstitium of constant osmolarity. The width of the lateral intercellular cleft was found to influence the water transport significantly. In the case of hypertonic luminal content a narrow cleft is necessary to further increase concentration of the luminal content. If the cleft is too wide, the water flux will change direction and water is transported into the lumen. Electron microscopic images show that in fact areas of the gut can be found where the lateral intercellular cleft is narrow throughout the lateral cell border whereas in other areas the lateral intercellular cleft is widened. Conclusions Our simple model clearly predicts that changes of the width of the lateral intercellular cleft can regulate the direction and efficiency of water transport through a simple epithelium. In a narrow cleft the cells can increase the concentration of osmotic active substances easily by active transport whereas if the cleft is wide, friction is reduced but the cells can hardly build up high osmotic

  3. Volume regulation in epithelia

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  4. Branchial cysts within the parotid salivary gland

    2012-01-01

    Cystic lesions within the parotid gland are uncommon and clinically they are frequently misdiagnosed as tumours. Many theories have been proposed as to their embryological origin. A 20-year retrospective review was undertaken of all pathological codes (SNOMED) of all of patients presenting with any parotid lesions requiring surgery. After analysis seven subjects were found to have histopathologically proven parotid branchial cysts in the absence of HIV infection and those patients are the aim of this review. Four of the most common embryological theories are also discussed with regard to these cases, as are their management. PMID:22607735

  5. Primary lymphocytic lymphoma of lacrimal gland.

    Romero-Caballero, M D; Lozano-García, I; Gómez-Molina, C; Gil-Liñán, A I; Arcas, I

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of primary small-cell lymphocytic lacrimal gland lymphoma in a male diagnosed with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. These rare lymphomas are usually presented in the clinic as disseminations secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and the primary site is rare in the orbit. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours. Although treatment in the IE stage is usually radiotherapy, due to its association with antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic treatment with rituximab was administered. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Ranjan, Kumar Rajiv; Chakrabortty, Debasis; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET) typically occurs in long or flat bones, the chest wall, extra-skeletal soft tissue, and rarely in solid organs. Incidence of adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare. Here we report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the right adrenal gland in an 8-year-old girl who presented with an abdominal mass. The huge tumor was managed by preoperative neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. She died due to metastasis after five months of surgery.

  7. Microbiology of Bartholin's Gland Abscess in Japan

    Tanaka, Kaori; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Ninomiya, Mochiyoshi; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Izumi, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the current epidemiology concerning the causative organisms for Bartholin's gland abscess in Japan. Microbiological examination of 224 cases showed positive results in 219 cases and negative results in 5 cases. Of all of the bacterial isolates, 307 and 118 were aerobes and anaerobes, respectively. The most frequently isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli. Of the anaerobes, the most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides species, followed by Prevotella species. The organisms related to respiratory infectious diseases, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, including resistant bacteria, were sometimes involved between 2000 and 2004. PMID:16081994

  8. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2008-01-01

    at the time of diagnosis. Material and methods. From the 1(st) of January 1996 to 31(st) of December 2002 a total of 169 PMC patients were diagnosed and registered in the national Danish thyroid cancer database DATHYRCA and 131 of these were eligible for the study. Forty-three (33%) had histologically......Introduction. Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow...

  9. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary

  10. Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

    Debraj Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG is a very rare developmental anomaly that is often associated with other anomalies - the DPG-plus syndrome and occurs due to splitting of the rostral notochord and prechordal plate during blastogenesis. DPG with the constellation of associated anomalies as in our patient has not been reported previously. This article illustrates the importance of imaging the brain in all patients with obvious midline facial anomalies and the complementary role of MRI and CT in such cases.

  11. Genetic disorders of the anterior pituitary gland.

    Teller, W M

    1985-01-01

    This survey deals with disorders caused by genetically disturbed function of the anterior pituitary gland. Genetic Dwarfism may be caused by isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) or panpituitary diseases, such as congenital absence of the pituitary or familial panhypopituitarism. Genetic disturbances of isolated pituitary hormone secretion without dwarfism may occur as isolated gonadotropin deficiency (IGD), isolated luteinizing hormone deficiency ("fertile eunuch"), Kallmann syndrome (olfactogenital dysplasia), isolated thyrotropin deficiency (ITD) and isolated corticotropin deficiency (ICD). Pituitary dysfunction may also be associated with other genetic disease entities.

  12. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  13. Uneven Meibomian Gland Dropout Over the Tarsal Plate and its Correlation With Meibomian Gland Dysfunction.

    Yin, Yue; Gong, Lan

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distribution of meibomian gland dropout and analyze the correlation between dropout and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). A total of 161 eyes of 85 patients with MGD were recruited as the MGD group; 88 eyes of 46 health volunteers were enrolled as the control group (2:1 matched for age and sex). Examinations included the Schirmer I test, breakup time, symptom questionnaire, corneal fluorescein staining, meibum quality, meibomian gland expressibility, and meibomian gland dropout. (1) The incidences of chalazion and eyelid surgery were significantly higher in patients with MGD. (2) All clinical indexes were better in healthy volunteers (all P dropout in the upper eyelid was statistically lower (P dropout than did the middle part, except in the lower eyelid of the control group. (4) The entire or partial dropout was positively related to MGD occurrence. Both additive dropout of the entire 2 eyelids and that of the 2 nasal parts had the strongest correlation (r = 0.792, P dropout (r = -0.229, P dropout of additive (r = 0.185, P dropouts exist in different or single eyelids. (2) Dropout evaluation is better when covering the entire area of both upper and lower meibomians. (3) Nasal part dropout plays a more essential role than the other dropouts in MGD occurrence.

  14. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release...... and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more...

  15. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  16. Salivary gland function after concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    Ikeda, Kenichiro; Shimane, Toshikazu; Uzuki, Aya; Sugimoto, Akane; Mori, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Rio; Gomibuchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Sei; Sanbe, Takeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cancer of head and neck is becoming more and more prevalent. In fact, it is considered to better maintain quality of life (QOL) of patients than operative treatment in terms of preserving the functions, organs, and structures, but recently I seems that it does not maintain the QOL of patients better than operative treatment because its complications after therapy disturb daily life. We previously conducted a questionnaire survey that investigated the complications experienced by patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and reported that xerostomia was markedly reduced QOL in these patients. In this study, we divided patients who were exposed to radiation in both major salivary glands into two groups: 20 patients who received a 36 Gy dose of radiation (36 Gy group) and 15 patients who underwent radiation therapy alone at a dose of 40 Gy (radiotherapy (RT) group). The gum test was conducted with the following results (mean volume of saliva): 11.2 ml in the 36 Gy group, 6.0 ml in the RT group. There was no significant difference between the 36 Gy group and RT group. Our findings suggest that there is no significant difference in the extent of salivary gland dysfunction even after chemotherapy is carried out concurrently with radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Hedgehog signaling: endocrine gland development and function.

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-01-01

    The role of hedgehog signaling is analyzed in relation to the developing endocrine glands: pituitary, ovary, testis, adrenal cortex, pancreas, prostate, and epiphyseal growth. Experimental and pathological correlates of these organs are also discussed. The second section addresses a number of topics. First, the pituitary gland, no matter how hypoplastic, is present in most cases of human holoprosencephaly, unlike animals in which it is always said to be absent. The difference appears to be that animal mutations and teratogenic models involve both copies of the gene in question, whereas in humans the condition is most commonly heterozygous. Second, tests of endocrine function are not reported with great frequency, and an early demise in severe cases of holoprosencephaly accounts for this trend. Reported tests of endocrine function are reviewed. Third, diabetes insipidus has been recorded in a number of cases of holoprosencephaly. Its frequency is unknown because it could be masked by adrenal insufficiency in some cases and may not be recognized in others. Because of the abnormal hypothalamic-infundibular region in holoprosencephaly, diabetes insipidus could be caused by a defect in the supra-optic or paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei or in release of ADH via the infundibulum and posterior pituitary.

  18. Antibody-mediated delivery of interleukin-2 to the stroma of breast cancer strongly enhances the potency of chemotherapy.

    Mårlind, Jessica; Kaspar, Manuela; Trachsel, Eveline; Sommavilla, Roberto; Hindle, Stuart; Bacci, Camilla; Giovannoni, Leonardo; Neri, Dario

    2008-10-15

    There is an interest in the discovery of biopharmaceuticals, which are well tolerated and which potentiate the action of anthracyclines and taxanes in breast cancer therapy. We have produced a recombinant fusion protein, composed of the human antibody fragment scFv(F16) fused to human interleukin-2 (F16-IL2), and tested its therapeutic performance in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model of human breast cancer. The F16 antibody is specific to the alternatively spliced A1 domain of tenascin-C, which is virtually undetectable in normal tissues but is strongly expressed in the neovasculature and stroma of breast cancer. When used as monotherapy, F16-IL2 displayed a strikingly superior therapeutic benefit compared with unconjugated recombinant IL-2. The administration of doxorubicin either before (8 days, 24 h, or 2 h) or simultaneously with the injection of F16-IL2 did not decrease the accumulation of immunocytokine in the tumor as measured by quantitative biodistribution analysis. Therapy experiments, featuring five once per week coadministrations of 20 mug F16-IL2 and doxorubicin, showed a statistically significant reduction of tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival at a 4 mg/kg doxorubicin dose but not at a 1 mg/kg dose. By contrast, combination of F16-IL2 with paclitaxel (5 and 1 mg/kg) exhibited a significant therapeutic benefit compared with paclitaxel alone at both dose levels. F16-IL2, alone or in combination with doxorubicin, was well tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys at doses equivalent to the ones now used in clinical studies. F16-IL2 may represent a new useful biopharmaceutical for the treatment of breast cancer.

  19. Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus ...

    Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus arminius. J.M. Brand, L.V. Mabinya, E.D. Morgan. Abstract. Camponotus arminius is a large black carpenter ant that occurs in tropical and sub-tropical Africa and has extensive foraging trails both in trees and on the ground. Analysis of excised mandibular glands ...

  20. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland

    Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo

    1996-01-01

    The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

  1. The aging lacrimal gland: changes in structure and function.

    Rocha, Eduardo M; Alves, Monica; Rios, J David; Dartt, Darlene A

    2008-10-01

    The afferent nerves of the cornea and conjunctiva, efferent nerves of the lacrimal gland, and the lacrimal gland are a functional unit that works cooperatively to produce the aqueous component of tears. A decrease in the lacrimal gland secretory function can lead to dry eye disease. Because aging is a risk factor for dry eye disease, study of the changes in the function of the lacrimal gland functional unit with age is important for developing treatments to prevent dry eye disease. No one mechanism is known to induce the changes that occur with aging, although multiple different mechanisms have been associated with aging. These fall into two theoretical categories: programmed theories of aging (immunological, genetic, apoptotic, and neuroendocrine) and error theories of aging (protein alteration, somatic mutation, etc). Lacrimal glands undergo structural and functional alteration with increasing age. In mouse models of aging, it has been shown that neural stimulation of protein secretion is an early target of aging, accompanied by an increase in mast cells and lipofuscin accumulation. Hyperglycemia and increased lymphocytic infiltration can contribute to this loss of function at older ages. These findings suggest that an increase in oxidative stress may play a role in the loss of lacrimal gland function with age. For the afferent and efferent neural components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, immune or inflammatory mediated decrease in nerve function could contribute to loss of lacrimal gland secretion with age. More research in this area is critically needed.

  2. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th ...

  3. Epidemiology of a mammary glands cancer in Semipalatinsk region

    Arzykulov, Zh.A.; Kanaf'yanov, G.S.; Igisinov, S.I.; Sejtkazina, G.D.; Makhataeva, A.Zh.

    2003-01-01

    The tendency of mammary glands cancer morbidity for 1980-2000 years in the former Semipalatinsk test site has been studied. The trends of mammary glands cancer morbidity in dynamic are increase (T±5.4), moreover legalities have been presented in indices standardization for world standard

  4. Oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: A Danish national study

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Marie; Godballe, Christian; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler

    2017-01-01

    demographics, tumor site, clinical stage and treatment profiles were extracted. A follow-up was carried out. RESULTS: Of the 15 cases of salivary gland OC, eight were female. The incidence was 0.02/100.000 inhabitants per year in Denmark, 13 patients presented with OC in the parotid gland and two patients...

  5. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...

  6. Parotid gland function following accelerated and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy

    Leslie, M.D.; Dische, S.

    1991-01-01

    The function of parotid glands in patients treated by 3 different schedules of radiotherapy was studied 9 months or more after its conclusion. All had received radiotherapy for a malignancy confined to 1 side of the head and neck region and only the gland on the side of the lesion was in the treatment volume; the contralateral gland acted as an internal control. Saliva was selectively collected from the parotid glands and the stimulated flow rate and pH of the saliva determined. Flow rates were expressed in each case as a percentage of that of the contralateral ('untreated') gland. Twelve glands that had received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 60-66 Gy showed a mean percentage flow of 20 percent and a significant fall in the pH of the saliva produced. Six glands that had received CHART (Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated RadioTherapy) and 8 conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 35-40 Gy showed mean percentage flows of 57 and 65 percent respectively, with only slight and non-significant falls in saliva pH. The results show that in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck the use of CHART can lead to considerable less late change in the function of the parotid gland. (author). 26 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. MRI study of normal pituitary glands in stage of puberty

    Lin Guangwu; Zhang Tao; Yang Ning; Cai Feng; Shi Yifan; Deng Jieying; Zhang Luodong; Jiang Yayun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of shape, size and signal intensity of normal pituitary glands in adolescents and to correlate the size and shape of normal pituitary glands with the age, height and weight in stage of puberty. Methods: One hundred and fifty-five cases of MRI data of pituitary glands in normal adolescents range from 6.0 year to 18.9 year were used. Using high-field 1.5T MR scanner, the appearances of pituitary glands in 152 normal adolescents were analyzed on T 1 WI in standard median sagittal and coronal plane. Results: Three groups quantitative data of size, shape and single intensity changes of normal pituitary glands were obtained, which were divided into 6- m =0.74, t=3.624, P=0.004; r f =0.94, t=9.562, P=0.000), however, it was not markedly correlated with the height and weight (P>0.05). Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in health adolescents. The pituitary glands manifest physiologic hypertrophy with more convex of upper border when age increased in stage of puberty. The spherical appearance of the pituitary glands is a normal developmental feature and should not warrant clinical investigation for the presence of an underlying micro-adenoma in teenage females. (authors)

  8. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  9. MR demonstration of a prostate gland in a female pseudohermaphrodite

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Sharma, Raju

    2006-01-01

    We present the rare case of a 14-year-old female pseudohermaphrodite due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). MRI revealed the presence of a hypoplastic uterus, ovaries, clitoromegaly, and prostate gland with its typical zonal anatomy. Transrectal sonography also confirmed the presence of a prostate gland. (orig.)

  10. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  11. Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren's syndrome

    Pijpe, J.; Kalk, W. W. I.; Bootsma, H.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Vissink, A.

    Background: Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the key manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Objectives: (1) To assess prospectively loss of function of individual salivary glands in patients with primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in relation to disease duration and use of immunomodulatory

  12. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  13. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  14. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands .... be used in the silk-manufacture industry. This paper analyses .... (figure 3C); and are highly birefringent (figure 3D).

  15. A Histological Autopsy Study of the Thyroid gland in Human ...

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the histological appearances of adult thyroid glands in patients who died of HIV related diseases at UTH in the period 2010 to 2012. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive retrospective study of adult thyroid glands collected at autopsy during the period 2010 ...

  16. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...

  17. Histomorphometry aspect of thyroid gland and biochemical profile in ...

    sunny t

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... brain, as well as for many other aspects of pregnancy and fetal growth. ... gland and reproductive status (pregnant vs. non- pregnant) in camels. ... The left and right lobe of the thyroid gland from pregnant and non- pregnant ...

  18. Sonographic mammary gland density pattern in women in selected ...

    ... are known to affect the mammary gland density. This study aims to determine mammary gland density pattern in selected population of women in Sothern Nigeria using the American College of Radiology Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-BI-RADS) lexicon and to promote the use of ultrasound as a breast cancer ...

  19. Single and multiple gland disease in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Bonjer, Jaap

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe scope of this thesis is: To review diagnostic procedures in primary hyperparathyroidism To review localization studies of parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism primary To assess the optima! surgical hyperparathyroidism by studying the recurrent hyperparathyroidism treatment of primary rates of persistent or To attempt to classify primary hyperparathyroidism by histopathology To determine DNA patterns in parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism

  20. Isolated bilateral congenital lacrimal gland agenesis – Report of two cases

    Manar Alwohaib

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lacrimal gland agenesis, also called congenital alacrima, is a rare cause of dry eye and is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of lacrimal glands. We present two 5-year old children with congenital lacrimal gland agenesis. The two cases had the final diagnosis of isolated bilateral congenital lacrimal gland agenesis and we document the clinical aspects, treatment and present a literature review related to this rare condition. Keywords: Alacrima, Lacrimal gland, Lacrimal gland agenesis, Punctal plugs

  1. Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland

    Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland

  2. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus...... were found. Two out of three studies found a statistically significant increase in adrenal volume in patients compared to controls. Four out of eight studies found a statistically significant increase in pituitary volume in patients compared to controls. Different methodological problems were...

  3. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  4. Dual pathology of the submandibular gland: plasmacytoma and pleomorphic adenoma.

    Menon, Shalini; Pujary, Kailesh; Valiathan, Manna

    2014-03-03

    Synchronous tumours of different histological types involving the salivary gland are very rare. There have been cases reported in the literature of such tumours occurring in the parotid gland. A 52-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of gradually increasing painless swelling in the right submandibular region. The ultrasound scan of the neck showed features suggestive of a submandibular sialadenitis. The right submandibular gland was then surgically excised and sent for histopathological examination. The features showed a unique dual pathology of the submandibular gland, that is, a plasmacytoma and a pleomorphic adenoma. Such a synchronous double pathology involving the submandibular gland has not been reported in the literature. A review of the literature suggests a good prognosis for the extramedullary plasmacytoma, provided multiple myeloma is ruled out. In 18 months of follow-up, the patient has been asymptomatic with a negative myeloma workup.

  5. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    Haruka Nakanishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion.

  6. Computed tomography diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

    Veverková, Lucia; Bakaj-Zbrožková, Lenka; Hallamová, Lucie; Heřman, Miroslav

    2013-10-01

    Fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland is the most common interventional procedure used to diagnose thyroid diseases. Serious complications are rare in this procedure. They comprise an infection with abscess formation and hemorrhage. To date, only a few case reports have described an ultrasound diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland. We established such a diagnosis using computed tomography (CT). A 74-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our hospital with complications after fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound revealed a large hematoma surrounding the gland. A subsequent CT scan confirmed the presence of hematoma and, moreover, showed active bleeding. This finding prompted rapid surgical intervention. CT has the capability to show active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

  7. Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma of Parotid Gland- A Case Report

    Sachin A. Badge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC is most commonly seen in the nasopharynx. Very rarely it is found in the salivary gland, preferably in parotid gland followed by submandibular gland where it accounts for 0.4% of all malignant salivary gland tumours. Most commonly it is seen in fifth decade with female predominance. Significant correlation has been reported between this tumour and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV.It has a racial predilection for Inuits,Chinese and Japanese. Very rarely it is found In Indians. So we present a case of LEC of parotid gland in a 23 year old male Indian patient. As this is a very radiosensitive tumour, surgery followed by radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice.

  8. Image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in chronic renal failure

    Takagi, H.; Tominaga, Y.; Uchida, K.; Yamada, N.; Morimoto, T.; Yasue, M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-two out of 31 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy before operation underwent non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands by computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy with 201 TlCl and /sup 99m/TcO 4+ , and/or ultrasonography. CT visualized 39 of 45 parathyroid glands (86.7%), weighing more than 500 mg. Scintigraphy with a subtraction method using a computer performed the diagnosis in 19 of 27 glands (70.4%). Ultrasonography detected 21 of 27 glands (77.8%). Image diagnosis was also useful in the postoperative follow-up study. The non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with chronic renal failure is thus valuable for 1) definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism, 2) localization, and 3) diagnosis for effectiveness of conservative treatment

  9. Effect of high ovarian response on the expression of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) in peri-implantation endometrium in IVF women.

    Xu, Li-Zhen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Yao, Li-Hua; Liang, A-Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Zhao-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ovarian stimulation on the expression of EG-VEGF mRNA and protein in peri-implantation endometrium in women undergoing IVF and its relation with endometrial receptivity (ER). Prospective laboratory study. University hospital. Eighteen women in stimulated cycles (SC) as study subjects and 18 women in natural cycles (NC) as controls. Women in SC group were classified with two subgroups, high ovarian response (SC1, n=9) with peak serum E2>5,000 pg/mL and moderate ovarian response (SC2, n=9) with peak serum E2 1,000-5,000 pg/mL. Endometrial biopsies were collected 6 days after ovulation in NC or after oocyte retrieval in SC. Endometrium histological dating was observed with HE staining. EG-VEGF mRNA expression levels determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and protein levels by immunohistochemistry. All endometrial samples were in the secretory phase. The endometrial development in SC1 was 1 to 2 days advanced to NC, and with dyssynchrony between glandular and stromal tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that EG-VEGF protein was predominantly expressed in the glandular epithelial cells and endothelial cells of vessels, and also presented in the stroma. The image analysis confirmed that both the gland and stroma of endometrium in SC1 had a significantly lower EG-VEGF protein expression than that in SC2 and NC endometrium. Moreover, EG-VEGF mRNA levels were significantly lower in SC1 than in NC. Both EG-VEGF protein and mRNA levels had no significant difference between SC2 and NC. Decreased expression of EG-VEGF in the peri-implantation is associated with high ovarian response, which may account for the impaired ER and lower implantation rate in IVF cycles.

  10. Management of minor salivary gland carcinomas

    Parsons, James T.; Mendenhall, William M.; Stringer, Scott P.; Cassisi, Nicholas J.; Million, Rodney R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of radiotherapy alone or in combination with surgery in the treatment of patients with malignant minor salivary gland carcinomas. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and November 1992, 95 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas of the head and neck received radiotherapy with curative intent. Eighty-seven patients were previously untreated, and 8 were treated for postsurgical recurrence. Fifty-one patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, and 44 were treated by surgical resection plus radiotherapy. Patients were staged according to the 1983 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria for squamous cell carcinomas. Results: The 20-year actuarial rate of local control was 57% with no significant difference according to histologic type. When tumor stage was taken into consideration, there were no significant differences in local control according to tumor site. The 12-year actuarial probability of distant metastases was 40% (19% as the only site of failure). In multivariate analyses, local control was significantly affected only by tumor stage and treatment type (combined therapy better than radiotherapy alone); tumor stage was a significant predictor of cause-specific survival and freedom from relapse. Freedom-from-relapse rates were higher for patients who received combined treatment (p = 0.068). Conclusions: Treatment of minor salivary gland carcinomas is usually by combined surgery and radiotherapy, but there are situations where surgery alone or radiotherapy alone may be used. The ability to control these tumors with radiotherapy alone is not widely recognized. In the present series, the tumor was locally controlled in 20 patients with previously untreated primary lesions after radiotherapy alone (2.5 to 21 years) and in 4 other patients who were treated by radiotherapy alone for postsurgical recurrent tumor (3.5 to 14 years after radiotherapy). Contrary to the widely held belief that local recurrence

  11. Histoanatomical study of the Sublingual Salivary Gland in the Camel

    M.a Ebrahimi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The heads of ten adult camels were used in this study. Following skin removal, the length, width and thickness of the gland was measured by ruler and caliper. Dye injection was used to distinguish the sublingual duct papilla and 1cm sections from the gland were removed and fixed to prepare histologic sections stained with H & E for microscopic studies. The long, ribbon like and lobulated monostomatic part of the gland is situated underneath the tongue alongside the hypoglossus muscle. This part of the gland begins from the mandibular symphysis and is continued caudally to near the root of the tongue. The average length, width and thickness of this part were 15.2±0.02, 2.2±0.03 and 0.5±0.05 cm respectively. The polystomatic part was observed as scattered and lobulated near the submucosa and in front of the monostomatic part with decreasing concentration caudally. The average size of these fragments was approximately 0.5±0.02 cm. The overall appearance of the gland was lobulated with a pink colour. The monostomatic part has a single duct entering the sublingual caruncle. The minute polystomatic ducts open into the depressions alongside the tongue inside the oral cavity. These ducts are numerous. Histologically, the gland is surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue. Trabcules from the capsule penetrate the gland and divide it into lobules. Loose connective tissue makes up the framework of the gland and there are tubulo-acinus glands in the spaces of this framework. Approximately 95% of the secretory cells of this gland consist of mucous secreting cells. Myoepithelial cells are seen on the external surface of the secretory cells and also alongside the connecting ducts.

  12. Objective image analysis of the meibomian gland area.

    Arita, Reiko; Suehiro, Jun; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Shirakawa, Rika; Tokoro, Hideaki; Amano, Shiro

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate objectively the meibomian gland area using newly developed software for non-invasive meibography. Eighty eyelids of 42 patients without meibomian gland loss (meiboscore=0), 105 eyelids of 57 patients with loss of less than one-third total meibomian gland area (meiboscore=1), 13 eyelids of 11 patients with between one-third and two-thirds loss of meibomian gland area (meiboscore=2) and 20 eyelids of 14 patients with two-thirds loss of meibomian gland area (meiboscore=3) were studied. Lid borders were automatically determined. The software evaluated the distribution of the luminance and, by enhancing the contrast and reducing image noise, the meibomian gland area was automatically discriminated. The software calculated the ratio of the total meibomian gland area relative to the total analysis area in all subjects. Repeatability of the software was also evaluated. The mean ratio of the meibomian gland area to the total analysis area in the upper/lower eyelids was 51.9±5.7%/54.7±5.4% in subjects with a meiboscore of 0, 47.7±6.0%/51.5±5.4% in those with a meiboscore of 1, 32.0±4.4%/37.2±3.5% in those with a meiboscore of 2 and 16.7±6.4%/19.5±5.8% in subjects with a meiboscore of 3. The meibomian gland area was objectively evaluated using the developed software. This system could be useful for objectively evaluating the effect of treatment on meibomian gland dysfunction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Effect of Meibomian gland massage before phacoemulsification on ocular surface after surgery in patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction

    Bang-Tao Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the changes of ocular surface in cataract patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction(MGDwho treated with Meibomian gland massage before surgery. METHODS: Totally 90 patients(93 eyeswith cataract and MGD were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in experimental group were treated with hot compress and Meibomian gland massage every day before surgery, while the patients in the control group were not taken. Two groups of patients received phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. Lid margin abnormalities, secretion characteristics, Schimer I test(SⅠtand tear film break-up time(BUTwere recorded and compared between two groups using slit lamp microscope inspection preoperatively and postoperatively 1wk. RESULTS: In the control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin and Meibomian gland secretion was increased significantly than preoperative, while the value of BUT and SⅠt was down significantly. Compared with control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin shape and Meibomian gland secretion in the experimental group was decreased significantly, while the value of BUT and SIT improved significantly(PCONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification can aggravate the Meibomian gland dysfunction and have some extent of effects on the ocular surface. Meibomian gland massage before surgery can significantly improve the function of Meibomian gland and the state of ocular surface in patients with MDG.

  14. Role of thyroid gland on the peroxidase and iodinating enzymes of submaxillary gland

    Chandra, T.; Das, R.; Datta, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    The peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) and iodinase (EC 1.11.1.8) activities of rat submaxillary gland were found to be increased after thyroidectomy. The enzyme activities were maximal on the seventh day after operation and then decreased slightly. However, the enzyme activities were still more than 100% even 28 days following operation. Administration of thyroxine (10 μg/100 g body weight) prevented the increase. Puromycin, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D, the inhibitors of protein synthesis, as well as Thiouracil partially abolished the increase of activities. These results suggest that thyroxine acts as a regulator of the iodinase and peroxidase enzyme(s) of submaxillary gland. Iodine 131 was the isotope used in the experiments. (orig./AJ) [de

  15. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  16. Neutron therapy of resistant thyroid gland cancer

    Choynzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Musabaeva, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons c. The study included 45 patients with thyroid gland cancers who received the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy alone with the use of 6.3 MeV fast neutrons generated within U-120 cyclotron. The clinical trial of neutron-photon therapy used alone and in combination with the surgery for the patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer showed feasibility of increasing the effectiveness of treatment due to the reduction in the incidence of local recurrences. In addition, satisfactory treatment tolerance and absence of severe specific complications dictate the necessity of prospective studies to improve treatment outcomes.

  17. Normal tissue complication probability for salivary glands

    Rana, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of radiotherapy is to make a profitable balance between the morbidity (due to side effects of radiation) and cure of malignancy. To achieve this, one needs to know the relation between NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) and various treatment variables of a schedule viz. daily dose, duration of treatment, total dose and fractionation along with tissue conditions. Prospective studies require that a large number of patients be treated with varied schedule parameters and a statistically acceptable number of patients develop complications so that a true relation between NTCP and a particular variable is established. In this study Salivary Glands Complications have been considered. The cases treated in 60 Co teletherapy machine during the period 1994 to 2002 were analyzed and the clinicians judgement in ascertaining the end points was the only means of observations. The only end points were early and late xerestomia which were considered for NTCP evaluations for a period of 5 years

  18. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy

    Eom, Keun Yong; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jae Sung; Park, Charn Il; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Chae Seo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah [Bundang Seoul National University Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy, and determine prognostic factors for locoregional control and survival. Between 1980 and 2002, 130 patients with parotid malignancy were registered in the database of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital. The subjects of this analysis were the 72 of these 130 patients who underwent postoperative irradiation. There were 42 males and 30 females, with a median age of 46.5 years. The most common histological type was a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. There were 6, 23, 23 and 20 patients in Stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. The median dose to the tumor bed was 60 Gy, with a median fraction size of 1.8 Gy. The overall 5 and 10 year survival rates were 85 and 76%, respectively. The five-year locoregional control rate was 85%, which reached a plateau phase after 6 years. Sex and histological type were found to be statistically significant for overall survival from a multivariate analysis. No other factors, including age, facial nerve palsy and stage, were related to overall survival. For locoregional control, nodal involvement and positive resection margin were associated with poor local control. Histological type, tumor size, perineural invasion and type of surgery were not significant for locoregional control. A high survival rate of parotid gland malignancies, with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, was confirmed. Sex and histological type were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Nodal involvement and a positive resection margin were associated with poor locoregional control.

  20. Corneal stroma microfibrils

    Hanlon, Samuel D.; Behzad, Ali Reza; Sakai, Lynn Y.; Burns, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    these fibers appeared as electron dense patches. Transmission electron microscopy provided additional detail of these patches and showed them to be composed of fibrils (~10nm diameter). Immunogold evidence clearly identified these fibrils as fibrillin EFMBs

  1. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    [ 3 H]Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of [ 3 H]captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of [ 3 H]captopril labeling of ACE. [ 3 H]Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. [ 3 H]Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of [ 3 H]captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, [ 3 H]captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor [ 3 H]GEMSA

  2. The Distribution of Stroma and Antral Follicles Differs between Insulin-Resistance and Hyperandrogenism-Related Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Carlo Alviggi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAlthough insulin resistance plays an important pathogenetic role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, no correlation between ultrasound PCOS pattern and insulin resistance has yet been reported. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to assess whether the ovarian ultrasonographic parameter differed between PCOS women with insulin resistance and those with a hyperandrogenic profile.Materials and methodsWomen who fulfilled the Rotterdam criteria for PCOS were retrospectively studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical data were recorded. Women were divided into two groups based on specific transvaginal ultrasound parameters: subjects with more than half of the follicles measuring between 5 and 9 mm in diameter, an ultrasonographic determined stroma/total area (S/A > 0.34 and a “necklace” sign of antral follicles (Group A; and subjects with more than half of the antral follicles measuring between 2 and 4 mm in diameter, an S/A ≤ 0.34; no “necklace” sign but ubiquitously distributed follicles determined by ultrasound (Group B. The association between these ultrasound patterns and the presence of insulin resistance was also evaluated.ResultsSeventy-eight patients were enrolled: 33 with ultrasound sound pattern A and 45 with pattern B. The latter pattern had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 78% in predicting PCOS women with insulin resistance. There were no differences in age, Ferriman–Gallwey score, and serum gonadotropin or androgen levels between the two groups. Body mass index, the waist-to-hip ratio, and homeostasis model assessment were significantly higher in group B than in group A (p < 0.05. Conversely, sex hormone binding globulin levels and ovarian volume were significantly higher in group A (p < 0.05. Insulin resistance was more frequent in group B than in group A (36/41, 87.8% versus 7/32, 21.8%; p < 0.05.ConclusionThese results suggest that insulin resistance

  3. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  4. Adrenal gland infection by serotype 5 adenovirus requires coagulation factors.

    Lucile Tran

    Full Text Available Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting.

  5. X-ray characteristics of mammary gland changes

    Popmikhajlova, Kh.

    1977-01-01

    The technical problems on the X-ray presentation of the mammary gland are discussed. The role of film mammography and electroroentgenography for detection of the structural changes in the gland is emphasized. The roentgenomorphologic characteristics of the most common X-ray shadows in the mammary glands, classified by their intensity, form, size, number, structure and arrangement, is presented. For a more rapid and easier characterization of the changes in the different mammary gland diseases, the author developed a practicable work formula. This formula is a decimal fraction, in whose numerator are written the morbidly altered numerically marked quadrants of the right mammary gland and in the dominator - those of the left. This formula is suitable for presentation both of diffuse and of solitary changes in the gland. A brief description of their types is given after the formula. The practical value of the formula for the diagnosis of mammary gland diseases is pointed out. It helps the roent--genologist and the surgeon in the exact localization of the changes and performance of an exact sectorial resection. This, in turn, furnishes better opportunities for the pathologist to gain access exactly to the morbidly altered area, which is of particular importance for detection of intraductal cancer. The convenience of the work formula for a rapid recognition and schematic designation of the findings and in mass prophylactic mammofluorographic screening of women is emphasized. (author)

  6. Microvascular transplantation and replantation of the dog submandibular gland.

    Su, Wan Fu; Jen, Yee Min; Chen, Shyi Gen; Nieh, Shin; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2006-05-01

    Transplantation and replantation of the submandibular gland with microvascular techniques were demonstrated in a previous study, with good gland survival. The application of radiation on the neck bed was attempted to address an actual clinical scenario in this study. Five canine submandibular glands were transplanted using microvascular techniques to the ipsilateral femoral system. Radiotherapy at a dosage level of 3,600 cGy using 600 cGy q.d was delivered to the nasopharyngeal and neck regions 2 weeks after transplantation. The transferred glands were then reintroduced into the original but radiated neck bed. The glands were harvested for histological examination 8 weeks later. Four of five canine submandibular glands can withstand microvascular transplantation and then replantation into a radiated neck bed for at least 8 weeks. However, the salivary function was depleted. The canine submandibular gland can survive the transplantation and replantation for at least 8 weeks in spite of precipitating radiation insult on the neck bed for 3 weeks. Neurorraphy is, however, essential to maintaining the glandular function.

  7. MRI of normal pituitary glands and their surrounding structures

    Sato, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    Normal MRI appearances of the pituitary glands and their surrounding structures were evaluated in 332 patients without sellar and parasellar diseases. The height of the pituitary gland was maximum at 10-19 years of age reflecting hormonal activity. The width of the pituitary gland decreased, while that of the cavernous sinus increased with aging. This is probably due to atherosclerotic change of the internal carotid artery. Females younger than 30 years of age tended to show a convex upper surface of the pituitary gland and the displacement of the pituitary stalk was common after 50 years of age. Almost all of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland showed isointensity relative to the pons or cerebral cortex and the majority (85.1%) of the posterior lobe showed hyperintensity. However, the anterior lobe in 2 newborns showed hyperintensity similar to the normal posterior lobe in adults. The posterior lobe was located off the midline in 19.1% of the subjects. One case of pars intermedia cyst was discovered among 14 subjects who were administered Gd-DTPA. The dural membrane between the pituitary gland and cavernous sinus was recognizable only in 8.6% on the right side and 7.5% on the left side. Primary empty sella was identified in 4.5%. Knowledge of the above normal ranges and variations of the pituitary gland and its surrounding structures is important in diagnosing sellar and parasellar lesions. (author) 52 refs

  8. FNAC AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Kalivarapu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND FNAC of salivary gland tumours is an accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless procedure. The success of FNAC depends on the adequacy of sample and high-quality preparation. FNAC of salivary gland neoplasms provides essential information in decision making and management. AIM OF THE STUDY Know the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of salivary gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study done at the tertiary care centre for a period of three years. A total number of 67 cases of clinically suspected salivary gland tumours were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and correlated with histopathology. RESULTS A total number of 67 cases, clinically suspected as salivary gland tumours were subjected to FNAC and compared with histopathology. The observations of the study were as follows: Most of the tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. In the present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION FNAC is a very useful, simple, cheap, accurate and repeatable technique in the preoperative diagnosis of various salivary gland neoplasms. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 91%, in cystic lesions of salivary glands, combined FNAC and histopathology is essential for diagnosis.

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of breast tumours and the surrounding stroma reflect intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    Fan, Ming

    2017-12-16

    Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3.0-T image system, was collected. Breast images were segmented into regions comprising the tumour and surrounding stromal shells in which features that reflect heterogeneous ADC signal distribution were extracted. For each region, imaging features were computed, including the mean, minimum, variance, interquartile range (IQR), range, skewness, kurtosis and entropy of ADC values. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify the magnetic resonance imaging features that optimally discriminate luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The performance of the predictive models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the skewness in the tumour boundary achieved an AUC of 0.718 for discrimination between luminal A and non-luminal A tumours, whereas the IQR of the ADC value in the tumour boundary had an AUC of 0.703 for classification of the HER2-enriched subtype. Imaging features in the tumour boundary and the proximal peritumoral stroma corresponded to a higher overall prediction performance than those in other regions. A multivariate logistic regression model combining features in all the regions achieved an overall AUC of 0.800 for the classification of the four tumour subtypes. These findings suggest that features in the tumour

  10. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of breast tumours and the surrounding stroma reflect intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    Fan, Ming; He, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Juan; Gao, Xin; Li, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3.0-T image system, was collected. Breast images were segmented into regions comprising the tumour and surrounding stromal shells in which features that reflect heterogeneous ADC signal distribution were extracted. For each region, imaging features were computed, including the mean, minimum, variance, interquartile range (IQR), range, skewness, kurtosis and entropy of ADC values. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify the magnetic resonance imaging features that optimally discriminate luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The performance of the predictive models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the skewness in the tumour boundary achieved an AUC of 0.718 for discrimination between luminal A and non-luminal A tumours, whereas the IQR of the ADC value in the tumour boundary had an AUC of 0.703 for classification of the HER2-enriched subtype. Imaging features in the tumour boundary and the proximal peritumoral stroma corresponded to a higher overall prediction performance than those in other regions. A multivariate logistic regression model combining features in all the regions achieved an overall AUC of 0.800 for the classification of the four tumour subtypes. These findings suggest that features in the tumour

  11. Condition of mammary glands in adolescent girls in Saratov region

    Kunina A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to estimate the condition of mammary glands in adolescent girls. Material and methods. The study included 867 girls (aged 12-18. The questioning, total clinical examination, hormonal analysis and ultrasound examination were conducted. Results. The investigation shows that girls had breast dysmorphies (macromastia, hypoplasia, striae, asymmetry etc.. The dysplasia of mammary glands was diagnosed in 26% patients with menstrual disorders, thyroid diseases, mastalgia and obesity. High estradiol, LH, TSH, insulin, cortisole, testosterone and low progesterone level are the most specific hormonal markers of mastopathy in adolescent girls. Conclusion. Thyroid disorders, breast asymmetric form, mastalgia, obesity are the indicators for observation and examination of mammary glands

  12. Development of a new type thyroid glands dosimeter

    He Lihua; Song Yiyang; Chen Qin; Chen Yannan

    2000-01-01

    A new dosimeter of 125 I in thyroid gland is described. The dosimeter consists of NaI(Tl) detector and intelligent data recorder. Single-chip-microcomputer is used for data handling. The activity of 125 I in thyroid glands of human being is measured directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent. The measuring range of 125 I in thyroid glands is 10-2 x 10 6 Bq. The dosimeter has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability

  13. Cellular and molecular specificity of pituitary gland physiology.

    Perez-Castro, Carolina; Renner, Ulrich; Haedo, Mariana R; Stalla, Gunter K; Arzt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland has the ability to respond to complex signals derived from central and peripheral systems. Perception of these signals and their integration are mediated by cell interactions and cross-talk of multiple signaling transduction pathways and transcriptional regulatory networks that cooperate for hormone secretion, cell plasticity, and ultimately specific pituitary responses that are essential for an appropriate physiological response. We discuss the physiopathological and molecular mechanisms related to this integrative regulatory system of the anterior pituitary gland and how it contributes to modulate the gland functions and impacts on body homeostasis.

  14. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  15. Radioisotopic methods in the study of salivary glands

    Salvatori, M.; Valenza, V.; Focacci, C.

    1986-01-01

    The results achieved by dynamic and static salivary gland scintigraphy in 272 patients over a ten year time (January 1976-December 1985) are reported. On the basis of a semi-quantitative assessment of time/activity curves, dynamic studies prove to be the most suitable method for studying functional disorders (phlogosis, facial paralisis, etc.). Harmlesness, easy execution and functional results are the mains advantages of radioisotope techniques. Salivary gland scintigraphy has some limits in the study of space occupying lesions (SOL): however, ultrasounds, CT and sialography represent the methods of choice in this field of salivary gland pathology

  16. A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies

    Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    referred for (99m) Tc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy were studied. Dynamic imaging of the head in a fixed anterior projection was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of 150 MBq (99m) Tc-pertechnetate using a gamma scintillation camera. After 30 min, lemon juice was orally administered...... through a syringe. Time activity curves were generated for each of the four major salivary glands (i.e. the right and left submandibular and right and left parotid glands). Excretion fractions (the fraction of mobilizable radioactivity after administering lemon juice) and the gland activity...

  17. Fetal adrenal gland enlargement - prenatal and postnatal management.

    Lackova, Eliska; Cunderlik, Anton; Ticha, Lubica; Gabor, Maria

    2017-11-01

    The enlargement of suprarenal gland is related to preterm birth and the birth weight. The ultrasound measurement of fetal adrenal gland volume may identify women at risk for impending preterm birth. The aim of our study was to investigate the newborns in the region of western Slovakia followed up due to suprarenal gland enlargement. To set the ratio of prenatally diagnosed suprarenal gland enlargment, postnatal managment and treatment and interventions. The newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were excluded. We have analyzed 6 years of medical records of all cases from the western Slovakia region of suprarenal gland enlargement encountered to 1st Pediatric Department, Children's University Hospital Bratislava Republic in the time period of January 2010 to Janurary 2016. The diagnosis of suprarenal gland enlargement was set by ultrasound examination performed on the 4th postnatal day as an overall screening test. Newborns with positive laboratory screening on congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were excluded from our study. We analyzed the origin of surarenal gland enlargement, gestation week on the due date, the birth weight and other comorbidities and genetic pathologies in newborns with the enlarged suprarenal glands. There were 6 newborns followed up due to suprarenal gland enlargement. All of the patients had diagnosed the adrenal haemorrhage. Adrenal lesions like adrenal cysts or neuroblastomas were not confirmed. All of the adrenal enlargements were benign with no need of other medical or surgical intervention. None of the newborn patients had other genetic abnormalities, mineral or hormonal imbalances, problems with arterial pressure or haemodynamic instability. All of the patients underwent at least 5 prenatal ultrasound tests and at least 2 postnatal ultrasound measurements. The avarage birth weight was 3030 grams (2700 grams - to 3750 grams). The avarage birth lenght was 50 cm (47 centimeter to 53 cm).The average gestation week (gw) on due date

  18. Bone stroma-derived cells change coregulators recruitment to androgen receptor and decrease cell proliferation in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    Villagran, Marcelo A.; Gutierrez-Castro, Francisco A.; Pantoja, Diego F.; Alarcon, Jose C.; Fariña, Macarena A.; Amigo, Romina F.; Muñoz-Godoy, Natalia A. [Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology Laboratory, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Pinilla, Mabel G. [Department of Medical Specialties, School of Medicine, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Peña, Eduardo A.; Gonzalez-Chavarria, Ivan; Toledo, Jorge R.; Rivas, Coralia I.; Vera, Juan C. [Department of Physiopathology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); McNerney, Eileen M. [Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology Laboratory, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Onate, Sergio A., E-mail: sergio.onate@udec.cl [Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology Laboratory, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Department of Medical Specialties, School of Medicine, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Department of Urology, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2015-11-27

    Prostate cancer (CaP) bone metastasis is an early event that remains inactive until later-stage progression. Reduced levels of circulating androgens, due to andropause or androgen deprivation therapies, alter androgen receptor (AR) coactivator expression. Coactivators shift the balance towards enhanced AR-mediated gene transcription that promotes progression to androgen-resistance. Disruptions in coregulators may represent a molecular switch that reactivates latent bone metastasis. Changes in AR-mediated transcription in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-resistant C4-2 cells were analyzed for AR coregulator recruitment in co-culture with Saos-2 and THP-1. The Saos-2 cell line derived from human osteosarcoma and THP-1 cell line representing human monocytes were used to display osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Increased AR activity in androgen-resistant C4-2 was due to increased AR expression and SRC1/TIF2 recruitment and decreased SMRT/NCoR expression. AR activity in both cell types was decreased over 90% when co-cultured with Saos-2 or THP-1 due to dissociation of AR from the SRC1/TIF2 and SMRT/NCoR coregulators complex, in a ligand-dependent and cell-type specific manner. In the absence of androgens, Saos-2 decreased while THP-1 increased proliferation of LNCaP cells. In contrast, both Saos-2 and THP-1 decreased proliferation of C4-2 in absence and presence of androgens. Global changes in gene expression from both CaP cell lines identified potential cell cycle and androgen regulated genes as mechanisms for changes in cell proliferation and AR-mediated transactivation in the context of bone marrow stroma cells. - Highlights: • Decreased corepressor expression change AR in androgen-resistance prostate cancer. • Bone stroma-derived cells change AR coregulator recruitment in prostate cancer. • Bone stroma cells change cell proliferation in androgen-resistant cancer cells. • Global gene expression in CaP cells is modified by bone stroma cells in co

  19. Bone stroma-derived cells change coregulators recruitment to androgen receptor and decrease cell proliferation in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    Villagran, Marcelo A.; Gutierrez-Castro, Francisco A.; Pantoja, Diego F.; Alarcon, Jose C.; Fariña, Macarena A.; Amigo, Romina F.; Muñoz-Godoy, Natalia A.; Pinilla, Mabel G.; Peña, Eduardo A.; Gonzalez-Chavarria, Ivan; Toledo, Jorge R.; Rivas, Coralia I.; Vera, Juan C.; McNerney, Eileen M.; Onate, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) bone metastasis is an early event that remains inactive until later-stage progression. Reduced levels of circulating androgens, due to andropause or androgen deprivation therapies, alter androgen receptor (AR) coactivator expression. Coactivators shift the balance towards enhanced AR-mediated gene transcription that promotes progression to androgen-resistance. Disruptions in coregulators may represent a molecular switch that reactivates latent bone metastasis. Changes in AR-mediated transcription in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-resistant C4-2 cells were analyzed for AR coregulator recruitment in co-culture with Saos-2 and THP-1. The Saos-2 cell line derived from human osteosarcoma and THP-1 cell line representing human monocytes were used to display osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Increased AR activity in androgen-resistant C4-2 was due to increased AR expression and SRC1/TIF2 recruitment and decreased SMRT/NCoR expression. AR activity in both cell types was decreased over 90% when co-cultured with Saos-2 or THP-1 due to dissociation of AR from the SRC1/TIF2 and SMRT/NCoR coregulators complex, in a ligand-dependent and cell-type specific manner. In the absence of androgens, Saos-2 decreased while THP-1 increased proliferation of LNCaP cells. In contrast, both Saos-2 and THP-1 decreased proliferation of C4-2 in absence and presence of androgens. Global changes in gene expression from both CaP cell lines identified potential cell cycle and androgen regulated genes as mechanisms for changes in cell proliferation and AR-mediated transactivation in the context of bone marrow stroma cells. - Highlights: • Decreased corepressor expression change AR in androgen-resistance prostate cancer. • Bone stroma-derived cells change AR coregulator recruitment in prostate cancer. • Bone stroma cells change cell proliferation in androgen-resistant cancer cells. • Global gene expression in CaP cells is modified by bone stroma cells in co

  20. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with β-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.; Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A.

    2001-01-01

    In transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with β-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  1. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  2. Necrotizing Sialometaplasia-Like Change of the Esophageal Submucosal Glands is Associated with Barrett’s Esophagus

    Braxton, David R.; Nickleach, Dana C.; Liu, Yuan; Farris, Alton B.

    2014-01-01

    The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) protect the squamous epithelium from insults such as gastroesophageal reflux disease by secreting mucins and bicarbonate. We have observed metaplastic changes within the SMG acini that we have termed oncocytic glandular metaplasia (OGM), and necrotizing sialometaplasia-like change (NSMLC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the associated clinicopathological parameters of, and to phenotypically characterize the SMG metaplasias. Esophagectomy specimens were retrospectively assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections and assigned to either a Barrett’s esophagus (BE) or non-BE control group. Clinicopathologic data was collected, and univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to assess the adjusted associations with NSMLC and OGM. Selected cases of SMG metaplasia were characterized. SMG were present in 82 esophagi that met inclusion criteria. On univariate analysis, NSMLC was associated with BE (p=0.002). There was no relationship between NSMLC and patient age, sex, tumor size, or treatment history. OGM was associated with BE (p=0.031). No relationship was found between OGM and patient age, sex, or tumor size. On multivariate analysis, BE was independently associated with NSMLC (odds ratio [OR] 4.95, p =0.003). Treatment history was also independently associated with OGM (p =0.029), but not NSMLC. Both NSMLC and OGM were non-mucinous ductal type epithelia retaining a p63-smooth muscle actin co-positive myoepithelial cell layer. NSMLC and OGM were present in endoscopic mucosal resection specimens. Our study suggests that SMG metaplasia is primarily a reflux-induced pathology. NSMLC may pose diagnostic dilemmas in resection specimens or when only partially represented in mucosal biopsies or endoscopic resection specimens. PMID:24863247

  3. Exposure to contaminated sediments induces alterations in the gill epithelia in juvenile Solea senegalensis: a comparative in situ and ex situ study

    Carla Martins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The loss of biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems is a major problem for society, with very significant ecological and economic deleterious effects. Estuaries, as the Sado Estuary (SW Portugal, are fragile ecosystems always associated to multiple anthropogenic stressors, such as heavy industry, shipping and agricultural activities, which can affect biodiversity and, therefore, environmental health, as well as the local economy, through its impact on fisheries. In the Sado Estuary there are many important commercial fish species that support a significant part of the local communities. As such, fish population are continuously exposed to pollutants that can have repercussions in the animals’ physiology and survival. This estuary is characterized by its multiple sources of toxicants, which is reflected onto a complex pattern of sediment contamination. In order to evaluate the physiological effects onto an important commercial species in the Sado Estuary, juvenile Solea senegalensis were subjected to a series of in and ex situ sediment-based bioassays, since this flatfish, being benthic, is particularly exposed to sediment-bound pollutants. Histological alterations in gill epithelia were taken as the main endpoint, since this is the main apical entry organ of toxicants. Sediment contaminants, mostly adsorbed to fine particles and organic matter, namely organochlorides, PAHs and same metals, presented a relation with alterations in gill epithelia. Even though no significant gross histopathological lesions were found, the animals exposed to sediments from the most polluted sites presented physiological alterations, when compared to those exposed to sediments from a reference site. These alterations were particularly related to the number of mucous cells and hypertrophied chloride cells per interlamellar space. These changes imply physiological hampering of normal gill functions and, therefore, affect the health status of animals exposed to

  4. Polarized secretion of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 by human airway epithelia 16HBE14o- cells in response to cationic polypeptide challenge.

    Alison Wai-ming Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The airway epithelium participates in asthmatic inflammation in many ways. Target cells of the epithelium can respond to a variety of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Damage to the surface epithelium occurs following the secretion of eosinophil-derived, highly toxic cationic proteins. Moreover, the surface epithelium itself is responsible for the synthesis and release of cytokines that cause the selective recruitment, retention, and accumulation of various inflammatory cells. To mimic the damage seen during asthmatic inflammation, the bronchial epithelium can be challenged with highly charged cationic polypeptides such as poly-L-arginine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells, 16HBE14o- cells, were "chemically injured" by exposing them to poly-l-arginine as a surrogate of the eosinophil cationic protein. Cytokine antibody array data showed that seven inflammatory mediators were elevated out of the 40 tested, including marked elevation in interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression levels were elevated as measured with real-time PCR. Cell culture supernatants from apical and basolateral compartments were collected, and the IL-6 and IL-8 production was quantified with ELISA. IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by 16HBE14o- epithelia into the apical compartment was significantly higher than that from the basolateral compartment. Using specific inhibitors, the production of IL-6 and IL-8 was found to be dependent on p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 MAPK, and NF-kappaB pathways. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results clearly demonstrate that damage to the bronchial epithelia by poly-L-arginine stimulates polarized IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. This apically directed secretion of cytokines may play an important role in orchestrating epithelial cell responses to inflammation.

  5. Preparation of Murine Submandibular Salivary Gland for Upright Intravital Microscopy.

    Ficht, Xenia; Thelen, Flavian; Stolp, Bettina; Stein, Jens V

    2018-05-07

    The submandibular salivary gland (SMG) is one of the three major salivary glands, and is of interest for many different fields of biological research, including cell biology, oncology, dentistry, and immunology. The SMG is an exocrine gland comprised of secretory epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, nerves, and extracellular matrix. Dynamic cellular processes in the rat and mouse SMG have previously been imaged, mostly using inverted multi-photon microscope systems. Here, we describe a straightforward protocol for the surgical preparation and stabilization of the murine SMG in anesthetized mice for in vivo imaging with upright multi-photon microscope systems. We present representative intravital image sets of endogenous and adoptively transferred fluorescent cells, including the labeling of blood vessels or salivary ducts and second harmonic generation to visualize fibrillar collagen. In sum, our protocol allows for surgical preparation of mouse salivary glands in upright microscopy systems, which are commonly used for intravital imaging in the field of immunology.

  6. Radix bupleuri Extract Inhibits Hyperplasia of Mammary Gland in Rats

    Golden Section, Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Haerbin 150010, ... lactation, occupation, sex hormone use, diet, and ... organ weight divided by body weight. .... Figure 1: Histologic images of mammary gland tissues.

  7. Gland segmentation in colon histology images : The glas challenge contest

    Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Pluim, J.P.W.; Chen, Hao; Qi, Xiaojuan; Heng, Pheng Ann; Guo, Yun Bo; Wang, Li Yang; Matuszewski, Bogdan J.; Bruni, Elia; Sanchez, Urko; Böhm, Anton; Ronneberger, Olaf; Cheikh, Bassem Ben; Racoceanu, Daniel; Kainz, Philipp; Pfeiffer, Michael; Urschler, Martin; Snead, David R.J.; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal adenocarcinoma originating in intestinal glandular structures is the most common form of colon cancer. In clinical practice, the morphology of intestinal glands, including architectural appearance and glandular formation, is used by pathologists to inform prognosis and plan the treatment

  8. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    [Ravi Ram K. and Ramesh S. R. 2007 Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ..... quence of species-specific genetic responses to variations in .... Eberhard W. G. 1996 Female control: sexual selection by cryptic.

  9. [Treatment of small and sublingual salivary glands cysts by laser].

    Bogatov, V V; Vybornov, V V; Malinovskiĭ, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    The differents variants of treatment of retention cysts of mucous membrane of oral cavity and sublingual salivary gland cysts were presented and analysed. Results of doppler examination as a method of research blood microcirculation in postoperation time were presented.

  10. MR imaging of the pituitary gland in central precocious puberty

    Kao, S.C.S.; Cook, J.S.; Hansen, J.R.; Simonson, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 17 children with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 19 aged-matched controls to compare the appearance of the pituitary gland. Gland size was measured on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland was graded according to the concavity or convexity of the upper surface, and the signal intensity of the gland was assessed visually. The mean pituitary volume in 13 CPP children without hypothalamic tumor (292.6 mm 3 ) was significantly greater than that in normal controls (181.35 mm 3 ). The mean volume for the four CPP children with hypothalamic tumor was smaller (145.0 mm 3 ). Compared to controls, the upper pituitary surface in CPP patients appeared convex in a higher proportion. The anterior pituitary was isointense to pons in all patients and controls. Although the posterior pituitary bright spot was present in 14 controls and 11 CPP patients, none with hypothalamic tumor showed it. (orig.)

  11. Parotid Gland Biopsy, the Alternative Way to Diagnose Sjogren Syndrome

    Spijkervet, Fred. K.L.; Haacke, Erlin; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Vissink, Arjan

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren syndrome (SS), lymphoma in SS, and connective tissue disorders (sarcoidosis, amyloidosis). In SS characteristic histology findings are found, including lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts in

  12. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sjoegren's syndrome. A functional scintigraphic study of salivary glands

    Arrago, J.P.; Rain, J.D.; Rocher, F.; Vigneron, N.; Pecking, A.; Najean, Y.

    1984-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty patients with sicca syndrome, connective tissue disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease were investigated in the Saint-Louis Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine. Technetium scanning of the salivary glands was performed in all patients. The results of the scintigraphic study were closely correlated with clinical and histological data in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. This method, which accurately quantifies the salivary function without danger nor discomfort to the patients, has a number of advantages: (a) it is sensitive enough to detect minimal salivary gland dysfunction; (b) it differentiates between parotid gland and submandibular gland involvement demonstrates assymetry in pathological processes; (c) it helps in following up patients with Sjoegren's disease and in assessing the results of immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment [fr

  14. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  15. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of sublingual glands. Surgery and radiotherapy combination

    Campagnale, Ramiro; Campagnale, Rodrigo; Varalli, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) or Cilindroma is a strange entity classified by the WHO within the carcinomas of salivary glands. It represents only 1 % of all the wicked tumours of the oral and maxillofacial region although, when making reference to the salivary glands, it constitutes 5% of the parotid, submaxilar and sublingual carcinomas, and about 50% of the smallest ones. The most frequent location is in the palatine glands and its main characteristics are: slow but persistent growth, high rates of local relapse and metastasis at distance originating the death between the first 5 and 10 years in 50-70% of the cases approximately. A case of localization is presented in sublingual gland which was first treated surgically and later with radiotherapy, obtaining good results. (author) [es

  16. Clozapine- induced recurrent and transient parotid gland swelling

    effect of clozapine, may sometimes cause salivary gland swelling. Rarely, the ... side effect of clozapine to the attention of clinicians is to discuss its pathogenesis. Informed ... selective muscarinic M4 receptor agonist. Eur J Pharmacol 1994;.

  17. Plasma ACTH concentration and pituitary gland histo-pathology in ...

    and histology of the pituitary gland and paraventricular nucleus in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly ... symptoms and signs including motor, psychiatric and sensory disorders and .... tuitary and cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Circulating.

  18. Exocrine glands in the legs of the social wasp Vespula vulgaris.

    Nijs, Catherine; Billen, Johan

    2015-09-01

    This study brings a survey of the exocrine glands in the legs of Vespula vulgaris wasps. We studied workers, males, virgin queens as well as mated queens. A variety of 17 glands is found in the different leg segments. Among these, five glands are novel exocrine structures for social insects (trochanter-femur gland, ventrodistal tibial gland, distal tibial sac gland, ventral tibial gland, and ventral tarsomere gland). Most leg glands are present in the three leg pairs of all castes. This may indicate a mechanical function. This is likely for the numerous glands that occur near the articulation between the various leg segments, where lubricant production may be expected. Other possible functions include antenna cleaning, acting as a hydraulic system, or pheromonal. Further research including leg-related behavioural observations and chemical analyses may help to clarify the functions of these glandular structures in the legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    Kaswan, Sumita; Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The...

  20. STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis

    Haricharan, S; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that undergoes extensive and profound changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes that take place during puberty involve large-scale proliferation and invasion of the fat-pad. During pregnancy and lactation, the mammary cells are exposed to signaling pathways that inhibit apoptosis, induce proliferation and invoke terminal differentiation. Finally, during involution the mammary gland is exposed to milk stasis, prog...