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Sample records for gland functional capacity

  1. Oral administration of royal jelly restores tear secretion capacity in rat blink-suppressed dry eye model by modulating lacrimal gland function.

    Toshihiro Imada

    Full Text Available Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG, a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ, pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG.

  2. Prognosis and submandibular gland function

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Hanaoka, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1984-01-01

    Submandibular gland function was tested with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan 10 days and 3-4 weeks after the onset Bell's palsy, and the results and prognoses were correlated. In the first report we divided the cases into groups A, B and C, and this time group D classified in S.S.R. was poor. Groups A and D can be differentiated by submandibular gland scan within 10 days after the onset; that is to say, the prognosis of more than half the cases can be determined in this early phase. Especially, it is noticeable that group D showing the poor prognosis is differentiated within 10 days after the onset. This method was compared with other tests of facial palsy. Four to five weeks after the onset all tests were of equal accuracy in predicting the prognosis of each group. Within 10 days after the onset, however, submandibular gland scan seems to be more useful than the other tests. (author)

  3. Submandibular gland function and parotid gland function in Bell's palsy, 3

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kato, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1986-01-01

    With the use of sup(99m)Tc, we attempted to measure simultaneously submandibular gland function and parotid gland function, which is thought not to be controlled by the facial nerve, in patients with unilateral Bell's palsy. For comparison, the lachrymal gland function of some patients was measured by the thread method. We found that facial palsy sometimes affects parotid gland function as well as submandibular gland function. In 60 % of the patients the function of the two glands tended to be affected in the same way. Lachrymal gland function tended to be affected in a similar way to parotid gland function. We conclude that the chorda tympani and the greater petrosal nerve may influence parotid gland function. (author)

  4. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  5. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders.

  6. Hedgehog signaling: endocrine gland development and function.

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-01-01

    The role of hedgehog signaling is analyzed in relation to the developing endocrine glands: pituitary, ovary, testis, adrenal cortex, pancreas, prostate, and epiphyseal growth. Experimental and pathological correlates of these organs are also discussed. The second section addresses a number of topics. First, the pituitary gland, no matter how hypoplastic, is present in most cases of human holoprosencephaly, unlike animals in which it is always said to be absent. The difference appears to be that animal mutations and teratogenic models involve both copies of the gene in question, whereas in humans the condition is most commonly heterozygous. Second, tests of endocrine function are not reported with great frequency, and an early demise in severe cases of holoprosencephaly accounts for this trend. Reported tests of endocrine function are reviewed. Third, diabetes insipidus has been recorded in a number of cases of holoprosencephaly. Its frequency is unknown because it could be masked by adrenal insufficiency in some cases and may not be recognized in others. Because of the abnormal hypothalamic-infundibular region in holoprosencephaly, diabetes insipidus could be caused by a defect in the supra-optic or paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei or in release of ADH via the infundibulum and posterior pituitary.

  7. The Aging Lacrimal Gland: Changes in Structure and Function

    Rocha, Eduardo M.; Alves, Monica; Rios, J. David; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2008-01-01

    The afferent nerves of the cornea and conjunctiva, efferent nerves of the lacrimal gland, and the lacrimal gland are a functional unit that works cooperatively to produce the aqueous component of tears. A decrease in the lacrimal gland secretory function can lead to dry eye disease. Because aging is a risk factor for dry eye disease, study of the changes in the function of the lacrimal gland functional unit with age is important for developing treatments to prevent dry eye disease. No one mec...

  8. Salivary gland function after concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    Ikeda, Kenichiro; Shimane, Toshikazu; Uzuki, Aya; Sugimoto, Akane; Mori, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Rio; Gomibuchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Sei; Sanbe, Takeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cancer of head and neck is becoming more and more prevalent. In fact, it is considered to better maintain quality of life (QOL) of patients than operative treatment in terms of preserving the functions, organs, and structures, but recently I seems that it does not maintain the QOL of patients better than operative treatment because its complications after therapy disturb daily life. We previously conducted a questionnaire survey that investigated the complications experienced by patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and reported that xerostomia was markedly reduced QOL in these patients. In this study, we divided patients who were exposed to radiation in both major salivary glands into two groups: 20 patients who received a 36 Gy dose of radiation (36 Gy group) and 15 patients who underwent radiation therapy alone at a dose of 40 Gy (radiotherapy (RT) group). The gum test was conducted with the following results (mean volume of saliva): 11.2 ml in the 36 Gy group, 6.0 ml in the RT group. There was no significant difference between the 36 Gy group and RT group. Our findings suggest that there is no significant difference in the extent of salivary gland dysfunction even after chemotherapy is carried out concurrently with radiotherapy. (author)

  9. The aging lacrimal gland: changes in structure and function.

    Rocha, Eduardo M; Alves, Monica; Rios, J David; Dartt, Darlene A

    2008-10-01

    The afferent nerves of the cornea and conjunctiva, efferent nerves of the lacrimal gland, and the lacrimal gland are a functional unit that works cooperatively to produce the aqueous component of tears. A decrease in the lacrimal gland secretory function can lead to dry eye disease. Because aging is a risk factor for dry eye disease, study of the changes in the function of the lacrimal gland functional unit with age is important for developing treatments to prevent dry eye disease. No one mechanism is known to induce the changes that occur with aging, although multiple different mechanisms have been associated with aging. These fall into two theoretical categories: programmed theories of aging (immunological, genetic, apoptotic, and neuroendocrine) and error theories of aging (protein alteration, somatic mutation, etc). Lacrimal glands undergo structural and functional alteration with increasing age. In mouse models of aging, it has been shown that neural stimulation of protein secretion is an early target of aging, accompanied by an increase in mast cells and lipofuscin accumulation. Hyperglycemia and increased lymphocytic infiltration can contribute to this loss of function at older ages. These findings suggest that an increase in oxidative stress may play a role in the loss of lacrimal gland function with age. For the afferent and efferent neural components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, immune or inflammatory mediated decrease in nerve function could contribute to loss of lacrimal gland secretion with age. More research in this area is critically needed.

  10. [Application scintigraphy in evaluation of salivary gland function].

    Mojsak, Małgorzata Natalia; Rogowski, Franciszek

    2010-03-01

    The salivary glands belong to the exocrine glands. There are tree main pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Several modalities are used for salivary gland imaging, such as sonography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of these methods is mainly to present morphological impairment. Parenchymal function and excretion function of all salivary glands can be quantified by scintigraphy. After single intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate sequential images are acquired up to 25-40 minutes. Usually about fifteen minutes postinjection 3 ml of lemon juice are administered intraorally as sialogogue. Salivary scintigraphy can estimate the severity of salivary gland involvement and function disorders, which may not be accurately reflected by the morphological damage. The clinical impact of scintigraphy has been reported in multiple salivary glands diseases, such as Sjogren's syndrome, sialolithiasis with or without parenchymal damage, iatrogenic irradiation of the salivary glands for therapy of head and neck tumors or radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer. No other method can give so much information about function of salivary glands. Scintigraphy is noninvasive examination, easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient.

  11. Impact of infection on the secretory capacity of the male accessory glands

    M. Marconi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies that compare the impact of different infectious entities of the male reproductive tract (MRT on the male accessory gland function are controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semen analyses of 71 patients with proven infections of the MRT were compared with the results of 40 healthy non-infected volunteers. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their diagnosis: chronic prostatitis NIH type II (n = 38, chronic epididymitis (n = 12, and chronic urethritis (n = 21. RESULTS: The bacteriological analysis revealed 9 different types of microorganisms, considered to be the etiological agents, isolated in different secretions, including: urine, expressed prostatic secretions, semen and urethral smears: E. Coli (n = 20, Klebsiella (n = 2, Proteus spp. (n = 1, Enterococcus (n = 20, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 1, M. tuberculosis (n = 2, N. gonorrhea (n = 8, Chlamydia tr. (n = 16 and, Ureaplasma urealyticum (n = 1. The infection group had significantly (p < 0.05 lower: semen volume, alpha-glucosidase, fructose, and zinc in seminal plasma and, higher pH than the control group. None of these parameters was sufficiently accurate in the ROC analysis to discriminate between infected and non-infected men. CONCLUSION: Proven bacterial infections of the MRT impact negatively on all the accessory gland function parameters evaluated in semen, suggesting impairment of the secretory capacity of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate. These findings were associated with an infectious related significant increase of semen pH. None of the semen parameters evaluated can be suggested as a diagnostic tool for infection.

  12. Parotid gland function following accelerated and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy

    Leslie, M.D.; Dische, S.

    1991-01-01

    The function of parotid glands in patients treated by 3 different schedules of radiotherapy was studied 9 months or more after its conclusion. All had received radiotherapy for a malignancy confined to 1 side of the head and neck region and only the gland on the side of the lesion was in the treatment volume; the contralateral gland acted as an internal control. Saliva was selectively collected from the parotid glands and the stimulated flow rate and pH of the saliva determined. Flow rates were expressed in each case as a percentage of that of the contralateral ('untreated') gland. Twelve glands that had received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 60-66 Gy showed a mean percentage flow of 20 percent and a significant fall in the pH of the saliva produced. Six glands that had received CHART (Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated RadioTherapy) and 8 conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 35-40 Gy showed mean percentage flows of 57 and 65 percent respectively, with only slight and non-significant falls in saliva pH. The results show that in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck the use of CHART can lead to considerable less late change in the function of the parotid gland. (author). 26 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Sjoegren's syndrome. A functional scintigraphic study of salivary glands

    Arrago, J.P.; Rain, J.D.; Rocher, F.; Vigneron, N.; Pecking, A.; Najean, Y.

    1984-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty patients with sicca syndrome, connective tissue disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease were investigated in the Saint-Louis Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine. Technetium scanning of the salivary glands was performed in all patients. The results of the scintigraphic study were closely correlated with clinical and histological data in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. This method, which accurately quantifies the salivary function without danger nor discomfort to the patients, has a number of advantages: (a) it is sensitive enough to detect minimal salivary gland dysfunction; (b) it differentiates between parotid gland and submandibular gland involvement demonstrates assymetry in pathological processes; (c) it helps in following up patients with Sjoegren's disease and in assessing the results of immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment [fr

  14. Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function.

    Shubha Tiwari

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM, mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90 and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100 origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme post carbachol (100 µM stimulation by ELISA. RESULTS: Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%, high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26% and c-kit (6.7±2.0%. Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15-20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed 'spherules' with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml, lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  15. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I; Arnett, Deborah G; Klein, Rob R; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side

  16. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    Maria Morgan-Bathke

    Full Text Available The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate

  17. Pharmacological activation of the EDA/EDAR signaling pathway restores salivary gland function following radiation-induced damage.

    Grace Hill

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1 normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage.

  18. [Serum thyroxine-binding protein for determining the functional state of the thyroid gland in pregnant women with endemic goiter].

    Korol'kova, O A; Cheremukhin, V I

    1975-01-01

    A determination was made of the hormone-forming capacity of the thyroid gland in pregnent women under conditions of goiter endemic at various periods of pregnancy by trimesters (123-in healthy pregnant women, 206-with euthyroid goiter of the I degree, 271-or II degree, 90-of the II degree, and 4-of the IV degree). A method of zonal electrophoresis in the medinal-veronal buffer was applied. Thyrofixin with I131 isotope (made in the USSR) was used. With increase of the periods of pregnancy and the degree of euthyroid hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and goiter the thyroid gland function became elevated irrespective of age.

  19. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) st...... for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia....

  20. Bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct.

    Bulanova, Elena A; Koudan, Elizaveta V; Degosserie, Jonathan; Heymans, Charlotte; Pereira, Frederico DAS; Parfenov, Vladislav A; Sun, Yi; Wang, Qi; Akhmedova, Suraya A; Sviridova, Irina K; Sergeeva, Natalia S; Frank, Georgy A; Khesuani, Yusef D; Pierreux, Christophe E; Mironov, Vladimir A

    2017-08-18

    Bioprinting can be defined as additive biofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) tissues and organ constructs using tissue spheroids, capable of self-assembly, as building blocks. The thyroid gland, a relatively simple endocrine organ, is suitable for testing the proposed bioprinting technology. Here we report the bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct from embryonic tissue spheroids as a proof of concept. Based on the self-assembly principle, we generated thyroid tissue starting from thyroid spheroids (TS) and allantoic spheroids (AS) as a source of thyrocytes and endothelial cells (EC), respectively. Inspired by mathematical modeling of spheroid fusion, we used an original 3D bioprinter to print TS in close association with AS within a collagen hydrogel. During the culture, closely placed embryonic tissue spheroids fused into a single integral construct, EC from AS invaded and vascularized TS, and epithelial cells from the TS progressively formed follicles. In this experimental setting, we observed formation of a capillary network around follicular cells, as observed during in utero thyroid development when thyroid epithelium controls the recruitment, invasion and expansion of EC around follicles. To prove that EC from AS are responsible for vascularization of the thyroid gland construct, we depleted endogenous EC from TS before bioprinting. EC from AS completely revascularized depleted thyroid tissue. The cultured bioprinted construct was functional as it could normalize blood thyroxine levels and body temperature after grafting under the kidney capsule of hypothyroid mice. Bioprinting of functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct represents a further advance in bioprinting technology, exploring the self-assembling properties of tissue spheroids.

  1. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with β-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.; Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A.

    2001-01-01

    In transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with β-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  2. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  3. [Structuro-functional units of the salivary and lacrimal glands].

    Kostilenko, Iu P; Mysliuk, I V; Deviatkin, E A

    1986-09-01

    By means of the multilayer graphic and plastic reconstruction methods using series of semithin sections, spatial tridimensional organization of the epithelial complexes and blood microcirculatory bed in the rat palatal salivary glands and the lacrimal gland of the human newborn have been studied. Since their ducts serve not only for discharging their secrete into the external medium, but also for accumulation (as collectors), the sublobular unit--adenomere should be referred to as a part of elementary level of organization of the epithelial complexes. The adenomere has in its composition a collecting centrally situating duct. However, while studying structure of the blood microcirculatory bed, it is found out that there is not any strict territorial correspondence between its functional units and structural units of the glandular epithelium. Nevertheless, giving a great importance to a tight syntopic connection of the collecting ducts of the adenomeres with the postcapillary venules (that belong to filtrating microvessels), these are sublobular units--adenomeres that are distinguished as structural-functional units in the glands.

  4. A novel method of complex evaluation of meibomian glands morphological and functional state

    V. N. Trubilin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method that provides complex assessment of meibomian glands morphological and functional state — biometry of meibomian glands — was developed. The results of complex examination (including meibomian glands biometry, correlation analysis data and clinical findings demonstrate direct association between the objective (i.e., meibomian glands dysfunction by biomicroscopy, tear film break-up time / TBUT, symptomatic TBUT, compression testing and subjective signs of meibomian glands dysfunction (patient’s complaints and the parameters of meibomian glands biometry. High direct correlation between biometrical index and compression test result was revealed (p = 0.002, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient = 0.6644. Meibomian glands dysfunction is characterized by biometric parameters abnormalities, i.e., dilatation of meibomian glands orifices, decrease of distance between meibomian glands orifices, partial or total atrophy of meibomian glands (even up to gland collapse with its visual reduction and increase of distance between the glands. The suppression of inflammatory process and the recovery of meibomian glands secretion improve biometric parameters and result in the opening of meibomian glands orifices, liquefaction of clogs, evacuation of meibomian glands secretion, narrowing of meibomian glands orifices and increase of distance between them. The proposed method expands the armamentarium of meibomian glands dysfunction and lipid-deficient dry eye diagnosing. Meibomian glands biometry can be applied in specialized ophthalmological hospitals and outpatient departments. It is a simple procedure of short duration that does not require any special equipment or professional skills. Meibomian glands biometry enables to prescribe pathogenically targeted therapy and to improve quality of life. 

  5. Assessment of the function of the nervus intermedius by means of functional salivary gland-scintigraphy

    Thomas, J.P.; Bertram, G.; Moedder, G.

    1982-01-01

    Using functional scintigraphy of the salivary glands, the function of the nervus intermedius can be assessed by estimating excretory quotients for both submandibular glands. This method is preferred to the standard salivation test method of Magielski and Blatt, despite a minimal exposure of the patient to radiation from the injected Natriumpertechnetat. The technical course of this investigation, along with the indications for its use, will be presented.

  6. The product of capacities and belief functions

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways...

  7. The product of capacities and belief functions

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways....

  8. Function of the Dufour’s gland in solitary and social Hymenoptera

    Aniruddha Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The poison gland and Dufour’s gland are the two glands associated with the sting apparatus in female Apocrita (Hymenoptera. While the poison gland usually functions as an integral part of the venom delivery system, the Dufour’s gland has been found to differ in its function in various hymenopteran groups. Like all exocrine glands, the function of the Dufour’s gland is to secrete chemicals, but the nature and function of the secretions varies in different taxa. Functions of the Dufour’s gland secretions range from serving as a component of material used in nest building, larval food, and pheromones involved in communicative functions that are important for both solitary and social species. This review summarizes the different functions reported for the Dufour’s gland in hymenopterans, illustrating how the Dufour’s gland secretions can be adapted to give rise to various functions in response to different challenges posed by the ways of life followed by different taxa. Aspects of development, structure, chemistry and the evolution of different functions are also touched upon briefly.

  9. Factors of salivary gland tumor influence on salivary gland function. Studies on salivary scintigraphy using 99mTcO4-

    Toyama, Michio; Katada, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yoshihiko; Togashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchimochi, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show clearly what factors such as tumor size, duration of illness, location, and tumor invasion in salivary gland tumor affect salivary gland function. The study cases were 42 salivary gland tumor patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and sialoscintigraphy. Salivary gland tumor was confirmed histopathologically. The patients were 24 males and 18 females, aged from 16 to 82 years old (mean age: 52.8 years old). There were 23 patients with parotid gland tumors and 19 patients with submandibular gland tumors (27 benign tumors, 15 malignant tumors). By using 99m TcO 4 - sialoscintigraphy, the salivary gland function was classified into three different types according to stimulatory selection ratio which was expressed as the ratio of pre- to post-stimulation counts on the salivary gland, namely, normal, lower functional, and no functional types. Then the normal type was judged abnormal function, and the lower and no functional types were judged as abnormal function. The results were as follows: There was a significant difference between malignant tumor and benign tumor in salivary gland function (P<0.0001). Depending on tumor size, abnormal function was significantly higher than normal function (P<0.05). There was no statistical significant difference among duration of illness, location of tumor, and salivary gland function. There was a significant difference between tumor invasion and salivary gland function (P<0.0001). The results showed that salivary gland function was disturbed in salivary gland tumor with larger size and positive invasion. (author)

  10. Sweat gland function as a measure of radiation change

    Pigott, K.H.; Dische, S.; Saunders, M.I.; Vojnovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotherapy may result in dryness of the skin even when no other change can be detected. We describe a system for recording the electrical conductance of skin as a measure of sweat gland function. In 22 normal volunteers close agreement was obtained between measurements obtained from comparable sites on both sides of the chest. Measurements were subsequently made in 38 patients treated by radiotherapy to one side of the chest for tumours of the breast or lung using one of five different fractionation schedules. Simultaneous readings were obtained from both sides of the chest with the non irradiated side acting as a control. A dose response relationship was demonstrated: five patients who received the equivalent total dose of 15 Gy in 2-Gy fractions showed no change in conductance. Sixteen out of 23 who received an equivalent total dose of 42-46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions had a greater than 22% reduction in mean skin conductance compared with that of the control areas despite the skin appearing normal in the large majority. Marked changes in skin conductance were seen after higher total doses. In a prospective study 18 women receiving breast irradiation underwent weekly readings during treatment. A mean reduction of 40% in skin conductance was noted by the end of the second week of treatment prior to any clinical evidence of radiation change. Skin conductance returned to normal in 44% of patients by 6 months. In the remainder, those patients who showed the greatest reduction in skin conductance during treatment demonstrated the least recovery. Changes in sweat gland function can be detected and quantified in skin which may otherwise appear normal. Differences may so be demonstrated between areas treated using different fractionation schedules and the method may be applied to the detection during radiotherapy of unusually sensitive patient. (author)

  11. Radioimmunological study of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women during menstrual cycle recovery

    Chemodanov, V.I.; Likhacheva, T.M.; Sel'verova, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women atan early stage of pregnancy and a month after abortion has been studied. The results of the investigation testify to the fact that radioimmunoassay of horiones in blood plasma is rather a precise criterion for estimat+on of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland at an earby stage of pregnancy and after abortion

  12. Impact of selective pituitary gland incision or resection on hormonal function after adenoma or cyst resection.

    Barkhoudarian, Garni; Cutler, Aaron R; Yost, Sam; Lobo, Bjorn; Eisenberg, Amalia; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-12-01

    With the resection of pituitary lesions, the anterior pituitary gland often obstructs transsphenoidal access to the lesion. In such cases, a gland incision and/or partial gland resection may be required to obtain adequate exposure. We investigate this technique and determine the associated risk of post-operative hypopituitarism. All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pituitary adenoma or Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) between July 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed for pre- and post-operative hormone function. The cohort of patients with gland incision/resection were compared to a case-matched control cohort of pituitary surgery patients. Total hypophysectomy patients were excluded from outcome analysis. Of 372 operations over this period, an anterior pituitary gland incision or partial gland resection was performed in 79 cases (21.2 %). These include 53 gland incisions, 12 partial hemi-hypophysectomies and 14 resections of thinned/attenuated anterior gland. Diagnoses included 64 adenomas and 15 RCCs. New permanent hypopituitarism occurred in three patients (3.8 %), including permanent DI (3) and growth hormone deficiency (1). There was no significant difference in the rate of worsening gland dysfunction nor gain of function. Compared to a control cohort, there was a significantly lower incidence of transient DI (1.25 vs. 11.1 %, p = 0.009) but no significant difference in permanent DI (3.8 vs. 4.0 %) in the gland incision group. Selective gland incisions and gland resections were performed in over 20 % of our cases. This technique appears to minimize traction on compressed normal pituitary gland during removal of large lesions and facilitates better visualization and removal of cysts, microadenomas and macroadenomas.

  13. Quantitative functional scintigraphy of the salivary glands: A new method of interpreting and clinical results

    Schneider, P.; Trauring, G.; Haas, J.P.; Noodt, A.; Draf, W.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m pertechnetate is injected i.v. and the kinetics of the tracer in the salivary glands is analyzed using a gamma camera and a computer system. To visualize regional gland function, phase images as well as socalled gradient images are generated, which reflect the rate of tracer inflow and outflow. The time activity curves for the individual glands which are obtained with the ROI technique show an initial rise which reflects the pertechnetate uptake potential of the gland and is superimposed by background activity. After a standardized lemon juice dose the curve drops steeply, with the slope depending on the outflow potential of the gland and the background activity. In the past, attempts at quantifying the uptake and elimination functions have failed because of problems in allowing for the variable background component of the time activity curves, which normally amounts of about 60%. In 25 patients in whom one gland had been removed surgically the background activity was examined in terms of the time course and the regional pattern and a patient and gland-specific subtraction method was developed for visualizing the time activity curves of isolated glands devoid of any background activity and describing the uptake and elimination potentials in quantitative terms. Using this new method we evaluated 305 salivary gland scans. Normal ranges for the quantitative parameters were established and their reproducibility was examined. Unlike qualitative functional images of the salivary glands the new quantitative method offers accurate evidence of the extent of gland function and thus helps to decide wether a gland should be salvaged or not (conservative versus surgical treatment). However, quantitation does not furnish any clues on the benign or malignant nature of a tumor. (Author)

  14. Functional Capacity Evaluation Research : Report from the Third International Functional Capacity Evaluation Research Meeting

    James, C. L.; Reneman, M. F.; Gross, D. P.

    Introduction Functional capacity evaluations are an important component of many occupational rehabilitation programs and can play a role in facilitating reintegration to work thus improving health and disability outcomes. The field of functional capacity evaluation (FCE) research has continued to

  15. A functional test of the salivary gland using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate

    Kiuchi, Sousuke; Oshima, Motoo

    1981-01-01

    The function of the parotid glands were studied in 45 patients with parotid gland diseases, with the salivary glands affection systemic diseases, and with radiation injury of the parotid glands. As a control, the studies were done on 13 patients with no history of salivary gland disease. The method is consisted of sequential scientigraphy using a gamma scintillation camera and simultaneous recordings of the time-activity curves for the regions over the parotid glands and Stensen's orifices. The examination was commenced immediately after intravenous injection of sup(99m)Tc, and was continued up to 30 minutes. Salivation was stimulated with oral administration of tartaric acid at 20 minutes after injection. According to whether the uptake, concentration and excretion of sup(99m)Tc were diminished or increased, the time-activity curves could be grouped four different patterns. Using this method, a clinician can determine the exact stage of glandular dysfunction. (author)

  16. ACUTE IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION OF RAT SUBMANDIBULAR GLANDS

    VISSINK, A; KALICHARAN, D; GRAVENMADE, EJ; JONGEBLOED, WL; LIGEON, EE; NIEUWENHUIS, P; KONINGS, AWT

    1991-01-01

    In this study the morphologic and functional changes were compared after irradiation (single dose, 15 Gy) of rat submandibular salivary glands. Before and 1-10 days after local irradiation of the gland region, samples of submandibular saliva were collected after stimulation by pilocarpine. At the

  17. Is salivary gland function altered in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity-insulin resistance?

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-04-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction in several systemic diseases has been shown to decrease the quality of life in patients. In non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), inadequate salivary gland function has been evidenced to closely associate with this abnormal glycemic control condition. Although several studies demonstrated that NIDDM has a positive correlation with impaired salivary gland function, including decreased salivary flow rate, some studies demonstrated contradictory findings. Moreover, the changes of the salivary gland function in pre-diabetic stage known as insulin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the relationship between NIDDM and salivary gland function, as well as the correlation between obesity and salivary gland function. Consistent findings as well as controversial reports and the mechanistic insights regarding the effect of NIDDM and obesity-insulin resistance on salivary gland function are also presented and discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. TTH biological effect and thyrocyte binding in functional states of the thyroid gland

    Petrova, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    It was established in experiments made in vitro on the thyroid glands of intact animals and also on hyperplastic, functionally atrophied and inflamed thyroid glands that tritiated TTH actively incorporated into thyroid gland cells of the control animals and raised the rate of thyroxin secretion. Under the conditions of experimental hyperplasia, atrophy and thyroiditis of the thyroid gland, the hormonogenic reaction of thyrocytes and the nature of TTH binding by them was greatly disturbed. The thyrocytes of the hyperplastic and inflamed thyroid tissue did not accept the labelled TTH and did not react to its administration by intensification of thyroxin secretion. The thyrocytes of the functionally atrophied thyroid gland tissue actively bound the tritiated TTH and enhanced thyroxin secretion

  19. Salivation induced better lacrimal gland function in dry eyes.

    Pramanik, T; Ghising, R

    2009-12-01

    The dry eye syndrome is a common eye symptom causing blurry vision. To meet the demand of the modem world students and professionals are compelled to expose themselves to the computer screen for long stretch of time, which is one of the causes of dry eye. It is not always feasible to instil eyes with artificial tears time to time to protect them from dryness. Rather to adopt any simple physiological process associated with optimum lacrimation is a better option to keep eyes moist during computer works. Volunteers (n = 22) having mild dry eyes participated in this study. Tear production was assessed by Schirmer test by keeping Schirmer strip on ocular surface for 5 minutes and recording the length of the moistened area. Then the subject was allowed to keep a piece of lopsy candy (a sour fruit pulp mixed with sugar that is sweet and sour in taste) in mouth for 5 minutes that caused salivation. During salivation, again tear production was assessed. [It was standardized in such a way that, the length of the moistened strip will be 25 - 30 mm for normal eyes, 15 - 10 mm for dry eye, 06 - 10 mm for mild dry eye, 02 - 05 mm for moderate dryness and 00 - 01 mm for severe dry eye.] Tear production was found to be increased significantly (supported by increased length of moistened area of Schirmer strip) during salivation especially in dry eye in all volunteers. The lacrimal gland is the major contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film which consists of water, electrolytes and proteins; secretion of which are under tight neural control. Anticholinergic agents play an important role in ocular dryness because of hypo-secretion. The sensory root of facial nucleus contains efferent preganglionic parasympathetic fibers for submandibular and sublingual salivary gland and lacrimal gland. The sensory root conveys gustatory fibers from the presulcul area (anterior two-third) of the tongue via the chorda tympani and via the palatine and greater petrosal nerve, taste fibers from

  20. Modular Measuring System for Assesment of the Thyroid Gland Functional State

    Vladimir Rosik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed modular system BioLab for biophysical examinations enabling assessment of the thyroid gland functional state is presented in the paper. The BioLab system is based on a standard notebook or desktop PC connected to an Ethernet-based network of two smart sensors. These sensors are programmed and controlled from PC and enable measurement of selected biosignals of the human cardiovascular and neuromuscular system that are influenced by the production of thyroid gland hormones. Recorded biosignals are processed in a PC and peripheral indicators characterizing thyroid gland functional state are evaluated.

  1. [Functional morphology of the submandibular salivary glands of white rats during aging involution].

    Rybakova, M G

    1979-12-01

    Functional morphology of different zones of submandibular glands of albino rats was studied quantitatively with due regard for the stages of neuroendocrine system involution. It is shown that function of salivary glands during ageing is not altered; cyclic fluctuations with estral cycle phases are maintained similarly to those in young animals. But the basal level of proteins and mucopolysaccharides is reduced, their mean levels being equal to the minimal level in young animals. On the other hand, activation of enzymes responsible for energy and transport processes takes place and their relationships change. The data obtained prove the relationship between salivary and endocrine glands and confirm the viewpoint that in early age involution disintegration occurs between different parameters of the functional activity of salivary glands rather than there take place changes in their function.

  2. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD 50 (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD 50 . Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  3. A modulatory role of the Rax homeobox gene in mature pineal gland function

    Rohde, Kristian; Bering, Tenna; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    The retinal and anterior neural fold homeobox gene (Rax) controls development of the eye and the forebrain. Postnatal expression of Rax in the brain is restricted to the pineal gland, a forebrain structure devoted to melatonin synthesis. The role of Rax in pineal function is unknown. In order...... to investigate the role of Rax in pineal function while circumventing forebrain abnormalities of the global Rax knockout, we generated an eye and pineal-specific Rax conditional knockout mouse. Deletion of Rax in the pineal gland did not affect morphology of the gland, suggesting that Rax is not essential...... for the nucleus to develop. Telemetric analyses confirmed the lack of a functional circadian clock. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) transcripts, encoding the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme, were undetectable in the pineal gland of the Rax conditional knockout under normal conditions, whereas...

  4. Bottom-up assembly of salivary gland microtissues for assessing myoepithelial cell function.

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Srinivasan, Padma Pradeepa; Zakheim, Daniel R; Harrington, Daniel A; Witt, Robert L; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Jia, Xinqiao; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati

    2017-10-01

    Myoepithelial cells are flat, stellate cells present in exocrine tissues including the salivary glands. While myoepithelial cells have been studied extensively in mammary and lacrimal gland tissues, less is known of the function of myoepithelial cells derived from human salivary glands. Several groups have isolated tumorigenic myoepithelial cells from cancer specimens, however, only one report has demonstrated isolation of normal human salivary myoepithelial cells needed for use in salivary gland tissue engineering applications. Establishing a functional organoid model consisting of myoepithelial and secretory acinar cells is therefore necessary for understanding the coordinated action of these two cell types in unidirectional fluid secretion. Here, we developed a bottom-up approach for generating salivary gland microtissues using primary human salivary myoepithelial cells (hSMECs) and stem/progenitor cells (hS/PCs) isolated from normal salivary gland tissues. Phenotypic characterization of isolated hSMECs confirmed that a myoepithelial cell phenotype consistent with that from other exocrine tissues was maintained over multiple passages of culture. Additionally, hSMECs secreted basement membrane proteins, expressed adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitter receptors, and released intracellular calcium [Ca 2+ i ] in response to parasympathetic agonists. In a collagen I contractility assay, activation of contractile machinery was observed in isolated hSMECs treated with parasympathetic agonists. Recombination of hSMECs with assembled hS/PC spheroids in a microwell system was used to create microtissues resembling secretory complexes of the salivary gland. We conclude that the engineered salivary gland microtissue complexes provide a physiologically relevant model for both mechanistic studies and as a building block for the successful engineering of the salivary gland for restoration of salivary function in patients suffering from hyposalivation. Copyright © 2017

  5. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function.

    Bladowska, Joanna; Sokolska, Violetta; Sozański, Tomasz; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function. 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas - 409 MRI results in total - were studied. With a 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images were obtained. The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism. In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy. 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases. MRI presentation of post - surgical pituitary gland doesn't necessarily correlate with its hormonal function - there was a significant statistical difference. Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function. In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy.

  6. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function

    Bladowska, J.; Sokolska, V.; Sasiadek, M.; Sozanski, T.; Bednarek-Tupikowska, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function. Material/Methods: 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas - 409 MRI results in total - were studied. With a 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images were obtained. Results: The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism. In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy. 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases. Conclusions: MRI presentation of post - surgical pituitary gland doesn't necessarily correlate with its hormonal function - there was a significant statistical difference. Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function. In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy. (authors)

  7. Normative Values for a Functional Capacity Evaluation

    Soer, Remko; van der Schans, Cees P.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish normative values for a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) of healthy working subjects. Design: Descriptive. Setting: Rehabilitation center. Participants: Healthy working subjects (N=701; 448 men, 253 women) between 20 and 60 years of age, working in more than 180

  8. Exocrine gland dysfunction in MC5-R-deficient mice: evidence for coordinated regulation of exocrine gland function by melanocortin peptides.

    Chen, W; Kelly, M A; Opitz-Araya, X; Thomas, R E; Low, M J; Cone, R D

    1997-12-12

    The effects of pituitary-derived melanocortin peptides are primarily attributed to ACTH-mediated adrenocortical glucocorticoid production. Identification of a widely distributed receptor for ACTH/MSH peptides, the melanocortin-5 receptor (MC5-R), suggested non-steroidally mediated systemic effects of these peptides. Targeted disruption of the MC5-R produced mice with a severe defect in water repulsion and thermoregulation due to decreased production of sebaceous lipids. High levels of MC5-R was found in multiple exocrine tissues, including Harderian, preputial, lacrimal, and sebaceous glands, and was also shown to be required for production and stress-regulated synthesis of porphyrins by the Harderian gland and ACTH/MSH-regulated protein secretion by the lacrimal gland. These data show a requirement for the MC5-R in multiple exocrine glands for the production of numerous products, indicative of a coordinated system for regulation of exocrine gland function by melanocortin peptides.

  9. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  10. Laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel restores salivary gland function.

    Kihoon Nam

    Full Text Available Hyposalivation reduces the patient quality of life, as saliva is important for maintaining oral health. Current treatments for hyposalivation are limited to medications such as the muscarinic receptor agonists, pilocarpine and cevimeline. However, these therapies only provide temporary relief. Therefore, alternative therapies are essential to restore salivary gland function. An option is to use bioengineered scaffolds to promote functional salivary gland regeneration. Previous studies demonstrated that the laminin-111 protein is critical for intact salivary gland cell cluster formation and organization. However, laminin-111 protein as a whole is not suitable for clinical applications as some protein domains may contribute to unwanted side effects such as degradation, tumorigenesis and immune responses. Conversely, the use of synthetic laminin-111 peptides makes it possible to minimize the immune reactivity or pathogen transfer. In addition, it is relatively simple and inexpensive as compared to animal-derived proteins. Therefore, the goal of this study was to demonstrate whether a 20 day treatment with laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel promotes tissue regeneration in submandibular glands of a wound healing mouse model. In this study, laminin-111-derived peptide conjugated fibrin hydrogel significantly accelerated formation of salivary gland tissue. The regenerated gland tissues displayed not only structural but also functional restoration.

  11. The assessment of the function of the nervus intermedius by means of functional salivary gland-scintigraphy

    Thomas, J.P.; Bertram, G.; Moedder, G.

    1982-01-01

    Using functional scintigraphy of the salivary glands, the function of the nervus intermedius can be assessed by estimating excretory quotients for both submandibular glands. This method is preferred to the standard salivationtest method of Magielski and Blatt, despite a minimal exposure of the patient to radiation from the injected Natriumpertechnetat. The technical course of this investigation, along with the indications for its use, will be presented. (orig.) [de

  12. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation

    Limesand, Kirsten H.; Avila, Jennifer L.; Victory, Kerton; Chang, Hui-Hua; Shin, Yoon Joo; Grundmann, Oliver; Klein, Rob R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

  13. A comparison of mean parotid gland dose with measures of parotid gland function after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Implications for future trials

    Roesink, Judith M.; Schipper, Maria; Busschers, Wim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the most adequate parameter to measure the consequences of reducing the parotid gland dose. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with radiotherapy for various malignancies of the head and neck were prospectively evaluated using three methods. Parotid gland function was objectively determined by measuring stimulated parotid flow using Lashley cups and scintigraphy. To assess xerostomia-related quality of life, the head-and-neck cancer module European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ (Quality of Life Questionnaire) H and N35 was used. Measurements took place before radiotherapy and 6 weeks and 12 months after the completion of radiotherapy. Complication was defined for each method using cutoff values. The correlation between these complications and the mean parotid gland dose was investigated to find the best measure for parotid gland function. Results: For both flow and scintigraphy data, the best definition for objective parotid gland toxicity seemed to be reduction of stimulated parotid flow to ≤25% of the preradiotherapy flow. Of all the subjective variables, only the single item dry mouth 6 weeks after radiotherapy was found to be significant. The best correlation with the mean parotid gland dose was found for the stimulated flow measurements. The predictive ability was the highest for the time point 1 year after radiotherapy. Subjective findings did not correlate with the mean parotid dose. Conclusions: Stimulated flow measurements using Lashley cups, with a complication defined as flow ≤25% of the preradiotherapy output, correlated best with the mean parotid gland dose. When reduction of the mean dose to the parotid gland is intended, the stimulated flow measurement is the best method for evaluating parotid gland function

  14. Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions

    Jarau, Stefan; Žáček, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

    2012-12-01

    Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed.

  15. Radionuclide method for functional and structural examination of the thyroid gland

    Mladenov, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is development and routine daily practice of the radionuclide method for tracking of the thyroid gland functional status and structure. 168 patients with various thyroid diseases were examined. Nuclear medicine examination is held by gamma camera (Siemens and ADAK). 74 MBq 99m Tc-pertechnetate is injected intravenous. The activity of full and empty syringe is measured. Static scintigrams of full and empty syringes and injection place and duration 10 seconds are carried out. On 20 th minute a static scintigraphy of the thyroid gland with a duration of 300 seconds in front position is held. The individual dose calibration factor is calculated. The functional status of thyroid gland as well as its structural changes is determined. In addition, the relationships between the accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the salivary glands and thyroid are determined. 168 patients are studied, 97 of them are with euthyroidism, 71 with hyperthyroidism and 19 - with hypothyroidism. The nuclear medicine diagnostic method provides information about functional and structural condition of the thyroid gland. The study is determining for decision to conduct the metabolic brachytherapy of hyperthyroid conditions

  16. A Method for the Measurement of Salivary Gland Function in Mice.

    Bagavant, Harini; Trzeciak, Marta; Papinska, Joanna; Biswas, Indranil; Dunkleberger, Micah L; Sosnowska, Anna; Deshmukh, Umesh S

    2018-01-25

    Patients with Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disease affecting the exocrine glands, develop salivary gland inflammation and have reduced saliva production. Similarly, saliva production is severely compromised in patients receiving radiation treatment for head and neck cancers. Rodent models, developed to mimic these clinical conditions, facilitate an understanding of the disease pathogenesis and allow for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the ability to accurately, reproducibly, and repeatedly measure salivary gland function in animal models is critical. Building on procedures previously described in the literature, a method was developed that meets these criteria and was used to evaluate salivary gland function in mice. An additional advantage of this new method is that it is easily mastered, and has little inter-operator variation. Salivary gland function is evaluated as the amount (weight or volume) or rate (mL/min) of saliva produced in response to pilocarpine stimulation. The collected saliva is a good source for the analyses of protein content, immunoglobulin concentrations, and other biomolecules.

  17. Normative values for a functional capacity evaluation.

    Soer, Remko; van der Schans, Cees P; Geertzen, Jan H; Groothoff, Johan W; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reneman, Michiel F

    2009-10-01

    Soer R, van der Schans CP, Geertzen JH, Groothoff JW, Brouwer S, Dijkstra PU, Reneman MF. Normative values for a functional capacity evaluation. To establish normative values for a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) of healthy working subjects. Descriptive. Rehabilitation center. Healthy working subjects (N=701; 448 men, 253 women) between 20 and 60 years of age, working in more than 180 occupations. Subjects performed a 2-hour FCE consisting of 12 work-related tests. Subjects were classified into categories based on physical demands according to the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Means, ranges, SDs, and percentiles were provided for normative values of FCE, and a regression analysis for outcome of the 12 tests was performed. Normative FCE values were established for 4 physical demand categories. The normative values enable comparison of patients' performances to these values. If a patient's performance exceeds the lowest scores in his/her corresponding demand category, then the patient's capacity is very likely to be sufficient to meet the workload. Further, clinicians can make more precise return-to-work recommendations and set goals for rehabilitation programs. A comparison of the normative values can be useful to the fields of rehabilitation, occupational, and insurance medicine. Further research is needed to test the validity of the normative values with respect to workplace assessments and return-to-work recommendations.

  18. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 μM) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 μM WS12 and 100 μM allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion.

  19. Aquaporins and Gland Secretion.

    Delporte, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes. This book chapter will focus on summarizing the current knowledge on AQPs expression and function in the gastrointestinal tract , including salivary glands, gastric glands, Duodenal Brunner's gland, liver and gallbladder, intestinal goblets cells, exocrine and endocrine pancreas, as well as few other secretory glands including airway submucosal glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands and eccrine sweat glands.

  20. Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.

    Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

    2015-02-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, α-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of α-amylase secretion after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  1. Parotid gland function during and following radiotherapy of malignancies in the head and neck

    Franzen, L.; Funegaard, U.; Ericson, T.; Henriksson, R.

    1992-01-01

    Radiotherapy of tumours in the head and neck region usually involves the salivary glands in the treatment volume with ensuing dryness and discomfort. A prospective evaluation of the same patients was performed before, during radiotherapy and 6, 12 and 18 months after the end of treatment. All but one of the patients receiving doses less than 52 Gy showed a recovery of secretion beginning after 2 months with a continuous improvement of the salivary flow up to 18 months. Doses exceeding 64 Gy caused irreversibly depressed parotid function in the vast majority of glands. The subjective experience of discomfort with dry mouth was not at all correlated to the initial flow rate. Treatment with unilateral technique and doses below 52 Gy caused just no or slight dryness and 3 out of 4 patients with bilateral involvement of the glands displayed problem with subjective dryness even after 18 months. Doses over 64 Gy with one gland involved had only slight dryness, however, patients with both glands affected showed severe problems with dryness. There were relatively large interindividual differences with respect to salivary flow and discomfort of dryness. These patients need a careful dose planning and a close follow up with co-operation between radiotherapeutists and dentists. (author)

  2. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    Hakim, Samer George, E-mail: samer.hakim@mkg-chir.mu-luebeck.de [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Benedek, Geza Attila [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Su Yuxiong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guanghua (China); Jacobsen, Hans Christian [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Klinger, Matthias [Institute of Anatomy, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Dendorfer, Andreas [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Hemmelmann, Claudia [Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Meller, Birgit [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Sieg, Peter [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  3. [Effect of emotional-algesic stress on the hormonal function of thyroid and parathyroid glands].

    Kuripka, V I; Belokon', L E; Iakushev, V S

    1989-01-01

    Experiments on 215 Wistar rats have revealed that the state of the endured stress is an essential factor inducing disturbance in functioning of the hypothalamus-adenohypophysis-thyroid gland system accompanied by disturbance in regulation of the thyrotropin and triiodothyronine formation under conditions of myocardium necrosis development.

  4. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    Hakim, Samer George; Benedek, Gèza Attila; Su Yuxiong; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Klinger, Matthias; Dendorfer, Andreas; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Meller, Birgit; Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk; Sieg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  5. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  6. Differential senescence capacities in meibomian gland carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    Zhang, Leilei; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shengfang; Gilson, Eric; Jia, Renbing; Ye, Jing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-15

    Meibomian gland carcinoma (MGC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid carcinomas that exhibit highly dissimilar degrees of proliferation and prognoses. We address here the question of the differential mechanisms between these two eyelid cancers that explain their different outcome. A total of 102 confirmed MGC and 175 diagnosed BCC cases were analyzed. Twenty confirmed MGC and twenty diagnosed BCC cases were collected to determine the telomere length, the presence of senescent cells, and the expression levels of the telomere capping shelterin complex, P53, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Decreased protein levels of the shelterin subunits, shortened telomere length, over-expressed Ki-67, and Bcl2 as well as mutations in P53 were detected both in MGC and BCC. It suggests that the decreased protein levels of the shelterin complex and the shortened telomere length contribute to the tumorigenesis of MGC and BCC. However, several parameters distinguish MGC from BCC samples: (i) the mRNA level of the shelterin subunits decreased in MGC but it increased in BCC; (ii) P53 was more highly mutated in MGC; (iii) Siah1 mRNA was over-expressed in BCC; (iv) BCC samples contain a higher level of senescent cells; (v) Ki-67 and Bcl2 expression were lower in BCC. These results support a model where a preserved P53 checkpoint in BCC leads to cellular senescence and reduced tumor proliferation as compared to MGC. © 2015 UICC.

  7. Restoring the secretory function of irradiation-damaged salivary gland by administrating deferoxamine in mice.

    Junye Zhang

    Full Text Available One of the major side effects of radiotherapy for treatments of the head and neck cancer is the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands. The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFO to restore the secretory function of radiation-damaged salivary glands in mice.DFO (50 mg/kg/d was administered intraperitoneally in C57BL/6 mice for 3 days before and/or after point-fixed irradiation (18 Gy of submandibular glands. The total 55 mice were randomly divided into: (1 Normal group: mice received no treatment (n = 5; (2 Irradiation group (IR: mice only received irradiation (n = 5; (3 Pre-DFO group (D+IR (n = 10; (4 Pre+Post DFO group (D+IR+D (n = 10; (5 Post-DFO group (IR+D (n = 10; (6 For each DFO-treated group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml sterilized water alone (by which DFO was dissolved for 3 days before and/or after irradiation, and served as control. Sham1: Pre-sterilized water group (n = 5; sham2: Pre+Post sterilized water group (n = 5; sham3: Post-sterilized water group (n = 5. The salivary flow rate (SFR was assessed at 30th, 60th and 90th day after irradiation, respectively. After 90 days, all mice were sacrificed and their submandibular glands were removed for further examinations.The salivary glands showed remarkable dysfunction and tissue damage after irradiation. DFO restored SFR in the irradiated glands to a level comparable to that in normal glands and angiogenesis in damaged tissue was greatly increased. DFO also increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF while reduced apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Sca-1+cells were preserved in the salivary glands treated with DFO before IR.Our results indicate DFO could prevent the radiation-induced dysfunction of salivary glands in mice. The mechanism of this protective effect may involve increased angiogenesis, reduced apoptosis of acinar cells and more preserved stem cells.

  8. Functional imaging of parotid glands: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    Habermann, C.R.; Cramer, M.C.; Gossrau, P.; Adam, G. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Graessner, J. [Siemens AG, Hamburg (Germany). Medical Solutions; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Oto-, Rhino-, Laryngology; Fiehler, J. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Neuroradiology; Schoder, V. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) for measuring different functional conditions of the parotid gland and to compare different measurement approaches. Materials and Methods: Parotid glands of 27 healthy volunteers were examined with a DW EPI sequence (TR 1,500 msec, TE 77 msec, field-of-view 250 x 250 mm, pixel size 2.10 x 1.95 mm, section thickness 5 mm) before and after oral stimulation with commercially available lemon juice. The b factors used were 0, 500, and 1,000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain) and evaluated with a manually placed circular region of interest (ROI) containing 100-200 pixel. Additional ROIs including the entire parotid gland were placed on either side. The results of both measurements were compared, using the Student's t test based on the median ADC values for each person. A two-tailed p-value of less than.05 was determined to indicate statistical significance. To compare both measurement approaches, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was calculated. Results: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging successfully visualized the parotid gland of all volunteers. In a first step, the median ADC value per person was computed. Using ROIs of 100-200 pixels, the mean was calculated to be 1.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands prior to simulation. After stimulation, the mean ADC was measured at 1.15 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands. Evaluating the entire parotid gland, the ADC was 1.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec prior to simulation, whereas the ADC increased to 1.18 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec after simulation with lemon juice. For both types of measurements, the increase in ADC after

  9. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function and salivary gland function in autoimmune pancreatitis before and after steroid therapy.

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Egawa, Naoto; Inokuma, Shigeko; Tsuruta, Kouji; Okamoto, Atsutake; Kamata, Noriko; Nakamura, Teruo; Matsukawa, Masakatsu

    2003-10-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct clinical entity in which an autoimmune mechanism may be involved in pathogenesis. To investigate salivary gland function in addition to pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function in patients with AIP, and to determine changes occurring after steroid therapy. Fasting serum glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests or glycosylated hemoglobin values were examined in 19 patients with AIP. N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid excretion test, sialochemistry and parotid gland scintigraphy were performed in 8 patients. Eight patients had evidence of DM. Steroid therapy subsequently improved insulin secretion and glycemic control in 3 of 5 patients treated. Pancreatic exocrine function was reduced in 88% of patients. Impaired pancreatic exocrine function improved after steroid therapy in 3 of 6 patients treated. The 3 patients also showed treatment-related improvement in endocrine function. Concentration of beta2-microglobulin in saliva was significantly raised in patients with AIP compared with controls (P gland dysfunction improved after steroid therapy in all 5 patients treated. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine and salivary gland function were frequently impaired in patients with AIP, and steroid therapy was occasionally effective for these dysfunctions.

  10. Influence of physical factors on sexual function and pituitary gland-gonads system. Chapter 3

    2000-01-01

    In the Chapter 3 it is noted, that different physical factors even with low intensity (vibration, noise, electromagnetic oscillations of s.h.f. and u.h.f range, laser radiation, temperature changes) predictably lead to spermatogenesis dysfunctions and functional shift in hypothalamus-pituitary gland-gonads system with examined animals and man. The sexual function of men changing in the result of contact with unfavourable physical factors arise early and quite often they preceding the manifestation of occupational diseases pattern

  11. The effect of nitrate on the thyroid gland function in healthy volunteers in a 4-week oral toxicity study

    Lambers AC; Koppeschaar HPF; Isselt JW van; Slob W; Schothorst RC; Mensinga TjT; Meulenbelt J; ARO-UMC; VIC; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Increased nitrate intake might affect the thyroid gland function in humans, as has been observed in animals. The reason is that the nitrate-ion (NO3-) inhibits the iodide (I-) transport into the thyroid gland because it shares the same transport mechanism. This inhibition could lead to a decrease in

  12. [Features of the functioning of the thyroid gland in HIV-infected].

    Timofeeva, E V; Liashchenko, O Ia

    2013-01-01

    In the article analyzed the current literature, devoted to the peculiarities of functioning of the thyroid gland in patients with HIV infection. Based on the analysis of literature data bases demonstrated the structure of thyroid function disorders in HIV-infected, as well as the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these disorders. In the structure of thyroid function is dominated by hypothyroidism, euthyroid pathological syndrome, Graves' disease, for which the opportunistic infections are triggers immune activation. It should be noted that the step of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is accompanied by the development of inflammatory and neoplastic processes in the thyroid gland. Convincingly demonstrated the negative impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive for the development of thyroid dysfunction, in connection which the expediency of forming risk groups and the timely correction of the projected thyroid diseases.

  13. Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Cooper, Odelia; Bonert, Vivien; Moser, Franklin; Mirocha, James; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Primary outcome was pituitary volume; secondary outcomes were ACTH area under the curve (AUC) and 24-hour UFC. Thirty-nine subjects were screened and 10 subjects with PTSD were matched with 10 healthy control subjects by sex and age. Mean pituitary volume was 729.7 mm 3 [standard deviation (SD), 227.3 mm 3 ] in PTSD subjects vs 835.2 mm 3 (SD, 302.8 mm 3 ) in control subjects. ACTH AUC was 262.5 pg/mL (SD, 133.3 pg/mL) L in PTSD vs 244.0 pg/mL (SD, 158.3 pg/mL) in control subjects ( P = 0.80). In PTSD subjects, UFC levels and pituitary volume inversely correlated with PTSD duration; pituitary volume correlated with ACTH AUC in control subjects (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.88, P = 0.0009) but not in PTSD subjects. The HPA axis may be downregulated and dysregulated in people with PTSD, as demonstrated by discordant pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume vs intact HPA feedback and correlation of pituitary volume with ACTH levels in healthy control subjects. The results suggest a link between pituitary structure and function in PTSD, which may point to endocrine targeted therapeutic approaches.

  14. Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Bonert, Vivien; Moser, Franklin; Mirocha, James; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Design: Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Methods: Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Primary outcome was pituitary volume; secondary outcomes were ACTH area under the curve (AUC) and 24-hour UFC. Results: Thirty-nine subjects were screened and 10 subjects with PTSD were matched with 10 healthy control subjects by sex and age. Mean pituitary volume was 729.7 mm3 [standard deviation (SD), 227.3 mm3] in PTSD subjects vs 835.2 mm3 (SD, 302.8 mm3) in control subjects. ACTH AUC was 262.5 pg/mL (SD, 133.3 pg/mL) L in PTSD vs 244.0 pg/mL (SD, 158.3 pg/mL) in control subjects (P = 0.80). In PTSD subjects, UFC levels and pituitary volume inversely correlated with PTSD duration; pituitary volume correlated with ACTH AUC in control subjects (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.88, P = 0.0009) but not in PTSD subjects. Conclusions: The HPA axis may be downregulated and dysregulated in people with PTSD, as demonstrated by discordant pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume vs intact HPA feedback and correlation of pituitary volume with ACTH levels in healthy control subjects. The results suggest a link between pituitary structure and function in PTSD, which may point to endocrine targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:29264511

  15. Alarm communication: a new function for the scent-gland secretion in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)

    Machado, Glauco; Bonato, Vinícius; Oliveira, Paulo

    2002-05-01

    Most harvestmen are nocturnal, nonacoustical, and nonvisual arthropods. They have a pair of exocrine glands on the cephalothorax that produce defensive volatile secretions. We investigated in the field the possible alarm effect of these secretions in the gregarious harvestman Goniosoma aff. proximum. A cotton swab soaked with the species' own exudate (treatment), or with water (control), was held 1-2 cm from the center of harvestmen aggregations. The results showed that the gland secretion elicits an alarm response in Goniosoma: whereas 73.3% of the aggregations dispersed after being stimulated with the gland exudate, only 3.3% responded to the water control. Respondent groups are larger than non-respondent groups, and the time of reaction to the secretion was inversely related to group size. This is the first demonstration of a chemically-mediated alarm effect in harvestmen. The alarm response in gregarious harvestmen has possibly evolved as a by-product of a primarily defensive reaction in the context of predator avoidance. The discovery of this novel function of scent-gland secretion is meaningful in view of the widespread occurrence of gregarious habit among species of the order Opiliones.

  16. Functional imaging of submandibular glands: diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    Arndt, C.; Cramer, M.C.; Weiss, F.; Kaul, M.G.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.R.; Graessner, J.; Petersen, K.; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DWI) echo-planar imaging (EPI) to depict the submandibular glands and to measure different functional conditions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were examined. Diffusion weighted sequence was performed prior to stimulation. Exactly 30 seconds after a commercially available lemon juice was given orally, the diffusion weighted sequence was repeated. All examinations were performed by using a 1.5-T superconducting system with a 30 mT/m maximum gradient capability and maximum slew rate of 125 mT/m/sec (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The lower part of the circularly polarized (CP) head coil and a standard two-element CP neck array coil were used. The flexibility of the neck array coil allowed positioning the N1 element (upper part of the coil) right next to the submandibular gland. The axial diffusion-weighted EPI (echo planar imaging) sequence was performed using a matrix of 119 x 128, a field of view of 250 x 250 mm (pixel size 2.1 x 1.95 mm), a section thickness of 5 mm with an interslice gap of 1 mm. The b factors used were 0 sec/mm 2 , 500 sec/mm 2 and 1000 sec/mm 2 . Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain). After detecting the submandibular glands a region of interest (ROI) was placed manually exactly within the boarder of both submandibular glands, excluding the external carotid artery on ADC maps. These procedures were performed on all ADC slices the submandibular glands could be differentiated in before and after oral stimulation. For statistical comparison of results, a student's t-test was performed with an overall two-tailed significance level of p=0.05. Results: The visualization of the submandibular glands using the diffusion-weighted EPI sequence was possible in all of the 27 volunteers. Prior to oral stimulation an ADC of 1.31 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec (95% CI, 1

  17. Lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely

    Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with

  18. CONTRASTING DOSE-RATE EFFECTS OF GAMMA-IRRADIATION ON RAT SALIVARY-GLAND FUNCTION

    VISSINK, A; DOWN, JD; KONINGS, AWT

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Co-60 irradiation delivered at high (HDR) and low (LDR) dose-rates on rat salivary gland function. Total-body irradiation (TBI; total doses 7.5, 10 and 12.5 Gy) was applied from a Co-60 source at dose-rates of 1 cGy/min (LDR) and 40 cGy/min

  19. 11C-methionine PET, a novel method for measuring regional salivary gland function after radiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    Buus, Simon; Grau, Cai; Munk, Ole Lajord; Bender, Dirk; Jensen, Kenneth; Keiding, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Loss of salivary gland function is a distressing side-effect of radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) method for measuring regional salivary gland function in the major salivary glands irradiated during RT. Patients and methods: Eight head and neck cancer patients were included; two were examined before RT and six after parotid sparing RT. Patients were examined by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET of the major salivary glands and parotid gland salivary flow measurements. PET data were analysed using a kinetic model of salivary gland 11 C-methionine metabolism, in which salivary gland function was quantified by the net metabolic clearance of 11 C-methionine, K. Functional voxel-wise images of K were calculated and matched with the CT-dose-plan for comparing regional salivary gland function with the regional radiation dose. Results: Parotid gland K correlated positively with parotid gland salivary flow, indicating that K can be used as an index of salivary gland function. K of parotid and submandibular glands was reduced dependent on the median radiation dose. In one patient, receiving a heterogeneous radiation dose to the parotid glands, regional salivary gland function was inversely correlated to the regional radiation dose. Conclusions: Salivary gland function can be measured by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET. The net metabolic clearance of 11 C-methionine of salivary glands was reduced dependent on the radiation dose. Dynamic 11 C-methionine PET offers a method for studying the individual response of the major salivary glands to irradiation

  20. Shotgun proteomics deciphered age/division of labor-related functional specification of three honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) exocrine glands.

    Fujita, Toshiyuki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Hori, Yutaro; Takeuchi, Jun; Kubo, Takeo; Oyama, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) uses various chemical signals produced by the worker exocrine glands to maintain the functioning of its colony. The roles of worker postcerebral glands (PcGs), thoracic glands (TGs), and mandibular glands (MGs) and the functional changes they undergo according to the division of labor from nursing to foraging are not as well studied. To comprehensively characterize the molecular roles of these glands in workers and their changes according to the division of labor of workers, we analyzed the proteomes of PcGs, TGs, and MGs from nurse bees and foragers using shotgun proteomics technology. We identified approximately 2000 proteins from each of the nurse bee or forager glands and highlighted the features of these glands at the molecular level by semiquantitative enrichment analyses of frequently detected, gland-selective, and labor-selective proteins. First, we found the high potential to produce lipids in PcGs and MGs, suggesting their relation to pheromone production. Second, we also found the proton pumps abundant in TGs and propose some transporters possibly related to the saliva production. Finally, our data unveiled candidate enzymes involved in labor-dependent acid production in MGs.

  1. Interferon-gamma increased epithelial barrier function via upregulating claudin-7 expression in human submandibular gland duct epithelium.

    Abe, Ayumi; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are necessary for salivary gland function and may serve as indicators of salivary gland epithelial dysfunction. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition which disrupts the TJ associated epithelial barrier. The salivary glands are one of the most frequently involved organs in IgG4-RD, however, changes of the TJ associated epithelial barrier in salivary gland duct epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of TJs in human submandibular gland ductal epithelial cells (HSDECs) in normal and IgG4-RD. We examined submandibular gland (SMG) tissue from eight control individuals and 22 patients with IgG4-RD and established an HSDEC culture system. Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were performed. Claudin-4, claudin-7, occludin, and JAM-A were expressed at the apical side of the duct epithelium in submandibular gland (SMG) tissue and at the cell borders in HSDECs of normal and IgG4-RD. The expression and distribution of TJs in SMG tissue were not different in control individuals and patients with IgG4-RD in vivo and in vitro. Although interferon-gamma (IFNγ) generally disrupts the integrity and function of TJs, as manifested by decreased epithelial barrier function, IFNγ markedly increased the epithelial barrier function of HSDECs via upregulation of claudin-7 expression in HSDECs from patients with IgG4-RD. This is the first report showing an IFNγ-dependent increase in epithelial barrier function in the salivary gland duct epithelium. Our results provide insights into the functional significance of TJs in salivary gland duct epithelium in physiological and pathological conditions, including IgG4-RD.

  2. Relevance of normative values for functional capacity evaluation

    Soer, R.; Van Der Schans, C.; Geertzen, J.; Groothoff, J.; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, P.; Reneman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Functional Capacity Evaluations (FCEs) are evaluations designed to measure capacity to perform activities and are used to make recommendations for participation in work. Normative values of healthy working subjects' performances are unavailable, thus patients' performances cannot be

  3. Effects of Diabetes on Salivary Gland Protein Expression of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Function.

    Stewart, Cassandra R; Obi, Nneka; Epane, Elodie C; Akbari, Alexander A; Halpern, Leslie; Southerland, Janet H; Gangula, Pandu R

    2016-06-01

    Xerostomia is defined as dry mouth resulting from a change in the amount or composition of saliva and is often a major oral health complication associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Studies have shown that xerostomia is more common in females at the onset of DM. Evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in healthy salivary gland function. However, the specific mechanisms by which NO regulates salivary gland function at the onset of DM have yet to be determined. This study has two aims: 1) to determine whether protein expression or dimerization of NO synthase enzymes (neuronal [nNOS] and endothelial [eNOS]) are altered in the onset of diabetic xerostomia; and 2) to determine whether the changes in nNOS/eNOS protein expression or dimerization are correlated with changes in NO cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthetic enzymes (guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 and dihydrofolate reductase). Functional and Western blot studies were performed in streptozotocin-induced and control Sprague-Dawley female rats with DM (type 1 [t1DM]) using standardized protocols. Confirmation of xerostomia was determined by increased water intake and decreased salivary flow rate. The results showed that in female rats with DM, salivary hypofunction is correlated with decreased submandibular and parotid gland sizes. The results also show a decrease in NOS and BH4 biosynthetic enzyme in submandibular glands. These results indicate that a decrease in submandibular NO-BH4 protein expression may provide insight pertaining to mechanisms for the development of hyposalivation in DM-induced xerostomia. Furthermore, understanding the role of the NO-BH4 pathway may give insight into possible treatment options for the patient with DM experiencing xerostomia.

  4. Lysosomal Exoglycosidase Profile and Secretory Function in the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kossakowska, Agnieszka; Szulimowska, Julita; Klimiuk, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Car, Halina; Niklińska, Wiesława; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Chabowski, Adrian; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Before this study, there had been no research evaluating the relationship between a lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and secretory function in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetes. In our work, rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: control groups (C2, C4) and diabetic groups (STZ2, STZ4). The secretory function of salivary glands-nonstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, α -amylase, total protein-and salivary exoglycosidase activities-N-acetyl- β -hexosaminidase (HEX, HEX A, and HEX B), β -glucuronidase, α -fucosidase, β -galactosidase, and α -mannosidase-was estimated both in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic and control rats. The study has demonstrated that the activity of most salivary exoglycosidases is significantly higher in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic rats as compared to the healthy controls and that it increases as the disease progresses. Reduced secretory function of diabetic salivary glands was also observed. A significant inverse correlation between HEX B, α -amylase activity, and stimulated salivary flow in diabetic parotid gland has also been shown. Summarizing, STZ-induced diabetes leads to a change in the lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and reduced function of the salivary glands.

  5. Irradiation Effect on Secreting Function, Amylase Activity and Nucleic Acid Contents of Rat Parotid Gland

    Cho, Young Jin; Park, Tae Won

    1990-01-01

    This experiment was performed to clarify the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation on secretory function, amylase activity and contents of nucleic acids of parotid gland in rat. Experimental animals were divided into 6th hours, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days after irradiation and control. The experimental animals are singly irradiated with 20 Gy (2,000 rad) through protective lead block. Secretory function of parotid gland was evaluated by uptake and clearance of 99m TcO 4 . 99m TcO 4 , 0.2μ ci/gm, was injected into peritonium in uptake groups. Rats were sacrificed with cervical dislocation after 30 minutes and gland was excised. In the clearance group, pilocarpine nitrate (8 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 30 minutes after 99m TcO 4 injection and rats were sacrificed 30 minutes after pilocarpine infection. Radioactivity of excised parotid gland was measured by using of gamma counter and stimulation-secretion coefficient, uptake radioactivity divided by clearance radioactivity, was calculated. Amylase activity and contents of DNA and RNA were determined by spectrophotometry. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In the uptake test, the radioactivity of 99m TcO 4 per unit weight increase in experimental group except 6th hours group, compared with control groups and showed a peak at 3rd days after irradiation. 2. In the clearance test, the radioactivity of 99m TcO 4 per unit weight rose to a peak at 3rd days after irradiation and gradually recovered thereafter. 3. Stimulation-secretion coefficient of parotid gland decreased at 6th hours, 3rd and 7th days after irradiation, and gradually increased. 4. Amylase activity of parotid gland decreased in 3rd and 7th days group, and especially lowest in 3rd days after irradiation. 5. The contents of DNA showed no definite difference in all the experimental groups, but RNA was seemed to decrease with time after irradiation.

  6. Functional development of the adult ovine mammary gland--insights from gene expression profiling.

    Paten, Amy M; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Pain, Sarah J; Peterson, Sam W; Kenyon, Paul R; Blair, Hugh T; Dearden, Peter K

    2015-10-05

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic physiological adaptations during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation. Investigation of the molecular basis of mammary development and function will provide fundamental insights into tissue remodelling as well as a better understanding of milk production and mammary disease. This is important to livestock production systems and human health. Here we use RNA-seq to identify differences in gene expression in the ovine mammary gland between late pregnancy and lactation. Between late pregnancy (135 days of gestation ± 2.4 SD) and lactation (15 days post partum ± 1.27 SD) 13 % of genes in the sheep genome were differentially expressed in the ovine mammary gland. In late pregnancy, cell proliferation, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and translation were identified as key biological processes. During lactation, high levels of milk fat synthesis were mirrored by enrichment of genes associated with fatty acid biosynthesis, transport and lipogenesis. Protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum was enriched during lactation, likely in support of active milk protein synthesis. Hormone and growth factor signalling and activation of signal transduction pathways, including the JAK-STAT and PPAR pathways, were also differently regulated, indicating key roles for these pathways in functional development of the ovine mammary gland. Changes in the expression of epigenetic regulators, particularly chromatin remodellers, indicate a possible role in coordinating the large-scale transcriptional changes that appear to be required to switch mammary processes from growth and development during late pregnancy to synthesis and secretion of milk during lactation. Coordinated transcriptional regulation of large numbers of genes is required to switch between mammary tissue establishment during late pregnancy, and activation and maintenance of milk production during lactation. Our findings indicate the remarkable

  7. Functional impairment of the salivary gland after high dose radioiodine therapy

    Spiegel, W.; Reiners, C.; Boerner, W.

    1986-06-01

    Radiation induced impairements of salivation, which are rather related to the more radio-sensitive parotides than to the submandibular glands according to our experience, occur in about 1/3 of the patients treated with 7,4-11,1 GBq (200-300 mCi) of I-131. Based on our results and experiences after percutaneous radiation therapy of the head and neck region, a total xerostomy (Sicca's syndrome) must already be expected at a focal dose of 40 Gy to the salivary gland parenchyma. Experience has shown that this cumulative radiation dose is reached at about 18,5 GBq (500 mCi) of I-131. The acute sialadenitis occuring a few days after therapeutic administration of radioiodine is mostly associated with minor complaints and therefore often escapes the patient's notice. During the onset of xerostomy, which is associated with a moderate reduction of salivation, the patients are surprisingly indolent. However, specific examinations including patient's history, palpation and functional scintigraphy enable early detection of radiation induced functional depression of the salivary glands, which should be accounted for in the assessment of indication for further radioiodine therapy. To prevent the severe consequences of xerostomy such as ageusia, dysphagia, epithelial lesion of the oral mucosa and loss of teeth, the patients under radioiodine therapy should be urged to see to sufficient fluid supply and to steadily stimulate salivation e.g. by sour drops, chewing gum or Emser pastilles.

  8. Function of the parotid gland in juvenile recurrent parotitis: a case series.

    Xie, Li-song; Pu, Yi-ping; Zheng, Ling-yan; Yu, Chuang-qi; Wang, Zhi-jun; Shi, Huan

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to find out how the parotid gland functions in 44 patients with juvenile recurrent parotitis, and to assess the value of measuring the serum amylase activity. Clinical and personal details were recorded, and all patients had their serum amylase activity measured together with sialography during the chronic phase. The function of the gland was classified by sialographic images. The chi square test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used in the statistical analyses. There was a significant association between the degree of glandular function and serum amylase activity (p=0.014). The patients with unilateral and bilateral disease differed significantly in their degree of glandular function (p=0.020), those with bilateral disease having poorer function. There were no significant correlations between other clinical variables and glandular function. Serum amylase activity is an important diagnostic variable in juvenile recurrent parotitis, and poor parotid function reflects the severity of the disease. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional adaptations of the transcriptome to mastitis-causing pathogens: the mammary gland and beyond.

    Loor, Juan J; Moyes, Kasey M; Bionaz, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Application of microarrays to the study of intramammary infections in recent years has provided a wealth of fundamental information on the transcriptomics adaptation of tissue/cells to the disease. Due to its heavy toll on productivity and health of the animal, in vivo and in vitro transcriptomics works involving different mastitis-causing pathogens have been conducted on the mammary gland, primarily on livestock species such as cow and sheep, with few studies in non-ruminants. However, the response to an infectious challenge originating in the mammary gland elicits systemic responses in the animal and encompasses tissues such as liver and immune cells in the circulation, with also potential effects on other tissues such as adipose. The susceptibility of the animal to develop mastitis likely is affected by factors beyond the mammary gland, e.g. negative energy balance as it occurs around parturition. Objectives of this review are to discuss the use of systems biology concepts for the holistic study of animal responses to intramammary infection; providing an update of recent work using transcriptomics to study mammary and peripheral tissue (i.e. liver) as well as neutrophils and macrophage responses to mastitis-causing pathogens; discuss the effect of negative energy balance on mastitis predisposition; and analyze the bovine and murine mammary innate-immune responses during lactation and involution using a novel functional analysis approach to uncover potential predisposing factors to mastitis throughout an animal's productive life.

  10. Functional morphology of femoral glands in the Tegu lizard, Tupinambis merianae.

    Chamut, Silvia; Valdez, Valeria García; Manes, Mario E

    2009-04-01

    Several lizards have femoral glands, which have an influence in various reproductive behaviors. In this paper we describe the morphological organization of the femoral glands in the Tegu, Tupinambis merianae, by means of light and electron microscopy. Even though these glands are present in both genders, secretions during the reproductive period can only be found in males. The glandular parenchyma, which is organized in numerous secretory units, consists of keratinocyte-like cells and granular cells. The holocrine secretion is constituted from both cells, which lose their integrity and become a semi-amorphous material, reinforced by keratin sheets. The discharges of each unit merge together into a solid cylinder of secretion, surrounded by epithelial cells, that is extruded to the exterior. The keratin sheets and epithelial layers that surround both the complete and partial secretions form a sort of structural support suitable for the type of territorial demarcation characteristic of the species. The granular cells, supposedly the producers of pheromones, are characterized by the presence of electron-dense granules and multilaminar membranous bodies that show ultrastructural changes of unknown function. The free granules in the secretion cylinder may act as pheromone deposits.

  11. Salivary gland function of nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated by simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy

    Zhang Qi; Li Huanbin; Wang Ling

    2007-01-01

    The work was to study protective effect of simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) on salivary function of nasopharyngeal cancer patients. Forty-six patients were treated by SMART with 2.5Gy/fraction at gross tumor volume to a total does of 70 Gy, and 2.0 Gy/fraction at the clinical treatment volume to a total does of 56 Gy. The SMART was practiced in step-and-shoot mode, one time a day, and five times each week. Fourteen patients were treated by conventional radiation therapy. All the patients received salivary gland function imaging for their uptake index, excretive index and excretive speed, so as to evaluate their degree of salivary function injury. Meanwhile, the dry discomfort in mouth of the patients was recorded and classified. The results showed that the functional indexes of the SMART group were significantly higher than those of the conventional radiation therapy group (P 2 =23.52, P<0.005). Therefore, SMART can play a key role in protecting salivary gland function of naso- pharyngeal cancer patients. (authors)

  12. Functional anatomy and ion regulatory mechanisms of the antennal gland in a semi-terrestrial crab, Ocypode stimpsoni

    Jyuan-Ru Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brachyuran crabs from diverse habitats show great differences in their osmoregulatory processes, especially in terms of the structural and physiological characteristics of the osmoregulatory organs. In crustaceans, the antennal glands are known to be important in osmoregulation, and they play a functional role analogous to that of the vertebrate kidney. Nevertheless, the detailed structure and function of the antennal glands in different species have rarely been described. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the antennal gland in ion regulation by examining the ultrastructure of the cells and the distribution of the ion regulatory proteins in each cell type in the antennal gland of a semi-terrestrial crab. The results showed that Na+, K+-ATPase activity significantly increased in the antennal gland after a 4-day acclimation in dilute seawater and returned to its original (day 0 level after 7 days. Three major types of cells were identified in the antennal gland, including coelomic cells (COEs, labyrinthine cells (LBRs and end-labyrinthine cells (ELBRs. The proximal tubular region (PT and distal tubular region (DT of the antennal gland consist of LBRs and COEs, whereas the end tubular region (ET consists of all three types of cells, with fewer COEs and more ELBRs. We found a non-uniform distribution of NKA immunoreactivity, with increasing intensity from the proximal to the distal regions of the antennal gland. We summarise our study with a proposed model for the urine reprocessing pathway and the role of each cell type or segment of the antennal gland.

  13. Lysosomal Exoglycosidase Profile and Secretory Function in the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Mateusz Maciejczyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Before this study, there had been no research evaluating the relationship between a lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and secretory function in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 1 diabetes. In our work, rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: control groups (C2, C4 and diabetic groups (STZ2, STZ4. The secretory function of salivary glands—nonstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, α-amylase, total protein—and salivary exoglycosidase activities—N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (HEX, HEX A, and HEX B, β-glucuronidase, α-fucosidase, β-galactosidase, and α-mannosidase—was estimated both in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic and control rats. The study has demonstrated that the activity of most salivary exoglycosidases is significantly higher in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic rats as compared to the healthy controls and that it increases as the disease progresses. Reduced secretory function of diabetic salivary glands was also observed. A significant inverse correlation between HEX B, α-amylase activity, and stimulated salivary flow in diabetic parotid gland has also been shown. Summarizing, STZ-induced diabetes leads to a change in the lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and reduced function of the salivary glands.

  14. Capacity Expansion and Reliability Evaluation on the Networks Flows with Continuous Stochastic Functional Capacity

    F. Hamzezadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many systems such as computer network, fuel distribution, and transportation system, it is necessary to change the capacity of some arcs in order to increase maximum flow value from source s to sink t, while the capacity change incurs minimum cost. In real-time networks, some factors cause loss of arc’s flow. For example, in some flow distribution systems, evaporation, erosion or sediment in pipes waste the flow. Here we define a real capacity, or the so-called functional capacity, which is the operational capacity of an arc. In other words, the functional capacity of an arc equals the possible maximum flow that may pass through the arc. Increasing the functional arcs capacities incurs some cost. There is a certain resource available to cover the costs. First, we construct a mathematical model to minimize the total cost of expanding the functional capacities to the required levels. Then, we consider the loss of flow on each arc as a stochastic variable and compute the system reliability.

  15. The preliminary study of quantitative evaluation of salivary gland function by dynamic imaging

    Han Chunqi; Li Yaming; Li Deshun; Wang Guoli; Bai Jingming; Luo Xigui

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the function of salivary gland by quantitative dynamic imaging. Methods: In thirty normals and twenty patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS), absorption rate (15 min) and excretion rate (30 min) were calculated using two quantitative software. Results: Parotid and submandibular absorption rates in normal subjects were (0.26 +- 0.09)% and (0.15 +- 0.08)%, respectively; those of SS patients were (0.07 +- 0.03)% and (0.05 +- 0.04)%, t = 5.3 and 4.1, both were P < 0.01. There were markedly relativity between the two groups (r = 0.85). Conclusions: Quantitative methods of analyzing salivary function is simple, sensitive, practical reliable for evaluating salivary function and also has important clinical significance

  16. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  17. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and ...

    Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training. ... All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity ...

  18. The effect of X-ray irradiation on the function and saliva composition of rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands

    Hashida, Tatsuo; Kamemoto, Hiromasa; Fuchihata, Hajime; Ooshima, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Radiation therapy to the head and neck area frequently causes severe salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Morphological studies of irradiated salivary glands have suggested that the submandibular/sublingual gland may be less radiosensitive than the parotid gland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of radiation on major salivary gland functions in rats with radiation-induced xerostomia. The effect of salivary gland irradiation on salivary function was examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were irradiated with a single exposure of either 22 Gy or 32 Gy. Stimulated saliva excretion time was measured for the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands, and the total protein in saliva was analysed. Our results showed that the saliva flow rate and protein concentration of parotid saliva were significantly reduced in the 32 Gy-irradiated rats. (author)

  19. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the functionality of the human

  20. Functional residual capacity measurement by heptafluoropropane in ventilated newborn lungs

    Kusztrich, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Heptafluoropropane is an inert gas commercially used as propellant for inhalers. Since heptafluoropropane can be detected in low concentrations, it could also be used as a tracer gas to measure functional residual capacity. The aim of the present study was to validate functional residual capacity measurements by heptafluoropropane wash-in/wash-out (0.8%) during mechanical ventilation in small, surfactant-depleted lungs using a newborn piglet model. Design: Prospective laborato...

  1. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  2. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for normal mammary gland development and stem cell function.

    Pond, Adam C; Bin, Xue; Batts, Torey; Roarty, Kevin; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling plays an important role in embryonic stem cells and adult tissue homeostasis, but the function of FGFs in mammary gland stem cells is less well defined. Both FGFR1 and FGFR2 are expressed in basal and luminal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), suggesting that together they might play a role in mammary gland development and stem cell dynamics. Previous studies have demonstrated that the deletion of FGFR2 resulted only in transient developmental defects in branching morphogenesis. Using a conditional deletion strategy, we investigated the consequences of FGFR1 deletion alone and then the simultaneous deletion of both FGFR1 and FGFR2 in the mammary epithelium. FGFR1 deletion using a keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre-recombinase resulted in an early, yet transient delay in development. However, no reduction in functional outgrowth potential was observed following limiting dilution transplantation analysis. In contrast, a significant reduction in outgrowth potential was observed upon the deletion of both FGFR1 and FGFR2 in MECs using adenovirus-Cre. Additionally, using a fluorescent reporter mouse model to monitor Cre-mediated recombination, we observed a competitive disadvantage following transplantation of both FGFR1/R2-null MECs, most prominently in the basal epithelial cells. This correlated with the complete loss of the mammary stem cell repopulating population in the FGFR1/R2-attenuated epithelium. FGFR1/R2-null MECs were partially rescued in chimeric outgrowths containing wild-type MECs, suggesting the potential importance of paracrine mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the basal epithelial stem cells. These studies document the requirement for functional FGFR signaling in mammary stem cells during development. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  3. A novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model with physiological functionality.

    Patricia Klaka

    Full Text Available Dysregulated human eccrine sweat glands can negatively impact the quality-of-life of people suffering from disorders like hyperhidrosis. Inability of sweating can even result in serious health effects in humans affected by anhidrosis. The underlying mechanisms must be elucidated and a reliable in vitro test system for drug screening must be developed. Here we describe a novel organotypic three-dimensional (3D sweat gland model made of primary human eccrine sweat gland cells. Initial experiments revealed that eccrine sweat gland cells in a two-dimensional (2D culture lose typical physiological markers. To resemble the in vivo situation as close as possible, we applied the hanging drop cultivation technology regaining most of the markers when cultured in its natural spherical environment. To compare the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus human sweat glands in vivo, we compared markers relevant for the eccrine sweat gland using transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Comparing the marker profile, a high in vitro-in vivo correlation was shown. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3, Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1, calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A, and aquaporin-5 (AQP5 are found at significant expression levels in the 3D model. Moreover, cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine or pilocarpine leads to calcium influx monitored in a calcium flux assay. Cholinergic stimulation cannot be achieved with the sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3 used as a sweat gland model system. Our results show clear benefits of the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus 2D cultures in terms of the expression of essential eccrine sweat gland key regulators and in the physiological response to stimulation. Taken together, this novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model shows a good in vitro-in vivo correlation and is an appropriate alternative for screening of potential

  4. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

    I. N. Vorozhtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  5. The functional condition of fetoplacental system in pregnant women with thyroid gland autoimmune pathology

    T. A. Melikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some kind of specific system: placenta - thyroid gland - is said to be formed during pregnancy. Regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism depends on the state of the fetoplacental complex (FPC. The nature of the relationship of thyroid gland (TG with the FPC affects the course of pregnancy, fetal growth and the formation of his own pituitary-thyroid system. Goal. To study the characteristics of the hormonal function of fetoplacental complex in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease. Materials and methods. The study included 102 pregnant women: group I – 29 women with euthyroid as the outcome of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT, 25 women with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism as a form of AIT were included into the second group, in III group – 23 women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The control group consisted of 25 healthy women. Hypophysial and thyroid system hormonal profile and FPK of pregnant women were detected in dynamics. Results. It is revealed that reliable change of hormonal indexes of function of hypophysial and thyroid system leads to weighable changes of indexes of FPK and the AFP level in mother's blood, i.e. to a placentary failure, are result of it: early and late gestosis (54.5 %, chronic fetal hypoxia (21.7 %, discoordination of patrimonial activity (5.2 %, premature births (17.2 %, threat of an abortion (7.4 %. Conclusions. According to our data the most accurate diagnostic criterion for the development of primary placental insufficiency in pregnant women with thyroid conditions can be considered the change in the level of estriol, progesterone, placental lactogen and AFP in the dynamics of gestation. Their determination can be considered as predictor for early treatment and prevention of placental insufficiency.

  6. Combined Proteomic and Transcriptomic Interrogation of the Venom Gland of Conus geographus Uncovers Novel Components and Functional Compartmentalization*

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Hu, Hao; Gorasia, Dhana G.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Veith, Paul D.; Young, Neil D.; Reynolds, Eric C.; Yandell, Mark; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Cone snails are highly successful marine predators that use complex venoms to capture prey. At any given time, hundreds of toxins (conotoxins) are synthesized in the secretory epithelial cells of the venom gland, a long and convoluted organ that can measure 4 times the length of the snail's body. In recent years a number of studies have begun to unveil the transcriptomic, proteomic and peptidomic complexity of the venom and venom glands of a number of cone snail species. By using a combination of DIGE, bottom-up proteomics and next-generation transcriptome sequencing the present study identifies proteins involved in envenomation and conotoxin maturation, significantly extending the repertoire of known (poly)peptides expressed in the venom gland of these remarkable animals. We interrogate the molecular and proteomic composition of different sections of the venom glands of 3 specimens of the fish hunter Conus geographus and demonstrate regional variations in gene expression and protein abundance. DIGE analysis identified 1204 gel spots of which 157 showed significant regional differences in abundance as determined by biological variation analysis. Proteomic interrogation identified 342 unique proteins including those that exhibited greatest fold change. The majority of these proteins also exhibited significant changes in their mRNA expression levels validating the reliability of the experimental approach. Transcriptome sequencing further revealed a yet unknown genetic diversity of several venom gland components. Interestingly, abundant proteins that potentially form part of the injected venom mixture, such as echotoxins, phospholipase A2 and con-ikots-ikots, classified into distinct expression clusters with expression peaking in different parts of the gland. Our findings significantly enhance the known repertoire of venom gland polypeptides and provide molecular and biochemical evidence for the compartmentalization of this organ into distinct functional entities

  7. c-Myc affects mRNA translation, cell proliferation and progenitor cell function in the mammary gland

    Trumpp Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oncoprotein c-Myc has been intensely studied in breast cancer and mouse mammary tumor models, but relatively little is known about the normal physiological role of c-Myc in the mammary gland. Here we investigated functions of c-Myc during mouse mammary gland development using a conditional knockout approach. Results Generation of c-mycfl/fl mice carrying the mammary gland-specific WAPiCre transgene resulted in c-Myc loss in alveolar epithelial cells starting in mid-pregnancy. Three major phenotypes were observed in glands of mutant mice. First, c-Myc-deficient alveolar cells had a slower proliferative response at the start of pregnancy, causing a delay but not a block of alveolar development. Second, while milk composition was comparable between wild type and mutant animals, milk production was reduced in mutant glands, leading to slower pup weight-gain. Electron microscopy and polysome fractionation revealed a general decrease in translational efficiency. Furthermore, analysis of mRNA distribution along the polysome gradient demonstrated that this effect was specific for mRNAs whose protein products are involved in milk synthesis. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed decreased levels of ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal protein-encoding mRNAs in mutant glands. Third, using the mammary transplantation technique to functionally identify alveolar progenitor cells, we observed that the mutant epithelium has a reduced ability to repopulate the gland when transplanted into NOD/SCID recipients. Conclusion We have demonstrated that c-Myc plays multiple roles in the mouse mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. c-Myc loss delayed, but did not block proliferation and differentiation in pregnancy. During lactation, lower levels of ribosomal RNAs and proteins were present and translation was generally decreased in mutant glands. Finally, the transplantation studies suggest a role

  8. Radioiodine therapy effect on lacrimal gland function in patients with thyroid cancer

    Fard-Esfahani, A.; Mirshekarpour, H.; Fallahi, B.; Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Beiki, D.; Ansari-Gilani, K.; Saghari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radioiodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected postradioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of I-131 (exposed group) for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months ago. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5 min) of this exposed group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with any other known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: The study demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to unexposed one. In the group of patients who have undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77% respectively. In evaluating the symptoms, 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the mentioned dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of the two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high

  9. Radioiodine treatment effects of lacrimal glands function in patients with thyroid cancer

    Fard Esfahani, A.; Akhzari, F.; Mirshekarpour, H.; Saghari, M.; Izadyar, S.; Esmaili, J.; Fallahi, B.; Beiki, D.; Takavar, A.

    2005-01-01

    There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: we studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of 1-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (1 00 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and rythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the

  10. Visualizing form and function in organotypic slices of the adult mouse parotid gland.

    Warner, Jennifer D; Peters, Christian G; Saunders, Rudel; Won, Jong Hak; Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Gunning, William T; Yule, David I; Giovannucci, David R

    2008-09-01

    An organotypic slice preparation of the adult mouse parotid salivary gland amenable to a variety of optical assessments of fluid and protein secretion dynamics is described. The semi-intact preparation rendered without the use of enzymatic treatment permitted live-cell imaging and multiphoton analysis of cellular and supracellular signals. Toward this end we demonstrated that the parotid slice is a significant addition to the repertoire of tools available to investigators to probe exocrine structure and function since there is currently no cell culture system that fully recapitulates parotid acinar cell biology. Importantly, we show that a subpopulation of the acinar cells of parotid slices can be maintained in short-term culture and retain their morphology and function for up to 2 days. This in vitro model system is a significant step forward compared with enzymatically dispersed acini that rapidly lose their morphological and functional characteristics over several hours, and it was shown to be long enough for the expression and trafficking of exogenous protein following adenoviral infection. This system is compatible with a variety of genetic and physiological approaches used to study secretory function.

  11. Insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in mammary gland function

    Marshman, Emma; Streuli, Charles H

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-mediated proliferation and survival are essential for normal development in the mammary gland during puberty and pregnancy. IGFs interact with IGF-binding proteins and regulate their function. The present review focuses on the role of IGFs and IGF-binding proteins in the mammary gland and describes how modulation of their actions occurs by association with hormones, other growth factors and the extracellular matrix. The review will also highlight the involvement of the IGF axis in breast cancer

  12. Resistance exercise induces region-specific adaptations in anterior pituitary gland structure and function in rats.

    Kraemer, William J; Flanagan, Shawn D; Volek, Jeff S; Nindl, Bradley C; Vingren, Jakob L; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Looney, David P; Maresh, Carl M; Hymer, Wesley C

    2013-12-01

    The anterior pituitary gland (AP) increases growth hormone (GH) secretion in response to resistance exercise (RE), but the nature of AP adaptations to RE is unknown. To that end, we examined the effects of RE on regional AP somatotroph GH release, structure, and relative quantity. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: 1) no training or acute exercise (NT-NEX); 2) no training with acute exercise (NT-EX); 3) resistance training without acute exercise (RT-NEX); 4) resistance training with acute exercise (RT-EX). RE incorporated 10, 1 m-weighted ladder climbs at an 85° angle. RT groups trained 3 days/wk for 7 wk, progressively. After death, trunk blood was collected, and each AP was divided into quadrants (ventral-dorsal and left-right). We measured: 1) trunk plasma GH; 2) somatotroph GH release; 3) somatotroph size; 4) somatotroph secretory content; and 5) percent of AP cells identified as somatotrophs. Trunk GH differed by group (NT-NEX, 8.9 ± 2.4 μg/l; RT-NEX, 9.2 ± 3.5 μg/l; NT-EX, 15.6 ± 3.4 μg/l; RT-EX, 23.4 ± 4.6 μg/l). RT-EX demonstrated greater somatotroph GH release than all other groups, predominantly in ventral regions (P pituitary gland. RE training appears to induce dynamic adaptations in somatotroph structure and function.

  13. The inhibiting effect of intravenous anesthesia on adrenal gland functions under the sepsis condition.

    Wang, Te; Liu, Changdong; Wei, Pihong; Lv, Lili; Yang, Zaiqi

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of intravenous anesthesia on the adrenal gland functions of rats with sepsis as well as on their lungs and adrenal gland tissues in order to provide a theoretical reference for the cure of sepsis. Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were taken as the research objects in this study. Venous channels of rats were constructed by catheterization through the external jugular vein, and the cecal ligation and puncture technique was adopted to duplicate the sepsis rat models. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and necrocytosis was observed by the fluorescent staining method. The results showed that the survival rates of groups A, B, C, and D were 100%, 60%, 60%, and 50%, respectively, while their concentrations of TNF-α in serum were101.26 ± 43.38, 1398.68 ± 178.56, 451.16 ± 78.68, and 649.83 ± 98.56 pg/mL, respectively. Results of fluorescent staining showed that the number of living cells per unit view in group A was 1428 ± 166 and those of groups B, C and D were 175 ± 56, 618 ± 76, and 468 ± 55, respectively. Besides, it was found that changes of inflammatory pathology of lung tissues of each group were significant. In conclusion, etomidate does not affect the survival of sepsis rats and does not exacerbate lung tissue inflammation in sepsis rats. Instead, it can inhibit TNF-α in serum of sepsis rats, as well as the apoptosis of adrenal cells in sepsis rats.

  14. The work ability index and functional capacity among older workers

    Rosimeire S. Padula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreases in functional ability due to aging can impair work capacity and productivity among older workers. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the sociodemographics, health conditions, and physical functioning abilities of young and old workers as well as correlates of physical functioning capacity with the work ability index (WAI. METHOD: This exploratory, cross-sectional study examined employees of a higher education institution (HEI and those of a metallurgical industry. Older workers (50 years old or above were matched for gender and occupation type with younger workers (less than 50 years old. The following evaluations were applied: the multidimensional assessment questionnaire (which included sociodemographic, clinical, health perception, and physical health indices, the WAI, and a battery of physical functional tests. RESULTS: Diseases and regularly used medications were more common among the group of aging workers. The WAI did not differ between groups (p=0.237. Both groups showed similar physical functional capacity performances with regard to walking speed, muscle strength, and lower limb physical functioning. Aging workers showed a poorer performance on a test of right-leg support (p=0.004. The WAI was moderately correlated with the sit-to-stand test among older female workers (r=0.573, p=0.051. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable general health conditions did not affect the assessment of work ability or most of the tests of physical functional capacity in the aging group.

  15. A journey through the pituitary gland: Development, structure and function, with emphasis on embryo-foetal and later development.

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castorina, Sergio; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosi; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Magro, Gaetano; Imbesi, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are morphologically and functionally associated in the endocrine and neuroendocrine control of other endocrine glands. They therefore play a key role in a number of regulatory feedback processes that co-ordinate the whole endocrine system. Here we review the neuroendocrine system, from the discoveries that led to its identification to some recently clarified embryological, functional, and morphological aspects. In particular we review the pituitary gland and the main notions related to its development, organization, cell differentiation, and vascularization. Given the crucial importance of the factors controlling neuroendocrine system development to understand parvocellular neuron function and the aetiology of the congenital disorders related to hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction, we also provide an overview of the molecular and genetic studies that have advanced our knowledge in the field. Through the action of the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland is involved in the control of a broad range of key aspects of our lives: the review focuses on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, particularly GnRH, whose abnormal secretion is associated with clinical conditions involving delayed or absent puberty and reproductive dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Hunting with sticky tape: functional shift in silk glands of araneophagous ground spiders (Gnaphosidae).

    Wolff, Jonas O; Řezáč, Milan; Krejčí, Tomáš; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2017-06-15

    Foraging is one of the main evolutionary driving forces shaping the phenotype of organisms. In predators, a significant, though understudied, cost of foraging is the risk of being injured by struggling prey. Hunting spiders that feed on dangerous prey like ants or other spiders are an extreme example of dangerous feeding, risking their own life over a meal. Here, we describe an intriguing example of the use of attachment silk (piriform silk) for prey immobilization that comes with the costs of reduced silk anchorage function, increased piriform silk production and additional modifications of the extrusion structures (spigots) to prevent their clogging. We show that the piriform silk of gnaphosids is very stretchy and tough, which is an outstanding feat for a functional glue. This is gained by the combination of an elastic central fibre and a bi-layered glue coat consisting of aligned nanofibrils. This represents the first tensile test data on the ubiquitous piriform gland silk, adding an important puzzle piece to the mechanical catalogue of silken products in spiders. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Lysosomal Exoglycosidase Profile and Secretory Function in the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kossakowska, Agnieszka; Szulimowska, Julita; Klimiuk, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Car, Halina; Niklińska, Wiesława; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Chabowski, Adrian; Zalewska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Before this study, there had been no research evaluating the relationship between a lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and secretory function in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetes. In our work, rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: control groups (C2, C4) and diabetic groups (STZ2, STZ4). The secretory function of salivary glands—nonstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, α-amylase, total protein—and salivary exoglycosidase activities—N...

  18. Relationship between kinesiophobia and performance in a functional capacity evaluation

    Reneman, MF; Jorritsma, W; Dijkstra, SJ; Dijkstra, PU

    2003-01-01

    Fear of movement and (re) injury (kinesiophobia) has been postulated to play an important role in the performance in a Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). This study was performed to analyze the relationship between kinesiophobia and performance in an FCE. Kinesiophobia and FCE performance of 54

  19. Decline of functional capacity in healthy aging workers

    Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H; van der Schans, Cees; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reneman, Michiel F

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To study the natural decline in functional capacity (FC) of healthy aging workers; (2) to compare FC to categories of workload; and (3) to study the differences in decline between men and women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: A rehabilitation center at a university medical

  20. Functional capacity and postural pain outcomes after reduction mammaplasty.

    Freire, Marcia; Neto, Miguel Sabino; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Quaresma, Marina Rodrigues; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2007-04-01

    Neck, shoulder, and lower back pain and reduction of functional capacity can be caused by breast hypertrophy. Reduction mammaplasty appears to improve these aspects. After a systematic review of the literature, no scientific evidence was found to confirm this hypothesis. The authors' objective was to evaluate the impact of reduction mammaplasty on pain and functional capacity of patients with mammary hypertrophy. One hundred patients with mammary hypertrophy, between 18 and 55 years old, with no previous mammary surgery, were consecutively selected from the Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo-Escola Paulista de Medicina and randomly allocated into two groups. Group A (n = 50) underwent mammaplasty reduction immediately, whereas group B patients (n = 50) were placed on a waiting list (control group). All patients were interviewed for clinical and demographic data and evaluated to measure pain and functional capacity. To measure shoulder, neck, and lower back pain, a visual analogue scale (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain) was used. The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-20), Brazilian validated version (0 = best, 3 = worst), was applied to assess functional capacity. Pain and functional capacity were measured at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Forty-six of 50 patients, from both groups, completed the study. The mean (+/-SD) patient age in groups A and B was 31.6 +/- 11 and 32.3 +/- 10 years, respectively. The mean breast tissue weight was 1052 +/- 188 g. Functional capacity in group A was improved 6 months after reduction mammaplasty, compared with group B (control), in the following aspects: getting dressed, getting up, walking, maintaining personal hygiene, reaching, and grasping objects. The mean pain intensity dropped in the lower back, from 5.7 to 1.3; in the shoulders, from 6.1 to 1.1; and in the neck, from 5.2 to 0.9. Reduction mammaplasty improved functional capacity and relieved pain in the lower back

  1. Queen Specific Exocrine Glands in Legionary Ants and Their Possible Function in Sexual Selection.

    Hölldobler, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The colonies of army ants and some other legionary ant species have single, permanently wingless queens with massive post petioles and large gasters. Such highly modified queens are called dichthadiigynes. This paper presents the unusually rich exocrine gland endowment of dichthadiigynes, which is not found in queens of other ant species. It has been suggested these kinds of glands produce secretions that attract and maintain worker retinues around queens, especially during migration. However, large worker retinues also occur in non-legionary species whose queens do not have such an exuberance of exocrine glands. We argue and present evidence in support of our previously proposed hypothesis that the enormous outfit of exocrine glands found in dichthadiigynes is due to sexual selection mediated by workers as the main selecting agents.

  2. Queen Specific Exocrine Glands in Legionary Ants and Their Possible Function in Sexual Selection.

    Bert Hölldobler

    Full Text Available The colonies of army ants and some other legionary ant species have single, permanently wingless queens with massive post petioles and large gasters. Such highly modified queens are called dichthadiigynes. This paper presents the unusually rich exocrine gland endowment of dichthadiigynes, which is not found in queens of other ant species. It has been suggested these kinds of glands produce secretions that attract and maintain worker retinues around queens, especially during migration. However, large worker retinues also occur in non-legionary species whose queens do not have such an exuberance of exocrine glands. We argue and present evidence in support of our previously proposed hypothesis that the enormous outfit of exocrine glands found in dichthadiigynes is due to sexual selection mediated by workers as the main selecting agents.

  3. Myoepithelial Cells: Their Origin and Function in Lacrimal Gland Morphogenesis, Homeostasis, and Repair.

    Makarenkova, Helen P; Dartt, Darlene A

    2015-09-01

    Lacrimal gland (LG) is an exocrine tubuloacinar gland that secretes the aqueous layer of the tear film. LG epithelium is composed of ductal, acinar, and myoepithelial cells (MECs) bordering the basal lamina and separating the epithelial layer from the extracellular matrix. Mature MECs have contractile ability and morphologically resemble smooth muscle cells; however, they exhibit features typical for epithelial cells, such as the presence of specific cytokeratin filaments. Increasing evidence supports the assertion that myoepithelial cells (MECs) play key roles in the lacrimal gland development, homeostasis, and stabilizing the normal structure and polarity of LG secretory acini. MECs take part in the formation of extracellular matrix gland and participate in signal exchange between epithelium and stroma. MECs have a high level of plasticity and are able to differentiate into several cell lineages. Here, we provide a review on some of the MEC characteristics and their role in LG morphogenesis, maintenance, and repair.

  4. Self-esteem and functional capacity outcomes following reduction mammaplasty.

    Sabino Neto, Miguel; Demattê, Maria Fernanda; Freire, Marcia; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Quaresma, Marina; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2008-01-01

    Both physical health and psychosocial outcomes are important issues in the evaluation of medical treatment. Women with breast hypertrophy may suffer from low self-esteem and reduced functional capacity because of the size of their breasts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of reduction mammaplasty on self-esteem and functional capacity in patients with breast hypertrophy. One hundred patients with breast hypertrophy who ranged in age from 18 to 55 years and who had undergone no previous mammary surgery were selected from the Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM). They were randomly allocated into two groups (A and B) of 50 patients each. Patients from group A were submitted for reduction mammaplasty while those from group B were placed on the waiting list and used as a control group. At the beginning of the study, all patients were interviewed to collect clinical and demographic data and to have their self-esteem and functional capacity measured. Two Brazilian-validated versions of quality of life measurement instruments were chosen: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Rolland-Morris (to assess functional capacity). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain intensity. Six months after the beginning of the study, these instruments were again administered to both groups. Forty-six out of 50 patients from each group (A and B) completed the study. The mean age of group A was 31.6 years (SD, 11 yrs), and that of group B was 32.3 years (SD, 10 yrs). The mean weight of removed breast tissue from group A patients was 1052 g (SD, 188 g). A decrease on the score of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale of patients from group A indicated an improvement of self-esteem (P self-esteem and functional capacity and relieved pain in the lower back region in patients with breast hypertrophy.

  5. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function

    Bladowska, Joanna; Sokolska, Violetta; Sozański, Tomasz; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of sp...

  6. A functional and chemical study of radiation effects on rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands

    Vissink, A.; S-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor composition and rate of secretion of rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva following local single doses of X-rays ranging from 5 to 20 Gy. Pilocarpine-stimulated samples of parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva were simultaneously collected with miniaturized Lashley cups before and 1-30 days after irradiation. The lag phase (period between injection of pilocarpine and start of the secretion) and flow rate were recorded and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and amylase were measured. With increasing dose and time, the salivary flow rate as well as sodium concentration decreased, while potassium concentrations increased throughout the follow-up period. The lag phase and the concentration of amylase reached their maximum at 3 and 10 days after irradiation, respectively. The changes in lag phase and flow rate were most obvious after doses of 15 or 20 Gy and showed a great similarity for parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva. No dose-response relationship was observed for the changes in concentrations of calcium and phosphate. It is concluded that for radiation doses of 10 Gy and above, irreversible changes (lag phase, flow rate, potassium, sodium) were observed. A saturation of the irradiation effects (lag phase, flow rate) seems to exist at doses larger than 15 Gy. No significant differences were observed between the radiation-induced functional changes in parotid and submandibular/sublingual salivary gland tissue

  7. Akt1 is essential for postnatal mammary gland development, function, and the expression of Btn1a1.

    Jessica LaRocca

    Full Text Available Akt1, a serine-threonine protein kinase member of the PKB/Akt gene family, plays critical roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, and has previously been implicated in lactation and breast cancer development. In this study, we utilized Akt1+/+ and Akt1-/- C57/Bl6 female mice to assess the role that Akt1 plays in normal mammary gland postnatal development and function. We examined postnatal morphology at multiple time points, and analyzed gene and protein expression changes that persist into adulthood. Akt1 deficiency resulted in several mammary gland developmental defects, including ductal outgrowth and defective terminal end bud formation. Adult Akt1-/- mammary gland composition remained altered, exhibiting fewer alveolar buds coupled with increased epithelial cell apoptosis. Microarray analysis revealed that Akt1 deficiency altered expression of genes involved in numerous biological processes in the mammary gland, including organismal development, cell death, and tissue morphology. Of particular importance, a significant decrease in expression of Btn1a1, a gene involved in milk lipid secretion, was observed in Akt1-/- mammary glands. Additionally, pseudopregnant Akt1-/- females failed to induce Btn1a1 expression in response to hormonal stimulation compared to their wild-type counterparts. Retroviral-mediated shRNA knockdown of Akt1 and Btn1a1 in MCF-7 human breast epithelial further illustrated the importance of Akt1 in mammary epithelial cell proliferation, as well as in the regulation of Btn1a1 and subsequent expression of ß-casein, a gene that encodes for milk protein. Overall these findings provide mechanistic insight into the role of Akt1 in mammary morphogenesis and function.

  8. Relationship between physiological measurements (SFG -scope for growth-) and the functionality of the digestive gland in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Albentosa, Marina; Sánchez-Hernández, Miriam; Campillo, Juan Antonio; Moyano, Francisco Javier

    2012-11-01

    The present study was aimed to establish the relationship between the functionality of the digestive gland and physiological rates including SFG (scope for growth) in wild mussels, Mytilus galloprovincilis. The experimental set-up consisted in the evaluation of changes in the morphology of the gland, as well as in the activity of some key digestive enzymes (amylase, laminarinase, cellulase and protease) within a broad range of SFG obtained through manipulation of food ration. The higher SFG values were correlated to an increase in both the size of the digestive gland and the activities of enzymes when expressed in relation to individual. In contrast, no clear relations were observed when the activity of enzymes was expressed in relation to soluble protein, with the exception to amylase. The higher protease activities measured in mussels showing lower SFG may reflect an initial stage of catabolic processes intended to compensate the energy deficit produced by food restriction. The potential use of parameters measured in digestive glands in studies of marine pollution was discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of age on reactive capacity and nigrostriatal dopamine function

    Gilliam, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of aging on reactive capacity (reaction time), and striatal dopamine function in the same animals. Twenty, 3 month old, and twenty, 24 month old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a reactive capacity test to quickly release a lever, in response to an auditory and visual stimulus, in order to avoid footshocks. The young animals were tested at 3, 6, and 9 months of age, while the Old animals were tested at 18, 21, and 24 months of age. Twenty-four hours after the last testing session the animals were sacrificed and their striata dissected for biochemical assays. A [ 3 H]-spiperone receptor binding assay was performed to determine the density and affinity of striatial D-2 receptors. It was hypothesized that the improvement in reactive capacity performance of the Old animals over days was due to their ability to compensate for their decrease in receptor density by an increase in the production and utilization of dopamine. Significant positive correlations were also found between reactive capacity performance and receptor density as well as between reactive capacity and the ratio of DOPAC + HVA/DA

  10. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of

  12. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2013-01-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO 4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC 10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of

  13. Measurement by means of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate of the function of salivary glands before and after stimulation with pilocarpine in cases of sicca-syndrome of the parotidic glands

    Gelinsky, P.

    1979-01-01

    Judgement on xerostomia in systemic diseases of the salivary glands and on the sicca-syndrome as a side-effect of radiation therapy or of a treatment with psychopharmaca has been improved by the function test of the parotidic glands for each side individually with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, particularly in view of the detection of lateral differences. Measurements of the salivation volume and activity are completive of the function test, yielding knowledge of the total excretory power of all the salivary glands. Functional remainders and reserves can be visualized objectively by additional utilization of the pilocarpine stimulation test (today performed with carbachol). The findings will be still more precise if the parotide salivation is collected and measured for each side separately. This exploration method is appropriate for frequent controls in the course of a disease and for the forming of an opinion upon therapeutic effects of sialogogic agents. (orig.) [de

  14. Lung function study and diffusion capacity in anorexia nervosa.

    Pieters, T; Boland, B; Beguin, C; Veriter, C; Stanescu, D; Frans, A; Lambert, M

    2000-08-01

    In humans, malnutrition alters the respiratory system in different ways. It impairs the ventilatory drive, decreases respiratory muscle strength and reduces immune competence. In addition, typical emphysema-like changes were demonstrated in starved animals. The presence of emphysema has never been demonstrated in starved humans. Our objective was to investigate whether pulmonary emphysema occurs in anorexia nervosa by means of a pulmonary function study. We examined 24 women aged between 14 and 38 years (nine smokers). We studied the lung function including lung volumes, ventilatory capacity, maximal respiratory pressures and transfer factor, as well as PaO2. All respiratory tests were within normal limits with the exception of decreased maximal inspiratory (59% of predicted values) and expiratory pressures (35%), and increased residual volume (162%). Diffusion capacity (98.1 +/- 16.2%) and transfer coefficient (98.4 +/- 16.2%) were also normal. The diffusion coefficient was lower in current smokers than in those who had never smoked (P anorexia nervosa, pulmonary function tests are within normal limits with the exception of maximal pressures and residual volume. Diffusion capacity is not decreased. The present results within the limitations of the used method are not compatible with the hypothesis of starvation-induced pulmonary emphysema.

  15. The function and morphology of Meibomian glands in patients with thyroid eye disease: a preliminary study.

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Ren-Wen; Fang, Po-Chiung; Yu, Hun-Ju; Chien, Chun-Chih; Hsiao, Chang-Chun; Kuo, Ming-Tse

    2018-04-12

    To investigate function and morphology of the meibomian gland (MG) in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). In this prospective case series study, patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were consecutively enrolled. The diagnosis of TED was based on the typical orbital findings and/or radiographic evidence. The disease activity of TED was classified according to the clinical activity score (CAS). Degrees of lagophthalmos and exophthalmos, blinking rates, and results of the Schirmer test 1 were also recorded. All patients completed the SPEED questionnaire and underwent MG assessment, including lipid layer thickness (LLT), MG dropout (MGd), and MG expression. In total 31 eyes from 17 patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were included. Patients were divided into inactive TED (CAS 0-1; 20 eyes from 11 patients) and active TED (CAS 2-3, 11 eyes from 6 patients) groups. MGd was significantly more severe in the active TED than the inactive TED group [Median (Inter-quartile region): 3.0 (2.0-3.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-2.0) degree, P = 0.04]. However, patients with active TED had thicker LLT than those with inactive TED (90.0 [80.0-100.0] vs. 65.0 [47.8-82.5] nm, P = 0.02), and LLT was positively correlated with lagophthalmos (r = 0.37, P = 0.04). Patients with active TED had more severe MGd, but thicker LLT. Active TED may cause periglandular inflammation of MGs, leading to MGd, but compensatory secretion from residual MGs and lagophthalmos-induced forceful blinking might temporarily release more lipids over the tear film.

  16. Effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the thyroid gland structure and function of ovariectomized rats

    Elgendy Mohamed S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen therapy is widely used nowadays in women to treat many postmenopausal symptoms but it may have some undesirable effects due to multiple organs affection. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in ovarictomized rats as a model simulating menopause. Findings Thirty adult female Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in this study; the first group was sham-operated, while the second and third groups were ovariectomized. The first and second groups were injected with olive oil while the third group was injected with estradiol dipropionate daily for three months, after that; hormonal assay for T3, T4, TSH and specimens of the thyroid were taken and processed to be examined by light and electron microscopy. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of T3 and T4 decreased in ovariectomized animals and significantly increased after estradiol treatment, while TSH increased in ovariectomized animals and decreased with estradiol treatment. Histological and morphometric study in ovariectomized group revealed marked accumulation of colloid in follicular lumens with decreased epithelial height in addition to increased connective tissue amount. After estradiol treatment the follicles became smaller in size, having small amount of colloid with increased epithelial height in addition to decreased connective tissue content. Ultrastructural study supported these results in addition to the presence of large amount of intracytoplasmic colloid vesicles after estradiol treatment. Conclusion Low estrogen level may lead to mild thyroidal hypofunction while estradiol treatment may lead to hyperactivity so it should be used very cautiously in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms to avoid its undesirable stimulatory effect on the thyroid.

  17. Functional capacity and muscular abnormalities in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Reuters, Vaneska S; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima S; Vigário, Patrícia S; Almeida, Cloyra P; Buescu, Alexandre; Ferreira, Márcia M; de Castro, Carmen L N; Gold, Jaime; Vaisman, Mario

    2009-10-01

    Neuromuscular abnormalities and low exercise tolerance are frequently observed in overt hypothyroidism, but it remains controversial if they can also occur in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). The aim of this study is to evaluate neuromuscular symptoms, muscle strength, and exercise capacity in sHT, compared with healthy euthyroid individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed with 44 sHT and 24 euthyroid outpatients from a university hospital. Neuromuscular symptoms were questioned. Muscle strength was tested for neck, shoulder, arm, and hip muscle groups, using manual muscle testing (MMT). Quadriceps muscle strength was tested with a chair dynamometer and inspiratory muscle strength (IS) by a manuvacuometer. Functional capacity was estimated based on the peak of oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min), using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Cramps (54.8% versus 25.0%; P muscle strength by MMT and the coexistence of neuromuscular complaints in patients with sHT may indicate neuromuscular dysfunction.

  18. Radioprotective effect of amifostine on parotid gland functioning is region dependent

    Konings, AWT; Faber, H; Vissink, A; Coppes, RP

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigation the protective ability of amifostine during partial irradiation of the rat parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Single-dose X-ray irradiation was performed by use of collimators with conformal radiation portals for either the 100% volume (15 Gy) or the 50% cranial/caudal

  19. Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees (Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions

    Jarau, S.; Žáček, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 12 (2012), s. 1039-1049 ISSN 0028-1042 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020969 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : bumblebee * hydrocarbons * leg tendon glands * sex specific secretion * wax esters Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2012

  20. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in comparison with human (Homo sapiens: quantitative and functional implications.

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5 µm(3 and 7.02×10(5 µm(3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  1. Effect of single x-irradiation on glucocorticoid function of adrenal glands of adult and old rats

    Gorban', Je.M.; Topol'nyikova, N.V.

    2001-01-01

    The peculiarities of short-term (1 h, 1 day) adrenal glucocorticoid function in adult and old rats after single x-irradiation at different doses was studied. changes in the glucocorticoid function of the adrenal glands at studied terms after single x-irradiation at used doses were observed in adult but not in old animals. This testifies to an age-related decrease in the range of adaptive possibilities of this link of the organism adaptive system to x-irradiation effects

  2. Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N

    2014-12-15

    Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional exercise capacity, lung function and chest wall deformity in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS causes changes on the compliance of the chest. These changes may be associated with impaired lung function and reduced functional exercise capacity of these adolescents. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between functional exercise capacity, lung function and geometry of the chest at different stages of AIS.Materials and methods The study was carried out in a cross-sectional design which were evaluated 27 AIS patients at different stages of the disease. For chest wall evaluation, were created geometry angles/distances (A/D, which were quantified by Software Postural Assessment. The functional exercise capacity was assessed by a portable gas analyzer during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT. Besides that, manovacuometry and spirometry were also performed.Results Linear regressions showed that oxygen uptake (peak VO2 was correlated with distance travelled in the ISWT (R2 = 0.52, maximal respiratory pressures, cough peak flow (R2 = 0.59 and some thoracic deformity markers (D1, D2 and A6.Discussion We observed that the chest wall alterations, lung function and respiratory muscle strength are related to the functional exercise capacity and may impair the physical activity performance in AIS patients.Final considerations There is correlation between functional exercise capacity, lung function and geometry of the chest in AIS patients. Our results point to the possible impact of the AIS in the physical activities of these adolescents. Therefore, efforts to prevent the disease progression are extremely important.

  4. Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome

    Jang, S. J.; Lee, W. W.; Lee, Y. J.; So, Y.; Jeong, J. G.; Lee, M. C.; Kim, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the evaluation of xerostomia, we performed static salivary scintigraphy using Tc-99m and compared it with salivary flow rate in patients with xerostomia. Twenty-three female patients (age 51.2±10.4 years) who suffered from xerostomia were investigated. Nine patients were classified as Sjogrens syndrome (SS) by clinical criteria, and 14 patients were classified as non-Sjogrens syndrome. Un-stimulated salivary flow rate and simulated salivary flow rate were checked. Salivary scintigraphy was performed with injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate after injection anterior static image was obtained over face as basal uptake. ROIs were drawn over each salivary gland with background subtraction by square ROI drawn over skull. We used the mean data of right and left salivary glands for analysis. Percent excretion of salivary gland was calculated. Un-stimulated salivary flow rates(SFR) were different between groups (p 0.05): 5.88±4.07 ml/15 min in SS, and 10.31±6.49 ml/15 min in non-SS. The uptake value in submandibular gland revealed significant difference between the groups. The percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated salivary flow rate (r=0.534, p=0.009), and that of parotid gland was also positive correlation (r=0.437, p=0.037). The result of multiple regression analysis revealed only percent excretion of submandibular gland was single determinant of unstimulated SFR. Percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated SFR. Thus, excretory function of submandibular gland assessed by salivary scintigraphy appears more related with xerostomia than parotid gland

  5. Impact of duration of contact lens wear on the structure and function of the meibomian glands.

    Alghamdi, Waleed M; Markoulli, Maria; Holden, Brien A; Papas, Eric B

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of the duration of contact lens (CL) wear on the meibomian glands (MGs), eyelid and tear film. This was a cross-sectional study of CL wearers and non-wearers (NWs) aged between 18 and 35 years. The sample comprised of: (i) Three groups of CL wearers of different duration profiles (short, moderate and long experience of CL wear); (ii) a group of previous CL wearers (PWs) who had ceased wear for at least 6 months prior to the present study; (iii) healthy non-wearers as a control group. Study procedures were conducted in the order from least invasive to most invasive as follows: symptom assessment, lipid assessment, non-invasive break-up time, tear meniscus area, tear osmolarity and evaporation, Phenol red thread, MG expressibility, ocular surface and eyelid assessments, meibography, Marx line and lid wiper assessment using lissamine green. For statistical comparison of continuous data, one-way analysis of variance was used with Bonferroni post-hoc correction, where appropriate. Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson Chi-Square respectively were used for ordinal and categorical variables. A total of 100 participants (49 males and 51 females; mean age ± SD: 25.4 ± 4.1) were enrolled across the five groups, such that each was composed of 20 age/sex matched individuals. Significant differences between the study groups were found for MG expressibility (p < 0.001), number of plugged orifices (p = 0.001), number of expressed orifices (p < 0.001), MG dropout (p = 0.001), Marx line score (p < 0.001), palpebral redness (p = 0.003), and roughness (p = 0.002), non-invasive break-up time (p < 0.001), Phenol red thread (p = 0.005), and tear meniscus area (p = 0.029). For all these variables, the NW group was statistically different from all other groups. Duration of wear was not a significant factor, except for Marx line score which was different in PWs compared to those with longer experience of CL wear (p = 0.03) CONCLUSION: Alterations to MG morphology and

  6. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

    I. N. Vorozhtsova; M. R. Mukhamedov; M. A. Cherkasova; V. N. Latypova

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck ...

  7. Effect of radioactive iodine therapy on lacrimal gland functions in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Aydogan, Fusun; Ayhan Tuzcu, Esra; Aydogan, Akin; Akkucuk, Seckin; Coskun, Mesut; Ustun, Ihsan; Gökçe, Cumali

    2014-04-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is preferred in the treatment of hyperthyroidism because of its effectiveness, noninvasiveness, and low costs. I has been detected in extrathyroidal tissues, such as in gastric mucosa, salivary glands, and lacrimal glands. To the best of our knowledge, there is no publication concerning the effects of RAI therapy for hyperthyroidism on tear production. In the present study, we evaluated whether or not the lacrimal glands are affected after RAI therapy when compared with pretreatment period. The Schirmer and tear break-up time (TBUT) tests were used to assess 32 eyes of 16 patients with conditions that were diagnosed as hyperthyroidism before and at 3 and 6 months after RAI treatment. In addition, pretreatment values of patients were compared with that of controls. It was evaluated whether or not a correlation exists between the results and the dose or iodine uptake values. There was no significant difference between pretreatment values of Schirmer and TBUT tests obtained in the patient group and those of the control group (P > 0.05). In the patient group, there was a significant difference between the posttreatment and pretreatment values (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between uptake values obtained at 24 hours and the values obtained by TBUT and Schirmer tests on both eyes at 3 and 6 months. At 6 months, the uptake value at 24 hours was 28.83 ± 60 for both eyes in patients with TBUT test values less than 10, whereas it was 39.25 ± 7.88 for the right eye and 39.00 ± 6.85 for the left eyes in patients with TBUT test values greater than 10. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In our study, we concluded that the decrease in mucin and aqueous production occurs due to affected lacrimal glands by RAI therapy; however, this effect is not dose dependent.

  8. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds

    Anita Giglio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.

  9. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds.

    Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto

    2011-01-01

    Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.

  10. [MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE THYROID GLAND AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES].

    Polyakova, V S; Sizova, Ye A; Miroshnikov, S A; Notova, S V; Zavaleyeva, S M

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted on 15 male Wistar rats, which were injected intramuscularly with copper nanoparticle lyosols at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight once a week for 3 months. Thyroid gland was removed 7 days after the last injection and was studied using histological, morphometric and immunohistochemical methods (demonstration of Ki-67 and caspase-3). Animals of the control group (n = 15) were administered distilled water at the same time intervals. It was found that after 1, 2, 3 and 4 injections of copper nanoparticles, the thyroid gland contained an increased number of large cyst-like follicles, while the average thyrocyte height of and the volume of their nuclei were reduced, which indicate a decline in hormone production. After 12 injections of copper nanoparticles, the hyperplastic thyroid gland demonstrated small follicles lined with columnar epithelium, which contained no or small amount of the colloid. The number of mitotically dividing thyrocytes was increased. Parafollicular cells demonstrated an apoptotic dominant. Morphological data suggest goitrogenic effect of multiple doses of copper nanopartides. The data received indicating the readiness of the thyroid cells to the programmed death and its possible depression (absence of signs of thyrocyte apoptosis) at different stages of the experiment confirm the modulating effect of copper on apoptosis.

  11. Function of the Membrane Water Channel Aquaporin-5 in the Salivary Gland

    Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Susa, Taketo; Shimizu, Kinue; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Takeshi; Aoki, Takeo; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    The process of saliva production in the salivary glands requires transepithelial water transfer from the interstitium to the acinar lumen. There are two transepithelial pathways: the transcellular and paracellular. In the transcellular pathway, the aquaporin water channels induce passive water diffusion across the membrane lipid bilayer. It is well known that aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is expressed in the salivary glands, in which it is mainly localized at the apical membrane of the acinar cells. This suggests the physiological importance of AQP5 in transcellular water transfer. Reduced saliva secretion under pilocarpine stimulation in AQP5-null mice compared with normal mice further indicates the importance of AQP5 in this process, at least in stimulated saliva secretion. Questions remain therefore regarding the role and importance of AQP5 in basal saliva secretion. It has been speculated that there would be some short-term regulation of AQP5 such as a trafficking mechanism to regulate saliva secretion. However, no histochemical evidence of AQP5-trafficking has been found, although some of biochemical analyses suggested that it may occur. There are no reports of human disease caused by AQP5 mutations, but some studies have revealed an abnormal subcellular distribution of AQP5 in patients or animals with xerostomia caused by Sjögren’s syndrome and X-irradiation. These findings suggest the possible pathophysiological importance of AQP5 in the salivary glands

  12. Functional morphology of the postpharyngeal gland of queens and workers of the ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.)

    Eelen, Dieter; Børgesen, Lisbeth W.; Billen, Johan

    2006-01-01

    the PPG morphology varies considerably according to age and mating status. The epithelial thickness increases with age and reaches a maximum at 3 weeks in both virgin and mated queens. A considerable expansion of the lumen diameter occurs in both groups between 4 and 7 days. Virgin queens release...... nurses and foragers. We suggest the PPG serves different purposes in pharaoh's ants: it is likely that the PPG of workers and virgin queens is used to feed larvae. In mated queens the gland probably plays a role in providing the queen with nutritious oils for egg production. The PPG may also function...

  13. Quantitative dose-volume response analysis of changes in parotid gland function after radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region

    Roesink, Judith M.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Battermann, Jan J.; Hordijk, Gerrit Jan; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the radiation tolerance of the parotid glands as a function of dose and volume irradiated. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various malignancies in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Stimulated parotid flow rate was measured before radiotherapy and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after radiotherapy. Parotid gland dose-volume histograms were derived from CT-based treatment planning. The normal tissue complication probability model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. A complication was defined as stimulated parotid flow rate 50 (the dose to the whole organ leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 31, 35, and 39 Gy at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year postradiotherapy, respectively. The volume dependency parameter n was around 1, which means that the mean parotid dose correlates best with the observed complications. There was no steep dose-response curve (m=0.45 at 1 year postradiotherapy). Conclusions: This study on dose/volume/parotid gland function relationships revealed a linear correlation between postradiotherapy flow ratio and parotid gland dose and a strong volume dependency. No threshold dose was found. Recovery of parotid gland function was shown at 6 months and 1 year after radiotherapy. In radiation planning, attempts should be made to achieve a mean parotid gland dose at least below 39 Gy (leading to a complication probability of 50%)

  14. EFFECTS OF A RESPIRATORY PHYSIOTHERAPY PROTOCOL ON PULMONARY CAPACITY, FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  15. Effects of a respiratory physiotherapy protocol on pulmonary capacity, functional capacity and quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  16. Effects of yoga on functional capacity and well being

    Pooja Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga has proven beneficial effects on various health domains including musculoskeletal conditions, cardiopulmonary conditions through the practice of asana and pranayamas as well as on mental health, as it is known to enhance the body-and mind coordination. There is paucity of data on the effect of yoga on functional capacity in literature using 6 min walk test. The present study aims to look at the effect of yoga on 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, recovery time following the walk and state of well being. This is a hospital-based longitudinal study where 30 physiotherapy students of the age group 18 - 22 years of either sex were enrolled. Subjects having musculoskeletal problems, cardio respiratory disease and those who were not willing to volunteer were excluded They received Yoga intervention in form of Yogic practices which included a combination of asanas, pranayamas and omkar chanting for 1 h for 30 sessions. A baseline 6-min walk test was conducted on subjects and the 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE on modified Borg′s scale were recorded. The baseline state of well-being was noted using the Warwick- Edinburgh mental well-being scale and similar recording was done post intervention after 30 sessions. Of the 30 subjects, there were no drop outs as these were committed college students. Of them, 24 were females and 6 were males with a mean age of 21.5 years SD 2.38. Statistically significant improvements were observed in 6-min walk distance (P value = 0.000, RPE (P value < 0.000, recovery time (P value < 0.000 and sense of well being score (P value < 0.000. Yoga practices are beneficial in improving the functional capacity in young healthy adults. Yoga can very well be incorporated in medical practice for increasing the patient′s functional capacity, for those who have limitations in performing aerobic training due to various health reasons. The improved state of well being motivates the

  17. Function protection of the parotid gland after intensity modulated radiotherapy for thirty-six patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Xiao Zemin; Liao Yuping; Jiang Wuzhong; Wu Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the parotid gland function protection of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) Methods: Thirty-six NPC patients were divided into IMRT group (therapy group) and conventional fraction (CF) group (control group) by random balanced design. Each group had 18 patients. The planning gross tumor volume (pGTV) of nasopharyngeal was treated with a total dose of 72.0 in therapy group, with a total dose of 70.0 Gy in control group (with daily 2.0 Gy/fraction and 5 times/week). Before treatment and at 3, 6, and 9 months, 1 and 2 years after therapy, all patients performed parotid imaging and both uptake index (UI) and excretion index (EI) after acid stimulation were calculated. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) was used to analyse the dose of parotid. Results: The values of UI were 77.6% and 96.2% at the end of therapy and after tow years in therapy group and 56.8% and 7.0% in contrast group. The values of EI were 64.1% and 95.3% at the end of therapy and after tow years in therapy group and 19.4% and 0 in control group. The mean doses of normal side and the trouble side of parotid gland were 20.0 Gy and 31.0 Gy in therapy group and 61.0 Gy and 68.2 Gy in control group. Conclusions: IMRT can reduce radiation dose of parotid glands compared with CF distinctly and thus protect parotid function effectively. (authors)

  18. Functional capacity and mental state of patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Bruna Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are a serious public health problem in Brazil. Myocardial revascularization surgery (MRS as well as cardiac valve replacement and repair are procedures indicated to treat them. Thus, extracorporeal circulation (ECC is still widely used in these surgeries, in which patients with long ECC times may have greater neurological deficits. Neurological damage resulting from MRS can have devastating consequences such as loss of independence and worsening of quality of life. Objective: To assess the effect of cardiac surgery on a patient’s mental state and functional capacity in both the pre- and postoperative periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with convenience sampling of subjects undergoing MRS and valve replacement. Participants were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE and the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI in the pre- and postoperative periods, as well as before their hospital discharge. Results: This study assessed nine patients (eight males aged 62.4 ± 6.3 years with a BMI of 29.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2. There was a significant decrease in DASI scores and VO2 from preoperative to postoperative status (p = 0.003 and p = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed a loss of cognitive and exercise capacity after cardiac surgery. A larger sample however is needed to consolidate these findings.

  19. Cognitive and clinical predictors of functional capacity in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    Vesterager, Lone; Christensen, Torben Ø; Olsen, Birthe B

    2012-01-01

    The predictors of functional capacity in first episode schizophrenia among seven separable cognitive domains and clinical variables are unknown.......The predictors of functional capacity in first episode schizophrenia among seven separable cognitive domains and clinical variables are unknown....

  20. Lung function and functional capacity among foundry workers using effective risk control measures.

    Bernardes, Rosane Andrea Bretas; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Negreiros, Alexandher; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled dust in the environment can trigger specific reactions in the airways and cause various respiratory diseases. Evaluate the lung function and functional capacity of foundry workers who are exposed to metals and use effective control measures. A cross-sectional study was realized with 108 workers at a bronze foundry and machining plant and in maintenance at a private university, both in Brazil. The workers were divided into two groups: the study group exposed to metals but using risk control measues and a control group not exposed to metal work. The Medical Research Council Questionnaire on Respiratory Symptoms and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were administered, and lung function and functional capacity were evaluated. Comparative statistics were used to identify differences in the outcome measures between the two groups. The groups had similar personal and anthropometric characteristics and time on the job. Spirometry and peak expiratory flow presented no significant differences between the groups. And there was also no statistically significant difference between groups in functional capacity as assessed by performance on the six-minute walk test. Foundry industry workers in Brazil who were exposed to metal but used risk control measures had similar lung function and functional capacity when compared to the control group who were not exposed to metal. This is a positive results and maybe related to age, time exposure and control of occupational hazards. However, these workers need to continue being monitored in longitudinal studies.

  1. Pain and functional capacity in female fibromyalgia patients.

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Sjöström, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    To examine the association between pain and functional capacity levels. [corrected] Cross-sectional study. University of Granada. One hundred twenty-three women with fibromyalgia (51.7 ± 7.2 years). We measured weight and height, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. We assessed tender points by pressure pain and functional capacity by means of the 30-second chair stand, handgrip strength, chair sit and reach, back scratch, blind flamingo, 8-ft up and go and 6-minute walk tests. We observed an association of tender points count with the chair stand and 6-minute walk tests (r = -0.273, P = 0.004 and r = -0.183, P = 0.046, respectively). These associations became nonsignificant once the analyses were adjusted by weight or BMI. We observed an association of algometer score with the back scratch, chair stand, and 6-minute walk tests (r = 0.238, P = 0.009; r = 0.363, P BMI, except the association between algometer score and the 6-minute walk test that became nonsignificant once the analyses were adjusted by weight. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 39.2 and 33.3%, respectively. There is an inverse association of tender points count with the chair stand and distance walked in the 6-minute walk tests, and a positive association of algometer score with the chair stand, distance walked in the 6-minute walk and back scratch tests, yet, weight status seems to play a role in these associations. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Endocrine glands

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  3. Quantitative assessment of salivary gland function by radioisotopic scanning in a randomized trial of pilocarpine for prevention of radiation Induced Xerostomia

    Fard-Esfahani, A.; Modarress-Mosalla, M.; Haddad, P.; Eftekhari, M.; Saghari, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radioisotope scanning is the best method for objective assessment of salivary gland function. Thus, it was used in a randomized trial of concomitant pilocarpine for assessment of radiation-induced xerostomia, in addition to subjective evaluation by an approved questionnaire and objective standard xerostomia grading. Patients randomized in a placebo-controlled trial of pilocarpine concurrent with irradiation for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia were evaluated by salivary gland scintigraphy immediately before and 6 months after the end of head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland function was measured by ejection fraction (E F) of Technetium-99 m pertechnetate. The mean values for pre-and post-radiotherapy scans were calculated and compared. Also post-radiotherapy scan findings in the two groups of pilocarpine and placebo were compared using the Student's t-test. In addition, comparison was made between the scan results and the subjective findings and objective grading s.Twenty patients underwent the pre-radiotherapy salivary scintigraphy, and also 20 post-radiotherapy scans were performed . Mean parotid E F was 60.85% in the pre-radiotherapy and 9.08% in the post-radiotherapy scans (p<0.01). The means for submandibular glands in the pre-and post-radiotherapy scans were 41% and 11.2%, respectively (p<0.01). Also the mean E F was 14.5% in the pilocarpine group and 3.65 in the placebo group for parotid glands (p=0.07) and 18.3% and 4.1% respectively for submandibular glands (p<0.05). The salivary scans confirmed the subjective and objective xerostomia findings. Salivary gland scintigraphy is a valuable method for evaluation of xerostomia after head and neck radiotherapy, quantitatively demonstrating the protective effect of pilocarpine compared to placebo on salivary glands

  4. SIALOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH SALIVARY GLAND FUNCTION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS OUTPATIENTS OF RSUPN CIPTOMANGUNKUSUMO (A CLINICAL STUDY

    Nita Margaretha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between diabetic sialosis and salivary gland function has not been clearly stated. The objective of this study is to assess the association between sialosis and salivary flow rates and xerostomia in type 2 diabetic patients. Eighty-one subjects enrolled in this cross-sectional study, consisted of 50 type 2 diabetic outpatients of RSUPN Ciptomangunkusumo (mean of age: 60,96±8,38 and 31 control subjects (mean of age: 57,03±10. Clinical examination was performed to assess sialosis. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were measured using spitting method. Saliva secretion was stimulated using 2% citric acid. Xerostomia was assessed using xerostomia questionnaire. The result showed that sialosis was found only in diabetic group, with a percentage of 28% (14 out of 50. This finding was not found in the well-controlled diabetic group The mean of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates of the diabetic patients with sialosis were lower than that of the diabetic patients without sialosis. Statistic analysis showed significant association between sialosis and unstimulated salivary flow rate (p=0,001 and between sialosis and xerostomia (p=0,005, but there was no significant association between sialosis and the decrease of unstimulated salivary flow rate, and between sialosis and xerostomia. Therefore patients with diabetic sialosis should by examined periodically to find out the possibility of salivary gland function disorder.

  5. Dose-response analysis of parotid gland function: what is the best measure of xerostomia?

    Miah, Aisha B; Gulliford, Sarah L; Clark, Catharine H; Bhide, Shreerang A; Zaidi, Shane H; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    To describe the dose-response relationships for the different measures of salivary gland recovery following radical radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers (LA-HNSCC). Dosimetric analysis of data from the PARSPORT trial, a Phase III study of conventional RT (RT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for LA-HNSCC was undertaken to determine the relationship between parotid gland mean dose and toxicity endpoints: high-grade subjective and objective xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life scores. LKB-NTCP parameters (TD50, m and n) were generated and tolerance doses (D50) reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Data were available on 63 patients from the PARSPORT trial. Parotid saliva flow rate provided the strongest association between mean dose and recovery, D50=23.4 Gy (20.6-26.2) and k=3.2 (1.9-4.5), R(2)=0.85. Corresponding LKB parameters were TD50=26.3 Gy (95% CI: 24.0-30.1), m=0.25 (0.18-1.0 and n=1). LENTSOMA subjective xerostomia also demonstrated a strong association D50=33.3 Gy (26.7-39.8), k=2.8 (91.4-4.4), R(2)=0.77). We recommend using the LENT SOMA subjective xerostomia score to predict recovery of salivation due to its strong association with dosimetry and ease of recording. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Properties and function of KCNQ1 K+ channels isolated from the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias.

    Kerst, G; Beschorner, U; Unsöld, B; von Hahn, T; Schreiber, R; Greger, R; Gerlach, U; Lang, H J; Kunzelmann, K; Bleich, M

    2001-10-01

    KCNQ1 (KVLQT1) K+ channels play an important role during electrolyte secretion in airways and colon. KCNQ1 was cloned recently from NaCl-secreting shark rectal glands. Here we study the properties and regulation of the cloned sKVLQT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and compare the results with those obtained from in vitro perfused rectal gland tubules (RGT). The expression of sKCNQ1 induced voltage-dependent, delayed activated K+ currents, which were augmented by an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca2+. The chromanol derivatives 293B and 526B potently inhibited sKCNQ1 expressed in oocytes and CHO cells, but had little effect on RGT electrolyte transport. Short-circuit currents in RGT were activated by alkalinization and were decreased by acidification. In CHO cells an alkaline pH activated and an acidic pH inhibited 293B-sensitive KCNQ1 currents. Noise analysis of the cell-attached basolateral membrane of RGT indicated the presence of low-conductance (<3 pS) K+ channels, in parallel with other K+ channels. sKCNQ1 generated similar small-conductance K+ channels upon expression in CHO cells and Xenopus oocytes. The results suggest the presence of low-conductance KCNQ1 K+ channels in RGT, which are probably regulated by changes in intracellular cAMP, Ca2+ and pH.

  7. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: EIT Imaging to Monitor Human Salivary Gland Functionality: A Feasibility Study

    Kohli, K; Karvat, A; Liu, J; Krishnan, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Clinically, there exists a need to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring salivary activity. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a using the electrical conductivity information from Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to monitor salivary flow activity. Methods: To acquire EIT data, eight Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were placed around the mandible of the subject. An EIT scan was obtained by injecting current at 50 KHz, 0.4 mA through each pair of electrodes and recording voltage across other electrode pairs. The functional conductivity image was obtained through reconstruction of the voltage data, using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Optical Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) in Matlab. In using EIDORS, forward solution was obtained using a user-defined finite element model shape and inverse solution was obtained using one-step Gaussian solver. EIT scans of volunteer research team members were acquired for three different physiological states: pre-stimulation, stimulation and post-stimulation. For pre-stimulation phase, data were collected in intervals of 5 minutes for 15 minutes. The salivary glands were then stimulated in the subject using lemon and the data were collected immediately. Post-stimulation data were collected at 4 different timings after stimulation. Results: Variations were observed in the electrical conductivity patterns near parotid regions between the pre- and post-stimulation stages. The three images acquired during the 15 minute pre-stimulation phase showed no major changes in the conductivity. Immediately after stimulation, electrical conductivity increased near parotid regions and 15 minutes later slowly returned to pre-stimulation level. Conclusion: In the present study involving human subjects, the change in electrical conductivity pattern shown in the EIT images, acquired at different times with and without stimulation of salivary glands, appeared to be consistent with the change in salivary

  8. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: EIT Imaging to Monitor Human Salivary Gland Functionality: A Feasibility Study

    Kohli, K; Karvat, A; Liu, J; Krishnan, K [BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, BC (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Clinically, there exists a need to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring salivary activity. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a using the electrical conductivity information from Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to monitor salivary flow activity. Methods: To acquire EIT data, eight Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were placed around the mandible of the subject. An EIT scan was obtained by injecting current at 50 KHz, 0.4 mA through each pair of electrodes and recording voltage across other electrode pairs. The functional conductivity image was obtained through reconstruction of the voltage data, using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Optical Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) in Matlab. In using EIDORS, forward solution was obtained using a user-defined finite element model shape and inverse solution was obtained using one-step Gaussian solver. EIT scans of volunteer research team members were acquired for three different physiological states: pre-stimulation, stimulation and post-stimulation. For pre-stimulation phase, data were collected in intervals of 5 minutes for 15 minutes. The salivary glands were then stimulated in the subject using lemon and the data were collected immediately. Post-stimulation data were collected at 4 different timings after stimulation. Results: Variations were observed in the electrical conductivity patterns near parotid regions between the pre- and post-stimulation stages. The three images acquired during the 15 minute pre-stimulation phase showed no major changes in the conductivity. Immediately after stimulation, electrical conductivity increased near parotid regions and 15 minutes later slowly returned to pre-stimulation level. Conclusion: In the present study involving human subjects, the change in electrical conductivity pattern shown in the EIT images, acquired at different times with and without stimulation of salivary glands, appeared to be consistent with the change in salivary

  9. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  10. Examining Capacity and Functioning of Bicycle Coalitions: A Descriptive Study

    Melissa Bopp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations.MethodsBicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation. The survey addressed basic information about the coalition (community demographics, location, leadership, communication strategies, coalition priorities, barriers to programming/activities, and partners.ResultsCoalitions (n = 56 from four countries completed the survey. Most coalitions operated as a non-profit (n = 44, 95.7%, 45% (n = 21 have paid staff as leaders, while 37% (n = 17 have volunteers as leaders. The following skills were represented in coalitions’ leadership: fundraising (n = 31, 53.4%, event planning (n = 31, 53.4%, urban planning (n = 26, 44%, and policy/legislation expertise (n = 26, 44.8%. Education (n = 26, 63.4% and encouragement (n = 25, 61.6% were viewed as top priorities and the safety of bicyclists (n = 21, 46.7% and advocacy for infrastructure and policy (n = 22, 48.9% is the focus of most activities. A lack of financial resources (n = 36, 81.8% and capable personnel (n = 25, 56.8% were significant barriers to offering programming in the community and that the availability of grants to address issues (n = 38, 86.4% would be the top motivator for improvements.ConclusionBike coalitions represent a critical partner in creating activity-friendly environments and understanding their capacity allows for creating skill/capacity building intervention programs, development of effective toolkits and fostering strong collaborations to address physical inactivity.

  11. Isoform-specific functions of Mud/NuMA mediate binucleation of Drosophila male accessory gland cells.

    Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Kokuryo, Akihiko; Imano, Takao; Minami, Ryunosuke; Nakagoshi, Hideki; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2014-12-20

    In standard cell division, the cells undergo karyokinesis and then cytokinesis. Some cells, however, such as cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, can produce binucleate cells by going through mitosis without cytokinesis. This cytokinesis skipping is thought to be due to the inhibition of cytokinesis machinery such as the central spindle or the contractile ring, but the mechanisms regulating it are unclear. We investigated them by characterizing the binucleation event during development of the Drosophila male accessory gland, in which all cells are binucleate. The accessory gland cells arrested the cell cycle at 50 hours after puparium formation (APF) and in the middle of the pupal stage stopped proliferating for 5 hours. They then restarted the cell cycle and at 55 hours APF entered the M-phase synchronously. At this stage, accessory gland cells binucleated by mitosis without cytokinesis. Binucleating cells displayed the standard karyokinesis progression but also showed unusual features such as a non-round shape, spindle orientation along the apico-basal axis, and poor assembly of the central spindle. Mud, a Drosophila homolog of NuMA, regulated the processes responsible for these three features, the classical isoform Mud(PBD) and the two newly characterized isoforms Mud(L) and Mud(S) regulated them differently: Mud(L) repressed cell rounding, Mud(PBD) and Mud(S) oriented the spindle along the apico-basal axis, and Mud(S) and Mud(L) repressed central spindle assembly. Importantly, overexpression of Mud(S) induced binucleation even in standard proliferating cells such as those in imaginal discs. We characterized the binucleation in the Drosophila male accessory gland and examined mechanisms that regulated unusual morphologies of binucleating cells. We demonstrated that Mud, a microtubule binding protein regulating spindle orientation, was involved in this binucleation. We suggest that atypical functions exerted by three structurally different isoforms of Mud regulate

  12. [Assessment of Functioning when Conducting Occupational Capacity Evaluations--What is "Evidence-Based"?].

    Canela, Carlos; Schleifer, Roman; Dube, Anish; Hengartner, Michael P; Ebner, Gerhard; Seifritz, Erich; Liebrenz, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Occupational capacity evaluations have previously been subject to criticism for lacking in quality and consistency. To the authors' knowledge, there is no clear consensus on the best way to formally assess functioning within capacity evaluations. In this review we investigated different instruments that are used to assess functioning in occupational capacity evaluations. Systematic review of the literature. Though several instruments that assess functional capacity were found in our search, a specific validated instrument assessing occupational capacity as part of a larger psychiatric evaluation was not found. The limitations of the existing instruments on assessing functional capacity are discussed. Medical experts relying on instruments to conduct functional capacity evaluations should be cognizant of their limitations. The findings call for the development and use of an instrument specifically designed to assess the functional and occupational capacity of psychiatric patients, which is also likely to improve the quality of these reports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Dose–response analysis of parotid gland function: What is the best measure of xerostomia?

    Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Clark, Catharine H.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Zaidi, Shane H.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the dose–response relationships for the different measures of salivary gland recovery following radical radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers (LA-HNSCC). Methods and materials: Dosimetric analysis of data from the PARSPORT trial, a Phase III study of conventional RT (RT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for LA-HNSCC was undertaken to determine the relationship between parotid gland mean dose and toxicity endpoints: high-grade subjective and objective xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life scores. LKB-NTCP parameters (TD50, m and n) were generated and tolerance doses (D50) reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Data were available on 63 patients from the PARSPORT trial. Parotid saliva flow rate provided the strongest association between mean dose and recovery, D50 = 23.4 Gy (20.6–26.2) and k = 3.2 (1.9–4.5), R 2 = 0.85. Corresponding LKB parameters were TD50 = 26.3 Gy (95% CI: 24.0–30.1), m = 0.25 (0.18–1.0 and n = 1). LENTSOMA subjective xerostomia also demonstrated a strong association D50 = 33.3 Gy (26.7–39.8), k = 2.8 (91.4–4.4), R 2 = 0.77). Conclusion: We recommend using the LENT SOMA subjective xerostomia score to predict recovery of salivation due to its strong association with dosimetry and ease of recording

  14. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT.

    Miah, Aisha B; Gulliford, Sarah L; Bhide, Shreerang A; Zaidi, Shane H; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. The incidence of high grade (≥G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D₅₀) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100mg/m(2) was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ≥G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p=0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p=0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p=0.15). D₅₀ for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7-28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8-30.3) for c-IMRT. Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT

    Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Zaidi, Shane H.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. Materials and methods: The incidence of high grade (⩾G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D 50 ) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ⩾G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p = 0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p = 0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p = 0.15). D 50 for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7–28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8–30.3) for c-IMRT. Conclusion: Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone

  16. Pilot study using technetium-99m pertechnetate sequential radionuclide-sialography for assessing salivary gland function of nasopharyngeal cancer patients on radiation therapy

    Ng, K.S.; Sundram, F.; Somanesan, S.; Tan, H.S.K.; Gao, F.; Chung, B.; Machin, D.

    2003-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is mainly treated by radiation therapy. A common complication of radiotherapy is xerostomia. Direct measurements of the amount of saliva produced using suction cups and volumetric assessments are cumbersome and time consuming. Sequential radionuclide sialography is a reproducible and convenient method of measuring salivary function. Patients with newly diagnosed NPC underwent a pilot study using technetium-99m pertechnetate sequential radionuclide sialography to assess their salivary function before and at 3 months post radiation therapy. From the sialography, time-activity-curves were obtained for analysis of salivary function. The shape of the time-activity-curve with citric acid stimulation was classified into 4 types according to the degree of radiation-induced dysfunction. All 14 patients had worse time-activity curves for both parotids and submandibular glands after radiation therapy. The P values for the change in time-activity-curves for all the salivary glands were less than 0.005. All patients with abnormal type of curves before radiation therapy presented type IV(non-functioning) curve after radiation therapy. A ratio (Rc) of pre- and post-stimulation counts allowed for quantification of the degree of stimulatory response. We found a significant decrease in Rc before and after radiation therapy for all the salivary glands (P < 0.001). The salivary gland to background ratio, which is a reflection of the degree of salivary gland functional uptake, also had a significant reduction after radiation. It is feasible to use technetium 99m pertechnetate in the measurement of salivary gland function in nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated with radiation therapy

  17. Depression in Schizophrenia: Associations With Cognition, Functional Capacity, Everyday Functioning, and Self-Assessment.

    Harvey, Philip D; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Pinkham, Amy E; Depp, Colin A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-05-01

    Depressed mood has a complex relationship with self-evaluation of personal competence in multiple populations. The absence of depression may be associated with overestimation of abilities, while mild depression seems to lead to accurate self-assessment. Significant depression may lead to underestimation of functioning. In this study, we expand on our previous work by directly comparing the association between different levels of depression, everyday functioning, cognitive and functional capacity performance, and self-assessment of everyday functioning in a large (n = 406) sample of outpatients with schizophrenia. Participants with very low self-reported depression overestimated their everyday functioning compared with informant reports. Higher levels of depression were associated with more accurate self-assessment, but no subgroup of patients underestimated their functioning. Depressive symptom severity was associated with poorer informant-rated social functioning, but there were no differences in vocational functioning, everyday activities, cognitive performance, and functional capacity associated with the severity of self-reported depression. There was minimal evidence of impact of depression on most aspects of everyday functioning and objective test performance and a substantial relationship between depression and accuracy of self-assessment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    Vellinga, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  19. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  1. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function.

  2. Functional digital soil mapping for the prediction of available water capacity in Nigeria using legacy data

    Ugbaje, S.U.; Reuter, H.I.

    2013-01-01

    Soil information, particularly water storage capacity, is of utmost importance for assessing and managing land resources for sustainable land management. We investigated using digital soil mapping (DSM) and digital soil functional mapping (DSFM) procedures to predict available water capacity (AWC)

  3. Histone demethylase JMJD2B functions as a co-factor of estrogen receptor in breast cancer proliferation and mammary gland development.

    Masahito Kawazu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen is a key regulator of normal function of female reproductive system and plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that JMJD2B (also known as KDM4B constitutes a key component of the estrogen signaling pathway. JMJD2B is expressed in a high proportion of human breast tumors, and that expression levels significantly correlate with estrogen receptor (ER positivity. In addition, 17-beta-estradiol (E2 induces JMJD2B expression in an ERα dependent manner. JMJD2B interacts with ERα and components of the SWI/SNF-B chromatin remodeling complex. JMJD2B is recruited to ERα target sites, demethylates H3K9me3 and facilitates transcription of ER responsive genes including MYB, MYC and CCND1. As a consequence, knockdown of JMJD2B severely impairs estrogen-induced cell proliferation and the tumor formation capacity of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, Jmjd2b-deletion in mammary epithelial cells exhibits delayed mammary gland development in female mice. Taken together, these findings suggest an essential role for JMJD2B in the estrogen signaling, and identify JMJD2B as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  4. The mammary gland in small ruminants: major morphological and functional events underlying milk production – a review

    Lérias, Joana R; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Suárez-Trujillo, Aridany

    2014-01-01

    the modifications occurring in the mammary gland through the lactation period in production animals, particularly in the small ruminants, sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Nevertheless, understanding the different mammary gland patterns throughout lactation is essential to improve dairy production......, as well as a reduction of stroma, corresponding macroscopically to the increase in mammary gland volume. Throughout late lactation, the mammary gland volume decreases owing to the regression of the secretory structure. In general, common mammary gland patterns have been shown for both goats and sheep...... throughout the several lactation stages, although the number of studies is limited. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the colostrogenesis and lactogenesis processes as well as to highlight the mammary gland morphological patterns underlying milk production during the lactation cycle...

  5. The effect of low-dose ionizing radiation on structural functional state of thyroid gland. Communication 2

    Lukashova, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    Twelve rabbits were used to study the ultrastructure of thyroid cells after mercazolilum administration during 2.5 month (1 mg/kg of the body mass) to intact and exposed to total x-ray radiation at the total dose of 0.75 Gy animals. Prolonged administration of mercazolilum to intact rabbits causes the development of considerable morpho functional changes in the thyroid gland suggesting disturbances of thyroid secretion. 2-3 month after the preparation withdrawal thyroid 's ultrastructure restores almost completely. Mercazolilum administration to the irradiated rabbits prevents the development of structural disturbances in the thyroid epithelium characteristic for the action of separate factors. Thyroid ultrastructure in rabbits 2-3 month after the preparation withdrawal in similar to that observed at irradiation only. Normalization of thyroid ultrastructure at administration of mercazolilum to the irradiated animals suggest that inhibition of thyroid activity after the exposure to radiation is reversible and can be due to disturbances in thyroid homeostasis regulation

  6. Function of the anterior pituitary gland following surgical and radiotherapeutical management for pituitary adenoma

    Pakisch, B.; Poier, E.; Stuecklschweiger, G.; Hackl, A.; Obermayer-Pietsch, B.; Warnkross, H.; Leb, G.; Mokry, M.; Clarici, G.

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-five adult patients with adenoma of the pituitary gland (20/55 with hyperfunctional tumors, 21/55 with endocrine inactive tumors, and 14/55 with hormonal deficits at the time of diagnosis) were studied retrospectively in terms of their endocrine outcome after surgery and radiotherapy. Twenty-two percent of the patients developed new hormone deficiency after surgery and 33% after radiotherapy. After a median follow-up time of 4.6 years, 44/53 patients had a pituitary dysfunction and 35/44 a gonadotropin deficiency. There seems to be a correlation between the daily single dose given and the development of endocrine dysfunction, as 15/35 (43%) of those patients who received 2.0 Gy per day developed hormonal deficiencies, compared to 6/20 (30%) of those who received 1.8 Gy per day. The median time from radiotherapy to onset of endocrine abnormalities was 19.7 months. Normalization of the prolactin levels occurred in 55% of the cases, and that of hGH levels in 80%. An ongoing hormone replacement was necessary in 69% of the patients. (orig.) [de

  7. Redefining the expression and function of the inhibitor of differentiation 1 in mammary gland development.

    Radhika Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of poorly differentiated cells is a hallmark of breast neoplasia and progression. Thus an understanding of the factors controlling mammary differentiation is critical to a proper understanding of breast tumourigenesis. The Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1 protein has well documented roles in the control of mammary epithelial differentiation and proliferation in vitro and breast cancer progression in vivo. However, it has not been determined whether Id1 expression is sufficient for the inhibition of mammary epithelial differentiation or the promotion of neoplastic transformation in vivo. We now show that Id1 is not commonly expressed by the luminal mammary epithelia, as previously reported. Generation and analysis of a transgenic mouse model of Id1 overexpression in the mammary gland reveals that Id1 is insufficient for neoplastic progression in virgin animals or to prevent terminal differentiation of the luminal epithelia during pregnancy and lactation. Together, these data demonstrate that there is no luminal cell-autonomous role for Id1 in mammary epithelial cell fate determination, ductal morphogenesis and terminal differentiation.

  8. A new type of exocrine gland and its function in mass recruitment in the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi (Formicidae, Cerapachyinae)

    Gobin, Bruno; Rüppell, Olav; Hartmann, Annegret; Jungnickel, Harald; Morgan, David; Billen, Johan

    2001-08-01

    Workers of the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi display mass trail recruitment. Bioassays show that the trail pheromone originates from a unique gland between abdominal sternites 6 and 7. The gland has a hitherto unknown structural organization. Upon leaving the secretory cell, the duct cell widens to form a sclerotized pear-shaped reservoir chamber, lined with multiple duct cells. Each duct thus forms a miniature reservoir for the secretions of each single secretory cell, a novel structural arrangement in exocrine glands of social Hymenoptera.

  9. Size differences in the Dufour gland of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae between and within the female castes

    Fábio Camargo Abdalla

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dufour gland is found closely associated with the sting apparatus of all hymenopteran females, playing multiple roles among bees. In Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 the gland is connected to the dorsal vaginal wall and, in queens, it produces egg-marking pheromones. In workers the function of this gland is unknown, except by its capacity to mimic the queen secretion in egg-laying workers. In an attempt to understand the development and to substantiate the present knowledge about the Dufour gland in A. mellifera, a morphometric study of the gland between and within the female castes was made. Glands of workers and queens with different ages and life stages were dissected and measured with an ocular micrometer adapted to a stereoscope. The results showed that the Dufour gland is larger in queens than in workers, and that among workers, the gland is larger in egg-laying and foragers than it is in newly emerged and nurse workers. The larger size of the gland in egg-laying queens and workers is in accordance with its role in reproduction. In forager workers the larger size of the gland suggest that, as happens in some species of bees, the gland may participate in pheromone production for nest-mate or nest-entrance recognition.

  10. Rac1 Controls Both the Secretory Function of the Mammary Gland and Its Remodeling for Successive Gestations.

    Akhtar, Nasreen; Li, Weiping; Mironov, Aleksander; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-09-12

    An important feature of the mammary gland is its ability to undergo repeated morphological changes during each reproductive cycle with profound tissue expansion in pregnancy and regression in involution. However, the mechanisms that determine the tissue's cyclic regenerative capacity remain elusive. We have now discovered that Cre-Lox ablation of Rac1 in mammary epithelia causes gross enlargement of the epithelial tree and defective alveolar regeneration in a second pregnancy. Architectural defects arise because loss of Rac1 disrupts clearance in involution following the first lactation. We show that Rac1 is crucial for mammary alveolar epithelia to switch from secretion to a phagocytic mode and rapidly remove dying neighbors. Moreover, Rac1 restricts the extrusion of dying cells into the lumen, thus promoting their eradication by live phagocytic neighbors while within the epithelium. Without Rac1, residual milk and cell corpses flood the ductal network, causing gross dilation, chronic inflammation, and defective future regeneration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A single LipiFlow® Thermal Pulsation System treatment improves meibomian gland function and reduces dry eye symptoms for 9 months.

    Greiner, Jack V

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a single treatment with the LipiFlow(®) Thermal Pulsation System on signs of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye symptoms over a 9-month period. Patients (n = 42 eyes, 21 subjects) diagnosed with MGD and dry eye symptoms were recruited for a non-significant risk, prospective, open-label, 1-month clinical trial. Patients received a single 12-minute treatment using the LipiFlow(®) Thermal Pulsation System on each eye. The LipiFlow(®) device applies heat to the conjunctival surfaces of the upper and lower inner eyelids while simultaneously applying pulsatile pressure to the outer eyelid surfaces to express the meibomian glands. Patient symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Standard Patient Evaluation for Eye Dryness (SPEED) dry eye questionnaires; tear break-up time was measured with the dry eye test (DET™); and meibomian gland function was evaluated using a standardized diagnostic expression technique. Data are presented for patient's pre-treatment (baseline) and at 1-month and 9-month post-treatment. Meibomian gland secretion scores improved significantly from baseline (4.4 ± 4.0) to 1-month post-treatment (11.3 ± 6.2; p dry eye disease, the LipiFlow(®) Thermal Pulsation System offers a technological advancement for the treatment of dry eye disease secondary to meibomian gland dysfunction. A single 12-minute LipiFlow(®) treatment results in up to 9 months of sustained improvement of meibomian gland function, tear break-up time and dry eye symptoms that are unparalleled with current dry eye treatments.

  12. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented.

  13. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity.

    Teixeira, Carolina Guimarães; Duarte, Maria do Carmo M B; Prado, Cecília Maciel; Albuquerque, Emídio Cavalcanti de; Andrade, Lívia B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) (PedsQL(TM)), muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means), and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (plife when compared to the sedentary children (plife score (plife and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity

    Carolina Guimarães Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM, muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (p < 0.001; those who practiced physical activity had better quality of life when compared to the sedentary children (p < 0.001. From the children's and the parents' perspectives, the male gender had a higher quality of life score (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked at the 6MWT and age, height, final PedsQLTM, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, as well as a negative correlation between FEV1/FVC and the distance walked. CONCLUSION: A significant reduction in the quality of life and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style.

  15. Long-term (12-month) improvement in meibomian gland function and reduced dry eye symptoms with a single thermal pulsation treatment.

    Greiner, Jack V

    2013-08-01

    To determine the 1-year post-treatment dry eye status of subjects with meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye symptoms after receiving a single LipiFlow Thermal Pulsation System treatment. Single-centre, prospective, observational, open-label, 1-month-registered clinical trial with a 1-year follow-up examination. Patients with evaporative dry eye disease with meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye symptoms who had participated in the registered 1-month clinical trial. Eighteen of 30 subjects initially enrolled were able to return for a 1-year follow-up. Both eyes of all patients were treated with a single 12-min treatment using the LipiFlow Thermal Pulsation System. Meibomian gland function, tear break-up time and dry eye symptoms were measured. Data are presented for pretreatment (baseline), and 1-month and 1-year post-treatment. Meibomian gland secretion scores, and tear break-up time and dry eye symptoms. Significant improvement in meibomian gland secretion scores from baseline measurements (4.0 ± 3.4) to 1-month post-treatment (11.3 ± 4.7; P treatment (6.0 ± 4.4). The significant improvement in symptom scores on Ocular Surface Disease Index and Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness questionnaires observed at 1-month (P Eye Dryness [P treatment with the Lipi Flow Thermal Pulsation System offers an effective treatment for evaporative dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction resulting in significant and sustained improvement in signs and symptoms for up to 1 year. © 2012 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  16. Association between exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants and epididymal and accessory sex gland function: Multicentre study in Inuit and European populations

    Elzanaty, Saad; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers of epididy......Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers...... with the activity of NAG were found among Greenlandic men (mean difference 7.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI 3.0, 34), and in the aggregated cohort (mean difference 4.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI -0.2, 8.0). A positive association was observed between CB-153 and PSA as well as zinc among Kharkiv men. In the Swedish cohort...

  17. Investigations on the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on the function and structure of the thyroid gland of adult and perinatal rats

    Collins, W.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that PCB may cause alterations in thyroid structure and thyroxine metabolism. The administration of PCB to rats results in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, lowered serum thyroxine concentration, and increased conjugation and excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in the bile. These findings suggest that some of the metabolic alterations produced by intoxication with PCB may be related to alterations in thyroid structure and function. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were: (a) to evaluate the acute, subchronic and delayed effects of PCB on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adult Osborne-Mendel rats; (b) to compare the changes produced by PCB with those produced by iodide excess and deficiency, and thyrotropin and thyroxine administration; (c) to investigate the fine structural changes and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to PCB; and (d) to determine the alterations in the biliary excretion of 125 I-thyroxine and fine structural changes in thyroid glands of the glucuronyltransferase deficient homozygous Gunn rat exposed to PCB

  18. Laminin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Laminin in the gonadotrophic cells correlates with their functional state

    Holck, S; Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M

    1987-01-01

    The distribution pattern of laminin in the rat anterior pituitary gland under physiological and hormonally altered conditions was studied immunohistochemically. Intense immunoreactivity of the capillaries and of the basement membranes surrounding parenchymal cells was found. Five to 10......% of the parenchymal cells of normal adult rat pituitary gland exhibited also intense positive cytoplasmic staining. These were identified as gonadotrophic cells on the basis of their topographic distribution and typical 700-nm light bodies. By immunoelectron microscopy it was shown that the light bodies contain...... laminin and the number of light bodies reflects the hormonal activity of the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland....

  19. GESTATIONAL ATRAZINE EXPOSURE IN THE RAT: EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION IN MULTIPLE GENERATIONS

    The chlorotriazine herbicides currently represent the most heavily used of all agricultural pesticides, with atrazine being the most common of these chemicals. Rodent toxicology studies indicate that atrazine can disrupt endocrine function and among its effects is an increased in...

  20. A critical analysis of carbonic anhydrase function, respiratory gas exchange, and the acid-base control of secretion in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias.

    Shuttleworth, Trevor J; Thompson, Jill; Munger, R Stephen; Wood, Chris M

    2006-12-01

    elevated perfusate HCO(3)(-) concentrations. We conclude that pH effects on rectal gland secretion rate are adaptive, that CA functions to catalyze the hydration of CO(2), thereby maintaining a gradient for diffusive efflux of CO(2) from the working cells, and that differences in response to CA inhibition likely reflect the higher perfusion-to-secretion ratio in vitro than in vivo.

  1. The function of the thyroid gland in patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

    S. L. Matveyeva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB remains a health problem for many countries in the world. The share of MDRTB is 10–30% among newly diagnosed cases and 20–70% among relapses and treatment failure. The aim of the study is to define the side effects of second line drugs used in the treatment of MDRTB on thyroid function. Methods In 30 patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis, echostructure of thyroid was studied by ultrasound imaging method. Indices of thyroid function: plasma levels of free thyroxin, thyroid stimulating hormone were studied before chemotherapy initiated, at the end of intensive phase and after the treatment finished. Results Decreasing of thyroid function under antituberculosis chemotherapy was approved. Monitoring and correction of thyroid function during antituberculosis chemotherapy was suggested. Conclusion Patients with MDRTB taking ethionamide and PAS are at increased risk for hypothyroidism and goiter, and therefore require monitoring of thyroid function at all stages of antituberculosis chemotherapy for its timely correction.

  2. Study of serum TSH content in functioning thyroid gland adenoma by 'supersensitive' immunoradiometric assay

    Foeldes, Janos; Banos, Csaba; Csillag, Jozsef; Lakatos, Peter; Tarjan, Gabor; 2546970HU)

    1987-01-01

    Determinations of serum TSH levels by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)-math TSH (Mallinckrodt) kit and of the thyroid function by scintiscanning using 99m Tc-pertechnetate (20-40 MBq) were carried out paralelly in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients. A comparison of the two tests allowed a better distinction of preclinical hyperthyreosis from toxic adenomas. (L.E.)

  3. The Relationship between Left Atrial Mechanical Function and Functional Capacity in Mitral Stenosis

    Mücahit Yetim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, left atrial functions of patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and sinus rhythm, which was determined by transthorasic echocardiography, was compared with those of healhty subjects and the association of left atrial functions with functional capacity was investigated in subgroup analyses.   Material and methods: 32 patients with isolated rheumatic mitral stenosis (median age was 39.1±11  (group 1 and 20 patients in the control group ( median age was 37±8,2 (group 2 were enrolled to study. The average mitral valve area of patients was 1.1±0,3 cm2. When patients were divided according to New York Heart Association (NYHA classification ; 16 patients were NYHA 2 (Grup A and 16 patients were NYHA 3 (Grup B. There were not any asymptomatic patients and no patients were NYHA 4. Left atrium diameters, left atrium volume, left atrium fractional area change and left atrium ejection fractions  of patients in these groups were calculated.   Results: The demographic characteristics of patients is shown in table 1. Left atrium ejection fraction (LAEF and left atrium fractional area change (LAFAC that were determined echocardiographycally were significantly lower in patients with mitral stenosis (32 ± 5, 44 ± 3; p<0.001- 25 ± 11, 32 ± 6; p< 0.02.  When patients were divided according to New York Heart Association (NYHA classification ; 16 patients were NYHA 2 (Grup A and 16 patients were NYHA 3 (Grup B. There were not any asymptomatic patients and no patients were NYHA 4. The clinical and echocardiographic data of patients are shown in table 2. Despite of similar mitral valve area and average mitral gradient ,systolic pulmonary artery pressure was found to be higher in symptomatic group. But there was no difference between left atrial functions of the two groups.   Discussion: In this study we have shown that left atrial functions determined echocardiographically  can decline in patients with mitral stenosis but the

  4. Features of Mineral Metabolism and Parathyroid Glands Functioning in Chronic Renal Disease

    L.P. Martynyuk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The calcium phosphoric metabolism was analyzed depending on the severity of renal functioning disorders. Chronic renal disease is known to be associated with impaired mineral metabolism in terms of hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia and enhanced level of Ca × P product that aggravates in chronic renal failure progression. The majority of patients with nephropathy have parathyroid hormone concentration to be different from target one recommended by NKF-K/DOQI (2003, at that secondary hyperparathyroidism prevails on pre-dialysis stage of chronic renal disease, the relative hypoparathyroidism is common among the patients received dialysis.

  5. The influence of elevated iodine supply on the autonomously functioning thyroid gland

    Waters, W.; Kutzim, H.; Wellner, U.

    1984-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic two-compartment model of iodine metabolism has been established on the basis of data from the literature and our own experimental investigations. By this model it is possible to estimate the effect either of prolonged elevation of iodide supply or of a single administration of a high dose of inorganic iodide in the presence of autonomously functioning thyroid tissue. Prolonged elevation of iodide supply in regions of iodine deficiency will cause manifest hyperthyroidism in many cases of thyroidal autonomy (cases with facultative hyperthyroidism). The administration of a single high dose of iodide, as it is proposed for the situation of an accident in a nuclear power station (100 mg NaI) in order to reduce the radiation burden to the surrounding population, carries almost no risk in cases of thyroid autonomy. (orig.) [de

  6. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Simon D Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. METHODS: To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup" injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V. versus intra-glandular injections, and b comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. RESULTS: BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF. BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. CONCLUSION: BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  7. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Tran, Simon D; Liu, Younan; Xia, Dengsheng; Maria, Ola M; Khalili, Saeed; Wang, Renee Wan-Jou; Quan, Vu-Hung; Hu, Shen; Seuntjens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM) transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup") injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a) comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V.) versus intra-glandular injections, and b) comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF). BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  8. Longitudinal changes in functional capacity: effects of socio-economic position among ageing adults

    Sulander Tommi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health and functional capacity have improved especially in Western countries over the past few decades. Nevertheless, the positive secular trend has not been able to decrease an uneven distribution of health. The main aim of this study was to follow-up changes in functional capacity among the same people in six years time and to detect whether the possible changes vary according to socio-economic position (SEP. In addition, it is of interest whether health behaviours have an effect on these possible changes. Methods This longitudinal follow-up study consisted of 1,898 individuals from three birth cohorts (1926–1930, 1936–40, 1946–50 who took part in clinical check-ups and answered to a survey questionnaire in 2002 and 2008. A sub-scale of physical functioning from the RAND-36 was used to measure functional capacity. Education and adequacy of income were used as indicators of socio-economic position. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used as a main method of analysis. Results Physical functioning in 2002 and 2008 was poorest among those men and women belonging to the oldest cohort. Functional capacity deteriorated in six years among men in the oldest cohort and among women in all three cohorts. Socio-economic disparities in functional capacity among ageing people existed. Especially lower adequacy of income was most consistently associated with poorer functional capacity. However, changes in functional capacity by socio-economic position remained the same or even narrowed independent of health behaviours. Conclusion Socio-economic disparities in physical functioning are mainly incorporated in the level of functioning at the baseline. No widening socioeconomic disparities in functional capacity exist. Partly these disparities even seem to narrow with ageing.

  9. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    20

    available scarce water resources in dry land agriculture, but direct measurement thereof for multiple locations in the field is not always feasible. Therefore, pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed to estimate soil water retention at FC and PWP for dryland soils of India. A soil database available for Arid Western India ...

  10. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    20

    Soil water retention, Dry lands, Western India, Pedotransfer functions, Soil moisture calculator. 1. 2. 3. 4 ..... samples although it is known that structure and macro-porosity of the sample affect water retention (Unger ..... and OC content has positive influence on water retention whereas interaction of clay and OC has negative ...

  11. Functional effects of proinflammatory factors present in Sjögren's syndrome salivary microenvironment in an in vitro model of human salivary gland.

    Arce-Franco, Mayte; Dominguez-Luis, María; Pec, Martina K; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos; Miranda, Pablo; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Giraldez, Teresa; García-Verdugo, José María; Machado, José David; Díaz-González, Federico

    2017-09-19

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy in which the role that the immune response plays in reducing exocrine gland function, including the glandular microenvironment of cytokines, has not been fully understood. Epithelial cells from biopsies of human parotid gland (HPG) were used to establish a model of human salivary gland in vitro. In this model, the functional consequences of several proinflammatory soluble factors present in the pSS glandular microenvironment were assessed. Stimulation with isoproterenol and calcium produced a significant increase in the basal activity of amylase in the HPG cell supernatants. Under these conditions, the presence of TNF-α and CXCL12 increased amylase mRNA cellular abundance, but reduced the amylase activity in the cell-free supernatant in a dose-dependent manner. IL-1β and IFN-γ, but not TGF-β, also diminished amylase secretion by HPG cells. These results suggest that the glandular microenvironment of cytokine, by acting post-transcriptionally, may be responsible, at least in part, for the reduced exocrine function observed in pSS patients. These data may help to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SS, which in turn would facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets for this disorder.

  12. Correlation between the body balance and functional capacity from elderly with chronic vestibular disorders.

    Sousa, Raquel Ferreira de; Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Paulino, Célia Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular disorders are common among the elderly, mainly resulting in dizziness and imbalance--symptoms which can impact daily routine activities. To study the correlation between body balance and functional capacity and a comparison of risk of falls, actual falls and the functional capacity of the elderly with chronic vestibular dysfunctions. A cross-sectional, clinical and experimental study with 50 senior citizens--60 to 86 years, with chronic peripheral vestibular dysfunction. These participants underwent body balance assessment by the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and functional capacity assessment by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The data was tested using the Spearman correlation and comparison tests, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, being α=5% (0.05). There was a significant correlation between the total DGI score and all FIM scores, especially the total score (r=0.447; pfunctional capacity in elderly patients with the highest risk of falling (pfunctional capacity in elderly patients with peripheral vestibular disorders, that is: the better the balance, the better the individual's functional capacity. In addition, a worse functional capacity increases the individual's risk of falling.

  13. Financial and testamentary capacity evaluations: procedures and assessment instruments underneath a functional approach.

    Sousa, Liliana B; Simões, Mário R; Firmino, Horácio; Peisah, Carmelle

    2014-02-01

    Mental health professionals are frequently involved in mental capacity determinations. However, there is a lack of specific measures and well-defined procedures for these evaluations. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a review of financial and testamentary capacity evaluation procedures, including not only the traditional neuropsychological and functional assessment but also the more recently developed forensic assessment instruments (FAIs), which have been developed to provide a specialized answer to legal systems regarding civil competencies. Here the main guidelines, papers, and other references are reviewed in order to achieve a complete and comprehensive selection of instruments used in the assessment of financial and testamentary capacity. Although some specific measures for financial abilities have been developed recently, the same is not true for testamentary capacity. Here are presented several instruments or methodologies for assessing financial and testamentary capacity, including neuropsychological assessment, functional assessment scales, performance based functional assessment instruments, and specific FAIs. FAIs are the only specific instruments intended to provide a specific and direct answer to the assessment of financial capacity based on legal systems. Considering the need to move from a diagnostic to a functional approach in financial and testamentary capacity evaluations, it is essential to consider both general functional examination as well as cognitive functioning.

  14. Pain response of healthy workers following a functional capacity evaluation and implications for clinical interpretation

    Soer, Remko; Groothoff, Johan W; Geertzen, Jan H B; van der Schans, Cees; Reesink, David D; Reneman, Michiel F

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Functional Capacity Evaluations (FCEs) are used to quantify physical aspects of work capacity. Safety is a critical issue for clinical use of an FCE. Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) are known to report a temporary increase in pain following an FCE, but it is not known

  15. Prevalence, predictors, and prognostic implications of residual impairment of functional capacity after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    M. Abdelghani (Mohammad); R. Cavalcante (Rafael); Y. Miyazaki (Yosuke); R.J. de Winter (Robbert); R. Sarmento-Leite (Rogerio); J.A. Mangione (José A.); A.C. Abizaid (Alexandre); P.A. Lemos Neto (Pedro); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); F.S. De Brito Jr. (Fabio)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: Patients with degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) typically have advanced cardiac and vascular adverse remodeling and multiple comorbidities and, therefore, might not recover a normal functional capacity after

  16. Prevalence, predictors, and prognostic implications of residual impairment of functional capacity after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    Abdelghani, Mohammad; Cavalcante, Rafael; Miyazaki, Yosuke; de Winter, Robbert J.; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério; Mangione, José A.; Abizaid, Alexandre; Lemos, Pedro A.; Serruys, Patrick W.; de Brito, Fabio S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) typically have advanced cardiac and vascular adverse remodeling and multiple comorbidities and, therefore, might not recover a normal functional capacity after valve replacement. We

  17. Effect of ventricular function and volumes on exercise capacity in adults with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

    Natalia Dłużniewska

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Exercise intolerance in adults with repaired ToF is markedly depressed. The decreased exercise capacity is correlated with impaired RV function and may be associated also with LV dysfunction, which suggests right-to-left ventricular interaction.

  18. Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Heart Rate and Functional Capacity in Patients After Myocardial Infarction

    Mandana Parvand

    2016-09-01

    Discussion: Cardiac rehabilitation can increase the performance of blood circulation and uptake of oxygen in body. Due to these changes, there was a significant increase in the functional capacity and an insignificant reduction in the heart rate.

  19. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  20. Towards consensus in operational definitions in functional capacity evaluation: A Delphi survey

    Soer, R.; Van Der Schans, C.; Groothoff, J.; Geertzen, J.; Reneman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The problem of inconsistent terminology in Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) has been widely addressed in the international literature. Many different terms seem to be used interchangeably while other terms appear to be interpreted differently. Objective: To gain consensus in

  1. Assessment of the effects of aging and medication on salivary gland function in patients with xerostomia using 99mTc-scintigraphy

    Kagami, Hideaki; Hayashi, Tsunetoshi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    To examine the effect of aging and medication on xerostomia, the salivary gland function was evaluated in 20 patients with xerostomia using 99m Tc-scintigraphy and the measurement of unstimulated whole saliva (USWS). All of the patients showed USWS volume of less than 2ml/10min. The patients were divided into 2 subgroups based on age (under 65 and 65 and older) and medication status (patients who were on medication which reduced salivary secretion and patients who were not on such medication). The scintigraphic results, such as the maximum radioisotope (RI) count, RI secretion velocity and the volume of USWS, were compared between the subgroups. The maximum RI count and the RI secretory velocity in the submandibular gland and the volume of USWS revealed significantly different functional disturbances between relatively younger patients (under 65) and older patients (65 and older). There was no difference when the scintigraphic results and the volume of USWS measurements in medicated patients were compared with the results of similar tests performed on non-medicated patients. When the medicated and non-medicated groups were separated by age, an increase in age still diminished the volume of USWS in medicated patients. This result might be related to an organic change in the submandibular gland in older patients which was suggested by the scintigraphic results. (author)

  2. Assessment of the effects of aging and medication on salivary gland function in patients with xerostomia using {sup 99m}Tc-scintigraphy

    Kagami, Hideaki; Hayashi, Tsunetoshi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    To examine the effect of aging and medication on xerostomia, the salivary gland function was evaluated in 20 patients with xerostomia using {sup 99m}Tc-scintigraphy and the measurement of unstimulated whole saliva (USWS). All of the patients showed USWS volume of less than 2ml/10min. The patients were divided into 2 subgroups based on age (under 65 and 65 and older) and medication status (patients who were on medication which reduced salivary secretion and patients who were not on such medication). The scintigraphic results, such as the maximum radioisotope (RI) count, RI secretion velocity and the volume of USWS, were compared between the subgroups. The maximum RI count and the RI secretory velocity in the submandibular gland and the volume of USWS revealed significantly different functional disturbances between relatively younger patients (under 65) and older patients (65 and older). There was no difference when the scintigraphic results and the volume of USWS measurements in medicated patients were compared with the results of similar tests performed on non-medicated patients. When the medicated and non-medicated groups were separated by age, an increase in age still diminished the volume of USWS in medicated patients. This result might be related to an organic change in the submandibular gland in older patients which was suggested by the scintigraphic results. (author)

  3. Restoration of CFTR Activity in Ducts Rescues Acinar Cell Function and Reduces Inflammation in Pancreatic and Salivary Glands of Mice.

    Zeng, Mei; Szymczak, Mitchell; Ahuja, Malini; Zheng, Changyu; Yin, Hongen; Swaim, William; Chiorini, John A; Bridges, Robert J; Muallem, Shmuel

    2017-10-01

    Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. Nonobese diabetic/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of autoimmune pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ductal Cl -  channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO 3 - secretion. We used these models to ask the following questions: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function? We treated the mice models with the CFTR corrector C18 and the potentiator VX770. Glandular, ductal, and acinar cells damage, infiltration, immune cells and function were measured in vivo and in isolated duct/acini. In the disease models, CFTR expression is markedly reduced. The salivary glands and pancreas are inflamed with increased fibrosis and tissue damage. Treatment with VX770 and, in particular, C18 restored salivation, rescued CFTR expression and localization, and nearly eliminated the inflammation and tissue damage. Transgenic overexpression of CFTR exclusively in the duct had similar effects. Most notably, the markedly reduced acinar cell Ca 2+ signaling, Orai1, inositol triphosphate receptors, Aquaporin 5 expression, and fluid secretion were restored by rescuing ductal CFTR. Our findings reveal that correcting ductal function is sufficient to rescue acinar cell function and suggests that CFTR correctors are strong candidates for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome and pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma alter tight junction structure and function in the rat parotid gland Par-C10 cell line.

    Baker, Olga J; Camden, Jean M; Redman, Robert S; Jones, Jonathan E; Seye, Cheikh I; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2008-11-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and dysfunction of salivary glands, resulting in impaired secretory function. The production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is elevated in exocrine glands of patients with SS, although little is known about the effects of these cytokines on salivary epithelial cell functions necessary for saliva secretion, including tight junction (TJ) integrity and the establishment of transepithelial ion gradients. The present study demonstrates that chronic exposure of polarized rat parotid gland (Par-C10) epithelial cell monolayers to TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma decreases transepithelial resistance (TER) and anion secretion, as measured by changes in short-circuit current (I(sc)) induced by carbachol, a muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist, or UTP, a P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor agonist. In contrast, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma had no effect on agonist-induced increases in the intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)](i) in Par-C10 cells. Furthermore, treatment of Par-C10 cell monolayers with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma increased paracellular permeability to normally impermeant proteins, altered cell and TJ morphology, and downregulated the expression of the TJ protein, claudin-1, but not other TJ proteins expressed in Par-C10 cells. The decreases in TER, agonist-induced transepithelial anion secretion, and claudin-1 expression caused by TNF-alpha, but not IFN-gamma, were reversible by incubation of Par-C10 cell monolayers with cytokine-free medium for 24 h, indicating that IFN-gamma causes irreversible inhibition of cellular activities associated with fluid secretion in salivary glands. Our results suggest that cytokine production is an important contributor to secretory dysfunction in SS by disrupting TJ integrity of salivary epithelium.

  5. Association of nutritional status and functional capacity in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

    Pérez-Cruz, Elizabeth; Camacho-Limas, Christian Patricio

    To determine the nutritional status and its association with functional capacity in patients with digestive tract cancer. We retrospectively studied all adult patients hospitalized who were diagnosed as having a cancer of the digestive tract. Nutritional status and functional capacity were assessed. Descriptive statistic and odds ratio were used to determine the association in SPSS 14.0. 57 patients were included, 96% had weight loss. Using subjective global assessment (SGA) as a method of screening, 82.5% of the patients were found malnutrition and by biochemical and immunological test 82% and 65% respectively. Functional capacity was assessed by Karnofsky index, finding that 75.5% of the patients have some activity limitation. Results show an association between malnutrition by SGA and limitation in functional capacity (c2 = 1.56; p = 0.212; OR: 2.46; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.581-10.465). In addition, we observe an association between the total lymphocyte count and limitation in functional capacity (χ2 = 6.94; p = 0.008; OR: 5.23; 95% CI: 1.441-19.025). Malnutrition in patients with digestive tract cancer was associated with limitation in functional capacity. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  6. Functional heterogeneity among cell types in the normal pituitary gland and in human and rat pituitary tumors.

    L.J. Hofland (Leo)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractHormone secretion by the anterior pituitary gland is under control of hypothalamic regulatory factorsjhormones (see chapter I.l) and peripheral hormones. Apart from the direct effects of these hormones on anterior pituitary hormone secretion several fine- regulatory mechanisms

  7. Role of inward rectifier potassium channels in salivary gland function and sugar feeding of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    The arthropod salivary gland is of critical importance for horizontal transmission of pathogens, yet a detailed understanding of the ion conductance pathways responsible for saliva production and excretion is lacking. A superfamily of potassium ion channels, known as inward rectifying potassium (Ki...

  8. Morphological and functional diversity of minor ampullate glands in spiders from the superfamily Amaurobioidea (Entelegynae: RTA clade)

    Řezáč, M.; Krejčí, T.; Goodacre, S.L.; Haddad, C. R.; Řezáčová, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2017), s. 198-208 ISSN 0161-8202 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cribellate capturing threads * major ampullate * silk glands Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 0.988, year: 2016

  9. Morphology, chemistry and function of the postpharyngeal gland in the South American digger wasps Trachypus boharti and Trachypus elongatus.

    Gudrun Herzner

    Full Text Available Microbes pose severe threats to animals as competitors or pathogens and strongly affect the evolution of life history traits like parental care. Females of the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum, a solitary digger wasp, provision their offspring with paralyzed honeybees and embalm them with the secretion from large postpharyngeal glands (PPG that contain mainly unsaturated hydrocarbons. This coating changes the physico-chemical properties of the prey surface, causes a reduction of water condensation and retards growth of mold fungi. Here we examined the closely related South American genus Trachypus, which shows a life-history similar to Philanthus. We investigated whether Trachypus spp. also possess PPGs and embalm larval provisions. Using histological methods and 3D reconstructions we show that Trachypus boharti and T. elongatus possess PPGs that are similar to P. triangulum but somewhat smaller. The ultrastructure of the gland epithelium suggests that the gland content is at least partly sequestered from the hemolymph. Chemical analyses using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry revealed that both the cuticle and PPGs of Trachypus contain mainly unsaturated long-chain hydrocarbons. The gland of T. boharti additionally contains long-chain ketones. The hydrocarbons from the PPG of T. elongatus occurred on prey bees excavated from nests in the field but not on conspecific control bees. While the embalming only slightly elevated the amount of hydrocarbons on prey bees, the proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons, which is crucial for the antifungal effect, was significantly increased. The Trachypus species under study possess PPGs that are very similar to the PPG of P. triangulum with regard to morphology, ultrastructure and chemistry. Moreover, we provide clear evidence that T. elongatus females embalm their prey, presumably as a means of prey preservation. The observed differences among Trachypus and Philanthus in gland size and prey

  10. Functional capacity evaluation of work performance among individuals with pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents.

    Ratzon, Navah Z; Ari Shevil, Eynat Ben; Froom, Paul; Friedman, Sharon; Amit, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) cause disability and affect work capabilities. This study evaluated functional, self-report, and medical-based factors that could predict work capacity as was reflected in a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) among persons who sustained a pelvic injury. It was hypothesized that self-reported functional status and bio-demographic variables would predict work capacity. Sixty-one community-dwelling adults previously hospitalized following a MVA induced pelvic injury. FCE for work performance was conducted using the Physical Work Performance Evaluation (PWPE). Additional data was collected through a demographics questionnaire and the Functional Status Questionnaire. All participants underwent an orthopedic medical examination of the hip and lower extremities. Most participants self-reported that their work capacity post-injury were lower than their job required. PWPE scores indicated below-range functional performance. Regression models predicted 23% to 51% of PWPE subtests. Participants' self-report of functioning (instrumental activities of daily living and work) and bio-demographic variables (gender and age) were better predictors of PWPE scores than factors originating from the medical examination. Results support the inclusion of FCE, in addition to self-report of functioning and medical examination, to evaluate work capacity among individuals' post-pelvic injury and interventions and discharge planning.

  11. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  12. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  13. Prognosis and submandibular gland function. Bell's palsy evaluated by submandibular scan with /sup 99m/Tc, 2

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Hanaoka, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1984-10-01

    Submandibular gland function was tested with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate scan 10 days and 3-4 weeks after the onset Bell's palsy, and the results and prognoses were correlated. In the first report the cases were divided into groups A, B and C, and this time group D classified in S.S.R. was poor. Groups A and D can be differentiated by submandibular gland scan within 10 days after the onset; that is to say, the prognosis of more than half the cases can be determined in this early phase. Especially, it is noticeable that group D showing the poor prognosis is differentiated within 10 days after the onset. This method was compared with other tests of facial palsy. Four to five weeks after the onset all tests were of equal accuracy in predicting the prognosis of each group. Within 10 days after the onset, however, submandibular gland scan seems to be more useful than the other tests.

  14. Morphology and diversity of exocrine glands in lepidopteran larvae.

    Vegliante, Francesca; Hasenfuss, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of 21 exocrine glands and 13 supposedly exocrine structures recorded for lepidopteran larvae is reviewed. The epitracheal glands, for which a double role (exocrine and endocrine) has been demonstrated, are examined as well. Function is well known for at least 8 glands but completely unknown for 6 glands, for 10 putative glandular structures, and for the exocrine component of the epitracheal glands. Functional studies on the remaining structures are insufficient; in some cases (mandibular gland and adenosma) homologous glands may play a different role depending on the species, and only a few taxa have been examined. The secretions of 13 glandular types have been analyzed chemically. The histology of 11 glands is known at the ultrastructural level, whereas that of 6 glands and 7 putative glandular structures is completely unknown. Comparative anatomical studies of the osmeterium, adenosma, and Verson's glands may yield useful information for phylogenetic reconstructions. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David Richard; Higginbotham, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned...... their ancestors’ prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent.We showthat particularly the smallestworkers...... derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste...

  16. Effects of Detraining on Anthropometry, Aerobic Capacity and Functional Ability in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Boer, P. H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Structured exercise has shown to improve parameters of functional fitness in adults with Down syndrome (DS). However, few, if any, continue to exercise after exercise intervention studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of detraining on anthropometry, aerobic capacity and functional ability of…

  17. Aerobic capacity explains physical functioning and participation in patients with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue

    Emma Rosalie Driehuis; Lizanne Eva van den Akker; Vincent de Groot; Heleen Beckerman

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether aerobic capacity explains the level of self-reported physical activity, physical functioning, and participation and autonomy in daily living in persons with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Design: A cross-sectional study. Patients: Sixty-two participants with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Methods: Aerobic capacity was measured with a leg ergometer and was expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, in ...

  18. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastri...

  19. Growth, functional capacities and motivation for achievement and competitiveness in youth basketball: an interdisciplinary approach.

    Carvalho, Humberto Moreira; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Collins, Dave; Paes, Roberto R

    2018-04-01

    The interaction of multiple influences on the path to sport success is not yet fully understood by sport scientists. In this study, we examined variation in body size, functional capacities and motivation for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice of youth basketball players associated with differences in biological maturity status, chronological age and years of training experience. Reflecting the importance of interactive effects, we examined the relationships between the psychological variables and functional capacities. Fifty-eight male basketball players aged 9.5 to 15.5 years were considered. Variables included chronological age, estimated age at peak height velocity, stature, body mass and sitting height by anthropometry; the Work and Family Orientation and Deliberate Practice Motivation Questionnaires were also used. Finally, the Line Drill test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) tests were used as functional capacities indicators for basketball. Variance components models derived from series of multilevel linear regression models revealed a substantial variation by maturity status for body size, functional capacities indicators, mastery and will to excel. The influence of estimated maturity status on mastery and will to excel was independent of age and years of experience. In contrast, no relationships were observed between psychological variables and functional capacities indicators. We conclude that growth-related changes are relevant to understanding players´ motivations for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice. This should be of interest to those involved in the selection and development of youth basketball players.

  20. Functional connectivity among multi-channel EEGs when working memory load reaches the capacity.

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Huipo; Bai, Wenwen; Tian, Xin

    2016-01-15

    Evidence from behavioral studies has suggested a capacity existed in working memory. As the concept of functional connectivity has been introduced into neuroscience research in the recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the functional connectivity in the brain when working memory load reaches the capacity. 32-channel electroencephalographs (EEGs) were recorded for 16 healthy subjects, while they performed a visual working memory task with load 1-6. Individual working memory capacity was calculated according to behavioral results. Short-time Fourier transform was used to determine the principal frequency band (theta band) related to working memory. The functional connectivity among EEGs was measured by the directed transform function (DTF) via spectral Granger causal analysis. The capacity was 4 calculated from the behavioral results. The power was focused in the frontal midline region. The strongest connectivity strengths of EEG theta components from load 1 to 6 distributed in the frontal midline region. The curve of DTF values vs load numbers showed that DTF increased from load 1 to 4, peaked at load 4, then decreased after load 4. This study finds that the functional connectivity between EEGs, described quantitatively by DTF, became less strong when working memory load exceeded the capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    ... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands, located on the top of ... as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not ...

  2. Functional imaging of submandibular glands: diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation; Diffusionsgewichtete MRT zur Funktionsdiagnostik der Glandula submandibularis

    Arndt, C.; Cramer, M.C.; Weiss, F.; Kaul, M.G.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.R. [Zentrum fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Intervention, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Graessner, J. [Siemens Medical Solutions (Germany); Petersen, K. [Zentrum fuer Psychosoziale Medizin, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [Kopf und Hautzentrum, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DWI) echo-planar imaging (EPI) to depict the submandibular glands and to measure different functional conditions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were examined. Diffusion weighted sequence was performed prior to stimulation. Exactly 30 seconds after a commercially available lemon juice was given orally, the diffusion weighted sequence was repeated. All examinations were performed by using a 1.5-T superconducting system with a 30 mT/m maximum gradient capability and maximum slew rate of 125 mT/m/sec (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The lower part of the circularly polarized (CP) head coil and a standard two-element CP neck array coil were used. The flexibility of the neck array coil allowed positioning the N1 element (upper part of the coil) right next to the submandibular gland. The axial diffusion-weighted EPI (echo planar imaging) sequence was performed using a matrix of 119 x 128, a field of view of 250 x 250 mm (pixel size 2.1 x 1.95 mm), a section thickness of 5 mm with an interslice gap of 1 mm. The b factors used were 0 sec/mm{sup 2}, 500 sec/mm{sup 2} and 1000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain). After detecting the submandibular glands a region of interest (ROI) was placed manually exactly within the boarder of both submandibular glands, excluding the external carotid artery on ADC maps. These procedures were performed on all ADC slices the submandibular glands could be differentiated in before and after oral stimulation. For statistical comparison of results, a student's t-test was performed with an overall two-tailed significance level of p=0.05. Results: The visualization of the submandibular glands using the diffusion-weighted EPI sequence was possible in all of the 27 volunteers. Prior to oral stimulation an ADC of 1.31 x 10{sup -3

  3. Autocrine-paracrine regulation of the mammary gland.

    Weaver, S R; Hernandez, L L

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland has a remarkable capacity for regulation at a local level, particularly with respect to its main function: milk secretion. Regulation of milk synthesis has significant effects on animal and human health, at the level of both the mother and the neonate. Control by the mammary gland of its essential function, milk synthesis, is an evolutionary necessity and is therefore tightly regulated at a local level. For at least the last 60 yr, researchers have been interested in elucidating the mechanisms underpinning the mammary gland's ability to self-regulate, largely without the influence from systemic hormones or signals. By the 1960s, scientists realized the importance of milk removal in the capacity of the gland to produce milk and that the dynamics of this removal, including emptying of the alveolar spaces and frequency of milking, were controlled locally as opposed to traditional systemic hormonal regulation. Using both in vitro systems and various mammalian species, including goats, marsupials, humans, and dairy cows, it has been demonstrated that the mammary gland is largely self-regulating in its capacity to support the young, which is the evolutionary basis for milk production. Local control occurs at the level of the mammary epithelial cell through pressure and stretching negative-feedback mechanisms, and also in an autocrine fashion through bioactive factors within the milk which act as inhibitors, regulating milk secretion within the alveoli themselves. It is only within the last 20 to 30 yr that potential candidates for these bioactive factors have been examined at a molecular level. Several, including parathyroid hormone-related protein, growth factors (transforming growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factor), and serotonin, are synthesized within and act upon the gland and possess dynamic receptor activity resulting in diverse effects on growth, calcium homeostasis, and milk composition. This review will focus on the

  4. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...... and was afterward encouraged to continue training. After the trial, the control group completed the PRT intervention. Both groups were tested before and after 12 weeks of the trial and at 24 weeks (follow-up), where isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors (KE MVC) and functional capacity (FS; combined score...

  5. Cytokeratin expression in mouse lacrimal gland germ epithelium.

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Liu, Ying; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The lacrimal gland secretes tear fluids that protect the ocular surface epithelium, and its dysfunction leads to dry eye disease (DED). The functional restoration of the lacrimal gland by engraftment of a bioengineered lacrimal gland using lacrimal gland germ epithelial cells has been proposed to cure DED in mice. Here, we investigate the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium to clarify their unique characteristics. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to clarify the expression profile of cytokeratin in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. The mRNA expression of keratin (KRT) 5, KRT8, KRT14, KRT15, and KRT18 in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was increased compared with that in mouse embryonic stem cells and the lacrimal gland germ mesenchyme, as analyzed by Q-PCR. The expression level of KRT15 increased in the transition from stem cells to lacrimal gland germ epithelium, then decreased as the lacrimal gland matured. IHC revealed that the expression set of these cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was different from that in the adult lacrimal gland. The expression of KRT15 was observed in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium, and it segmentalized into some of the basal cells in the intercanulated duct in mature gland. We determined the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland epithelium, and identified KRT15 as a candidate unique cellular marker for the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway provokes an aging-associated decline of submandibular gland function

    Yamakoshi, Kimi; Katano, Satoshi; Iida, Mayu; Kimura, Hiromi; Okuma, Atsushi; Ikemoto-Uezumi, Madoka; Ohtani, Naoko; Hara, Eiji; Maruyama, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Bmi-1 prevents stem cell aging, at least partly, by blocking expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16Ink4a. Therefore, dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway is considered key to the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of associated degenerative diseases during aging. However, because Bmi-1 knockout (KO) mice die within 20 weeks after birth, it is difficult to determine exactly where and when dysregulation of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway occurs during aging in vivo. Using real-time in vivo imaging of p16Ink4a expression in Bmi-1-KO mice, we uncovered a novel function of the Bmi-1/p16Ink4a pathway in controlling homeostasis of the submandibular glands (SMGs), which secrete saliva into the oral cavity. This pathway is dysregulated during aging in vivo, leading to induction of p16Ink4a expression and subsequent declined SMG function. These findings will advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the aging-related decline of SMG function and associated salivary gland hypofunction, which is particularly problematic among the elderly. PMID:25832744

  7. Entanglement-assisted zero-error capacity is upper-bounded by the Lovasz θ function

    Beigi, Salman

    2010-01-01

    The zero-error capacity of a classical channel is expressed in terms of the independence number of some graph and its tensor powers. This quantity is hard to compute even for small graphs such as the cycle of length seven, so upper bounds such as the Lovasz theta function play an important role in zero-error communication. In this paper, we show that the Lovasz theta function is an upper bound on the zero-error capacity even in the presence of entanglement between the sender and receiver.

  8. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  9. Semantic and functional relationships among objects increase the capacity of visual working memory.

    O'Donnell, Ryan E; Clement, Andrew; Brockmole, James R

    2018-04-12

    Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity of approximately 3-4 visual objects. Current theories of VWM propose that a limited pool of resources can be flexibly allocated to objects, allowing them to be represented at varying levels of precision. Factors that influence the allocation of these resources, such as the complexity and perceptual grouping of objects, can thus affect the capacity of VWM. We sought to identify whether semantic and functional relationships between objects could influence the grouping of objects, thereby increasing the functional capacity of VWM. Observers viewed arrays of 8 to-be-remembered objects arranged into 4 pairs. We manipulated both the semantic association and functional interaction between the objects, then probed participants' memory for the arrays. When objects were semantically related, participants' memory for the arrays improved. Participants' memory further improved when semantically related objects were positioned to interact with each other. However, when we increased the spacing between the objects in each pair, the benefits of functional but not semantic relatedness were eliminated. These findings suggest that action-relevant properties of objects can increase the functional capacity of VWM, but only when objects are positioned to directly interact with each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Functional properties of myoglobins from five whale species with different diving capacities.

    Helbo, Signe; Fago, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Whales show an exceptionally wide range of diving capabilities and many express high amounts of the O(2) carrier protein myoglobin (Mb) in their muscle tissues, which increases their aerobic diving capacity. Although previous studies have mainly focused on the muscle Mb concentration and O(2) carrying capacity as markers of diving behavior in whales, it still remains unexplored whether whale Mbs differ in their O(2) affinities and nitrite reductase and peroxidase enzymatic activities, all functions that could contribute to differences in diving capacities. In this study, we have measured the functional properties of purified Mbs from five toothed whales and two baleen whales and have examined their correlation with average dive duration. Results showed that some variation in functional properties exists among whale Mbs, with toothed whale Mbs having higher O(2) affinities and nitrite reductase activities (similar to those of horse Mb) compared with baleen whale Mbs. However, these differences did not correlate with average dive duration. Instead, a significant correlation was found between whale Mb concentration and average duration and depth of dives, and between O(2) affinity and nitrite reductase activity when including horse Mb. Despite the fact that the functional properties showed little species-specific differences in vitro, they may still contribute to enhancing diving capacity as a result of the increased muscle Mb concentration found in extreme divers. In conclusion, Mb concentration rather than specific functional reactivities may support whale diving performance.

  11. Mammary-specific inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 impairs functional gland development and leads to pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma in mice

    Patrick W. B. Derksen

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of the Western world. Even though a large percentage of breast cancer patients show pathological complete remission after standard treatment regimes, approximately 30–40% are non-responsive and ultimately develop metastatic disease. To generate a good preclinical model of invasive breast cancer, we have taken a tissue-specific approach to somatically inactivate p53 and E-cadherin, the cardinal cell-cell adhesion receptor that is strongly associated with tumor invasiveness. In breast cancer, E-cadherin is found mutated or otherwise functionally silenced in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC, which accounts for 10–15% of all breast cancers. We show that mammary-specific stochastic inactivation of conditional E-cadherin and p53 results in impaired mammary gland function during pregnancy through the induction of anoikis resistance of mammary epithelium, resulting in loss of epithelial organization and a dysfunctional mammary gland. Moreover, combined inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 induced lactation-independent development of invasive and metastatic mammary carcinomas, which showed strong resemblance to human pleomorphic ILC. Dissemination patterns of mouse ILC mimic the human malignancy, showing metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lung, lymph nodes and bone. Our results confirm that loss of E-cadherin contributes to both mammary tumor initiation and metastasis, and establish a preclinical mouse model of human ILC that can be used for the development of novel intervention strategies to treat invasive breast cancer.

  12. 3D bioprinting matrices with controlled pore structure and release function guide in vitro self-organization of sweat gland.

    Liu, Nanbo; Huang, Sha; Yao, Bin; Xie, Jiangfan; Wu, Xu; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-03

    3D bioprinting matrices are novel platforms for tissue regeneration. Tissue self-organization is a critical process during regeneration that implies the features of organogenesis. However, it is not clear from the current evidences whether 3D printed construct plays a role in guiding tissue self-organization in vitro. Based on our previous study, we bioprinted a 3D matrix as the restrictive niche for direct sweat gland differentiation of epidermal progenitors by different pore structure (300-μm or 400-μm nozzle diameters printed) and reported a long-term gradual transition of differentiated cells into glandular morphogenesis occurs within the 3D construct in vitro. At the initial 14-day culture, an accelerated cell differentiation was achieved with inductive cues released along with gelatin reduction. After protein release completed, the 3D construct guide the self-organized formation of sweat gland tissues, which is similar to that of the natural developmental process. However, glandular morphogenesis was only observed in 300-μm-printed constructs. In the absence of 3D architectural support, glandular morphogenesis was not occurred. This striking finding made us to identify a previously unknown role of the 3D-printed structure in glandular tissue regeneration, and this self-organizing strategy can be applied to forming other tissues in vitro.

  13. Endurance Capacity Is Not Correlated with Endothelial Function in Male University Students

    Wu, Fang; Su, Chen; Fan, Zhen-guo; Zhu, Zhu; Tao, Jun; Huang, Yi-jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Endurance capacity, assessed by 1000-meter (1000 m) run of male university students, is an indicator of cardiovascular fitness in Chinese students physical fitness surveillance. Although cardiovascular fitness is related to endothelial function closely in patients with cardiovascular diseases, it remains unclear whether endurance capacity correlates with endothelial function, especially with circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs), a new sensitive marker of endothelial dysfunction in young students. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between endurance capacity and endothelial function in male university students. Methods Forty-seven healthy male university students (mean age, 20.1±0.6 years; mean height, 172.4±6.3 cm; and mean weight, 60.0±8.2 kg) were recruited in this study. The measurement procedure of 1000 m run time was followed to Chinese national students Constitutional Health Criterion. Endothelium function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery measured by ultrasonic imaging, and the level of circulating EMPs was measured by flow cytometry. Cardiovascular fitness indicator - maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) - was also measured on a cycle ergometer using a portable gas analyzer. Results 1000 m run time was correlated with VO2max (r = −0.399, p0.05). Conclusion The correlations between endurance capacity or cardiovascular fitness and endothelial function were not found in healthy Chinese male university students. These results suggest that endurance capacity may not reflect endothelial function in healthy young adults with well preserved FMD and low level of circulating CD31+/CD42-EMPs. PMID:25101975

  14. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  15. Cognitive Functioning in Toddlerhood: The Role of Gestational Age, Attention Capacities, and Maternal Stimulation

    de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hooge, Ignace T. C.; Maingay-Visser, Arnoldina P. G. F.; Spanjerberg, Louise; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2018-01-01

    Why do many preterm children show delays in development? An integrated model of biological risk, children's capacities, and maternal stimulation was investigated in relation to cognitive functioning at toddler age. Participants were 200 Dutch children (gestational age = 32-41 weeks); 51% boys, 96% Dutch nationality, 71.5% highly educated mothers.…

  16. Low-temperature heat capacity and thermodynamic functions of vitamin B{sub 12}

    Knyazev, A.V., E-mail: knyazevav@gmail.com; Smirnova, N.N.; Plesovskikh, A.S.; Shushunov, A.N.; Knyazeva, S.S.

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B{sub 12} has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B{sub 12} have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. • The character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. • The thermal stability of cyanocobalamin was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B{sub 12} (cyanocobalamin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 343 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B{sub 12}, namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. The thermal stability of cyanocobalamin was also studied by differential scanning calorimetry.

  17. 20 CFR 220.126 - Relationship of ability to do work and residual functional capacity.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship of ability to do work and... Relationship of ability to do work and residual functional capacity. (a) If the claimant can do his or her previous work (his or her usual work or other applicable past work), the Board will determine he or she is...

  18. Functional Capacity Evaluation in Upper Limb Reduction Deficiency and Amputation : Development and Pilot Testing

    Postema, S G; Bongers, R M; Reneman, M F; van der Sluis, C K

    Purpose To develop and pilot test a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) for individuals with upper limb absence (ULA) due to reduction deficiency or amputation, and to examine the relationship between FCE results and presence of musculoskeletal complaints (MSC). Method Five tests (overhead lifting,

  19. Functional capacity and work ability in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    van der Meer, Suzan

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from chronic low back pain (CLBP) and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) may experience many problems, including in work. Work ability is considered a balance between work demands and personal resources. Functional Capacity Evaluations (FCE) can be used to measure aspects of work

  20. Towards Consensus in Operational Definitions in Functional Capacity Evaluation : a Delphi Survey

    Soer, Remko; van der Schans, Cees P.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The problem of inconsistent terminology in functional capacity evaluation (FCE) has been widely addressed in the international literature. Many different terms seem to be used interchangeably while other terms appear to be interpreted differently. This may seriously hinder FCE research

  1. Comparative Fecal Metagenomics Unveils Unique Functional Capacity of the Swine Gut

    Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health and to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Limited information on the physiological...

  2. Dynamic range of frontoparietal functional modulation is associated with working memory capacity limitations in older adults.

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Johnson, Nathan F

    2017-11-01

    Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity. Within our sample (60-77years of age), age was negatively associated with frontoparietal modulation range. Individuals with greater modulation range exhibited more accurate N-Back performance. In addition, despite a lack of significant relationships between N-Back and complex span task performance, range of frontoparietal modulation during the N-Back significantly predicted domain-general estimates of WM capacity. Consistent with previous cross-sectional findings, older individuals with less modulation range exhibited greater activation at the lowest level of task difficulty but less activation at the highest levels of task difficulty. Our results are largely consistent with existing theories of neurocognitive aging (e.g. CRUNCH) but focus attention on dynamic range of functional modulation asa novel marker of WM capacity-limitations in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-temperature heat capacity and thermodynamic functions of vitamin B12

    Knyazev, A.V.; Smirnova, N.N.; Plesovskikh, A.S.; Shushunov, A.N.; Knyazeva, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B 12 has been measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. • The thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B 12 have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. • The character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. • The thermal stability of cyanocobalamin was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. - Abstract: In the present work temperature dependence of heat capacity of vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) has been measured for the first time in the range from 6 to 343 K by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Based on the experimental data, the thermodynamic functions of the vitamin B 12 , namely, the heat capacity, enthalpy H°(T) − H°(0), entropy S°(T) − S°(0) and Gibbs function G°(T) − H°(0) have been determined for the range from T → 0 to 343 K. The value of the fractal dimension D in the function of multifractal generalization of Debye's theory of the heat capacity of solids was estimated and the character of heterodynamics of structure was detected. The thermal stability of cyanocobalamin was also studied by differential scanning calorimetry

  4. Test-retest reliability of the isernhagen work systems functional capacity evaluation in healthy adults

    Reneman, MF; Brouwer, S; Meinema, A; Dijkstra, PU; Geertzen, JHB; Groothoff, JW

    2004-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Isernhagen Work System Functional Capacity Evaluation (IWS FCE) in healthy subjects. The IWS FCE consists of 28 tests that reflect work-related activities such as lifting, carrying, bending, etc. A convenience sample of 26 healthy

  5. Physical exercise modifies the functional capacity of elderly patients on hemodialysis

    Moane Marchesan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients on hemodialysis (HD improve functional capacity after physical training. However, little is discussed about these effects in elderly patients, since these are usually excluded of studies, due to their physical disabilities and other deficits. Objective To analyze the effects of aerobic and resistance training in the functional capacity of elderly patients submitted to HD. Methods Studied participants were 15 patients, of both genders, and aged over 60 years. Aerobic and resistance training was carried out during the hemodialysis session, three times per week, during four months. Patients were distributed into control (CG and experimental (EG groups. Functional capacity was assessed by six-minute walk (6MW, sit-to-stand (STS and respiratory muscle strength tests. Results After the physical training, EG presented a significant increase in the distance covered in 6MW (Z = 2.521, p < .012, respiratory muscle strength (inspiratory pressure: Z = 2.533, p < .011; expiratory pressure: Z = 2.536, p < .011; and in number of STS repetitions (2.54; p <.001. Conclusion The training modified the functional capacity of the HD patients, contributing to their rehabilitation.

  6. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    ... until the adrenal glands start functioning normally again. Addison's Disease This rare disorder develops when the adrenal glands ... not make enough cortisol. In most cases of Addison's disease, the body also doesn't make enough of ...

  7. Fluoxetine improves functional work capacity in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Steiner, M; Brown, E; Trzepacz, P; Dillon, J; Berger, C; Carter, D; Reid, R; Stewart, D

    2003-02-01

    Interference with social and occupational functioning is a key criterion for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and distinguishes it from the less severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS). We conducted a post hoc analysis of the results of a previously reported study evaluating the efficacy of fluoxetine in the management of PMDD, to determine the extent to which women with PMDD perceived impairment in their functional work capacity during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. The effects of two doses of fluoxetine vs placebo in alleviating PMDD symptoms and restoring normal work capacity during this period were assessed. We measured baseline follicular vs luteal phase presence of 8 patient-rated functional work capacity-related symptoms on the Premenstrual Tension Scale-Self Rated in 320 women who met diagnostic criteria for late luteal phase dysphoric disorder, now known as PMDD. Women were then randomized to double-blind treatment with either fluoxetine 20 mg/d, fluoxetine 60 mg/d, or placebo daily for 6 menstrual cycles. All 8 work capacity-related symptoms were more likely to be present in the baseline luteal phase than in the baseline follicular phase. A statistically significant improvement from baseline to the average treatment score for the work capacity subscale was detected for both fluoxetine groups compared to the placebo group. This beneficial response to fluoxetine was evident by the first cycle of treatment. Our results demonstrate that fluoxetine at a relatively low dose of 20 mg/d quickly reduced symptoms that negatively affect work capacity and was well tolerated.

  8. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Virtual reality training improves turning capacity and functional reach in stroke patients

    Malik, A.N.; Masood, T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the added effects of virtual reality training on turning capacity, gait parameters and functional reach capacity of stroke patients compared to task oriented training alone. Methodology: A randomized control trial was conducted from February 2016 to July 2106 at Physical Rehabilitation Department Pakistan Railway Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Twenty stroke patients were selected through purposive sampling. The patients were randomly assigned through sealed envelope method into two groups; Task Oriented Training (TOT) and Virtual Reality Training (VRT) Group. The standardized tools were used for assessment. The TOT was provided for 4 days per week for 6 weeks while VRT group received additional exer-gaming training during sessions. Results: Significant improvement was observed in both groups regarding reaching forward, turning 360, gait pivot turn (p a 0.01) and FRT (p a 0.001). The two groups were statistically different from each other in terms of turning capacity, reaching forward, gait pivot turn and functional reach after 6 weeks of intervention (p a 0.05) Conclusion: Addition of virtual reality training further improves the significant improvement caused by task oriented training on turning capacity, reaching forward, gait pivot turn and functional reach in stroke patients. (author)

  10. Speed and capacity of working memory and executive function in schizophrenia compared to unipolar depression

    Wolfgang Trapp

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in working memory (WM and executive functioning (EF that are present from prodrome to chronic stages of the disease and are related to social and occupational functioning. Recent empirical findings suggest that schizophrenia patients might suffer from a specific speed deficit regarding WM operations that also affects EF. To test this hypothesis, executive functioning (EF and working memory (WM performance of 20 schizophrenia (SC patients, 20 patients suffering from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and 40 healthy control (HC subjects were compared. While schizophrenia patients performed worse in the measure of EF, no difference between the SC and the MDD patients was found regarding WM capacity. However, the SC group was shown to have an impaired speed in encoding, retrieval and manipulation of WM contents compared to the HC group whereas the MDD group showed no such deficit. Furthermore, while in the MDD group only WM capacity was linked to EF performance, in the SC group EF was determined by both WM capacity and WM speed. Hence, increasing the speed of WM operations might be a fruitful target for future therapeutic interventions, and assessing not only the capacity but also the speed of WM might be helpful in identifying candidates for endophenotypic cognitive markers of SC.

  11. Height of normal pituitary gland as a function of age evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Argyropoulou, M.; Brunelle, F. (Hopital des Enfants Malades, 75 - Paris (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique); Perignon, F.; Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R. (Hopital des Enfants Malades, 75 - Paris (France). Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique)

    1991-05-01

    MR anatomy of hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis is well established. However data about pituitary gland height (PGH) in children are sparse. A retrospective study was therefore performed in 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) aged from 8 days to 21 years. All these children had MR for various neurological diseases. Patients with hypothalamo-hypophyseal disease and intracranial hypertension were excluded. The PGH was measured on a strict midline sagittal T1 weighted scan 3 to 7 mm thick. A positive linear correlation was found in children aged from 1 year to puberty followed by a plateau. In the first year of life a negative linear correlation was found. A positive linear correlation was found between PGH and statural height as well. (orig.).

  12. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional transcriptomics of wild-caught Lutzomyia intermedia salivary glands: identification of a protective salivary protein against Leishmania braziliensis infection.

    de Moura, Tatiana R; Oliveira, Fabiano; Carneiro, Marcia W; Miranda, José Carlos; Clarêncio, Jorge; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Barral, Aldina; Ribeiro, José M C; Valenzuela, Jesus G; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Together with the parasite, the sand fly injects salivary components that change the environment at the feeding site. Mice immunized with Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland (SG) homogenate are protected against Leishmania major infection, while immunity to Lutzomyia intermedia SG homogenate exacerbated experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection. In humans, antibodies to Lu. intermedia saliva are associated with risk of acquiring L. braziliensis infection. Despite these important findings, there is no information regarding the repertoire of Lu. intermedia salivary proteins. A cDNA library from the Salivary Glands (SGs) of wild-caught Lu. intermedia was constructed, sequenced, and complemented by a proteomic approach based on 1D SDS PAGE and mass/mass spectrometry to validate the transcripts present in this cDNA library. We identified the most abundant transcripts and proteins reported in other sand fly species as well as novel proteins such as neurotoxin-like proteins, peptides with ML domain, and three small peptides found so far only in this sand fly species. DNA plasmids coding for ten selected transcripts were constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice to study their immunogenicity. Plasmid Linb-11--coding for a 4.5-kDa protein--induced a cellular immune response and conferred protection against L. braziliensis infection. This protection correlated with a decreased parasite load and an increased frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells. We identified the most abundant and novel proteins present in the SGs of Lu. intermedia, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas. We also show for the first time that immunity to a single salivary protein from Lu. intermedia can protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis.

  14. Valve spindle gland

    Burda, Z.; Harazim, A.; Kerlin, K.

    1979-01-01

    A gland is proposed of the valve spindle designed for radioactive or otherwise harmful media, such as in nuclear power plant primary circuits. The gland is installed in the valve cover and consists of a primary and a secondary part and of a gland case partitioning the gland space into two chambers. The bottom face of the gland case is provided with a double-sided collar for controlling the elements of the bottom primary gland while the top face is provided with a removable flange. (M.S.)

  15. Swimming Improves Pain and Functional Capacity of Patients With Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Fernandes, Giovana; Jennings, Fabio; Nery Cabral, Michele Vieira; Pirozzi Buosi, Ana Letícia; Natour, Jamil

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming on pain, functional capacity, aerobic capacity, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology outpatient clinics of a university hospital. Women with FM (N=75; age range, 18-60y) randomly assigned to a swimming group (SG) (n=39) or a walking group (WG) (n=36). The SG performed 50 minutes of swimming 3 times a week for 12 weeks, with a heart rate at 11 beats under the anaerobic threshold. The WG performed walking with a heart rate at the anaerobic threshold, with the same duration and frequency as the SG. Participants were evaluated before the exercise protocols (t0), at 6 weeks (t6), and at 12 weeks (t12) after the onset of the protocols. The primary outcome measure was the visual analog scale for pain. The secondary measurements were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey for quality of life; a spiroergometric test for cardiorespiratory variables; and the timed Up & Go test for functional performance. Patients in both groups experienced improvement in pain after the 12-week program, with no difference between groups (P=.658). The same results were found regarding functional capacity and quality of life. Moreover, no statistical difference between groups was found regarding aerobic capacity over time. Swimming, like walking, is an effective method for reducing pain and improving both functional capacity and quality of life in patients with FM. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of learning capacity and cholinergic synaptic function by carnitine in aging rats.

    Ando, S; Tadenuma, T; Tanaka, Y; Fukui, F; Kobayashi, S; Ohashi, Y; Kawabata, T

    2001-10-15

    The effects of a carnitine derivative, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), on the cognitive and cholinergic activities of aging rats were examined. Rats were given ALCAR (100 mg/kg) per os for 3 months and were subjected to the Hebb-Williams tasks and a new maze task, AKON-1, to assess their learning capacity. The learning capacity of the ALCAR-treated group was superior to that of the control. Cholinergic activities were determined with synaptosomes isolated from the cortices. The high-affinity choline uptake by synaptosomes, acetylcholine synthesis in synaptosomes, and acetylcholine release from synaptosomes on membrane depolarization were all enhanced in the ALCAR group. This study indicates that chronic administration of ALCAR increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity as a cognitive function in aging rats. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years

  18. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  19. The polyproline site in hinge 2 influences the functional capacity of truncated dystrophins.

    Glen B Banks

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in dystrophin can lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy or the more mild form of the disease, Becker muscular dystrophy. The hinge 3 region in the rod domain of dystrophin is particularly prone to deletion mutations. In-frame deletions of hinge 3 are predicted to lead to BMD, however the severity of disease can vary considerably. Here we performed extensive structure-function analyses of truncated dystrophins with modified hinges and spectrin-like repeats in mdx mice. We found that the polyproline site in hinge 2 profoundly influences the functional capacity of a microdystrophin(DeltaR4-R23/DeltaCT with a large deletion in the hinge 3 region. Inclusion of polyproline in microdystrophin(DeltaR4-R23/DeltaCT led to small myofibers (12% smaller than wild-type, Achilles myotendinous disruption, ringed fibers, and aberrant neuromuscular junctions in the mdx gastrocnemius muscles. Replacing hinge 2 of microdystrophin(DeltaR4-R23/DeltaCT with hinge 3 significantly improved the functional capacity to prevent muscle degeneration, increase muscle fiber area, and maintain the junctions. We conclude that the rigid alpha-helical structure of the polyproline site significantly impairs the functional capacity of truncated dystrophins to maintain appropriate connections between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix.

  20. Analysis of pain, functional capacity, muscular strength and balance in young women with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Camile Ludovico Zamboti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS is associated with anterior knee pain, changes in functional capacity, balance and muscle strength disorders. Objective: To quantify pain, functional capacity, strength in quadriceps (Q, gluteus medium (GM, hip external rotator (ER muscles and balance in sedentary women with PFPS. Methods: Twenty sedentary women, aged 18 to 25 years, were divided into two groups: PFPS (N=10 and control group (N=10. All the volunteers answered the items of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Lysholm Knee Score Scale, the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS. The participants performed the following tests: maximal voluntary isometric contraction measured by dynamometry; postural balance using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT and a force platform. Statistical analyses were performed using the Shapiro Wilk test, the Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Data were submitted to SPSS 20 software. Results: The PFPS group presented greater pain, balance impairment and higher average velocity of oscillation; however, no differences were observed in Q, GM and RE muscle strength and in balance analyzed by SEBT. Conclusion: Women with PFPS exhibited greater pain, worse functional capacity and body balance. Moderate correlation between both balance tests suggests the use of SEBT when the force platform is not available, which could facilitate and highlight the importance of clinical diagnosis with regard to postural balance.

  1. Functional Capacity in Adults With Cerebral Palsy: Lower Limb Muscle Strength Matters.

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the relation between lower limb muscle strength, passive muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional study. Tertiary institution biomechanics laboratory. Adults with spastic-type CP (N=33; mean age, 25y; range, 15-51y; mean body mass, 70.15±21.35kg) who were either Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I (n=20) or level II (n=13). Not applicable. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance (m), lateral step-up (LSU) test performance (total repetitions), timed up-stairs (TUS) performance (s), maximum voluntary isometric strength of plantar flexors (PF) and dorsiflexors (DF) (Nm.kg -1 ), and passive ankle joint and muscle stiffness. Maximum isometric PF strength independently explained 61% of variance in 6MWT performance, 57% of variance in LSU test performance, and 50% of variance in TUS test performance. GMFCS level was significantly and independently related to all 3 functional capacity outcomes, and age was retained as a significant independent predictor of LSU and TUS test performance. Passive medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicle stiffness and ankle joint stiffness were not significantly related to functional capacity measures in any of the multiple regression models. Low isometric PF strength was the most important independent variable related to distance walked on the 6MWT, fewer repetitions on the LSU test, and slower TUS test performance. These findings suggest lower isometric muscle strength contributes to the decline in functional capacity in adults with CP. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  3. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations...... to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength...... training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force...

  4. Elderly’s Physical-Functional Fitness and Perceived Functional Capacity and Health after Participation in a Hydrotherapy Program

    Elsa Cristina Sacramento Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated how physical activity in older people benefits their physical fitness, health and well-being. The relation between physical activity and perceived functional capacity and health is yet to be considered. This study is a quantitative research design that investigated the improvement of the physical-functional fitness and the perception of the functional capacity and health of an elderly group participating in a waterbased exercise program (hydrotherapy. The data was collected in three different moments of the exercise program through a battery of tests of physical-functional fitness established by Batista and Sardinha (2005 and a questionnaire adapted from SABE project (Lebrão and Duarte, 2003. Twenty-six elderly persons (23 women and 3 men aged between 60 and 84 years old participated in a 31-week hydrotherapy program (twice a week; 45 minutes by session. Friedman test was used for assessing statistical differences between the physical-functional fitness and the questionnaire responses in each of the three evaluation moments. Results revealed that this program was enough to improve the physical-functional fitness of the elderly, as well as the perception they had about their health and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  5. Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people.

    Boström, Gustaf; Conradsson, Mia; Rosendahl, Erik; Nordström, Peter; Gustafson, Yngve; Littbrand, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs. Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately. GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b =-0.03, P=0.008), but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b =-0.07, P=0.068). No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b =-1.03, P=0.007) and dressing (unstandardized b =-0.70, P=0.035) were associated with depressive symptoms. Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of transfer and dressing appear to be independently associated with depressive symptoms and may be an important focus of future interdisciplinary multifactorial intervention studies.

  6. Annual reproductive synchronization in ovary and pineal gland function of female short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Haldar, Chandana; Yadav, Rajesh; Alipreeta

    2006-08-01

    We studied the annual correlation of ovarian activity and pineal gland in relation with seasonal variation and gestation of a tropical zone short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. Female bats showed bimodal polyestry (February/March and September/October) in their reproductive cycle. Plasma estradiol concentration ran parallel with ovarian activity and had an inverse relation with pineal mass and peripheral melatonin concentration. Due to the delayed embryonic development in the uterus (October-March) of female bats, interestingly, the uterine activity did not show a parallel relation with ovarian activity and estradiol level. Further, compared with normal non-pregnant females, melatonin level was high during gestation and delayed embryonic development phase. This suggests that the reproductive synchrony and annual variation in ovarian activity of this nocturnal flying mammal differ from other common tropical mammals. The delayed embryonic development in bats might be an adaptive strategy for the unfavorable conditions of the seasons and might be regulated by high peripheral estradiol and melatonin concentration.

  7. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  8. Factors that affect functional capacity in patients with musculoskeletal pain : a Delphi study among scientists, clinicians, and patients

    Jorna-Lakke, Sandra; Wittink, Harriët; Geertzen, Jan H; van der Schans, Cees; Reneman, Michiel F

    OBJECTIVE: To reach consensus on the most important biopsychosocial factors that influence functional capacity results in patients with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain, arranged in the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. DESIGN: Three-round,

  9. The functional fitness capacity of adults with Down syndrome in South Africa.

    Terblanche, E; Boer, P-H

    2013-09-01

    It is well established that there is a relationship between physical inactivity and increased risk for diseases of lifestyle. Persons with Down syndrome (DS) are especially at risk because of physical and health impairments, as well as perceived and real barriers to participation in exercise. The purpose of the study was to establish the functional fitness capacity and predictors of performance of DS adults. Data were collected at various intellectual disability centres and private homes in seven provinces of South Africa. Three hundred and seventy-one DS individuals (199 men and 172 women) from 18 to 66 years were tested for balance, flexibility, coordination, muscular strength and endurance, aerobic capacity and functional ability. Data were categorised according to gender and age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-45, and >45 years). Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the functional task and physical test items. Down syndrome men performed significantly better on all but two tests compared with the women (P physical attributes contribute to functional performance. Consequently appropriate training programmes can be tailored for this population whom is known to have poor functional fitness. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  10. Functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Saglam M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Melda Saglam,1 Naciye Vardar-Yagli,1 Sema Savci,2 Deniz Inal-Ince,1 Ebru Calik Kutukcu,1 Hülya Arikan,1 Lutfi Coplu3 1Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey; 2School of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Department of Chest Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Background: The risk of hypoxemia increases with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the deterioration of pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to compare functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic and non-hypoxemic patients with COPD.Methods: Thirty-nine COPD patients (mean age: 62.0±7.03 years were included in this study. Arterial blood gas tensions were measured, and patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, the hypoxemic COPD (PaO2 <60 mmHg (n=18, and the control (PaO2 ≥60 mmHg (n=21 groups. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Oxygen saturation, dyspnea, and fatigue perception were measured before and after the 6MWT. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and an accelerometer. Quality of life was assessed using the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ.Results: The number of emergency visits and hospitalizations were higher in hypoxemic patients (P<0.05. Lung function parameters, 6MWT distance, exercise oxygen saturation, IPAQ total score, and energy expenditure during daily life were significantly lower, but percentage of maximum heart rate reached during the 6MWT was significantly higher, in hypoxemic COPD patients than in controls (P<0.05.Conclusion: Hypoxemia has a profound effect on functional capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD. Keywords: COPD, hypoxemia, 6-minute walk test

  11. Indicators of physical and sexual development of adolescent boys, depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Dagestan is a region with medium and severe iodine deficiency, which is associated with the development of endemic goiter and subclinical hypothyroidism. Children with goiter with or without it with SG had the worst indicators of physical, psychological and sexual development, tended to chronic somatic pathology.Objective. To examine the connection between the elevated TSH level with indicators of physical and sexual health of boys.Material and methodThere were examined 297 adolescents aged 11-13 years (76 persons in the beginning of puberty and 14-17 years (221 people in the middle and the end of puberty. The anthropometric studies of height, weight were conducted, body mass index BMI was calculated, the degree of sexual development: R - pubic body hair, G-degree sexual development, testicular volume by Prader and the size of the penis, index of virilization, level tireotroponogo hormone (TSH were assessed.Results showed that physical development of boys already in the early stages of dysfunction of the thyroid gland tends to lag behind. This is more evident in the mid to completion of puberty (boys and adolescents 14-17 years of age, secondary sexual characteristics in boys 11-13 years more marked in those with a TSH level of 0.5 to 2.6 IU/l compared with peers with TSH levels from 4.2 to 10.0 IU/l In the subgroup of 14-17 year old boys and teenagers, there is a tendency to the phenomenon of "macroorchidism" beginning at the stage of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  12. Functional capacities of lungs and thorax in beagles after prolonged residence at 3,100 m.

    Johnson, R L; Cassidy, S S; Grover, R F; Schutte, J E; Epstein, R H

    1985-12-01

    Functional capacities of the lungs and thorax in beagles taken to high altitude as adults for 33 mo or in beagles raised from puppies at high altitude were compared with functional capacities in corresponding sets of beagles kept simultaneously at sea level. Comparisons were made after reacclimatization to sea level. Lung volumes, airway pressures, esophageal pressures, CO diffusing capacities (DLCO), pulmonary blood flow, and lung tissue volume (Vt) were measured by a rebreathing technique at inspired volumes ranging from 15 to 90 ml/kg. In beagles raised from puppies we measured anatomical distribution of intrathoracic air and tissue using X-ray computed tomography at transpulmonary pressures of 20 cm H2O. Lung and thoracic distensibility, DLCO, and Vt were not different between beagles that had been kept at high altitude for 33 mo as adults and control subjects kept simultaneously at sea level. Lung distensibility, DLCO, and Vt were significantly greater in beagles raised at high altitude than control subjects raised simultaneously at sea level. Thoracic distensibility was not increased in beagles raised at high altitude; the larger lung volume was accommodated by a lower diaphragm, not a larger rib cage.

  13. Impaired financial capacity in late life depression is associated with cognitive performance on measures of executive functioning and attention.

    Mackin, R Scott; Areán, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Late life depression (LLD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with significant disability and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence and cognitive correlates of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with LLD. Participants included 65 LLD individuals and 32 comparison subjects. Assessments included measures of financial capacity, cognitive functioning, and depression symptom severity. Individuals with LLD exhibited a significantly higher rate of impaired financial capacity (22%) than the comparison group (6%). Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that performance on measures of executive functioning and attention, but not depression severity, were most strongly associated with financial capacity performance in LLD. Our results suggest impairments of financial capacity in LLD are largely explained by cognitive functioning in these domains.

  14. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower

  15. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia.

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-02-06

    To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastric accommodation was determined using Gastric Scintigraphy. 13 C labeled octanoic breadth test was performed to assess gastric emptying. Capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid drink was checked using satiety drinking capacity test. The intervention group comprised of 150 mg itopride. Patients in both arms were followed for 4 wk. Mean age of the recruited participant 33 years (SD = 7.6) and most of the recruited individuals, i.e ., 21 (67.7%) were males. We found that there was no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation as measured at different in volumes in the itopride and control group with the empty stomach ( P = 0.14), at 20 min ( P = 0.38), 30 min ( P = 0.30), 40 min ( P = 0.43), 50 min ( P = 0.50), 60 min ( P = 0.81), 90 min ( P = 0.25) and 120 min ( P = 0.67). Gastric emptying done on a sub sample ( n = 11) showed no significant difference ( P = 0.58) between itopride and placebo group. There was no significant improvement in the capacity to tolerate liquid in the itopride group as compared to placebo ( P = 0.51). Similarly there was no significant improvement of symptoms as assessed through a composite symptom score ( P = 0.74). The change in QT interval in itopride group was not significantly different from placebo (0.10). Our study found no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and maximum tolerated volume in patients with FD.

  16. Efficacy of isokinetic exercise on functional capacity and pain in patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Alaca, Ridvan; Yilmaz, Bilge; Goktepe, A Salim; Mohur, Haydar; Kalyon, Tunc Alp

    2002-11-01

    To assess the effect of an isokinetic exercise program on symptoms and functions of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A total of 22 consecutive patients with the complaint of anterior knee pain who met the inclusion criteria were recruited to assess the efficacy of isokinetic exercise on functional capacity, isokinetic parameters, and pain scores in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A total of 37 knees were examined. Six-meter hopping, three-step hopping, and single-limb hopping course tests were performed for each patient with the measurements of the Lysholm scale and visual analog scale. Tested parameters were peak torque, total work, average power, and endurance ratios. Statistical analyses revealed that at the end of the 6-wk treatment period, functional and isokinetic parameters improved significantly, as did pain scores. There was not statistically significant correlation between different groups of parameters. The isokinetic exercise treatment program used in this study prevented the extensor power loss due to patellofemoral pain syndrome, but the improvement in the functional capacity was not correlated with the gained power.

  17. Dyspnea, pulmonary function and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease

    Alameri, Hatem F.; Alem, A.; Al-Momen, A.; Kardas, W.; Owais, M.; Jehangir, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to examine pulmonary function, dyspnea, and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. The patients were recruited from the hematology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh from January to December 2005. The study involved 39 patients with stable SCD 20 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 22.7+/- 7.1 years, hemoglobin level of 95.5+/-14.6g/L and hemoglobin F level of 13.7+/08.6. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests PFT forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide [DLco] data are presented as a percentage of the normal prediction, a 6- minute walk test 6MWT and echocardiography. Dyspnea was assessed using the Borg score. The 6MWT data were compared to body mass index matched healthy controls. Forty-one percent of SCD patients had mild dyspnea at rest and this increased to 61% at the end of the 6MWT. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 51%, 36% of patients had a restrictive pattern, 10% had isolated decrease in DLco and 5% had a mixed restrictive-obstrutive pattern. The 6MWD was shorter in SCD patients compared to the controls 368+/-67 versus 407+/-47m, p=0.005. No hematological variables correlated with outcome variables. Chronic pulmonary complications in adult Saudi SCD patients are relatively mild but common. Pulmonary function in these patients differs from that published for African-origin SCD patients. The difference may reflect a different natural history of SCD in the 2 populations. (author)

  18. Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis. Influence of disease activity, duration of the disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment

    Hansen, M; Florescu, A; Stoltenberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Axial and appendicular bone mass were studied in 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aims were to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) and to evaluate the importance of disease activity, duration of disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment for bone loss in patients...... after the start of the disease. The overall functional capacity in terms of physical activity increased BMD in the axial skeleton. The local functional capacity in terms of grip strength was positively related to BMD in the appendicular skeleton. Patients with severe functional impairment had the lowest...

  19. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional independence and health-related functional status following spinal cord injury : a prospective study of the association with physical capacity

    Haisma, Janneke A.; Post, Marcel W.; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Stam, Henk J.; Bergen, Michael P.; Sluis, Tebbe A.; van den Berg-Emons, Hendrika J.; Bussmann, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine changes in functional independence following spinal cord injury and to evaluate the association between functional independence and physical capacity. Design: Multi-centre prospective cohort study. Subjects: Patients with spinal cord injury admitted for initial

  1. Effect of Xerostomia on the Functional Capacity of Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Lins E Silva, Marília; Carvalho, Camila Nunes; Carvalho, Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Duarte, Angela Luzia Pinto; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the intensity of xerostomia and hyposalivation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as the effects of these conditions on functional incapacity and disease activity. The study sample comprised 236 individuals of both sexes who had RA. All the individuals were submitted to clinical evaluation and unstimulated sialometry. Functional capacity was determined by using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), xerostomia was assessed using the Xerostomia Inventory, and disease activity was evaluated with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). The effect of Sjögren syndrome (SS) was analyzed, and the sample was divided into 2 groups: RA (191 subjects) and RA/SS (45 subjects). The Xerostomia Inventory showed positive and significant correlation with fatigue (r = 0.243; p xerostomia (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.84-8.23, p Xerostomia demonstrated an adverse effect on quality of life of subjects with RA, being associated with a reduction in functional capacity. In this clinical setting, xerostomia can be monitored as a marker of worse clinical evolution.

  2. Antioxidants and reduced functional capacity in the elderly: findings from the Nun Study.

    Snowdon, D A; Gross, M D; Butler, S M

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of plasma antioxidants to reduced functional capacity in the elderly. A hallmark of reduced functional capacity in the elderly is dependence in self-care (i.e., requiring assistance with bathing, walking, dressing, standing, toileting, and feeding). This relationship was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 88 Catholic sisters (nuns). These 77- to 98-year-old women lived in the same building, ate food prepared in the same kitchen, and had all nursing services provided by the same staff. In 1993, ability to perform self-care was assessed, and blood was drawn to determine plasma carotenoids (lycopene, beta carotene, alpha carotene, zeaxanthin and lutein combined, and beta cryptoxanthin) and alpha tocopherol. Dependence in self-care had a strong negative association with lycopene, but was not clearly related to other carotenoids or alpha tocopherol. Results from age-adjusted least squares regression indicated that a 30 micrograms/dl decrease in lycopene was associated with 2.4 additional dependencies in self-care (95% confidence interval = 1.5, 3.3; p study to report an association between lycopene and functional status. This finding needs to be replicated in other human and animal studies before the association is accepted as real.

  3. Functional Capacity of Patients with Pacemaker Due to Isolated Congenital Atrioventricular Block

    de Oliveira Júnior, Roberto Márcio; da Silva, Kátia Regina; Kawauchi, Tatiana Satie; Alves, Lucas Bassolli de Oliveira; Crevelari, Elizabeth Sartori; Martinelli, Martino; Costa, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Isolated congenital atrioventricular block (CAVB) is a rare condition with multiple clinical outcomes. Ventricular remodeling can occur in approximately 10% of the patients after pacemaker (PM) implantation. Objectives To assess the functional capacity of children and young adults with isolated CAVB and chronic pacing of the right ventricle (RV) and evaluate its correlation with predictors of ventricular remodeling. Methods This cross-sectional study used a cohort of patients with isolated CAVB and RV pacing for over a year. The subjects underwent clinical and echocardiographic evaluation. Functional capacity was assessed using the six-minute walk test. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results A total of 61 individuals were evaluated between March 2010 and December 2013, of which 67.2% were women, aged between 7 and 41 years, who were using PMs for 13.5 ± 6.3 years. The percentage of ventricular pacing was 97.9 ± 4.1%, and the duration of the paced QRS complex was 153.7 ± 19.1 ms. Majority of the subjects (95.1%) were asymptomatic and did not use any medication. The mean distance walked was 546.9 ± 76.2 meters and was strongly correlated with the predicted distance (r = 0.907, p = 0.001) but not with risk factors for ventricular remodeling. Conclusions The functional capacity of isolated CAVB patients with chronic RV pacing was satisfactory but did not correlate with risk factors for ventricular remodeling. PMID:25387405

  4. Extrapulmonary features of bronchiectasis: muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status

    Ozalp Ozge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited number of studies investigating extrapulmonary manifestations of bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to compare peripheral muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy subjects in order to provide documented differences in these characteristics for individuals with and without bronchiectasis. Methods Twenty patients with bronchiectasis (43.5 ± 14.1 years and 20 healthy subjects (43.0 ± 10.9 years participated in the study. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal expiratory pressure – MIP - and maximal expiratory pressure - MEP, and dyspnea perception using the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC were determined. A six-minute walk test (6MWT was performed. Quadriceps muscle, shoulder abductor, and hand grip strength (QMS, SAS, and HGS, respectively using a hand held dynamometer and peripheral muscle endurance by a squat test were measured. Fatigue perception and health status were determined using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ, respectively. Results Number of squats, 6MWT distance, and LCQ scores as well as lung function testing values and respiratory muscle strength were significantly lower and MMRC and FSS scores were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than those of healthy subjects (p p p p p  Conclusions Peripheral muscle endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue and health status were adversely affected by the presence of bronchiectasis. Fatigue was associated with dyspnea and health status. Respiratory muscle strength was related to peripheral muscle strength and health status, but not to fatigue, peripheral muscle endurance or exercise capacity. These findings may provide insight for outcome measures for pulmonary rehabilitation programs for patients with bronchiectasis.

  5. CORRELATION BETWEEN CERVICAL SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT AND FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY IN CERVICAL SPONDYLOSIS

    Marcel Machado da Motta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To correlate the radiographic parameters of sagittal cervical alignment with quality of life and functional capacity in patients with cervical spondylosis under conservative treatment. Methods: This is an observational and prospective study in patients with cervical spondylosis under conservative treatment and without indication for surgery. The 52 patients included were divided into three groups: axial pain, radiculopathy, and cervical myelopathy. The radiographic parameters considered were cervical lordosis (CL, cervical sagittal vertical axis (CSVA, T1 slope (TS and the discrepancy between TS and CL (TS-CL. Quality of life and functional capacity were evaluated by the Neck Disability Index (NDI questionnaire. Pain was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. The correlation between the radiographic parameters and the clinical scores was evaluated by the Pearson correlations coefficient. Results: There was no difference in cervical radiographic parameters between the three groups. In the total of the sample, the mean value of the CSVA was 17.8o (±8.3o, CL, 22.4° (± 8.8°; TS, 29.3° (±6.6°, and TS-CL, 7.0° (±7.4°. Significant inverse correlation (r= -0.3, p=0.039 was observed between NDI and CL, but there was no significant correlation between CL and VAS. CSVA (p=0.541, TS (p=0.287 and TS-CL (p=0.287 had no significantly correlated with NDI or VAS. Conclusion: Considering patients with cervical spondylosis not candidates for surgery, the only sagittal parameter that correlated with functional capacity was LC. In these patients, the correlation between cervical alignment and quality of life needs to be better characterized.

  6. Effectiveness of an educational intervention and physical exercise on the functional capacity of patients on haemodialysis.

    Molina-Robles, Esmeralda; Colomer-Codinachs, Marta; Roquet-Bohils, Marta; Chirveches-Pérez, Emilia; Ortiz-Jurado, Pep; Subirana-Casacuberta, Mireia

    2018-03-02

    To describe the impact of a standard hospital educational intervention including active physical exercises on personal well-being, functional capacity and knowledge of the benefits of prescribed physical activity for patients undergoing haemodialysis. An uncontrolled, quasi-experimental, before-and-after study with repeated measures of response variables at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after participating in an educational and physical exercise hospital intervention. It was performed at the Nephrology Unit at the Hospital Complex in Vic within september and december 2014. The patients' well-being, functional capacity and knowledge were assessed. Assessment tools: NOC nursing indicators, Barthel index scale, FAC Holden, Timed Get Up and Go test and Daniels scale. We included 68 (80.0%) patients and 58 (85.3%) completed, with a mean age of 70.16±13.5 years; 62.1% were males. After 12 weeks, the patients had better scores of personal well-being (2.33±1.2, 3.88±0.8), more autonomy to perform activities of daily living (Barthel: 92.8±12.8; 93.5±13.9), more muscle strength (Daniels Scale: 3.81±0.7, 4.19±0.6) and walked more briskly (Get Up and Go test: 14.98±8.5; 15.65±10.5). All of the score differences were statistically significant (P<05) except the Barthel Index. The standard educational intervention and active exercise performed at hospital level improved the personal well-being, knowledge and functional capacity of patients on haemodialysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Low temperature heat capacities and thermodynamic functions described by Debye-Einstein integrals.

    Gamsjäger, Ernst; Wiessner, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    Thermodynamic data of various crystalline solids are assessed from low temperature heat capacity measurements, i.e., from almost absolute zero to 300 K by means of semi-empirical models. Previous studies frequently present fit functions with a large amount of coefficients resulting in almost perfect agreement with experimental data. It is, however, pointed out in this work that special care is required to avoid overfitting. Apart from anomalies like phase transformations, it is likely that data from calorimetric measurements can be fitted by a relatively simple Debye-Einstein integral with sufficient precision. Thereby, reliable values for the heat capacities, standard enthalpies, and standard entropies at T  = 298.15 K are obtained. Standard thermodynamic functions of various compounds strongly differing in the number of atoms in the formula unit can be derived from this fitting procedure and are compared to the results of previous fitting procedures. The residuals are of course larger when the Debye-Einstein integral is applied instead of using a high number of fit coefficients or connected splines, but the semi-empiric fit coefficients keep their meaning with respect to physics. It is suggested to use the Debye-Einstein integral fit as a standard method to describe heat capacities in the range between 0 and 300 K so that the derived thermodynamic functions are obtained on the same theory-related semi-empiric basis. Additional fitting is recommended when a precise description for data at ultra-low temperatures (0-20 K) is requested.

  8. Titanium-decorated graphene for high-capacity hydrogen storage studied by density functional simulations

    Liu Yali; Ren Ling; He Yao; Cheng Haiping

    2010-01-01

    We present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the adsorption of hydrogen molecules on Ti-decorated graphene. Our results indicate that the binding energies of molecular hydrogen on Ti-decorated graphene can be dramatically enhanced to 0.23-0.60 eV. The hybridization of the Ti 3d orbitals with the H 2 σ and σ* orbitals plays a central role in the enhanced binding. There is also a contribution from the attractive interaction between the surface dipole and the dipole of polarized H 2 . It can be expected that Ti-decorated graphene could be considered as a potential high-capacity hydrogen storage medium.

  9. Potential and limitations of inferring ecosystem photosynthetic capacity from leaf functional traits

    Musavi, T.; Migliavacca, M.; van de Weg, M. J.; Kattge, J.; Wohlfahrt, G.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Carrara, A.; Domingues, T. F.; Gavazzi, M.; Gianelle, D.; Gimeno, C.; Granier, A.; Gruening, C.; Havránková, Kateřina; Herbst, M.; Hrynkiw, Ch.; Kalhori, A.; Kaminski, T.; Klumpp, K.; Kolari, P.; Longdoz, B.; Minerbi, S.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Oechel, W.; Reich, P. B.; Rohatyn, S.; Rossi, A.; Rotenberg, E.; Varlagin, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Wirth, C.; Mahecha, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 20 (2016), s. 7352-7366 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : gross primary production * cross-biome analysis * relative growth-rate * plant traits * carbon-dioxide * forest productivity * wide-range * environmental variation * nutrient concentrations * terrestrial biosphere * ecosystem functional property * eddy covariance * fluxnet * interannual variability * photosynthetic capacity * plant traits * spatiotemporal variability * TRY database Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2016

  10. Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people

    Boström G

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gustaf Boström,1 Mia Conradsson,1 Erik Rosendahl,1,2 Peter Nordström,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Håkan Littbrand1,21Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenBackground: This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs, and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs.Methods: Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately.Results: GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b =-0.03, P=0.008, but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b =-0.07, P=0.068. No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b =-1.03, P=0.007 and dressing (unstandardized b =-0.70, P=0.035 were associated with depressive symptoms.Conclusion: Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of

  11. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo

    Masatoshi Hirayama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy.

  12. FES-assisted Cycling Improves Aerobic Capacity and Locomotor Function Postcerebrovascular Accident.

    Aaron, Stacey E; Vanderwerker, Catherine J; Embry, Aaron E; Newton, Jennifer H; Lee, Samuel C K; Gregory, Chris M

    2018-03-01

    After a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) aerobic deconditioning contributes to diminished physical function. Functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted cycling is a promising exercise paradigm designed to target both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of an FES-assisted cycling intervention on aerobic capacity and locomotor function in individuals post-CVA. Eleven individuals with chronic (>6 months) post-CVA hemiparesis completed an 8-wk (three times per week; 24 sessions) progressive FES-assisted cycling intervention. V˙O2peak, self-selected, and fastest comfortable walking speeds, gait, and pedaling symmetry, 6-min walk test (6MWT), balance, dynamic gait movements, and health status were measured at baseline and posttraining. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling significantly improved V˙O2peak (12%, P = 0.006), self-selected walking speed (SSWS, 0.05 ± 0.1 m·s, P = 0.04), Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale score (12.75 ± 17.4, P = 0.04), Berg Balance Scale score (3.91 ± 4.2, P = 0.016), Dynamic Gait Index score (1.64 ± 1.4, P = 0.016), and Stroke Impact Scale participation/role domain score (12.74 ± 16.7, P = 0.027). Additionally, pedal symmetry, represented by the paretic limb contribution to pedaling (paretic pedaling ratio [PPR]) significantly improved (10.09% ± 9.0%, P = 0.016). Although step length symmetry (paretic step ratio [PSR]) did improve, these changes were not statistically significant (-0.05% ± 0.1%, P = 0.09). Exploratory correlations showed moderate association between change in SSWS and 6-min walk test (r = 0.74), and moderate/strong negative association between change in PPR and PSR. These results support FES-assisted cycling as a means to improve both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. Improvements in SSWS, balance, dynamic walking movements, and participation in familial and societal roles are important targets for rehabilitation of individuals

  13. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae.

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp Kalyon, T

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s (25-90 degrees range of flexion) and 180 degrees /s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters.

  15. Transcriptional profiling reveals gland-specific differential expression in the three major salivary glands of the adult mouse.

    Gao, Xin; Oei, Maria S; Ovitt, Catherine E; Sincan, Murat; Melvin, James E

    2018-04-01

    RNA-Seq was used to better understand the molecular nature of the biological differences among the three major exocrine salivary glands in mammals. Transcriptional profiling found that the adult murine parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands express greater than 14,300 protein-coding genes, and nearly 2,000 of these genes were differentially expressed. Principle component analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed three distinct clusters according to gland type. The three salivary gland transcriptomes were dominated by a relatively few number of highly expressed genes (6.3%) that accounted for more than 90% of transcriptional output. Of the 912 transcription factors expressed in the major salivary glands, greater than 90% of them were detected in all three glands, while expression for ~2% of them was enriched in an individual gland. Expression of these unique transcription factors correlated with sublingual and parotid specific subsets of both highly expressed and differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology analyses revealed that the highly expressed genes common to all glands were associated with global functions, while many of the genes expressed in a single gland play a major role in the function of that gland. In summary, transcriptional profiling of the three murine major salivary glands identified a limited number of highly expressed genes, differentially expressed genes, and unique transcription factors that represent the transcriptional signatures underlying gland-specific biological properties.

  16. [Morpho-functional parameters of nucleoli in polyploid mucous and albumen cells of salivary gland in the snail Succinea lauta].

    Anisimova, A A; Anisimov, A P

    2005-01-01

    Variation of some characteristics of nucleoli of polyploid mucous and albumen cells was examined in salivary glands of the snail Succinea lauta. The number, total area and Ag-protein content of nucleoli, and DNA content in each nucleus were estimated on squashed preparations incubated with AgNO3, decolorized and then Feulgen stained. The ultrastructure of nucleoli was studied by electron microscopy. Differentiated mucous cells had 4c-8c-16c-32c nuclei; albumen cells had 8c-16c-32c-64c-128c nuclei. The ultrastructure of nucleoli of the two cell types was essentially the same. Normally, a large fibrous to granular zone was observed in the nucleoli, without a clear distinction between fibrous and granular components. At the same time, aggregations of granular matter could be discerned at the periphery of nucleoli. No fibrous centers were observed. Occassionally, nucleolonema-like structures occurred. Normally each nucleolus contacted several chromosomes. On squashed preparations, the least size of nucleoli was 2-3 microm, and the largest size amounted to 14 microm in mucous cells, and to 50-80 microm in albumen cells. The number of nucleoli rose from 1-2 in tetraploid nuclei to 2-3 in 32c-nuclei, and to 5-7 in 128c-nuclei. The disparity between the ploidy levels of nuclei and the numbers of nucleoli may be due, presumably, to aggregation of chromosome NORs. The Ag-protein content in the nucleoli, and the total nucleolar area displayed a strong mutual correlation. Both parameters differed significantly by 1.5-2.2 times in mucous and albumen cells of the same ploidy level. Thus, in albumen and mucous cells the total Ag-protein content in octaploid nuclei was 3.3 and 2.2 relative units (r. u.), respectively. In 16c- and 32c-nuclei of albumen cells, it was 7.6 and 15.1 r. u.; and in the same nuclei of mucous cells--3.8 and 6.8 r. u., respectively. On the whole, in albumen cells, in the course of 4 endocycles (4c-128c), the total Ag-protein content increased by 17 times

  17. Relationship between muscle strength parameters and functional capacity in persons with mild to moderate degree multiple sclerosis

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; Langeskov-Christensen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maximal muscle strength has been shown to be an important predictor of functional capacity for persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Another muscle strength parameter known to be important for functional capacity in other patient groups is rate of force development (RFD) in knee...... is the better predictor of walking performance in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis. RFD, although also important for functional capacity, is a less strong predictor. Maximal strength of the knee extensors, rather than the knee flexors, predicted performance in the stairclimb and 5STS tests....

  18. Chapter 13. Adrenal glands

    Roux, H.; Paulin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of isotopic methods to the functional and morphological exploration of the adrenal glands is shown, with emphasis on the fact that althought the cortico-adrenal responds to these methods the same does not apply to the medullo-adrenal, which expresses its morphological changes by producing deformations on the cortical image. Funtional tests, mainly directed at the cortico-adrenal, are described first: study of exchangeable sodium and potassium; determination of the plasma concentration and metabolic clearance of some steroid hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone); evaluation of the renin activity. These tests are based on competitive analysis and radioimmunological methods. Morphological tests are examined next. Adrenal scintigraphy uses a simple technique (intraveinous administration of 131 I 19-iodocholesterol with no special preliminary preparation) which gives good images and is only limited now by the need to avoid over exposure of the gonads to ionising radiations [fr

  19. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

    Marlon A. Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  20. Functional and structural rearrangements of salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera,Chironomidae) in response to freshly neutralized aluminium

    Michailova, P.; Ilkova, J.; White, K.N

    2003-05-01

    Aluminium impacts on aquatic biota can be detected using polytene chromosomes as bio-markers - Although recent work has shown that environmentally relevant concentrations of freshly neutralized aluminium (AI) are bioavailable and toxic to freshwater invertebrates, the genotoxicity of Al has not been examined. Here we show that freshly neutralized Al affects structure and function of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the ubiquitous chironomid larva Chironomus riparius over three generations. Exposure to 500 {mu}g l{sup -1} added Al for 24-25 days resulted in a significantly higher frequency of numerous somatic aberrations, while no structural aberrations were found in F1 controls and few in the second and third generation. Aberrations also included deletions of sections of chromosome G of C. riparius larvae as well as deletions of one or more Balbiani rings. Changes in functional activity included decreased activity of the Balbiani rings (BR), and an increase in the number of decondensed centromeres. The activity of the nucleolar organizer (NOR) significantly decreased in F1 chironomids exposed to Al, while in the F2 and F3 generations the NOR showed normal (high) activity. First generation chironomids were generally more susceptible to Al although no clear evidence of tolerance was apparent over three generations. The possible use of alterations in chironomid polytene chromosomes as biomarkers of trace metal pollution is discussed.

  1. Functional and structural rearrangements of salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera,Chironomidae) in response to freshly neutralized aluminium

    Michailova, P.; Ilkova, J.; White, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium impacts on aquatic biota can be detected using polytene chromosomes as bio-markers - Although recent work has shown that environmentally relevant concentrations of freshly neutralized aluminium (AI) are bioavailable and toxic to freshwater invertebrates, the genotoxicity of Al has not been examined. Here we show that freshly neutralized Al affects structure and function of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the ubiquitous chironomid larva Chironomus riparius over three generations. Exposure to 500 μg l -1 added Al for 24-25 days resulted in a significantly higher frequency of numerous somatic aberrations, while no structural aberrations were found in F1 controls and few in the second and third generation. Aberrations also included deletions of sections of chromosome G of C. riparius larvae as well as deletions of one or more Balbiani rings. Changes in functional activity included decreased activity of the Balbiani rings (BR), and an increase in the number of decondensed centromeres. The activity of the nucleolar organizer (NOR) significantly decreased in F1 chironomids exposed to Al, while in the F2 and F3 generations the NOR showed normal (high) activity. First generation chironomids were generally more susceptible to Al although no clear evidence of tolerance was apparent over three generations. The possible use of alterations in chironomid polytene chromosomes as biomarkers of trace metal pollution is discussed

  2. Changes in functioning of rat submandibular salivary gland under streptozotocin-induced diabetes are associated with alterations of Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ transporting pumps.

    Fedirko, N V; Kruglikov, I A; Kopach, O V; Vats, J A; Kostyuk, P G; Voitenko, N V

    2006-03-01

    Xerostomia and pathological thirst are troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus associated with impaired functioning of salivary glands; however, their cellular mechanisms are not yet determined. Isolated acinar cells were loaded with Ca2+ indicators fura-2/AM for measuring cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) or mag-fura-2/AM-inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found a dramatic decrease in pilocarpine-stimulated saliva flow, protein content and amylase activity in rats after 6 weeks of diabetes vs. healthy animals. This was accompanied with rise in resting [Ca2+]i and increased potency of acetylcholine (ACh) and carbachol (CCh) but not norepinephrine (NE) to induce [Ca2+]i transients in acinar cells from diabetic animals. However, [Ca2+]i transients mediated by Ca2+ release from ER stores (induced by application of either ACh, CCh, NE, or ionomycin in Ca2+-free extracellular medium) were decreased under diabetes. Application of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate led to smaller Ca2+ release from ER under the diabetes. Both plasmalemma and ER Ca2+-ATPases activity was reduced and the latter showed the increased affinity to ATP under the diabetes. We conclude that the diabetes caused impairment of salivary cells functions that, on the cellular level, associates with Ca2+ overload, increased Ca2+-mobilizing ability of muscarinic but not adrenergic receptors, decreased Ca2+-ATPases activity and ER Ca2+ content.

  3. Aerobic capacity explains physical functioning and participation in patients with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue.

    Rosalie Driehuis, Emma; van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen

    2018-02-13

    To investigate whether aerobic capacity explains the level of self-reported physical activity, physical functioning, and participation and autonomy in daily living in persons with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. A cross-sectional study. Sixty-two participants with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Aerobic capacity was measured with a leg ergometer and was expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, in ml/kg/min). Physical activity was measured with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD), physical functioning with the Short Form 36 - physical functioning (SF36-pf), and participation and autonomy in daily living with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire (IPA). Multiple regression analyses were performed, adjusted for potential confounders (gender, age, body mass index, educational level, and employment status). Mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 23.9 ml/kg/min (standard deviation (SD) 6.3 ml/kg/min). There was no significant relationship between VO2max and physical activity (PASIPD): β = 0.320, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = -0.109 to 0.749, R2 = 10.8%. Higher VO2max correlated with better physical functioning (SF36-pf): β = 1.527, 95% CI = 0.820-2.234, R2 = 25.9%, and was significantly related to IPA domains "autonomy indoors" (β = -0.043, 95% CI = -0.067 to -0.020, R2 = 20.6%), "autonomy outdoors" (β = -0.037, 95% CI = -0.062 to -0.012, R2 = 18.2%) and "social life and relationships" (β=-0.033, 95% CI = -0.060 to -0.007, R2 = 21.3%). Maximum aerobic capacity was severely reduced in persons with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. This partly explains the limited physical functioning and restrictions in participation and autonomy indoors, outdoors and in social life and relationships in these persons.

  4. Aerobic capacity explains physical functioning and participation in patients with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue

    Emma Rosalie Driehuis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether aerobic capacity explains the level of self-reported physical activity, physical functioning, and participation and autonomy in daily living in persons with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Design: A cross-sectional study. Patients: Sixty-two participants with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Methods: Aerobic capacity was measured with a leg ergometer and was expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, in ml/kg/min. Physical activity was measured with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD, physical functioning with the Short Form 36 – physical functioning (SF36-pf, and participation and autonomy in daily living with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire (IPA. Multiple regression analyses were performed, adjusted for potential confounders (gender, age, body mass index, educational level, and employment status. Results: Mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was 23.9 ml/kg/min (standard deviation (SD 6.3 ml/kg/min. There was no significant relationship between VO2max and physical activity (PASIPD: β = 0.320, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = –0.109 to 0.749, R2 = 10.8%. Higher VO2max correlated with better physical functioning (SF36-pf: β = 1.527, 95% CI = 0.820–2.234, R2 = 25.9%, and was significantly related to IPA domains “autonomy indoors” (β = –0.043, 95% CI = –0.067 to –0.020, R2 = 20.6%, “autonomy outdoors” (β = –0.037, 95% CI = –0.062 to –0.012, R2 = 18.2% and “social life and relationships” (β=–0.033, 95% CI = –0.060 to –0.007, R2 = 21.3%. Conclusion: Maximum aerobic capacity was severely reduced in persons with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. This partly explains the limited physical functioning and restrictions in participation and autonomy indoors, outdoors and in social life and relationships in these persons.

  5. Impact of termogidroprocedure to the physical health and functional capacity of student's organism

    Agoshkov V.V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspects of the use are considered athletic-health-improvement technologies of termogidrotrenings for the increase of functional possibilities and somatic health of students. 12 boys and 16 girls took part in research. Testing of physical development, functional trained, physical preparedness and somatic health of students is conducted. The health swimming was used in combination with the dosed contrasting shower. Also bath-house procedures with dousing cold water. The increase of level of general physical capacity of students is set. It is marked that the use of technology of termogidrotrenings is instrumental in the increase of level of adaptation possibilities of organism of students. The optimum variant of the use of technology is recommended: 32 planned employment after a physical culture with the health swimming; 16 additional bath-house procedures with dousing; 16 independent employments.

  6. Influence of Resistance Training on Neuromuscular Function and Physical Capacity in ALS Patients

    Jensen, Line; Djurtoft, J.B.; Bech, Rune Dueholm

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. The present study aimed to explore the effect of resistance training in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and muscle weakness. Materials and Methods. Following a 12-week “lead-in” control period, a population...... of ALS patients from Funen, Denmark, completed a 12-week resistance training program consisting of 2-3 sessions/week. Neuromuscular function (strength and power) and voluntary muscle activation (superimposed twitch technique) were evaluated before and after both control and training periods. Physical...... capacity tests (chair rise and timed up and go), the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) scores, and muscle cross sectional area (histology) were also assessed. Results. Of twelve ALS patients assessed for eligibility, six were included and five completed the study. Training did...

  7. Can a simple test of functional capacity add to the clinical assessment of diabetes?

    Stewart, T; Caffrey, D G; Gilman, R H; Mathai, S C; Lerner, A; Hernandez, A; Pinto, M E; Huaylinos, Y; Cabrera, L; Wise, R A; Miranda, J J; Checkley, W

    2016-08-01

    To identify impairment in functional capacity associated with complicated and non-complicated diabetes using the 6-min walk distance test. We enrolled 111 adults, aged ≥40 years, with Type 2 diabetes from a hospital facility and 150 healthy control subjects of similar age and sex from a community site in Lima, Peru. All participants completed a 6-min walk test. The mean age of the 261 participants was 58.3 years, and 43.3% were male. Among those with diabetes, 67 (60%) had non-complicated diabetes and 44 (40%) had complications such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy or nephropathy. The mean unadjusted 6-min walk distances were 376 m and 394 m in adults with and without diabetes complications, respectively, vs 469 m in control subjects (Pdiabetes complications walked 84 m less far (95% CI -104 to -63 m) and those without complications walked 60 m less far (-77 to -42 m) than did control subjects. When using HbA1c level as a covariate in multivariable regression, participants walked 13 m less far (-16.9 to -9.9 m) for each % increase in HbA1c . The subjects with diabetes had lower functional capacity compared with healthy control subjects with similar characteristics. Differences in 6-min walk distance were even apparent in the subjects without diabetes complications. Potential mechanisms that could explain this finding are early cardiovascular disease or deconditioning. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  8. Nutritional status, functional capacity and exercise rehabilitation in end-stage renal disease.

    Mercer, T H; Koufaki, P; Naish, P F

    2004-05-01

    A significant percentage of patients with end-stage renal disease are malnourished and/or muscle wasted. Uremia is associated with decreased protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. Fortunately, nutritional status has been shown to be a modifiable risk factor in the dialysis population. It has long been proposed that exercise could positively alter the protein synthesis-degradation balance. Resistance training had been considered as the only form of exercise likely to induce anabolism in renal failure patients. However, a small, but growing, body of evidence indicates that for some dialysis patients, favourable improvements in muscle atrophy and fibre hypertrophy can be achieved via predominantly aerobic exercise training. Moreover, some studies tentatively suggest that nutritional status, as measured by SGA, can also be modestly improved by modes and patterns of exercise training that have been shown to also increase muscle fibre cross-sectional area and improve functional capacity. Functional capacity tests can augment the information content of basic nutritional status assessments of dialysis patients and as such are recommended for routine inclusion as a feature of all nutritional status assessments.

  9. [Improvement in functional capacity after levothyroxine treatment in patients with chronic heart failure and subclinical hypothyroidism].

    Curotto Grasiosi, Jorge; Peressotti, Bruno; Machado, Rogelio A; Filipini, Eduardo C; Angel, Adriana; Delgado, Jorge; Cortez Quiroga, Gustavo A; Rus Mansilla, Carmen; Martínez Quesada, María del Mar; Degregorio, Alejandro; Cordero, Diego J; Dak, Marcelo; Izurieta, Carlos; Esper, Ricardo J

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether levothyroxine treatment improves functional capacity in patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association class i-iii) and subclinical hypothyroidism. One hundred and sixty-three outpatients with stable chronic heart failure followed up for at least 6 months were enrolled. A physical examination was performed, and laboratory tests including thyroid hormone levels, Doppler echocardiogram, radionuclide ventriculography, and Holter monitoring were requested. Functional capacity was assessed by of the 6-min walk test. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were detected and, after undergoing the s6-min walk test, were given replacement therapy. When they reached normal thyrotropin (TSH) levels, the 6-min walk test was performed again. The distance walked in both tests was recorded, and the difference in meters covered by each patient was analyzed. Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with heart failure was 13%. These patients walked 292±63m while they were hypothyroid and 350±76m when TSH levels returned to normal, a difference of 58±11m (P<.011). Patients with normal baseline TSH levels showed no significant difference between the 2 6-min walk tests. Patients with chronic heart failure and subclinical hypothyroidism significantly improved their physical performance when normal TSH levels were reached. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognostic Importance of Pretransplant Functional Capacity After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Jones, Lee W; Devlin, Sean M; Maloy, Molly A; Wood, William A; Tuohy, Sharlynn; Espiritu, Noel; Aquino, Jennifer; Kendig, Tiffany; Michalski, Meghan G; Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Schaffer, Wendy L; Ali, Benzar; Giralt, Sergio; Jakubowski, Ann A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic importance of functional capacity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for hematological malignancies. Using a retrospective design, 407 patients completed a 6-minute walk distance (6 MWD) test to assess functional capacity before HCT; 193 (47%) completed a 6 MWD test after hospital discharge. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS) according to the 6 MWD category (interval, 0.44-0.96) for a 6 MWD ≥ 400 m. A 6 MWD of ≥ 400 m provided incremental information on the prediction of NRM with adjustment for age (p = .032) but not KPS alone (p = .062) or adjustment for other prognostic markers (p = .099). A significant association was found between the 6 MWD and OS (p = .027). A 6 MWD of ≥ 400 m provided incremental information on the prediction of OS with adjustment for age (p = .032) but not for other prognostic markers (p > .05 for all). Patients presenting with a pre-HCT 6 MWD of information beyond that of traditional prognostic markers in HCT. The pretransplant 6-minute walk test is a significant univariate predictor of clinical outcomes in hematological patients beyond age but not beyond that of performance status. On this basis, 6-minute walk distance testing should not be considered part of the standard battery of assessments for risk stratification before hematopoietic cell transplantation. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Effects of resistance training, detraining, and retraining on strength and functional capacity in elderly.

    Sakugawa, Raphael Luiz; Moura, Bruno Monteiro; Orssatto, Lucas Bet da Rosa; Bezerra, Ewertton de Souza; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2018-05-17

    The interruption of training (detraining) results in loss of the gains acquired. Partial retention could occur after detraining, and variation in training stimuli may optimize retraining adaptations. To evaluate the effect of a resistance-retraining program on strength and functional capacity performance after a detraining period. Ten elderly men and women (63-68 years) completed 12 weeks of training, 16 weeks of detraining, and 8 weeks of retraining. One-repetition maximum (1-RM) at 45° leg press, maximum isometric knee extension torque, rate of torque development (RTD), 30-s sit-to-stand, timed up and go, and stair ascent and descent tests were assessed. The 1-RM increased after training (p training (p training period (p > 0.05). For RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand, there was an increase after retraining when compared to pre-training values (p training and post-training periods (p functional capacity at the same level obtained after a detraining period. The inclusion of an explosive strength session in retraining period improves RTD and 30-s sit-to-stand performance and can accelerate the recovery of strength after a detraining period.

  12. Functional residual capacity increase during laparoscopic surgery with abdominal wall lift

    Hiroshi Ueda

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: The number of laparoscopic surgeries performed is increasing every year and in most cases the pneumoperitoneum method is used. One alternative is the abdominal wall lifting method and this study was undertaken to evaluate changes of functional residual capacity during the abdominal wall lift procedure. Methods: From January to April 2013, 20 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a single institution. All patients were anesthetized using propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. FRC was measured automatically by Engstrom Carestation before the abdominal wall lift and again 15 minutes after the start of the procedure. Results: After abdominal wall lift, there was a significant increase in functional residual capacity values (before abdominal wall lift 1.48 × 103 mL, after abdominal wall lift 1.64 × 103 mL (p < 0.0001. No complications such as desaturation were observed in any patient during this study. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery with abdominal wall lift may be appropriate for patients who have risk factors such as obesity and respiratory disease.

  13. The dynamic functional capacity theory: A neuropsychological model of intense emotions

    Philip C. Klineburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The music-evoked emotion literature implicates many brain regions involved in emotional processing but is currently lacking a model that specifically explains how they temporally and dynamically interact to produce intensely pleasurable emotions. A conceptual model, the dynamic functional capacity theory (DFCT, is proposed and provides a foundation for the further understanding of how brain regions interact to produce intensely pleasurable emotions. The DFCT claims that brain regions mediating emotion and arousal regulation have a limited functional capacity that can be exceeded by intense stimuli. The prefrontal cortex is hypothesized to abruptly deactivate when this happens, resulting in the inhibitory release of sensory cortices, the limbic system, the reward-circuit, and the brainstem reticular activating system, causing “unbridled” activation of these areas. This process is hypothesized to produce extremely intense emotions. This theory may provide—music-evoked emotion researchers and music therapy researchers—a theoretical foundation for continued research and complement current theories of emotion.

  14. Requirement of the Epithelium-specific Ets Transcription Factor Spdef for Mucous Gland Cell Function in the Gastric Antrum*

    Horst, David; Gu, Xuesong; Bhasin, Manoj; Yang, Quanli; Verzi, Michael; Lin, Dongxu; Joseph, Marie; Zhang, Xiaobo; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Libermann, Towia A.

    2010-01-01

    Mucus-secreting cells of the stomach epithelium provide a protective barrier against damage that might result from bacterial colonization or other stimuli. Impaired barrier function contributes to chronic inflammation and cancer. Knock-out mice for the epithelium-specific transcription factor Spdef (also called Pdef) have defects in terminal differentiation of intestinal and bronchial secretory cells. We sought to determine the physiologic function of Spdef in the stomach, another site of sig...

  15. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  16. Exocrine glands in the legs of the social wasp Vespula vulgaris.

    Nijs, Catherine; Billen, Johan

    2015-09-01

    This study brings a survey of the exocrine glands in the legs of Vespula vulgaris wasps. We studied workers, males, virgin queens as well as mated queens. A variety of 17 glands is found in the different leg segments. Among these, five glands are novel exocrine structures for social insects (trochanter-femur gland, ventrodistal tibial gland, distal tibial sac gland, ventral tibial gland, and ventral tarsomere gland). Most leg glands are present in the three leg pairs of all castes. This may indicate a mechanical function. This is likely for the numerous glands that occur near the articulation between the various leg segments, where lubricant production may be expected. Other possible functions include antenna cleaning, acting as a hydraulic system, or pheromonal. Further research including leg-related behavioural observations and chemical analyses may help to clarify the functions of these glandular structures in the legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Functional Capacity and Levels of Physical Activity in Aging: A 3-Year Follow-up.

    Tomás, Maria Teresa; Galán-Mercant, Alejandro; Carnero, Elvis Alvarez; Fernandes, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, the world elderly population has increased exponentially and this tendency will continue during the coming years; from 2000 to 2050, people over 60 will double and those over 80 will quadruple. Loss of independence occurs as people age due to mobility restrictions, frailty, and decreased functional fitness and cognitive abilities. Evidence has shown that appropriate programs and policies contribute to keep older adults healthy and independent over time. The purpose of this chapter is to report the results of our 3-year follow-up study designed to characterize functional physical fitness in a sample of Portuguese community-dwelling older adults to propose a set of functional parameters that decline the most. We studied a group of 43 elderly people, aged 60 and over. Variables assessed on the participants were anthropometric measurements, functional capacity with the Senior Fitness Test battery (muscle strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility, agility, and dynamic balance), handgrip strength, levels of physical activity, and balance. Three years after the first assessment, a second assessment of the same variables was conducted. We analyzed what were the variables that, for this group, were related with a healthier aging and the relation with different physical activity levels. Our study showed that the distance covered in 6-min walk test and handgrip strength seem to explain a great amount of variability on functional variables that have changed on this period (68% of balance, lower and upper functional strength, respectively) and the active participants showed less decrements with aging in anthropometric and functional variables than those inactive or insufficiently active ( p  activities should be given more attention as components of a community exercise program.

  19. Functional Capacity and Levels of Physical Activity in Aging: A 3-Year Follow-up

    Maria Teresa Tomás

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the world elderly population has increased exponentially and this tendency will continue during the coming years; from 2000 to 2050, people over 60 will double and those over 80 will quadruple. Loss of independence occurs as people age due to mobility restrictions, frailty, and decreased functional fitness and cognitive abilities. Evidence has shown that appropriate programs and policies contribute to keep older adults healthy and independent over time. The purpose of this chapter is to report the results of our 3-year follow-up study designed to characterize functional physical fitness in a sample of Portuguese community-dwelling older adults to propose a set of functional parameters that decline the most. We studied a group of 43 elderly people, aged 60 and over. Variables assessed on the participants were anthropometric measurements, functional capacity with the Senior Fitness Test battery (muscle strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility, agility, and dynamic balance, handgrip strength, levels of physical activity, and balance. Three years after the first assessment, a second assessment of the same variables was conducted. We analyzed what were the variables that, for this group, were related with a healthier aging and the relation with different physical activity levels. Our study showed that the distance covered in 6-min walk test and handgrip strength seem to explain a great amount of variability on functional variables that have changed on this period (68% of balance, lower and upper functional strength, respectively and the active participants showed less decrements with aging in anthropometric and functional variables than those inactive or insufficiently active (p < 0.05. Greater importance should be given to prescription of exercise targeting older adults and, specifically, walking and manual activities should be given more attention as components of a community exercise program.

  20. Neuropsychological predictors of performance-based measures of functional capacity and social skills in individuals with severe mental illness.

    Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Burton, Cynthia Z; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2018-04-13

    Neuropsychological abilities may underlie successful performance of everyday functioning and social skills. We aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological predictors of performance-based functional capacity and social skills performance across the spectrum of severe mental illness (SMI). Unemployed outpatients with SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression; n = 151) were administered neuropsychological (expanded MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B), and social skills (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA) assessments. Bivariate correlations between neuropsychological performance and UPSA-B and SSPA total scores showed that most neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with each performance-based measure. Forward entry stepwise regression analyses were conducted entering education, diagnosis, symptom severity, and neuropsychological performance as predictors of functional capacity and social skills. Diagnosis, working memory, sustained attention, and category and letter fluency emerged as significant predictors of functional capacity, in a model that explained 43% of the variance. Negative symptoms, sustained attention, and letter fluency were significant predictors of social skill performance, in a model explaining 35% of the variance. Functional capacity is positively associated with neuropsychological functioning, but diagnosis remains strongly influential, with mood disorder participants outperforming those with psychosis. Social skill performance appears to be positively associated with sustained attention and verbal fluency regardless of diagnosis; however, negative symptom severity strongly predicts social skills performance. Improving neuropsychological functioning may improve psychosocial functioning in people with SMI. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Functional mental capacity, treatment as usual and time: magnitude of change in secure hospital patients with major mental illness.

    Dornan, Julieanne

    2015-01-01

    Decision making ability can change with time, depending on mental or physical health. Little is known about the factors that determine this change and the relationship of capacity to time. As a pilot for studies using functional mental capacities as an outcome measure, we sought to quantify this relationship measuring change over time using competence assessment tools, and rating scales for symptoms and global function.

  2. Functional capacity associated with work ability in older university staff employed by the state

    Juleimar Soares Coelho de Amorim

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The increase in numbers of older adults in the workplace and in the number of years they spend in work prior to retiring has challenged health professionals to provide enable health conditions such that they may undertake occupational activity. Objective: To analyze the variables for functional ability, associated with work ability, in older adults who were government employees at a university. Methods: A cross-sectional design, with older workers aged 60 years old or over, located in different university centers and departments. A structured sociodemographic questionnaire was used to characterize the sample, and the Work Ability Index was used as an outcome variable for the associations, using the Timed Up and Go test, the handgrip strength test, the walking speed test and the chair sit to stand test. The Chi-squared test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used in the statistical analysis. The association of the factors of functional capacity was based on the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, calculated using the Logistic Regression Model, as part of the SPSS statistical package for Windows. Results: A total of 258 staff participated in the investigation, with men (57.7% and a lower age range (60 to 62 years old predominating. Women differed in relation to falls after the age of 60 (p = 0.007 and in the last 12 months (p = 0.017. The mean Work Ability Index was 39.70 ± 5.64 points and a statistical association was ascertained between performance in the chair sit to stand test (OR = 2.26; p = 0.043. Muscle strength (r = 0.72; p < 0.000 and the chair sit to stand test (r = 0.73; p < 0.000 showed excellent correlation with work ability. Conclusion: The variables for functional capacity were associated with work ability.

  3. Functional capacity, independence and home affordances of premature children attending daycare centers

    Marcela Tamiasso Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Child development is the result of the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the Functional Capacity, Independence and Home Affordances Level of Stimulation of premature children between 18 and 42 months, attending or not daycare centers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 26 premature children between 18 and 42 months, paired and divided into two groups: attending (study group and not attending daycare centers (control group. Data was collected from the questionnaires AHEMD-SR, PEDI and an identification questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistics, and Chi-square, Fisher, Mann-Whitney and Univariate Analysis tests, considering the level of significance of α = 0.05 and tendency of differentiation when α < 010. Results: There was a significant difference in the AHEMD-SR`s Variety of Stimulation (p = 0.036, higher in the control group, and tendency in the Gross Motor Toys (p = 0.086, more available in the study group. In PEDI, there was significant difference in Self-care (p = 0.045 and tendency of differentiation in Mobility (0.068, both of the Caregiver Assistance part (greater to the study. The sample showed low stimulation opportunities regarding Fine and Gross Motor Toys and high percentages of delay in Functional Skills (Mobility and Independence (Self Care and Mobility, especially in the control group. Conclusion: Daycare centers seem to positively affect the Functional Capacity and Independence in premature children between 18 and 42 months.

  4. Probing the early development of visual working memory capacity with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Buss, Aaron T; Fox, Nicholas; Boas, David A; Spencer, John P

    2014-01-15

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a core cognitive system with a highly limited capacity. The present study is the first to examine VWM capacity limits in early development using functional neuroimaging. We recorded optical neuroimaging data while 3- and 4-year-olds completed a change detection task where they detected changes in the shapes of objects after a brief delay. Near-infrared sources and detectors were placed over the following 10-20 positions: F3 and F5 in left frontal cortex, F4 and F6 in right frontal cortex, P3 and P5 in left parietal cortex, and P4 and P6 in right parietal cortex. The first question was whether we would see robust task-specific activation of the frontal-parietal network identified in the adult fMRI literature. This was indeed the case: three left frontal channels and 11 of 12 parietal channels showed a statistically robust difference between the concentration of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin following the presentation of the sample array. Moreover, four channels in the left hemisphere near P3, P5, and F5 showed a robust increase as the working memory load increased from 1 to 3 items. Notably, the hemodynamic response did not asymptote at 1-2 items as expected from previous fMRI studies with adults. Finally, 4-year-olds showed a more robust parietal response relative to 3-year-olds, and an increasing sensitivity to the memory load manipulation. These results demonstrate that fNIRS is an effective tool to study the neural processes that underlie the early development of VWM capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thyroid Gland in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    B T Turumhambetova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the main parameters of thyroid status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as particularities of course of this disease depending on of thyroid gland function disorder. Materials and methods. 52 women with RA were examined. The first group consisted of 11 women with subclinical and manifestive hypothyroidism the second one 41 women without thyroid gland function disorder. The group comparison was conducted on main indexes of thyroid gland condition the hormon level, AT-TPO, ultrasonic data, as well as clinical and laboratory RA data. Results. In women with hypothyroidism the systemic manifestations of RA were more often truely diagnosed; DAS28 indexes, ESR, the number ot swollen joints were higher. The high level ot AT-TPO was diagnosed in 54,55% – I group and in 31,7% – II group TTG level was really less in patients receiving synthetic glycocorticoids. Small thyroid gland volume was diagnosed in 23,07% of examined patients. The thyroid gland status indexes in them did not differ from patients with normal thyroid gland volume. Reliable increasing of the peripheral resistance index was revealed in lower thyroid artery according to the ultrasonic study data under the reduced thyroid gland size. Conclusions. High incidence of hypothyroidism and AT-TPO carriage in RA was revealed. Hypothyroidism development is accompanied by high clinic-laboratory RA activity. The reduction of the thyroid gland volumes in RA is possibly stipulated not only by autoimmunal pathology, but also chronic ischemia of the organ in the conditions of immune-complex vasculitis and early atherosclerosis. The TTG level in patients with RA is defined not only by pathology of the thyroid gland, but glycocorticoid therapy as well.

  6. Ligation of the left renal vein in epm1-wistar rats: functional and morphologic alterations in the kidneys, testes and suprarenal glands

    José Carlos Costa Baptista-Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ligation of the left renal vein (LLVR in man is a contraversial procedure in view of the risks of lesion to the renal parenchyma. With the objective of studying the morphologic and functional alterations caused by these lesions, we conducted experimental research with rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 64 male adult EPM1-WISTAR rats were used, divided into 8 groups - 4 for LLRV and four for control. Each LLRV group and corresponding control group were sacrificed progressively on the 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th day after the initial surgery. RESULTS: We found morphofunctional alterations only in animals that underwent LLRV in the four periods of sacrifice.The proteinuria creatinine in serum, testosterone in serum and serum corticosterone in serum showed practically no alteration in relation to the normal values for rats. Statistically significant severe histological lesions were found in the kidneys and testes of the LLRV groups. Lesions in the suprarenal glands were also present in these groups, but no sufficient to demonstrate statistical significance CONCLUSION: Based on these results we can conclude that the ligation of the left renal vein is a procedure of high risk in these animals.

  7. Associations between Depressive State and Impaired Higher-Level Functional Capacity in the Elderly with Long-Term Care Requirements.

    Ogata, Soshiro; Hayashi, Chisato; Sugiura, Keiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Depressive state has been reported to be significantly associated with higher-level functional capacity among community-dwelling elderly. However, few studies have investigated the associations among people with long-term care requirements. We aimed to investigate the associations between depressive state and higher-level functional capacity and obtain marginal odds ratios using propensity score analyses in people with long-term care requirements. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on participants aged ≥ 65 years (n = 545) who were community dwelling and used outpatient care services for long-term preventive care. We measured higher-level functional capacity, depressive state, and possible confounders. Then, we estimated the marginal odds ratios (i.e., the change in odds of impaired higher-level functional capacity if all versus no participants were exposed to depressive state) by logistic models using generalized linear models with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) for propensity score and design-based standard errors. Depressive state was used as the exposure variable and higher-level functional capacity as the outcome variable. The all absolute standardized differences after the IPTW using the propensity scores were functional capacity.

  8. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  9. The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    Křížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  11. Salivary Gland Cancer

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  12. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report

    Stokić Edita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  13. Postural Stability and Functional Capacity in Recreational Athletes with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    SAKA, Tolga; YILDIZ, Yavuz; DENİZ, Ferhat

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate postural stability and functional capacity in recreational athletes with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1 DM) and to compare them with healthy recreational athletes. Materials and Methods: Sixteen recreational athletes with T1 DM (21.4 ± 2.1 years of age, 174.3 ± 7 cm height, 64.5 ± 10.1 kg weight, 10.9 ± 5.3 body fat percentage [BFP]) and 19 healthy recreational athletes (21.9 ± 2.5 years of age, 173.1 ± 5.2 cm height, 66.1 ± 4 kg weight, 14.4 ± 1.5 B...

  14. Training improves oxidative capacity, but not function, in spinal muscular atrophy type III

    Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Hansen, Regitze Sølling; Preisler, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    max (17 ± 2 to 21 ± 2 ml/kg/min, P sleep in 3 patients, and led to training modifications in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cycle exercise improves VO2max in SMA III without causing muscle...... a 12-week training program, performing 42 30-minute sessions exercising at 65-70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). VO2max , muscle strength, functional tests, and self-reported activities of daily living were assessed before and after the training. RESULTS: Training induced a 27 ± 3% increase in VO2...... damage, but it also induces significant fatigue. This warrants study into alternative training methods to improve exercise capacity in SMA III patients....

  15. Fractionated stereotactically guided radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the treatment of functional and nonfunctional adenomas of the pituitary gland

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie; Debus, Juergen; Thilmann, Christoph; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated survival rates and side effects after fractionated stereotactically guided radiotherapy (SCRT) and radiosurgery in patients with pituitary adenoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 1998, 68 patients were treated with FSRT (n=63) or radiosurgery (n=5) for pituitary adenomas. Twenty-six had functional and 42 had nonfunctional adenomas. Follow-up included CT/MRI, endocrinologic, and ophthalmologic examinations. Mean follow-up was 38.7 months. Seven patients received radiotherapy as primary treatment and 39 patients received it postoperatively for residual disease. Twenty-two patients were treated for recurrent disease after surgery. Mean total dose was 52.2 Gy for SCRT, and 15 Gy for radiosurgery. Results: Overall local tumor control was 93% (60/65 patients). Forty-three patients had stable disease based on CT/MRI, while 15 had a reduction of tumor volume. After FSRT, 26% with a functional adenoma had a complete remission and 19% had a reduction of hormonal overproduction after 34 months' mean. Two patients with STH-secreting adenomas had an endocrinologic recurrence, one with an ACTH-secreting adenoma radiologic recurrence, within 54 months. Reduction of visual acuity was seen in 4 patients and partial hypopituitarism in 3 patients. None of the patients developed brain radionecrosis or radiation-induced gliomas. Conclusion: Stereotactically guided radiotherapy is effective and safe in the treatment of pituitary adenomas to improve local control and reduce hormonal overproduction

  16. Improved functional capacity evaluation performance predicts successful return to work one year after completing a functional restoration rehabilitation program.

    Fore, Lisa; Perez, Yoheli; Neblett, Randy; Asih, Sali; Mayer, Tom G; Gatchel, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether functional capacity evaluation (FCE) scores are responsive to functional restoration treatment, and to assess the ability of FCEs at program discharge to predict work outcomes. An interdisciplinary cohort study of prospectively collected data. A functional restoration center. A consecutive sample of 354 patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMDs) completed a functional restoration program consisting of quantitatively directed exercise progression and multi-modal disability management with interdisciplinary medical supervision. Each patient participated in an FCE at admission and discharge from treatment. The results of each FCE yielded the physical demand level (PDL) at which patients were functioning. Patients were initially divided into 5 PDL groups, based on job-of-injury lifting, carrying, and pushing/pulling requirements, for the pre- to posttreatment responsiveness analyses. Patients were subsequently divided into 5 PDL groups, based on their performance on the FCE upon program completion. Outcome measures included admission-to-discharge changes in PDLs and 2 specific FCE lifting tasks: isokinetic lifting; and the Progressive Isoinertial Lifting Evaluation (PILE). Socioeconomic outcomes were also evaluated, including post-discharge work return and work retention 1-year after treatment completion. Overall, 96% of the patients demonstrated improvement in their PDLs from admission to discharge. A majority of patients (56%) were able to achieve a discharge PDL that was comparable to their estimated job-of-injury lifting requirement or higher (P work return (P work retention (P work return after treatment completion and work retention 1 year later. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  18. Capacity of the legal framework of public health institutions in Mexico to support their functional integration

    Ignacio Ibarra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the capacity of the federal legal framework to govern financing of health institutions in the public sector through innovative schemes –otherwise known as functional integration–, enabling them to purchase and sell health services to and from other public providers as a strategy to improve their performance. Materials and methods. Based on indicators of normative alignment with respect to functional integration across public health provider and governance institutions, content analysis was undertaken of national health programs and relevant laws and guidelines for financial coordination. Results. Significant progress was identified in the implementation of agreements for the coordination of public institutions. While the legal framework provides for a National Health System and a health sector, gaps and contradictions limit their scope. The General Register of Health is also moving forward, yet it lacks the necessary legal foundation to become a comprehensive tool for integration. The medical service exchange agreements are also moving forward based on tariffs and shared guidelines. However, there is a lack of incentives to promote the expansion of these agreements. Conclusions. It is recommended to update the legal framework for the coordination of the National Health System, ensuring a more harmonious and general focus to provide functional integration with the needed impulse.

  19. Implications of Functional Capacity Loss and Fatality for Vehicle Safety Prioritization.

    McMurry, Timothy L; Sherwood, Chris; Poplin, Gerald S; Seguí-Gómez, María; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the use of the Functional Capacity Index (FCI) as a tool for establishing vehicle safety priorities by comparing the life year burden of injuries to the burden of fatality in frontal and side automotive crashes. We demonstrate FCI's utility by investigating in detail the resulting disabling injuries and their life year costs. We selected occupants in the 2000-2013 NASS-CDS database involved in frontal and side crashes, merged their injuries with FCI, and then used the merged data to estimate each occupant's overall functional loss. Lifetime functional loss was assessed by combining this measure of impairment with the occupants' expected future life spans, estimated from the Social Security Administration's Actuarial Life Table. Frontal crashes produce a large number of disabling injuries, particularly to the lower extremities. In our population, these crashes are estimated to account for approximately 400,000 life years lost to disability in comparison with 500,000 life years lost to fatality. Victims of side crashes experienced a higher rate of fatality but a significantly lower rate of disabling injury (0.3 vs. 1.0%), resulting in approximately 370,000 life years lost to fatality versus 50,000 life years lost to disability. The burden of disabling injuries to car crash survivors should be considered when setting vehicle safety design priorities. In frontal crashes this burden in life years is similar to the burden attributable to fatality.

  20. Do attentional capacities and processing speed mediate the effect of age on executive functioning?

    Gilsoul, Jessica; Simon, Jessica; Hogge, Michaël; Collette, Fabienne

    2018-02-06

    The executive processes are well known to decline with age, and similar data also exists for attentional capacities and processing speed. Therefore, we investigated whether these two last nonexecutive variables would mediate the effect of age on executive functions (inhibition, shifting, updating, and dual-task coordination). We administered a large battery of executive, attentional and processing speed tasks to 104 young and 71 older people, and we performed mediation analyses with variables showing a significant age effect. All executive and processing speed measures showed age-related effects while only the visual scanning task performance (selective attention) was explained by age when controlled for gender and educational level. Regarding mediation analyses, visual scanning partially mediated the age effect on updating while processing speed partially mediated the age effect on shifting, updating and dual-task coordination. In a more exploratory way, inhibition was also found to partially mediate the effect of age on the three other executive functions. Attention did not greatly influence executive functioning in aging while, in agreement with the literature, processing speed seems to be a major mediator of the age effect on these processes. Interestingly, the global pattern of results seems also to indicate an influence of inhibition but further studies are needed to confirm the role of that variable as a mediator and its relative importance by comparison with processing speed.

  1. Prospective longitudinal assessment of parotid gland function using dynamic quantitative pertechnate scintigraphy and estimation of dose–response relationship of parotid-sparing radiotherapy in head-neck cancers

    Gupta, Tejpal; Hotwani, Chandni; Kannan, Sadhana; Master, Zubin; Rangarajan, Venkatesh; Murthy, Vedang; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Agarwal, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    To estimate dose–response relationship using dynamic quantitative 99m Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy in head-neck cancer patients treated with parotid-sparing conformal radiotherapy. Dynamic quantitative pertechnate salivary scintigraphy was performed pre-treatment and subsequently periodically after definitive radiotherapy. Reduction in salivary function following radiotherapy was quantified by salivary excretion fraction (SEF) ratios. Dose–response curves were modeled using standardized methodology to calculate tolerance dose 50 (TD50) for parotid glands. Salivary gland function was significantly affected by radiotherapy with maximal decrease in SEF ratios at 3-months, with moderate functional recovery over time. There was significant inverse correlation between SEF ratios and mean parotid doses at 3-months (r = −0.589, p < 0.001); 12-months (r = −0.554, p < 0.001); 24-months (r = −0.371, p = 0.002); and 36-months (r = −0.350, p = 0.005) respectively. Using a post-treatment SEF ratio <45% as the scintigraphic criteria to define severe salivary toxicity, the estimated TD50 value with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the parotid gland was 35.1Gy (23.6-42.6Gy), 41.3Gy (34.6-48.8Gy), 55.9Gy (47.4-70.0Gy) and 64.3Gy (55.8-70.0Gy) at 3, 12, 24, and 36-months respectively. There is consistent decline in parotid function even after conformal radiotherapy with moderate recovery over time. Dynamic quantitative pertechnate scintigraphy is a simple, reproducible, and minimally invasive test of major salivary gland function. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0371-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  2. Effect of gold and silver nanoparticles on the morpho-functional state of the epididymis and prostate gland in rats

    V. Y. Kalynovskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metals are widely used in modern medicine: iron, copper, zinc, vanadium, titanium – all of them are vital for treatment of different diseases. Recently a new field of medical technology has emerged, which focuses on the biomedical application of metallic nanoparticles, with a particular interest in a gold and silver-based materials. These structures are already used for photothermal anticancer therapy, drug delivery, bioimaging, radiosensitizers and as drugs themselves. Despite the wide usage of nanoparticles, we still don’t know much about the toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanotoxicological studies are mainly carried out in vitro, but in vivo effects are still elusive. Hence, we focused on the reproductive toxicity of gold and silver nanosized particles. Spherical 10–15 nm gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized through the reduction of sodium tetrachloroaurate (III and silver nitrate respectively with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium polyphosphate as a coating and stabilizing agent. Next, these particles were administered intraperitoneally to the young and adult animals (1- and 6-months old respectively at 1 mg/kg dose for 10 days. As quantitative markers of functional activity, we used the diameter of epididymal tubules, height and the nuclear cross-section of epididymal epitheliocytes and relative volume of the prostatic epithelium. We showed that intraperitoneal administrations of nanogold to young animals caused no significant histological changes, although we found a decrease in the nuclear cross-sectional area of epididymal epitheliocytes. At the same time, nanogold caused more morphometric changes in adult animals. Similar results were obtained from the nanosilver groups. Silver nanoparticles caused an observable decrease of sperm quantity in the lumen of epididymal tubules with a simultaneous increase in the number of extraepididymal cells in young animals. Morphometric parameters of the epididymis and prostate also

  3. Optimal timing and frequency of bone marrow soup therapy for functional restoration of salivary glands injured by single-dose or fractionated irradiation.

    Fang, Dongdong; Shang, Sixia; Liu, Younan; Bakkar, Mohammed; Sumita, Yoshinori; Seuntjens, Jan; Tran, Simon D

    2018-02-01

    Injections of bone marrow (BM) cell extract, known as 'BM soup', were previously reported to mitigate ionizing radiation (IR) injury to salivary glands (SGs). However, the optimal starting time and frequency to maintain BM soup therapeutic efficacy remains unknown. This study tested the optimal starting time and frequency of BM soup injections in mice radiated with either a single dose or a fractionated dose. First, BM soup treatment was started at 1, 3 or 7 weeks post-IR; positive (non-IR) and negative (IR) control mice received injections of saline (vehicle control). Second, BM soup-treated mice received injections at different frequencies (1, 2, 3 and 5 weekly injections). Third, a 'fractionated-dose radiation' model to injure mouse SGs was developed (5 Gy × 5 days) and compared with the single high dose radiation model. All mice (n = 65) were followed for 16 weeks post-IR. The results showed that starting injections of BM soup between 1 and 3 weeks mitigated the effect of IR-induced injury to SGs and improved the restoration of salivary function. Although the therapeutic effect of BM soup lessens after 8 weeks, it can be sustained by increasing the frequency of weekly injections. Moreover, both single-dose and fractionated-dose radiation models are efficient and comparable in inducing SG injury and BM soup treatments are effective in restoring salivary function in both radiation models. In conclusion, starting injections of BM soup within 3 weeks post-radiation, with 5 weekly injections, maintains 90-100% of saliva flow in radiated mice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Quality of life and functional capacity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - Cross-sectional study.

    Rosa-Gonçalves, Diana; Bernardes, Miguel; Costa, Lúcia

    2017-04-08

    To analyze the Health related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and physical function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and compare it with the general population. We also intended to analyze about disease activity influence in HRQoL and functional capacity, as well as determine potential determinants for these outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in RA patients from a university hospital of Portugal. We obtained Short Form 36, EuroQoL 5D, health assessment questionnaire, visual analog scale for pain and patient's assessment of disease activity. Comparisons between SF-36 and EQ-5D values with our population reference values were conducted using the Mann-Whitney test. Data were compared in different levels of disease activity, using Kruskal Wallis test and Fisher's exact test. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the potential determinants of outcomes. RA sample showed significantly lower values than the portuguese general population on physical summary measure of SF-36 (median=32 vs. 50, p<0.001) and EQ-5D (median=0.620 vs. 0.758 respectively; p<0.001). Lower disease activity levels had better PROs and this was true even when compared patients achieving remission with those in low disease activity. The HAQ (r 2 =67%), VAS-P (r 2 =62%) and VAS-DA (r 2 =58%) were the variables that strongly related to SF-36. Considering HAQ, the strongest relation was found with VAS-P, VAS-DA and age (r 2 =60%, 61% and 33%, respectively). Multiple regression analysis identified HAQ, VAS-P and educational status as determinants of the HRQoL; age, female gender, employment, VAS-P and VAS-DA as determinants of physical function. Impairment of HRQoL in RA patients is enormous. We found significant differences between different levels of disease activity, showing higher HRQoL and functional capacity at lower disease activity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights

  5. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  7. Self-Reported Functional Status as Predictor of Observed Functional Capacity in Subjects with Early Osteoarthritis of the Hip and Knee : A Diagnostic Study in the CHECK Cohort

    Bieleman, H. J.; Reneman, M. F.; van Ittersum, M. W.; van der Schans, C. P.; Groothoff, J. W.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) may experience functional limitations in work settings. In the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee study (CHECK) physical function was both self-reported and measured performance-based, using Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). Relations between

  8. Morphological features of the porcine lacrimal gland and its compatibility for human lacrimal gland xenografting.

    Henker, Robert; Scholz, Michael; Gaffling, Simone; Asano, Nagayoshi; Hampel, Ulrike; Garreis, Fabian; Hornegger, Joachim; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations.

  9. Morphological features of the porcine lacrimal gland and its compatibility for human lacrimal gland xenografting.

    Robert Henker

    Full Text Available In this study, we present first data concerning the anatomical structure, blood supply and location of the lacrimal gland of the pig. Our data indicate that the porcine lacrimal gland may serve as a potential xenograft candidate in humans or as an animal model for engineering of a bioartificial lacrimal gland tissue construct for clinical application. For this purpose, we used different macroscopic preparation techniques and digital reconstruction of the histological gland morphology to gain new insights and important information concerning the feasibility of a lacrimal gland transplantation from pig to humans in general. Our results show that the lacrimal gland of the pig reveals a lot of morphological similarities to the analogous human lacrimal gland and thus might be regarded as a xenograft in the future. This is true for a similar anatomical location within the orbit as well as for the feeding artery supply to the organ. Functional differences concerning the composition of the tear fluid, due to a different secretory unit distribution within the gland tissue will, however, be a challenge in future investigations.

  10. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  11. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    Pina-Guzman, B.; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, F.; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-01-01

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl-parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm, possibly via oxidative damage. This study investigated the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to be targeted by Me-Pa exposure that impact on spermatozoa function and their ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. Spermatozoa were examined for DNA damage by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (%DFI), lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production, sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 fluorochrome, and fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Alterations on DNA integrity (%DFI and NT-positive cells) in spermatozoa collected at 7 and 28 dpt, and decreases in sperm quality and induced-AR were observed; reduced MMP and LPO were observed at 7 dpt only. Negative correlations between LPO and sperm alterations were found. Altered sperm functional parameters evaluated either in vitro or in vivo were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism of the detrimental effects of Me-Pa exposure in male germ cells.

  12. Exposure to Cooking Fumes and Acute Reversible Decrement in Lung Functional Capacity.

    Neghab, Masoud; Delikhoon, Mahdieh; Norouzian Baghani, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2017-10-01

    Being exposed to cooking fumes, kitchen workers are occupationally at risk of multiple respiratory hazards. No conclusive evidence exists as to whether occupational exposure to these fumes is associated with acute and chronic pulmonary effects and symptoms of respiratory diseases. To quantify the exposure levels and evaluate possible chronic and acute pulmonary effects associated with exposure to cooking fumes. In this cross-sectional study, 60 kitchen workers exposed to cooking fumes and 60 unexposed employees were investigated. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among these groups was determined through completion of a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function parameters were also measured before and after participants' work shift. Moreover, air samples were collected and analyzed to quantify their aldehyde, particle, and volatile organic contents. The mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein was 0.45 (SD 0.41), 0.13 (0.1), and 1.56 (0.41) mg/m 3 , respectively. The mean atmospheric concentrations of PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 7 , PM 10 , and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was 3.31 (2.6), 12.21 (5.9), 44.16 (16.6), 57 (21.55) μg/m 3 , and 1.31 (1.11) mg/m 3 , respectively. All respiratory symptoms were significantly (pcooking fumes is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.

  13. Altered emotion regulation capacity in social phobia as a function of comorbidity.

    Burklund, Lisa J; Craske, Michelle G; Taylor, Shelley E; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2015-02-01

    Social phobia (SP) has been associated with amygdala hyperreactivity to fear-relevant stimuli. However, little is known about the neural basis of SP individuals' capacity to downregulate their responses to such stimuli and how such regulation varies as a function of comorbid depression and anxiety. We completed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study wherein SP participants without comorbidity (n = 30), with comorbid depression (n = 18) and with comorbid anxiety (n = 19) and healthy controls (n = 15) were scanned while completing an affect labeling emotion regulation task. Individuals with SP as a whole exhibited a reversal of the pattern observed in healthy controls in that they showed upregulation of amygdala activity during affect labeling. However, subsequent analyses revealed a more complex picture based on comorbidity type. Although none of the SP subgroups showed the normative pattern of amygdala downregulation, it was those with comorbid depression specifically who showed significant upregulation. Effects could not be attributed to differences in task performance, amygdala reactivity or right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (RVLPFC) engagement, but may stem from dysfunctional communication between amygdala and RVLPFC. Furthermore, the particularly altered emotion regulation seen in those with comorbid depression could not be fully explained by symptom severity or state anxiety. Results reveal altered emotion regulation in SP, especially when comorbid with depression. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effects of a multimodal exercise program on the functional capacity of Parkinson's disease patients considering disease severity and gender

    Diego Orcioli-Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multimodal exercise program (MEP on the functional capacity of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD according to disease severity and gender. Fourteen patients with PD participated in the study and were distributed into groups according to 1 stage of disease and 2 gender. Functional capacity was evaluated before and after 6 months of intervention. The overall PD patient group improved their coordination and strength. Men and women improved in strength performance after exercise. Men also improved on coordination. For severity of disease, the unilateral group improved in strength, while the bilateral group improved in strength, balance, coordination and the UPDRS-functional score. In conclusion, a MEP is efficient in improving components of functional capacity in patients with PD, especially in strength. Gender may be considered in the exercise program. Individuals in the bilateral disease group appeared to benefit more from exercise.

  15. Structure-function relationships in reconstituted HDL: Focus on antioxidative activity and cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Cukier, Alexandre M O; Therond, Patrice; Didichenko, Svetlana A; Guillas, Isabelle; Chapman, M John; Wright, Samuel D; Kontush, Anatol

    2017-09-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) contains multiple components that endow it with biological activities. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and surface phospholipids contribute to these activities; however, structure-function relationships in HDL particles remain incompletely characterised. Reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) were prepared from apoA-I and soy phosphatidylcholine (PC) at molar ratios of 1:50, 1:100 and 1:150. Oxidative status of apoA-I was varied using controlled oxidation of Met112 residue. HDL-mediated inactivation of PC hydroperoxides (PCOOH) derived from mildly pre-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was evaluated by HPLC with chemiluminescent detection in HDL+LDL mixtures and re-isolated LDL. Cellular cholesterol efflux was characterised in RAW264.7 macrophages. rHDL inactivated LDL-derived PCOOH in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The capacity of rHDL to both inactivate PCOOH and efflux cholesterol via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) increased with increasing apoA-I/PC ratio proportionally to the apoA-I content in rHDL. Controlled oxidation of apoA-I Met112 gradually decreased PCOOH-inactivating capacity of rHDL but increased ABCA1-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux. Increasing apoA-I content in rHDL enhanced its antioxidative activity towards oxidized LDL and cholesterol efflux capacity via ABCA1, whereas oxidation of apoA-I Met112 decreased the antioxidative activity but increased the cholesterol efflux. These findings provide important considerations in the design of future HDL therapeutics. Non-standard abbreviations and acronyms: AAPH, 2,2'-azobis(-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride; ABCA1, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1; apoA-I, apolipoprotein A-I; BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene; CV, cardiovascular; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LOOH, lipid hydroperoxides; Met(O), methionine sulfoxide; Met112, methionine 112 residue; Met86, methionine 86 residue; oxLDL, oxidized low

  16. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature.

    Maagaard, Marie; Heiberg, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) often describe improvements in exercise stamina following corrective surgery. Studies have investigated the surgical effect on physiological parameters; still, no consensus has yet been reached. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to describe the cardiac outcome after surgical correction, both at rest and during exercise. In February 2016, a detailed search of the databases PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE was performed. We assessed clinical studies that described cardiac outcomes both before and after surgical correction of PE. We only included studies reporting either pre-defined echocardiographic or exercise test parameters. No exclusion criteria or statistical analyses were applied. Twenty-one full-text articles, published between 1972 and 2016, were selected, with cohort-ranges of 3-168 patients, mean age-ranges of 5-33 years, and mean follow-up-ranges from immediately to 4 years after surgery. Twelve studies described resting cardiac parameters. Four studies measured cardiac output, where one described 36% immediate increase after surgery, one reported 15% increase after Nuss-bar removal and two found no difference. Three studies demonstrated improvement in mean stroke volume ranges of 22-34% and two studies found no difference. Fifteen studies investigated exercise capacity, with 11 considering peak O 2 pr. kg, where five studies demonstrated improvements with the mean ranging from 8% to 15% after surgery, five studies demonstrated no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac

  17. Interval and continuous exercise enhances aerobic capacity and hemodynamic function in CHF rats

    Ramiro B. Nunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of continuous versus interval aerobic exercise training on hemodynamic parameters, cardiac remodeling, and maximal exercise capacity (MEC in chronic heart failure (CHF rats.METHOD: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI surgery. Five weeks post MI, the animals were assigned to one of three groups: sedentary group (CHF-Sed, n=8, aerobic continuous training group (CHF-ACT, n=8, and aerobic interval training group (CHF-AIT, n=8. Treadmill training was performed five times a week for 8 weeks (ACT: 50 min/day at 15 m/min and AIT: 40 min/day with 8 min of warm-up at 10 m/min and exercise at 15 m/min 4×4 min interspersed with 4×4 min at 23 m/min. MEC was evaluated pre and post exercise program.RESULTS: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular mass/body mass ratio (LVM:BM, and total collagen volume fraction were lower in the trained groups compared with the sedentary group, but no difference was found between the trained groups. Systolic ventricular pressure (SVP and maximum positive derivative of LV pressure (+dP/dtmax were higher in the trained groups, but CHF-ACT showed higher +dP/dtmax compared to CHF-AIT. Both training regimens were able to increase MEC. However, the aerobic interval training was superior for improving MEC.CONCLUSION: Aerobic training is an important intervention to improve cardiac function and remodeling and physical capacity in CHF rats. Interval training is a potential strategy to maximize the results, but exercise type and intensity are still topics to be explored.

  18. Respiratory diseases and their effects on respiratory function and exercise capacity.

    Van Erck-Westergren, E; Franklin, S H; Bayly, W M

    2013-05-01

    Given that aerobic metabolism is the predominant energy pathway for most sports, the respiratory system can be a rate-limiting factor in the exercise capacity of fit and healthy horses. Consequently, respiratory diseases, even in mild forms, are potentially deleterious to any athletic performance. The functional impairment associated with a respiratory condition depends on the degree of severity of the disease and the equestrian discipline involved. Respiratory abnormalities generally result in an increase in respiratory impedance and work of breathing and a reduced level of ventilation that can be detected objectively by deterioration in breathing mechanics and arterial blood gas tensions and/or lactataemia. The overall prevalence of airway diseases is comparatively high in equine athletes and may affect the upper airways, lower airways or both. Diseases of the airways have been associated with a wide variety of anatomical and/or inflammatory conditions. In some instances, the diagnosis is challenging because conditions can be subclinical in horses at rest and become clinically relevant only during exercise. In such cases, an exercise test may be warranted in the evaluation of the patient. The design of the exercise test is critical to inducing the clinical signs of the problem and establishing an accurate diagnosis. Additional diagnostic techniques, such as airway sampling, can be valuable in the diagnosis of subclinical lower airway problems that have the capacity to impair performance. As all these techniques become more widely used in practice, they should inevitably enhance veterinarians' diagnostic capabilities and improve their assessment of treatment effectiveness and the long-term management of equine athletes. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Assessment of functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system in the context of work, daily living, and sport: A systematic review

    Wind, Haije; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to survey methods to assess the functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system within the context of work, daily activities, and sport. The following key words and synonyms were used: functional physical assessment, healthy/disabled subjects, and instruments.

  20. Time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury : a prospective cohort study

    Mueller, Gabi; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas; Hopman, Maria T E

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Multi-centre, prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: One hundred and nine subjects with recent, motor complete spinal cord injury. METHODS: Lung function and

  1. Ultrastructure of the intramandibular gland of workers and queens of the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata.

    Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F; Abdalla, Fábio C

    2011-01-01

    The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste.

  2. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  3. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables

    John P. Porcari, Lauren Probst, Karlei Forrester, Scott Doberstein, Carl Foster, Maria L. Cress, Katharina Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max, endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12 or control (n = 12 group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9% and mask (16.5% and 13.6% groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT (13.9%, power output (PO at VT (19.3%, respiratory compensation threshold (RCT (10.2%, and PO at RCT (16.4% from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170. Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone.

  4. Impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on functional capacity of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.

    Roxo, Renata Spósito; Xavier, Vivian Bertoni; Miorin, Luiz Antônio; Magalhães, Andrea Olivares; Sens, Yvoty Alves Dos Santos; Alves, Vera Lúcia Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Literature shows that patients undergoing hemodialysis present poor physical conditioning and low tolerance to exercise. They may also suffer from respiratory dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on pulmonary function and functional capacity of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Forty adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis were prospectively studied and randomized into two groups (control n = 20 and treatment n = 20). The treatment group underwent bilateral femoral quadriceps muscles electrical stimulation for 30 minutes during hemodialysis, three times per week, for two months. The patients were evaluated by pulmonary function test, maximum respiratory pressures, maximum one-repetition test, and six-minute walk test (6MWT), before and after the treatment protocol. The treatment group presented increased maximum inspiratory (MIP) (p = 0.02) and expiratory pressures (MEP) (p grupos (controle n = 20 e tratamento n = 20). O grupo tratamento realizou protocolo com estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em quadríceps femoral por 30 minutos durante a hemodiálise, três vezes por semana, durante dois meses. Todos pacientes realizaram espirometria, pressões respiratórias máximas, teste de uma repetição máxima e teste da caminhada dos seis minutos (TC6), antes e após o período de acompanhamento. O grupo tratamento apresentou aumento da pressão inspiratória máxima com p = 0,02 na comparação entre grupos e p grupo de tratamento com p grupo controle. A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular teve impacto positivo sobre a função pulmonar e a capacidade funcional levando ao melhor desempenho físico em pacientes em hemodiálise.

  5. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    ... Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Causes of adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors ...

  6. Mammary gland stem cells

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  7. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  8. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in adults with fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Saavedra, Jose M; Escalante, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia present a reduced capacity of upper and lower limb physical performance and affect their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of the present systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Keyword searches were made of seven databases. The systematic review was limited to English language studies of people with FM that evaluated the effects of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (6-minute walk test). The criteria for inclusion were satisfied by 12 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies. The main cumulative evidence indicates that the programs based on aerobic exercise alone and on aquatic exercises have large (effect size = 0.85) and moderate (effect size = 0.44) effects. Aerobic and aquatic exercises at the proper intensity favour the increased functional aerobic capacity of fibromyalgia patients; however, most works do not adequately detail the intensity of the exercises. Moderate intensity exercise (aerobic and aquatic exercise) performed at least two times per week and 30-60 minutes a day is effective for increasing functional aerobic capacity, favouring the daily activities of daily living in this population.

  9. Functional mental capacity, treatment as usual and time: magnitude of change in secure hospital patients with major mental illness.

    Dornan, Julieanne; Kennedy, Miriam; Garland, Jackie; Rutledge, Emer; Kennedy, Harry G

    2015-10-14

    Decision making ability can change with time, depending on mental or physical health. Little is known about the factors that determine this change and the relationship of capacity to time. As a pilot for studies using functional mental capacities as an outcome measure, we sought to quantify this relationship measuring change over time using competence assessment tools, and rating scales for symptoms and global function. We assessed 37 inpatients in a secure psychiatric hospital. All patients met the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fourth edition and International classification of diseases, 10th edition criteria for an Axis 1 mental illness, all with psychosis. Patients were interviewed twice a mean of 323 days apart (median 176 days range 17-1221 days). The MacArthur competence assessment tools for consent to treatment (MacCAT-T) and fitness to plead (MacCAT-FP) were used to quantify functional capacity along with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and global assessment of function (GAF) scale. A comparison was also made between those patients prescribed clozapine in comparison to other antipsychotics. The number judged by treating psychiatrists to lack capacity either to make a treatment choice or to plead in court fell from 35 to 8%. Change was greatest for those admitted within the previous 9 months. The measures of capacity improved between time 1 and time 2 for both consent to treatment and fitness to plead. The measures of capacity improved with positive symptoms within the PANSS and with GAF scores. Those with shorter lengths of stay at baseline had the greatest improvements in the MacCAT-FP scores. Effect sizes were medium or large (0.3-0.7+). As expected, patients prescribed clozapine had larger changes in functional mental capacities and larger effect sizes than those prescribed other psychotropics. The results show a strong relationship between the clinicians' assessment of capacity and structured rating scales. We

  10. Antioxidant capacity and light-aging study of HPMC films functionalized with natural plant extract.

    Akhtar, Muhammad Javeed; Jacquot, Muriel; Jasniewski, Jordane; Jacquot, Charlotte; Imran, Muhammad; Jamshidian, Majid; Paris, Cédric; Desobry, Stéphane

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this work were to functionalize edible hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films with natural coloring biomolecules having antioxidant capacity and to study their photo-aging stability in the films. HPMC films containing a natural red color compound (NRC) at the level of 1, 2, 3 or 4% (v/v) were prepared by a casting method. A slight degradation of films color was observed after 20 days of continuous light exposure. The antioxidant activity of NRC incorporated films was stable during different steps of film formation and 20 days of dark storage. On the other hand, antioxidant activity of samples stored under light was significantly affected after 20 days. FTIR (Fourier Transformed Infrared) spectroscopy was used to characterize the new phenolic polymeric structures and to study the photo-degradation of films. The results showed a good polymerization phenomenon between NRC and HPMC in polymer matrix giving a natural color to the films. NRC showed an ability to protect pure HPMC films against photo-degradation. This phenomenon was directly proportional to the concentration of NRC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [The Prognostic Validity of the Functional Capacity Evaluation ELA in Work-Related Medical Rehabilitation].

    Bühne, David; Alles, Torsten; Hetzel, Christian; Froböse, Ingo

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of FCE (Functional Capacity Evaluation) to predict sustained return-to-work (RTW). A multicentric prospective cohort study was conducted in cooperation with 4 outpatient rehabilitation clinics. The sample consisted of 198 patients. Sustained RTW was defined as a combination of employment at 3-month follow-up with a low level of sick leave (dependent variable 1) resp. with a moderate or better rating of the current work ability with respect to the physical demands at work (dependent variable 2). Based on questionnaires and FCE information, logistic regression models were calculated to predict sustained RTW. The FCE-information at discharge predicted sustained RTW after adjusting for assessors (Odds Ratio - OR=17.2 [95% CI: 6.2-57.8] resp. OR 12.8 [95% CI: 5.1-32.1]) as well as after adjusting for additional RTW predictors (OR 14.6 [95% CI: 4.8-44.9] resp. OR 10.1 [95% CI: 3.5-29.4]). Concerning dependent variable 1 and the FCE-information at admission there was a gain of information towards a model based on patient self-reports (OR 2.6 [95% CI: 1.1-6.0]). The study supports the predictive validity of crude and adjusted FCE-information. The gain of information towards patient self-reports is unclear. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Noninvasive measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels for adjustment of diffusion capacity measured during pulmonary function testing.

    Mahoney, Anne M; Stimpson, Claudia L; Scott, Karen L; Hampson, Neil B

    2007-12-01

    The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (D(LCO)) is commonly measured during pulmonary function testing (PFT). Although adjustment of the measured D(LCO) for an elevated baseline carboxyhemoglobin level is recommended, carboxyhemoglobin is not routinely measured, which may reduce the accuracy of D(LCO) measurements. We sought to assess the utility of routine carboxyhemoglobin measurement and subsequent D(LCO) correction in patients referred for PFT. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive PFT results, including D(LCO) assessment. We used a pulse CO-oximeter (recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration) to noninvasively measure baseline carboxyhemoglobin (S(pCO)). We used simple descriptive statistics to compare the S(pCO) values. In subjects with elevated S(pCO) (> 2%) we adjusted the percent-of-predicted D(LCO). Interpretation of D(LCO) was categorized according to the American Thoracic Society classification scheme for respiratory impairment. The self-reported smokers had higher average S(pCO) than did self-reported nonsmokers (1.6% vs 3.5%, p carboxyhemoglobin is easy to perform during PFT. When precise measurement of D(LCO) is important, noninvasive measurement of carboxyhemoglobin may be of value. If routine S(pCO) measurement is considered, the highest yield is among current smokers.

  13. Amine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane as affinity membrane with high adsorption capacity for bilirubin.

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Luo, Mengying; Wang, Yuedan; Liu, Qiongzhen; Chen, Yuanli; Li, Mufang; Wang, Dong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membrane was activated by sodium hydroxide and cyanuric chloride, and then the activated membranes were functionalized by 1,3-propanediamine, hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine to be affinity membranes for bilirubin removal, respectively. The chemical structures and morphologies of membranes were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XPS. And the adsorption ability of different amine-functionalized nanofibrous membranes for bilirubin was characterized. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, NaCl concentration and BSA concentration on the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane were studied. Results indicated that the adsorption capacity for bilirubin of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane could reach 85mg/g membrane when the initial bilirubin concentration was 200mg/L while the adsorption capacity could be increased to 110mg/g membrane if the initial bilirubin concentration was more than 400mg/L. The dynamic adsorption of diethylenetriamine-functionalized nanofibrous membrane showed that the ligands of amine groups on the membrane surface could be used as far as possible by recirculating the plasma with certain flow rates. Therefore, the diethylenetriamine-functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane possessed high adsorption capacity for bilirubin and it can be candidate as affinity membrane for bilirubin removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Exposure to Cooking Fumes and Acute Reversible Decrement in Lung Functional Capacity

    Masoud Neghab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being exposed to cooking fumes, kitchen workers are occupationally at risk of multiple respiratory hazards. No conclusive evidence exists as to whether occupational exposure to these fumes is associated with acute and chronic pulmonary effects and symptoms of respiratory diseases. Objective: To quantify the exposure levels and evaluate possible chronic and acute pulmonary effects associated with exposure to cooking fumes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 kitchen workers exposed to cooking fumes and 60 unexposed employees were investigated. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among these groups was determined through completion of a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function parameters were also measured before and after participants' work shift. Moreover, air samples were collected and analyzed to quantify their aldehyde, particle, and volatile organic contents. Results: The mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein was 0.45 (SD 0.41, 0.13 (0.1, and 1.56 (0.41 mg/m3, respectively. The mean atmospheric concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs was 3.31 (2.6, 12.21 (5.9, 44.16 (16.6, 57 (21.55 μg/m3, and 1.31 (1.11 mg/m3, respectively. All respiratory symptoms were significantly (p<0.05 more prevalent in exposed group. No significant difference was noted between the pre-shift mean of spirometry parameters of exposed and unexposed group. However, exposed workers showed cross-shift decrease in most spirometry parameters, significantly lower than the pre-shift values and those of the comparison group. Conclusion: Exposure to cooking fumes is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.

  15. Whole-body vibration improves neuromuscular parameters and functional capacity in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

    Dutra, Milena C; de Oliveira, Mônica L; Marin, Rosangela V; Kleine, Hellen C R; Silva, Orivaldo L; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2016-08-01

    In this longitudinal, paired-control study, we developed special vibration platforms to evaluate the effects of low-intensity vibration on neuromuscular function and functional capacity in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Women in the platform group (PG; n = 62) stood still and barefoot on the platform for 20 minutes, 5 times a week for 12 months. Each platform vibrated with a frequency of 60 Hz, intensity of 0.6g, and amplitude of less than 1 mm. Women in the control group (CG; n = 60) were followed up and instructed not to modify their physical activity during the study. Every 3 months all volunteers were invited to a visit to check for any change in their lifestyle. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 12 months, and included isometric muscle strength in the hip flexors and back extensors, right handgrip strength, dynamic upper limb strength (arm curl test), upper trunk flexibility (reach test [RT]), mobility (timed up and go test), and static balance (unipedal stance test). Statistical analyses were performed using the intention-to-treat strategy. Both groups were similar for all variables at baseline. At the end of intervention, the PG was significantly better than CG in all parameters but in the RT. When compared with baseline, after 12 months of vibration the PG presented statistically significant improvements in isometric and dynamic muscle strength in the hip flexors (+36.7%), back extensors (+36.5%), handgrip strength (+4.4%), arm curl test (+22.8%), RT (+9.9%), unipedal stance test (+6.8%), and timed up and go test (-9.2%), whereas the CG showed no significant differences during the same period of time. As such, there were no side effects related to the study procedures during the 12 months of intervention. Low-intensity vibration improved balance, motility, and muscle strength in the upper and lower limbs in postmenopausal women.

  16. Cardiopulmonary functional capacity and the role of exercise in improving maximal oxygen consumption in women with PCOS.

    Lenarcik, Agnieszka; Bidzińska-Speichert, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive disorder in premenopausal women and is frequently accompanied by the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been recognized that PCOS women are characterized by cardiopulmonary impairment. Reduced cardiopulmonary functional capacity and the autonomic dysfunction associated with abnormal heart rate recovery might be responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with PCOS. Exercise training has beneficial effects on cardiopulmonary functional capacity and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women.

  17. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Svend Sparre Geertsen

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests.This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls. Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C. Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001, whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046 and spatial working memory (P<0.038. Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001, exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the

  18. Note on glands present in meliponinae (Hymenoptera, Apidae bees legs

    Carminda da Cruz-Landim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the presence of glandular structures in legs of some stingless bee species. The glands appear as: the epidermis transformation in a glandular epithelium as in basitarsus, an epithelial sac inside the segment as in the femur of queens or in the last tarsomere, as round glandular cells, scattered or forming groupments. The saculiform gland of femur is present only in queens, the other glands are present in males, queens and workers of the studied species, apparently without any type of polymorphism. This occurrence seems indicate that the function of these glands have not to do with the sociality or specific behavior of castes.

  19. Revisiting Field Capacity (FC: variation of definition of FC and its estimation from pedotransfer functions

    Theophilo Benedicto Ottoni Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the nature of the hydrological processes involved in in situ measurement of Field Capacity (FC, this study proposes a variation of the definition of FC aiming not only at minimizing the inadequacies of its determination, but also at maintaining its original, practical meaning. Analysis of FC data for 22 Brazilian soils and additional FC data from the literature, all measured according to the proposed definition, which is based on a 48-h drainage time after infiltration by shallow ponding, indicates a weak dependency on the amount of infiltrated water, antecedent moisture level, soil morphology, and the level of the groundwater table, but a strong dependency on basic soil properties. The dependence on basic soil properties allowed determination of FC of the 22 soil profiles by pedotransfer functions (PTFs using the input variables usually adopted in prediction of soil water retention. Among the input variables, soil moisture content θ (6 kPa had the greatest impact. Indeed, a linear PTF based only on it resulted in an FC with a root mean squared residue less than 0.04 m³ m-3 for most soils individually. Such a PTF proved to be a better FC predictor than the traditional method of using moisture content at an arbitrary suction. Our FC data were compatible with an equivalent and broader USA database found in the literature, mainly for medium-texture soil samples. One reason for differences between FCs of the two data sets of fine-textured soils is due to their different drainage times. Thus, a standardized procedure for in situ determination of FC is recommended.

  20. Effects of Therapeutic Exercises on Functional Capacities of Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    E Haji Zadeh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by symmetric joint involvement with progressive deformities. This leads to limitation of motion and reduction of activity daily living (ADL. Previous reports showed the beneficial effects of therapeutic exercises in these patients in the remission phase. Methods and Materials: A clinical trial as a self-control sequential control study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a range of motion (ROM exercise program in patients with RA, referring to Rheumatology Research Center between 1994-1995. ROM of the selected joints by Goniometer, and ADL by a questionnaire was assessed in all patients in 3 phases: when entering the program, after 6 weeks of observation, and then after another 6 weeks with the therapeutic exercises. The mean difference in these 2 period were compared by student paired t test. The analysis of differences between different subgroups (job, education, etc. was done by one way variance analysis. Results: Forty patients completed the program. The mean ADL increased from 0437±0.252 before exercise to 6.69±3.06 after exercise (P<0.001, and the mean scores of ROM increased from 0.278±0.28 to 8±3.57 (P<0.0001, both statistically significant. This was more pronounced in women and in those with ankle joints involvement. The type of disease onset and duration of the disease did not influence the effects of treatment. No increase in disease activity was seen. Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of our ROM exercises in increasing functional capacities of patients with RA in remission phase.

  1. Reliability and safety of functional capacity evaluation in patients with whiplash associated disorders.

    Trippolini, M A; Reneman, M F; Jansen, B; Dijkstra, P U; Geertzen, J H B

    2013-09-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) are a burden for both individuals and society. It is recommended to evaluate patients with WAD at risk of chronification to enhance rehabilitation and promote an early return to work. In patients with low back pain (LBP), functional capacity evaluation (FCE) contributes to clinical decisions regarding fitness-for-work. FCE should have demonstrated sufficient clinimetric properties. Reliability and safety of FCE for patients with WAD is unknown. Thirty-two participants (11 females and 21 males; mean age 39.6 years) with WAD (Grade I or II) were included. The FCE consisted of 12 tests, including material handling, hand grip strength, repetitive arm movements, static arm activities, walking speed, and a 3 min step test. Overall the FCE duration was 60 min. The test-retest interval was 7 days. Interclass correlations (model 1) (ICCs) and limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated. Safety was assessed by a Pain Response Questionnaire, observation criteria and heart rate monitoring. ICCs ranged between 0.57 (3 min step test) and 0.96 (short two-handed carry). LoA relative to mean performance ranged between 15 % (50 m walking test) and 57 % (lifting waist to overhead). Pain reactions after WAD FCE decreased within days. Observations and heart rate measurements fell within the safety criteria. The reliability of the WAD FCE was moderate in two tests, good in five tests and excellent in five tests. Safety-criteria were fulfilled. Interpretation at the patient level should be performed with care because LoA were substantial.

  2. Towards consensus in operational definitions in functional capacity evaluation: a Delphi Survey.

    Soer, Remko; van der Schans, Cees P; Groothoff, Johan W; Geertzen, Jan H B; Reneman, Michiel F

    2008-12-01

    The problem of inconsistent terminology in functional capacity evaluation (FCE) has been widely addressed in the international literature. Many different terms seem to be used interchangeably while other terms appear to be interpreted differently. This may seriously hinder FCE research and clinical use. To gain consensus in operational definitions in FCE and conceptual framework to classify terminology used in FCE. A Delphi Survey with FCE experts was conducted which consisted of three rounds of questioning, using semi and full structured questions. The expert group was formed from international experts in FCE. Experts were selected if they met any of the following criteria: at least one international publication as first author and one as co-author in the field of FCE; or an individual who had developed an FCE that was subject of investigation in at least one publication in international literature. Consensus of definitions was considered when 75% or more of all experts agreed with a definition. In total, 22 international experts from 6 different countries in Australia, Europe and North America, working in different health related sectors, participated in this study. Consensus concerning conceptual framework of FCE was met in 9 out of 20 statements. Consensus on definitions was met in 10 out of 19 definitions. Experts agreed to use the ICF as a conceptual framework in which terminology of FCE should be classified and agreed to use pre-defined terms of the ICF. No consensus was reached about the definition of FCE, for which two potential eligible definitions remained. Consensus was reached in many terms used in FCE. For future research, it was recommended that researchers use these terms, use the ICF as a conceptual framework and clearly state which definition for FCE is used because no definition of FCE was consented.

  3. The reliability of WorkWell Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation: a systematic review

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) determines a person’s ability to perform work-related tasks and is a major component of the rehabilitation process. The WorkWell Systems (WWS) FCE (formerly known as Isernhagen Work Systems FCE) is currently the most commonly used FCE tool in German rehabilitation centres. Our systematic review investigated the inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability of the WWS FCE. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of studies on the reliability of the WWS FCE and extracted item-specific measures of inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability from the identified studies. Intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.75, percentages of agreement ≥ 80%, and kappa coefficients ≥ 0.60 were categorised as acceptable, otherwise they were considered non-acceptable. The extracted values were summarised for the five performance categories of the WWS FCE, and the results were classified as either consistent or inconsistent. Results From 11 identified studies, 150 item-specific reliability measures were extracted. 89% of the extracted inter-rater reliability measures, all of the intra-rater reliability measures and 96% of the test-retest reliability measures of the weight handling and strength tests had an acceptable level of reliability, compared to only 67% of the test-retest reliability measures of the posture/mobility tests and 56% of the test-retest reliability measures of the locomotion tests. Both of the extracted test-retest reliability measures of the balance test were acceptable. Conclusions Weight handling and strength tests were found to have consistently acceptable reliability. Further research is needed to explore the reliability of the other tests as inconsistent findings or a lack of data prevented definitive conclusions. PMID:24674029

  4. Growth, maturation, functional capacities and sport-specific skills in 12-13 year-old- basketball players

    Coelho e Silva, M. J.; Moreira Carvalho, H.; Goncalves, C. E.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Philippaerts, R. M.; Malina, R. M.

    Aim. The influence of maturity status on body size, functional capacities and basketball-specific skills was evaluated and multivariate relationships between domains of variables were examined in 80 male basketball players 12.0-13.9 years. Methods. Height, body mass and two skinfolds were measured.

  5. Experts Opinion on the Use of Normative Data for Functional Capacity Evaluation in Occupational and Rehabilitation Medicine and Disability Claims

    Soer, Remko; Reneman, Michiel F.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Application of normative values for functional capacity evaluation (FCE) is controversial for the assessment of clients for work ability. The objective of this study was to study when clinicians and researchers consider normative values of FCE useful or of no use for their purposes. Methods

  6. Coronary flow reserve as a link between diastolic and systolic function and exercise capacity in heart failure

    Snoer, Martin; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: In heart failure, a reduced exercise capacity is the prevailing symptom and an important prognostic marker of future outcome. The purpose of the study was to assess the relation of coronary flow reserve (CFR) to diastolic and systolic function in heart failure and to determine which...

  7. The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle strength, functional capacity and body composition in haemodialysis patients

    Vicent Esteve

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: (1 NMES improved muscle strength, functional capacity and quadriceps muscle composition in our patients. (2 Based on the results obtained, NMES could be a new therapeutic alternative to prevent muscle atrophy and progressive physical deterioration. (3 However, future studies are necessary to establish the potential beneficial effects of NMES in HD patients.

  8. Manual hyperinflation partly prevents reductions of functional residual capacity in cardiac surgical patients--a randomized controlled trial

    Paulus, Frederique; Veelo, Denise P.; de Nijs, Selma B.; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Bresser, Paul; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac surgery is associated with post-operative reductions of functional residual capacity (FRC). Manual hyperinflation (MH) aims to prevent airway plugging, and as such could prevent the reduction of FRC after surgery. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of MH on

  9. Reliability of Clinician Rated Physical Effort Determination During Functional Capacity Evaluation in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    Trippolini, M. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Jansen, B.; Oesch, P.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Reneman, M. F.

    Introduction Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) can be used to make clinical decisions regarding fitness-for-work. During FCE the evaluator attempts to assess the amount of physical effort of the patient. The aim of this study is to analyze the reliability of physical effort determination using

  10. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512

  11. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pmotor skills (all Pmotor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.

  12. Functional Capacity Evaluation in Subjects with Early Osteoarthritis of Hip and/or Knee; is Two-Day Testing Needed?

    van Ittersum, M. W.; Bieleman, H. J.; Reneman, M. F.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Introduction The Work Well Functional Capacity Evaluation (WW FCE) is a two-day performance based test consisting of several work-related activities. Three lifting and carrying test items may be performed on both days. The objective of this study was to assess the need for repeated testing of these

  13. Functional capacity evaluation in subjects with early osteoarthritis of hip and/or knee; is two-day testing needed?

    van Ittersum, M W; Bieleman, H J; Reneman, M F; Oosterveld, F G J; Groothoff, J W; van der Schans, C.P.

    INTRODUCTION: The Work Well Functional Capacity Evaluation (WW FCE) is a two-day performance based test consisting of several work-related activities. Three lifting and carrying test items may be performed on both days. The objective of this study was to assess the need for repeated testing of these

  14. Tissue advanced glycation end products are associated with diastolic function and aerobic exercise capacity in diabetic heart failure patients

    Willemsen, Suzan; Hartog, Jasper W. L.; Hummel, Yoran M.; van Ruijven, Marieke H. I.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    Aims Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased in patients with diabetes and are associated with diastolic dysfunction through the formation of collagen crosslinks in the heart. The association among AGEs, diastolic function, and aerobic capacity in heart failure (HF) patients with and

  15. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland

    A. Salibian

    Full Text Available This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms.

  16. Immediate effect of suryanadi pranayama on pulmonary function (ventilatory volumes and capacities) in healthy volunteers

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: we found only effects of at least a short term practice extended over a period of a few days to weeks of pranayama (alternate nostril breathing) rather than acute effects of unilateral right nostril breathing (suryanadi pranayama). Keeping this in mind the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that 10 min. of right nostril breathing have any immediate effect on ventilatory volumes and capacities in healthy volunteers. Methodology: Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced ex...

  17. A New Pre-employment Functional Capacity Evaluation Predicts Longer-Term Risk of Musculoskeletal Injury in Healthy Workers

    Legge, Jennifer; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Peeters, Geeske

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To determine if a job-specific pre-employment functional assessment (PEFA) predicts musculoskeletal injury risk in healthy mineworkers. Summary of Background Data. Traditional methods of pre-employment screening, including radiography and medical screenings, are not valid predictors of occupational musculoskeletal injury risk. Short-form job-specific functional capacity evaluations are increasing in popularity, despite limited evidence of the...

  18. Determining optimal interconnection capacity on the basis of hourly demand and supply functions of electricity

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Meunier, William; Coquentin, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Interconnections for cross-border electricity flows are at the heart of the project to create a common European electricity market. At the time, increase in production from variable renewables clustered during a limited numbers of hours reduces the availability of existing transport infrastructures. This calls for higher levels of optimal interconnection capacity than in the past. In complement to existing scenario-building exercises such as the TYNDP that respond to the challenge of determining optimal levels of infrastructure provision, the present paper proposes a new empirically-based methodology to perform Cost-Benefit analysis for the determination of optimal interconnection capacity, using as an example the French-German cross-border trade. Using a very fine dataset of hourly supply and demand curves (aggregated auction curves) for the year 2014 from the EPEX Spot market, it constructs linearized net export (NEC) and net import demand curves (NIDC) for both countries. This allows assessing hour by hour the welfare impacts for incremental increases in interconnection capacity. Summing these welfare increases over the 8 760 hours of the year, this provides the annual total for each step increase of interconnection capacity. Confronting welfare benefits with the annual cost of augmenting interconnection capacity indicated the socially optimal increase in interconnection capacity between France and Germany on the basis of empirical market micro-data. (authors)

  19. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Satoh, Michinao; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Uematsu, Minoru; Kusano, Shoichi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10 -3 , n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

  20. Working memory capacity and the functional connectome - insights from resting-state fMRI and voxelwise centrality mapping.

    Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin; Heeren, Behrend; Lachmann, Bernd; Weber, Bernd; Montag, Christian

    2018-02-01

    The functional connectome represents a comprehensive network map of functional connectivity throughout the human brain. To date, the relationship between the organization of functional connectivity and cognitive performance measures is still poorly understood. In the present study we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to explore the link between the functional connectome and working memory capacity in an individual differences design. Working memory capacity, which refers to the maximum amount of context information that an individual can retain in the absence of external stimulation, was assessed outside the MRI scanner and estimated based on behavioral data from a change detection task. Resting-state time series were analyzed by means of voxelwise degree and eigenvector centrality mapping, which are data-driven network analytic approaches for the characterization of functional connectivity. We found working memory capacity to be inversely correlated with both centrality in the right intraparietal sulcus. Exploratory analyses revealed that this relationship was putatively driven by an increase in negative connectivity strength of the structure. This resting-state connectivity finding fits previous task based activation studies that have shown that this area responds to manipulations of working memory load.

  1. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  2. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  3. The effect of modifiable healthy practices on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers

    Rei Otsuka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai (life worth living, and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1269 men and women aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1997–2000 who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013. Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (total score and 3 subscales: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to the total number of healthy practices were analyzed using the lowest category as a reference. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs for the total score of higher-level functional capacity, which declined according to the total number of healthy practices (0–4, 5–6, 7–8 groups were 1.00 (reference, 0.63 (0.44–0.92, and 0.54 (0.31–0.94. For the score of social role decline, multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs were 1.00 (reference, 0.62 (0.40–0.97, and 0.46 (0.23–0.90, respectively (P for trend = 0.04. Having more modifiable healthy practices, especially in social roles, may protect against a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan.

  4. The effect of modifiable healthy practices on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers.

    Otsuka, Rei; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Nakamoto, Mariko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai (life worth living), and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1269 men and women aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1997-2000) who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013). Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (total score and 3 subscales: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to the total number of healthy practices were analyzed using the lowest category as a reference. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the total score of higher-level functional capacity, which declined according to the total number of healthy practices (0-4, 5-6, 7-8 groups) were 1.00 (reference), 0.63 (0.44-0.92), and 0.54 (0.31-0.94). For the score of social role decline, multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) were 1.00 (reference), 0.62 (0.40-0.97), and 0.46 (0.23-0.90), respectively (P for trend = 0.04). Having more modifiable healthy practices, especially in social roles, may protect against a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan.

  5. The first venomous crustacean revealed by transcriptomics and functional morphology: remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin.

    von Reumont, Björn M; Blanke, Alexander; Richter, Sandy; Alvarez, Fernando; Bleidorn, Christoph; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms have evolved many times. Venomous species are especially common in three of the four main groups of arthropods (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda), which together represent tens of thousands of species of venomous spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and hymenopterans. Surprisingly, despite their great diversity of body plans, there is no unambiguous evidence that any crustacean is venomous. We provide the first conclusive evidence that the aquatic, blind, and cave-dwelling remipede crustaceans are venomous and that venoms evolved in all four major arthropod groups. We produced a three-dimensional reconstruction of the venom delivery apparatus of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis, showing that remipedes can inject venom in a controlled manner. A transcriptomic profile of its venom glands shows that they express a unique cocktail of transcripts coding for known venom toxins, including a diversity of enzymes and a probable paralytic neurotoxin very similar to one described from spider venom. We screened a transcriptomic library obtained from whole animals and identified a nontoxin paralog of the remipede neurotoxin that is not expressed in the venom glands. This allowed us to reconstruct its probable evolutionary origin and underlines the importance of incorporating data derived from nonvenom gland tissue to elucidate the evolution of candidate venom proteins. This first glimpse into the venom of a crustacean and primitively aquatic arthropod reveals conspicuous differences from the venoms of other predatory arthropods such as centipedes, scorpions, and spiders and contributes valuable information for ultimately disentangling the many factors shaping the biology and evolution of venoms and venomous species.

  6. Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren's syndrome

    Pijpe, J.; Kalk, W. W. I.; Bootsma, H.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Vissink, A.

    Background: Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the key manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Objectives: (1) To assess prospectively loss of function of individual salivary glands in patients with primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in relation to disease duration and use of immunomodulatory

  7. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  8. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  9. The influence of lung function and muscular strength on the functional capacity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Sérgio Leite Rodrigues

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine which variable (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2, nocturnal hypoxaemia and muscular strength of femoral quadriceps can predict the distance walked in the six-minute walk test (6MWT by COPD patients. Methods: A cross-sectional and observational study of thirty patients referred to a pulmonary rehabilita tion programme at a university hospital. Lung function was evaluated by spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis and nocturnal oximetry. Muscle function was evaluated by quadriceps strength and functional capacity by the 6MWT. Results: Bivariate regression analysis showed that quadriceps strength, was the only variable to correlate significantly with the distance walked in the 6MWT (p = 0.002, accounting for 38% of the 6MWT variance. The statistical relationship established for these variables was 1 kg of quadriceps strength equalled 5.9 metres walked in the 6MWT. Conclusions: Our results showed the importance of lower limb muscle strength in submaximal exercise testing. We conclude that femoral quadriceps muscle strength is the only one of the variables studied which can predict the distance COPD patients walk in the 6MWT. Resumo: Objectivo: Determinar que variável entre o volume expirado forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1, a pressão parcial do oxigénio no sangue arterial (PaO2, a hipoxemia nocturna e a força muscular do quadricípite femoral pode predizer a distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6 em doentes com DPOC. Doentes e métodos: Um estudo observacional do tipo transversal, envolvendo trinta doentes encaminhados a um programa de reabilitação pulmonar de um hospital universitário. A função pulmonar foi avaliada por espirometria, gasometria arterial e oximetria nocturna. A função muscular pela força muscular do quadricípite femoral e a avaliação da capacidade funcional pelo TC6

  10. Lacrimal gland ductal carcinomas

    Andreasen, Simon; Grauslund, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    and xerophtalmia; case 2: A 53-year-old man, presented with headache, proptosis and chemosis and case 3: A 73-year-old man, presenting with chemosis and a corneal abscess. All three cases were characterized morphologically including immunohistochemistry and genetically with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH...... HER2 amplification was found in cases 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: This study identified a spectrum of genetic events and pattern of protein expression in DC of the lacrimal gland similar to a subset of carcinomas of the breast and ductal carcinomas of the salivary glands. For therapeutic purposes...

  11. Bilateral irradiation of head and neck induces and enhanced expression of substance P in the parasympathetic innervation of the submandibular gland

    Forsgren, S; Franzen, L; Funegard, U; Gustafsson, H; Henriksson, R [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Anatomy and Oto-laryngology

    1992-01-01

    Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are present in nerve fibers innervating the submandibular gland. Radiotherapy of tumours in the head and neck region usually embraces the salivary glands in the irradiated field and consequently a dramatic decrease in salivary function is seen. In this study, the submandibular glands and ganglia of rats subjected to fractionated irradiation were examined by use of immunohistochemical techniques for demonstration of substance P and CGRP. Irradiation was given on five consecutive days with unilateral or bilateral irradiation techniques. Specimens of control and experimental animals were processed in parallel. A marked increase in the expression of substance P in the ganglionic cells-presumably parasympathetic-and in the number of fibers showing substance P-like immunoreactivity in association with acini and small ducts was seen in response to bilateral irradiation. No changes in the pattern of CGRP immunoreactivity occurred. In the trigeminal ganglion, which supplies the submandibular gland with the majority of the sensory substance P-and CGRP-containing nerve fibers, no changes in the expression of substance P or CGRP immunoreactivity were seen. The results suggest that bilateral irradiation leads to an increase in the synthesis of substance P-like substance in the parasympathetic ganglionic cells supplying the submandibular gland with secretory nerves, and can thus be an additional factor in explaining the altered secretory capacity of salivary glands. (author).

  12. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. METHODS...... by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. RESULTS: Median BMI was 31.3 and 72...... metabolism and body composition. CFR, EDV and LVEF remained independent predictors of VO2peak in multivariable regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The study established CFR, EDV and LVEF as independent predictors of VO2peak in overweight CAD patients with no or only mild functional symptoms and a LVEF > 35...

  13. Factors associated with the functional capacity of older adults with leprosy.

    Nogueira, Paula Sacha Frota; Marques, Marilia Braga; Coutinho, Janaina Fonseca Victor; Maia, Juliana Cunha; Silva, Maria Josefina da; Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the association between socio-demographic and clinical factors and the functional capacity of older adults with leprosy. cross-sectional analytical study conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with 77 older adult patients with leprosy in a referral service, through interview, medical records and application of the Katz Index and the Lawton and Brody Scale. the mean age was 68.23 years, with prevalence of men, in stable union/married, with mean monthly family income of 2.04 minimum wages, positive bacillary index, clinical dimorphic form and grade zero disability. In the Lawton and Brody scale, independence (58.5%) was predominant and associated to the variables "living arrangement" and "educational attainment". Total independence (87.0%) was predominant in the Katz Index and statistically associated to the variable monthly family income. most of the participants were classified as independent in the instruments used. Furthermore, the instruments pointed to a greater number of associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors not related to leprosy. investigar a associação de fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos à capacidade funcional de idosos com hanseníase. estudo transversal, analítico realizado em Fortaleza, Ceará, com 77 idosos com hanseníase acompanhados em serviço de referência, através de entrevista, consulta ao prontuário e aplicação do Índice de Katz e Escala de Lawton e Brody. a média de idade foi de 68,23 anos, com prevalência de sexo masculino, união estável/casado, renda familiar mensal média de 2,04 salários mínimos, índice baciloscópico positivo, forma clínica dimorfa e Grau de Incapacidade Física zero. Na escala de Lawton e Brody prevaleceu a independência (58,5%) com associação às variáveis "com quem reside" e "escolaridade". Destacou-se a independência total (87,0%) no índice de Katz, associando-se estatisticamente a variável renda familiar mensal. a maioria dos participantes mostrou

  14. The evaluation of computed tomography of the normal adrenal glands

    Baek, Seung Yon; Kook, Shin Ho; Lee, Cho Hye; Choi, Kyung Hee; Rhee, Chung Sik [Ewha Womens University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    Radiology plays an important role in evaluating patients with suspected adrenal gland pathology. Morphologic delineation of adrenal gland is especially valuable in patients with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of a disturbance in adrenal function. Many diagnostic radiologic methods are available for demonstrating adrenal lesions. Computed tomography overcomes many of the disadvantages of these other radiologic techniques. The high degree of spatial and density resolution allows precise demonstration of the normal adrenal glands as well as detection of both small and large tumors in almost all patients. So CT of adrenal gland is an excellent noninvasive screening method and definitive imaging technique. The anthers have investigated the capability of CT to image the normal size, location and shape of both glands. Knowledge of the range of normal is useful for optimal interpretation of CT scans in patients with suspected adrenal pathology. We reviewed CT scan of 150 cases without evidence of adrenal disease. The following results were obtained; 1. There were 90 male and 60 female patients. 2. Their ages ranged from 20 to 60 years. 3. On CT, both glands were shown in 135 (90.0%), the right in 143 (95.3%), the left in 142 (94.6%). 4. In the shape of adrenal glands, most of right adrenal gland was linear or comet shaped; 68 (47.6%), most of left adrenal gland was inverted-Y shaped; 103 (72.6%). 5. In the length of adrenal glands, the right was 2.5{+-}0.77cm, the left was 2.9{+-}0.75cm. 6. In the width of adrenal glands, the right was 3.2{+-}0.74cm, the left was 2.7{+-}0.57cm. 7. In the thickness of adrenal glands, the right was 0.5{+-}0.14cm, the left was 0.6{+-}0.16cm.

  15. Clinical results of stereotactic hellium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 11 refs.

  16. Clinical results of stereotactic hellium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 11 refs

  17. Major salivary glands

    Mancuso, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with two important features of treatment of malignant tumors of the parotid and submandibular gland: the lack of a satisfactory means of staging these lesions, and the all-important treatment considerations relative to the facial nerve in parotid gland malignancies. The imaging physician and the clinician should also consider that many suspected parotid mass lesions turn out to arise from structures extrinsic to the gland. The authors discuss in detail the sources of such mass lesions as well as how CT can be used to differentiate these from intrinsic lesions in the parotid and submandibular glands. Computed tomography and, perhaps in the near future, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will provide us with a means to diagnose these tumors earlier. This is especially true when studies are used in situations such as unexplained peripheral seventh nerve paralysis or in the early screening of patients with parotid or periparotid masses. Unfortunately, it is usually patient delay that leads to late diagnosis of palpable mass lesions in this region, and there is little that any imaging study can do to reduce this factor

  18. The metapleural gland of ants

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-01-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions......-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG...... is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional...

  19. Pituitary gland imaging and outcome.

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Gallizia, Anna Lisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes. The identification of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, now considered a marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, has been the most striking advance for the diagnosis and understanding of anterior and posterior pituitary diseases. The advent of MRI has in fact led to a significant improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders that affect the hypothalamo-pituitary area. Today, there is convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that marked MRI differences in pituitary morphology indicate a diverse range of disorders which affect the organogenesis and function of the anterior pituitary gland with different prognoses. Furthermore, the association of extrapituitary malformations accurately defined by MRI has supported a better definition of several conditions linked to pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline defects. MRI is a very informative procedure that should be used to support a diagnosis of hypopituitarism. It is useful in clinical management, because it helps endocrinologists determine which patients to target for further molecular studies and genetic counselling, which ones to screen for additional hormone deficits, and which ones may need growth hormone replacement into adult life. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Feeling hindered by health problems and functional capacity at 60 years and above.

    Fagerström, Cecilia; Holst, Göran; Hallberg, Ingalill R

    2007-01-01

    It is common to use activities of daily living (ADL) rating scales to identify the impact of health problems such as diseases, impaired eyesight or hearing on daily life. However, for various reasons people with health problems might feel hindered in daily life before limitations in ability to perform ADL have occurred. In addition, there is sparse knowledge of what makes people feel hindered by health problems in relation to their ADL capacity. The aim was to investigate feeling hindered by health problems among 1297 people aged 60-89 living at home in relation to ADL capacity, health problems, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and social and financial resources, using a self-reported questionnaire, including questions from Older Americans' Resources and Services schedule (OARS), Rosenberg's self-esteem and Life Satisfaction Index Z (LSIZ). People feeling greatly hindered by health problems rarely had anyone who could help when they needed support, had lower life satisfaction and self-esteem than those not feeling hindered. Feeling hindered by health problems appeared to take on a different meaning depending on ADL capacity, knowledge that seems essential to include when accomplishing health promotion and rehabilitation interventions, especially at the early stages of reduced ADL capacity.

  1. Improvement of exercise capacity and left ventricular diastolic function with metoprolol XL after acute myocardial infarction

    Poulsen, S H; Jensen, S E; Egstrup, K

    2000-01-01

    dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction were given metoprolol XL (n = 29) or placebo (n = 30). The effects of metoprolol XL on exercise capacity in relation to effects on LV diastolic filling were studied. Two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and maximal symptom limited bicycle test were performed...

  2. Combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training improves cardiovascular function and physical working capacity in humans.

    Yang, Chang-Bin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bing; Yao, Yong-Jie; Wang, Yong-Chun; Wu, Yan-Hong; Liang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning occurring in long-term spaceflight gives rise to the needs to develop new strategies to counteract these adverse effects. Short-arm centrifuge combined with ergometer has been proposed as a strategy to counteract adverse effects of microgravity. This study sought to investigate whether the combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training have advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone. One week training was conducted by 24 healthy men. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) short-arm centrifuge training, (2) aerobic exercise training, 40 W, and (3) combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training. Before and after training, the cardiac pump function represented by stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection time, and total peripheral resistance was evaluated. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined by spectral analysis. Physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test. The 1-week combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training remarkably ameliorated the cardiac pump function and enhanced vasomotor sympathetic nerve modulation and improved physical working capacity by 10.9% (Pcentrifuge nor the aerobic exercise group showed improvements in these functions. These results demonstrate that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training has advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone in influencing several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. The combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise offers a promising countermeasure to microgravity.

  3. Immediate effect of suryanadi pranayama on pulmonary function (ventilatory volumes and capacities in healthy volunteers

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: we found only effects of at least a short term practice extended over a period of a few days to weeks of pranayama (alternate nostril breathing rather than acute effects of unilateral right nostril breathing (suryanadi pranayama. Keeping this in mind the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that 10 min. of right nostril breathing have any immediate effect on ventilatory volumes and capacities in healthy volunteers. Methodology: Forced vital capacity (FVC, Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, Forced expiratory flow25-75% (FEF25-75%, Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV, Slow vital capacity (SVC, Expiratory reserve volume (ERV, Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV and Tidal volume (TV were recorded before and after Surya Nadi Pranayama. Results & Conclusion: There was a significant increase in FVC (p<0.0001, FEV1 (p<0.0007, PEFR (p<0.0001, FEF25-75% (p<0.0001, MVV (p<0.0001, SVC (p<0.0001, ERV (0.0006, IRV (p<0.0001 and TV (0.0055 after suryanadi pranayama. The immediate effect of suryanadi pranayama practice showed alleviation of ventilatory capacities and volumes. Any practice that increases PEFR and FEF25–75% is expected to retard the development of COPD’s. The increase in PEFR, vital capacities and flow rates by suryanadi pranayama practice obviously offers an increment in respiratory efficiency and it can be advocated to the patients of early bronchitis and as a preventive measure for COPD.

  4. First extensive characterization of the venom gland from an egg parasitoid

    Cusumano, Antonino; Duvic, Bernard; Jouan, Véronique; Ravallec, Marc; Legeai, Fabrice; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano; Volkoff, Anne Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    The venom gland is a ubiquitous organ in Hymenoptera. In insect parasitoids, the venom gland has been shown to have multiple functions including regulation of host immune response, host paralysis, host castration and developmental alteration. However, the role played by the venom gland has been

  5. MR sialography: evaluation of an ultra-fast sequence in consideration of a parallel acquisition technique and different functional conditions in patients with salivary gland diseases

    Petridis, C.; Ries, T.; Cramer, M.C.; Graessner, J.; Petersen, K.U.; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M.; Weiss, F.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate an ultra-fast sequence for MR sialography requiring no post-processing and to compare the acquisition technique regarding the effect of oral stimulation with a parallel acquisition technique in patients with salivary gland diseases. Materials and Methods: 128 patients with salivary gland disease were prospectively examined using a 1.5-T superconducting system with a 30 mT/m maximum gradient capability and a maximum slew rate of 125 mT/m/sec. A single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequence (ss-TSE) with an acquisition time of 2.8 sec was used in transverse and oblique sagittal orientation. All images were obtained with and without a parallel imaging technique. The evaluation of the ductal system of the parotid and submandibular gland was performed using a visual scale of 1-5 for each side. The images were assessed by two independent experienced radiologists. An ANOVA with posthoc comparisons and an overall two tailed significance level of p=0.05 was used for the statistical evaluation. An intraclass correlation was computed to evaluate interobserver variability and a correlation of >0.8 was determined, thereby indicating a high correlation. Results: Depending on the diagnosed diseases and the absence of abruption of the ducts, all parts of excretory ducts were able to be visualized in all patients using the developed technique with an overall rating for all ducts of 2.70 (SD±0.89). A high correlation was achieved between the two observers with an intraclass correlation of 0.73. Oral application of a sialogogum improved the visibility of excretory ducts significantly (p<0.001). In contrast, the use of a parallel imaging technique led to a significant decrease in image quality (p=0,011). (orig.)

  6. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results: As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved VO2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively, v VO2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively, and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusions: After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of VO2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only

  7. Long-Term (3 Year) Effects of a Single Thermal Pulsation System Treatment on Meibomian Gland Function and Dry Eye Symptoms.

    Greiner, Jack V

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the long-term (3 years) effects of a single (12 min) thermal pulsation system (TPS) treatment on symptomatic patients with evaporative dry eye disease (DED) secondary to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). In this prospective, cohort, observational, single-center study design, signs (meibomian gland secretion [MGS] scores and tear film breakup time [TBUT]) and symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness [SPEED] questionnaires) were determined in 20 patients (40 eyes) with MGD and dry eye symptoms at baseline (BL), 1 month, and 3 years post-TPS treatment using LipiFlow. Meibomian gland secretion scores increased from BL (4.5±0.8) to 1 month (12.0±1.1, P≤0.001). Improvement persisted at 3 years (18.4±1.4) relative to BL (P≤0.001). Meibomian gland secretion scores in all regions of the lower eyelid were improved over BL at 1 month (nasal [P≤0.001], central [P≤0.001], temporal [P≤0.01]) and 3 years (nasal [P≤0.001], central [P≤0.001], temporal [P≤0.001]). TBUT increased from BL (4.1±0.4) to 1 month (7.9±1.4, P≤0.05) but was not significantly different than BL at 3 years (4.5±0.6, P>0.05). The OSDI scores decreased from BL (26.0±4.6) to 1 month (14.7±4.3, P≤0.001) but returned to BL levels at 3 years (22.5±5.4, P>0.05). The SPEED scores decreased from BL (13.4±1.0) to 1 month (6.5±1.3, P≤0.001), and this improvement persisted at 3 years (9.5±1.6, P≤0.001). Thermal pulsation may be a uniquely efficacious treatment option for DED secondary to MGD in that a single 12-min procedure is associated with significant improvement in MGS and SPEED scores for up to 3 years.

  8. Impact of Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch on Long-term Functional Capacity After Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Petit-Eisenmann, Hélène; Epailly, Eric; Velten, Michel; Radojevic, Jelena; Eisenmann, Bernard; Kremer, Hélène; Kindo, Michel

    2016-12-01

    The impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis on exercise capacity remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term impact of PPM after mechanical AVR on maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ). The study included 75 patients who had undergone isolated mechanical AVR for aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular (LV) function between 1994 and 2012. Their functional capacity was evaluated on average 4.6 years after AVR by exercise testing, including measurement of their VO 2max , and by determining their New York Heart Association functional class and Short Form-36 score. Two groups were defined by measuring the patients' indexed effective orifice area (iEOA) by transthoracic echocardiography: a PPM group (iEOA < 0.85 cm 2 /m 2 ) and a no-PPM group (iEOA ≥ 0.85 cm 2 /m 2 ). PPM was present in 37.0% of the patients. The percentage of the predicted VO 2max achieved was significantly lower in the PPM group (86.7 ± 19.5% vs 97.5 ± 23.0% in the no-PPM group; P = 0.04). Compared with the no-PPM group, the PPM group contained fewer patients in New York Heart Association functional class I and their mean Short Form-36 physical component summary score was significantly lower. The mean transvalvular gradient was significantly higher in the PPM group than in the no-PPM group (P < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic function and LV mass had normalized in both groups. PPM is associated in the long term with moderate but significant impairment of functional capacity, despite optimal LV reverse remodelling and normalization of LV systolic and diastolic function. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of a tai-chi training and detraining on functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in women with fibromyalgia.

    Romero-Zurita, Alejandro; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 51.4 ± 6.8 years) attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)). Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of tender points and algometer score (all P Tai-Chi group improved the FIQ total score (P Tai-Chi intervention showed improvements on pain, functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in female FM patients.

  10. Expression profiles of aquaporins in rat conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland and Meibomian gland.

    Yu, Dongfang; Thelin, William R; Randell, Scott H; Boucher, Richard C

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate aquaporin (AQP) family member mRNA expression and protein expression/localization in the rat lacrimal functional unit. The mRNA expression of all rat AQPs (AQP0-9, 11-12) in palpebral, fornical, and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, and Meibomian gland was measured by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR. Antibodies against AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 11 were used in Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to determine protein expression and distribution. Our study demonstrated characteristic AQP expression profiles in rat ocular tissues. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 mRNA were detected in conjunctiva. AQP0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, and 12 mRNA were expressed in cornea. AQP0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 11 mRNA were detected in lacrimal gland. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 mRNA were identified in Meibomian gland. By Western blot, AQP1, 3, 5, and 11 were detected in conjunctiva; AQP1, 3, 5, and 11 were identified in cornea; AQP1, 3, 4, 5, and 11 were detected in lacrimal gland; and AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 11 were present in Meibomian gland. Immunohistochemistry localized AQPs to distinct sites in the various tissues. This study rigorously analyzed AQPs expression and localization in rat conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, and Meibomian gland tissues. Our findings provide a comprehensive platform for further investigation into the physiological or pathophysiological relevance of AQPs in ocular surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... are malignant, most frequently ACC with a high rate of metastatic spread. The diagnostic value of FNAC in SGTs seems inferior to what is found for other major salivary glands. DSS is determined by stage and T-stage and not by histopathological parameters. International collaboration is warranted to confirm...

  12. Effectiveness of a Tai-Chi Training and Detraining on Functional Capacity, Symptomatology and Psychological Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia

    Romero-Zurita, Alejandro; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 5 1 . 4 ± 6 . 8 years) attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)). Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of ten...

  13. Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals.

    Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon

    2017-11-01

    There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, Ptraining frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Late-life functional capacity and health among Finnish war veterans:Veteran Project 1992 and 2004 surveys

    Leskinen, R. (Riitta)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Becoming involved in war is an experience that has the potential to shape later-life health. The aim of the present study was to explore Finnish Second World War veterans’ health status and the determinants of self-rated health (SRH) and functional capacity, especially the ability to walk, and to identify risk factors and their combinations that predict late-life mortality among veterans. The study population comprised Finnish Second World War veterans who participated in the ...

  15. Experimental heat capacity of solid hydrogen as a function of molar volume

    Krause, J.K.

    1978-01-01

    Constant volume heat capacity measurements have been made on six solid hydrogen samples with low orthohydrogen concentrations. The measurements extend from approximately 1.5 K to the melting line, with molar volumes ranging from 22.787 cm 3 /mole to 16.193 cm 3 /mole. Although clustering of the ortho molecules was observed, the low temperature heat capacity anomaly due to the orthohydrogen pairs could be described quite well by the assumption of a fixed distribution. The data were corrected to obtain a lattice heat capacity which on extrapolation to T = 0 yielded Debye temperatures and a volume dependent Grueneisen parameter. A modified Mie-Grueneisen approximation was used to define a volume and temperature dependent Grueneisen parameter which was used to calculate the equation of state, P(V,T), and isothermal bulk modulus, B/sub T/(V,T), for the six isochores. An extrapolation of the equation of state to T = 0 and P = 0 by two different methods yields a molar volume which, when compared with other determinations, gives a recommended value of 23.20 +- 0.05 cm 3 /mole. A rapid increase in the conversion rate of orthohydrogen to parahydrogen was observed at approximately theta/sub o/12. The molar volumes along the melting curve also have been determined directly for the first time in this volume range. These results have been used to show that a low temperature Lindemann melting relation is only approximately valid for solid hydrogen to 50 K

  16. The functional exercise capacity and its correlates in obese treatment-seeking people with binge eating disorder: an exploratory study.

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim was to compare the functional exercise capacity between obese treatment-seeking people with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and non-obese controls. The secondary aim was to identify clinical variables including eating and physical activity behaviour, physical complaints, psychopathology and physical self-perception variables in obese people with BED that could explain the variability in functional exercise capacity. Forty people with BED were compared with 20 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. A 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the Baecke physical activity questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Eating Disorder Inventory were administered. Physical complaints before and after the 6MWT were also documented. The distance achieved on the 6MWT was significantly lower in obese participants with BED (512.1 ± 75.8 m versus 682.7 ± 98.4, p binge eating disorder should incorporate a functional exercise capacity assessment. Clinicians involved in the rehabilitation of people with binge eating disorder should consider depression and lower self-esteem as potential barriers. Clinicians should take into account the frequently observed physical discomfort when developing rehabilitation programmes for people with binge eating disorder.

  17. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2017-11-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P functional capacity tests were better (P training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of eccentric-focused and conventional resistance training on strength and functional capacity of older adults.

    Dias, Caroline Pieta; Toscan, Rafael; de Camargo, Mainara; Pereira, Evelyn Possobom; Griebler, Nathália; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of eccentric training using a constant load with longer exposure time at the eccentric phase on knee extensor muscle strength and functional capacity of elderly subjects in comparison with a conventional resistance training program. Twenty-six healthy elderly women (age = 67 ± 6 years) were randomly assigned to an eccentric-focused training group (ETG; n = 13) or a conventional training group (CTG; n = 13). Subjects underwent 12 weeks of resistance training twice a week. For the ETG, concentric and eccentric phases were performed using 1.5 and 4.5 s, respectively, while for CTG, each phase lasted 1.5 s. Maximum dynamic strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test in the leg press and knee extension exercises, and for functional capacity, subjects performed specific tests (6-m walk test, timed up-and-go test, stair-climbing test, and chair-rising test). Both groups improved knee extension 1RM (24-26 %; p = 0.021), timed up-and-go test (11-16 %; p training volume and intensity does not promote different adaptations in strength or functional capacity compared to conventional resistance training in elderly woman.

  19. Growth, maturation, functional capacities and sport-specific skills in 12-13 year-old- basketball players.

    Coelho E Silva, M J; Moreira Carvalho, H; Gonçalves, C E; Figueiredo, A J; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Philippaerts, R M; Malina, R M

    2010-06-01

    The influence of maturity status on body size, functional capacities and basketball-specific skills was evaluated and multivariate relationships between domains of variables were examined in 80 male basketball players 12.0-13.9 years. Height, body mass and two skinfolds were measured. Stage of pubic hair (PH) was assessed clinically. Functional capacity was assessed with the vertical jump (squat jump, countermovement jump), 2-kg medicine ball throw, hand grip strength, 60-second sit-ups and endurance shuttle run. Performances on four basketball skills were tested: shooting, passing, dribbling and defensive movements. Analysis of covariance with age as the covariate was used to test differences among players by stage of puberty. Associations among body size, adiposity, functional capacities and skills were evaluated with canonical correlation analysis. Maturity status explained a significant portion of variance in body size (F=50.13, Pjumps and upper limb strength, but not for sit-ups or aerobic endurance. Canonical correlations showed an inverse relationship of height and adiposity with skill tests, and a positive relationship between skills and a combination of abdominal muscular strength (sit-ups) and aerobic endurance. Skill appeared to be independent of pubertal status and the tallest group of basketball players did not attain better scores in basketball-specific skill tests.

  20. Does functional capacity, fall risk awareness and physical activity level predict falls in older adults in different age groups?

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Rodacki, Andre Luiz Felix; Pereira, Gléber; Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce

    2018-04-11

    The aims of this study were to examine whether: i) functional capacity and physical activity level differ between fallers and non-fallers older adults, by controlling for fall risk awareness; ii) functional capacity, fall risk awareness and physical activity differ between fallers and non-fallers older adults, by controlling for age; iii) variables and which may predict falls in different age groups. 1826 older adults performed a series of functional tests and reported their fall episodes, fall risk awareness and physical activity level. The overall incidence of falls was high (40.2%), and falls risk awareness scores reduced with age. The older adults with greater falls risk awareness and non-fallers presented better scores in all functional tests and physical activity level (P age groups and differed between fallers and non-fallers, irrespective of age group (P age groups (odds ranging: 1.05-1.09). Handgrip strength and balance scores predicted falls until 79 years (OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01-1.06). The physical activity level predicted falls up to 70 years (OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.06-1.12). Functional mobility was able to predict falls up to 80 years (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.01-1.08). Therefore, according to age, functional capacity, physical activity level and falls risk awareness can be a predictor of falls in older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Roles of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, in modulation of exocrine gland functions].

    Nishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-07-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, is activated by proteolytic unmasking of the N-terminal extracellular tethered ligand that presumably binds to the extracellular loop 2 of the receptor itself. PAR-2 is widely distributed in the mammalian body and plays various roles in biological events in the cardiovascular, respiratory, alimentary, and central neurons systems. PAR-2-activating peptides administered systemically to mice and rats trigger prompt salivation in vivo. In an in vitro study, PAR-2 agonists including the endogenous PAR-2 activator trypsin induce secretion of amylase and mucin from isolated rat parotid glands and sublingual glands, respectively. PAR-2-activating peptides administered systemically also modulate pancreatic exocrine secretion in vivo as well as in vitro. In the gastric mucosa, PAR-2 stimulation enhances secretion of mucus and pepsinogen and suppresses acid secretion. Tear secretion can also be caused by PAR-2-related peptides in PAR-2-dependent and -independent manners. PAR-2 thus plays a general or key role in the regulation of exocrine secretion. This review focuses on the physiologic and/or pathophysiologic roles of PAR-2 in glandular exocrine secretion. The possibility of PAR-2 as a target for drug development is also discussed.

  2. Functional capacity of people with early osteoarthritis : a comparison between subjects from the cohort hip and cohort knee (CHECK) and healthy ageing workers

    Bieleman, H. J.; van Ittersum, M. W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Oostveen, J. C. M.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.; van der Schans, C. P.; Soer, R.; Reneman, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases, but the impact of the disorder on peoples' functional capacity is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare self-reported health status and functional capacity of subjects with early OA of hip and/or knee to reference data of

  3. Strength and Power Training Effects on Lower Limb Force, Functional Capacity, and Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Female Adults.

    Lopes, Paula Born; Pereira, Gleber; Lodovico, Angélica; Bento, Paulo C B; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-03-03

    It has been proposed that muscle power is more effective to prevent falls than muscle force production capacity, as rapid reactions are required to allow the postural control. This study aimed to compare the effects of strength and power training on lower limb force, functional capacity, and static and dynamic balance in older female adults. Thirty-seven volunteered healthy women had been allocated into the strength-training group (n = 14; 69 ± 7.3 years, 155 ± 5.6 cm, 72 ± 9.7 kg), the power-training group (n = 12; 67 ± 7.4 years, 153 ± 5.5 cm, 67.2 ± 7 kg), and control group (n = 11; 65 ± 3.1 years, 154 ± 5.6 cm, 70.9 ± 3 kg). After 12 weeks of training, the strength-training and power-training groups increased significantly maximum dynamic strength (29% and 27%), isometric strength (26% and 37%), and step total time (13% and 14%, dynamic balance), respectively. However, only the power-training group increased the rate of torque development (55%) and the functional capacity in 30-second chair stand (22%) and in time up and go tests (-10%). Empirically, power training may reduce the risk of injuries due to lower loads compared to strength training, and consequently, the physical effort demand during the training session is lower. Therefore, power training should be recommended as attractive training stimuli to improve lower limb force, functional capacity, and postural control of older female adults.

  4. Pituitary gland tumors

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [de

  5. [Pituitary gland tumors].

    Jesser, J; Schlamp, K; Bendszus, M

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15% of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65% of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50% secrete prolactin, 10% secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6% secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10% of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland.

  6. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  7. Radioisotopic methods in the study of salivary glands

    Salvatori, M.; Valenza, V.; Focacci, C.

    1986-01-01

    The results achieved by dynamic and static salivary gland scintigraphy in 272 patients over a ten year time (January 1976-December 1985) are reported. On the basis of a semi-quantitative assessment of time/activity curves, dynamic studies prove to be the most suitable method for studying functional disorders (phlogosis, facial paralisis, etc.). Harmlesness, easy execution and functional results are the mains advantages of radioisotope techniques. Salivary gland scintigraphy has some limits in the study of space occupying lesions (SOL): however, ultrasounds, CT and sialography represent the methods of choice in this field of salivary gland pathology

  8. Association between sarcopenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan.

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, and higher-level functional capacity in community-dwelling Japanese elderly people. Subjects were 1158 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese people aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance. Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Subjects without low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and low physical performance were classified as "normal." Examination of higher-level functional capacity was performed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC). The TMIG-IC is a 13-item questionnaire completed by the subject; it contains five questions on self-maintenance and four questions each on intellectual activity and social role. Sarcopenia was identified in 11.3% and 10.7% of men and women, respectively. The percentage of disability for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was 39.0% in men with sarcopenia and 30.6% in women with sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, in men, sarcopenia was significantly associated with IADL disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. In women, sarcopenia was significantly associated with every subscale of the TMIG-IC disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. This study revealed that sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, had a significant association with disability in higher-level functional capacity in elderly Japanese subjects. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may prevent higher-level functional disability among elderly people. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Motor function and activities of daily living capacity of patients with fractures sustained during the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Zhang, Jin-Long; He, Hong-Chen; Lin, Hai-Dan; Luo, Qing-Lu; Xia, Lu; Li, Sha-Sha; He, Cheng-Qi

    2011-05-01

    On the afternoon of May 12, 2008, a 8.0-magnitude earthquake hit Sichuan Province, a mountainous region in Western China, killing about 70 000 people and leaving over 18 000 missing. What about the survivors motor functions and activities of daily living (ADL) capacity, especially for fractures? We need the data to guide the rehabilitation for the seismic wounded and it's important to collect the data for the future. We study the survivors to understand the motor functions and ADL capacity of patients with fractures sustained in the Wenchuan earthquake, to provide a basis for rehabilitation and treatment. We used the Manual Muscle Testing method to evaluate muscle strength, the joint angle scale to measure joint range of motion (ROM), and the Barthel index to evaluate the activities of daily living status. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data and the results were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The number of seismic wounded amounted to 487; 81.1% of patients had fractures. Most of the injured had fractures in multiple regions (53.9% of all fracture patients), followed by fractures of the upper limb (34.0% of patients); cranial fractures were rare (2.3%). Totally 82.0% had restricted range of motion, 23.5% had decreased muscle force, and 72.2% of the patients had restricted activities of daily living capacities. With time the activities of daily living capacity of female increased (P 0.05). The difference between the patients' ages and ADL capacities did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05), nor was there a significant difference between their ages and the numbers of days in hospital (P > 0.05). Fractures were the main issue in the seismic wounded, many of them had reductions in the ROM, muscle force and ADL capacities. The physicians involved in rehabilitation should pay greater attention to muscle force exercises, joint mobilization, and occupational therapy during the early phases post disaster.

  10. Moderate Exercise Prevents Functional Remodeling of the Anterior Pituitary Gland in Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy.

    Mercau, María E; Repetto, Esteban M; Perez, Matías N; Martinez Calejman, Camila; Sanchez Puch, Silvia; Finkielstein, Carla V; Cymeryng, Cora B

    2016-03-01

    A sustained elevation of glucocorticoid production, associated with the establishment of insulin resistance (IR) could add to the deleterious effects of the IR state. The aim of this study is to analyze the consequences of long-term feeding with a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) on Pomc/ACTH production, define the underlying cellular processes, and determine the effects of moderate exercise (ME) on these parameters. Animals fed a standard chow with or without 30% sucrose in the drinking water were subjected to ME. Circulating hormone levels were determined, and pituitary tissues were processed and analyzed by immunobloting and quantitative real-time PCR. Parameters of oxidative stress (OxS), endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy were also determined. Rats fed SRD developed a decrease in pituitary Pomc/ACTH expression levels, increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy. ME prevented pituitary dysfunction as well as induction of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. Reporter assays were performed in AtT-20 corticotroph cells incubated in the presence of palmitic acid. Pomc transcription was inhibited by palmitic acid-dependent induction of OxS and autophagy, as judged by the effect of activators and inhibitors of both processes. Long-term feeding with SRD triggers the generation of OxS and autophagy in the pituitary gland, which could lead to a decline in Pomc/ACTH/glucocorticoid production. These effects could be attributed to an increase in fatty acids availability to the pituitary gland. ME was able to prevent these alterations, suggesting additional beneficial effects of ME as a therapeutic strategy in the management of IR.

  11. [The thyroid gland in emotional and pain stress].

    Akhmetov, I Z

    1987-01-01

    The reaction of wild rodent thyroid gland on emotional and painful stress appearing as a result of animal's catching has been studied. The thyroid activity has been shown to raise considerably during the primary stage of stress reaction. Later on the function of the gland normalizes in animals without trauma and in traumatized animals it becomes weaker. The complete normalization of the thyroid function in traumatized animals coincides with osteal regeneration according to time.

  12. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...... and the relative workload at which it occurred (FatMax) were higher in PO and O than in C. During arm cranking, peak fat oxidation was higher in O than in C, and FatMax was higher in O than in PO and C. Similar fibre-type composition was found between groups. Plasma adiponectin was higher in PO than in C and O...

  13. Is inattentional blindness related to individual differences in visual working memory capacity or executive control functioning?

    Hannon, Emily M; Richards, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Inattentional blindness (IB) research deals with situations where, under focused attention tasks, salient stimuli that are irrelevant to that task do not reach conscious awareness. Although such research has captured popular imagination, to date very little research has been conducted on whether some are more likely to experience this phenomenon than others. Here we provide evidence that working memory capacity (WMC) contributed to this experience, with lower WMC being predictive of IB. We also investigated whether IB could be more readily explained in terms of domain-specific visual WMC. No group differences in visual WMC were found, nor any differences in the ability to perform the primary IB task. These findings suggest that differences in higher-order executive control of attention contributes to the experience of IB.

  14. Comparison of functional ramp walk test and 6-min walk test in healthy volunteers: A new approach in functional capacity evaluation

    Manivel Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inclined surfaces or ramps are the common obstacles faced by elderly and cardiopulmonary disabled in accessing public amenities. Ramp walking is one of the most common functional demands to be met by a common man in the industrialized world. To assess the functional (uphill walking capacity, we need a different functional stress test over the routinely used 6-min walk test (6MWT. Hence, a new 3-min steep ramp walk test (3MRWT was constructed to meet the demands similar to an uphill walk and to provide more functional stress than routinely used 6MWT. Methodology: The observational, crossover study design was adopted for this study. Fifteen healthy participants (8 males, 7 females performed both tests in a randomized order with a washout time of 6 h in between the tests. Walking distance to both ramp and ground, heart rate, blood pressure, saturation (SpO2, dyspnea, and fatigue with Borg exertion scale were compared prior and after the two walk tests. Results: The average distances covered in 6MWT were 510.5 ± 55.06 and 440.65 ± 25.08 meters and in 3MRWT were 270.18 ± 30.8, 230.05 ± 15.06 meters for male and female respectively. The difference between 3MRWT and 6MWT distances covered by the participants was statistically significant (t = 0.893. The mean difference between the heart rate, saturation and perceptions were highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study results show that 3MRWT is valid over routinely administered 6MWT and may provide greater functional stress (uphill or ramp walk capacity in a shorter duration in healthy individuals in assessing the maximal functional capacity in a ramp or uphill walking.

  15. Effect of Meibomian gland massage before phacoemulsification on ocular surface after surgery in patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction

    Bang-Tao Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the changes of ocular surface in cataract patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction(MGDwho treated with Meibomian gland massage before surgery. METHODS: Totally 90 patients(93 eyeswith cataract and MGD were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in experimental group were treated with hot compress and Meibomian gland massage every day before surgery, while the patients in the control group were not taken. Two groups of patients received phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. Lid margin abnormalities, secretion characteristics, Schimer I test(SⅠtand tear film break-up time(BUTwere recorded and compared between two groups using slit lamp microscope inspection preoperatively and postoperatively 1wk. RESULTS: In the control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin and Meibomian gland secretion was increased significantly than preoperative, while the value of BUT and SⅠt was down significantly. Compared with control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin shape and Meibomian gland secretion in the experimental group was decreased significantly, while the value of BUT and SIT improved significantly(PCONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification can aggravate the Meibomian gland dysfunction and have some extent of effects on the ocular surface. Meibomian gland massage before surgery can significantly improve the function of Meibomian gland and the state of ocular surface in patients with MDG.

  16. Motor function and respiratory capacity in patients with late-onset pompe disease

    Illes, Zsolt; Mike, Andrea; Trauninger, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between skeletal muscle strength and respiratory dysfunction in Pompe disease has not been examined by quantitative methods. We investigated correlations among lower extremity proximal muscle strength, respiratory function, and motor performance. Methods: Concentric...... strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a dynamometer, and pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry in 7 adult patients. The six-minute walk test and the four-step stair-climb test were used for assessing aerobic endurance and anaerobic power, respectively. Results......: Anaerobic motor performance correlated with strength of both thigh muscles. Respiratory function did not correlate with either muscle strength or motor function performance. Conclusions: Respiratory and lower extremity proximal muscles could be differentially affected by the disease in individual patients...

  17. Cognitive functions in middle aged individuals are related to metabolic disturbances and aerobic capacity: a cross-sectional study.

    Maria Pedersen

    Full Text Available AIMS: Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 40 to 65 year-old patients with type 2 diabetes and limited co morbidity (N = 56, age-matched individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (N = 56 as well as age-matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (N = 72. Specific cognitive functions were assessed with focus on verbal memory, processing speed, executive functions, and a composite overall mean score. Oral glucose tolerance test, VO(2max test, systemic inflammation, DXA scanning and abdominal MRI were measured. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender and verbal intelligence demonstrated that a low score in processing speed, executive functions and overall cognitive function were related to high fasting C-peptide, as well as low insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and VO(2max. Measurements of blood glucose, obesity and inflammation were not associated with cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Low cognitive scores are seen in middle aged individuals with hyperinsulinemia, low insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and low aerobic capacity. These findings emphasize the importance of appropriate lifestyle and not only blood glucose control in prevention of cognitive disability.

  18. Evaluation of the responsiveness of pituitary gland to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in rats in the period of 8:00 to 12:00 a.m

    Borghi, V.C.; Nicolau, W.; Bojarczuk, C.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    The functional pituitary capacity for the secretion thyrotropin in rats, in relation to the period of time 8:00-12:00 a.m. was studied by means of the administration of synthetic TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone). The highest pituitary response to the hypothalamic hormone attains its peak between 9:50 and 10:30 a.m., a time in which the gland denotes a high and practically constant level of TSH secretion [pt

  19. Improvements in Functional Exercise Capacity after a Residential Behavioural Change, Diet and Fitness Program for Obese Adults.

    Errickson, Sadye Paez; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Skidmore, Megan Simmons; Endress, Gerald; Østbye, Truls; Crosby, Ross; Eisenson, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Obese adults are at an increased risk for mobility-related problems. National guidelines recommend calorie restrictions and exercise for obese adults as a means to improve functional fitness capacity and to increase mobility. Yet, lifestyle weight loss interventions often fail to measure fitness changes. The aim of this study was to assess whether a 1-month, intensive behavioural change, diet and fitness intervention for overweight and obese adults would result in statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in functional exercise. A pre-post test design was used in this study. Seventy-two participants (40 women, 32 men; mean baseline body mass index (BMI) = 42.6 + 9.0; mean age = 45.8 + 16.8) completed a modified 6-minute walk test (6MWT), performed on a treadmill, at baseline and at end of treatment. Significant improvements included decreased BMI (2.7 + 1.7 kg m(-2) , p diet and fitness programme. Physiotherapists are in a prime position to address the physical and motivational challenges participants face while living with severe obesity: targeting functional exercise capacity is one key strategy for addressing immobility associated with obesity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effectiveness of a Tai-Chi Training and Detraining on Functional Capacity, Symptomatology and Psychological Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia

    Alejandro Romero-Zurita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM. Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 51.4±6.8 years attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ, Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36. Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of tender points and algometer score (all <0.001. The intervention was effective on 6-min walk (=0.006, back scratch (=0.002, handgrip strength (=0.006, chair stand, chair sit & reach, 8 feet up & go and blind flamingo tests (all <0.001. Tai-Chi group improved the FIQ total score (<0.001 and six subscales: stiffness (=0.005, pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression (all <0.001. The intervention was also effective in six SF-36 subscales: bodily pain (=0.003, vitality (=0.018, physical functioning, physical role, general health, and mental health (all <0.001. Conclusions. A 28-week Tai-Chi intervention showed improvements on pain, functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in female FM patients.

  1. Effectiveness of pacemaker tele-monitoring on quality of life, functional capacity, event detection and workload: The PONIENTE trial.

    Lopez-Villegas, Antonio; Catalan-Matamoros, Daniel; Robles-Musso, Emilio; Peiro, Salvador

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the remote monitoring (RM) of older adults with pacemakers on health-related quality of life, functional capacity, feasibility, reliability and safety. The PONIENTE study is a controlled, non-randomized, non-blinded clinical trial, with data collection carried out during the pre-implant stage and after 12 months. Between October of 2012 and November of 2013, 82 patients were assigned to either a remote monitoring group (n = 30) or a conventional hospital monitoring (HM) group (n = 52). The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and the Duke Activity Status Index were used to measure health-related quality of life and functional capacity, respectively. Baseline characteristics and number of hospital visits were also analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the two study groups were similar for both the EQ-5D (RM 0.74, HM 0.67; P = 0.404) and the Duke Activity Status Index (RM 21.42, HM 19.95; P = 0.272). At the 12-month follow up, the EQ-5D utility score was improved for both groups (RM 0.91, HM 0.81; P = 0.154), unlike the EQ-5D Visual Analog Scale (P = 0.043). The Duke Activity Status Index score was similar to the baseline score. The number of in-hospital visits was 27% lower (3 vs 4; P pacemakers in older adults is an equivalent option to hospital monitoring, in terms of health-related quality of life and functional capacity. Furthermore, it allows for the early detection of clinical and pacemaker-related adverse events, and significantly reduces the number of in-hospital visits. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 1188-1195. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. The algorithm for the assessment of functional work capacity of railway workers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Okiljević Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of functional work capacity based on the biological function of the body and a specific job demands and job characteristics, determine whether a person is capable to do the job or group of jobs. Evaluation of work capacity (EWC railway workers is conducted according to the program of Regulations for the former and periodic examinations of employees in workplaces with high risk published in the Official Gazette of RS no. 120/ 07 and 655. Regulations on health conditions to be met by railway workers, who are directly involved in railway transport. One of the most common chronic diseases during EWC is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The definition of contraindications for use of railway employees with COPD given by Ordinance 655 is in very general terms, trying to make it easier and improve the quality of assessment of work capacity, we have developed an algorithm for the assessment of work ability among these workers. When doubt the existence of COPD should first prove that the disease exists, according to GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, and for occupational medicine we considered important to clarify and standardize the assessment criteria for EWC, which resulting in a diagnostic algorithm for EWC. It is also important to know which type of job will worker to do. Application of a diagnostic algorithm in EWC will allow optimal assessment of disease severity in railway and other workers suffering of COPD working at the workplace with an increased risk efficacy treatment evaluation; assess compensation of functional defects and determine schedule of periodical examination.

  3. The 1-min sit-to-stand test--A simple functional capacity test in cystic fibrosis?

    Radtke, Thomas; Puhan, Milo A; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to assess the measurement properties and the minimal important difference (MID) of the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients with CF were tested during a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Five STS tests were performed during the program; two tests at the beginning (STS0 and STS1) and three tests at the end (STS2a-2c). Exercise capacity, pulmonary function, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and patient-reported health status were measured at the beginning and end of the program. We calculated overall mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation (CV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the STS test. The MID was calculated using anchor-based and distributional methods. Fourteen participants (8 female, mean age 30.4±6.1years) were included. STS test performance increased significantly from STS0 to STS1 indicative of a learning effect. Test-retest reliability for the subsequent STS2a-2c tests was excellent (ICC 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.99). The estimated MID for the STS test was 5 repetitions. STS test performance was responsive to change (effect size of 0.97) and correlated with exercise capacity (r=0.63-0.73) and with the physical functioning HRQoL scale (r=0.72). The 1-min STS test appears to be a reliable, valid, and feasible test to measure functional capacity in patients with CF. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  5. Effects of Eight Months of Whole-Body Vibration Training on the Muscle Mass and Functional Capacity of Elderly Women.

    Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Rey-López, Juan P; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Cristi-Montero, Carlos S; Garatachea Vallejo, Nuria

    2015-07-01

    Few intervention studies have used whole-body vibration (WBV) training in the elderly, and there is inconclusive evidence about its health benefits. We examined the effect of 8 months of WBV training on muscle mass and functional capacity in elderly women. A total of 37 women (aged 82.4 ± 5.7 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a vibration group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 18). The vibration group trained on a vertical vibration platform twice a week. The control group was requested not to change their habitual lifestyle. The quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. All participants were evaluated by a battery of tests (Senior Fitness Test) to determine their functional capacity, as well as handgrip strength and balance/gait. General linear repeated-measure analysis of variance (group by time) was performed to examine the effect of the intervention on the outcomes variables. After 8 months, nonstatistically significant differences in the quadriceps CSA (pre-training: 8,516.16 ± 1,271.78 mm² and post-training: 8,671.63 ± 1,389.03 mm²) (p > 0.05) were found in the WBV group (Cohen's d: -0.12), whereas the CON group significantly decreased muscle mass (pre-training: 9,756.18 ± 1,420.07 mm² and post-training: 9,326.82 ± 1,577.53 mm²), with moderate effect size evident (Cohen's d: 0.29). In both groups, no changes were observed in the functional capacity, handgrip strength and balance/gait. The WBV training could prevent the loss of quadriceps CSA in elderly women.

  6. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  7. Benefits of maltodextrin intake 2 hours before cholecystectomy by laparotomy in respiratory function and functional capacity: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Zani, Fabiana Vieira Breijão; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Diana Borges Dock; Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido da; Caporossi, Fernanda Stephan; Caporossi, Cervantes

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the change in respiratory function and functional capacity according to the type of preoperative fasting. Randomized prospective clinical trial, with 92 female patients undergoing cholecystectomy by laparotomy with conventional or 2 hours shortened fasting. The variables measured were the peak expiratory flow, forced expiratory volume in the first second, forced vital capacity, dominant handgrip strength, and non-dominant handgrip strength. Evaluations were performed 2 hours before induction of anesthesia and 24 hours after the operation. The two groups were similar in preoperative evaluations regarding demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as for all variables. However, postoperatively the group with shortened fasting had higher values than the group with conventional fasting for lung function tests peak expiratory flow (128.7±62.5 versus 115.7±59.9; p=0.040), forced expiratory volume in the first second (1.5±0.6 versus 1.2±0.5; p=0.040), forced vital capacity (2.3±1.1 versus 1.8±0.9; p=0.021), and for muscle function tests dominant handgrip strength (24.9±6.8 versus 18.4±7.7; p=0.001) and non-dominant handgrip strength (22.9±6.3 versus 17.0±7.8; p=0.0002). In the intragroup evaluation, there was a decrease in preoperative compared with postoperative values, except for dominant handgrip strength (25.2±6.7 versus 24.9±6.8; p=0.692), in the shortened fasting group. Abbreviation of preoperative fasting time with ingestion of maltodextrin solution is beneficial to pulmonary function and preserves dominant handgrip strength.

  8. A new probability density function for spatial distribution of soil water storage capacity leads to SCS curve number method

    Wang, Dingbao

    2018-01-01

    Following the Budyko framework, soil wetting ratio (the ratio between soil wetting and precipitation) as a function of soil storage index (the ratio between soil wetting capacity and precipitation) is derived from the SCS-CN method and the VIC type of model. For the SCS-CN method, soil wetting ratio approaches one when soil storage index approaches infinity, due to the limitation of the SCS-CN method in which the initial soil moisture condition is not explicitly represented. However, for the ...

  9. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Melcher, Pia Grethe Sandfeld

    2017-01-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined...... the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG;