Sample records for glacier ice core

  1. Earth's Climate History from Glaciers and Ice Cores (United States)

    Thompson, Lonnie


    Glaciers serve both as recorders and early indicators of climate change. Over the past 35 years our research team has recovered climatic and environmental histories from ice cores drilled in both Polar Regions and from low to mid-latitude, high-elevation ice fields. Those ice core -derived proxy records extending back 25,000 years have made it possible to compare glacial stage conditions in the Tropics with those in the Polar Regions. High-resolution records of δ18O (in part a temperature proxy) demonstrate that the current warming at high elevations in the mid- to lower latitudes is unprecedented for the last two millennia, although at many sites the early Holocene was warmer than today. Remarkable similarities between changes in the highland and coastal cultures of Peru and regional climate variability, especially precipitation, imply a strong connection between prehistoric human activities and regional climate. Ice cores retrieved from shrinking glaciers around the world confirm their continuous existence for periods ranging from hundreds to thousands of years, suggesting that current climatological conditions in those regions today are different from those under which these ice fields originated and have been sustained. The ongoing widespread melting of high-elevation glaciers and ice caps, particularly in low to middle latitudes, provides strong evidence that a large-scale, pervasive and, in some cases, rapid change in Earth's climate system is underway. Observations of glacier shrinkage during the 20th and 21st century girdle the globe from the South American Andes, the Himalayas, Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Africa) and glaciers near Puncak Jaya, Indonesia (New Guinea). The history and fate of these ice caps, told through the adventure, beauty and the scientific evidence from some of world's most remote mountain tops, provide a global perspective for contemporary climate. NSF Paleoclimate Program

  2. Newall Glacier Snow Pit and Ice Core, 1987 to 1989, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Snow pit and ice core data from the Newall Glacier (location - 162 30' East, 77 35' South) were collected during 1987 and 1988. These include information on...

  3. Ice Cores (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  4. McCall Glacier record of Arctic climate change: Interpreting a northern Alaska ice core with regional water isotopes (United States)

    Klein, E. S.; Nolan, M.; McConnell, J.; Sigl, M.; Cherry, J.; Young, J.; Welker, J. M.


    We explored modern precipitation and ice core isotope ratios to better understand both modern and paleo climate in the Arctic. Paleoclimate reconstructions require an understanding of how modern synoptic climate influences proxies used in those reconstructions, such as water isotopes. Therefore we measured periodic precipitation samples at Toolik Lake Field Station (Toolik) in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in the Alaskan Arctic to determine δ18O and δ2H. We applied this multi-decadal local precipitation δ18O/temperature regression to ∼65 years of McCall Glacier (also in the Brooks Range) ice core isotope measurements and found an increase in reconstructed temperatures over the late-20th and early-21st centuries. We also show that the McCall Glacier δ18O isotope record is negatively correlated with the winter bidecadal North Pacific Index (NPI) climate oscillation. McCall Glacier deuterium excess (d-excess, δ2H - 8*δ18O) values display a bidecadal periodicity coherent with the NPI and suggest shifts from more southwestern Bering Sea moisture sources with less sea ice (lower d-excess values) to more northern Arctic Ocean moisture sources with more sea ice (higher d-excess values). Northern ice covered Arctic Ocean McCall Glacier moisture sources are associated with weak Aleutian Low (AL) circulation patterns and the southern moisture sources with strong AL patterns. Ice core d-excess values significantly decrease over the record, coincident with warmer temperatures and a significant reduction in Alaska sea ice concentration, which suggests that ice free northern ocean waters are increasingly serving as terrestrial precipitation moisture sources; a concept recently proposed by modeling studies and also present in Greenland ice core d-excess values during previous transitions to warm periods. This study also shows the efficacy and importance of using ice cores from Arctic valley glaciers in paleoclimate reconstructions.

  5. Reassessment of the Upper Fremont Glacier ice-core chronologies by synchronizing of ice-core-water isotopes to a nearby tree-ring chronology (United States)

    Chellman, Nathan J.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Arienzo, Monica; Pederson, Gregory T.; Aarons, Sarah; Csank, Adam


    The Upper Fremont Glacier (UFG), Wyoming, is one of the few continental glaciers in the contiguous United States known to preserve environmental and climate records spanning recent centuries. A pair of ice cores taken from UFG have been studied extensively to document changes in climate and industrial pollution (most notably, mid-19th century increases in mercury pollution). Fundamental to these studies is the chronology used to map ice-core depth to age. Here, we present a revised chronology for the UFG ice cores based on new measurements and using a novel dating approach of synchronizing continuous water isotope measurements to a nearby tree-ring chronology. While consistent with the few unambiguous age controls underpinning the previous UFG chronologies, the new interpretation suggests a very different time scale for the UFG cores with changes of up to 80 years. Mercury increases previously associated with the mid-19th century Gold Rush now coincide with early-20th century industrial emissions, aligning the UFG record with other North American mercury records from ice and lake sediment cores. Additionally, new UFG records of industrial pollutants parallel changes documented in ice cores from southern Greenland, further validating the new UFG chronologies while documenting the extent of late 19th and early 20th century pollution in remote North America.

  6. Evidence for propagation of cold-adapted yeast in an ice core from a Siberian Altai glacier (United States)

    Uetake, Jun; Kohshima, Shiro; Nakazawa, Fumio; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji; Miyake, Takayuki; Narita, Hideki; Aizen, Vladimir; Nakawo, Masayoshi


    Cold environments, including glacier ice and snow, are known habitats for cold-adapted microorganisms. We investigated the potential for cold-adapted yeast to have propagated in the snow of the high-altitude Belukha glacier. We detected the presence of highly concentrated yeast (over 104 cells mL-1) in samples of both an ice core and firn snow. Increasing yeast cell concentrations in the same snow layer from July 2002 to July 2003 suggests that the yeast cells propagated in the glacier snow. A cold-adapted Rhodotorula sp. was isolated from the snow layer and found to be related to psychrophilic yeast previously found in other glacial environments (based on the D1/D2 26S rRNA domains). 26S rRNA clonal analysis directly amplified from meltwater within the ice core also revealed the presence of genus Rhodotorula. Analyses of the ice core showed that all peaks in yeast concentration corresponded to the peaks in indices of surface melting. These results support the hypothesis that occasional surface melting in an accumulation area is one of the major factors influencing cold-adapted yeast propagation.

  7. A New Multielement Method for LA-ICP-MS Data Acquisition from Glacier Ice Cores. (United States)

    Spaulding, Nicole E; Sneed, Sharon B; Handley, Michael J; Bohleber, Pascal; Kurbatov, Andrei V; Pearce, Nicholas J; Erhardt, Tobias; Mayewski, Paul A


    To answer pressing new research questions about the rate and timing of abrupt climate transitions, a robust system for ultrahigh-resolution sampling of glacier ice is needed. Here, we present a multielement method of LA-ICP-MS analysis wherein an array of chemical elements is simultaneously measured from the same ablation area. Although multielement techniques are commonplace for high-concentration materials, prior to the development of this method, all LA-ICP-MS analyses of glacier ice involved a single element per ablation pass or spot. This new method, developed using the LA-ICP-MS system at the W. M. Keck Laser Ice Facility at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute, has already been used to shed light on our flawed understanding of natural levels of Pb in Earth's atmosphere.

  8. Climate Changes Documented in Ice Core Records from Third Pole Glaciers, with Emphasis on the Guliya Ice Cap in the Western Kunlun Mountains over the Last 100 Years (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Yao, T.; Beaudon, E.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Davis, M. E.; Kenny, D. V.; Lin, P. N.


    The Third Pole (TP) is a rapidly warming region containing 100,000 km2 of ice cover that collectively holds one of Earth's largest stores of freshwater that feeds Asia's largest rivers and helps sustain 1.5 billion people. Information on the accelerating warming in the region, its impact on the glaciers and subsequently on future water resources is urgently needed to guide mitigation and adaptation policies. Ice core histories collected over the last three decades across the TP demonstrate its climatic complexity and diversity. Here we present preliminary results from the flagship project of the Third Pole Environment Program, the 2015 Sino-American cooperative ice core drilling of the Guliya ice cap in the Kunlun Mountains in the western TP near the northern limit of the region influenced by the southwest monsoon. Three ice cores, each 51 meters in length, were recovered from the summit ( 6700 masl) while two deeper cores, one to bedrock ( 310 meters), were recovered from the plateau ( 6200 masl). Across the ice cap the net balance (accumulation) has increased annually by 2.3 cm of water equivalent from 1963-1992 to 1992-2015, and average oxygen isotopic ratios (δ18O) have enriched by 2‰. This contrasts with the recent ablation on the Naimona'nyi glacier located 540 km south of Guliya in the western Himalaya. Borehole temperatures in 2015 on the Guliya plateau have warmed substantially in the upper 30 meters of the ice compared to temperatures in 1992, when the first deep-drilling of the Guliya plateau was conducted. Compared with glaciers in the northern and western TP, the Himalayan ice fields are more sensitive to both fluctuations in the South Asian Monsoon and rising temperatures in the region. We examine the climatic changes of the last century preserved in ice core records from sites throughout the TP and compare them with those reconstructed for earlier warm epochs, such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly ( 950-1250 AD), the early Holocene "Hypsithermal

  9. Phylogenetic and physiological diversity of microorganisms isolated from a deep greenland glacier ice core (United States)

    Miteva, V. I.; Sheridan, P. P.; Brenchley, J. E.


    We studied a sample from the GISP 2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project) ice core to determine the diversity and survival of microorganisms trapped in the ice at least 120,000 years ago. Previously, we examined the phylogenetic relationships among 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences in a clone library obtained by PCR amplification from genomic DNA extracted from anaerobic enrichments. Here we report the isolation of nearly 800 aerobic organisms that were grouped by morphology and amplified rDNA restriction analysis patterns to select isolates for further study. The phylogenetic analyses of 56 representative rDNA sequences showed that the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: the high-G+C gram-positives, low-G+C gram-positives, Proteobacteria, and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. The most abundant and diverse isolates were within the high-G+C gram-positive cluster that had not been represented in the clone library. The Jukes-Cantor evolutionary distance matrix results suggested that at least 7 isolates represent new species within characterized genera and that 49 are different strains of known species. The isolates were further categorized based on the isolation conditions, temperature range for growth, enzyme activity, antibiotic resistance, presence of plasmids, and strain-specific genomic variations. A significant observation with implications for the development of novel and more effective cultivation methods was that preliminary incubation in anaerobic and aerobic liquid prior to plating on agar media greatly increased the recovery of CFU from the ice core sample.

  10. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  11. Impact of climate fluctuations on deposition of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane in mountain glaciers: Evidence from ice core records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoping; Gong Ping; Zhang, Qianggong; Yao Tandong


    How do climate fluctuations affect DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) distribution in the global scale? In this study, the interactions between climate variations and depositions of DDT and HCH in ice cores from Mt. Everest (the Tibetan Plateau), Mt. Muztagata (the eastern Pamirs) and the Rocky Mountains were investigated. All data regarding DDT/HCH deposition were obtained from the published results. Concentrations of DDT and HCH in an ice core from Mt. Everest were associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Concentrations of DDT in an ice core from Mt. Muztagata were significantly correlated with the Siberia High pattern. Concentrations of HCH in an ice core from Snow Dome of the Rocky Mountains responded to the North Atlantic Oscillation. These associations suggested that there are some linkages between climate variations and the global distribution of persistent organic pollutants. - Our study approves the potential contribution of ice core records of POPs to transport mechanisms of POPs.

  12. CALICE: Calibrating Plant Biodiversity in Glacier Ice (United States)

    Festi, Daniela; Cristofori, Antonella; Vernesi, Cristiano; Zerbe, Stefan; Wellstein, Camilla; Maggi, Valter; Oeggl, Klaus


    The objective of the project is to reconstruct plant biodiversity and its trend archived in Alpine glacier ice by pollen and eDNA (environmental DNA) during the last five decades by analyzing a 40 m ice core. For our study we chose the Adamello glacier (Trentino - Südtirol, Lombardia) because of i) the good preservation conditions for pollen and eDNA in ice, ii) the thickness of the ice cap (270m) and iii) the expected high time resolution. The biodiversity estimates gained by pollen analysis and eDNA will be validated by historical biodiversity assessments mainly based on vegetation maps, aerial photos and vegetation surveys in the catchment area of the Adamello glacier for the last five decades. This historical reconstruction of biodiversity trends will be performed on a micro-, meso- and macro-scale (5, 20-50 and 50-100 Km radius, respectively). The results will serve as a calibration data set on biodiversity for future studies, such as the second step of the coring by the POLLiCE research consortium ( In fact, arrangements are currently been made to drill the complete ice cap and retrieve a 270 m thick core which has the potential to cover a time span of minimum 400 years up to several millennia. This second stage will extend the time scale and enable the evaluation of dissimilarity/similarity of modern biodiversity in relation to Late Holocene trends. Finally, we believe this case study has the potential to be applied in other glaciated areas to evaluate biodiversity for large regions (e.g. central Asian mountain ranges, Tibet and Tian Shan or the Andes).

  13. IceTrendr: a linear time-series approach to monitoring glacier environments using Landsat (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Kennedy, R. E.; Nolin, A. W.; Hughes, J. M.; Braaten, J.


    Arctic glaciers in Alaska and Canada have experienced some of the greatest ice mass loss of any region in recent decades. A challenge to understanding these changing ecosystems, however, is developing globally-consistent, multi-decadal monitoring of glacier ice. We present a toolset and approach that captures, labels, and maps glacier change for use in climate science, hydrology, and Earth science education using Landsat Time Series (LTS). The core step is "temporal segmentation," wherein a yearly LTS is cleaned using pre-processing steps, converted to a snow/ice index, and then simplified into the salient shape of the change trajectory ("temporal signature") using linear segmentation. Such signatures can be characterized as simple `stable' or `transition of glacier ice to rock' to more complex multi-year changes like `transition of glacier ice to debris-covered glacier ice to open water to bare rock to vegetation'. This pilot study demonstrates the potential for interactively mapping, visualizing, and labeling glacier changes. What is truly innovative is that IceTrendr not only maps the changes but also uses expert knowledge to label the changes and such labels can be applied to other glaciers exhibiting statistically similar temporal signatures. Our key findings are that the IceTrendr concept and software can provide important functionality for glaciologists and educators interested in studying glacier changes during the Landsat TM timeframe (1984-present). Issues of concern with using dense Landsat time-series approaches for glacier monitoring include many missing images during the period 1984-1995 and that automated cloud mask are challenged and require the user to manually identify cloud-free images. IceTrendr is much more than just a simple "then and now" approach to glacier mapping. This process is a means of integrating the power of computing, remote sensing, and expert knowledge to "tell the story" of glacier changes.

  14. Airfields on Antarctic Glacier Ice (United States)


    that depends on compacting the thin 3350 true. There was also a crosswind runway snow cover on the hard ice. aligned with the storm wind direction. No...expire onl 31 December 1991.) flights. It Is suggested that the USAP should adopt tile The place known to us as lte Peg .-asus site can concept of

  15. Glaciers and ice caps outside Greenland (United States)

    Sharp, Marin; Wolken, G.; Burgess, D.; Cogley, J.G.; Copland, L.; Thomson, L.; Arendt, A.; Wouters, B.; Kohler, J.; Andreassen, L.M.; O'Neel, Shad; Pelto, M.


    Mountain glaciers and ice caps cover an area of over 400 000 km2 in the Arctic, and are a major influence on global sea level (Gardner et al. 2011, 2013; Jacob et al. 2012). They gain mass by snow accumulation and lose mass by meltwater runoff. Where they terminate in water (ocean or lake), they also lose mass by iceberg calving. The climatic mass balance (Bclim, the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual meltwater runoff) is a widely used index of how glaciers respond to climate variability and change. The total mass balance (ΔM) is defined as the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual mass losses (by iceberg calving plus runoff).

  16. An Extraction System for Radiocarbon Microanalysis of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Glacier Ice


    Schindler, Johannes


    Alpine glaciers situated in mid- and low latitudes are valuable archives for paleoclimatology. They offer a continuous record of recent local climatic conditions in regions where the majority of humankind lived and still lives. For meaningful interpretation of an ice core from such an archive, accurate dating is essential. Usually, several complementary approaches are used to establish a depth-age relationship. The oldest part of the ice at the bottom of the ice core suffers annual layer thin...

  17. Perspectives for DNA studies on polar ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, E.


    Recently amplifiable ancient DNA was obtained from a Greenland ice core. The DNA revealed a diversity of fungi, plants, algae and protists and has thereby expanded the range of detectable organic material in fossil glacier ice. The results suggest that ancient DNA can be obtained from other ice c...

  18. Ice thickness measurements and volume estimates for glaciers in Norway (United States)

    Andreassen, Liss M.; Huss, Matthias; Melvold, Kjetil; Elvehøy, Hallgeir; Winsvold, Solveig H.


    Whereas glacier areas in many mountain regions around the world now are well surveyed using optical satellite sensors and available in digital inventories, measurements of ice thickness are sparse in comparison and a global dataset does not exist. Since the 1980s ice thickness measurements have been carried out by ground penetrating radar on many glaciers in Norway, often as part of contract work for hydropower companies with the aim to calculate hydrological divides of ice caps. Measurements have been conducted on numerous glaciers, covering the largest ice caps as well as a few smaller mountain glaciers. However, so far no ice volume estimate for Norway has been derived from these measurements. Here, we give an overview of ice thickness measurements in Norway, and use a distributed model to interpolate and extrapolate the data to provide an ice volume estimate of all glaciers in Norway. We also compare the results to various volume-area/thickness-scaling approaches using values from the literature as well as scaling constants we obtained from ice thickness measurements in Norway. Glacier outlines from a Landsat-derived inventory from 1999-2006 together with a national digital elevation model were used as input data for the ice volume calculations. The inventory covers all glaciers in mainland Norway and consists of 2534 glaciers (3143 glacier units) covering an area of 2692 km2 ± 81 km2. To calculate the ice thickness distribution of glaciers in Norway we used a distributed model which estimates surface mass balance distribution, calculates the volumetric balance flux and converts it into thickness using the flow law for ice. We calibrated this model with ice thickness data for Norway, mainly by adjusting the mass balance gradient. Model results generally agree well with the measured values, however, larger deviations were found for some glaciers. The total ice volume of Norway was estimated to be 275 km3 ± 30 km3. From the ice thickness data set we selected

  19. Correlation of Greenland ice-core isotope profiles and the terrestrial record of the Alpine Rhine glacier for the period 32-15 ka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.G.G.; de Graaff, L.W.S.; Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Böhm, A.R.


    We present a newly extended stratigraphic subdivision of the Greenland NGRIP, GRIP and GISP2 ice cores for the period 32-15 ka. Our classification emphasizes the multiscale nature of the climatic oscillations. Spectral trend analysis of isotopic data supports this interpretation. We compare this

  20. Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact approximate to 12,800 Years Ago. 1. Ice Cores and Glaciers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolbach, W. S.; Ballard, J. P.; Mayewski, P. A.; Adedeji, V.; Bunch, T. E.; Firestone, R. B.; French, T. A.; Howard, G. A.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Kimbel, D. R.; Kinzie, Ch. R.; Kurbatov, A.; Kletetschka, Günther; LeCompte, M. A.; Mahaney, W. C.; Mellot, A. L.; Maiorana-Boutilier, A.; Mitra, S.; Moore, Ch. R.; Napier, W. M.; Parlier, J.; Tankersley, K. B.; Thomas, B. C.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.


    Roč. 126, č. 2 (2018), s. 165-184 ISSN 0022-1376 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biomass burning * comet * deposition * ice core * impact * mass extinction * paleoclimate * paleoenvironment * platinum * trigger mechanism * wildfire * winter * Younger Dryas Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.952, year: 2016

  1. Ice cores and palaeoclimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogh Andersen, K.; Ditlevsen, P.; Steffensen, J.P.


    Ice cores from Greenland give testimony of a highly variable climate during the last glacial period. Dramatic climate warmings of 15 to 25 deg. C for the annual average temperature in less than a human lifetime have been documented. Several questions arise: Why is the Holocene so stable? Is climatic instability only a property of glacial periods? What is the mechanism behind the sudden climate changes? Are the increased temperatures in the past century man-made? And what happens in the future? The ice core community tries to attack some of these problems. The NGRIP ice core currently being drilled is analysed in very high detail, allowing for a very precise dating of climate events. It will be possible to study some of the fast changes on a year by year basis and from this we expect to find clues to the sequence of events during rapid changes. New techniques are hoped to allow for detection of annual layers as far back as 100,000 years and thus a much improved time scale over past climate changes. It is also hoped to find ice from the Eemian period. If the Eemian layers confirm the GRIP sequence, the Eemian was actually climatically unstable just as the glacial period. This would mean that the stability of the Holocene is unique. It would also mean, that if human made global warming indeed occurs, we could jeopardize the Holocene stability and create an unstable 'Eemian situation' which ultimately could start an ice age. Currenlty mankind is changing the composition of the atmosphere. Ice cores document significant increases in greenhouse gases, and due to increased emissions of sulfuric and nitric acid from fossil fuel burning, combustion engines and agriculture, modern Greenland snow is 3 - 5 times more acidic than pre-industrial snow (Mayewski et al., 1986). However, the magnitude and abruptness of the temperature changes of the past century do not exceed the magnitude of natural variability. It is from the ice core perspective thus not possible to attribute the

  2. Review of levoglucosan in glacier snow and ice studies: Recent progress and future perspectives. (United States)

    You, Chao; Xu, Chao


    Levoglucosan (LEV) in glacier snow and ice layers provides a fingerprint of fire activity, ranging from modern air pollution to ancient fire emissions. In this study, we review recent progress in our understanding and application of LEV in glaciers, including analytical methods, transport and post-depositional processes, and historical records. We firstly summarize progress in analytical methods for determination of LEV in glacier snow and ice. Then, we discuss the processes influencing the records of LEV in snow and ice layers. Finally, we make some recommendations for future work, such as assessing the stability of LEV and obtaining continuous records, to increase reliability of the reconstructed ancient fire activity. This review provides an update for researchers working with LEV and will facilitate the further use of LEV as a biomarker in paleo-fire studies based on ice core records. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Davies, Bethan J.; James, William H. M.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.


    South American glaciers, including those in Patagonia, presently contribute the largest amount of meltwater to sea level rise per unit glacier area in the world. Yet understanding of the mechanisms behind the associated glacier mass balance changes remains unquantified partly because models are hindered by a lack of knowledge of subglacial topography. This study applied a perfect-plasticity model along glacier centre-lines to derive a first-order estimate of ice thickness and then interpolated these thickness estimates across glacier areas. This produced the first complete coverage of distributed ice thickness, bed topography and volume for 617 glaciers between 41°S and 55°S and in 24 major glacier regions. Maximum modelled ice thicknesses reach 1631 m ± 179 m in the South Patagonian Icefield (SPI), 1315 m ± 145 m in the North Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and 936 m ± 103 m in Cordillera Darwin. The total modelled volume of ice is 1234.6 km3 ± 246.8 km3 for the NPI, 4326.6 km3 ± 865.2 km3 for the SPI and 151.9 km3 ± 30.38 km3 for Cordillera Darwin. The total volume was modelled to be 5955 km3 ± 1191 km3, which equates to 5458.3 Gt ± 1091.6 Gt ice and to 15.08 mm ± 3.01 mm sea level equivalent (SLE). However, a total area of 655 km2 contains ice below sea level and there are 282 individual overdeepenings with a mean depth of 38 m and a total volume if filled with water to the brim of 102 km3. Adjusting the potential SLE for the ice volume below sea level and for the maximum potential storage of meltwater in these overdeepenings produces a maximum potential sea level rise (SLR) of 14.71 mm ± 2.94 mm. We provide a calculation of the present ice volume per major river catchment and we discuss likely changes to southern South America glaciers in the future. The ice thickness and subglacial topography modelled by this study will facilitate future studies of ice dynamics and glacier isostatic adjustment, and will be important for projecting water resources and

  4. Glacier seismology: eavesdropping on the ice-bed interface (United States)

    Walter, F.; Röösli, C.


    Glacier sliding plays a central role in ice dynamics. A number of remote sensing and deep drilling initiatives have therefore focused on the ice-bed interface. Although these techniques have provided valuable insights into bed properties, they do not supply theorists with data of sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to rigorously test mathematical sliding laws. As an alternative, passive seismic techniques have gained popularity in glacier monitoring. Analysis of glacier-related seismic sources ('icequakes') has become a useful technique to study inaccessible regions of the cryosphere, including the ice-bed interface. Seismic monitoring networks on the polar ice sheets have shown that ice sliding is not only a smooth process involving viscous deformation and regelation of basal ice layers. Instead, ice streams exhibit sudden slip episodes over their beds and intermittent phases of partial or complete stagnation. Here we discuss new and recently published discoveries of basal seismic sources beneath various glacial bodies. We revisit basal seismicity of hard-bedded Alpine glaciers, which is not the result of pure stick-slip motion. Sudden changes in seismicity suggest that the local configuration of the subglacial drainage system undergoes changes on sub daily time scales. Accordingly, such observations place constraints on basal resistance and sliding of hard-bedded glaciers. In contrast, certain clusters of stick-slip dislocations associated with micro seismicity beneath the Greenland ice sheet undergo diurnal variations in magnitudes and inter event times. This is best explained with a soft till bed, which hosts the shear dislocations and whose strength varies in response to changes in subglacial water pressure. These results suggest that analysis of basal icequakes is well suited for characterizing glacier and ice sheet beds. Future studies should address the relative importance between "smooth" and seismogenic sliding in different glacial environments.

  5. Southern Alaska Glaciers: Spatial and Temporal Variations in Ice Volume (United States)

    Sauber, J.; Molnia, B. F.; Lutchke, S.; Rowlands, D.; Harding, D.; Carabajal, C.; Hurtado, J. M.; Spade, G.


    Although temperate mountain glaciers comprise less than 1% of the glacier-covered area on Earth, they are important because they appear to be melting rapidly under present climatic conditions and, therefore, make significant contributions to rising sea level. In this study, we use ICESat observations made in the last 1.5 years of southern Alaska glaciers to estimate ice elevation profiles, ice surface slopes and roughness, and bi-annual and/or annual ice elevation changes. We report initial results from the near coastal region between Yakutat Bay and Cape Suckling that includes the Malaspina and Bering Glaciers. We show and interpret ice elevations changes across the lower reaches of the Bagley Ice Valley for the period between October 2003 and May 2004. In addition, we use off-nadir pointing observations to reference tracks over the Bering and Malaspina Glaciers in order to estimate annual ice elevation change. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) derived DEMs are used to estimate across track regional slopes between ICESat data acquisitions. Although the distribution and quantity of ICESat elevation profiles with multiple, exact repeat data is currently limited in Alaska, individual ICESat data tracks, provide an accurate reference surface for comparison to other elevation data (e.g. ASTER and SRTM X- and C-band derived DEMs). Specifically we report the elevation change over the Malaspina Glacier's piedmont lobe between a DEM derived from SRTM C-band data acquired in Feb. 2000 and ICESat Laser #2b data from Feb.-March 2004. We also report use of ICESat elevation data to enhance ASTER derived absolute DEMs. Mountain glaciers generally have rougher surfaces and steeper regional slopes than the ice sheets for which the ICESat design was optimized. Therefore, rather than averaging ICESat observations over large regions or relying on crossovers, we are working with well-located ICESat

  6. Sub-ice-shelf sediments record history of twentieth-century retreat of Pine Island Glacier. (United States)

    Smith, J A; Andersen, T J; Shortt, M; Gaffney, A M; Truffer, M; Stanton, T P; Bindschadler, R; Dutrieux, P; Jenkins, A; Hillenbrand, C-D; Ehrmann, W; Corr, H F J; Farley, N; Crowhurst, S; Vaughan, D G


    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the largest potential sources of rising sea levels. Over the past 40 years, glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea sector of the ice sheet have thinned at an accelerating rate, and several numerical models suggest that unstable and irreversible retreat of the grounding line-which marks the boundary between grounded ice and floating ice shelf-is underway. Understanding this recent retreat requires a detailed knowledge of grounding-line history, but the locations of the grounding line before the advent of satellite monitoring in the 1990s are poorly dated. In particular, a history of grounding-line retreat is required to understand the relative roles of contemporaneous ocean-forced change and of ongoing glacier response to an earlier perturbation in driving ice-sheet loss. Here we show that the present thinning and retreat of Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is part of a climatically forced trend that was triggered in the 1940s. Our conclusions arise from analysis of sediment cores recovered beneath the floating Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, and constrain the date at which the grounding line retreated from a prominent seafloor ridge. We find that incursion of marine water beyond the crest of this ridge, forming an ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf, occurred in 1945 (±12 years); final ungrounding of the ice shelf from the ridge occurred in 1970 (±4 years). The initial opening of this ocean cavity followed a period of strong warming of West Antarctica, associated with El Niño activity. Thus our results suggest that, even when climate forcing weakened, ice-sheet retreat continued.

  7. Visualizing Glaciers and Sea Ice via Google Earth (United States)

    Ballagh, L. M.; Fetterer, F.; Haran, T. M.; Pharris, K.


    The NOAA team at NSIDC manages over 60 distinct cryospheric and related data products. With an emphasis on data rescue and in situ data, these products hold value for both the scientific and non-scientific user communities. The overarching goal of this presentation is to promote products from two components of the cryosphere (glaciers and sea ice). Our Online Glacier Photograph Database contains approximately 3,000 photographs taken over many decades, exemplifying change in the glacier terminus over time. The sea ice product shows sea ice extent and concentration along with anomalies and trends. This Sea Ice Index product, which starts in 1979 and is updated monthly, provides visuals of the current state of sea ice in both hemispheres with trends and anomalies. The long time period covered by the data set means that many of the trends in ice extent and concentration shown in this product are statistically significant despite the large natural variability in sea ice. The minimum arctic sea ice extent has been a record low in September 2002 and 2005, contributing to an accelerated trend in sea ice reduction. With increasing world-wide interest in indicators of global climate change, and the upcoming International Polar Year, these data products are of interest to a broad audience. To further extend the impact of these data, we have made them viewable through Google Earth via the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). This presents an opportunity to branch out to a more diverse audience by using a new and innovative tool that allows spatial representation of data of significant scientific and educational interest.

  8. New eyes in the sky measure glaciers and ice sheets (United States)

    Kieffer, Hugh; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Barry, Roger G.; Bindschadler, Robert; Bishop, Michael P.; MacKinnon, David; Ohmura, Atsumu; Raup, Bruce; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bamber, Jonathan; Braun, Mattias; Brown, Ian; Cohen, Denis; Copland, Luke; DueHagen, Jon; Engeset, Rune V.; Fitzharris, Blair; Fujita, Koji; Haeberli, Wilfried; Hagen, Jon Oue; Hall, Dorothy; Hoelzle, Martin; Johansson, Maria; Kaab, Andi; Koenig, Max; Konovalov, Vladimir; Maisch, Max; Paul, Frank; Rau, Frank; Reeh, Niels; Rignot, Eric; Rivera, Andres; De Ruyter de Wildt, Martiyn; Scambos, Ted; Schaper, Jesko; Scharfen, Greg; Shroder, Jack; Solomina, Olga; Thompson, David; van der Veen, Kees; Wohlleben, Trudy; Young, Neal


    The mapping and measurement of glaciers and their changes are useful in predicting sea-level and regional water supply, studying hazards and climate change [Haeberli et al., 1998],and in the hydropower industry Existing inventories cover only about 67,000 of the world's estimated 160,000 glaciers and are based on data collected over 50 years or more [e.g.,Haeberli et al., 1998]. The data available have proven that small ice bodies are disappearing at an accelerating rate and that the Antarctic ice sheet and its fringing ice shelves are undergoing unexpected, rapid change. According to many glaciologists, much larger fluctuations in land ice—with vast implications for society—are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change [Oppenheimer, 1998].

  9. Hymenobacter glacieicola sp. nov., isolated from glacier ice. (United States)

    Liu, Keshao; Liu, Yongqin; Wang, Ninglian; Gu, Zhengquan; Shen, Liang; Xu, Baiqing; Zhou, Yuguang; Liu, Hongcan; Jiao, Nianzhi


    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and red-pink-pigmented bacterial strain, designated B1909T, was isolated from an ice core drilled from Muztagh Glacier on the Tibetan Plateau, China. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain B1909T formed a lineage within the genus Hymenobacter and was closely related to Hymenobacter xinjiangensis X2-1gT (96.16 % similarity) and Hymenobacter psychrotolerans Tibet-IIU11T (95.99 %). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c), summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1ω6c I/anteiso B), C16 : 1ω5c, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major menaquinone was MK-7. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content was 59 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data presented, strain B1909T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacterglacieicola sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is B1909T (=JCM 30596T=CGMCC 1.12990T).

  10. Glaciers (United States)

    Hambrey, Michael; Alean, Jürg


    Glaciers are among the most beautiful natural wonders on Earth, as well as the least known and understood, for most of us. Michael Hambrey describes how glaciers grow and decay, move and influence human civilization. Currently covering a tenth of the Earth's surface, glacier ice has shaped the landscape over millions of years by scouring away rocks and transporting and depositing debris far from its source. Glacier meltwater drives turbines and irrigates deserts, and yields mineral-rich soils as well as a wealth of valuable sand and gravel. However, glaciers also threaten human property and life. Our future is indirectly connected with the fate of glaciers and their influence on global climate and sea level. Including over 200 stunning photographs, the book takes the reader from the High-Arctic through North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, New Zealand and South America to the Antarctic. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for the first edition of Glaciers (Cambridge, 1995). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994). JÜrg Alean is Professor of Geography at the Kantonsschule ZÜrcher Unterland in BÜlach, Switzerland.

  11. Morphology, stratigraphy and oxygen isotope composition of fossil glacier ice at Ledyanaya Gora, Northwest Siberia, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaikmaee, R.; Michel, F.A.; Solomatin, V.I.


    Studies of the stratigraphy, sedimentology, structure and isotope composition of a buried massive ice body and its encompassing sediments at Ledyanaya Gora in northwestern Siberia demonstrate that the ice is relict glacier ice, probably emplaced during the Early Weichselian. Characteristics of this ice body should serve as a guide for the identification of other relict buried glacier ice bodies in permafrost regions. 31 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Low-latitude ice cores and freshwater availability (United States)

    Kehrwald, Natalie Marie


    Recent retreat of Tibetan Plateau glaciers affects at least half a billion people. Himalayan glaciers seasonally release meltwater into tributaries of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra Rivers and supply freshwater necessary to support agricultural and economic practices. Tibetan Plateau glaciers are retreating more rapidly than mountain glaciers elsewhere in the world, and this retreat is accelerating. The Naimona'nyi (30°27'N; 81°91'E, 6050 m a.s.l), Guliya (35°17'N; 81°29'E, 6710 m a.s.l.) and Dasuopu (28°23'N; 85°43'E, 7200 m a.s.l.) ice cores place this recent retreat into a longer time perspective through quantifying climate parameters such as past temperature, aridity, and atmospheric chemistry. Naimona'nyi has not accumulated mass since at least 1950, as evidenced by the virtual lack of radiogenic isotopes (36Cl, 3 H, and beta radioactivity) present in the ice core. These isotopes were produced by U.S. and Soviet atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s and provide independent dating horizons for the ice cores. Lead-210 dates imply that the uppermost preserved glacial ice on Naimona'nyi formed during the 1940s. While this is the highest documented glacial thinning in the world other glaciers at elevations similar to that of Naimona'nyi, such as Kilimanjaro (3°4'S; 37°21'E, 5893 m a.s.l.), are also losing mass at their summits. The global scope of high-elevation glacial thinning suggests that ablation on the Earth's highest ice fields may be more prevalent as global mean temperatures continue to increase. Glacial thinning has not been taken into account in future projections of regional freshwater availability, and the net mass loss indicates that Himalayan glaciers currently store less freshwater than assumed in models. The acceleration of Tibetan Plateau glacial retreat has been hypothesized to be due in part to deposition of black carbon (BC) from biomass burning on to ice fields, thereby lowering the reflectivity of

  13. Radiocarbon determination of particulate organic carbon in glacier ice from the Grenzgletscher (Monte Rosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steier, P.; Drosg, R.; Kutschera, W.; Wild, E.M.; Fedi, M.; Schock, M.; Wagenbach, D.


    Full text: Dating ice cores from cold glaciers via radiocarbon is still an unsolved problem. This work describes our approach towards extraction and AMS radiocarbon dating of the particulate organic carbon (POC) fraction in ice samples at VERA (Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator). First measurements were performed on 1 snow and 11 ice samples from Gorner Glacier and Colle Gnifetti in the Monte Rosa Mountain region (Swiss Alps). The sample masses used were between 0.3 kg and 1.4 kg ice yielding between 18 μg and 307 μg carbon as POC. The carbon contamination introduced during the sample processing varied between 9 μg and 33 μg C and originates mainly from the quartz filters and the rinsing liquids used. Minimum sample sizes for successful graphitization of carbon dioxide in our laboratory have been reduced to less than 10 μg carbon. The background in the graphitization process is approximately 0.5 μg carbon of 40 pMC. Scatter and outliers in the radiocarbon data suggest that presently a single radiocarbon date of glacial POC has limited significance. For the set of 11 ice samples, a calibrated age of 2100 BC to 900 AD (95% confidence level) is obtained. (author)

  14. Diversity of Holocene life forms in fossil glacier ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Christensen, B.


    Studies of biotic remains of polar ice caps have been limited to morphological identification of plant pollen and spores. By using sensitive molecular techniques, we now demonstrate a much greater range of detectable organisms; from 2000- and 4000-year-old ice-core samples, we obtained...

  15. How accurate are estimates of glacier ice thickness? Results from ITMIX, the Ice Thickness Models Intercomparison eXperiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farinotti, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Douglas J.; Clarke, Garry K. C.


    Knowledge of the ice thickness distribution of glaciers and ice caps is an important prerequisite for many glaciological and hydrological investigations. A wealth of approaches has recently been presented for inferring ice thickness from characteristics of the surface. With the Ice Thickness Models...

  16. State of the Earth’s cryosphere at the beginning of the 21st century : glaciers, global snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost and periglacial environments: Chapter A in Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.


    critically important hydrologic cycle, in which glacier ice is the second largest reservoir of water after the oceans. The second part assesses the state of glaciers in all of the glacierized regions of the planet, primarily as drawn in the other 10 chapters. It includes sections on ice cores and the climate record they contain, volumetric changes in glaciers, harnessing spaceborne sensors to measure changes in glaciers, and related topics. The third part summarizes trends in global snow cover. The fourth part summarizes long-term changes in area and thickness of floating ice, including polar sea ice and freshwater (lake and river) ice. The fifth part assesses the loss of permafrost and changes in periglacial environments at high latitudes and high altitudes.

  17. Inferring Ice Thickness from a Glacier Dynamics Model and Multiple Surface Datasets. (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Haran, M.; Pollard, D.


    The future behavior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may have a major impact on future climate. For instance, ice sheet melt may contribute significantly to global sea level rise. Understanding the current state of WAIS is therefore of great interest. WAIS is drained by fast-flowing glaciers which are major contributors to ice loss. Hence, understanding the stability and dynamics of glaciers is critical for predicting the future of the ice sheet. Glacier dynamics are driven by the interplay between the topography, temperature and basal conditions beneath the ice. A glacier dynamics model describes the interactions between these processes. We develop a hierarchical Bayesian model that integrates multiple ice sheet surface data sets with a glacier dynamics model. Our approach allows us to (1) infer important parameters describing the glacier dynamics, (2) learn about ice sheet thickness, and (3) account for errors in the observations and the model. Because we have relatively dense and accurate ice thickness data from the Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica, we use these data to validate the proposed approach. The long-term goal of this work is to have a general model that may be used to study multiple glaciers in the Antarctic.

  18. Storage and release of organic carbon from glaciers and ice sheets (United States)

    Hood, Eran; Battin, Tom J.; Fellman, Jason; O'Neel, Shad; Spencer, Robert G. M.


    Polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers, which cover roughly 11% of the Earth's land surface, store organic carbon from local and distant sources and then release it to downstream environments. Climate-driven changes to glacier runoff are expected to be larger than climate impacts on other components of the hydrological cycle, and may represent an important flux of organic carbon. A compilation of published data on dissolved organic carbon from glaciers across five continents reveals that mountain and polar glaciers represent a quantitatively important store of organic carbon. The Antarctic Ice Sheet is the repository of most of the roughly 6 petagrams (Pg) of organic carbon stored in glacier ice, but the annual release of glacier organic carbon is dominated by mountain glaciers in the case of dissolved organic carbon and the Greenland Ice Sheet in the case of particulate organic carbon. Climate change contributes to these fluxes: approximately 13% of the annual flux of glacier dissolved organic carbon is a result of glacier mass loss. These losses are expected to accelerate, leading to a cumulative loss of roughly 15 teragrams (Tg) of glacial dissolved organic carbon by 2050 due to climate change -- equivalent to about half of the annual flux of dissolved organic carbon from the Amazon River. Thus, glaciers constitute a key link between terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes, and will be of increasing importance in land-to-ocean fluxes of organic carbon in glacierized regions.

  19. Storage and release of organic carbon from glaciers and ice sheets (United States)

    Hood, Eran; Battin, Tom J.; Fellman, Jason; O'Neel, Shad; Spencer, Robert G. M.


    Polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers, which cover roughly 11% of the Earth's land surface, store organic carbon from local and distant sources and then release it to downstream environments. Climate-driven changes to glacier runoff are expected to be larger than climate impacts on other components of the hydrological cycle, and may represent an important flux of organic carbon. A compilation of published data on dissolved organic carbon from glaciers across five continents reveals that mountain and polar glaciers represent a quantitatively important store of organic carbon. The Antarctic Ice Sheet is the repository of most of the roughly 6 petagrams (Pg) of organic carbon stored in glacier ice, but the annual release of glacier organic carbon is dominated by mountain glaciers in the case of dissolved organic carbon and the Greenland Ice Sheet in the case of particulate organic carbon. Climate change contributes to these fluxes: approximately 13% of the annual flux of glacier dissolved organic carbon is a result of glacier mass loss. These losses are expected to accelerate, leading to a cumulative loss of roughly 15 teragrams (Tg) of glacial dissolved organic carbon by 2050 due to climate change — equivalent to about half of the annual flux of dissolved organic carbon from the Amazon River. Thus, glaciers constitute a key link between terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes, and will be of increasing importance in land-to-ocean fluxes of organic carbon in glacierized regions.

  20. Do morphometric parameters and geological conditions determine chemistry of glacier surface ice? Spatial distribution of contaminants present in the surface ice of Spitsbergen glaciers (European Arctic). (United States)

    Lehmann, Sara; Gajek, Grzegorz; Chmiel, Stanisław; Polkowska, Żaneta


    The chemism of the glaciers is strongly determined by long-distance transport of chemical substances and their wet and dry deposition on the glacier surface. This paper concerns spatial distribution of metals, ions, and dissolved organic carbon, as well as the differentiation of physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity) determined in ice surface samples collected from four Arctic glaciers during the summer season in 2012. The studied glaciers represent three different morphological types: ground based (Blomlibreen and Scottbreen), tidewater which evolved to ground based (Renardbreen), and typical tidewater glacier (Recherchebreen). All of the glaciers are functioning as a glacial system and hence are subject to the same physical processes (melting, freezing) and the process of ice flowing resulting from the cross-impact force of gravity and topographic conditions. According to this hypothesis, the article discusses the correlation between morphometric parameters, changes in mass balance, geological characteristics of the glaciers and the spatial distribution of analytes on the surface of ice. A strong correlation (r = 0.63) is recorded between the aspect of glaciers and values of pH and ions, whereas dissolved organic carbon (DOC) depends on the minimum elevation of glaciers (r = 0.55) and most probably also on the development of the accumulation area. The obtained results suggest that although certain morphometric parameters largely determine the spatial distribution of analytes, also the geology of the bed of glaciers strongly affects the chemism of the surface ice of glaciers in the phase of strong recession.

  1. Mechanisms of basal ice formation in polar glaciers: An evaluation of the apron entrainment model (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Sean; Webb, Nicola; Mager, Sarah; MacDonell, Shelley; Lorrain, Regi; Samyn, Denis


    Previous studies of polar glaciers have argued that basal ice can form when these glaciers override and entrain ice marginal aprons that accumulate adjacent to steep ice cliffs. To test this idea, we have studied the morphology, structure, composition, and deformation of the apron and basal ice at the terminus of Victoria Upper Glacier in the McMurdo dry valleys, which are located on the western coast of the Ross Sea at 77°S in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Our results show that the apron has two structural elements: an inner element that consists of strongly foliated ice that has a steep up-glacier dip, and an outer element that lacks a consistent foliation and has a down-glacier, slope-parallel dip. Although strain measurements show that the entire apron is deforming, the inner element is characterized by high strain rates, whereas relatively low rates of strain characterize the outer part of the apron. Co-isotopic analyses of the ice, together with analysis of solute chemistry and sedimentary characteristics, show that the apron is compositionally different from the basal ice. Our observations show that aprons may become deformed and partially entrained by advancing glaciers. However, such an ice marginal process does not provide a satisfactory explanation for the origin of basal ice observed at the ice margin. Our interpretation of the origin of basal ice is that it is formed by subglacial processes, which are likely to include deformation and entrainment of subglacial permafrost.

  2. Ice thickness profile surveying with ground penetrating radar at Artesonraju Glacier, Peru (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Rabatel, Antoine; McKinney, Daene; Condom, Thomas; Cochacin, Alejo; Davila Roller, Luzmilla


    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resource systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glaciers in terms of thickness changes. In the upper Paron Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Peru), an emerging lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Artesonraju Glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create slides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Artesonraju Glacier and underlying bedrock can give us an idea of how the lake is likely to evolve in the coming decades. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2013 at the Artesonraju Glacier as part of a collaboration between the Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos (UGRH) of Peru, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of France and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) of the United States of America. Two different GPR units belonging to UGRH and UT were used for subsurface imaging to create ice thickness profiles and to characterize the total volume of ice in the glacier. A common midpoint

  3. Ice thickness estimations based on multi-temporal glacier inventories - potential and challenges (United States)

    Helfricht, Kay; Huss, Matthias; Otto, Jan-Christoph


    The ongoing glacier retreat exposes a large number of surface depressions in the former glacier bed that can be filled with water or act as sediment traps. This has already been observed at various sites in Austria and in other mountain areas worldwide. The formation of glacial lakes can constitute an important environmental and socio-economic impact on high mountain systems including water resource management, sediment delivery, natural hazards, energy production and tourism. In general, information on ice thickness distribution is the basis for simulating future glacier change. We used the approach proposed by Huss and Farinotti (2012) to model the ice thickness distribution and potential locations of subglacial depressions. The study is part of the FUTURELAKE project that seeks to model the formation of new glacier lakes and their possible future evolution in the Austria Alps. The required data on glacier extent, surface elevation and slope were taken from the Austrian Glacier Inventories GI1 from 1969, GI2 from 1998 and GI3 from2006 (Fischer et al., 2015). The different glacier outlines and surface elevations from the inventories enable us to evaluate (i) the robustness of the modelled bedrock depressions with respect to different glacier settings, (ii) the power of the model to simulate recently formed glacial lakes, (iii) the similarities in calculated ice thickness distributions across the inventories and (iv) the feasibility of simulating observed changes in ice thickness and glacier volume. In general, the modelled localization of large potential depressions was relatively stable using the observed glacier settings. A number of examples show that recently formed glacial lakes could be detected by the model based on previous glacier extents. The locations of maximum ice depths within different elevation zones appeared to be sensitive to changes in glacier width. However, observed ice thickness changes and, thus, volume changes between the inventories could

  4. First investigations of an ice core from Eisriesenwelt cave (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. May


    Full Text Available Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m-thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria. In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (δ18O, δD and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analyzed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb-derived tritium removing any ice accumulated since, at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses rendered radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a basal ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear dichotomy between the upper 2 m and the bottom 3 m of the core, which points to a substantial change in the ice formation process. Main features of the core comprise the changing appearance and composition of distinct cryocalcite layers, extremely low total ion content and a surprisingly high variability of the isotope signature. Co-isotope evaluation (δD versus δ18O of the core in comparison with data from precipitation and karst spring water clearly indicate that ice formation is governed by (slow freezing of dripping water.

  5. Investigating the Microscopic Location of Trace Elements in High-Alpine Glacier Ice (United States)

    Avak, Sven Erik; Birrer, Mario; Laurent, Oscar; Guillong, Marcel; Wälle, Markus; Jenk, Theo Manuel; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Schwikowski, Margit; Eichler, Anja


    Past changes in atmospheric pollution can be reconstructed from high-alpine ice core trace element records (Schwikowski et al., 2004). Percolation of meltwater alters the information originally stored in these environmental archives. Eichler et al. (2001) suggested that the preservation of major ions with respect to meltwater percolation depends on their location in the crystal ice lattice, i.e. grain boundaries versus grain interiors. Other studies have also focused on the effect of meltwater on organic pollutant concentrations as well as on stable isotope profiles in ice cores, whereas no information exists about trace elements. Here, we investigate for the first time the effect of the microscopic location of anthropogenic, dust and volcanic related trace elements on the behavior during meltwater percolation by using two different approaches. On the one hand we assess the microscopic location of trace elements indirectly by analyzing trace element concentrations in a high-alpine ice core, which has been shown to be affected by an inflow of meltwater, using discrete inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Impurities located at grain boundaries are prone to be removed by meltwater and tend to be depleted in the affected section of the record whereas those incorporated into the ice interior are preserved and not disturbed in the record. In the second approach we work towards a direct quantification of differences in concentrations of trace elements between ice grain boundaries and grain interiors in samples both from unaffected and affected sections of this ice core. Therefore we use cryocell laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS, which is the method of choice for the direct in situ chemical analysis of trace elements at a sub-millimeter resolution in glacier ice (Reinhardt et al., 2001, Della Lunga et al., 2014, Sneed et al., 2015). We will present first results of both approaches with regard to the evaluation of the potential of trace elements as environmental

  6. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade glacier, Washington, balance year 2003 (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.


    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass-balance quantities for balance year 2003. The 2003 glacier-average maximum winter snow balance was 2.66 meters water equivalent, which was about equal to the average of such balances for the glacier since balance year 1959. The 2003 glacier summer balance (-4.76 meters water equivalent) was the most negative reported for the glacier, and the 2003 net balance (-2.10 meters water equivalent), was the second-most negative reported. The glacier 2003 annual (water year) balance was -1.89 meters water equivalent. The area of the glacier near the end of the balance year was 1.89 square kilometers, a decrease of 0.03 square kilometer from the previous year. The equilibrium-line altitude was higher than any part of the glacier; however, because snow remained along part of one side of the upper glacier, the accumulation-area ratio was 0.07. During September 13, 2002-September 13, 2003, the glacier terminus retreated at a rate of about 15 meters per year. Average speed of surface ice, computed using a series of vertical aerial photographs dating back to 2001, ranged from 2.2 to 21.8 meters per year. Runoff from the subbasin containing the glacier and from an adjacent non-glacierized basin was gaged during part of water year 2003. Air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric water-vapor pressure, wind speed, and incoming solar radiation were measured at selected locations on and near the glacier. Summer 2003 at the glacier was among the warmest for which data are available.

  7. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker


    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in g...

  8. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Abermann, Jakob; Andersen, Morten L.; Andersen, Signe B.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Box, Jason E.; Braithwaite, Roger J.; Bøggild, Carl E.; Citterio, Michele; Clement, Poul; Colgan, William; Fausto, Robert S.; Gleie, Karin; Gubler, Stefanie; Hasholt, Bent; Hynek, Bernhard; Knudsen, Niels T.; Larsen, Signe H.; Mernild, Sebastian H.; Oerlemans, Johannes; Oerter, Hans; Olesen, Ole B.; Smeets, C. J P Paul; Steffen, Konrad; Stober, Manfred; Sugiyama, Shin; Van As, Dirk; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.; Van De Wal, Roderik S W


    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in

  9. Spatial and temporal melt variability at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, and its effect on ice dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. L.; Larsen, T. B.; Nettles, M.


    Understanding the behavior of large outlet glaciers draining the Greenland Ice Sheet is critical for assessing the impact of climate change on sea level rise. The flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers is partly governed by calving-related processes taking place at the terminus but is also in...

  10. The imbalance of glaciers after disintegration of Larsen-B ice shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rott


    Full Text Available The outlet glaciers to the embayment of the Larsen-B Ice Shelf started to accelerate soon after the ice shelf disintegrated in March 2002. We analyse high resolution radar images of the TerraSAR-X satellite, launched in June 2007, to map the motion of outlet glaciers in detail. The frontal velocities are used to estimate the calving fluxes for 2008/2009. As reference for pre-collapse conditions, when the glaciers were in balanced state, the ice fluxes through the same gates are computed using ice motion maps derived from interferometric data of the ERS-1/ERS-2 satellites in 1995 and 1999. Profiles of satellite laser altimetry from ICESat, crossing the terminus of several glaciers, indicate considerable glacier thinning between 2003 and 2007/2008. This is taken into account for defining the calving cross sections. The difference between the pre- and post-collapse fluxes provides an estimate on the mass imbalance. For the Larsen-B embayment the 2008 mass deficit is estimated at 4.34 ± 1.64 Gt a−1, significantly lower than previously published values. The ice flow acceleration follows a similar pattern on the various glaciers, gradually decreasing in magnitude with distance upstream from the calving front. This suggests stress perturbation at the glacier front being the main factor for acceleration. So far there are no signs of slow-down indicating that dynamic thinning and frontal retreat will go on.

  11. Investigations of the form and flow of ice sheets and glaciers using radio-echo sounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdeswell, J A; Evans, S [Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1ER (United Kingdom)


    Radio-echo sounding (RES), utilizing a variety of radio frequencies, was developed to allow glaciologists to measure the thickness of ice sheets and glaciers. We review the nature of electromagnetic wave propagation in ice and snow, including the permittivity of ice, signal attenuation and volume scattering, along with reflection from rough and specular surfaces. The variety of instruments used in RES of polar ice sheets and temperate glaciers is discussed. The applications and insights that a knowledge of ice thickness, and the wider nature of the form and flow of ice sheets, provides are also considered. The thickest ice measured is 4.7 km in East Antarctica. The morphology of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, and many of the smaller ice caps and glaciers of the polar regions, has been investigated using RES. These findings are being used in three-dimensional numerical models of the response of the cryosphere to environmental change. In addition, the distribution and character of internal and basal reflectors within ice sheets contains information on, for example, ice-sheet layering and its chrono-stratigraphic significance, and has enabled the discovery and investigation of large lakes beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Today, RES from ground-based and airborne platforms remains the most effective tool for measuring ice thickness and internal character.

  12. Physical Limits on Hmax, the Maximum Height of Glaciers and Ice Sheets (United States)

    Lipovsky, B. P.


    The longest glaciers and ice sheets on Earth never achieve a topographic relief, or height, greater than about Hmax = 4 km. What laws govern this apparent maximum height to which a glacier or ice sheet may rise? Two types of answer appear possible: one relating to geological process and the other to ice dynamics. In the first type of answer, one might suppose that if Earth had 100 km tall mountains then there would be many 20 km tall glaciers. The counterpoint to this argument is that recent evidence suggests that glaciers themselves limit the maximum height of mountain ranges. We turn, then, to ice dynamical explanations for Hmax. The classical ice dynamical theory of Nye (1951), however, does not predict any break in scaling to give rise to a maximum height, Hmax. I present a simple model for the height of glaciers and ice sheets. The expression is derived from a simplified representation of a thermomechanically coupled ice sheet that experiences a basal shear stress governed by Coulomb friction (i.e., a stress proportional to the overburden pressure minus the water pressure). I compare this model to satellite-derived digital elevation map measurements of glacier surface height profiles for the 200,000 glaciers in the Randolph Glacier Inventory (Pfeffer et al., 2014) as well as flowlines from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. The simplified model provides a surprisingly good fit to these global observations. Small glaciers less than 1 km in length are characterized by having negligible influence of basal melt water, cold ( -15C) beds, and high surface slopes ( 30 deg). Glaciers longer than a critical distance 30km are characterized by having an ice-bed interface that is weakened by the presence of meltwater and is therefore not capable of supporting steep surface slopes. The simplified model makes predictions of ice volume change as a function of surface temperature, accumulation rate, and geothermal heat flux. For this reason, it provides insights into

  13. Seasonal variation of ice melting on varying layers of debris of Lirung Glacier, Langtang Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Chand


    Full Text Available Glaciers in the Himalayan region are often covered by extensive debris cover in ablation areas, hence it is essential to assess the effect of debris on glacier ice melt. Seasonal melting of ice beneath different thicknesses of debris on Lirung Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal, was studied during three seasons of 2013–14. The melting rates of ice under 5 cm debris thickness are 3.52, 0.09, and 0.85 cm d−1 during the monsoon, winter and pre-monsoon season, respectively. Maximum melting is observed in dirty ice (0.3 cm debris thickness and the rate decreases with the increase of debris thickness. The energy balance calculations on dirty ice and at 40 cm debris thickness show that the main energy source of ablation is net radiation. The major finding from this study is that the maximum melting occurs during the monsoon season than rest of the seasons.

  14. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.A.N.


    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Ice core records provide an annual-scale, 'instrumental-quality' baseline of atmospheric temperature and circulation changes back many thousands of years. (author).

  15. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.A.N.


    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Ice core records provide an annual-scale, 'instrumental-quality' baseline of atmospheric temperature and circulation changes back many thousands of years. (author)

  16. The evolving instability of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers (United States)

    Khazendar, Ala; Borstad, Christopher P.; Scheuchl, Bernd; Rignot, Eric; Seroussi, Helene


    Following the 2002 disintegration of the northern and central parts of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, the tributary glaciers of the southern surviving part initially appeared relatively unchanged and hence assumed to be buttressed sufficiently by the remnant ice shelf. Here, we modify this perception with observations from IceBridge altimetry and InSAR-inferred ice flow speeds. Our analyses show that the surfaces of Leppard and Flask glaciers directly upstream from their grounding lines lowered by 15 to 20 m in the period 2002-2011. The thinning appears to be dynamic as the flow of both glaciers and the remnant ice shelf accelerated in the same period. Flask Glacier started accelerating even before the 2002 disintegration, increasing its flow speed by ∼55% between 1997 and 2012. Starbuck Glacier meanwhile did not change much. We hypothesize that the different evolutions of the three glaciers are related to their dissimilar bed topographies and degrees of grounding. We apply numerical modeling and data assimilation that show these changes to be accompanied by a reduction in the buttressing afforded by the remnant ice shelf, a weakening of the shear zones between its flow units and an increase in its fracture. The fast flowing northwestern part of the remnant ice shelf exhibits increasing fragmentation, while the stagnant southeastern part seems to be prone to the formation of large rifts, some of which we show have delimited successive calving events. A large rift only 12 km downstream from the grounding line is currently traversing the stagnant part of the ice shelf, defining the likely front of the next large calving event. We propose that the flow acceleration, ice front retreat and enhanced fracture of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf presage its approaching demise.

  17. What Can We Learn About Glaciers and Ice Sheets From 30 Years of Landsat Imagery? (United States)

    Gardner, A. S.; Scambos, T.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Moholdt, G.; Nilsson, J.


    Glacier and ice sheets are known to be rapidly changing and currently account for two thirds of observed sea level rise. Attributing the causes of the rapid decline in land ice requires separation of mass change processes, i.e. accumulation of precipitation, meltwater runoff, and solid ice discharge. Here we examine a 30 year record of Landsat imagery to determine trends in glacier velocity at a global scale in an attempt to identify anomalies in glacier flow that are contributing to changes in land ice mass. The Landsat archive represents a treasure trove of information with hundreds of thousands of images acquired over glaciers and ice sheets during the past 30 years. Gleaning useful and consistent surface displacement information from a multiple sensor archive that is heavily contaminated by cloud, saturated images, poorly resolved sensor geometry, and data gaps has proved challenging. Temporal stacking of displacement fields (Dehecq et al., 2015) and correcting for unresolved topography (Roseanau et al., 2012) have been shown to greatly improve derived velocities. Here we present results from a global processing of the complete Landsat archive for information on glacier surface displacements. We highlight patterns of coherent regional change as well as well as rapid basin-scale changes in glacier flow.

  18. Can we use ice calving on glacier fronts as a proxy for rock slope failures? (United States)

    Abellan, Antonio; Penna, Ivanna; Daicz, Sergio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Riquelme, Adrian; Tomas, Roberto


    Ice failures on glacier terminus show very similar fingerprints to rock-slope failure (RSF) processes, nevertheless, the investigation of gravity-driven instabilities that shape rock cliffs and glacier's fronts are currently dissociated research topics. Since both materials (ice and rocks) have very different rheological properties, the development of a progressive failure on mountain cliffs occurs at a much slower rate than that observed on glacier fronts, which leads the latter a good proxy for investigating RSF. We utilized a terrestrial Laser Scanner (Ilris-LR system from Optech) for acquiring successive 3D point clouds of one of the most impressive calving glacier fronts, the Perito Moreno glacier located in the Southern Patagonian Ice Fields (Argentina). We scanned the glacier terminus during five days (from 10th to 14th of March 2014) with very high accuracy (0.7cm standard deviation of the error at 100m) and a high density of information (200 points per square meter). Each data series was acquired at a mean interval of 20 minutes. The maximum attainable range for the utilized wavelength of the Ilris-LR system (1064 nm) was around 500 meters over massive ice (showing no-significant loss of information), being this distance considerably reduced on crystalline or wet ice short after the occurrence of calving events. As for the data treatment, we have adapted our innovative algorithms originally developed for the investigation of both precursory deformation and rockfalls to study calving events. By comparing successive three-dimensional datasets, we have investigated not only the magnitude and frequency of several ice failures at the glacier's terminus (ranging from one to thousands of cubic meters), but also the characteristic geometrical features of each failure. In addition, we were able to quantify a growing strain rate on several areas of the glacier's terminus shortly after their final collapse. For instance, we investigated the spatial extent of the

  19. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, balance year 2002 (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.


    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass balance quantities for balance year 2002. The 2002 glacier-average maximum winter snow balance was 4.02 meters, the second largest since 1959. The 2002 glacier summer, net, and annual (water year) balances were -3.47, 0.55, and 0.54 meters, respectively. The area of the glacier near the end of the balance year was 1.92 square kilometers, and the equilibrium-line altitude and the accumulation area ratio were 1,820 meters and 0.84, respectively. During September 20, 2001 to September 13, 2002, the terminus retreated 4 meters, and computed average ice speeds in the ablation area ranged from 7.8 to 20.7 meters per year. Runoff from the subbasin containing the glacier and from an adjacent non-glacierized basin were measured during part of the 2002 water year. Air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric water-vapor pressure, wind speed and incoming solar radiation were measured at selected locations near the glacier.

  20. Global glacier and ice sheet surface velocities derived from 31 years of Landsat imagery (United States)

    Gardner, A. S.; Scambos, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.


    Glaciers and ice sheets are contributing substantial volumes of water to the world's oceans due to enhanced melt resulting from changes in ocean and atmospheric conditions and respective feedbacks. Improving understanding of the processes leading to accelerated rates of ice loss is necessary for reducing uncertainties sea level projections. One key to doing this is to assemble and analyze long records of glacier change that characterize grounded ice response to changes in driving stress, buttressing, and basal conditions. As part of the NASA funded GO_LIVE project we exploit 31 years of Landsat imagery to construct detailed time histories of global glacier velocities. Early exploration of the dataset reveals the diversity of information to be gleaned: sudden tidewater glacier speedups in the Antarctic Peninsula, rifting of Antarctic ice shelves, high variability in velocities near glacier grounding lines, frequent surge activity in the mountainous regions of Alaska and High Mountain Asia, and the slowdown of land-terminating valley glaciers in Arctic Canada and elsewhere.

  1. Mass budget of Queen Elizabeth Islands glaciers and ice caps, Canada, from 1992 to present (United States)

    Millan, R.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.


    Recent studies indicate to say that the Canadian Artic Archipelago's mass loss has increased in recent years. However the role of ice dynamics changes in this area is not well known. In this study, we present a comprehensive velocity mapping of the CAA using ALOS/PALSAR, RADARSAT-1, ERS1 and Landsat data between 1992 and 2015. Glaciers speed are calculated using a speckle and feature tracking algorithm.The results reveals that three large marine-terminating glaciers have accelerated significantly after 2010, while most others have slowed down or retreated to a sill to become similar to land-terminating glaciers. By combining the velocities of these glaciers with ice thickness measurements from NASA's Operation IceBridge, we calculate their ice discharge. The fluxes of these glaciers increased significantly since 2000 with a marked increase after 2011. The comparison of ice discharge with the surface mass balance from RACMO-2, shows that these glaciers came out of balance after 2011, which is also a time period where their discharge almost doubled. The analysis of RACMO-2 reveals an increase in runoff between 1970's and today and a precipitation with no significant trend. We digitalize the calving front positions of the glaciers and show an increasing rate retreat since 1976. We conclude that global pattern of velocity changes shows that the mass losses due to surface mass balance will likely going to raise in the coming years and that ice discharge will have a smaller part in the contribution of the CAA to sea level rise.

  2. Modeling the Long-Term Evolution of Supraglacial Ice Cliffs on Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers (United States)

    Buri, P.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J. F.; Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.


    Supraglacial ice cliffs are present on debris-covered glaciers worldwide and provide the only direct atmosphere-ice interface over the lower sections of these glaciers. Low albedo and high longwave emissions from surrounding debris cause very high melt rates, accounting for a significant portion of total glacier mass loss. As a result, ice cliffs affect glacier downwasting and mass balance. Additionally, and in contrast to the debris-covered ice, high melt at cliffs turns them into dynamic features, directly affecting glacier surface evolution. While conceptual ideas about the formation, evolution and collapse of ice cliffs exist, their life cycles have never been thoroughly documented. Based on observations obtained from high-resolution aerial and terrestrial images analyzed with Structure-from-Motion and with data from automatic weather stations on two glaciers in the Nepalese Himalaya, we simulate the evolution of selected ice cliffs over several seasons using a new physically-based model of cliff backwasting. The 3D model calculates the energy-balance at the cliff scale and includes the cliff interaction with supraglacial ponds and reburial by debris. We consider cliffs of different shape, orientation and slope, and we show that backwasting leads to a variety of evolution typologies, with cliffs that maintain a constant, self-similar geometry, cliffs that grow laterally and cliffs that disappear through slope shallowing and debris melt-out. Most cliffs persist over several seasons. The presence of a pond appears to be the key control for cliffs to survive, while east and west facing cliffs grow because of higher radiation receipts. We use the model to test the hypothesis that south-facing cliffs do not survive. We show that most south-facing cliffs demise after one melt season on both glaciers, because of high input of solar radiation exceeding the longwave radiation receipt. For north facing features, the longwave radiation receipts at lower cliff sections

  3. Neoglacial fluctuations of terrestrial, tidewater, and calving lacustrine glaciers, Blackstone-Spencer Ice Complex, Kenai Mountains, Alaska (United States)

    Crossen, Kristine June


    The glaciers surrounding the Blackstone-Spencer Ice Complex display a variety of termini types: Tebenkov, Spencer, Bartlett, Skookum, Trail, Burns, Shakespeare, Marquette, Lawrence, and Ripon glaciers end in terrestrial margins; Blackstone and Beloit glaciers have tidewater termini; and Portage Glacier has a calving lacustrine margin. In addition, steep temperature and precipitation gradients exist across the ice complex from the maritime environment of Prince William Sound to the colder, drier interior. The Neoglacial history of Tebenkov Glacier, as based on overrun trees near the terminus, shows advances ca. 250- 430 AD (calibrated date), ca. 1215-1275 AD (calibrated date), and ca. 1320-1430 AD (tree ring evidence), all intervals of glacier advance around the Gulf of Alaska. However, two tidewater glaciers in Blackstone Bay retreated from their outermost moraines by 1350 AD, apparently asynchronously with respect to the regional climate signal. The most extensive Kenai Mountain glacier expansions during Neoglaciation occurred in the late Little Ice Age. The outermost moraines are adjacent to mature forest stands and bog peats that yield dates as old as 5,600 BP. Prince William Sound glaciers advanced during two Little Ice Age cold periods, 1380-1680 and 1830-1900 AD. The terrestrial glaciers around the Blackstone-Spencer Ice Complex all built moraines during the 19th century and began retreating between 1875 and 1900 AD. Portage and Burns glaciers began retreating between 1790 and 1810 AD, but their margins remained close to the outermost moraines during the 19th century. Regional glacier fluctuations are broadly synchronous in the Gulf of Alaska region. With the exception of the two tidewater glaciers in Blackstone Bay, all glaciers in the Kenai Mountains, no matter their sizes, altitudes, orientations, or types of margins, retreated at the end of the Little Ice Age. The climate signal, especially temperature, appears to be the strongest control on glacier

  4. An estimate of the glacier ice volume in the Swiss Alps (United States)

    Farinotti, Daniel; Huss, Matthias; Bauder, Andreas; Funk, Martin


    Changes in glacier volume are important for questions linked to sea-level rise, water resource management, and tourism industry. With the ongoing climate warming, the retreat of mountain glaciers is a major concern. Predictions of glacier changes, necessarily need the present ice volume as initial condition, and for transient modelling, the ice thickness distribution has to be known. In this paper, a method based on mass conservation and principles of ice flow dynamics is applied to 62 glaciers located in the Swiss Alps for estimating their ice thickness distribution. All available direct ice thickness measurements are integrated. The ice volumes are referenced to the year 1999 by means of a mass balance time series. The results are used to calibrate a volume-area scaling relation, and the coefficients obtained show good agreement with values reported in the literature. We estimate the total ice volume present in the Swiss Alps in the year 1999 to be 74 ± 9 km 3. About 12% of this volume was lost between 1999 and 2008, whereas the extraordinarily warm summer 2003 caused a volume loss of about 3.5%.

  5. First measurement of ice-bedrock interface of alpine glaciers by cosmic muon radiography (United States)

    Nishiyama, R.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Käser, S.; Lechmann, A.; Mair, D.; Scampoli, P.; Vladymyrov, M.; Ereditato, A.; Schlunegger, F.


    The shape of the bedrock underneath alpine glaciers bears vital information on the erosional mechanism related to the flow of ice. So far, several geophysical exploration methods have been proposed to map the bedrock topography though with limited accuracy. Here we illustrate the first results from a technology, called cosmic ray muon radiography, newly applied in glacial geology to investigate the bedrock geometry beneath the Aletsch Glacier situated in the Central Swiss Alps. For this purpose we installed new cosmic muon detectors made of emulsion films at three sites along the Jungfrau railway tunnel and measured the shape of the bedrock under the uppermost part of Aletsch Glacier (Jungfraufirn). Our results constrain the continuation of the bedrock-ice interface up to a depth of 50 m below the surface, where the bedrock underneath the glacier strikes NE-SW and dips at 45° ± 5°. This documents the first successful application of this technology to a glaciated environment.

  6. Multi-decadal elevation changes on Bagley Ice Valley and Malaspina Glacier, Alaska (United States)

    Muskett, Reginald R.; Lingle, Craig S.; Tangborn, Wendell V.; Rabus, Bernhard T.


    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of Bagley Ice Valley and Malaspina Glacier produced by (i) Intermap Technologies, Inc. (ITI) from airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired 4-13 September 2000, (ii) the German Aerospace Center (DRL) from spaceborne InSAR data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 11-22 February 2000, and (iii) the US Geological Survey (USGS) from aerial photographs acquired in 1972/73, were differenced to estimate glacier surface elevation changes from 1972 to 2000. Spatially non-uniform thickening, 10 +/- 7 m on average, is observed on Bagley Ice Valley (accumulation area) while non-uniform thinning, 47 +/- 5 m on average, is observed on the glaciers of the Malaspina complex (mostly ablation area). Even larger thinning is observed on the retreating tidewater Tyndall Glacier. These changes have resulted from increased temperature and precipitation associated with climate warming, and rapid tidewater retreat.

  7. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements from ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stowasser, Christopher

    Ice cores offer the unique possibility to study the history of past atmospheric greenhouse gases over the last 800,000 years, since past atmospheric air is trapped in bubbles in the ice. Since the 1950s, paleo-scientists have developed a variety of techniques to extract the trapped air from...... individual ice core samples, and to measure the mixing ratio of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the extracted air. The discrete measurements have become highly accurate and reproducible, but require relatively large amounts of ice per measured species and are both time......-consuming and labor-intensive. This PhD thesis presents the development of a new method for measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios from ice cores based on a melting device of a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. The coupling to a CFA melting device enables time-efficient measurements of high resolution...

  8. Heat sources for glacial ice melt in a West Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord: The role of subglacial freshwater discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jørgen; Mortensen, John; Lennert, Kunuk


    The melting of tidewater outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributes significantly to global sea level rise. Accelerated mass loss is related to melt-processes in front of calving glaciers, yet the role of ocean heat transports is poorly understood. Here we present the first direct...... of the area near the glacier showed that ice melt was mainly due to ocean heat transport and that direct plume-associated melt was only important in periods with high meltwater discharge rates of ~100 m3 s−1. Ocean mixing outside of the plume area was thus the primary heat source for melting glacier ice....

  9. Recent dynamic changes on Fleming Glacier after the disintegration of Wordie Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Friedl, Peter; Seehaus, Thorsten C.; Wendt, Anja; Braun, Matthias H.; Höppner, Kathrin


    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the world's regions most affected by climate change. Several ice shelves have retreated, thinned or completely disintegrated during recent decades, leading to acceleration and increased calving of their tributary glaciers. Wordie Ice Shelf, located in Marguerite Bay at the south-western side of the Antarctic Peninsula, completely disintegrated in a series of events between the 1960s and the late 1990s. We investigate the long-term dynamics (1994-2016) of Fleming Glacier after the disintegration of Wordie Ice Shelf by analysing various multi-sensor remote sensing data sets. We present a dense time series of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) surface velocities that reveals a rapid acceleration of Fleming Glacier in 2008 and a phase of further gradual acceleration and upstream propagation of high velocities in 2010-2011.The timing in acceleration correlates with strong upwelling events of warm circumpolar deep water (CDW) into Wordie Bay, most likely leading to increased submarine melt. This, together with continuous dynamic thinning and a deep subglacial trough with a retrograde bed slope close to the terminus probably, has induced unpinning of the glacier tongue in 2008 and gradual grounding line retreat between 2010 and 2011. Our data suggest that the glacier's grounding line had retreated by ˜ 6-9 km between 1996 and 2011, which caused ˜ 56 km2 of the glacier tongue to go afloat. The resulting reduction in buttressing explains a median speedup of ˜ 1.3 m d-1 ( ˜ 27 %) between 2008 and 2011, which we observed along a centre line extending between the grounding line in 1996 and ˜ 16 km upstream. Current median ice thinning rates (2011-2014) along profiles in areas below 1000 m altitude range between ˜ 2.6 to 3.2 m a-1 and are ˜ 70 % higher than between 2004 and 2008. Our study shows that Fleming Glacier is far away from approaching a new equilibrium and that the glacier dynamics are not primarily controlled by the loss of the

  10. Water, Ice, and Meteorological Measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, Balance Years 2004 and 2005 (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.


    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass-balance quantities for balance years 2004 and 2005. The North Cascade Range in the vicinity of South Cascade Glacier accumulated smaller than normal winter snowpacks during water years 2004 and 2005. Correspondingly, the balance years 2004 and 2005 maximum winter snow balances of South Cascade Glacier, 2.08 and 1.97 meters water equivalent, respectively, were smaller than the average of such balances since 1959. The 2004 glacier summer balance (-3.73 meters water equivalent) was the eleventh most negative during 1959 to 2005 and the 2005 glacier summer balance (-4.42 meters water equivalent) was the third most negative. The relatively small winter snow balances and unusually negative summer balances of 2004 and 2005 led to an overall loss of glacier mass. The 2004 and 2005 glacier net balances, -1.65 and -2.45 meters water equivalent, respectively, were the seventh and second most negative during 1953 to 2005. For both balance years, the accumulation area ratio was less than 0.05 and the equilibrium line altitude was higher than the glacier. The unusually negative 2004 and 2005 glacier net balances, combined with a negative balance previously reported for 2003, resulted in a cumulative 3-year net balance of -6.20 meters water equivalent. No equal or greater 3-year mass loss has occurred previously during the more than 4 decades of U.S. Geological Survey mass-balance measurements at South Cascade Glacier. Accompanying the glacier mass losses were retreat of the terminus and reduction of total glacier area. The terminus retreated at a rate of about 17 meters per year during balance year 2004 and 15 meters per year during balance year 2005. Glacier area near the end of balance years 2004 and 2005 was 1.82 and 1.75 square kilometers, respectively. Runoff from the basin containing the glacier and from an adjacent nonglacierized basin was

  11. Late Holocene spatio-temporal variability of the south Greenland Ice Sheet and adjacent mountain glaciers (United States)

    Sinclair, G.; Carlson, A. E.; Rood, D. H.; Axford, Y.


    The late Holocene, with its spatially complex pattern of centennial-scale climate variation, is an ideal time period to test the response of the cryosphere to atmospheric and oceanic temperature changes. The south Greenland Ice Sheet (sGrIS), with its proximity to areas of North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a large spectrum of glaciological regimes over a relatively small area, provides an excellent location to examine the spatial heterogeneity of ice-sheet and glacier responses to climate change. Here, we will present 50 Be-10 surface exposure ages from eight moraines in six locations around the margin of the sGrIS. These moraines are located just outboard of historical moraines, and will therefore allow us to constrain the timing of the most extensive prehistoric late-Holocene advance and retreat of ice margins draining the sGrIS and independent valley glaciers. The dataset includes both marine- and land-terminating glaciers draining the sGrIS, the low-altitude Qassimiut lobe, the high-altitude alpine Julianhåb ice cap and isolated valley glaciers. This diverse dataset will allow us to determine to what extent late-Holocene centennial-scale behavior of the ice-sheet and glacier margins were synchronous, perhaps in response to an external climate forcing, or more stochastic, governed instead by local factors such as basal thermal regime, bedrock topography, or microclimates. This has implications for understanding the forcings and responses of cryospheric changes at timescales relevant to human society. In addition to providing context for paleoclimatic and glacial geologic investigations, this work will inform future sea-level projections by providing targets for validating high-resolution ice-sheet and glacier models.

  12. Morphometric Controls on Glacier Mass Balance of the Puruogangri Ice Field, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu


    Full Text Available Evaluating the impacts of climatic changes and morphometric features on glacier mass balance is crucial to providing insight into glacier changes and their effects on regional water resources and ecosystems. Here, we presented an evaluation of morphometric effects on the glacier mass balances of the Puruogangri ice field (PIF on the Tibetan Plateau. A clear spatial variability of glacier mass balances, ranging from −0.035 to +0.019 m·w.e.·year−1, was estimated by comparing the TanDEM-X DEM (2012 with the SRTM-X DEM (2000. In general, the observed glacier mass changes were consistent with our fieldwork investigations. Furthermore, by applying the method of linear regression analysis, we found that the mass changes of individual glaciers on the PIF were mainly dominated by the mean altitude (R = 0.84, p < 0.001, however, they were statistically independent of glacier size, aspect, and surface velocity. At a local scale (grid size of 10 × 10 pixels, apart from the factor of altitude, surface velocity was correlated with glacier mass change.

  13. Little Ice Age climate reconstruction from ensemble reanalysis of Alpine glacier fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lüthi


    Full Text Available Mountain glaciers sample a combination of climate fields – temperature, precipitation and radiation – by accumulation and melting of ice. Flow dynamics acts as a transfer function that maps volume changes to a length response of the glacier terminus. Long histories of terminus positions have been assembled for several glaciers in the Alps. Here I analyze terminus position histories from an ensemble of seven glaciers in the Alps with a macroscopic model of glacier dynamics to derive a history of glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA for the time span 400–2010 C.E. The resulting climatic reconstruction depends only on records of glacier variations. The reconstructed ELA history is similar to recent reconstructions of Alpine summer temperature and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO index, but bears little resemblance to reconstructed precipitation variations. Most reconstructed low-ELA periods coincide with large explosive volcano eruptions, hinting at a direct effect of volcanic radiative cooling on mass balance. The glacier advances during the LIA, and the retreat after 1860, can thus be mainly attributed to temperature and volcanic radiative cooling.

  14. Glacier ice mass fluctuations and fault instability in tectonically active Southern Alaska (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne M.; Molnia, Bruce F.


    Across the plate boundary zone in south central Alaska, tectonic strain rates are high in a region that includes large glaciers undergoing wastage (glacier retreat and thinning) and surges. For the coastal region between the Bering and Malaspina Glaciers, the average ice mass thickness changes between 1995 and 2000 range from 1 to 5 m/year. These ice changes caused solid Earth displacements in our study region with predicted values of -10 to 50 mm in the vertical and predicted horizontal displacements of 0-10 mm at variable orientations. Relative to stable North America, observed horizontal rates of tectonic deformation range from 10 to 40 mm/year to the north-northwest and the predicted tectonic uplift rates range from approximately 0 mm/year near the Gulf of Alaska coast to 12 mm/year further inland. The ice mass changes between 1995 and 2000 resulted in discernible changes in the Global Positioning System (GPS) measured station positions of one site (ISLE) located adjacent to the Bagley Ice Valley and at one site, DON, located south of the Bering Glacier terminus. In addition to modifying the surface displacements rates, we evaluated the influence ice changes during the Bering glacier surge cycle had on the background seismic rate. We found an increase in the number of earthquakes ( ML≥2.5) and seismic rate associated with ice thinning and a decrease in the number of earthquakes and seismic rate associated with ice thickening. These results support the hypothesis that ice mass changes can modulate the background seismic rate. During the last century, wastage of the coastal glaciers in the Icy Bay and Malaspina region indicates thinning of hundreds of meters and in areas of major retreat, maximum losses of ice thickness approaching 1 km. Between the 1899 Yakataga and Yakutat earthquakes ( Mw=8.1, 8.1) and prior to the 1979 St. Elias earthquake ( Ms=7.2), the plate interface below Icy Bay was locked and tectonic strain accumulated. We used estimated ice mass

  15. Dry calving processes at the ice cliff of an antarctic local glacier: the study case of Strandline Glacier (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) (United States)

    Smiraglia, C.; Motta, M.; Vassena, G.; Diolaiuti, G.


    In Antartic coastal area, where the ice sheet and the large outlet glaciers do not reach the sea and where some rugged mountain chains are often present, many small glaciers can be found. They are the so called local or alpine type glaciers, which have their terminus ground-based such as the real alpine glaciers and rarely reach the main valley floors. They are practically isolated and independent from the supply flowing down from the plateau and their mass balance is mainly controlled by sublimation and aeolic erosion and accumulation. The glaciers closer to the coast are submitted to the melting as well, and when the terminus is cliff-shaped they are also affected by dry calving. The most known and studied Antarctic local glaciers are placed in the Dry Valleys region (Chinn, 1985), but this kind of glaciers is also diffused all along the Northern Victoria Land coastal region (Chinn and others, 1989). Since the first Italian Antarctic expedition (1985), many studies have been carried out on this type of glaciers, which can be usefull for detailed mass balance evaluations and for obtaining information about the effects of the present climatic dynamics on the Antarctic coastal environment (Baroni and Orombelli, 1987; Baroni and others, 1995; Meneghel, 1999; Vassena and others., 2001). The Strandline Glacier (74 41 S; 164 07 E), in particular is a small alpine glacier (0,79 kmq) on the coast of Terra Nova Bay, Northern Victoria Land; it is a cold glacier where accumulation and ablation basins are mainly controlled by wind processes. Its terminus forms in the central part a grounded ice cliff about 30 m high, about 130 m far from the sea. On that glacier mass balance, surface velocity and calving rate were measured. During the southern summer season 2000-2001 many topographycal profiles of the ice cliff were surveyed by using both classical topographical and glaciological methods (total station and stakes) and GPS technique. It was so possible to detect the short term

  16. Ice-Ocean Interactions to the North-West of Greenland: Glaciers, Straits, Ice Bridges, and the Rossby Radius (Invited) (United States)

    Muenchow, A.; Falkner, K. K.; Melling, H.; Johnson, H. L.; Huntley, H. S.; Ryan, P.; Friends Of Petermann


    Petermann Glacier at 81 N latitude is a major outlet glacier adjacent to Nares Strait. It terminates in a long (70 km), narrow (16 km) and thin (50 m) floating tongue and has a grounding line more than 500 m below sea level. A calving event in 2010 reduced the floating area by 25% and produced a single 240 km2 ice island currently moving south in Nares Strait where it will likely interact with island to potentially create a temporary polynya in Nares Strait. The 2010 calving from Petermann Glacier contributes bridge formed regularly at the southern end of Nares Strait creating the North-Water polynya near 79 N latitude. Since 2006 this ice bridge has largely failed to form, leading, perhaps, to the occasional formation of a secondary ice bridge 300 km to the north where Nares Strait connects to the Arctic Ocean. However, this ice bridge appears to form for shorter periods only. Consequently Arctic sea ice can now exit the Arctic in winter via pathways to the west of Greenland all year. We speculate that this changed ocean and sea ice regime in Nares Strait and the Arctic Ocean may contribute to the recently observed calving events in Petermann Fjord.

  17. Geodetic mass balance measurements on debris and clean-ice tropical glaciers in Ecuador (United States)

    La Frenierre, J.; Decker, C. R.; Jordan, E.; Wigmore, O.; Hodge, B. E.; Niederriter, C.; Michels, A.


    Glaciers are recognized as highly sensitive indicators of climate change in high altitude, low latitude environments. In the tropical Andes, various analyses of glacier surface area change have helped illuminate the manifestation of climate change in this region, however, information about actual glacier mass balance behavior is much more limited given the relatively small glaciers, difficult access, poor weather, and/or limited local resources common here. Several new technologies, including aerial and terrestrial LIDAR and structure-from-motion photogrammetry using small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), make mass balance measurements using geodetic approaches increasingly feasible in remote mountain locations, which can both further our understanding of changing climatic conditions, and improve our ability to evaluate the downstream hydrologic impacts of ice loss. At Volcán Chimborazo, Ecuador, these new technologies, combined with a unique, 5-meter resolution digital elevation model derived from 1997 aerial imagery, make possible an analysis of the magnitude and spatial patterns of mass balance behavior over the past two decades. Here, we evaluate ice loss between 1997 and 2017 at the tongues of two adjacent glaciers, one debris-covered and detached from its accumulation area (Reschreiter Glacier), and one debris-free and intact (Hans Meyer Glacier). Additionally, we incorporate data from 2012 and 2013 terrestrial LIDAR surveys to evaluate the behavior of the Reschreiter at a finer temporal resolution. We find that on the Hans Meyer, the mean surface deflation rate since 1997 at the present-day tongue has been nearly 3 m yr-1, while on the lower-elevation Reschreiter, the mean deflation rate has been approximately 1 m yr-1. However, the processes by which debris-covered ice becomes exposed results in highly heterogeneous patterns of ice loss, with some areas experiencing surface deflation rates approaching 15 m yr-1 when energy absorption is unimpeded.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvans, J., E-mail: [Engineering Research Institute “Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Center” of Ventspils University College, Inzenieru 101, Ventspils, LV-3601 (Latvia)


    Starless molecular cores are natural laboratories for interstellar molecular chemistry research. The chemistry of ices in such objects was investigated with a three-phase (gas, surface, and mantle) model. We considered the center part of five starless cores, with their physical conditions derived from observations. The ice chemistry of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and complex organic molecules (COMs) was analyzed. We found that an ice-depth dimension, measured, e.g., in monolayers, is essential for modeling of chemistry in interstellar ices. Particularly, the H{sub 2}O:CO:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2}:NH{sub 3} ice abundance ratio regulates the production and destruction of minor species. It is suggested that photodesorption during the core-collapse period is responsible for the high abundance of interstellar H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}H and other species synthesized on the surface. The calculated abundances of COMs in ice were compared to observed gas-phase values. Smaller activation barriers for CO and H{sub 2}CO hydrogenation may help explain the production of a number of COMs. The observed abundance of methyl formate HCOOCH{sub 3} could be reproduced with a 1 kyr, 20 K temperature spike. Possible desorption mechanisms, relevant for COMs, are gas turbulence (ice exposure to interstellar photons) or a weak shock within the cloud core (grain collisions). To reproduce the observed COM abundances with the present 0D model, 1%–10% of ice mass needs to be sublimated. We estimate that the lifetime for starless cores likely does not exceed 1 Myr. Taurus cores are likely to be younger than their counterparts in most other clouds.

  19. Experimental Analysis of Sublimation Dynamics for Buried Glacier Ice in Beacon Valley, Antarctica (United States)

    Ehrenfeucht, S.; Dennis, D. P.; Marchant, D. R.


    The age of the oldest known buried ice in Beacon Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) Antarctica is a topic of active debate due to its implications for the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Published age estimates range from as young as 300 ka to as old as 8.1 Ma. In the upland MDV, ablation occurs predominantly via sublimation. The relict ice in question (ancient ice from Taylor Glacier) lies buried beneath a thin ( 30-70 cm) layer of sublimation till, which forms as a lag deposit as underlying debris-rich ice sublimes. As the ice sublimates, the debris held within the ice accumulates slowly on the surface, creating a porous boundary between the buried-ice surface and the atmosphere, which in turn influences gas exchange between the ice and the atmosphere. Additionally, englacial debris adds several salt species that are ultimately concentrated on the ice surface. It is well documented the rate of ice sublimation varies as a function of overlying till thickness. However, the rate-limiting dynamics under varying environmental conditions, including the threshold thicknesses at which sublimation is strongly retarded, are not yet defined. To better understand the relationships between sublimation rate, till thickness, and long-term surface evolution, we build on previous studies by Lamp and Marchant (2017) and evaluate the role of till thickness as a control on ice loss in an environmental chamber capable of replicating the extreme cold desert conditions observed in the MDV. Previous work has shown that this relationship exhibits exponential decay behavior, with sublimation rate significantly dampened under less than 10 cm of till. In our experiments we pay particular attention to the effect of the first several cm of till in order to quantify the dynamics that govern the transition from bare ice to debris-covered ice. We also examine this transition for various forms of glacier ice, including ice with various salt species.

  20. Ice volume distribution and implications on runoff projections in a glacierized catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabbi


    Full Text Available A dense network of helicopter-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR measurements was used to determine the ice-thickness distribution in the Mauvoisin region. The comprehensive set of ice-thickness measurements was combined with an ice-thickness estimation approach for an accurate determination of the bedrock. A total ice volume of 3.69 ± 0.31 km3 and a maximum ice thickness of 290 m were found. The ice-thickness values were then employed as input for a combined glacio-hydrological model forced by most recent regional climate scenarios. This model provided glacier evolution and runoff projections for the period 2010–2100. Runoff projections of the measured initial ice volume distribution show an increase in annual runoff of 4% in the next two decades, followed by a persistent runoff decrease until 2100. Finally, we checked the influence of the ice-thickness distribution on runoff projections. Our analyses revealed that reliable estimates of the ice volume are essential for modelling future glacier and runoff evolution. Wrong estimations of the total ice volume might even lead to deviations of the predicted general runoff trend.

  1. Sub-ice-shelf sediments record history of twentieth-century retreat of Pine Island Glacier


    Smith, J.A.; Andersen, T.J.; Shortt, M.; Gaffney, A.M.; Truffer, M.; Stanton, T.P.; Bindschadler, R.; Dutrieux, P.; Jenkins, A.; Hillenbrand, C.-D.; Ehrmann, W.; Corr, H.F.J.; Farley, N.; Crowhurst, S.; Vaughan, D.G.


    The article of record as published may be found at The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the largest potential sources of rising sea levels. Over the past 40 years, glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea sector of the ice sheet have thinned at an accelerating rate, and several numerical models suggest that unstable and irreversible retreat of the grounding line—which marks the boundary between grounded ice and floating ice shelf—is underway. Under...

  2. Ice core records of climate variability on the Third Pole with emphasis on the Guliya ice cap, western Kunlun Mountains (United States)

    Thompson, Lonnie G.; Yao, Tandong; Davis, Mary E.; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; Wu, Guangjian; Porter, Stacy E.; Xu, Baiqing; Lin, Ping-Nan; Wang, Ninglian; Beaudon, Emilie; Duan, Keqin; Sierra-Hernández, M. Roxana; Kenny, Donald V.


    Records of recent climate from ice cores drilled in 2015 on the Guliya ice cap in the western Kunlun Mountains of the Tibetan Plateau, which with the Himalaya comprises the Third Pole (TP), demonstrate that this region has become warmer and moister since at least the middle of the 19th century. Decadal-scale linkages are suggested between ice core temperature and snowfall proxies, North Atlantic oceanic and atmospheric processes, Arctic temperatures, and Indian summer monsoon intensity. Correlations between annual-scale oxygen isotopic ratios (δ18O) and tropical western Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures are also demonstrated. Comparisons of climate records during the last millennium from ice cores acquired throughout the TP illustrate centennial-scale differences between monsoon and westerlies dominated regions. Among these records, Guliya shows the highest rate of warming since the end of the Little Ice Age, but δ18O data over the last millennium from TP ice cores support findings that elevation-dependent warming is most pronounced in the Himalaya. This, along with the decreasing precipitation rates in the Himalaya region, is having detrimental effects on the cryosphere. Although satellite monitoring of glaciers on the TP indicates changes in surface area, only a few have been directly monitored for mass balance and ablation from the surface. This type of ground-based study is essential to obtain a better understanding of the rate of ice shrinkage on the TP.

  3. Glaciers of Europe (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.


    ALPS: AUSTRIAN: An overview is provided on the occurrence of the glaciers in the Eastern Alps of Austria and on the climatic conditions in this area, Historical documents on the glaciers have been available since the Middle Ages. Special glaciological observations and topographic surveys of individual glaciers were initiated as early as 1846. Recent data in an inventory based on aerial photographs taken in 1969 show 925 glaciers in the Austrian Alps with a total area of 542 square kilometers. Present research topics include studies of mass and energy balance, relations of glaciers and climate, physical glaciology, a complete inventory of the glaciers, and testing of remote sensing methods. The location of the glacier areas is shown on Landsat multispectral scanner images; the improved capabilities of the Landsat thematic mapper are illustrated with an example from the Oztaler Alpen group. ALPS: SWISS: According to a glacier inventory published in 1976, which is based on aerial photography of 1973, there are 1,828 glacier units in the Swiss Alps that cover a total area of 1fl42 square kilometers. The Rhonegletscher, currently the ninth largest in the country, was one of the first to be studied in detail. Its surface has been surveyed repeatedly; velocity profiles were measured, and the fluctuations of its terminus were mapped and recorded from 1874 to 1914. Recent research on the glacier has included climatological, hydrological, and massbalance studies. Glaciological research has been conducted on various other glaciers in Switzerland concerning glacier hydrology, glacier hazards, fluctuations of glacier termini, ice mechanics, ice cores, and mass balance. Good maps are available showing the extent of glaciers from the latter decades of the 19th century. More recently, the entire country has been mapped at scales of 1:25,000, 1:50,000, 1:100,000, 1:200,000, and 1:500,000. The 1:25,000-scale series very accurately represents the glaciers as well as locates

  4. Local response of a glacier to annual filling and drainage of an ice-marginal lake (United States)

    Walder, J.S.; Trabant, D.C.; Cunico, M.; Fountain, A.G.; Anderson, S.P.; Anderson, R. Scott; Malm, A.


    Ice-marginal Hidden Creek Lake, Alaska, USA, outbursts annually over the course of 2-3 days. As the lake fills, survey targets on the surface of the 'ice dam' (the glacier adjacent to the lake) move obliquely to the ice margin and rise substantially. As the lake drains, ice motion speeds up, becomes nearly perpendicular to the face of the ice dam, and the ice surface drops. Vertical movement of the ice dam probably reflects growth and decay of a wedge of water beneath the ice dam, in line with established ideas about jo??kulhlaup mechanics. However, the distribution of vertical ice movement, with a narrow (50-100 m wide) zone where the uplift rate decreases by 90%, cannot be explained by invoking flexure of the ice dam in a fashion analogous to tidal flexure of a floating glacier tongue or ice shelf. Rather, the zone of large uplift-rate gradient is a fault zone: ice-dam deformation is dominated by movement along high-angle faults that cut the ice dam through its entire thickness, with the sense of fault slip reversing as the lake drains. Survey targets spanning the zone of steep uplift gradient move relative to one another in a nearly reversible fashion as the lake fills and drains. The horizontal strain rate also undergoes a reversal across this zone, being compressional as the lake fills, but extensional as the lake drains. Frictional resistance to fault-block motion probably accounts for the fact that lake level falls measurably before the onset of accelerated horizontal motion and vertical downdrop. As the overall fault pattern is the same from year to year, even though ice is lost by calving, the faults must be regularly regenerated, probably by linkage of surface and bottom crevasses as ice is advected toward the lake basin.

  5. Little Ice Age glacial geomorphology and sedimentology of Portage Glacier, South-Central Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Córdova


    Full Text Available The study of glacial landforms and deposits is important, as it isdifficult to observe processes under modern glaciers and ice-sheets. Thus landscapes and sediments that are the product of present glaciation can give insight into processes that occurred during Pleistocene times. This study investigates the genesis of little ice age glacial landforms present in Portage Glacier, South-Central Alaska. The present day moraine morphology and sedimentology in Portage Glacier valley reveals the presence of two types of till and moraines. The clast-rich sandy diamicton present on the 1852 moraine is interpreted to be a basal till indicating this feature is a pushmoraine representing an advance or a standstill position of Portage Glacier in 1852. The moderately sorted gray sandy boulder gravel present on the 1900 and 1922 moraines is interpreted to be an ice-marginal deposit (ablation till with a mixture of supraglacial and glaciofluvial sediments deposited by slumping and stream sortingprocesses. All of these features are interpreted to be ablation moraines representing glacier retreat and moraine building in 1900 and1922.

  6. Continuous Chemistry in Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid

    on parameters involved in the study of photolysis as a source of in situ CO2. The concentration of organic substances in Greenland ice is poorly known due to their low levels and the fact that only a few studies evaluate the concentrations of specific organic compounds. Light does not penetrate deep...... depth was found as a function of wavelength. Further, by computational chemistry hybrid density functional methods (DFT), the four most common conformers of pyruvic acid were investigated in both gas, water and ice using the DFT model CAM-B3LYP with dielectric medium methods. A de rease of the energy...

  7. Progression of the 2011-2012 Surge of Bering Glacier and Bagley Ice Field, Alaska (United States)

    Herzfeld, U. C.; McDonald, B.; Stachura, M.; Hale, R.; Trantow, T.; Weltman, A.; Chen, P.


    Bering Glacier, Alaska, started a surge in late spring 2011. The surge reached the ice front in May 2011 and extended into Bagley Ice Field by summer 2011. New surge-related crevassing was observed in July 2012. We collected aerial observations, including systematic videographic and photographic imagery, GPS data and laser altimeter data in September 2011 and in July 2012. In this talk, an analysis of surge progression and comparison to the early, mature and late stages of the 1993-1995 surge of Bering Glacier and Bagley Ice Field will be presented. A suite of approaches will be used to this end: Analysis of elevation changes based on CryoSat data, 2009 and 2010 IceBridge data and 2011 and 2012 laser altimeter data collected by our group, geostatistical classification of crevasse types based on imagery, classification of laser altimeter data and analysis of high-resolution satellite imagery (Worldview and GEOS).

  8. Modeling the Rock Glacier Cycle (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, L. S.


    Rock glaciers are common in many mountain ranges in which the ELA lies above the peaks. They represent some of the most identifiable components of today's cryosphere in these settings. Their oversteepened snouts pose often-overlooked hazards to travel in alpine terrain. Rock glaciers are supported by avalanches and by rockfall from steep headwalls. The winter's avalanche cone must be sufficiently thick not to melt entirely in the summer. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers reflects this dependence on avalanche sources; they are most common on lee sides of ridges where wind-blown snow augments the avalanche source. In the absence of rockfall, this would support a short, cirque glacier. Depending on the relationship between rockfall and avalanche patterns, "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers are possible. Talus-derived: If the spatial distribution of rock delivery is similar to the avalanche pattern, the rock-ice mixture will travel an englacial path that is downward through the short accumulation zone before turning upward in the ablation zone. Advected debris is then delivered to the base of a growing surface debris layer that reduces the ice melt rate. The physics is identical to the debris-covered glacier case. Glacier-derived: If on the other hand rockfall from the headwall rolls beyond the avalanche cone, it is added directly to the ablation zone of the glacier. The avalanche accumulation zone then supports a pure ice core to the rock glacier. We have developed numerical models designed to capture the full range of glacier to debris-covered glacier to rock glacier behavior. The hundreds of meter lengths, tens of meters thicknesses, and meter per year speeds of rock glaciers are well described by the models. The model can capture both "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers. We explore the dependence of glacier behavior on climate histories. As climate warms, a pure ice debris-covered glacier can transform to a much shorter rock

  9. Vulnerability of Southeast Greenland Glaciers to Warm Atlantic Water From Operation IceBridge and Ocean Melting Greenland Data (United States)

    Millan, R.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Wood, M.; Bjørk, A. A.; Morlighem, M.


    We employ National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Operation IceBridge high-resolution airborne gravity from 2016, NASA's Ocean Melting Greenland bathymetry from 2015, ice thickness from Operation IceBridge from 2010 to 2015, and BedMachine v3 to analyze 20 major southeast Greenland glaciers. The results reveal glacial fjords several hundreds of meters deeper than previously thought; the full extent of the marine-based portions of the glaciers; deep troughs enabling warm, salty Atlantic Water (AW) to reach the glacier fronts and melt them from below; and few shallow sills that limit the access of AW. The new oceanographic and topographic data help to fully resolve the complex pattern of historical ice front positions from the 1930s to 2017: glaciers exposed to AW and resting on retrograde beds have retreated rapidly, while glaciers perched on shallow sills or standing in colder waters or with major sills in the fjords have remained stable.

  10. Aspect controls the survival of ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers. (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Supraglacial ice cliffs exist on debris-covered glaciers worldwide, but despite their importance as melt hot spots, their life cycle is little understood. Early field observations had advanced a hypothesis of survival of north-facing and disappearance of south-facing cliffs, which is central for predicting the contribution of cliffs to total glacier mass losses. Their role as windows of energy transfer suggests they may explain the anomalously high mass losses of debris-covered glaciers in High Mountain Asia (HMA) despite the insulating debris, currently at the center of a debated controversy. We use a 3D model of cliff evolution coupled to very high-resolution topographic data to demonstrate that ice cliffs facing south (in the Northern Hemisphere) disappear within a few months due to enhanced solar radiation receipts and that aspect is the key control on cliffs evolution. We reproduce continuous flattening of south-facing cliffs, a result of their vertical gradient of incoming solar radiation and sky view factor. Our results establish that only north-facing cliffs are recurrent features and thus stable contributors to the melting of debris-covered glaciers. Satellite observations and mass balance modeling confirms that few south-facing cliffs of small size exist on the glaciers of Langtang, and their contribution to the glacier volume losses is very small ([Formula: see text]1%). This has major implications for the mass balance of HMA debris-covered glaciers as it provides the basis for new parameterizations of cliff evolution and distribution to constrain volume losses in a region where glaciers are highly relevant as water sources for millions of people.

  11. Modelling ice-cliff backwasting on a debris-covered glacier in the Nepalese Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, Jakob F.; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Immerzeel, Walter W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Reid, Tim D.


    Ice cliffs have been identified as a reason for higher ablation rates on debris-covered glaciers than are implied by the insulation effects of the debris. This study aims to improve our understanding of cliff backwasting, and the role of radiative fluxes in particular. An energy-balance model is

  12. A physically based 3-D model of ice cliff evolution over debris-covered glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, J.F.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Wagnon, Patrick; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    We use high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys to document the evolution of four ice cliffs on the debris-covered tongue of Lirung Glacier, Nepal, over one ablation season. Observations show that out of four cliffs, three different patterns of

  13. A grid-based model of backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs over debris-covered glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Steiner, Jakob F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119338653; Miles, Evan S.; Immerzeel, Wouter W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113


    Ice cliffs might be partly responsible for the high mass losses of debris-covered glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region. The few existing models of cliff backwasting are point-scale models applied at few locations or assume cliffs to be planes with constant slope and aspect, a major

  14. Assessment of diffusive isotopic fractionation in polar firn, and application to ice core trace gas records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buizert, C.; Sowers, T.; Blunier, T.


    During rapid variations of the atmospheric mixing ratio of a trace gas, diffusive transport in the porous firn layer atop ice sheets and glaciers alters the isotopic composition of that gas relative to the overlying atmosphere. Records of past atmospheric trace gas isotopic composition from ice...... cores and firn need to be corrected for this diffusive fractionation artifact. We present a novel, semi-empirical method to accurately estimate the magnitude of the diffusive fractionation in the ice core record. Our method (1) consists of a relatively simple analytical calculation; (2) requires only...... commonly available ice core data; (3) is not subject to the uncertainties inherent to estimating the accumulation rate, temperature, close-off depth and depth-diffusivity relationship back in time; (4) does not require knowledge of the true atmospheric variations, but uses the smoothed records obtained...

  15. Sudden disintegration of ice in the glacial-proglacial transition zone of the largest glacier in Austria (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Avian, Michael; Hirschmann, Simon; Lieb, Gerhard Karl; Seier, Gernot; Sulzer, Wolfgang; Wakonigg, Herwig


    Rapid deglaciation does not only reveal a landscape which is prone to rapid geomorphic changes and sediment reworking but also the glacier ice itself might be in a state of disintegration by ice melting, pressure relief, crevasse formation, ice collapse or changes in the glacier's hydrology. In this study we considered the sudden disintegration of glacier ice in the glacial-proglacial transition zone of Pasterze Glacier. Pasterze Glacier is a typical alpine valley glacier and covers currently some 16.5 km2 making it to the largest glacier in Austria. This glacier is an important site for alpine mass tourism in Austria related to a public high alpine road and a cable car which enable access to the glacier rather easily also for unexperienced mountaineers. Spatial focus in our research is given on two particular study areas where several ice-mass movement events occurred during the 2015- and 2016-melting seasons. The first study area is a crevasse field at the lower third of the glacier tongue. This lateral crevasse field has been substantially modified during the last two melting seasons particularly because of thermo-erosional effects of a glacial stream which changed at this site from subglacial (until 2015) to glacier-lateral revealing a several tens of meters high unstable ice cliff prone to ice falls of different magnitudes. The second study area is located at the proglacial area. At Pasterze Glacier the proglacial area is widely influenced by dead-ice bodies of various dimensions making this area prone to slow to sudden geomorphic changes caused by ice mass changes. A particular ice-mass movement event took place on 20.09.2016. Within less than one hour the surface of the proglacial area changed substantially by tilting, lateral shifting, and subsidence of the ground accompanied by complete ice disintegration of once-debris covered ice. To understand acting processes at both areas of interest and to quantify mass changes we used field observations, terrain

  16. High Artic Glaciers and Ice Caps Ice Mass Change from GRACE, Regional Climate Model Output and Altimetry. (United States)

    Ciraci, E.; Velicogna, I.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.


    The Arctic hosts more than the 75% of the ice covered regions outside from Greenland and Antarctica. Available observations show that increased atmospheric temperatures during the last century have contributed to a substantial glaciers retreat in all these regions. We use satellite gravimetry by the NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), and apply a least square fit mascon approach to calculate time series of ice mass change for the period 2002-2016. Our estimates show that arctic glaciers have constantly contributed to the sea level rise during the entire observation period with a mass change of -170+/-20 Gt/yr equivalent to the 80% of the total ice mass change from the world Glacier and Ice Caps (GIC) excluding the Ice sheet peripheral GIC, which we calculated to be -215+/-32 GT/yr, with an acceleration of 9+/-4 Gt/yr2. The Canadian Archipelago is the main contributor to the total mass depletion with an ice mass trend of -73+/-9 Gt/yr and a significant acceleration of -7+/-3 Gt/yr2. The increasing mass loss is mainly determined by melting glaciers located in the northern part of the archipelago.In order to investigate the physical processes driving the observed ice mass loss we employ satellite altimetry and surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from Regional climate model outputs available for the same time period covered by the gravimetry data. We use elevation data from the NASA ICESat (2003-2009) and ESA CryoSat-2 (2010-2016) missions to estimate ice elevation changes. We compare GRACE ice mass estimates with time series of surface mass balance from the Regional Climate Model (RACMO-2) and the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) and determine the portion of the total mass change explained by the SMB signal. We find that in Iceland and in the and the Canadian Archipelago the SMB signal explains most of the observed mass changes, suggesting that ice discharge may play a secondary role here. In other region, e.g. in Svalbar, the SMB signal

  17. Deriving micro- to macro-scale seismic velocities from ice-core c axis orientations (United States)

    Kerch, Johanna; Diez, Anja; Weikusat, Ilka; Eisen, Olaf


    One of the great challenges in glaciology is the ability to estimate the bulk ice anisotropy in ice sheets and glaciers, which is needed to improve our understanding of ice-sheet dynamics. We investigate the effect of crystal anisotropy on seismic velocities in glacier ice and revisit the framework which is based on fabric eigenvalues to derive approximate seismic velocities by exploiting the assumed symmetry. In contrast to previous studies, we calculate the seismic velocities using the exact c axis angles describing the orientations of the crystal ensemble in an ice-core sample. We apply this approach to fabric data sets from an alpine and a polar ice core. Our results provide a quantitative evaluation of the earlier approximative eigenvalue framework. For near-vertical incidence our results differ by up to 135 m s-1 for P-wave and 200 m s-1 for S-wave velocity compared to the earlier framework (estimated 1 % difference in average P-wave velocity at the bedrock for the short alpine ice core). We quantify the influence of shear-wave splitting at the bedrock as 45 m s-1 for the alpine ice core and 59 m s-1 for the polar ice core. At non-vertical incidence we obtain differences of up to 185 m s-1 for P-wave and 280 m s-1 for S-wave velocities. Additionally, our findings highlight the variation in seismic velocity at non-vertical incidence as a function of the horizontal azimuth of the seismic plane, which can be significant for non-symmetric orientation distributions and results in a strong azimuth-dependent shear-wave splitting of max. 281 m s-1 at some depths. For a given incidence angle and depth we estimated changes in phase velocity of almost 200 m s-1 for P wave and more than 200 m s-1 for S wave and shear-wave splitting under a rotating seismic plane. We assess for the first time the change in seismic anisotropy that can be expected on a short spatial (vertical) scale in a glacier due to strong variability in crystal-orientation fabric (±50 m s-1 per 10 cm

  18. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.


    Ice cores are the most direct, continuous, and high resolution archive for Late Quaternary paleoclimate reconstruction. Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Their study helps us to improve our understanding of regional patterns of climate behaviour in Antarctica and its influence on New Zealand, leading to more realistic regional climate models. Such models are needed to sensibly interpret current Antarctic and New Zealand climate variability and for the development of appropriate migration strategies for New Zealand. (author). 23 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  19. Estimation of basal shear stresses from now ice-free LIA glacier forefields in the Swiss Alps (United States)

    Fischer, Mauro; Haeberli, Wilfried; Huss, Matthias; Paul, Frank; Linsbauer, Andreas; Hoelzle, Martin


    In most cases, assessing the impacts of climatic changes on glaciers requires knowledge about the ice thickness distribution. Miscellaneous methodological approaches with different degrees of sophistication have been applied to model glacier thickness so far. However, all of them include significant uncertainty. By applying a parameterization scheme for ice thickness determination relying on assumptions about basal shear stress by Haeberli and Hoelzle (1995) to now ice-free glacier forefields in the Swiss Alps, basal shear stress values can be calculated based on a fast and robust experimental approach. In a GIS, the combination of recent (1973) and Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum (around 1850) glacier outlines, central flowlines, a recent Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and a DEM of glacier surface topography for the LIA maximum allows extracting local ice thickness over the forefield of individual glaciers. Subsequently, basal shear stress is calculated via the rheological assumption of perfect-plasticity relating ice thickness and surface slope to shear stress. The need of only very few input data commonly stored in glacier inventories permits an application to a large number of glaciers. Basal shear stresses are first calculated for subsamples of glaciers belonging to two test sites where the LIA maximum glacier surface is modeled with DEMs derived from accurate topographic maps for the mid 19th century. Neglecting outliers, the average resulting mean basal shear stress is around 80 kPa for the Bernina region (range 25-100 kPa) and 120 kPa (range 50-150 kPa) for the Aletsch region. For the entire Swiss Alps it is 100 kPa (range 40-175 kPa). Because complete LIA glacier surface elevation information is lacking there, a DEM is first created from reconstructed height of LIA lateral moraines and trimlines by using a simple GIS-based tool. A sensitivity analysis of the input parameters reveals that the performance of the developed approach primarily depends on the

  20. Role of glacier runoff in the Heihe Basin


    坂井, 亜規子; 藤田, 耕史; 中尾, 正義; YAO, Tandong


    We estimated the fluctuation of precipitation and air temperature from Dunde ice core data since 1606 comparing to meteorological data taken near the July 1st glacier since 1930s. Then, we calculated the discharges from glaciers and glacier-free areaFurthermore, we analyzed the sensitivity of those discharges to meteorological factor. The result revealed that calculated discharge from glacier-free area increased with precipitation. Meanwhile, calculated discharge from glaciers decreased with ...

  1. Drainage of ice-dammed lakes and glacier retreat - a link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Kjaer, K. H.; Rysgaard, Søren


    surface freshwater run-off is found in the top of the water column in the fjord while sub-glacial meltwater is entrained deeper in the water column. The latter is highly important as this colder buoyant freshwater is pushed to the water surface followed by a compensating deeper landward current bringing...... in the fjord. The large quantity of buoyant freshwater changed the osmotic pressure and pushed redfish to the water surface causing them to die from divers disease. Further investigation suggested that three ice-dammed lakes adjacent to the Narssap Sermia glacier had drained within the previous year. Analysis......-30 times the volume of an ice-dammed lake prior to drainage. The warm water influx in turn causes the glacier to retreat and to gradually become thinner which feeds back to an increase in drainage events of ice-dammed lakes over time. On a larger scale the feedback mechanism between the drainage of lakes...

  2. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders


    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  3. 110 years of local glacier and ice cap changes in Central- and North East Greenland (United States)

    Bjork, A. A.; Aagaard, S.; Kjaer, K. H.; Khan, S. A.; Box, J.


    The local glaciers and ice caps of Greenland are becoming more apparent players in global sea-level rise, and their contribution to future changes is significant. Very little information on their historical fluctuations exists as much of the focus has been on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Now, we can for the first time present historic data that spans 110 years for more than 200 of the local glaciers and ice caps covering this large and important region of the Arctic. The central- and north eastern part of Greenland is of particular interest as these areas are predicted to exhibit a more active behavior with higher mass loss in the future - simultaneously with an increase in precipitation. Our results show that the glaciers and ice caps in the region are responding very rapidly to changes in temperature and precipitation. The present retreat is the fastest observed within the last eight decades, only surpassed by the rapid post LIA retreat. The 1930s was the golden era for scientific exploration in Central- and North East Greenland as several large expeditions visited the area and photographed from land, sea and air. We use historic recordings from Danish and Norwegian aerial missions and terrestrial recordings from the renowned American Explorer Louise Boyd. These unique pictures from the early 1930s form the backbone of the study and are supplemented the more recent aerial photographs the 1940s and onwards and satellite imagery from the mid-1960s and up until present. From high resolution aerial photographs we are able to map the maximum extent of the glaciers during the LIA (Little Ice Age), from which retreat in this area is estimated to commence in 1900. Using a new SMB (Surface Mass Balance) model and its components covering the entire observational period along with high resolution DEMs and historic sea-ice records we are now able to extract valuable information on the past and present triggers of glacial change.

  4. Ancient Biomolecules from Deep Ice Cores Reveal a Forested Southern Greenland (United States)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cappellini, Enrico; Boomsma, Wouter; Nielsen, Rasmus; Hebsgaard, Martin B.; Brand, Tina B.; Hofreiter, Michael; Bunce, Michael; Poinar, Hendrik N.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Johnsen, Sigfus; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Bennike, Ole; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Nathan, Roger; Armitage, Simon; de Hoog, Cees-Jan; Alfimov, Vasily; Christl, Marcus; Beer, Juerg; Muscheler, Raimund; Barker, Joel; Sharp, Martin; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Haile, James; Taberlet, Pierre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Casoli, Antonella; Campani, Elisa; Collins, Matthew J.


    One of the major difficulties in paleontology is the acquisition of fossil data from the 10% of Earth’s terrestrial surface that is covered by thick glaciers and ice sheets. Here we reveal that DNA and amino acids from buried organisms can be recovered from the basal sections of deep ice cores and allow reconstructions of past flora and fauna. We show that high altitude southern Greenland, currently lying below more than two kilometers of ice, was once inhabited by a diverse array of conifer trees and insects that may date back more than 450 thousand years. The results provide the first direct evidence in support of a forested southern Greenland and suggest that many deep ice cores may contain genetic records of paleoenvironments in their basal sections. PMID:17615355

  5. Mountain glaciers vs Ice sheet in Greenland - learning from a new monitoring site in West Greenland (United States)

    Abermann, Jakob; van As, Dirk; Wacker, Stefan; Langley, Kirsty


    Only 5 out of the 20.000 peripheral glaciers and ice caps surrounding Greenland are currently monitored due to logistical challenges and despite their significance for sea level rise. Large spatial coast-to-icesheet mass and energy balance gradients limit simple upscaling methods from ice-sheet observations, which builds the motivation for this study. We present results from a new mass and energy balance time series at Qasigiannguit glacier (64°09'N; 51°21'W) in Southwest Greenland. Inter-annual variability is discussed and the surface energy balance over two summers is quantified and a ranking of the main drivers performed. We find that short-wave net radiation is by far the most dominant energy source during summer, followed by similar amounts of net longwave radiation and sensible heat, respectively. We then relate these observations to synchronous measurements at similar latitude on an outlet glacier of the ice sheet a mere 100 km away. We find very pronounced horizontal surface mass balance gradients, with generally more positive values closer to the coast. We conclude that despite minor differences of atmospheric parameters (i.e. humidity, radiation, and temperature) the main reason for the strongly different signal is a pronounced winter precipitation gradient that translates in a different duration of ice exposure and through that an albedo gradient. Modelled energy balance gradients converted into mass changes show good agreement to measured surface mass balance gradients and we explore a latitudinal signal of these findings.

  6. Outlet Glacier-Ice Shelf-Ocean Interactions: Is the Tail Wagging the Dog? (United States)

    Parizek, B. R.; Walker, R. T.; Rinehart, S. K.


    While the massive interior regions of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets are presently ``resting quietly", the lower elevations of many outlet glaciers are experiencing dramatic adjustments due to changes in ice dynamics and/or surface mass balance. Oceanic and/or atmospheric forcing in these marginal regions often leads to mass deficits for entire outlet basins. Therefore, coupling the wagging tail of ice-ocean interactions with the vast ice-sheet reservoirs is imperative for accurate assessments of future sea-level rise. To study ice-ocean dynamic processes, we couple an ocean-plume model that simulates ice-shelf basal melting rates based on temperature and salinity profiles combined with plume dynamics associated with the geometry of the ice-shelf cavity (following Jenkins, 1991 and Holland and Jenkins, 1999) with a two-dimensional, isothermal model of outlet glacier-ice shelf flow (as used in Alley et al., 2007; Walker et al., 2008; Parizek et al., in review). Depending on the assigned temperature and salinity profiles, the ocean model can simulate both water-mass end-members: either cold High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) or relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), as well as between-member conditions. Notably, the coupled system exhibits sensitivity to the initial conditions. In particular, melting concentrated near the grounding line has the greatest effect in forcing grounding-line retreat. Retreat is further enhanced by a positive feedback between the ocean and ice, as the focused melt near the grounding line leads to an increase in the local slope of the basal ice, thereby enhancing buoyancy-driven plume flow and subsequent melt rates.

  7. Modelling the contribution of supraglacial ice cliffs to the mass-balance of glaciers in the Langtang catchment, Nepalese Himalaya (United States)

    Buri, P.; Steiner, J. F.; Miles, E.; Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.


    Supraglacial cliffs are typical surface features of debris-covered glaciers worldwide, affecting surface evolution, and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface where melt rates can be very high. As a result, ice cliffs act as windows of energy transfer from the atmosphere to the ice, and enhance melt and mass losses of otherwise insulated ice. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has never been quantified at the glacier scale, and all inference has been obtained from upscaling results of point-scale models or observations at select individual cliffs. Here we use a 3D, physically-based backwasting model to estimate the volume losses associated with the melting and backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs for the entire debris-covered glacier area of the Langtang catchment. We estimate mass losses for the 2014 melt season and compare them to recent values of glacier mass balance determined from geodetic and numerical modelling approached. Cliff outlines and topography are derived from high-resolution stereo SPOT6-imagery from April 2014. Meteorological data to force the model are provided by automatic weather stations on- and off-glacier within the valley. The model simulates ice cliff backwasting by considering the cliff-atmosphere energy-balance, reburial by debris and the effects of adjacent ponds. In the melt season of 2014, cliffs' distribution and patterns of mass losses vary considerably from glacier to glacier, and we relate rates of volume loss to both glaciers' and cliffs' characteristics. Only cliffs with a northerly aspect account for substantial losses. Uncertainty in our estimates is due to the quality of the stereo DEM, uncertainties in the cliff delineation and the fact that we use a conservative approach to cliff delineation and discard very small cliffs and those for which uncertainty in topography is high. Despite these uncertainties, our work presents the first estimate of the importance of supraglacial ice

  8. Ice-ocean interaction and calving front morphology at two west Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers (United States)

    Chauché, N.; Hubbard, A.; Gascard, J.-C.; Box, J. E.; Bates, R.; Koppes, M.; Sole, A.; Christoffersen, P.; Patton, H.


    Warm, subtropical-originating Atlantic water (AW) has been identified as a primary driver of mass loss across the marine sectors of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), yet the specific processes by which this water mass interacts with and erodes the calving front of tidewater glaciers is frequently modelled and much speculated upon but remains largely unobserved. We present a suite of fjord salinity, temperature, turbidity versus depth casts along with glacial runoff estimation from Rink and Store glaciers, two major marine outlets draining the western sector of the GrIS during 2009 and 2010. We characterise the main water bodies present and interpret their interaction with their respective calving fronts. We identify two distinct processes of ice-ocean interaction which have distinct spatial and temporal footprints: (1) homogenous free convective melting which occurs across the calving front where AW is in direct contact with the ice mass, and (2) localised upwelling-driven melt by turbulent subglacial runoff mixing with fjord water which occurs at distinct injection points across the calving front. Throughout the study, AW at 2.8 ± 0.2 °C was consistently observed in contact with both glaciers below 450 m depth, yielding homogenous, free convective submarine melting up to ~200 m depth. Above this bottom layer, multiple interactions are identified, primarily controlled by the rate of subglacial fresh-water discharge which results in localised and discrete upwelling plumes. In the record melt year of 2010, the Store Glacier calving face was dominated by these runoff-driven plumes which led to a highly crenulated frontal geometry characterised by large embayments at the subglacial portals separated by headlands which are dominated by calving. Rink Glacier, which is significantly deeper than Store has a larger proportion of its submerged calving face exposed to AW, which results in a uniform, relatively flat overall frontal geometry.

  9. Variability of Basal Melt Beneath the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, West Antarctica (United States)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Vaughan, David G.; Vornberger, Patricia


    Observations from satellite and airborne platforms are combined with model calculations to infer the nature and efficiency of basal melting of the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica, by ocean waters. Satellite imagery shows surface features that suggest ice-shelf-wide changes to the ocean s influence on the ice shelf as the grounding line retreated. Longitudinal profiles of ice surface and bottom elevations are analyzed to reveal a spatially dependent pattern of basal melt with an annual melt flux of 40.5 Gt/a. One profile captures a persistent set of surface waves that correlates with quasi-annual variations of atmospheric forcing of Amundsen Sea circulation patterns, establishing a direct connection between atmospheric variability and sub-ice-shelf melting. Ice surface troughs are hydrostatically compensated by ice-bottom voids up to 150m deep. Voids form dynamically at the grounding line, triggered by enhanced melting when warmer-than-average water arrives. Subsequent enlargement of the voids is thermally inefficient (4% or less) compared with an overall melting efficiency beneath the ice shelf of 22%. Residual warm water is believed to cause three persistent polynyas at the ice-shelf front seen in Landsat imagery. Landsat thermal imagery confirms the occurrence of warm water at the same locations.

  10. Glaciers and Ice Sheets As Analog Environments of Potentially Habitable Icy Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Garcia-Lopez


    Full Text Available Icy worlds in the solar system and beyond have attracted a remarkable attention as possible habitats for life. The current consideration about whether life exists beyond Earth is based on our knowledge of life in terrestrial cold environments. On Earth, glaciers and ice sheets have been considered uninhabited for a long time as they seemed too hostile to harbor life. However, these environments are unique biomes dominated by microbial communities which maintain active biochemical routes. Thanks to techniques such as microscopy and more recently DNA sequencing methods, a great biodiversity of prokaryote and eukaryote microorganisms have been discovered. These microorganisms are adapted to a harsh environment, in which the most extreme features are the lack of liquid water, extremely cold temperatures, high solar radiation and nutrient shortage. Here we compare the environmental characteristics of icy worlds, and the environmental characteristics of terrestrial glaciers and ice sheets in order to address some interesting questions: (i which are the characteristics of habitability known for the frozen worlds, and which could be compatible with life, (ii what are the environmental characteristics of terrestrial glaciers and ice sheets that can be life-limiting, (iii What are the microbial communities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that can live in them, and (iv taking into account these observations, could any of these planets or satellites meet the conditions of habitability? In this review, the icy worlds are considered from the point of view of astrobiological exploration. With the aim of determining whether icy worlds could be potentially habitable, they have been compared with the environmental features of glaciers and ice sheets on Earth. We also reviewed some field and laboratory investigations about microorganisms that live in analog environments of icy worlds, where they are not only viable but also metabolically active.

  11. Dating of 30m ice cores drilled by Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition and environmental change study (United States)

    Motoyama, H.; Suzuki, T.; Fukui, K.; Ohno, H.; Hoshina, Y.; Hirabayashi, M.; Fujita, S.


    1. Introduction It is possible to reveal the past climate and environmental change from the ice core drilled in polar ice sheet and glaciers. The 54th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition conducted several shallow core drillings up to 30 m depth in the inland and coastal areas of the East Antarctic ice sheet. Ice core sample was cut out at a thickness of about 5 cm in the cold room of the National Institute of Polar Research, and analyzed ion, water isotope, dust and so one. We also conducted dielectric profile measurement (DEP measurement). The age as a key layer of large-scale volcanic explosion was based on Sigl et al. (Nature Climate Change, 2014). 2. Inland ice core Ice cores were collected at the NDF site (77°47'14"S, 39°03'34"E, 3754 m.a.s.l.) and S80 site (80°00'00"S, 40°30'04"E, 3622 m.a.s.l.). Dating of ice core was done as follows. Calculate water equivalent from core density. Accumulate water equivalent from the surface. Approximate the relation of depth - cumulative water equivalent by a quartic equation. We determined the key layer with nssSO42 - peak corresponding to several large volcanic explosions. The accumulation rate was kept constant between the key layers. As a result, NDF was estimated to be around 1360 AD and S80 was estimated to be around 1400 AD in the deepest ice core. 3. Coastal ice core An ice core was collected at coastal H15 sites (69°04'10"S, 40°44'51"E, 1030 m.a.s.l.). Dating of ice core was done as follows. Calculate water equivalent from ice core density. Accumulate water equivalent from the surface. Approximate the relation of depth - cumulative water equivalent by a quartic equation. Basically we decided to summer (December) and winter (June) due to the seasonal change of the water isotope (δD or δ18O). In addition to the seasonal change of isotope, confirm the following. Maximum of SO42- / Na +, which is earlier in time than the maximum of water isotope. Maximum of MSA at about the same time as the maximum of the

  12. Bathymetry and retreat of Southeast Greenland glaciers from Operation IceBridge and Ocean Melting Greenland data (United States)

    Millan, R.; Rignot, E. J.; Morlighem, M.; Bjork, A. A.; Mouginot, J.; Wood, M.


    Southeast Greenland has been one of the largest contributors to ice mass loss in Greenland in part because of significant changes in glacier dynamics. The leading hypothesis for the changes in glacier dynamics is that enhanced thermal forcing from the ocean has dislodged a number of glaciers from their anchoring positions and some of them retreated rapidly along a reverse bed. The glaciers response has been observed to vary significantly from one fjord to the next, but until now there was not enough data to understand or interpret these changes. In particular, there was no data on glacier bed topography and seafloor bathymetry in the fjords. Here we present the results of new fjord mapping by the NASA Ocean Melting Greenland mission combined with a recent high-resolution airborne gravity survey by NASA Operation IceBridge. We combine these data with a reconstruction of the bed using a mass conservation approach upstream extending into the glacial fjords for the first time. In the fjord and along the ice-ocean transition, we employ a 3D inversion of gravity data to infer the bed elevation along a set of 9 survey boxes spanning south of Helheim Glacier to the southern tip of Southeast Greenland. We combine the results with an analysis of the glacier front history since the 1930's and Conductivity Temperature Depth data obtained in the fjord by OMG in 2016. The data reveals bed elevations several 100-m deeper than previously thought, for almost all the glaciers, up to 500 m for some of them. For many glaciers, the bed profiles help to completely understand the history of retreat of the glaciers. For instance, glaciers stranded on sills have been stable; glaciers on a reverse slope have retreated rapidly; and glaciers with a normal slope have retreated slowly. The mapping also helps document the extent of the marine portion of the glacier basins. In many of the fjords, we document the presence of warm, salty Atlantic Water which fuels large melt rates. We employ

  13. Using marine sediment archives to reconstruct past outlet glacier variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Camilla Snowman; Straneo, Fiamma; Ribergaard, Mads


    Ice-rafted debris in fjord sediment cores provides information about outlet glacier activity beyond the instrumental time period. It tells us that the Helheim Glacier, Greenland’s third most productive glacier, responds rapidly to short-term (3 to 10 years) climate changes....

  14. Glaciation of alpine valleys: The glacier - debris-covered glacier - rock glacier continuum (United States)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Anderson, Leif S.; Armstrong, William H.; Rossi, Matthew W.; Crump, Sarah E.


    because they are most common on lee sides of ridges and peaks where wind-blown snow enhances the strength of the avalanche source. To maintain positive mass balance, the avalanche cone developed in the winter must be sufficiently thick not to melt entirely in the summer, thus providing an ice accumulation area for the rock glacier. In the absence of rockfall, this would support a short cirque glacier. The presence of debris, however, facilitates the development of rock glaciers with lengths of hundreds of meters, thicknesses of tens of meters, and speeds of meters per year that are well described by numerical models. Numerical models are used to explore the alpine glacier response to its climate history. In warming climates, a debris-covered glacier can transform into a much shorter rock glacier, leaving in its wake a thinning ice-cored moraine. Rock glaciers will persist in landscapes well beyond debris-free counterparts because they have much longer response times to climate change. The headwaters of alpine basins with steep headwalls will therefore oscillate between glacier and rock glacier occupation over glacial-interglacial cycles, maintaining a means by which rock from the headwall can be conveyed away. This enhances the asymmetry of alpine ridgelines, with downwind valleys biting deeply into the range crests, as originally noted by G.K. Gilbert.

  15. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.


    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Their study helps us to improve our understanding of regional patterns of climate behaviour in Antarctica and its influence on New Zealand, leading to more realistic regional climate models. Such models are needed to sensibly interpret current Antarctic and New Zealand climate variability and for the development of appropriate mitigation strategies for New Zealand. Ice core records provide an annual-scale, 'instrumental-quality' baseline of atmospheric temperature and circulation changes back many thousands of years. (author). 45 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.


    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Their study helps us to improve our understanding of regional patterns of climate behaviour in Antarctica and its influence on New Zealand, leading to more realistic regional climate models. Such models are needed to sensibly interpret current Antarctic and New Zealand climate variability and for the development of appropriate mitigation strategies for New Zealand. Ice core records provide an annual-scale, 'instrumental-quality' baseline of atmospheric temperature and circulation changes back many thousands of years. (author). 27 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.A.N.


    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Their study helps us to improve our understanding of regional patterns of climate behaviour in Antarctica and its influence on New Zealand, leading to more realistic regional climate models. Such models are needed to sensibly interpret current Antarctic and New Zealand climate variability and for the development of appropriate mitigation strategies for New Zealand. Ice core records provide an annual-scale, 'instrumental-quality' baseline of atmospheric temperature and circulation changes back many thousands of years. (author). 28 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.


    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Their study helps us to improve our understanding of regional patterns of climate behaviour in Antarctica and its influence on New Zealand, leading to more realistic regional climate models. Such models are needed to sensibly interpret current Antarctic and New Zealand climate variability and for the development of appropriate mitigation strategies for New Zealand. Ice core records provide an annual-scale, 'instrumental-quality' baseline of atmospheric temperature and circulation changes back many thousands of years. (author). 27 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Ice core carbonyl sulfide measurements from a new South Pole ice core (SPICECORE) (United States)

    Aydin, M.; Nicewonger, M. R.; Saltzman, E. S.


    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the troposphere with a present-day mixing ratio of about 500 ppt. Direct and indirect emissions from the oceans are the predominant sources of atmospheric COS. The primary removal mechanism is uptake by terrestrial plants during photosynthesis. Because plants do not respire COS, atmospheric COS levels are linked to terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP). Ancient air trapped in polar ice cores has been used to reconstruct COS records of the past atmosphere, which can be used to infer past GPP variability and potential changes in oceanic COS emission. We are currently analyzing samples from a newly drilled intermediate depth ice core from South Pole, Antarctica (SPICECORE). This core is advantageous for studying COS because the cold temperatures of South Pole ice lead to very slow rates of in situ loss due to hydrolysis. One hundred and eighty-four bubbly ice core samples have been analyzed to date with gas ages ranging from about 9.2 thousand (733 m depth) to 75 years (126 m depth) before present. After a 2% correction for gravitational enrichment in the firn, the mean COS mixing ratio for the data set is 312±15 ppt (±1s), with the data set median also equal to 312 ppt. The only significant long-term trend in the record is a 5-10% increase in COS during the last 2-3 thousand years of the Holocene. The SPICECORE data agree with previously published ice core COS records from other Antarctic sites during times of overlap, confirming earlier estimates of COS loss rates to in situ hydrolysis in ice cores. Antarctic ice core data place strict constraints on the COS mixing ratio and its range of variability in the southern hemisphere atmosphere during the last several millennia. Implications for the atmospheric COS budget will be discussed.

  20. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4 m. 3 in 1981, 2001 and 2006, respectively. It has decreased by 21.2% during the past 25 years, which is .... all cases, a velocity of 169 m µs ... of ice volume calculation using this method is quite ..... industry, and agriculture in Xinjiang Uygur.

  1. Breaking Off of Large Ice Masses From Hanging Glaciers (United States)

    Pralong, A.; Funk, M.

    In order to reduce damage to settlements or other installations (roads, railway, etc) and avoid loss of life, a forecast of the final failure time of ice masses is required. At present, the most promising approach for such a prediction is based on the regularity by which certain large ice masses accelerate prior to the instant of collapse. The lim- itation of this forecast lies in short-term irregularities and in the difficulties to obtain sufficiently accurate data. A better physical understanding of the breaking off process is required, in order to improve the forecasting method. Previous analyze has shown that a stepwise crack extension coupling with a viscous flow leads to the observed acceleration function. We propose another approach by considering a local damage evolution law (gener- alized Kachanow's law) coupled with Glen's flow law to simulate the spatial evolu- tion of damage in polycristalline ice, using a finite element computational model. The present study focuses on the transition from a diffuse to a localised damage reparti- tion occurring during the damage evolution. The influence of inhomogeneous initial conditions (inhomogeneity of the mechanical properties of ice, damage inhomogene- ity) and inhomogeneous boundary conditions on the damage repartition are especially investigated.

  2. Ice-dammed lake drainage evolution at Russell Glacier, west Greenland (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Tweed, Fiona S.; Ng, Felix; Quincey, Duncan J.; Mallalieu, Joseph; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Andreas B.; Palmer, Steven J.; Yde, Jacob C.; Homer, Rachel; Russell, Andrew J.; Hubbard, Alun


    Glaciological and hydraulic factors that control the timing and mechanisms of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) remain poorly understood. This study used measurements of lake level at fifteen minute intervals and known lake bathymetry to calculate lake outflow during two GLOF events from the northern margin of Russell Glacier, west Greenland. We used measured ice surface elevation, interpolated subglacial topography and likely conduit geometry to inform a melt enlargement model of the outburst evolution. The model was tuned to best-fit the hydrograph’s rising limb and timing of peak discharge in both events; it achieved Mean Absolute Errors of Lake water temperature, which strongly governed the enlargement rate, preconditioned the high peak discharge and short duration of these floods. We hypothesize that both GLOFs were triggered by ice dam flotation, and localised hydraulic jacking sustained most of their early-stage outflow, explaining the particularly rapid water egress in comparison to that recorded at other ice-marginal lakes. As ice overburden pressure relative to lake water hydraulic head diminished, flow became confined to a subglacial conduit. This study has emphasised the inter-play between ice dam thickness and lake level, drainage timing, lake water temperature and consequently rising stage lake outflow and flood evolution.

  3. Morphology of bottom surfaces of glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, C.; Chiappini, M.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Tabacco, I. E. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Sez. Geofisica; Passerini, A. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica


    During three Antarctic summer campaigns (1995/97/99) Radio Echo Sounding (RES) system data from some glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic regions between Victoria Land and George 5. Land were collected. The morphology and structure of the bottom surfaces deduced from the electromagnetic interpretation of echo signal were observed. The bottom surfaces at the ice/water interface show either irregular or flat contours or both. Some ice tongues are nearly perfectly flat, others show clear signs of irregularities while three of them have good regular spaced rippled bottom surfaces. The latter structures are well-evident in the longitudinal traverse of the tongues, whereas the transversal paths do not show the same features. This particular shape of the bottom surfaces related to the ablation process and detachment mechanism could be interesting especially to determine some physical characteristics and the possible fracture points of the ice tongues.

  4. Morphology of bottom surfaces of glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zuccheretti


    Full Text Available During three Antarctic summer campaigns (1995/97/99 Radio Echo Sounding (RES system data from some glacier ice tongues in the East Antarctic regions between Victoria Land and George V Land were collected. The morphology and structure of the bottom surfaces deduced from the electromagnetic interpretation of echo signal were observed. The bottom surfaces at the ice/water interface show either irregular or flat contours or both. Some ice tongues are nearly perfectly flat, others show clear signs of irregularities while three of them have good regular spaced rippled bottom surfaces. The latter structures are well-evident in the longitudinal traverse of the tongues, whereas the transversal paths do not show the same features. This particular shape of the bottom surfaces related to the ablation process and detachment mechanism could be interesting especially to determine some physical characteristics and the possible fracture points of the ice tongues.

  5. Towards Quantification of Glacier Dynamic Ice Loss through Passive Seismic Monitoring (United States)

    Köhler, A.; Nuth, C.; Weidle, C.; Schweitzer, J.; Kohler, J.; Buscaino, G.


    Global glaciers and ice caps loose mass through calving, while existing models are currently not equipped to realistically predict dynamic ice loss. This is mainly because long-term continuous calving records, that would help to better understand fine scale processes and key climatic-dynamic feedbacks between calving, climate, terminus evolution and marine conditions, do not exist. Combined passive seismic/acoustic strategies are the only technique able to capture rapid calving events continuously, independent of daylight or meteorological conditions. We have produced such a continuous calving record for Kronebreen, a tidewater glacier in Svalbard, using data from permanent seismic stations between 2001 and 2014. However, currently no method has been established in cryo-seismology to quantify the calving ice loss directly from seismic data. Independent calibration data is required to derive 1) a realistic estimation of the dynamic ice loss unobserved due to seismic noise and 2) a robust scaling of seismic calving signals to ice volumes. Here, we analyze the seismic calving record at Kronebreen and independent calving data in a first attempt to quantify ice loss directly from seismic records. We make use of a) calving flux data with weekly to monthly resolution obtained from satellite remote sensing and GPS data between 2007 and 2013, and b) direct, visual calving observations in two weeks in 2009 and 2010. Furthermore, the magnitude-scaling property of seismic calving events is analyzed. We derive and discuss an empirical relation between seismic calving events and calving flux which for the first time allows to estimate a time series of calving volumes more than one decade back in time. Improving our model requires to incorporate more precise, high-resolution calibration data. A new field campaign will combine innovative, multi-disciplinary monitoring techniques to measure calving ice volumes and dynamic ice-ocean interactions simultaneously with terrestrial laser

  6. Glacier change in the Gangdise Mountains, southern Tibet, since the Little Ice Age (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yi, Chaolu; Fu, Ping; Wu, Yubin; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Ninglian


    Delineating glacier change during the Little Ice Age (LIA) is of great importance when attempting to understand regional climatic changes and can also help to improve the understanding of any predictions of future glacial changes. However, such knowledge is still lacking for some critical regions of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, we mapped 4188 contemporary glaciers and reconstructed 1216 LIA areas of glacial coverage in the Gangdise Mountains to the north of the Himalaya using Google Earth satellite imagery. We estimated their paleoglacial areas and equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) based on the toe-to-headwall altitude ratio (THAR) method. Results show that most glaciers are small (ELA ranges from 5516 to 6337 m asl; the LIA ELA ranged from 5476 to 6329 m asl. Contemporary and LIA ELA values rise from southeast to northwest. As a general rule, the rise in the ELA value decreases from the eastern to the central Gangdise Mountains and then increases westward, with a mean ELA rise of 45 m. Multiple regression models suggest that 46.8% of the glacier area loss can be explained by glacier elevation, area, and slope. However, only 15.5% of the rise in ELA values can be explained by glacial geometric, topographic, or locational parameters. The spatial pattern of modern ELA values in this region appears inversely related to precipitation, which decreases from southeast to northwest, implying that precipitation is one of the key controls of ELAs. This is also consistent with results from elsewhere in High Asia. In contrast to the Gangdise Mountains' eastern and western sectors, glaciers in the central sector have undergone less change, i.e., in terms of reductions in length, area loss, and rises in ELA. Topography can of course also influence glacial change by creating shielding and/or rainshadow effects and by affecting local temperatures.

  7. Sharply increased mass loss from glaciers and ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. (United States)

    Gardner, Alex S; Moholdt, Geir; Wouters, Bert; Wolken, Gabriel J; Burgess, David O; Sharp, Martin J; Cogley, J Graham; Braun, Carsten; Labine, Claude


    Mountain glaciers and ice caps are contributing significantly to present rates of sea level rise and will continue to do so over the next century and beyond. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, located off the northwestern shore of Greenland, contains one-third of the global volume of land ice outside the ice sheets, but its contribution to sea-level change remains largely unknown. Here we show that the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has recently lost 61 ± 7 gigatonnes per year (Gt yr(-1)) of ice, contributing 0.17 ± 0.02 mm yr(-1) to sea-level rise. Our estimates are of regional mass changes for the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago referring to the years 2004 to 2009 and are based on three independent approaches: surface mass-budget modelling plus an estimate of ice discharge (SMB+D), repeat satellite laser altimetry (ICESat) and repeat satellite gravimetry (GRACE). All three approaches show consistent and large mass-loss estimates. Between the periods 2004-2006 and 2007-2009, the rate of mass loss sharply increased from 31 ± 8 Gt yr(-1) to 92 ± 12 Gt yr(-1) in direct response to warmer summer temperatures, to which rates of ice loss are highly sensitive (64 ± 14 Gt yr(-1) per 1 K increase). The duration of the study is too short to establish a long-term trend, but for 2007-2009, the increase in the rate of mass loss makes the Canadian Arctic Archipelago the single largest contributor to eustatic sea-level rise outside Greenland and Antarctica.

  8. Ice-Dammed Lake Drainage Evolution at Russell Glacier, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L. Carrivick


    Full Text Available KEY POINTS/HIGHLIGHTSTwo rapid ice-dammed lake drainage events gauged and ice dam geometry measured.A melt enlargement model is developed to examine the evolution of drainage mechanism(s.Lake temperature dominated conduit melt enlargement and we hypothesize a flotation trigger.Glaciological and hydraulic factors that control the timing and mechanisms of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs remain poorly understood. This study used measurements of lake level at 15 min intervals and known lake bathymetry to calculate lake outflow during two GLOF events from the northern margin of Russell Glacier, west Greenland. We used measured ice surface elevation, interpolated subglacial topography and likely conduit geometry to inform a melt enlargement model of the outburst evolution. The model was tuned to best-fit the hydrograph rising limb and timing of peak discharge in both events; it achieved Mean Absolute Errors of <5%. About one third of the way through the rising limb, conduit melt enlargement became the dominant drainage mechanism. Lake water temperature, which strongly governed the enlargement rate, preconditioned the high peak discharge and short duration of these floods. We hypothesize that both GLOFs were triggered by ice dam flotation, and localized hydraulic jacking sustained most of their early-stage outflow, explaining the particularly rapid water egress in comparison to that recorded at other ice-marginal lakes. As ice overburden pressure relative to lake water hydraulic head diminished, flow became confined to a subglacial conduit. This study has emphasized the inter-play between ice dam thickness and lake level, drainage timing, lake water temperature and consequently rising stage lake outflow and flood evolution.

  9. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  10. Ice core melt features in relation to Antarctic coastal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaczmarska, M.; Isaksson, E.; Karlöf, L.; Brandt, O.; Winther, J.G.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Johnsen, S.J.


    Measurement of light intensity transmission was carried out on an ice core S100 from coastal Dronning Maud Land (DML). Ice lenses were observed in digital pictures of the core and recorded as peaks in the light transmittance record. The frequency of ice layer occurrence was compared with climate

  11. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.


    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Their study helps us to improve our understanding of regional patterns of climate behaviour in Antarctica and its influence on New Zealand, leading to more realistic regional climate models. Such models are needed to sensibly interpret current Antarctic and New Zealand climate variability and for the development of appropriate mitigation strategies for New Zealand. (author). 27 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Climate change from air in ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, K.


    How sensitive is our climate to greenhouse gas concentrations? What feedbacks will trigger further emissions in a warming world and at which thresholds? Over the last 200 years human activity has increased greenhouse gases to well beyond the natural range for the last 800,000 years. In order to mitigate changes - or adapt to them - we need a better understanding of greenhouse gas sources and sinks in the recent past. Ice cores with occluded ancient air hold the key to understanding the linkages between climate change and greenhouse gas variations. (author). 22 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.


    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Their study helps us to improve our understanding of regional patterns of climate behaviour in Antarctica and its influence on New Zealand, leading to more realistic regional climate models. Such models are needed to sensibly interpret current Antarctic and New Zealand climate variability and for the development of appropriate mitigation strategies for New Zealand. (author). 27 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Stable isotope analysis in ice core paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertler, N.


    Ice cores from New Zealand and the Antarctic margin provide an excellent means of addressing the lack of longer-term climate observations in the Southern Hemisphere with near instrumental quality. Their study helps us to improve our understanding of regional patterns of climate behaviour in Antarctica and its influence on New Zealand, leading to more realistic regional climate models. Such models are needed to sensibly interpret current Antarctic and New Zealand climate variability and for the development of appropriate mitigation strategies for New Zealand. (author). 27 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Imaging spectroscopy to assess the composition of ice surface materials and their impact on glacier mass balance (United States)

    Naegeli, Kathrin; Huss, Matthias; Damm, Alexander; de Jong, Rogier; Schaepman, Michael; Hoelzle, Martin


    The ice-albedo feedback plays a crucial role in various glaciological processes, but especially influences ice melt. Glacier surface albedo is one of the most important variables in the energy balance of snow and ice, but depends in a complicated way on many factors, such as cryoconite concentration, impurities due to mineral dust, soot or organic matter, grain size or ice surface morphology. Our understanding on how these various factors influence glacier albedo is still limited hindering a spatially and temporally explicit parameterization of energy balance models and requiring strongly simplified assumptions on actual albedo values. Over the last two decades, several studies have focused on glacier surface albedo using automatic in-situ weather stations in combination with radiation measurement setups or satellite images. Due to limitations of both approaches in matching either the spatial or the temporal length scale of glacier albedo, still fairly little is known about the state, changes and impact of glacier surface albedo in the Swiss Alps, although there are obvious changes in surface characteristics on most alpine glaciers over the last years. With use of the APEX (Airborne Prism EXperiment) image spectrometer, measurements of reflected radiation were acquired in high spatial and spectral resolution on Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland, to explicitly analyse the ice surface. In-situ radiometric measurements were acquired with an ASD field spectrometer in parallel to APEX overflights. These data are intended to be used for validation purposes as well as input data for the linear spectral unmixing analysis of the APEX data. Seasonal glacier mass balance is monitored since five years using the direct glaciological method. This contribution presents a first evaluation of the data collected in summer 2013. The obtained in-situ and airborne reflectance measurements were used in combination with a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) approach to assess the

  16. Glacier Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) and the GLIMS Information Management System at NSIDC (United States)

    Machado, A. E.; Scharfen, G. R.; Barry, R. G.; Khalsa, S. S.; Raup, B.; Swick, R.; Troisi, V. J.; Wang, I.


    GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) is an international project to survey a majority of the world's glaciers with the accuracy and precision needed to assess recent changes and determine trends in glacial environments. This will be accomplished by: comprehensive periodic satellite measurements, coordinated distribution of screened image data, analysis of images at worldwide Regional Centers, validation of analyses, and a publicly accessible database. The primary data source will be from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer) instrument aboard the EOS Terra spacecraft, and Landsat ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), currently in operation. Approximately 700 ASTER images have been acquired with GLIMS gain settings as of mid-2001. GLIMS is a collaborative effort with the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Aeronautics Space Adminstration (NASA), other U.S. Federal Agencies and a group of internationally distributed glaciologists at Regional Centers of expertise. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is developing the information management system for GLIMS. We will ingest and maintain GLIMS-analyzed glacier data from Regional Centers and provide access to the data via the World Wide Web. The GLIMS database will include measurements (over time) of glacier length, area, boundaries, topography, surface velocity vectors, and snowline elevation, derived primarily from remote sensing data. The GLIMS information management system at NSIDC will provide an easy to use and widely accessible service for the glaciological community and other users needing information about the world's glaciers. The structure of the international GLIMS consortium, status of database development, sample imagery and derived analyses and user search and order interfaces will be demonstrated. More information on GLIMS is available at:

  17. Evolution of Pine Island Glacier subglacial conditions in response to 18 years of ice flow acceleration (United States)

    Brisbourne, A.; Bougamont, M. H.; Christoffersen, P.; Cornford, S. L.; Nias, I.; Vaughan, D.; Smith, A.


    Antarctica's main contribution to sea-level rise originates from the Amundsen Coast, when warm ocean water intrudes onto the continental shelf. As a result, strong melting beneath the ice shelves induces thinning near the grounding line of glaciers, which is ensued by large ice flow speed up diffusing rapidly inland. In particular, ice loss from Pine Island Glacier (PIG) accounts for 20% of the total ice loss in West Antarctica, amounting to 0.12 mm yr-1 of global sea-level rise. Forecasting the future flow of Amundsen Coast glaciers is however hindered by large uncertainties regarding how the thinning initiated at the grounding line is transmitted upstream, and how the grounded flow will ultimately respond. This work aims at elucidating the role of subglacial processes beneath PIG tributaries in modulating the ice flow response to frontal perturbations. We used the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM 2.0) to perform numerical inversions of PIG surface velocity as observed in 1996 and 2014. Over that time period, ice flow acceleration has been widespread over PIG's basin, and the inversions provide insights into the related evolution of the basal thermal and stress conditions. We assume the latter to be directly related to changes in the properties of a soft sediment (till) layer known to exist beneath PIG. We find that the overall bed strength has weakened by 18% in the region of enhanced flow, and that the annual melt production for PIG catchment increased by 25% between 1996 and 2014. Specifically, regions of high melt production are located in the southern tributaries, where the overall stronger bed allows for more frictional melting. However, we find no significant and widespread change in the basal strength of that region, and we infer that the water produced is transported away in a concentrated hydrological system, without much interaction with the till layer. In contrast, we find that relatively less basal melting occurs elsewhere in the catchment, where the

  18. The future sea-level rise contribution of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machguth, H; Rastner, P; Bolch, T; Mölg, N; Sørensen, L Sandberg; Aðalgeirsdottir, G; Van Angelen, J H; Van den Broeke, M R; Fettweis, X


    We calculate the future sea-level rise contribution from the surface mass balance of all of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps (GICs, ∼90 000 km 2 ) using a simplified energy balance model which is driven by three future climate scenarios from the regional climate models HIRHAM5, RACMO2 and MAR. Glacier extent and surface elevation are modified during the mass balance model runs according to a glacier retreat parameterization. Mass balance and glacier surface change are both calculated on a 250 m resolution digital elevation model yielding a high level of detail and ensuring that important feedback mechanisms are considered. The mass loss of all GICs by 2098 is calculated to be 2016 ± 129 Gt (HIRHAM5 forcing), 2584 ± 109 Gt (RACMO2) and 3907 ± 108 Gt (MAR). This corresponds to a total contribution to sea-level rise of 5.8 ± 0.4, 7.4 ± 0.3 and 11.2 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. Sensitivity experiments suggest that mass loss could be higher by 20–30% if a strong lowering of the surface albedo were to take place in the future. It is shown that the sea-level rise contribution from the north-easterly regions of Greenland is reduced by increasing precipitation while mass loss in the southern half of Greenland is dominated by steadily decreasing summer mass balances. In addition we observe glaciers in the north-eastern part of Greenland changing their characteristics towards greater activity and mass turnover. (letter)

  19. Microbial processes in glaciers and permafrost. A literature study on microbiology affecting groundwater at ice sheet melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, Lotta


    A repository for spent nuclear fuel will remain for hundred thousands of years. During this period, several ice ages will most likely take place. To understand the effect of melt water from ice sheets on the repository, the microbiological processes of oxygen reduction has to be elucidated. This report is a compilation of the present knowledge about biological activity in glacier environments. These environments consist of many different parts which have their own biological character depending on the prevailing physical and chemical conditions. There are, for example, ice sheets and glaciers, glacial streams and rivers, soil and water beneath the ice, soil and water in front of and beside ice sheets and glacier and deep groundwater beneath the ice. The microbiological processes of importance are consumption of oxygen by aerobic microorganisms, anaerobic organisms and their reduced metabolites, like sulphide, acetate and methane, which can act as reducing agents in biological or chemical oxygen reduction. The lithotrophic type (inorganic energy source) of metabolism is important in these cold environments. There are also microbiological processes important to radionuclide transport and the production of complexing agents, biological colloids and biofilms. The study of microbial processes in glacier and ice sheet environments is still a young scientific niche. The studies have so far mostly been concentrated to ice surfaces and the subglacial environment. The most important findings from the literature study are as follows. Primary production is ongoing in snow cover and on ice surfaces of glaciers and ice sheets. The production is dependent on the location, because of temperature and solar radiation, but also on the prevailing state of the glacier. On surfaces and in the snow cover, heterotrophic microorganisms consume oxygen and organic material. In surface ice structures anaerobic conditions may occur. The subglacial environment is very active with several types

  20. Microbial processes in glaciers and permafrost. A literature study on microbiology affecting groundwater at ice sheet melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))


    A repository for spent nuclear fuel will remain for hundred thousands of years. During this period, several ice ages will most likely take place. To understand the effect of melt water from ice sheets on the repository, the microbiological processes of oxygen reduction has to be elucidated. This report is a compilation of the present knowledge about biological activity in glacier environments. These environments consist of many different parts which have their own biological character depending on the prevailing physical and chemical conditions. There are, for example, ice sheets and glaciers, glacial streams and rivers, soil and water beneath the ice, soil and water in front of and beside ice sheets and glacier and deep groundwater beneath the ice. The microbiological processes of importance are consumption of oxygen by aerobic microorganisms, anaerobic organisms and their reduced metabolites, like sulphide, acetate and methane, which can act as reducing agents in biological or chemical oxygen reduction. The lithotrophic type (inorganic energy source) of metabolism is important in these cold environments. There are also microbiological processes important to radionuclide transport and the production of complexing agents, biological colloids and biofilms. The study of microbial processes in glacier and ice sheet environments is still a young scientific niche. The studies have so far mostly been concentrated to ice surfaces and the subglacial environment. The most important findings from the literature study are as follows. Primary production is ongoing in snow cover and on ice surfaces of glaciers and ice sheets. The production is dependent on the location, because of temperature and solar radiation, but also on the prevailing state of the glacier. On surfaces and in the snow cover, heterotrophic microorganisms consume oxygen and organic material. In surface ice structures anaerobic conditions may occur. The subglacial environment is very active with several types

  1. Glaciers of Asia (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.


    systems of the world including the Himalaya, Karakorum, Tien Shan and Altay mountain ranges. The glaciers are widely scattered and cover an area of about 59,425 km2. The mountain glaciers may be classified as maritime, subcontinental or extreme continental. In Afghanistan, more than 3,000 small glaciers occur in the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains. Most glaciers occur on north-facing slopes shaded by mountain peaks and on east and southeast slopes that are shaded by monsoon clouds. The glaciers provide vital water resources to the region and cover an area of about 2,700 km2. Glaciers of northern Pakistan are some of the largest and longest mid-latitude glaciers on Earth. They are located in the Hindu Kush, Himalaya, and Karakoram mountains and cover an area of about 15,000 km2. Glaciers here are important for their role in providing water resources and their hazard potential. The glaciers in India are located in the Himalaya and cover about 8,500 km2. The Himalaya contains one of the largest reservoirs of snow and ice outside the polar regions. The glaciers are a major source of fresh water and supply meltwater to all the rivers in northern India, thereby affecting the quality of life of millions of people. In Nepal, the glaciers are located in the Himalaya as individual glaciers; the glacierized area covers about 5,324 km2. The region is the highest mountainous region on Earth and includes the Mt. Everest region. Glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya have a total area of about 1,317 km2. Many recent glacier studies are focused on glacier lakes that have the potential of generating dangerous glacier lake outburst floods. Research on the glaciers of the middle-latitude, high-mountain glaciers of Asia has also focused on the information contained in the ice cores from the glaciers. This information helps in the reconstruction of paleoclimatic records, and the computer modeling of global climate change.

  2. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake


    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995

  3. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake


    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995.

  4. Sodium, Iodine and Bromine in Polar Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffezzoli, Niccolo

    Abstract: This research focuses on sodium, bromine and iodine in polar ice cores, with the aim of reviewing and advancing their current understanding with additional measurements and records, and investigating the connections of these tracers with sea ice and their feasibility as sea ice indicators...... with a description of the main analytic al techniques used to measure ionic and elemental species in ice cores. Chapter 4 introduces sodium, bromine and iodine with a theoretical perspective and a particular focus on their connections with sea ice. Some of the physical and chemical properties that are believed...... back trajectory analyses of the past 17 years. The results identify the aerosol source area influencing the Renland ice cap, a result necessary for the interpretation of impurity records obtained from the ice core. Chapter 6 reviews the published ice/snow measurements of bromine and iodine at polar...

  5. Measurements of 14C in ancient ice from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica constrain in situ cosmogenic 14CH4 and 14CO production rates (United States)

    Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Schaefer, Hinrich; Smith, Andrew M.; Kuhl, Tanner; Baggenstos, Daniel; Hua, Quan; Brook, Edward J.; Rose, Paul; Kulin, Robb; Bauska, Thomas; Harth, Christina; Buizert, Christo; Orsi, Anais; Emanuele, Guy; Lee, James E.; Brailsford, Gordon; Keeling, Ralph; Weiss, Ray F.


    Carbon-14 (14C) is incorporated into glacial ice by trapping of atmospheric gases as well as direct near-surface in situ cosmogenic production. 14C of trapped methane (14CH4) is a powerful tracer for past CH4 emissions from ;old; carbon sources such as permafrost and marine CH4 clathrates. 14C in trapped carbon dioxide (14CO2) can be used for absolute dating of ice cores. In situ produced cosmogenic 14C in carbon monoxide (14CO) can potentially be used to reconstruct the past cosmic ray flux and past solar activity. Unfortunately, the trapped atmospheric and in situ cosmogenic components of 14C in glacial ice are difficult to disentangle and a thorough understanding of the in situ cosmogenic component is needed in order to extract useful information from ice core 14C. We analyzed very large (≈1000 kg) ice samples in the 2.26-19.53 m depth range from the ablation zone of Taylor Glacier, Antarctica, to study in situ cosmogenic production of 14CH4 and 14CO. All sampled ice is >50 ka in age, allowing for the assumption that most of the measured 14C originates from recent in situ cosmogenic production as ancient ice is brought to the surface via ablation. Our results place the first constraints on cosmogenic 14CH4 production rates and improve on prior estimates of 14CO production rates in ice. We find a constant 14CH4/14CO production ratio (0.0076 ± 0.0003) for samples deeper than 3 m, which allows the use of 14CO for correcting the 14CH4 signals for the in situ cosmogenic component. Our results also provide the first unambiguous confirmation of 14C production by fast muons in a natural setting (ice or rock) and suggest that the 14C production rates in ice commonly used in the literature may be too high.

  6. Stable isotopes and their relationship to temperature and precipitation as recorded in low latitude ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.G.; Davis, M.E.; Pin-Nan, Lin


    The potential of stable isotopic ratios ( 18 O/ 16 O and 2 H/ 1 H) in mid to low latitude glaciers as modern tools for paleoclimate reconstruction is reviewed. The isotopic composition of precipitation should be viewed not only as a powerful proxy indicator of climate, but also as an additional parameter for understanding climate-induced changes in the water cycle, on both regional and global scales. To interpret quantitatively the ice core isotopic records, the response of the isotopic composition of precipitation to long-term fluctuations of key climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity) over a given area should be known. Furthermore, it is important to establish the transfer functions that relate the climate-induced changes of the isotopic composition of precipitation to the isotope record preserved in the glacier. The factors that govern the values of stable isotopes in snowfall are enigmatic and as yet no satisfactory model has been developed to link them directly with any one meteorological or oceanographic factor. This is particularly problematic in the high altitude glaciers in the tropics, where complications are present due not only to continental effects, but also to altitude effects and convective air mass instability, particularly in the monsoon climates of the tropics. This paper presents long and short-term perspectives of isotopic composition variations in ice cores spanning the last 25,000 years from the mid- to low-latitude glaciers. The isotopic records will also be examined as a function of the altitude of the individual coring sites which ranges from 5325 meters to 7200 meters. On the short, term isotopic records from ice cores from the Andes of South America, the Tibetan Plateau and Kilimanjaro in Africa through the year 2000 will be presented. All the tropical glaciers for which data exist are disappearing, and these sites show isotopic enrichment in the 20th century that suggests that large scale low latitude

  7. Mass balance, meteorology, area altitude distribution, glacier-surface altitude, ice motion, terminus position, and runoff at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, 1996 balance year (United States)

    March, Rod S.


    The 1996 measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances in the Gulkana Glacier Basin were evaluated on the basis of meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data. Averaged over the glacier, the measured winter snow balance was 0.87 meter on April 18, 1996, 1.1 standard deviation below the long-term average; the maximum winter snow balance, 1.06 meters, was reached on May 28, 1996; and the net balance (from August 30, 1995, to August 24, 1996) was -0.53 meter, 0.53 standard deviation below the long-term average. The annual balance (October 1, 1995, to September 30, 1996) was -0.37 meter. Area-averaged balances were reported using both the 1967 and 1993 area altitude distributions (the numbers previously given in this abstract use the 1993 area altitude distribution). Net balance was about 25 percent less negative using the 1993 area altitude distribution than the 1967 distribution. Annual average air temperature was 0.9 degree Celsius warmer than that recorded with the analog sensor used since 1966. Total precipitation catch for the year was 0.78 meter, 0.8 standard deviations below normal. The annual average wind speed was 3.5 meters per second in the first year of measuring wind speed. Annual runoff averaged 1.50 meters over the basin, 1.0 standard deviation below the long-term average. Glacier-surface altitude and ice-motion changes measured at three index sites document seasonal ice-speed and glacier-thickness changes. Both showed a continuation of a slowing and thinning trend present in the 1990s. The glacier terminus and lower ablation area were defined for 1996 with a handheld Global Positioning System survey of 126 locations spread out over about 4 kilometers on the lower glacier margin. From 1949 to 1996, the terminus retreated about 1,650 meters for an average retreat rate of 35 meters per year.

  8. Tidal Modulation of Ice Flow on Kangerdlugssuaq and Helheim Glaciers, East Greenland, from High-Rate GPS Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, G. S.; Stearns, L. A.; Elosegui, P.

    knowledge of ice thickness and fjord bathymetry. Here, we use high-rate GPS measurements collected at sites within a few km of the calving fronts of Kangerdlugssuaq and Helheim glaciers to examine the effect of ocean tide on ice flow. Data were collected at 5-15 s sampling rate during several campaign...... appears to have a short floating tongue, based on an analysis of GPS data collected in June-August 2006 at several stations located at increasing distances from the calving front. Glacier uplift was in phase with measured and modeled tidal height, but attenuated rapidly beyond ~~1 km from the terminus. We...

  9. Chronology of Pu isotopes and 236U in an Arctic ice core. (United States)

    Wendel, C C; Oughton, D H; Lind, O C; Skipperud, L; Fifield, L K; Isaksson, E; Tims, S G; Salbu, B


    In the present work, state of the art isotopic fingerprinting techniques are applied to an Arctic ice core in order to quantify deposition of U and Pu, and to identify possible tropospheric transport of debris from former Soviet Union test sites Semipalatinsk (Central Asia) and Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Ocean). An ice core chronology of (236)U, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu concentrations, and atom ratios, measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in a 28.6m deep ice core from the Austfonna glacier at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard is presented. The ice core chronology corresponds to the period 1949 to 1999. The main sources of Pu and (236)U contamination in the Arctic were the atmospheric nuclear detonations in the period 1945 to 1980, as global fallout, and tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test sites Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk. Activity concentrations of (239+240)Pu ranged from 0.008 to 0.254 mBq cm(-2) and (236)U from 0.0039 to 0.053 μBq cm(-2). Concentrations varied in concordance with (137)Cs concentrations in the same ice core. In contrast to previous published results, the concentrations of Pu and (236)U were found to be higher at depths corresponding to the pre-moratorium period (1949 to 1959) than to the post-moratorium period (1961 and 1962). The (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio ranged from 0.15 to 0.19, and (236)U/(239)Pu ranged from 0.18 to 1.4. The Pu atom ratios ranged within the limits of global fallout in the most intensive period of nuclear atmospheric testing (1952 to 1962). To the best knowledge of the authors the present work is the first publication on biogeochemical cycles with respect to (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu atom ratios in the Arctic and in ice cores. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A common and optimized age scale for Antarctic ice cores (United States)

    Parrenin, F.; Veres, D.; Landais, A.; Bazin, L.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Toye Mahamadou Kele, H.; Wolff, E.; Martinerie, P.


    Dating ice cores is a complex problem because 1) there is a age shift between the gas bubbles and the surrounding ice 2) there are many different ice cores which can be synchronized with various proxies and 3) there are many methods to date the ice and the gas bubbles, each with advantages and drawbacks. These methods fall into the following categories: 1) Ice flow (for the ice) and firn densification modelling (for the gas bubbles); 2) Comparison of ice core proxies with insolation variations (so-called orbital tuning methods); 3) Comparison of ice core proxies with other well dated archives; 4) Identification of well-dated horizons, such as tephra layers or geomagnetic anomalies. Recently, an new dating tool has been developped (DATICE, Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010), to take into account all the different dating information into account and produce a common and optimal chronology for ice cores with estimated confidence intervals. In this talk we will review the different dating information for Antarctic ice cores and show how the DATICE tool can be applied.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Zolotarev


    Full Text Available SummaryThe results of remote monitoring of the greatest inEuropemountain glaciation of Elbrus are covered for 120 years by instrumental survey (1887–2007 and lichenometric survey in 1986. The materials of stereoscopic digital photo survey of the whole glaciation with terrain resolution of2.5 metersproduced by space imaging system Cartosat-1 (IRS-P5 in 2007 were compared with the same year materials of phototheodolite survey of south glaciation slope (6 glaciers in total. Results of comparison showed that the data received from Cartosat-1 can be used for monitoring of glaciers with long enough interval of time between repeated surveys (from 10 years and more, and also is suitable for updating 1:25 000 topographic maps of mountain areas. The leading role of Dzhikiugankez plateau in changes was revealed. Over the last 50 years (1957–2007 the Dzhikiugankez share in change of the glaciation area as a whole has reached 45 %. The method of glacier dynamics research, based on digital technologies of image processing and assuming first of all visual deciphering of changes and in the second – measurement of parameters of changes is offered. The quantitative data of Elbrus glaciation reduction since the middle of the XIX century do not confirm the hypothesis of the global climate warming beginning just in the second half of XX century as a result of anthropogenic greenhouse gases effect. Contrarily in 1970s, many Elbrus glaciers advanced. Elbrus glaciation area reduction is occurring practically evenly through time and is alternated with short-term periods of stationary state and advance. These facts suggest that global climate warming, which alternated with short-term cooling periods, began after the end of the Little Ice Age and was most likely due to natural rather than anthropogenic causes.

  12. Devon island ice cap: core stratigraphy and paleoclimate. (United States)

    Koerner, R M


    Valuable paleoclimatic information can be gained by studying the distribution of melt layers in deep ice cores. A profile representing the percentage of ice in melt layers in a core drilled from the Devon Island ice cap plotted against both time and depth shows that the ice cap has experienced a period of very warm summers since 1925, following a period of colder summers between about 1600 and 1925. The earlier period was coldest between 1680 and 1730. There is a high correlation between the melt-layer ice percentage and the mass balance of the ice cap. The relation between them suggests that the ice cap mass balance was zero (accumulation equaled ablation) during the colder period but is negative in the present warmer one. There is no firm evidence of a present cooling trend in the summer conditions on the ice cap. A comparison with the melt-layer ice percentage in cores from the other major Canadian Arctic ice caps shows that the variation of summer conditions found for the Devon Island ice cap is representative for all the large ice caps for about 90 percent of the time. There is also a good correlation between melt-layer percentage and summer sea-ice conditions in the archipelago. This suggests that the search for the northwest passage was influenced by changing climate, with the 19th-century peak of the often tragic exploration coinciding with a period of very cold summers.

  13. Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine (United States)

    Maselli, Olivia J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Grieman, Mackenzie; Layman, Lawrence; McConnell, Joseph R.; Pasteris, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric; Sigl, Michael


    Reconstruction of past changes in Arctic sea ice extent may be critical for understanding its future evolution. Methanesulfonate (MSA) and bromine concentrations preserved in ice cores have both been proposed as indicators of past sea ice conditions. In this study, two ice cores from central and north-eastern Greenland were analysed at sub-annual resolution for MSA (CH3SO3H) and bromine, covering the time period 1750-2010. We examine correlations between ice core MSA and the HadISST1 ICE sea ice dataset and consult back trajectories to infer the likely source regions. A strong correlation between the low-frequency MSA and bromine records during pre-industrial times indicates that both chemical species are likely linked to processes occurring on or near sea ice in the same source regions. The positive correlation between ice core MSA and bromine persists until the mid-20th century, when the acidity of Greenland ice begins to increase markedly due to increased fossil fuel emissions. After that time, MSA levels decrease as a result of declining sea ice extent but bromine levels increase. We consider several possible explanations and ultimately suggest that increased acidity, specifically nitric acid, of snow on sea ice stimulates the release of reactive Br from sea ice, resulting in increased transport and deposition on the Greenland ice sheet.

  14. The Second Deep Ice Coring Project at Dome Fuji, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Motoyama


    Full Text Available Throughout the history of the polar icecaps, dust and aerosols have been transported through the atmosphere to the poles, to be preserved within the annually freezing ice of the growing ice shields. Therefore, the Antarctic ice sheet is a “time capsule" for environmental data, containing information of ancient periods of Earth’s history. To unravel this history and decode cycles in glaciations and global change is among the major goals of the Dome Fuji Ice Coring Project.

  15. Investigating cold based summit glaciers through direct access to the glacier base: a case study constraining the maximum age of Chli Titlis glacier, Switzerland (United States)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Hoffmann, Helene; Kerch, Johanna; Sold, Leo; Fischer, Andrea


    Cold glaciers at the highest locations of the European Alps have been investigated by drilling ice cores to retrieve their stratigraphic climate records. Findings like the Oetztal ice man have demonstrated that small ice bodies at summit locations of comparatively lower altitudes may also contain old ice if locally frozen to the underlying bedrock. In this case, constraining the maximum age of their lowermost ice part may help to identify past periods with minimum ice extent in the Alps. However, with recent warming and consequent glacier mass loss, these sites may not preserve their unique climate information for much longer. Here we utilized an existing ice cave at Chli Titlis (3030 m), central Switzerland, to perform a case study for investigating the maximum age of cold-based summit glaciers in the Alps. The cave offers direct access to the glacier stratigraphy without the logistical effort required in ice core drilling. In addition, a pioneering exploration had already demonstrated stagnant cold ice conditions at Chli Titlis, albeit more than 25 years ago. Our englacial temperature measurements and the analysis of the isotopic and physical properties of ice blocks sampled at three locations within the ice cave show that cold ice still exists fairly unchanged today. State-of-the-art micro-radiocarbon analysis constrains the maximum age of the ice at Chli Titlis to about 5000 years before present. By this means, the approach presented here will contribute to a future systematic investigation of cold-based summit glaciers, also in the Eastern Alps.

  16. Volcanic eruptions recorded in the Illimani ice core (Bolivia: 1918–1998 and Tambora periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De Angelis


    Full Text Available Acid layers of volcanic origin detected in polar snow and ice layers are commonly used to document past volcanic activity on a global scale or, conversely, to date polar ice cores. Although most cataclysmic eruptions of the last two centuries (Pinatubo, El Chichon, Agung, Krakatoa, Cosiguina, Tambora, etc. occurred in the tropics, cold tropical glaciers have not been used for the reconstruction of past volcanism. The glaciochemical study of a 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 close to the summit of Nevado Illimani (Eastern Bolivian Andes, 16°37' S, 67°46' W, 6350 m asl demonstrates, for the first time, that such eruptions are recorded by both their tropospheric and stratospheric deposits. An 80-year ice sequence (1918-1998 and the Tambora years have been analyzed in detail. In several cases, ash, chloride and fluoride were also detected. The ice records of the Pinatubo (1991, Agung (1963 and Tambora (1815 eruptions are discussed in detail. The potential impact of less important regional eruptions is discussed.

  17. Deep ice coring at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Fujii


    Full Text Available Deep ice coring was carried out at Dome Fuji Station, Antarctica in 1995 and 1996 following a pilot borehole drilled and cased with FRP pipes in 1993,and reached 2503.52m in December 1996. Total numbers of ice coring runs below the pilot borehole and chip collection were 1369 and 837 respectively. The mean coring depths per run and per day were 1.75m and 8.21m respectively. We report the outline of the coring operation, the system, coring method, and troubles encountered during the coring work.

  18. Evolution of a highly vulnerable ice-cored moraine: Col des Gentianes, Swiss Alps (United States)

    Ravanel, L.; Lambiel, C.; Oppikofer, T.; Mazotti, B.; Jaboyedoff, M.


    Rock mass movements are dominant in the morphodynamics of high mountain rock slopes and are at the origin of significant risks for people who attend these areas and for infrastructures that are built on (mountain huts, cable cars, etc.). These risks are becoming greater because of permafrost degradation and glacier retreat, two consequences of the global warming. These two commonly associated factors may affect slope stability by changing mechanical properties of the interstitial ice and modifying the mechanical constraints in these rock slopes. Between 1977 and 1979, significant works were carried out on the Little Ice Age moraine of the Tortin glacier at the Col des Gentianes (2894 m), in the Mont Fort area (Verbier, Switzerland), for the construction of a cable car station and a restaurant. Since the early 1980s, the glacier drastically retreated and the moraine became unstable: its inner slope has retreated for several meters. Various observations and geoelectric measurements indicate that significant volume of massive ice mass is still present within the moraine (ice-cored moraine). Its melting could therefore increase the instability of the moraine. Since 2007, the moraine is surveyed by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in order to characterize its evolution: 8 campaigns were conducted between July 2007 and October 2011. The comparison of the high resolution 3D models so obtained allowed the detection and quantification of mass movements that have affected the moraine over this period, essentially by calculating difference maps (shortest oblique distances between two models). Between July 2007 and October 2011, 7 landslides were measured, involving volumes between 87 and 1138 m3. The most important of these occurred during the summers 2009 and 2011. TLS data also allowed identifying: (i) two main areas affected by slower but sometimes substantial movements (displacements of blocks on more than 2 m during a summer period); (ii) significant deposits of

  19. Central Tibetan Plateau atmospheric trace metals contamination: a 500-year record from the Puruogangri ice core (United States)

    Beaudon, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Sierra Hernandez, R.; Wegner, A.; Thompson, L. G.


    Since the 1980s, Asia has experienced enormous industrial development from rapid population growth, industrialization and consequent large-scale environmental changes. The inherent generated atmospheric pollution currently contributes to half of all Earth's anthropogenic trace metals emissions. Asian trace metal aerosols, when deposited on glaciers of the surrounding mountains of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), leave a characteristic chemical fingerprint. Interpreting trace element (TE) records from glaciers implies a thorough comprehension of their provenance and temporal variability. It is then essential to discriminate the TEs' natural background components from their anthropogenic components. Here we present 500-year TE records from the Puruogangri ice core (Tibet, China) that provide a highly resolved account of the impact of past atmospheric influences, environmental processes and human activities on the central TP. A decreasing aeolian dust input to the ice cap allowed the detection of an atmospheric pollution signal. The anthropogenic pollution contribution emerges in the record since the early 1900s and increases substantially after 1935. The metallurgy (Zn, Pb and steel smelting) emission products from the former Soviet Union and especially from central Asia likely enhanced the anthropogenic deposition to the Puruogangri ice cap between 1935 and 1980, suggesting that the westerlies served as a conveyor of atmospheric pollution to central Tibet. The impact of this industrial pollution cumulated with that of the hemispheric coal and gasoline combustion which are respectively traced by Sb and Pb enrichment in the ice. The Chinese steel production accompanying the Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) and the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) is proposed as a secondary but proximal source of Pb pollution affecting the ice cap between 1958 and 1976. The most recent decade (1980-1992) of the enrichment time series suggests that Puruogangri ice cap recorded the early

  20. Microstructural Location and Composition of Impurities in Polar Ice Cores, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains measurements of impurities and ions in three polar ice cores: the Vostok 5G ice core and the Byrd ice core from Antarctica, and the Greenland...

  1. Ice-sheet flow conditions deduced from mechanical tests of ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Narita, Hideki; Hondoh, Takeo


    Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate....... It was revealed that cloudy bands affect ice-deformation processes, but the details remain unclear. Udgivelsesdato: June......Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate......-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow...

  2. Continuous methane measurements from a late Holocene Greenland ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, R.H.; Mitchell, L.E.; Brook, E.J.


    Ancient air trapped inside bubbles in ice cores can now be analysed for methane concentration utilising a laser spectrometer coupled to a continuous melter system. We present a new ultra-high resolution record of atmospheric methane variability over the last 1800yr obtained from continuous analysis...... of a shallow ice core from the North Greenland Eemian project (NEEM-2011-S1) during a 4-week laboratory-based measurement campaign. Our record faithfully replicates the form and amplitudes of multi-decadal oscillations previously observed in other ice cores and demonstrates the detailed depth resolution (5.3cm......), rapid acquisition time (30mday) and good long-term reproducibility (2.6%, 2s) of the continuous measurement technique.In addition, we report the detection of high frequency ice core methane signals of non-atmospheric origin. Firstly, measurements of air from the firn-ice transition region...

  3. Multiproxy records of Holocene climate and glacier variability from sediment cores in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru (United States)

    Schweinsberg, A. D.; Licciardi, J. M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.; Tapia, P. M.


    Sediments contained in glacier-fed lakes and bogs provide continuous high-resolution records of glacial activity, and preserve multiproxy evidence of Holocene climate change. Tropical glacier fluctuations offer critical insight on regional paleoclimatic trends and controls, however, continuous sediment records of past tropical climates are limited. Recent cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages of moraine sequences in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru (13°20'S latitude) reveal a glacial culmination during the early Holocene and a less extensive glaciation coincident with the Little Ice Age of the Northern Hemisphere. Here we supplement the existing 10Be moraine chronology with the first continuous records of multiproxy climate data in this mountain range from sediment cores recovered from bogs in direct stratigraphic contact with 10Be-dated moraines. Radiocarbon-dated sedimentological changes in a 2-meter long bog core reveal that the Holocene is characterized by alternating inorganic and organic-rich laminae, suggesting high-frequency climatic variability. Carbon measurements, bulk density, and bulk sedimentation rates are used to derive a record of clastic sediment flux that serves as a proxy indicator of former glacier activity. Preliminary analyses of the bog core reveal approximately 70 diatom taxa that indicate both rheophilic and lentic environments. Initial results show a general decrease in magnetic susceptibility and clastic flux throughout the early to mid-Holocene, which suggests an interval of deglaciation. An episode of high clastic flux from 3.8 to 2.0 ka may reflect a late Holocene glacial readvance. Volcanic glass fragments and an anomalous peak in magnetic susceptibility may correspond to the historical 1600 AD eruption of Huaynaputina. Ten new bog and lake sediment cores were collected during the 2012 field expedition and analytical measurements are underway. Ongoing efforts are focused on analyzing diatom assemblage data, developing

  4. Correlating Ice Cores from Quelccaya Ice Cap with Chronology from Little Ice Age Glacial Extents (United States)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.


    Proxy records indicate Southern Hemisphere climatic changes during the Little Ice Age (LIA; ~1300-1850 AD). In particular, records of change in and around the tropical latitudes require attention because these areas are sensitive to climatic change and record the dynamic interplay between hemispheres (Oerlemans, 2005). Despite this significance, relatively few records exist for the southern tropics. Here we present a reconstruction of glacial fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC), Peruvian Andes, from pre-LIA up to the present day. In the Qori Kalis valley, extensive sets of moraines exist beginning with the 1963 AD ice margin (Thompson et al., 2006) and getting progressively older down valley. Several of these older moraines can be traced and are continuous with moraines in the Challpa Cocha valley. These moraines have been dated at chronology of past ice cap extents are correlated with ice core records from QIC which show an accumulation increase during ~1500-1700 AD and an accumulation decrease during ~1720-1860 AD (Thompson et al., 1985; 1986; 2006). In addition, other proxy records from Peru and the tropics are correlated with the records at QIC as a means to understand climate conditions during the LIA. This work forms the basis for future modeling of the glacial system during the LIA at QIC and for modeling of past temperature and precipitation regimes at high altitude in the tropics.

  5. Holocene glacier and climate variations in Vestfirðir, Iceland, from the modeling of Drangajökull ice cap (United States)

    Anderson, Leif S.; Flowers, Gwenn E.; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna Th; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Harning, David J.; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Pálsson, Finnur


    Drangajökull is a maritime ice cap located in northwest (Vestfirðir) Iceland. Drangajökull's evolution is therefore closely linked to atmospheric and ocean variability. In order to better constrain the Holocene climate and glacier history of Vestfirðir we model the past evolution of Drangajökull ice cap. Simulations from 10 ka to present are forced by general circulation model output, ice-core-based temperature reconstructions, and sea-surface temperature reconstructions. Based on these 10-thousand year simulations, Drangajökull did not persist through the Holocene. We estimate that air temperatures were 2.5-3.0 °C higher during the Holocene Thermal Maximum than the local 1960-1990 average. Simulations support Drangajökull's late Holocene inception between 2 and 1 ka, though intermittent ice likely occupied cirques as early as 2.6 ka. Drangajökull is primarily a Little Ice Age ice cap: it expanded between 1300 and 1750 CE, with the most rapid growth occurring between 1600 and 1750 CE. The maximum Holocene extent of Drangajökull occurred between 1700 and 1925 CE, despite the lowest late Holocene temperatures, occurring between 1650 and 1720 CE. Between 1700 and 1925 CE temperatures were likely 0.6-0.8 °C lower than the 1950-2015 reference temperature. The modern equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is bracketed by topographic thresholds: a 1 °C temperature increase from the modern ELA would eliminate the ice cap's accumulation area, while a reduction of 0.5 °C would lead to the rapid expansion of the ice cap across Vestfirðir. The proximity of Drangajökull to topographic thresholds may explain its late inception and rapid expansion during the Little Ice Age.

  6. A 400-year ice core melt layer record of summertime warming in the Alaska Range (United States)

    Winski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Ferris, D. G.; Campbell, S. W.; Baum, M.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Birkel, S. D.; Introne, D.; Handley, M.


    Warming in high-elevation regions has socially relevant impacts on glacier mass balance, water resources, and sensitive alpine ecosystems, yet very few high-elevation temperature records exist from the middle or high latitudes. While many terrestrial paleoclimate records provide critical temperature records from low elevations over recent centuries, melt layers preserved in alpine glaciers present an opportunity to develop calibrated, annually-resolved temperature records from high elevations. We present a 400-year temperature record based on the melt-layer stratigraphy in two ice cores collected from Mt. Hunter in the Central Alaska Range. The ice core record shows a 60-fold increase in melt frequency and water equivalent melt thickness between the pre-industrial period (before 1850) and present day. We calibrate the melt record to summer temperatures based on local and regional weather station analyses, and find that the increase in melt production represents a summer warming of at least 2° C, exceeding rates of temperature increase at most low elevation sites in Alaska. The Mt. Hunter melt layer record is significantly (p<0.05) correlated with surface temperatures in the central tropical Pacific through a Rossby-wave like pattern that induces high temperatures over Alaska. Our results show that rapid alpine warming has taken place in the Alaska Range for at least a century, and that conditions in the tropical oceans contribute to this warming.

  7. Modelling the behavior of the Jakobshavn glacier since the end of the Little Ice Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muresan, Ioana Stefania; Khroulev, Constantine; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas


    . For a better overview and for the purpose of increasing the resolution to 1 km, our study focuses only on the Jakobshavn glacier. In order to determine the locations of the flow for the regional model, a drainage basin mask was extracted from the surface elevation data based on the gradient flow. While inside......Current model estimates of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are almost entirely based on coarse grids (>10km) and constrained by climate models that span from 60s to present. To improve the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term data record that reveals the mass balance beyond decadal...... the basin mask the full PISM model is applied, outside the basin mask the boundary conditions are taken as captured by the whole Greenland initialization. Considering the surface mass balance reconstruction where the monthly accumulation rates are assumed to be 1/12 of the annual accumulation, a yearly 1850...

  8. The Girls on Ice program: Improving perceptions of climate change and environmental stewardship by exploring a glacier landscape (United States)

    Young, J. C.; Conner, L.; Pettit, E. C.


    Girls on Ice is a unique, free, science and mountaineering experience for underserved girls aged 16 to 18. Each year, two teams of nine girls spend eight days on a remote Alaska or Washington glacier to learn about glaciology, climate change, and alpine ecology (as well as mountaineering, art and leadership). During the program, the girls live on, explore and study a glacier and the visibly climate change-altered landscape that surrounds it, through both instructor-led modules and scientific field studies the girls design themselves. Time spent on the glacier means witnessing rivers of meltwater running off the surface, climbing 300 m uphill to where the glacier last sat 150 years ago, and learning how scientists monitor the glacier's retreat. Previous studies have shown that pro-environmental behavior in youth is strongly influenced by having significant life experiences outdoors, and that engagement of citizens in a climate change-impacted landscape is emerging as a powerful way to connect people to environment and to motivate environmental action. Given the significant life experience provided by our unique wilderness format, and the interactions with a rapidly changing glacier landscape, this study examines how participation in Girls on Ice impacts the 16 to 18 year-old participants' perceptions of climate change, as well as their sense of environmental identity. We use mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, including pre- and post-program questionnaires, an in-program focus group discussion, end-of-program interviews, and early and late in-program concept (node-link) mapping exercises. Preliminary results from qualitative data show a shift in many girls' perceptions of climate change towards being motivated to act to combat it, with particular reference to glaciers as a key component prompting that shift. Ultimately, this study aims to demonstrate the value of tenets of environmental and outdoor education theory, namely significant life experiences and

  9. Glacier Remote Sensing Using Sentinel-2. Part I: Radiometric and Geometric Performance, and Application to Ice Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kääb


    Full Text Available With its temporal resolution of 10 days (five days with two satellites, and significantly more at high latitudes, its swath width of 290 km, and its 10 m and 20 m spatial resolution bands from the visible to the shortwave infrared, the European Sentinel-2 satellites have significant potential for glacier remote sensing, in particular mapping of glacier outlines and facies, and velocity measurements. Testing Level 1C commissioning and ramp-up phase data for initial sensor quality experiences, we find a high radiometric performance, but with slight striping effects under certain conditions. Through co-registration of repeat Sentinal-2 data we also find lateral offset patterns and noise on the order of a few metres. Neither of these issues will complicate most typical glaciological applications. Absolute geo-location of the data investigated was on the order of one pixel at the time of writing. The most severe geometric problem stems from vertical errors of the DEM used for ortho-rectifying Sentinel-2 data. These errors propagate into locally varying lateral offsets in the images, up to several pixels with respect to other georeferenced data, or between Sentinel-2 data from different orbits. Finally, we characterize the potential and limitations of tracking glacier flow from repeat Sentinel-2 data using a set of typical glaciers in different environments: Aletsch Glacier, Swiss Alps; Fox Glacier, New Zealand; Jakobshavn Isbree, Greenland; Antarctic Peninsula at the Larsen C ice shelf.

  10. Bathymetry and ocean properties beneath Pine Island Glacier revealed by Autosub3 and implications for recent ice stream evolution (Invited) (United States)

    Jenkins, A.; Dutrieux, P.; McPhail, S.; Perrett, J.; Webb, A.; White, D.; Jacobs, S. S.


    The Antarctic ice sheet, which represents the largest of all potential contributors to sea level rise, appears to be losing mass at a rate that has accelerated over recent decades. Ice loss is focussed in a number of key drainage basins where dynamical changes in the outlet glaciers have led to increased discharge. The synchronous response of several independent glaciers, coupled with the observation that thinning is most rapid over their floating termini, is generally taken as an indicator that the changes have been driven from the ocean. Some of the most significant changes have been observed on Pine Island Glacier, where thinning, acceleration and grounding line retreat have all been observed, primarily through satellite remote sensing. Even during the relatively short satellite record, rates of change have been observed to increase. Between 20th and 30th January 2009 the Autosub3 autonomous underwater vehicle was deployed from host ship RVIB Nathaniel B Palmer on six sorties into the ocean cavity beneath Pine Island Glacier. Total track length was 887 km (taking 167 hours) of which 510 km (taking 94 hours) were beneath the glacier. Some of the main aims were to map both the seabed beneath and the underside of the glacier and to investigate how warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) flows beneath Pine Island Glacier and determines its melt rate. Among the instruments carried by Autosub-3 were a Seabird CTD, with dual conductivity and temperature sensors plus a dissolved oxygen sensor and a transmissometer, a multi-beam echosounder that could be configured to look up or down, and two Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs): an upward-looking 300 kHz instrument and a downward-looking 150 kHz instrument, providing a record of ice draft and seabed depth along the vehicle track. The ADCP data reveal an apparently continuous ridge with an undulating crest that extends across the cavity about 30km in from the current ice front. This topographic feature blocks CDW inflow

  11. Dynamic response of Sjögren Inlet glaciers, Antarctic Peninsula, to ice shelf breakup derived from multi-mission remote sensing time series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seehaus, T.C.; Marinsek, S.; Skvarca, P.; van Wessem, J.M.; Reijmer, C.H.; Seco, J.L.; Braun, M.


    The substantial retreat or disintegration of numerous ice shelves has been observed on the Antarctic Peninsula. The ice shelf in the Prince Gustav Channel has retreated gradually since the late 1980s and broke up in 1995. Tributary glaciers reacted with speed-up, surface lowering and increased ice

  12. Asynchronous behavior of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and local glaciers during and since Termination 1, Salmon Valley, Antarctica (United States)

    Jackson, Margaret S.; Hall, Brenda L.; Denton, George H.


    The stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet under future warming remains an open question with broad implications for sea-level prediction and adaptation. In particular, knowledge of whether the ice sheet has the capacity for rapid drawdown or collapse, or whether it can remain stable during periods of warming, is essential for predicting its future behavior. Here we use 55 radiocarbon dates, coupled with geomorphologic mapping, to reconstruct the timing of changes in ice extent and elevation during the last ice-age termination in Salmon Valley, adjacent to McMurdo Sound in the western Ross Sea Embayment. Results indicate that a grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment achieved its maximum elevation and extent along the headlands of Salmon Valley at ∼18,000 yr BP, during a period of increasing temperatures and accumulation over the Antarctic continent. This ice remained at or near its maximum on the headlands near the valley mouth until after ∼14,000 yr BP. Removal of grounded Ross Sea ice from Salmon Valley was complete shortly after ∼7900 yr BP, indicating that the grounding line had retreated through southern McMurdo Sound by that time. We suggest the primary driver of Ross Sea ice removal from McMurdo Sound was marine-based, either through basal melting or calving due to sea-level rise. When combined with regional data, the Salmon Valley record suggests that this sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet did not contribute in a significant way to deglacial meltwater pulses, such as meltwater pulse 1a. In contrast to the Ross Sea ice, our work also shows that local, independent alpine glaciers in Salmon Valley have advanced through the Holocene. Land-terminating glaciers such as these elsewhere in the region show a similar pattern, and may reflect the continued influence of increased accumulation following the termination of the last ice age.

  13. Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Albert, M. R.; Aldahan, A.


    Efforts to extract a Greenland ice core with a complete record of the Eemian interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) have until now been unsuccessful. The response of the Greenland ice sheet to the warmer-than-present climate of the Eemian has thus remained unclear. Here we present the new No...

  14. Chronology of Pu isotopes and {sup 236}U in an Arctic ice core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, C.C., E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Oughton, D.H., E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Lind, O.C., E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Skipperud, L., E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fifield, L.K., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Isaksson, E., E-mail: [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Hjalmar Johansens Gate 14, N9296 Tromsø (Norway); Tims, S.G., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Salbu, B., E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway)


    In the present work, state of the art isotopic fingerprinting techniques are applied to an Arctic ice core in order to quantify deposition of U and Pu, and to identify possible tropospheric transport of debris from former Soviet Union test sites Semipalatinsk (Central Asia) and Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Ocean). An ice core chronology of {sup 236}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu concentrations, and atom ratios, measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in a 28.6 m deep ice core from the Austfonna glacier at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard is presented. The ice core chronology corresponds to the period 1949 to 1999. The main sources of Pu and {sup 236}U contamination in the Arctic were the atmospheric nuclear detonations in the period 1945 to 1980, as global fallout, and tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test sites Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk. Activity concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu ranged from 0.008 to 0.254 mBq cm{sup −2} and {sup 236}U from 0.0039 to 0.053 μBq cm{sup −2}. Concentrations varied in concordance with {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the same ice core. In contrast to previous published results, the concentrations of Pu and {sup 236}U were found to be higher at depths corresponding to the pre-moratorium period (1949 to 1959) than to the post-moratorium period (1961 and 1962). The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio ranged from 0.15 to 0.19, and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu ranged from 0.18 to 1.4. The Pu atom ratios ranged within the limits of global fallout in the most intensive period of nuclear atmospheric testing (1952 to 1962). To the best knowledge of the authors the present work is the first publication on biogeochemical cycles with respect to {sup 236}U concentrations and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the Arctic and in ice cores. - Highlights: • Concentrations and atom ratios of Pu and {sup 236}U determined in an Arctic ice core. • Concentrations of U and Pu found to be higher pre- than post-moratorium. • U and Pu concentrations

  15. Ice Velocity Variations of the Polar Record Glacier (East Antarctica Using a Rotation-Invariant Feature-Tracking Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu


    Full Text Available In this study, the ice velocity changes from 2004 to 2015 of the Polar Record Glacier (PRG in East Antarctica were investigated based on a feature-tracking method using Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+ and Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI images. The flow field of the PRG curves make it difficult to generate ice velocities in some areas using the traditional normalized cross-correlation (NCC-based feature-tracking method. Therefore, a rotation-invariant parameter from scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT is introduced to build a novel rotation-invariant feature-tracking approach. The validation was performed based on multi-source images and the making earth system data records for use in research environments (MEaSUREs interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR-based Antarctica ice velocity map data set. The results indicate that the proposed method is able to measure the ice velocity in more areas and performs as well as the traditional NCC-based feature-tracking method. The sequential ice velocities obtained present the variations in the PRG during this period. Although the maximum ice velocity of the frontal margin of the PRG and the frontal iceberg reached about 900 m/a and 1000 m/a, respectively, the trend from 2004 to 2015 showed no significant change. Under the interaction of the Polar Times Glacier and the Polarforschung Glacier, both the direction and the displacement of the PRG were influenced. This impact also led to higher velocities in the western areas of the PRG than in the eastern areas. In addition, elevation changes and frontal iceberg calving also impacted the ice velocity of the PRG.

  16. Model calibration for ice sheets and glaciers dynamics: a general theory of inverse problems in glaciology (United States)

    Giudici, Mauro; Baratelli, Fulvia; Vassena, Chiara; Cattaneo, Laura


    Numerical modelling of the dynamic evolution of ice sheets and glaciers requires the solution of discrete equations which are based on physical principles (e.g. conservation of mass, linear momentum and energy) and phenomenological constitutive laws (e.g. Glen's and Fourier's laws). These equations must be accompanied by information on the forcing term and by initial and boundary conditions (IBC) on ice velocity, stress and temperature; on the other hand the constitutive laws involves many physical parameters, which possibly depend on the ice thermodynamical state. The proper forecast of the dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers (forward problem, FP) requires a precise knowledge of several quantities which appear in the IBCs, in the forcing terms and in the phenomenological laws and which cannot be easily measured at the study scale in the field. Therefore these quantities can be obtained through model calibration, i.e. by the solution of an inverse problem (IP). Roughly speaking, the IP aims at finding the optimal values of the model parameters that yield the best agreement of the model output with the field observations and data. The practical application of IPs is usually formulated as a generalised least squares approach, which can be cast in the framework of Bayesian inference. IPs are well developed in several areas of science and geophysics and several applications were proposed also in glaciology. The objective of this paper is to provide a further step towards a thorough and rigorous theoretical framework in cryospheric studies. Although the IP is often claimed to be ill-posed, this is rigorously true for continuous domain models, whereas for numerical models, which require the solution of algebraic equations, the properties of the IP must be analysed with more care. First of all, it is necessary to clarify the role of experimental and monitoring data to determine the calibration targets and the values of the parameters that can be considered to be fixed

  17. Repeating ice-earthquakes beneath David Glacier from the 2012-2015 TAMNNET array (United States)

    Walter, J. I.; Peng, Z.; Hansen, S. E.


    The continent of Antarctica has approximately the same surface area as the continental United States, though we know significantly less about its underlying geology and seismic activity. In recent years, improvements in seismic instrumentation, battery technology, and field deployment practices have allowed for continuous broadband stations throughout the dark Antarctic winter. We utilize broadband seismic data from a recent experiment (TAMNNET), which was originally proposed as a structural seismology experiment, for seismic event detection. Our target is to address fundamental questions about regional-scale crustal and environmental seismicity in the study region that comprises the Transantarctic Mountain area of Victoria and Oates Land. We identify most seismicity emanating from David Glacier, upstream of the Drygalski Ice Tongue, which has been documented by several other studies. In order to improve the catalog completeness for the David Glacier area, we utilize a matched-filter technique to identify potential missing earthquakes that may not have been originally detected. This technique utilizes existing cataloged waveforms as templates to scan through continuous data and to identify repeating or nearby earthquakes. With a more robust catalog, we evaluate relative changes in icequake positions, recurrence intervals, and other first-order information. In addition, we attempt to further refine locations of other regional seismicity using a variety of methods including body and surface wave polarization, beamforming, surface wave dispersion, and other seismological methods. This project highlights the usefulness of archiving raw datasets (i.e., passive seismic continuous data), so that researchers may apply new algorithms or techniques to test hypotheses not originally or specifically targeted by the original experimental design.

  18. Changing pattern of ice flow and mass balance for glaciers discharging into the Larsen A and B embayments, Antarctic Peninsula, 2011 to 2016 (United States)

    Rott, Helmut; Abdel Jaber, Wael; Wuite, Jan; Scheiblauer, Stefan; Floricioiu, Dana; Melchior van Wessem, Jan; Nagler, Thomas; Miranda, Nuno; van den Broeke, Michiel R.


    We analysed volume change and mass balance of outlet glaciers on the northern Antarctic Peninsula over the periods 2011 to 2013 and 2013 to 2016, using high-resolution topographic data from the bistatic interferometric radar satellite mission TanDEM-X. Complementary to the geodetic method that applies DEM differencing, we computed the net mass balance of the main outlet glaciers using the mass budget method, accounting for the difference between the surface mass balance (SMB) and the discharge of ice into an ocean or ice shelf. The SMB values are based on output of the regional climate model RACMO version 2.3p2. To study glacier flow and retrieve ice discharge we generated time series of ice velocity from data from different satellite radar sensors, with radar images of the satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X as the main source. The study area comprises tributaries to the Larsen A, Larsen Inlet and Prince Gustav Channel embayments (region A), the glaciers calving into the Larsen B embayment (region B) and the glaciers draining into the remnant part of the Larsen B ice shelf in Scar Inlet (region C). The glaciers of region A, where the buttressing ice shelf disintegrated in 1995, and of region B (ice shelf break-up in 2002) show continuing losses in ice mass, with significant reduction of losses after 2013. The mass balance numbers for the grounded glacier area of region A are -3.98 ± 0.33 Gt a-1 from 2011 to 2013 and -2.38 ± 0.18 Gt a-1 from 2013 to 2016. The corresponding numbers for region B are -5.75 ± 0.45 and -2.32 ± 0.25 Gt a-1. The mass balance in region C during the two periods was slightly negative, at -0.54 ± 0.38 Gt a-1 and -0.58 ± 0.25 Gt a-1. The main share in the overall mass losses of the region was contributed by two glaciers: Drygalski Glacier contributing 61 % to the mass deficit of region A, and Hektoria and Green glaciers accounting for 67 % to the mass deficit of region B. Hektoria and Green glaciers accelerated significantly in 2010

  19. Accuracy of three-dimensional glacier surface volocities derived from radar interfeometry and ice-soundin radar measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Reeh, Niels; Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    We present a method for analyzing the errors involved in measuring three-dimensional glacier velocities with interferometric radar. We address the surface-parallel flow assumption and an augmented approach with a flux-divergence (FD) term. The errors in an interferometric ERS-1/-2 satellite radar...... dataset with ascending- and descending-orbit data covering Storstrommen glacier, northeast Greenland, are assessed. The FD error assessment is carried out on airborne 60 MHz ice-sounding radar data from the same area. A simple model of an interferometric radar system is developed and analyzed. The error...... sources considered include phase noise, atmospheric distortions, baseline calibration errors, a dry snow layer, and the stationary-flow assumption used in differential interferometry. The additional error sources in the analysis of FD errors are noise, bias and unknown variations of the ice thickness...

  20. Ice-Shelf Melt Response to Changing Winds and Glacier Dynamics in the Amundsen Sea Sector, Antarctica (United States)

    Donat-Magnin, Marion; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Spence, Paul; Le Sommer, Julien; Gallée, Hubert; Durand, Gaël.


    It has been suggested that the coastal Southern Ocean subsurface may warm over the 21st century in response to strengthening and poleward shifting winds, with potential adverse effects on West Antarctic glaciers. However, using a 1/12° ocean regional model that includes ice-shelf cavities, we find a more complex response to changing winds in the Amundsen Sea. Simulated offshore subsurface waters get colder under strengthened and poleward shifted winds representative of the SAM projected trend. The buoyancy-driven circulation induced by ice-shelf melt transports this cold offshore anomaly onto the continental shelf, leading to cooling and decreased melt below 450 m. In the vicinity of ice-shelf fronts, Ekman pumping contributes to raise the isotherms in response to changing winds. This effect overwhelms the horizontal transport of colder offshore waters at intermediate depths (between 200 and 450 m), and therefore increases melt rates in the upper part of the ice-shelf cavities, which reinforces the buoyancy-driven circulation and further contributes to raise the isotherms. Then, prescribing an extreme grounding line retreat projected for 2100, the total melt rates simulated underneath Thwaites and Pine Island are multiplied by 2.5. Such increase is explained by a larger ocean/ice interface exposed to CDW, which is then amplified by a stronger melt-induced circulation along the ice draft. Our main conclusions are that (1) outputs from ocean models that do not represent ice shelf cavities (e.g., CMIP5 models) should not be directly used to predict the thermal forcing of future ice shelf cavities; (2) coupled ocean/ice sheet models with a velocity-dependent melt formulation are needed for future projections of glaciers experiencing a significant grounding line retreat.

  1. Rapid changes in ice core gas records - Part 1: On the accuracy of methane synchronisation of ice cores (United States)

    Köhler, P.


    Methane synchronisation is a concept to align ice core records during rapid climate changes of the Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events onto a common age scale. However, atmospheric gases are recorded in ice cores with a log-normal-shaped age distribution probability density function, whose exact shape depends mainly on the accumulation rate on the drilling site. This age distribution effectively shifts the mid-transition points of rapid changes in CH4 measured in situ in ice by about 58% of the width of the age distribution with respect to the atmospheric signal. A minimum dating uncertainty, or artefact, in the CH4 synchronisation is therefore embedded in the concept itself, which was not accounted for in previous error estimates. This synchronisation artefact between Greenland and Antarctic ice cores is for GRIP and Byrd less than 40 years, well within the dating uncertainty of CH4, and therefore does not calls the overall concept of the bipolar seesaw into question. However, if the EPICA Dome C ice core is aligned via CH4 to NGRIP this synchronisation artefact is in the most recent unified ice core age scale (Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010) for LGM climate conditions of the order of three centuries and might need consideration in future gas chronologies.

  2. A grid-based Model for Backwasting at supraglacial Ice Cliffs on a debris-covered Glacier (United States)

    Buri, P.; Steiner, J. F.; Pellicciotti, F.; Miles, E. S.; Immerzeel, W.


    In the Himalaya, debris-covered glaciers cover significant portions of the glacierised area. Their behaviour is not entirely understood, but they seem to experience strong mass losses in direct contradiction with the insulating effect of debris. A characteristic most debris-covered glaciers share is the appearance of cliffs and lakes on their surface. These supraglacial features play a role in surface evolution, dynamics and downwasting of debris-covered glaciers but their actual effects have not been quantified at the glacier scale. Numerous measurements of radiative fluxes at the cliff surface, detailed survey of cliffs geometry and ablation have been conducted on the debris-covered Lirung Glacier, Nepalese Himalayas. We used four 20cm-resolution DEMs obtained from UAV flights to represent the glacier surface to a very detailed degree. As the debris remains stable on slopes up to 30°, ice cliffs show inclinations above this threshold and were clearly represented in the DEMs. Direct measurements and a point-scale cliff-backwasting model have showed that melt patterns over a single cliff are highly variable across and along the ice surface due to non-uniform geometry, varying inclination, aspect and terrain view factors. Variability in observed ablation was large also among cliffs. We therefore developed an energy balance model with a gridded representation of the cliff to understand the melt behaviour at the cliff scale. Previous models assumed the cliff to be a plane with a constant slope and aspect, and extrapolation of melt rates to the glacier scale based on this assumption might be erroneous. Using a grid-based approach allows representation of real inclined areas of the cliff. The detailed surface from the UAV-DEM was taken as initial condition for the model. The model was in close agreement with ablation measurements at numerous stakes located on 3 cliffs. Results show very high variability both along the cliffs' elevation and extension. These cannot be

  3. The isotopic composition of methane in polar ice cores (United States)

    Craig, H.; Chou, C. C.; Welhan, J. A.; Stevens, C. M.; Engelkemeir, A.


    Air bubbles in polar ice cores indicate that about 300 years ago the atmospheric mixing ratio of methane began to increase rapidly. Today the mixing ratio is about 1.7 parts per million by volume, and, having doubled once in the past several hundred years, it will double again in the next 60 years if current rates continue. Carbon isotope ratios in methane up to 350 years in age have been measured with as little as 25 kilograms of polar ice recovered in 4-meter-long ice-core segments. The data show that: (1) in situ microbiology or chemistry has not altered the ice-core methane concentrations, and (2) that the carbon-13 to carbon-12 ratio of atmospheric CH4 in ice from 100 years and 300 years ago was about 2 per mil lower than at present. Atmospheric methane has a rich spectrum of isotopic sources: the ice-core data indicate that anthropogenic burning of the earth's biomass is the principal cause of the recent C-13H4 enrichment, although other factors may also contribute.

  4. Annual layering in the NGRIP ice core during the Eemian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Svensson


    Full Text Available The Greenland NGRIP ice core continuously covers the period from present day back to 123 ka before present, which includes several thousand years of ice from the previous interglacial period, MIS 5e or the Eemian. In the glacial part of the core, annual layers can be identified from impurity records and visual stratigraphy, and stratigraphic layer counting has been performed back to 60 ka. In the deepest part of the core, however, the ice is close to the pressure melting point, the visual stratigraphy is dominated by crystal boundaries, and annual layering is not visible to the naked eye. In this study, we apply a newly developed setup for high-resolution ice core impurity analysis to produce continuous records of dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations as well as conductivity of melt water. We analyzed three 2.2 m sections of ice from the Eemian and the glacial inception. In all of the analyzed ice, annual layers can clearly be recognized, most prominently in the dust and conductivity profiles. Part of the samples is, however, contaminated in dust, most likely from drill liquid. It is interesting that the annual layering is preserved despite a very active crystal growth and grain boundary migration in the deep and warm NGRIP ice. Based on annual layer counting of the new records, we determine a mean annual layer thickness close to 11 mm for all three sections, which, to first order, confirms the modeled NGRIP time scale (ss09sea. The counting does, however, suggest a longer duration of the climatically warmest part of the NGRIP record (MIS5e of up to 1 ka as compared to the model estimate. Our results suggest that stratigraphic layer counting is possible basically throughout the entire NGRIP ice core, provided sufficiently highly-resolved profiles become available.

  5. Analysis of organic compounds in industrial and preindustrial ice samples from an Alpine glacier in Switzerland (United States)

    Holzinger, R.; Schwikowski, M.; Saris, L.


    With a newly developed method based on Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-TOF 8000, Ionicon Inc., Austria) we measured organic compounds in ice samples. We analyzed 8 pre-industrial samples (1738-1747) and 10 post-industrial samples (winter 1975-1976) from the Fiescherhorn Glacier, Switzerland, and 5 firn samples from the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. Ice cubes made from deionized water (Millipore, 18.2 MΩ.cm @ 25 °C) were used as blank samples. We detected 450 and 138 organic ions that were enhanced in the post-industrial and preindustrial samples, and their total concentration summed up to 24×12 and 3.5×1.8 μgL-1, respectively. The most abundant species in the post-industrial samples were detected at m/z ratios above 200 Da and many of these ions contained nitrogen, while the pre-industrial samples contained lower molecular weight ions (typically below 100 Da) and only a few of them contained nitrogen atoms. If this case study can be extrapolated, our results suggest that human influence significantly enhanced the organic fraction of aerosols since the onset of industrialization (by a factor of ~7). The different chemical composition suggests that the additional organic mass must be due to new sources and chemical pathways. The presented method is a strong tool to constrain organics in the preindustrial atmosphere which may have been very different from conditions prevailing in the remote contemporary atmosphere.Four major ions detected in post-industrial samples (1975/1976) Four major ions detected in pre-industrial samples (1738-1747)

  6. The future sea-level rise contribution of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, H.; Rastner, P.; Bolch, T.


    We calculate the future sea-level rise contribution from the surface mass balance of all of Greenland's glaciers and ice caps (GICs, ~90 000 km2) using a simplified energy balance model which is driven by three future climate scenarios from the regional climate models HIRHAM5, RACMO2 and MAR...... experiments suggest that mass loss could be higher by 20–30% if a strong lowering of the surface albedo were to take place in the future. It is shown that the sea-level rise contribution from the north-easterly regions of Greenland is reduced by increasing precipitation while mass loss in the southern half...... feedback mechanisms are considered. The mass loss of all GICs by 2098 is calculated to be 2016 ± 129 Gt (HIRHAM5 forcing), 2584 ± 109 Gt (RACMO2) and 3907 ± 108 Gt (MAR). This corresponds to a total contribution to sea-level rise of 5.8 ± 0.4, 7.4 ± 0.3 and 11.2 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. Sensitivity...

  7. Tracking the El Nino events from Antarctic ice core records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, S.S.; Oelmez, I.


    Sodium and chlorine measurements were made by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) on stratigraphically dated ice core samples from Byrd Station, Antarctica, for the last three centuries. The time period between 1969 and 1989 showed an enhanced impact on the Antarctic ice sheets from oceans in the form of marine aerosols. A disturbed ocean-atmosphere interface due to El Ni Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events seems to be a candidate for this observation in Antarctica. (author)

  8. Characterization of atmospheric trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core: a preliminary account of Tibetan Plateau environmental and contamination histories (United States)

    Beaudon, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Sierra Hernandez, R.; Wegner, A.; Thompson, L. G.


    Asia is facing enormous challenges including large-scale environmental changes, rapid population growth and industrialization. The inherent generated pollution contributes to half of all Earth's anthropogenic trace metals emissions that, when deposited to glaciers of the surrounding mountains of the Third Pole region, leave a characteristic chemical fingerprint. Records of past atmospheric deposition preserved in snow and ice from Third Pole glaciers provide unique insights into changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere and into the nature and intensity of the regional atmospheric circulation systems. The determination of the elemental composition of aeolian dust stored in Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau glaciers can help to qualify the potential contamination of glacial meltwater as a part of the greater fresh Asian water source. The 215 m long Puruogangri ice core retrieved in 2000 at 6500 m a.s.l. in central Tibetan Plateau (Western Tanggula Shan, China) provides one of the first multi-millennium-long environmental archives (spanning the last 7000 years and annually resolved for the last 400 years) obtained from the Tibetan Plateau region. The Puruogangri's area is climatologically of particular interest because of its location at the boundary between the monsoon (wet) and the westerly (dry) dominated atmospheric circulation. The major objective of this study is to determine the concentration of trace and ultra-trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core between 1600 and 2000 AD in order to characterize the atmospheric aerosols entrapped in the ice. Particular attention is given to assess the amount of trace elements originating from anthropogenic sources during both the pre-industrial and industrial periods. The distinction between the anthropogenic contribution and the crustal background may rely on the precise decoupling of the dry and wet seasons signals, the former being largely influenced by dust contribution.

  9. Assessment of the Relationship between Andean Ice Core Precipitation Indicators and Amazon River Discharge (United States)

    Johnson, N.; Alsdorf, D.; Thompson, L.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Melack, J.


    Prior to the last 100 years, there is a significant lack of hydrologic knowledge for the Amazon Basin. A 100- year record of discharge from the city of Manaus, located at the confluence of the Solimoes and Negro rivers, is the most complete record for the basin. Inundated wetlands play a key role in carbon out-gassing to the atmosphere whereas discharge from the Amazon River contributes about 20% of the total freshwater flux delivered to the world's oceans. As discharge (Q) and inundation are directly related to precipitation, we are developing a method to extend our understanding of Q and inundation into the 19^{th} century. Using proxy data preserved in Andean glaciers and ice caps and recovered from ice cores, annually resolved histories of δ^{18)O and mass accumulation are available. The latter is a proxy for local precipitation amount whereas δ18O is influenced by continental scale processes (i.e., evaporation, convection) as well as by temperature and hence, by varying climate regimes. We have correlated the accumulation and δ18O records from Core 1 drilled on the Quelccaya ice-cap in the southern Andes of Peru with the Manaus discharge data. As ice core annual layers correspond to the thermal year (in Peru, July to June of the following year) and the discharge records are kept daily (January to December), we averaged 365 days of Q data seeking the optimal correlation for each start and end date. The best statistical relationship between δ18O and Q (r = -0.41, p = < 0.001) is attained when Q is averaged from March 16 to March 15 of the following year. We also correlated 23 years of ENSO events, which are linked to both Amazon River discharge and ice core δ18O (r = -0.60, p = < 0.001). These linear relationships are used to create Amazon discharge for the 20^{th} century and to extrapolate Q into the 19^{th} century. Previously developed relationships between Q and mainstem inundated area are then used to estimate inundated area along the main Amazon

  10. Annual layering in the NGRIP ice core during the Eemian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders; Bigler, Matthias; Kettner, Ernesto


    ice, annual layers can clearly be recognized, most prominently in the dust and conductivity profiles. Part of the samples is, however, contaminated in dust, most likely from drill liquid. It is interesting that the annual layering is preserved despite a very active crystal growth and grain boundary....... In this study, we apply a newly developed setup for high-resolution ice core impurity analysis to produce continuous records of dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations as well as conductivity of melt water. We analyzed three 2.2m sections of ice from the Eemian and the glacial inception. In all of the analyzed...

  11. PIXE analysis as a tool for dating of ice cores from the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, H.C.; Swietlicki, E.; Larsson, N.P.O.; Johnsen, S.J.


    Sections from the 2037 m long Dye 3 ice core drilled in 1979-1981 in the ice sheet of Southern Greenland were analysed with PIXE. The seven selected sections were from depths between 1778 and 1813 m, which corresponds to a time interval between about 8 500 and 10 000 years B.C. at the end of the last Ice Age. During this time period, fast climatic changes of several degrees centrigrade per century are known to have taken place. The exact time scales of these changes need yet to be verified by renewed measurements using nonconventional stratigraphic dating techniques such as PIXE. The problem is highly relevant for the prediction of climatic changes in our present age. A new sample preparation technique was developed which enables the determination of annual thicknesses of the parts of the ice core representing 10 000-40 000 years before present, where the thickness of the annual ice layers are believed to be less than 2.5 cm. More commonly used techniques of dating, such as measurements of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes δ 18 O and δD, nitrate, acidity or conductivity all have difficulties in resolving annual cycles in thicknesses of less than about 2 cm. The new technique involves sublimation of 18 cm long ice sections, after which the material contained in the ice is deposited on the thin backing. In this way, the material to be analysed is preconcentrated through the removal of the H 2 O, while still retaining the spatial distribution pattern of the various water soluble and insoluble components along the ice core. The resulting spatial resolution of the sublimation technique is estimated to be ±1 mm. A PIXE analysis was performed in contiguous millimeter steps across the sublimated ice sections. Estimations of annual ice layer thicknesses were based on the patterns of seasonal variation along the ice sections for several major and minor elements quantified with PIXE. (orig./TW)

  12. Pre-cometary ice composition from hot core chemistry. (United States)

    Tornow, Carmen; Kührt, Ekkehard; Motschmann, Uwe


    Pre-cometary ice located around star-forming regions contains molecules that are pre-biotic compounds or pre-biotic precursors. Molecular line surveys of hot cores provide information on the composition of the ice since it sublimates near these sites. We have combined a hydrostatic hot core model with a complex network of chemical reactions to calculate the time-dependent abundances of molecules, ions, and radicals. The model considers the interaction between the ice and gas phase. It is applied to the Orion hot core where high-mass star formation occurs, and to the solar-mass binary protostar system IRAS 16293-2422. Our calculations show that at the end of the hot core phase both star-forming sites produce the same prebiotic CN-bearing molecules. However, in the Orion hot core these molecules are formed in larger abundances. A comparison of the calculated values with the abundances derived from the observed line data requires a chemically unprocessed molecular cloud as the initial state of hot core evolution. Thus, it appears that these objects are formed at a much younger cloud stage than previously thought. This implies that the ice phase of the young clouds does not contain CN-bearing molecules in large abundances before the hot core has been formed. The pre-biotic molecules synthesized in hot cores cause a chemical enrichment in the gas phase and in the pre-cometary ice. This enrichment is thought to be an important extraterrestrial aspect of the formation of life on Earth and elsewhere.

  13. Investigating ice cliff evolution and contribution to glacier mass-balance using a physically-based dynamic model (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Brun, Fanny; Steiner, Jakob; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Supraglacial cliffs are a surface feature typical of debris-covered glaciers, affecting surface evolution, glacier downwasting and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface. As a result, melt rates can be very high and ice cliffs may account for a significant portion of the total glacier mass loss. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has rarely been quantified through physically-based models. Most cliff energy balance models are point scale models which calculate energy fluxes at individual cliff locations. Results from the only grid based model to date accurately reflect energy fluxes and cliff melt, but modelled backwasting patterns are in some cases unrealistic, as the distribution of melt rates would lead to progressive shallowing and disappearance of cliffs. Based on a unique multitemporal dataset of cliff topography and backwasting obtained from high-resolution terrestrial and aerial Structure-from-Motion analysis on Lirung Glacier in Nepal, it is apparent that cliffs exhibit a range of behaviours but most do not rapidly disappear. The patterns of evolution cannot be explained satisfactorily by atmospheric melt alone, and are moderated by the presence of supraglacial ponds at the base of cliffs and by cliff reburial with debris. Here, we document the distinct patterns of evolution including disappearance, growth and stability. We then use these observations to improve the grid-based energy balance model, implementing periodic updates of the cliff geometry resulting from modelled melt perpendicular to the ice surface. Based on a slope threshold, pixels can be reburied by debris or become debris-free. The effect of ponds are taken into account through enhanced melt rates in horizontal direction on pixels selected based on an algorithm considering distance to the water surface, slope and lake level. We use the dynamic model to first study the evolution of selected cliffs for which accurate, high resolution DEMs are available

  14. 3D high resolution tracking of ice flow using mutli-temporal stereo satellite imagery, Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand (United States)

    Leprince, S.; Lin, J.; Ayoub, F.; Herman, F.; Avouac, J.


    We present the latest capabilities added to the Co-Registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) software, which aim at analyzing time-series of stereoscopic imagery to document 3D variations of the ground surface. We review the processing chain and present the new and improved modules for satellite pushbroom imagery, in particular the N-image bundle block adjustment to jointly optimize the viewing geometry of multiple acquisitions, the improved multi-scale image matching based on Semi-Global Matching (SGM) to extract high resolution topography, and the triangulation of multi-temporal disparity maps to derive 3D ground motion. In particular, processes are optimized to run on a cluster computing environment. This new suite of algorithms is applied to the study of Worldview stereo imagery above the Franz Josef, Fox, and Tasman Glaciers, New Zealand, acquired on 01/30/2013, 02/09/2013, and 02/28/2013. We derive high resolution (1m post-spacing) maps of ice flow in three dimensions, where ice velocities of up to 4 m/day are recorded. Images were collected in early summer during a dry and sunny period, which followed two weeks of unsettled weather with several heavy rainfall events across the Southern Alps. The 3D tracking of ice flow highlights the surface response of the glaciers to changes in effective pressure at the ice-bedrock interface due to heavy rainfall, at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

  15. Extraction of trapped gases in ice cores for isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, M.; Bourg, C.; Francey, R.; Wahlen, M.


    The use of ice cores for paleoclimatic investigations is discussed in terms of their application for dating, temperature indication, spatial time marker synchronization, trace gas fluxes, solar variability indication and changes in the Dole effect. The different existing techniques for the extraction of gases from ice cores are discussed. These techniques, all to be carried out under vacuum, are melt-extraction, dry-extraction methods and the sublimation technique. Advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods are listed. An extensive list of references is provided for further detailed information. (author)

  16. Measurement of neutrino oscillations in atmospheric neutrinos with the IceCube DeepCore detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez Garza, Juan Pablo


    The study of neutrino oscillations is an active field of research. During the last couple of decades many experiments have measured the effects of oscillations, pushing the field from the discovery stage towards an era of precision and deeper understanding of the phenomenon. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, with its low energy subarray, DeepCore, has the possibility of contributing to this field. IceCube is a 1 km{sup 3} ice Cherenkov neutrino telescope buried deep in the Antarctic glacier. DeepCore, a region of denser instrumentation in the lower center of IceCube, permits the detection of neutrinos with energies as low as 10 GeV. Every year, thousands of atmospheric neutrinos around these energies leave a strong signature in DeepCore. Due to their energy and the distance they travel before being detected, these neutrinos can be used to measure the phenomenon of oscillations. This work starts with a study of the potential of IceCube DeepCore to measure neutrino oscillations in different channels, from which the disappearance of ν{sub μ} is chosen to move forward. It continues by describing a novel method for identifying Cherenkov photons that traveled without being scattered until detected direct photons. These photons are used to reconstruct the incoming zenith angle of muon neutrinos. The total energy of the interacting neutrino is also estimated. In data taken in 343 days during 2011-2012, 1487 neutrino candidates with an energy between 7 GeV and 100 GeV are found inside the DeepCore volume. Compared to the expectation from the atmospheric neutrino flux without oscillations, this corresponds to a deficit of about 500 muon neutrino events. The oscillation parameters that describe the data best are sin{sup 2}(2θ{sub 23})=1(>0.94 at 68 % C.L.) and vertical stroke Δm{sup 2}{sub 32} vertical stroke =2.4{sub -0.4}{sup +0.6}.10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, which are in agreement with the results reported by other experiments. The simulation follows the data closely

  17. Climatic Changes on Tibetan Plateau Based on Ice Core Records (United States)

    Yao, T.


    Climatic changes have been reconstructed for the Tibetan Plateau based on ice core records. The Guliya ice core on the Tibetan Plateau presents climatic changes in the past 100,000 years, thus is comparative with that from Vostok ice core in Antarctica and GISP2 record in Arctic. These three records share an important common feature, i.e., our climate is not stable. It is also evident that the major patterns of climatic changes are similar on the earth. Why does climatic change over the earth follow a same pattern? It might be attributed to solar radiation. We found that the cold periods correspond to low insolation periods, and warm periods to high insolation periods. We found abrupt climatic change in the ice core climatic records, which presented dramatic temperature variation of as much as 10 °C in 50 or 60 years. Our major challenge in the study of both climate and environment is that greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 are possibly amplifying global warming, though at what degree remains unclear. One of the ways to understand the role of greenhouse gases is to reconstruct the past greenhouse gases recorded in ice. In 1997, we drilled an ice core from 7100 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas to reconstruct methane record. Based on the record, we found seasonal cycles in methane variation. In particular, the methane concentration is high in summer, suggestiing active methane emission from wet land in summer. Based on the seasonal cycle, we can reconstruct the methane fluctuation history in the past 500 years. The most prominent feature of the methane record in the Himalayan ice core is the abrupt increase since 1850 A.D.. This is closely related to the industrial revolution worldwide. We can also observe sudden decrease in methane concentration during the World War I and World War II. It implies that the industrial revolution has dominated the atmospheric greenhouse gas emission for about 100 years. Besides, the average methane concentration in the Himalayan ice core is

  18. Thallium as a tracer for preindustrial volcanic eruptions in an ice core record from Illimani, Bolivia. (United States)

    Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Brütsch, Sabina; Sigl, Michael; Wacker, Lukas; Gäggeler, Heinz W; Schwikowski, Margit


    Trace element records from glacier and ice sheet archives provide insights into biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric circulation changes, and anthropogenic pollution history. We present the first continuous high-resolution thallium (Tl) record, derived from an accurately dated ice core from tropical South America, and discuss Tl as a tracer for volcanic eruptions. We identify four prominent Tl peaks and propose that they represent signals from the massive explosive eruptions of the "unknown 1258" A.D. volcano, of Kuwae ( approximately 1450 A.D.), Tambora (1815 A.D.), and Krakatoa (1883 A.D.). The highly resolved record was obtained with an improved setup for the continuous analysis of trace elements in ice with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). The new setup allowed for a stronger initial acidification of the meltwater and shorter tubing length, thereby reducing the risk of memory effects and losses of analytes to the capillary walls. With a comparison of the continuous method to the established conventional decontamination and analysis procedure for discrete samples, we demonstrate the accuracy of the continuous method for Tl analyses.

  19. Glacier History of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula Region Since the End of the Last Ice Age and Implications for Southern Hemisphere Westerly-Climate Changes (United States)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Peltier, C.; Southon, J. R.; Lepper, K. E.; Winckler, G.


    For the area around James Ross Island, we present new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages on glacial deposits, and 14C ages on associated fossil materials. These data allow us to reconstruct in detail when and how the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet retreated around the Island as the last Ice Age ended, and afterward when local land-based glaciers fluctuated. Similar to other studies, we found widespread deglaciation during the earliest Holocene, with fjords and bays becoming ice free between about 11,000 and 8,000 years ago. After 7,000 years ago, neoglacial type advances initiated. Then, both expansions and ice free periods occurred from the middle to late Holocene. We compare the new glacier record to those in southern Patagonia, which is on the other side of the Drake Passage, and published Southern Ocean marine records, in order to infer past middle to high latitude changes in the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. Widespread warmth in the earliest Holocene, to the north and south of the Drake Passage, led to small glacier systems in Patagonia and wide-ranging glacier recession around the northern Antarctic Peninsula. We infer that this early Holocene period of overall glacier recession - from Patagonia to the northern Peninsula - was caused by a persistent far-southerly setting of the westerlies and accompanying warm climates. Subsequently, during the middle Holocene renewed glacier expansions occurred on both sides of the Drake Passage, which reflects that the Westerlies and associated colder climate systems were generally more equatorward. From the middle to late Holocene, glacier expansions and ice free periods (and likely related ice shelf behavior) document how the Westerlies and associated higher-latitude climate systems varied.

  20. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores (United States)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.


    The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented

  1. Glaciological and chemical studies on ice cores from Hans Tausen ice cap, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, H.B.; Stampe, Mia; Hammer, C.U.


    The paper presents studies of various chemical and isotopical parameters from ice cores drilled in the northernmost located ice cap, Hans Tausen Iskappe, Pearyland, Greenland (HT). The 346 m main core (MC95) was drilled to bedrock in 1995 as well as a 35 m shallow core (SC95). A 60 m shallow core...... (SC75) and a 51 m shallow core (SC76) was drilled at two different positions in 1975 and 1976, respectively. A 6 m shallow core (SC94) was drilled in 1994. Continuous stable isotope records exist for all of these cores, total b-activity only from SC75 and SC76. Continuous ECM inferred acidity records...... exist along the 1995 cores (MC95 and SC95) and finally detailed records of dust and water soluble ion concentrations exist on selected parts of MC95. To determine a time scale for the ice core is an important prerequisite for the interpretation of other records. The age scale is based on acid layers...

  2. Tropical Glaciers (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew

    The term "tropical glacier" calls to mind balmy nights and palm trees on one hand and cold, blue ice on the other. Certainly author Gabriel Garcia Marqez exploited this contrast in One Hundred Years of Solitude. We know that tropical fish live in warm, Sun-kissed waters and tropical plants provide lush, dense foliage populated by colorful tropical birds. So how do tropical glaciers fit into this scene? Like glaciers everywhere, tropical glaciers form where mass accumulation—usually winter snow—exceeds mass loss, which is generally summer melt. Thus, tropical glaciers exist at high elevations where precipitation can occur as snowfall exceeds melt and sublimation losses, such as the Rwenzori Mountains in east Africa and the Maoke Range of Irian Jaya.

  3. A physically based 3-D model of ice cliff evolution over debris-covered glaciers (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, Jakob F.; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Wagnon, Patrick; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    We use high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys to document the evolution of four ice cliffs on the debris-covered tongue of Lirung Glacier, Nepal, over one ablation season. Observations show that out of four cliffs, three different patterns of evolution emerge: (i) reclining cliffs that flatten during the ablation season; (ii) stable cliffs that maintain a self-similar geometry; and (iii) growing cliffs, expanding laterally. We use the insights from this unique data set to develop a 3-D model of cliff backwasting and evolution that is validated against observations and an independent data set of volume losses. The model includes ablation at the cliff surface driven by energy exchange with the atmosphere, reburial of cliff cells by surrounding debris, and the effect of adjacent ponds. The cliff geometry is updated monthly to account for the modifications induced by each of those processes. Model results indicate that a major factor affecting the survival of steep cliffs is the coupling with ponded water at its base, which prevents progressive flattening and possible disappearance of a cliff. The radial growth observed at one cliff is explained by higher receipts of longwave and shortwave radiation, calculated taking into account atmospheric fluxes, shading, and the emission of longwave radiation from debris surfaces. The model is a clear step forward compared to existing static approaches that calculate atmospheric melt over an invariant cliff geometry and can be used for long-term simulations of cliff evolution and to test existing hypotheses about cliffs' survival.

  4. Estimating the ice thickness of mountain glaciers with an inverse approach using surface topography and mass-balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; Picasso, Marco; Farinotti, Daniel; Bauder, Andreas; Funk, Martin; Blatter, Heinz


    We present a numerical method to estimate the ice thickness distribution within a two-dimensional, non-sliding mountain glacier, given a transient surface geometry and a mass-balance distribution, which are relatively easy to obtain for a large number of glaciers. The inverse approach is based on the shallow ice approximation (SIA) of ice flow and requires neither filtering of the surface topography with a lower slope limit nor approximation of constant basal shear stress. We first address this problem for a steady-state surface geometry. Next, we use an apparent surface mass-balance description that makes the transient evolution quasi-stationary. Then, we employ a more elaborated fixed-point method in which the bedrock solution is iteratively obtained by adding the difference between the computed and known surface geometries at the end of the considered time interval. In a sensitivity study, we show that the procedure is much more susceptible to small perturbations in surface geometry than mass-balance. Finally, we present preliminary results for bed elevations in three space dimensions. (paper)

  5. Rapid ice unloading in the Fleming Glacier region, southern Antarctic Peninsula, and its effect on bedrock uplift rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chen; King, Matt A.; Watson, Christopher S.


    deformation. We subtract modeled elastic deformation rates, and a suite of modeled viscous rates, from GPS-derived three-dimensional bedrock velocities at sites to the south of Fleming Glacier to infer properties of Earth rheology. Assuming the pre-breakup bedrock uplift was positive due to post-Last Glacial...... Maximum (LGM) ice retreat, our viscoelastic-corrected GPS uplift rates suggest upper mantle viscosities are >2×1019 Pas and likely >1×1020 Pas in this region, 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than previously found for the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Horizontal velocities at the GPS site nearest...

  6. Seasonal variability of organic matter composition in an Alaskan glacier outflow: insights into glacier carbon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Robert G M; Vermilyea, Andrew; Fellman, Jason; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter; Stubbins, Aron; Scott, Durelle


    Glacier ecosystems are a significant source of bioavailable, yet ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Characterizing DOC in Mendenhall Glacier outflow (southeast Alaska) we document a seasonal persistence to the radiocarbon-depleted signature of DOC, highlighting ancient DOC as a ubiquitous feature of glacier outflow. We observed no systematic depletion in Δ 14 C-DOC with increasing discharge during the melt season that would suggest mobilization of an aged subglacial carbon store. However, DOC concentration, δ 13 C-DOC, Δ 14 C-DOC and fluorescence signatures appear to have been influenced by runoff from vegetated hillslopes above the glacier during onset and senescence of melt. In the peak glacier melt period, the Δ 14 C-DOC of stream samples at the outflow (−181.7 to −355.3‰) was comparable to the Δ 14 C-DOC for snow samples from the accumulation zone (−207.2 to −390.9‰), suggesting that ancient DOC from the glacier surface is exported in glacier runoff. The pre-aged DOC in glacier snow and runoff is consistent with contributions from fossil fuel combustion sources similar to those documented previously in ice cores and thus provides evidence for anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle. Overall, our results emphasize the need to further characterize DOC inputs to glacier ecosystems, particularly in light of predicted changes in glacier mass and runoff in the coming century. (papers)

  7. Electrical conductivity measurements from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Taylor, K. C.


    . Here we present electrical conductivity records for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) and Greenland Ice-core Project (GRIP) ice cores, drilled 28 km apart to enable direct comparison of the results. The upper parts of both records are consistent with previous evidence from other Greenland cores...

  8. Environmental records from temperate glacier ice on Nevado Coropuna saddle, southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herreros


    Full Text Available We investigated past climate variability and the zonal short and long-range transport of air masses in tropical South America using chemical, isotopic and palynological signals from a 42 m-long ice core recovered in 2003 from the saddle of the Nevado Coropuna, southern Peru (72°39´ W; 15°32´ S; 6080 m a.s.l.. We found that precipitation at this site depends mainly on the easterly circulation of air masses originated from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Nevertheless, sporadic Pacific air masses arrivals, and strong cold waves coming from southern South America reach this altitude site. In spite of post-depositional effects, we were able to identify two strong ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation event signatures (1982–1983 and 1992 and the eruptive activity of the nearby Sabancaya volcano (1994.

  9. Toward unified ice core chronologies with the DatIce tool (United States)

    Toye Mahamadou Kele, H.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Blayo, E.


    Antarctic and Greenland ice cores provide a means to study the phase relationships of climate changes in both hemispheres. They also enable to study the timing between climate, and greenhouse gases or orbital forcings. One key step for such studies is to improve the absolute and relative precisions of ice core age scales (for ice and trapped gas), and beyond that, to try to reach the best consistency between chronologies of paleo records of any kind. The DatIce tool is designed to increase the consistency between pre-existing (also called background) core chronologies. It formulates a variational inverse problem which aims at correcting three key quantities that uniquely define the core age scales: the accumulation rate, the total thinning function, and the close-off depth. For that purpose, it integrates paleo data constraints of many types among which age markers (with for instance documented volcanoes eruptions), and stratigraphic links (with for instance abrupt changes in methane concentration). A cost function is built that enables to calculate new chronologies by making a trade-off between all the constraints (background chronologies and paleo data). The method presented in Lemieux-Dudon et al (2010) has already been applied simultaneously to EPICA EDML and EDC, Vostok and NGRIP. Currently, on going works are conducted at LSCE Saclay and LGGE Grenoble laboratories to construct unified Antarctic chronologies by applying the DatIce tool with new ice cores and new sets of paleo measurements. We here present the DatIce tool, the underlying methodology, and its potential applications. We further show some improvements that have been made recently. We especially adress the issue related to the calibration of the error of pre-existing core chronologies. They are inputs that may have a strong impact on the results. However these uncertainties are uneasy to analyze, since prior chronologies are most of the time assessed on the basis of glaciological models (firn

  10. δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperlich, Peter

    Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2) measure......Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2......) measurements of δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples as is required when δ13C-CH4 records that are measured in several laboratories are merged for analysis. Both the referencing and measurement techniques have been compared to further laboratories which proofed the accuracy of the analytical systems. The second part...

  11. Application of electrical tomography to study the internal structure of rock glaciers in Altai


    G. S. Dyakova; V. V. Olenchenko; O. V. Ostanin


    Internal structure of rock glaciers was investigated at two key sites in Altai by means of electric tomography. It had been found that the rock glaciers of the same type, located at different altitude levels, differ in electric resistances of ice nuclei and the degree of consolidation of the ice material inside of them. Typical characteristics of the ice core of a rock glacier in the high-mountain area are the following: electrical resistivity is about 1000–2000 kOhm∙m and a high degree of th...

  12. Peruvian Tropical Glacier May Survive Longer Than Previously Thought: Landsat Image Analysis of Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, Peru (United States)

    Kochtitzky, W. H.; Edwards, B. R.; Marino, J.; Manrique, N.


    Nevado Coropuna is a large volcanic complex in southern Peru (15.56°S, 72.62°N; 6,425 m). The complex is approximately 12 km east-west and 8 km north-south with elevation from ~4,500 m at the base to over 6,000 m at the highest points. This ice cap is the largest hosted by a volcano in the tropics, and one of the ten biggest ice masses in the tropics. Previous workers have predicted that the Coropuna ice cap will completely melt by 2050. We present a new analysis of historic satellite imagery to test this hypothesis. In this study, ice and snow are classified based on unique spectral signatures including spectral band thresholds, Normalized Difference Snow Index, and Band 4/5 ratio. Landsat scenes (L2, 4, 5, 7, and 8) from 1975 to present in addition to one SPOT scene (2013) are used. Previous workers used images from June and July, which are peak snow periods in southern Peru, leading to overestimates of ice area. This study uses November and December images when snow is at an annual minimum. Annual equilibrium line altitudes are calculated for each end of year image (November/December). The glaciers of Nevado Coropuna were found to be shrinking at ~0.5 km2/yr, which is ~1/3 the rate previously published. In this study, SPOT (1.5 m resolution) and Landsat 7 ETM scenes from November 23 and 26, 2013 respectively were used to calibrate the spectral band threshold classification. While this study suggests that the ice cap of Coropuna will persist until 2100 given current rates, water quantity and security remains a concern for Peruvian agriculture. Coropuna is an active volcano, so it poses great risk to surrounding inhabitants from lahars, flooding, and debris avalanches. Our new data suggest that these will continue to be risks late into this century.

  13. Seasonal velocities of eight major marine-terminating outlet glaciers of the Greenland ice sheet from continuous in situ GPS instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, A. P.; Andersen, S. B.; Andersen, M. L.


    We present 17 velocity records derived from in situ stand-alone single-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers placed on eight marine-terminating ice sheet outlet glaciers in South, West and North Greenland, covering varying parts of the period summer 2009 to summer 2012. Common to all...

  14. Temperature and mineral dust variability recorded in two low-accumulation Alpine ice cores over the last millennium (United States)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Erhardt, Tobias; Spaulding, Nicole; Hoffmann, Helene; Fischer, Hubertus; Mayewski, Paul


    Among ice core drilling sites in the European Alps, Colle Gnifetti (CG) is the only non-temperate glacier to offer climate records dating back at least 1000 years. This unique long-term archive is the result of an exceptionally low net accumulation driven by wind erosion and rapid annual layer thinning. However, the full exploitation of the CG time series has been hampered by considerable dating uncertainties and the seasonal summer bias in snow preservation. Using a new core drilled in 2013 we extend annual layer counting, for the first time at CG, over the last 1000 years and add additional constraints to the resulting age scale from radiocarbon dating. Based on this improved age scale, and using a multi-core approach with a neighbouring ice core, we explore the time series of stable water isotopes and the mineral dust proxies Ca2+ and insoluble particles. Also in our latest ice core we face the already known limitation to the quantitative use of the stable isotope variability based on a high and potentially non-stationary isotope/temperature sensitivity at CG. Decadal trends in Ca2+ reveal substantial agreement with instrumental temperature and are explored here as a potential site-specific supplement to the isotope-based temperature reconstruction. The observed coupling between temperature and Ca2+ trends likely results from snow preservation effects and the advection of dust-rich air masses coinciding with warm temperatures. We find that if calibrated against instrumental data, the Ca2+-based temperature reconstruction is in robust agreement with the latest proxy-based summer temperature reconstruction, including a Little Ice Age cold period as well as a medieval climate anomaly. Part of the medieval climate period around AD 1100-1200 clearly stands out through an increased occurrence of dust events, potentially resulting from a relative increase in meridional flow and/or dry conditions over the Mediterranean.

  15. Temperature and mineral dust variability recorded in two low-accumulation Alpine ice cores over the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bohleber


    Full Text Available Among ice core drilling sites in the European Alps, Colle Gnifetti (CG is the only non-temperate glacier to offer climate records dating back at least 1000 years. This unique long-term archive is the result of an exceptionally low net accumulation driven by wind erosion and rapid annual layer thinning. However, the full exploitation of the CG time series has been hampered by considerable dating uncertainties and the seasonal summer bias in snow preservation. Using a new core drilled in 2013 we extend annual layer counting, for the first time at CG, over the last 1000 years and add additional constraints to the resulting age scale from radiocarbon dating. Based on this improved age scale, and using a multi-core approach with a neighbouring ice core, we explore the time series of stable water isotopes and the mineral dust proxies Ca2+ and insoluble particles. Also in our latest ice core we face the already known limitation to the quantitative use of the stable isotope variability based on a high and potentially non-stationary isotope/temperature sensitivity at CG. Decadal trends in Ca2+ reveal substantial agreement with instrumental temperature and are explored here as a potential site-specific supplement to the isotope-based temperature reconstruction. The observed coupling between temperature and Ca2+ trends likely results from snow preservation effects and the advection of dust-rich air masses coinciding with warm temperatures. We find that if calibrated against instrumental data, the Ca2+-based temperature reconstruction is in robust agreement with the latest proxy-based summer temperature reconstruction, including a Little Ice Age cold period as well as a medieval climate anomaly. Part of the medieval climate period around AD 1100–1200 clearly stands out through an increased occurrence of dust events, potentially resulting from a relative increase in meridional flow and/or dry conditions over the Mediterranean.

  16. Revised estimates of Greenland ice sheet thinning histories based on ice-core records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecavalier, B.S.; Milne, G.A.; Fisher, D.A.


    -based reconstructions and, to some extent, the estimated elevation histories. A key component of the ice core analysis involved removing the influence of vertical surface motion on the dO signal measured from the Agassiz and Renland ice caps. We re-visit the original analysis with the intent to determine if the use...... of more accurate land uplift curves can account for some of the above noted discrepancy. To improve on the original analysis, we apply a geophysical model of glacial isostatic adjustment calibrated to sea-level records from the Queen Elizabeth Islands and Greenland to calculate the influence of land...... in this selection is further complicated by the possible influence of Innuitian ice during the early Holocene (12-8 ka BP). Our results indicate that a more accurate treatment of the uplift correction leads to elevation histories that are, in general, shifted down relative to the original curves at GRIP, NGRIP, DYE...

  17. Ancient biomolecules from deep ice cores reveal a forested southern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cappellini, Enrico; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh


    It is difficult to obtain fossil data from the 10% of Earth's terrestrial surface that is covered by thick glaciers and ice sheets, and hence, knowledge of the paleoenvironments of these regions has remained limited. We show that DNA and amino acids from buried organisms can be recovered from the...

  18. Using high resolution tritium profiles to quantify the effects of melt on two Spitsbergen ice cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, L.G.; Streurman, H.J.; Isaksson, E.; Helsen, M.M.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Martma, T.; Pohjola, V.A.; Moore, J.C.; Meijer, H.A.J.


    Ice cores from small ice caps provide valuable climatic information, additional to that of Greenland and Antarctica. However, their integrity is usually compromised by summer meltwater percolation. To determine to what extent this can affect such ice cores, we performed high-resolution tritium

  19. Levoglucosan Levels in Alaskan Ice Cores as a Record of Past Wildfires (United States)

    Dunham, M. E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Kennedy, J.; Ferris, D. G.


    Glaciers in southeast Alaska are significant contributors to global sea-level rise, and therefore understanding the mechanisms driving their recent mass loss is crucial for predicting future sea-level change. Fire activity in Alaska has increased dramatically during the last decade, adding a potential new source of light-absorbing organic material (soot) to the Juneau Icefield that can reduce albedo and enhance surface melt rates. The goal of this project is to create an accurate record of Alaskan wildfires to understand how Alaskan glacial mass balance is affected by the deposition of organic aerosols from wildfires. Previously, oxalate, ammonia, and potassium ion levels have been used as proxies for past wildfire activity, but these ions all have broader emission sources in addition to wildfires. Here we develop a record of past Alaskan fire events and climate from: (1) levels of a biomass burning indicator, levoglucosan, which only forms when cellulose is burned over 300 °C, (2) major ions including oxalate, ammonia, and potassium; (3) the number and size distribution of particles to quantify trace amounts of soot from wildfires; and (4) stable water isotope ratios as a proxy for past temperature in ice cores. We utilize a total of four shallow ice cores, ranging from 7 to 9 m in length, that were collected by a biogeochemistry team during the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP) in 2016. Complications include our limited understanding of the conservation and degradation of levoglucosan over time or during the firnification process. We hypothesize that particle counts will be correlated with levoglucosan peaks, co-varying with wildfire frequency and temperatures over time. Based on previous work, we also expect to find correlations between levoglucosan and oxalate ion concentrations, even though oxalate ions have sources in addition to wildfire activity.

  20. Trace elements in a dated ice core from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshin, S.S.; Xudong Huang; Olmez, I.; Langway, C.C. Jr.


    Aerosol particles from both natural and anthropogenic sources are emitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind systems by various mechanisms. Once airborne, the particles, which contain various trace elements, accumulate on the earth's surface as either condensation nuclei or by dry fallout processes. In the polar regions, these particles are incorporated and deposited in snow layers in sequential time-unit increments. The trace analysis of elements contained in dated annual snow layers provides a measure of the elemental chemistry content of the atmosphere for the same time interval. A 164-m-deep, 10-cm-diam ice core was obtained at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in November 1989. Other physical and chemistry studies on this ice core have identified its detailed chronology in annual increments for the past 1360 yr. This study presents the results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) measurements made on 26 individually dated samples of this core, selected between the 6.43- and 118.15-m depths

  1. Measurements of acetylene in air extracted from polar ice cores (United States)

    Nicewonger, M. R.; Aydin, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Saltzman, E. S.


    Acetylene (ethyne) is a non-methane hydrocarbon emitted during combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass. The major atmospheric loss pathway of acetylene is oxidation by hydroxyl radical with a lifetime estimated at roughly two weeks. The mean annual acetylene levels over Greenland and Antarctica are 250 ppt and 20 ppt, respectively. Firn air measurements suggest atmospheric acetylene is preserved unaltered in polar snow and firn. Atmospheric reconstructions based on firn air measurements indicate acetylene levels rose significantly during the twentieth century, peaked near 1980, then declined to modern day levels. This historical trend is similar to that of other fossil fuel-derived non-methane hydrocarbons. In the preindustrial atmosphere, acetylene levels should primarily reflect emissions from biomass burning. In this study, we present the first measurements of acetylene in preindustrial air extracted from polar ice cores. Air from fluid and dry-drilled ice cores from Summit, Greenland and WAIS-Divide Antarctica is extracted using a wet-extraction technique. The ice core air is analyzed using gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Between 1400 to 1800 C.E., acetylene levels over Greenland and Antarctica varied between roughly 70-120 ppt and 10-30 ppt, respectively. The preindustrial Greenland acetylene levels are significantly lower than modern levels, reflecting the importance of northern hemisphere fossil fuel sources today. The preindustrial Antarctic acetylene levels are comparable to modern day levels, indicating similar emissions in the preindustrial atmosphere, likely from biomass burning. The implications of the preindustrial atmospheric acetylene records from both hemispheres will be discussed.

  2. High-resolution 129I bomb peak profile in an ice core from SE-Dome site, Greenland. (United States)

    Bautista, Angel T; Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Horiuchi, Kazuho


    129 I in natural archives, such as ice cores, can be used as a proxy for human nuclear activities, age marker, and environmental tracer. Currently, there is only one published record of 129 I in ice core (i.e., from Fiescherhorn Glacier, Swiss Alps) and its limited time resolution (1-2 years) prevents the full use of 129 I for the mentioned applications. Here we show 129 I concentrations in an ice core from SE-Dome, Greenland, covering years 1956-1976 at a time resolution of ∼6 months, the most detailed record to date. Results revealed 129 I bomb peaks in years 1959, 1962, and 1963, associated to tests performed by the former Soviet Union, one year prior, in its Novaya Zemlya test site. All 129 I bomb peaks were observed in winter (1958.9, 1962.1, and 1963.0), while tritium bomb peaks, another prominent radionuclide associated with nuclear bomb testing, were observed in spring or summer (1959.3, and 1963.6; Iizuka et al., 2017). These results indicate that 129 I bomb peaks can be used as annual and seasonal age markers for these years. Furthermore, we found that 129 I recorded nuclear fuel reprocessing signals and that these can be potentially used to correct timing of estimated 129 I releases during years 1964-1976. Comparisons with other published records of 129 I in natural archives showed that 129 I can be used as common age marker and tracer for different types of records. Most notably, the 1963 129 I bomb peak can be used as common age marker for ice and coral cores, providing the means to reconcile age models and associated trends from the polar and tropical regions, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Holocene climate oscillations recorded in three Greenland ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Clausen, Henrik Brink


    around 9.3 ka before present, and the Preboreal Oscillation during the first centuries of the Holocene. For each of these sections, we present a d18O anomaly curve and a common accumulation signal that represents regional changes in the accumulation rate over the Greenland ice cap....... and accumulation anomalies that are common to the three cores in the Early Holocene (7.9–11.7 ka before present). Three time periods with significant and synchronous anomalies in the d18O and accumulation signals stand out: the well-known 8.2 ka event, an event of shorter duration but of almost similar amplitude...

  4. Lake sediment-based Late Holocene glacier reconstruction reveals medieval retreat and two-phase Little Ice Age on subantarctic South Georgia (United States)

    van der Bilt, W. G. M.; Bakke, J.; Werner, J.; Paasche, O.; Rosqvist, G. N.; Vatle, S. S.


    Southern Ocean climate is rapidly changing. Yet beyond the instrumental period (± 100 years), our comprehension of climate variability in the region is restricted by a lack of high-resolution paleoclimate records. Alpine glaciers, ubiquitous on Southern Ocean islands, may provide such data as they rapidly respond to climate shifts, recording attendant changes in extent by variations in glacial erosion. Rock flour, the fine-grained fraction of this process, is suspended in meltwater streams and transfers this signal to the sediments of downstream lakes, continuously recording glacier history. Here, we use this relationship and present the first reconstruction of the Late Holocene (1250 cal. yr BP - present) glacier history of the Southern Ocean island of South Georgia, using sediments from the glacier-fed Middle Hamberg lake. Variations are resolved on multi-centennial scales due to robust chronological control. To fingerprint a glacial erosion signal, we employed a set of routinely used physical, geochemical and magnetic parameters. Using Titanium counts, validated against changes in sediment density and grain size distribution, we continuously reconstruct glacier variations over the past millennium. Refining local moraine evidence and supporting evidence from other Southern Hemisphere sites, this study shows a progressive diminishing of consecutive Late Holocene advances. These include a two-stage Little Ice Age, in agreement with other Southern Hemisphere glacier evidence. The presented record furthermore captures an unreported retreat phase behind present limits around 500 cal. yr BP.

  5. Determining and Interpreting Detailed Ice Surface Elevation Changes of the Glaciers in Upernavik Isstrøm, Northwest Greenland, 1985-2016 (United States)

    Wendler, L.; Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A. F.


    The several distinct glaciers of Upernavik Isstrøm in NW Greenland exhibit variable thinning, retreat, and velocity behaviors, despite being in close proximity, draining into the same fjord, and experiencing similar climatic conditions. This study reconstructed the 1985-2016 surface elevation change history for each Upernavik glacier. The data sets used included altimetry data collected by NASA's ATM, LVIS, and ICESat systems and digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from 1985 aerial photographs; ASTER, SPOT, and Worldview-1 and 2 satellite stereo imagery. The Surface Elevation Reconstruction and Change detection (SERAC) program was used to combine the data and correct the DEMs for fusing with the altimetry data. The spatiotemporal pattern of ice surface change was partitioned into changes related to surface processes and ice dynamics. The resulting ice thickness change time series were compared to other data sets, such as bed elevation, SMB anomalies, runoff, as well as marginal retreat derived from satellite imagery corresponding to the ASTER DEMs, to investigate possible forcings causing the variable behavior of the glaciers. Major findings include detection of rapid dynamic thinning of glacier 1 between 2005 and 2006, during a period of a stable calving front position. Continuing thinning and speed-up led to a loss of contact with a pinning point causing a major retreat between 2007 and 2008. This sequence of events contradicts previously held hypotheses that major thinning was caused by reduced backstress when a long-lived floating tongue disintegrated. Also, our results show a period of large thinning on glacier 2 between 2010 and 2011, after the retreat of the front resulted in a loss of contact between the glacier and one of its flanking outcrops suggesting that reduction of lateral drag might have contributed to the thinning. While the study reinforces that bed topography is a major factor in controlling outlet glacier dynamic thinning, it also

  6. Precipitation variations recorded in Guliya ice core in the past 400 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the Guliya ice core records, the precipitation in the past 400 years was retrieved. Its rela tions with other regions were also analyzed. The results demonstrated that there were two high-precipitation periods and two low-precipitation periods in Guliya ice core since 1571 AD. The average precipitation in the two high-precipitation periods was 42 mm (21%) higher than that in the two low-precipitation periods. The precipitation recorded in the Guliya ice core was consistent with that in Dunde ice core. The variation trends of precipitation in the Guliya ice core and the northern hemisphere are similar. During the extremely wet years in the northern hemisphere, the precipitation recorded in the Guliya ice core was two times the long-term average. However, the annual precipitation was 38% less than that of the long-term average in extremely dry years.

  7. Drilling, processing and first results for Mount Johns ice core in West Antarctica Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Schwanck

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: An ice core, 92.26 m in length, was collected near the ice divide of the West Antarctica ice sheet during the 2008/2009 austral summer. This paper described the fieldwork at the Mount Johns site (79º55'S; 94º23'W and presented the first results of the upper 45.00 m record covering approximately 125 years (1883 - 2008, dated by annual layer counting and volcanic reference horizons. Trace element concentrations in 2,137 samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations obtained for Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Ti are controlled by climate variations, the transport distance, and the natural sources of these aerosols. Natural dust contributions, mainly derived from the arid areas of Patagonia and Australia, are important sources for aluminum, barium, iron, manganese and titanium. Marine aerosols from sea ice and transported by air masses are important sources of sodium and magnesium. Calcium, potassium and strontium showed considerable inputs of both continental dust and marine aerosols.

  8. Measurement of the fracture toughness of polycrystalline bubbly ice from an Antarctic ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christmann


    Full Text Available The critical fracture toughness is a material parameter describing the resistance of a cracked body to further crack extension. It is an important parameter for simulating and predicting the breakup behavior of ice shelves from the calving of single icebergs to the disintegration of entire ice shelves over a wide range of length scales. The fracture toughness values are calculated with equations that are derived from an elastic stress analysis. Additionally, an X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner was used to identify the density as a function of depth. The critical fracture toughness of 91 Antarctic bubbly ice samples with densities between 840 and 870 kg m−3 has been determined by applying a four-point bending technique on single-edge v-notched beam samples. The examined ice core was drilled 70 m north of Kohnen Station, Dronnning Maud Land (75°00' S, 00°04' E; 2882 m. Supplementary data are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.835321.

  9. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Winstrup


    Full Text Available A novel method for automated annual layer counting in seasonally-resolved paleoclimate records has been developed. It relies on algorithms from the statistical framework of hidden Markov models (HMMs, which originally was developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of the layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to two ice core records from Greenland: one displaying a distinct annual signal and one which is more challenging. The algorithm shows high skill in reproducing the results from manual layer counts, and the resulting timescale compares well to absolute-dated volcanic marker horizons where these exist.

  10. Recent Elevation Changes on Bagley Ice Valley, Guyot and Yahtse Glaciers, Alaska, from ICESat Altimetry, Star-3i Airborne, and SRTM Spaceborne DEMs (United States)

    Muskett, R. R.; Sauber, J. M.; Lingle, C. S.; Rabus, B. T.; Tangborn, W. V.; Echelmeyer, K. A.


    Three- to 5-year surface elevation changes on Bagley Ice Valley, Guyot and Yahtse Glaciers, in the eastern Chugach and St. Elias Mtns of south-central Alaska, are estimated using ICESat-derived data and digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. The surface elevations of these glaciers are influenced by climatic warming superimposed on surge dynamics (in the case of Bagley Ice Valley) and tidewater glacier dynamics (in the cases of Guyot and Yahtse Glaciers) in this coastal high-precipitation regime. Bagley Ice Valley / Bering Glacier last surged in 1993-95. Guyot and Yahtse Glaciers, as well as the nearby Tyndell Glacier, have experienced massive tidewater retreat during the past century, as well as during recent decades. The ICESat-derived elevation data we employ were acquired in early autumn in both 2003 and 2004. The NASA/NIMA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM that we employ was derived from X-band InSAR data acquired during this 11-22 Feb. 2000 mission and processed by the German Aerospace Center. This DEM was corrected for estimated systematic error, and a mass balance model was employed to account for seasonal snow accumulation. The Star-3i airborne, X-band, InSAR-derived DEM that we employ was acquired 4-13 Sept. 2000 by Intermap Technologies, Inc., and was also processed by them. The ICESat-derived profiles crossing Bagley Ice Valley, differenced with Star-3i DEM elevations, indicate preliminary mean along-profile elevation increases of 5.6 ± 3.4 m at 1315 m altitude, 7.4 ± 2.7 m at 1448 m altitude, 4.7 ± 1.9 m at 1557 m altitude, 1.3 ± 1.4 m at 1774 m altitude, and 2.5 ± 1.5 m at 1781 m altitude. This is qualitatively consistent with the rising surface on Bagley Ice Valley observed by Muskett et al. [2003]. The ICESat-derived profiles crossing Yahtse Glacier, differenced with the SRTM DEM elevations, indicate preliminary mean elevation changes (negative implies decrease) of -0.9 ± 3

  11. A 320 Year Ice-Core Record of Atmospheric Hg Pollution in the Altai, Central Asia. (United States)

    Eyrikh, Stella; Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit


    Anthropogenic emissions of the toxic heavy metal mercury (Hg) have substantially increased atmospheric Hg levels during the 20th century compared to preindustrial times. However, on a regional scale, atmospheric Hg concentration or deposition trends vary to such an extent during the industrial period that the consequences of recent Asian emissions on atmospheric Hg levels are still unclear. Here we present a 320 year Hg deposition history for Central Asia, based on a continuous high-resolution ice-core Hg record from the Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai, covering the time period 1680-2001. Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes start rising above background levels at the beginning of the 19th century due to emissions from gold/silver mining and Hg production. A steep increase occurs after the 1940s culminating during the 1970s, at the same time as the maximum Hg use in consumer products in Europe and North America. After a distinct decrease in the 1980s, Hg levels in the 1990s and beginning of the 2000s return to their maximum values, which we attribute to increased Hg emissions from Asia. Thus, rising Hg emissions from coal combustion and artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Asian countries determine recent atmospheric Hg levels in Central Asia, counteracting emission reductions due to control measures in Europe and North America.

  12. Ice-core evidence of earliest extensive copper metallurgy in the Andes 2700 years ago (United States)

    Eichler, A.; Gramlich, G.; Kellerhals, T.; Tobler, L.; Rehren, Th.; Schwikowski, M.


    The importance of metallurgy for social and economic development is indisputable. Although copper (Cu) was essential for the wealth of pre- and post-colonial societies in the Andes, the onset of extensive Cu metallurgy in South America is still debated. Comprehensive archaeological findings point to first sophisticated Cu metallurgy during the Moche culture ~200-800 AD, whereas peat-bog records from southern South America suggest earliest pollution potentially from Cu smelting as far back as ~2000 BC. Here we present a 6500-years Cu emission history for the Andean Altiplano, based on ice-core records from Illimani glacier in Bolivia, providing the first complete history of large-scale Cu smelting activities in South America. We find earliest anthropogenic Cu pollution during the Early Horizon period ~700-50 BC, and attribute the onset of intensified Cu smelting in South America to the activities of the central Andean Chiripa and Chavin cultures ~2700 years ago. This study provides for the first time substantial evidence for extensive Cu metallurgy already during these early cultures.

  13. Ice-core evidence of earliest extensive copper metallurgy in the Andes 2700 years ago. (United States)

    Eichler, A; Gramlich, G; Kellerhals, T; Tobler, L; Rehren, Th; Schwikowski, M


    The importance of metallurgy for social and economic development is indisputable. Although copper (Cu) was essential for the wealth of pre- and post-colonial societies in the Andes, the onset of extensive Cu metallurgy in South America is still debated. Comprehensive archaeological findings point to first sophisticated Cu metallurgy during the Moche culture ~200-800 AD, whereas peat-bog records from southern South America suggest earliest pollution potentially from Cu smelting as far back as ~2000 BC. Here we present a 6500-years Cu emission history for the Andean Altiplano, based on ice-core records from Illimani glacier in Bolivia, providing the first complete history of large-scale Cu smelting activities in South America. We find earliest anthropogenic Cu pollution during the Early Horizon period ~700-50 BC, and attribute the onset of intensified Cu smelting in South America to the activities of the central Andean Chiripa and Chavin cultures ~2700 years ago. This study provides for the first time substantial evidence for extensive Cu metallurgy already during these early cultures.

  14. A relationship between ion balance and the chemical compounds of salt inclusions found in the Greenland Ice Core Project and Dome Fuji ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder


    We have proposed a method of deducing the chemical compounds found in deep polar ice cores by analyzing the balance between six major ions (Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+). The method is demonstrated for the Holocene and last glacial maximum regions of the Dome Fuji and GRIP ice cores...... on individual salt inclusions. The abundances in the ice cores are shown to reflect differences in climatic periods (the acidic environment of the Holocene versus the reductive environment of the last glacial maximum) and regional conditions (the marine environment of Antarctica versus the continental...

  15. The Mount Logan (Yukon) Ice Cores: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Fisher, D. A.


    Three ice cores were taken at different elevations on or near My Logan in the years 2001 and 2002. The summit core (PRCol) comes from the summit plateau ( 5340 masl, length 187 m to bedrock, mean temperature -29 C ) and was done by the Geological Survey of Canada. The NIPR group cored 210m on the flanks of the mountain at King Col (4200 masl mean temperature -16C) and the UNH group cored 20 km from the mountain at Eclipse "Dome" (3015 masl,length 345 m mean temperature -5C) . The three cores were done cooperatively by GSC, NIPR and UNH and cover nominally 30 ka, 1 ka and 2ka respectively . Located very close to the Gulf of Alaska these core records are thought to reflect the climate history of the Pacific Ocean and having three widely spaced elevations, the sites "see" different distances to different sources. The lowest site (Eclipse) has excellent seasonals but a very muted δ 18O history with no obvious little ice age, whereas the most recent 1ka of the PRCol summit sites contains two very large and sudden δ 18O and d (deuterium excess) shifts at 1850 AD and ~ 800 AD. The δ 18O shifts which happen from one year to the next are about 4 o/oo . The summit site (PRCol) δ 18O response is "backwards", ie the Little Ice Age δ 18O values are 4 o/oo more positive than recent ones. The PRCol δ 18O and d suggest that the source water can either be ëlocalí (Gulf of Alaska) or very distant (tropics) . The Eclipse site seems only to get the local water . A massive dust storm originating in central Asia (Gobi) in April 2001 dumped a visible layer all over the St Elias Mountains and this layer was sampled, to provide a calibration "Asian dust event". The satellite and isotoic signatures both agreed that Gobi was the source. The PRCol record covers the Holocene and well back into the ice age. The transition is defined by a sudden ECM shift on the flanks of a more gradual O18 shift. Acknowledgements. Logan consortium consists of : Geological Survey of Canada : Jocelyne

  16. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska (United States)

    Molnia, Bruce F.


    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  17. Using aerogravity and seismic data to model the bathymetry and upper crustal structure beneath the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica (United States)

    Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.; Riverman, K. L.


    Recent estimates indicate that ice shelves along the Amundsen Sea coast in West Antarctica are losing substantial mass through sub-ice-shelf melting and contributing to the accelerating mass loss of the grounded ice buttressed by them. For Pine Island Glacier (PIG), relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water has been identified as the key driver of the sub-ice-shelf melting although poor constraints on PIG sub-ice shelf have restricted thorough understanding of these ice-ocean interactions. Aerogravity data from NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) have been useful in identifying large-scale (on the order of ten kilometers) features but the results have relatively large uncertainties due to the inherent non-uniqueness of the gravity inversion. Seismic methods offer the most direct means of providing water thickness and upper crustal geological constraints, but availability of such data sets over the PIG ice shelf has been limited due to logistical constraints. Here we present a comparative analysis of the bathymetry and upper crustal structure beneath the ice shelf of PIG through joint inversion of OIB aerogravity data and in situ active-source seismic measurements collected in the 2012-13 austral summer. Preliminary results indicate improved resolution of the ocean cavity, particularly in the interior and sides of the PIG ice shelf, and sedimentary drape across the region. Seismically derived variations in ice and ocean water densities are also applied to the gravity inversion to produce a more robust model of PIG sub-ice shelf structure, as opposed to commonly used single ice and water densities across the entire study region. Misfits between the seismically-constrained gravity inversion and that estimated previously from aerogravity alone provide insights on the sensitivity of gravity measurements to model perturbations and highlight the limitations of employing gravity data to model ice shelf environments when no other sub-ice constraints are available.

  18. Exploring the mobility of cryoconite on High-Arctic glaciers (United States)

    Irvine-Fynn, T. D.; Hodson, A. J.; Bridge, J. W.; Langford, H.; Anesio, A.; Ohlanders, N.; Newton, S.


    There has been a growing awareness of the significance of biologically active dust (cryoconite) on the energy balance of, and nutrient cycling at glacier surfaces. Moreover, researchers have estimated the mass of biological material released from glacier ice to downstream environments and ecosystems, including the melt-out of cells from emergent ice in the ablation area. However, the processes, rates and mechanisms of cryoconite mobility and transport have not been fully explored. For many smaller valley glaciers in the High-Arctic, the climate dictates only a thin (~ 1m) layer of ice at the glacier surface is at the melting point during the summer months. This surface ice is commonly characterized by an increased porosity in response to incident energy and hydraulic conditions, and has been termed the “weathering crust”. The presence of cryoconite, with its higher radiation absorption, exacerbates the weathering crust development. Thus, crucially, the transport of cryoconite is not confined to simply a ‘smooth’ ice surface, but rather also includes mobility in the near-surface ice matrix. Here, we present initial results from investigations of cryoconite transport at Midtre Lovénbreen and Longyearbreen, two north-facing valley glaciers in Svalbard (Norway). Using time-lapse imagery, we explore the transport rates of cryoconite on a glacier surface and consider the associations between mobility and meteorological conditions. Results suggest some disparity between micro-, local- and plot-scale observations of cryoconite transport: the differences imply controlling influences of cryoconite volume, ice surface topography and ice structure. While to examine the relative volumes of cryoconite exported from the glacier surface by supraglacial streams we employ flow cytometry, using SYBR-Green-II staining to identify the biological component of the suspended load. Preliminary comparisons between shallow (1m) ice cores and in-stream concentrations suggest

  19. Inverted Basal Shear Stress of Antarctic and Greenland Ice Streams and Glaciers, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes basal shear distributions inferred from surface observations - surface ice velocities (Joughin et al., 2010, Rignot et al., 2011), bed and...

  20. What controls the survival of ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers? An investigation into the aspect-dependent evolution of supraglacial cliffs in the Nepalese Himalaya (United States)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Buri, P.


    Supraglacial ice cliffs exist on debris-covered glaciers worldwide, but despite increasing evidence of their important role in the surface melt of debris-covered glaciers, their role and importance at the glacier scale is still little understood. Acting as windows of energy transfer through the debris, they can contribute to very large glacier mass losses. Their abundance and life cycle might thus explain the anomalous behavior of much higher than expected mass losses of the debris-covered glaciers of High Mountain Asia, a controversial finding of recent research in a region where glaciers are highly relevant as water sources for millions of people downstream. Cliffs' evolution in time and distribution in space will determine their total contribution to the mass balance of glaciers, but while spatial distribution has been recently inferred from remote sensing studies, their temporal evolution is largely unknown. Here, we make use of recent advancements in our ability to model these complex features and use a novel 3D numerical model of cliff backwasting and very high resolution topographic data to show that supraglacial ice cliffs existence is controlled by aspect. Because of lack of observed south-facing cliffs, we rotate north-facing cliff systems observed in high detail over the debris-covered Lirung glacier, in the Nepalese Himalaya, towards southerly aspects and use the model coupled to the very high resolution topography to simulate the continuous evolution of selected cliffs over one melt season. Cliffs facing south (in the Northern Hemisphere) do not survive the duration of an ablation season and disappear within few weeks to few months due to very strong solar radiation receipts. Our model shows a progressive, continuous flattening of southerly facing cliffs, which is a result of their vertical gradient of incoming solar radiation. We also show that there is a clear range of aspects (northwest to northeast) that allows cliff survival because of energy and

  1. Circum-Arctic Changes in the Flow of Glaciers and Ice Caps from Satellite SAR Data between the 1990s and 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazio Strozzi


    Full Text Available We computed circum-Arctic surface velocity maps of glaciers and ice caps over the Canadian Arctic, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic for at least two times between the 1990s and 2017 using satellite SAR data. Our analyses are mainly performed with offset-tracking of ALOS-1 PALSAR-1 (2007–2011 and Sentinel-1 (2015–2017 data. In certain cases JERS-1 SAR (1994–1998, TerraSAR-X (2008–2012, Radarsat-2 (2009–2016 and ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 (2015–2016 data were used to fill-in spatial or temporal gaps. Validation of the latest Sentinel-1 results was accomplished by means of SAR data at higher spatial resolution (Radarsat-2 Wide Ultra Fine and ground-based measurements. In general, we observe a deceleration of flow velocities for the major tidewater glaciers in the Canadian Arctic and an increase in frontal velocity along with a retreat of frontal positions over Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. However, all regions have strong accelerations for selected glaciers. The latter developments can be well traced based on the very high temporal sampling of Sentinel-1 acquisitions since 2015, revealing new insights in glacier dynamics. For example, surges on Spitsbergen (e.g., Negribreen, Nathorsbreen, Penckbreen and Strongbreen have a different characteristic and timing than those over Eastern Austfonna and Edgeoya (e.g., Basin 3, Basin 2 and Stonebreen. Events similar to those ongoing on Eastern Austofonna were also observed over the Vavilov Ice Cap on Severnaya Zemlya and possibly Simony Glacier on Franz-Josef Land. Collectively, there seems to be a recently increasing number of glaciers with frontal destabilization over Eastern Svalbard and the Russian Arctic compared to the 1990s.

  2. Solid and gaseous inclusions in the EDML deep ice core: origins and implications for the physical properties of polar ice (United States)

    Faria, S. H.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Garbe, C. S.; Bendel, V.; Weikusat, C.; Weikusat, I.


    The great value of polar deep ice cores stems mainly from two essential features of polar ice: its crystalline structure and its impurities. They determine the physical properties of the ice matrix and provide proxies for the investigation of past climates. Experience shows that these two essential features of polar ice manifest themselves in a multiscale diversity of dynamic structures, including dislocations, grain boundaries, solid particles, air bubbles, clathrate hydrates and cloudy bands, among others. The fact that these structures are dynamic implies that they evolve with time through intricate interactions between the crystalline structure, impurities, and the ice flow. Records of these interactions have been carefully investigated in samples of the EPICA deep ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (75°S, 0°E, 2882 m elevation, 2774.15 m core length). Here we show how the distributions of sizes and shapes of air bubbles correlate with impurities and the crystalline structure, how the interaction between moving grain boundaries and micro-inclusions changes with ice depth and temperature, as well as the possible causes for the abrupt change in ice rheology observed in the MIS6-MIS5e transition. We also discuss how these observations may affect the flow of the ice sheet and the interpretation of paleoclimate records. Micrograph of an EDML sample from 555m depth. One can identify air bubbles (dark, round objects), microinclusions (tiny defocused spots), and a grain boundary pinned by a bubble. The width of the image is 700 micrometers.

  3. Five millennia of frozen vegetation and fire dynamics from an ice core in the Mongolian Altai (United States)

    Brügger, S. O.; Gobet, E.; Sigl, M.; Osmont, D.; Papina, T.; Rudaya, N.; Schwikowski, M.; Tinner, W.


    The steppes of the Altai region in Central Asia are highly vulnerable to e.g. drought and overgrazing. Degradation during the past decades may undermine their resilience under global change conditions. Knowledge about past vegetation and fire dynamics in Mongolian Altai may contribute to a better understanding of future climate and human impact responses, however, paleo records are scarce in the area. Our novel high-alpine ice record from Tsambagarav glacier (48°39.338'N, 90°50.826'E, 4130m asl) in the Mongolian Altai provides unique paleoenvironmental informations at the landscape scale. The site is surrounded by dry steppes with scattered boreal tree stands. We assume that the site collects pollen and spores within several hundred km. The archive provides an exceptional temporal resolution with a sound chronology covering the past 5500 years (Herren et al. 2013). Microfossil analysis allows to reconstruct large-scale fire and vegetation dynamics to gain a better understanding of the timing and causes of late Holocene response variability. We use pollen as proxies for vegetation composition and structure, microscopic charcoal as a proxy for fire activity (Eichler et al. 2011), and spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs or soots) as a proxy for fossil fuel combustion. Here we present the first microscopic charcoal record from Mongolia and link it to vegetation dynamics of the past. The reconstructed mid to late Holocene forest collapses likely in response to climate change underscore the vulnerability of relict forest ecosystems in the Mongolian Altai. Our multiproxy-study suggests that moisture is more important than temperature for forest preservation. The lacking resilience of vegetation to moisture changes in the past emphasizes the vulnerability of large forests in neighboring dry areas such as the Russian Altai, if global warming is associated to moisture declines as future projections forecast (IPCC; Climate Change 2013). References: Eichler et al. (2011

  4. Ice age aerosol content from east Antarctic ice core samples and past wind strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.R.; Briat, M.; Royer, A.


    The possible link between the aerosol content from the 905 deep Dome C ice core (East Antartica) which spans some 32,000 yr (Lorius et al. Nature; 280:644 (1979)) and climate, is considered. No evidence of major global or local volcanic activity was found though large marine and continental inputs (respectively 5 and 20 times higher than present) were observed at the end of the last Glacial stage. It is considered that they reflect glacial age climate with stronger atmospheric circulation, enhanced aridity and faster aerosol transport towards the Antarctic continent. (U.K.)

  5. Microbial processes at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets: a look at life below the Whillans Ice Stream (United States)

    Mikucki, J.; Campen, R.; Vancleave, S.; Scherer, R. P.; Coenen, J. J.; Powell, R. D.; Tulaczyk, S. M.


    Groundwater, saturated sediments and hundreds of subglacial lakes exist below the ice sheets of Antarctica. The few Antarctic subglacial environments sampled to date all contain viable microorganisms. This is a significant finding because microbes are known to be key in mediating biogeochemical cycles. In sediments, microbial metabolic activity can also result in byproducts or direct interactions with sediment particles that influence the physical and geochemical characteristics of the matrix they inhabit. Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW), a fresh water lake under the Whillans Ice Stream that drains into the Ross Sea at its grounding zone, was recently sampled as part of the NSF-funded Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project. Sediments from both SLW and its grounding zone contain microbial taxa related to iron, sulfur, nitrogen and methane oxidizers. In addition to molecular data, biogeochemical measurements and culture based experiments on Whillans sediments support the notion that the system is chemosynthetic with energy derived in part by cycling inorganic compounds. Etch pitting and mineral precipitates on fossil sponge spicules suggest that spicules may also provide microbial nutrients in these environments. Perhaps the most widespread microbial process that affects sediment structure and mineral weathering is the production of extra polymeric substances (EPS). Several phylogenetic groups detected in Whillans sediments are known to produce EPS and we have observed its production in pure cultures enriched directly from these sediments. Our data sheds light on how microbial life persists below the Antarctic Ice Sheet despite extended isolation in icy darkness, and how these microbes may be shaping their environment.

  6. Automated Ground-based Time-lapse Camera Monitoring of West Greenland ice sheet outlet Glaciers: Challenges and Solutions (United States)

    Ahn, Y.; Box, J. E.; Balog, J.; Lewinter, A.


    Monitoring Greenland outlet glaciers using remotely sensed data has drawn a great attention in earth science communities for decades and time series analysis of sensory data has provided important variability information of glacier flow by detecting speed and thickness changes, tracking features and acquiring model input. Thanks to advancements of commercial digital camera technology and increased solid state storage, we activated automatic ground-based time-lapse camera stations with high spatial/temporal resolution in west Greenland outlet and collected one-hour interval data continuous for more than one year at some but not all sites. We believe that important information of ice dynamics are contained in these data and that terrestrial mono-/stereo-photogrammetry can provide theoretical/practical fundamentals in data processing along with digital image processing techniques. Time-lapse images over periods in west Greenland indicate various phenomenon. Problematic is rain, snow, fog, shadows, freezing of water on camera enclosure window, image over-exposure, camera motion, sensor platform drift, and fox chewing of instrument cables, and the pecking of plastic window by ravens. Other problems include: feature identification, camera orientation, image registration, feature matching in image pairs, and feature tracking. Another obstacle is that non-metric digital camera contains large distortion to be compensated for precise photogrammetric use. Further, a massive number of images need to be processed in a way that is sufficiently computationally efficient. We meet these challenges by 1) identifying problems in possible photogrammetric processes, 2) categorizing them based on feasibility, and 3) clarifying limitation and alternatives, while emphasizing displacement computation and analyzing regional/temporal variability. We experiment with mono and stereo photogrammetric techniques in the aide of automatic correlation matching for efficiently handling the enormous

  7. Effect of periodic melting on geochemical and isotopic signals in an ice core from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohjola, V.A.; Moore, J.C.; Isaksson, E.; Jauhiainen, T.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Martma, T.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Vaikmäe, R.


    [1] We examine the quality of atmospherically deposited ion and isotope signals in an ice core taken from a periodically melting ice field, Lomonosovfonna in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The aim is to determine the degree to which the signals are altered by periodic melting of the ice. We use

  8. Improved regional sea-level estimates from Ice Sheets, Glaciers and land water storage using GRACE time series and other data (United States)

    He, Z.; Velicogna, I.; Hsu, C. W.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.


    Changes in ice sheets, glaciers and ice caps (GIC) and land water mass cause regional sea level variations that differ significantly from a uniform re-distribution of mass over the ocean, with a decrease in sea level compared to the global mean sea level contribution (GMSL) near the sources of mass added to the ocean and an increase up to 30% larger than the GMSL in the far field. The corresponding sea level fingerprints (SLF) are difficult to separate from ocean dynamics on short time and spatial scales but as ice melt continues, the SLF signal will become increasingly dominant in the pattern of regional sea level rise. It has been anticipated that it will be another few decades before the land ice SLF could be identified in the pattern of regional sea level rise. Here, we combine 40 years of observations of ice sheet mass balance for Antarctica (1975-present) and Greenland (1978-present), along with surface mass balance reconstructions of glacier and ice caps mass balance (GIC) from 1970s to present to determine the contribution to the SLF from melting land ice (MAR and RACMO). We compare the results with observations from GRACE for the time period 2002 to present for evaluation of our approach. Land hydrology is constrained by GRACE data for the period 2002-present and by the GLDAS-NOAH land hydrology model for the longer time period. Over the long time period, we find that the contribution from land ice dominates. We quantify the contribution to the total SLF from Greenland and Antarctica in various parts of the world over the past 40 years. More important, we compare the cumulative signal from SLF with tide gauge records around the world, corrected for earth dynamics, to determine whether the land ice SLF can be detected in that record. Early results will be reported at the meeting. This work was performed at UC Irvine and at Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with NASA's Cryospheric Science Program.

  9. Variability of sea salts in ice and firn cores from Fimbul Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Paulina Vega, Carmen; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Divine, Dmitry; Martma, Tõnu; Mulvaney, Robert; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski-Gigar, Margit


    Major ions were analysed in firn and ice cores located at Fimbul Ice Shelf (FIS), Dronning Maud Land - DML, Antarctica. FIS is the largest ice shelf in the Haakon VII Sea, with an extent of approximately 36 500 km2. Three shallow firn cores (about 20 m deep) were retrieved in different ice rises, Kupol Ciolkovskogo (KC), Kupol Moskovskij (KM), and Blåskimen Island (BI), while a 100 m long core (S100) was drilled near the FIS edge. These sites are distributed over the entire FIS area so that they provide a variety of elevation (50-400 m a.s.l.) and distance (3-42 km) to the sea. Sea-salt species (mainly Na+ and Cl-) generally dominate the precipitation chemistry in the study region. We associate a significant sixfold increase in median sea-salt concentrations, observed in the S100 core after the 1950s, to an enhanced exposure of the S100 site to primary sea-salt aerosol due to a shorter distance from the S100 site to the ice front, and to enhanced sea-salt aerosol production from blowing salty snow over sea ice, most likely related to the calving of Trolltunga occurred during the 1960s. This increase in sea-salt concentrations is synchronous with a shift in non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO42-) toward negative values, suggesting a possible contribution of fractionated aerosol to the sea-salt load in the S100 core most likely originating from salty snow found on sea ice. In contrast, there is no evidence of a significant contribution of fractionated sea salt to the ice-rises sites, where the signal would be most likely masked by the large inputs of biogenic sulfate estimated for these sites. In summary, these results suggest that the S100 core contains a sea-salt record dominated by the proximity of the site to the ocean, and processes of sea ice formation in the neighbouring waters. In contrast, the ice-rises firn cores register a larger-scale signal of atmospheric flow conditions and a less efficient transport of sea-salt aerosols to these sites. These findings are a

  10. Greenland ice core evidence for spatial and temporal variability of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chylek, P.; Folland, C.K.; Frankcombe, L.M.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Lesins, G.; Dubey, M.


    [1] The Greenland δ18O ice core record is used as a proxy for Greenland surface air temperatures and to interpret Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) variability. An analysis of annual δ18O data from six Arctic ice cores (five from Greenland and one from Canada's Ellesmere Island) suggests a

  11. Characterization of rapid climate changes through isotope analyses of ice and entrapped air in the NEEM ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillevic, Myriam

    Greenland ice core have revealed the occurrence of rapid climatic instabilities during the last glacial period, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, while marine cores from the North Atlantic have evidenced layers of ice rafted debris deposited by icebergs melt, caused by the collapse...... mechanisms at play. Recent analytical developments have made possible to measure new paleoclimate proxies in Greenland ice cores. In this thesis we first contribute to these analytical developments by measuring the new innovative parameter 17O-excess at LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climatet de l......'Environnement, France). At the Centre for Ice and Climate (CIC, Denmark) we contribute to the development of a protocol for absolute referencing of methane gas isotopes, and making full air standard with known concentration and isotopic composition of methane. Then, air (δ15N) and water stable isotope measurements from...

  12. Southwest Greenland's Alpine Glacier History: Recent Glacier Change in the Context of the Holocene Geologic Record (United States)

    Larocca, L. J.; Axford, Y.; Lasher, G. E.; Lee, C. W.


    Due to anthropogenic climate change, the Arctic region is currently undergoing major transformation, and is expected to continue warming much faster than the global average. To put recent and future changes into context, a longer-term understanding of this region's past response to natural climate variability is needed. Given their sensitivity to modest climate change, small alpine glaciers and ice caps on Greenland's coastal margin (beyond the Greenland Ice Sheet) represent ideal features to record climate variability through the Holocene. Here we investigate the Holocene history of a small ( 160 square km) ice cap and adjacent alpine glaciers, located in southwest Greenland approximately 50 km south of Nuuk. We employ measurements on sediment cores from a glacier-fed lake in combination with geospatial analysis of satellite images spanning the past several decades. Sedimentary indicators of sediment source and thus glacial activity, including organic matter abundance, inferred chlorophyll-a content, sediment major element abundances, grain size, and magnetic susceptibility are presented from cores collected from a distal glacier-fed lake (informally referred to here as Per's Lake) in the summer of 2015. These parameters reflect changes in the amount and character of inorganic detrital input into the lake, which may be linked to the size of the upstream glaciers and ice cap and allow us to reconstruct their status through the Holocene. Additionally, we present a complementary record of recent changes in Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) for the upstream alpine glaciers. Modern ELAs are inferred using the accumulation area ratio (AAR) method in ArcGIS via Landsat and Worldview-2 satellite imagery, along with elevation data obtained from digital elevation models (DEMs). Paleo-ELAs are inferred from the positions of moraines and trim lines marking the glaciers' most recent expanded state, which we attribute to the Little Ice Age (LIA). This approach will allow us to

  13. Toward an integrated ice core chronology using relative and orbital tie-points (United States)

    Bazin, L.; Landais, A.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Toyé Mahamadou Kele, H.; Blunier, T.; Capron, E.; Chappellaz, J.; Fischer, H.; Leuenberger, M.; Lipenkov, V.; Loutre, M.-F.; Martinerie, P.; Parrenin, F.; Prié, F.; Raynaud, D.; Veres, D.; Wolff, E.


    Precise ice cores chronologies are essential to better understand the mechanisms linking climate change to orbital and greenhouse gases concentration forcing. A tool for ice core dating (DATICE [developed by Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010] permits to generate a common time-scale integrating relative and absolute dating constraints on different ice cores, using an inverse method. Nevertheless, this method has only been applied for a 4-ice cores scenario and for the 0-50 kyr time period. Here, we present the bases for an extension of this work back to 800 ka using (1) a compilation of published and new relative and orbital tie-points obtained from measurements of air trapped in ice cores and (2) an adaptation of the DATICE inputs to 5 ice cores for the last 800 ka. We first present new measurements of δ18Oatm and δO2/N2 on the Talos Dome and EPICA Dome C (EDC) ice cores with a particular focus on Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) 5, and 11. Then, we show two tie-points compilations. The first one is based on new and published CH4 and δ18Oatm measurements on 5 ice cores (NorthGRIP, EPICA Dronning Maud Land, EDC, Talos Dome and Vostok) in order to produce a table of relative gas tie-points over the last 400 ka. The second one is based on new and published records of δO2/N2, δ18Oatm and air content to provide a table of orbital tie-points over the last 800 ka. Finally, we integrate the different dating constraints presented above in the DATICE tool adapted to 5 ice cores to cover the last 800 ka and show how these constraints compare with the established gas chronologies of each ice core.

  14. Deconvolution-based resolution enhancement of chemical ice core records obtained by continuous flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Andersen, Katrine K.; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann


    Continuous flow analysis (CFA) has become a popular measuring technique for obtaining high-resolution chemical ice core records due to an attractive combination of measuring speed and resolution. However, when analyzing the deeper sections of ice cores or cores from low-accumulation areas...... of the data for high-resolution studies such as annual layer counting. The presented method uses deconvolution techniques and is robust to the presence of noise in the measurements. If integrated into the data processing, it requires no additional data collection. The method is applied to selected ice core...

  15. Spatial mapping of multi-year superimposed ice on the glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ola; Kohler, Jack; Lüthje, Mikael


    by GPR. Using the SI spatial depth distribution, we estimate the mean annual accumulation of superimposed ice to be 0.16 +/- 0.06 mw.e.a(-1) (locally up to 0.43 ma(-1) w.e.). This corresponds to similar to 15-33% of the local winter balance and similar to 5-10% of the total winter balance measured since...

  16. Ice core based Pb pollution from gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000 year metallurgical history (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit


    Lead (Pb) is highly neurotoxic and, in contrast to many other heavy metals including cobalt, copper, and zinc, it has no beneficial effects to humans even at low concentrations. The introduction of leaded gasoline in the 1920s initiated a period of unabated growth in the global emissions of Pb. Prior to the onset of leaded gasoline phase-out in the 1970s, atmospheric Pb levels increased dramatically. Long-term histories of Pb pollution in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and North America suggest that emissions from leaded gasoline within the Northern Hemisphere are dominant compared to that from metallurgy and coal combustion during the second half of the 20th century. However, there is no equivalent data for Southern America. Although exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since pre-colonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic Pb into the atmosphere, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. Here we present the first comprehensive, high-resolution two millennia Pb emission history for South America, based on ice core records of Pb concentrations, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and Pb isotope ratios from Illimani glacier in Bolivia. Complementary to local air pollution recorded in lake sediments, ice cores from mid latitude glaciers provide information about more extended source areas. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Bolivian Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb EFs due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s 208Pb/207Pb ratios decreased significantly, whereas Pb EFs increased by a factor of three compared to the emission level

  17. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts (United States)

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.


    Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow

  18. A fast semi-quantitative method for Plutonium determination in an alpine firn/ice core (United States)

    Gabrieli, J.; Cozzi, G.; Vallelonga, P.; Schwikowski, M.; Sigl, M.; Boutron, C.; Barbante, C.


    Plutonium is present in the environment as a consequence of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out in the 1960s, nuclear weapons production and releases by the nuclear industry over the past 50 years. Plutonium, unlike uranium, is essentially anthropogenic and it was first produced and isolated in 1940 by deuteron bombardment of uranium in the cyclotron of Berkeley University. It exists in five main isotopes, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, derived from civilian and military sources (weapons production and detonation, nuclear reactors, nuclear accidents). In the environment, 239Pu is the most abundant isotope. Approximately 6 tons of 239Pu have been released into the environment as a result of 541 atmospheric weapon tests Nuclear Pu fallout has been studied in various environmental archives, such as sediments, soil and herbarium grass. Mid-latitude ice cores have been studied as well, on Mont Blanc, the Western Alps and on Belukha Glacier, Siberian Altai. We present a Pu record obtained by analyzing 52 discrete samples of an alpine firn/ice core from Colle Gnifetti (M. Rosa, 4450 m a.s.l.), dating from 1945 to 1991. The239Pu signal was recorded directly, without preliminary cleaning or preconcentration steps, using an ICP-SFMS (Thermo Element2) equipped with a desolvation system (APEX). 238UH+ interferences were negligible for U concentrations lower than 50 ppt as verified both in spiked fresh snow and pre-1940 ice samples. The shape of 239Pu profile reflects the three main periods of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing: the earliest peak starts in 1954/55 to 1958 and includes the first testing period which reached a maximum in 1958. Despite a temporary halt in testing in 1959/60, the Pu concentration decreased only by half with respect to the 1958 peak. In 1961/62 Pu concentrations rapidly increased reaching a maximum in 1963, which was about 40% more intense than the 1958 peak. After the sign of the "Limited Test Ban Treaty" between USA and URSS in 1964, Pu

  19. Natural and artificial radioactivity in the Svalbard glaciers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinglot, J.F.; Pourchet, M.


    Natural and artificial radioactivity in the snow of 10 Svalbard glaciers has been measured from 31 ice core samples, drilled between 1981 and 1993. Of these ice cores, seven exhibit the well-known level arising from the fallout of the 1961-62 atmospheric thermonuclear tests. The second level, due to the Chernobyl accident (26 April 1986), has been detected in all the studied glaciers; the maximum 137 Cs fallout reaches 22 Bq kg -1 and shows a high variability. The natural radioactivity, mostly due to 210 Pb, shows an in-depth variation which is not governed by its half-life (22.2 years). These measurements serve many glaciological purposes: absolute dating of the snow layers; air-snow transfer and fallout studies; the determination of mean annual mass balances in the accumulation area of glaciers and their associated spatio-temporal variations. (author)

  20. Glaciers, ice sheets, and sea level: effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The workshop examined the basic questions of how much water has been exchanged between land ice and ocean during the last century, what is happening now, and, given existing climate-modeling prediction, how much exchange can be expected in the next century. In addition, the evidence for exchange was examined and gaps in that evidence were identified. The report includes the 23 presentations made at the workshop, summarizes the workshop discussion, and presents the Committee's findings and recommendations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 23 presentations.

  1. Atmosphere aerosol/dust composition over central Asia and western Siberia derived from snow/ice core records and calibrated with NASA remote sensing data (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Joswiak, D. R.; Surazakov, A. B.; Takeuchi, N.


    The vast arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia, Mongolia, and Northern China are the world's second largest source of atmospheric mineral dust. In recent years, severe dust storms in Asia have intensified in frequency, duration, and areal coverage. However, limited spatial and temporal extent of aerosol measurements precludes definitive statements to be made regarding relationship between the Asian aerosol generation and climate. It has been well known that glaciers are the natural archives of environmental records related to past climate and aerosol generation. In our research, we utilized central Asian and western Siberia shallow ice-core records recovered from Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir mountain glaciers. Despite the fact that ice-core data may extend climate/aerosol records back in time, their sparse coverage is inadequate to document aerosol spatial distribution. The NASA products from Aura, Terra and Aqua satellite missions address this gap identifying aerosol sources, transport pathways, and area of deposition. The main objective of our research is to evaluate an affect of climate variability on dynamics of Asian aerosol loading to atmosphere and changes in aerosol transport pathways. Dust particle, major and rare earth element analysis from dust aerosols deposited and accumulated in Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers suggests that loess from Tajikistan, Afghanistan and north-western China are main sources of aerosol loading into the upper troposphere over the central Asia and western Siberia. At the same time, the soluble ionic component of the ice-cores, related to aerosol generated from evaporate deposits, demonstrated both anthropogenic and natural impacts on atmospheric chemistry over these regions. Large perturbations of Ca2+ derived from CaCO3- rich dust transported from Goby Desert to Altai and Tien Shan. Origin and pathway of the ice-core aerosol depositions for the last 10-years were identified through calibrating ice-core records with dust

  2. A plot-scale study of firn stratigraphy at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, using ice cores, borehole video and GPR surveys in 2012-14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchenko, Sergey; Pohjola, Veijo A.; Pettersson, Rickard


    Spatial heterogeneity of snow and firn properties on glaciers introduces uncertainty in interpretation of point and profile observations and complicates modelling of meltwater percolation and runoff. Here we present a study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of firn density and stratigraphy...... at the plot-scale (≈10 m × 10 m × 10 m) repeated annually during 2012-14 at the Lomonosovfonna icefield, Svalbard. Results from cores, video inspections in boreholes and radar grid surveys are compared. Ice layers 0.1-50 cm thick comprised ≈8% of the borehole length. Most of them are 1-3 cm thick and could...... in individual boreholes. However, the match between the high amplitude peaks in the grid-averaged radar signal and horizons of preferential ice layer formation revealed by averaging the video surveys over multiple boreholes is higher. These horizons are interpreted as buried firn layers previously exposed...

  3. After the Earthquake: Impacts of Seismic Snow and Ice Redistribution in Langtang Valley, Nepal, on Glacier Mass Balances and Hydrological Regimes (United States)

    Shea, J. M.; Ragettli, S.; Immerzeel, W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J. F.; Buri, P.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.


    The magnitude 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake that struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 resulted in a catastrophic loss of life and property, and had major impacts in high mountain areas. The earthquake resulted in a number of massive ice avalanches in Langtang Valley that destroyed entire villages and killed over 300 people. We first conduct a remote sensing analysis of the entire catchment, and attempt to quantify the volumes of snow and ice redistributed through high-resolution optical imagery, thermal imagery, and DEM differencing. Where data are available we examine the impact on the surface mass balances of four major glaciers (Lirung, Shalbachaum, Langtang and Langshisha). Finally, we use the physically-based and fully distributed TOPKAPI model to simulate the impacts of the co-seismic snow and ice redistribution on the hydrology of the Langtang River.

  4. How Will Sea Ice Loss Affect the Greenland Ice Sheet? On the Puzzling Features of Greenland Ice-Core Isotopic Composition (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Roberts, William H. G.


    The modern cryosphere, Earth's frozen water regime, is in fast transition. Greenland ice cores show how fast theses changes can be, presenting evidence of up to 15 C warming events over timescales of less than a decade. These events, called Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events, are believed to be associated with rapid changes in Arctic sea ice, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The modern demise of Arctic sea ice may, in turn, instigate abrupt changes on the Greenland Ice Sheet. The Arctic Sea Ice and Greenland Ice Sheet Sensitivity (Ice2Ice Chttps://ice2ice.b.uib.noD) initiative, sponsored by the European Research Council, seeks to quantify these past rapid changes to improve our understanding of what the future may hold for the Arctic. Twenty scientists gathered in Copenhagen as part of this initiative to discuss the most recent observational, technological, and model developments toward quantifying the mechanisms behind past climate changes in Greenland. Much of the discussion focused on the causes behind the changes in stable water isotopes recorded in ice cores. The participants discussed sources of variability for stable water isotopes and framed ways that new studies could improve understanding of modern climate. The participants also discussed how climate models could provide insights into the relative roles of local and nonlocal processes in affecting stable water isotopes within the Greenland Ice Sheet. Presentations of modeling results showed how a change in the source or seasonality of precipitation could occur not only between glacial and modern climates but also between abrupt events. Recent fieldwork campaigns illustrate an important role of stable isotopes in atmospheric vapor and diffusion in the final stable isotope signal in ice. Further, indications from recent fieldwork campaigns illustrate an important role of stable isotopes in atmospheric vapor and diffusion in the final stable isotope signal in ice. This feature complicates

  5. Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250-KYR ice-core record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe


    decades. Here we present a detailed stable-isotope record for the full length of the Greenland Ice-core Project Summit ice core, extending over the past 250 kyr according to a calculated timescale. We find that climate instability was not confined to the last glaciation, but appears also to have been...... results1,2 from two ice cores drilled in central Greenland have revealed large, abrupt climate changes of at least regional extent during the late stages of the last glaciation, suggesting that climate in the North Atlantic region is able to reorganize itself rapidly, perhaps even within a few...

  6. First identification and characterization of Borrobol-type tephra in the Greenland ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Eliza; Davies, Siwan M.; Guðmundsdóttir, Esther R.


    in the ice-cores or that it relates to just one of the ice-core events. A firm correlation cannot be established at present due to their strong geochemical similarities. The older tephra horizon, found within all three ice-cores and dated to 17326 ± 319 a b2k, can be correlated to a known layer within marine....... The older deposit is consistent with BT age estimates derived from Scottish sites, while the younger deposit overlaps with both BT and PT age estimates. We suggest that either the BT in Northern European terrestrial sequences represents an amalgamation of tephra from both of the GI-1e events identified...

  7. Initial Continuous Chemistry Results From The Roosevelt Island Ice Core (RICE) (United States)

    Kjær, H. A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Simonsen, M. F.; Neff, P. D.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Svensson, A.; Dahl-Jensen, D.


    The Roosevelt Island ice core (79.36° S, -161.71° W) was drilled in 2011-13 at the top of the Roosevelt Island ice dome, a location surrounded by the Ross ice shelf. The RICE ice core provides a unique opportunity to look into the past evolution of the West Antarctic Ice sheet. Further the site has high accumulation; 0.26 m of ice equivalent is deposited annually allowing annual layer determination for many chemical parameters. The RICE core was drilled to bedrock and has a total length of 763 metres. Preliminary results derived from water isotopes suggest that the oldest ice reaches back to the Eemian, with the last glacial being compressed in the bottom 60 metres. We present preliminary results from the RICE ice core including continuous measurements of acidity using an optical dye method, insoluble dust particles, conductivity and calcium. The core was analyzed at the New Zealand National Ice Core Research Facility at GNS Science in Wellington. The analytical set up used to determine climate proxies in the ice core was a modified version of the Copenhagen CFA system (Bigler et al., 2011). Key volcanic layers have been matched to those from the WAIS record (Sigl et al., 2013). A significant anti-correlation between acidity and calcium was seen in the Holocene part of the record. Due to the proximity to the ocean a large fraction of the calcium originates from sea salt and is in phase with total conductivity and sodium. In combination with the insoluble dust record, calcium has been apportioned into ocean-related and dust-related sources. Variability over the Holocene is presented and attributed to changing inputs of marine and dust aerosols.

  8. Surge of Bering Glacier and Bagley Ice Field: Parameterization of surge characteristics based on automated analysis of crevasse image data and laser altimeter data (United States)

    Stachura, M.; Herzfeld, U. C.; McDonald, B.; Weltman, A.; Hale, G.; Trantow, T.


    The dynamical processes that occur during the surge of a large, complex glacier system are far from being understood. The aim of this paper is to derive a parameterization of surge characteristics that captures the principle processes and can serve as the basis for a dynamic surge model. Innovative mathematical methods are introduced that facilitate derivation of such a parameterization from remote-sensing observations. Methods include automated geostatistical characterization and connectionist-geostatistical classification of dynamic provinces and deformation states, using the vehicle of crevasse patterns. These methods are applied to analyze satellite and airborne image and laser altimeter data collected during the current surge of Bering Glacier and Bagley Ice Field, Alaska.

  9. Towards a new common Greenland Ice Core Chronology for the last 5000 years (United States)

    Winstrup, Mai; Olander Rasmussen, Sune; Møllesøe Vinther, Bo; Cook, Eliza; Svensson, Anders; McConnell, Joe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder


    Since the development of the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05), it has been widely used as a reference chronology in paleoclimate research. However, recent research (Sigl et al, 2015) demonstrated that this timescale has small, but significant, issues over historical time. These discrepancies was found by counting annual layers in high-resolution chemistry records from the NEEM S1 shallow core, and confirmed by linking via 10Be marker horizons to the layer-counted WAIS Divide ice core, Antarctica, and accurately-dated tree-ring series. This work showed that a revision of GICC05 is required prior to 1250AD. We here refine and extend this work. Layer-counting in a single core will always involve some uncertainty, and we hence use data from multiple Greenland ice cores, for which high-resolution impurity records recently have been measured. These ice cores have been synchronized using volcanic marker horizons, and the layer-counting is performed automatically using the StratiCounter algorithm (Winstrup et al, 2012), while ensuring that the number of layers between volcanic horizons are the same in all cores. Based on this extended multiple-core data set, we are further able to extend the new Greenland timescale another few thousand years back in time. This will, among others, provide a new ice-core date for the catastrophic volcanic eruption ( 1600 BC) that destroyed the Greek Minoan culture, an important time marker in Greek history.

  10. Life and death of ice cliffs and lakes on debris covered glaciers - insights from a new dataset from the Nepalese Himalaya (United States)

    Steiner, Jakob; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Numerous studies suggest that supraglacial ice cliffs and lakes could be one contributing factor to relatively high overall ablation rates on debris covered glaciers. While some studies have quantified backwasting rates, developments over the larger scale have not yet been assessed. Field work and earlier studies during three seasons in the Langtang catchment in the Nepalese Himalaya has given some insights into how these landforms develop, from initial emergence to persistence and disappearance. From 6 sets of concurrent high-resolution satellite imagery and DEMs between 2006 and 2015 and an additional image from 1974, we assembled an extensive dataset of these landforms on all glaciers in the catchment, including nearly 4000 individual lakes and cliffs. We show that ice cliffs appear in combination with lakes or without and there are lakes that are not bordered by a cliff. Numbers vary strongly between seasons, especially as lakes show strong seasonal variability. There are furthermore different types of cliff forms - circular, lateral and longitudinal - that give an indication of their formation process. Circular cliffs form with either collapsing subglacial channels or overdeepenings caused by water accumulating on the surface, while lateral cliffs are likely associated with underlying crevasses. Some of the cliff and lake systems remain at the same location on-glacier over a number of years, while most move with the whole glacier body down valley. From the DEMs determine preferential slopes and expositions of the cliffs in the catchment which have been shown to be essential aspects in explaining the backwasting process. In combination with field observations from one glacier, where most of these types were present, we can infer development processes of a number of systems over the whole catchment. It is also apparent that densities of these landforms vary greatly over the glacier surface, which can be explained with velocities or underlying bed topography in

  11. Improved estimates of global sea level change from Ice Sheets, glaciers and land water storage using GRACE (United States)

    Velicogna, I.; Hsu, C. W.; Ciraci, E.; Sutterley, T. C.


    We use observations of time variable gravity from GRACE to estimate mass changes for the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets, the Glaciers and Ice Caps (GIC) and land water storage for the time period 2002-2015 and evaluate their total contribution to sea level. We calculate regional sea level changes from these present day mass fluxes using an improved scaling factor for the GRACE data that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability of the observed signal. We calculate a separate scaling factor for the annual and the long-term components of the GRACE signal. To estimate the contribution of the GIC, we use a least square mascon approach and we re-analyze recent inventories to optimize the distribution of mascons and recover the GRACE signal more accurately. We find that overall, Greenland controls 43% of the global trend in eustatic sea level rise, 16% for Antarctica and 29% for the GIC. The contribution from the GIC is dominated by the mass loss of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, followed by Alaska, Patagonia and the High Mountains of Asia. We report a marked increase in mass loss for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In Greenland, following the 2012 high summer melt, years 2013 and 2014 have slowed down the increase in mass loss, but our results will be updated with summer 2015 observations at the meeting. In Antarctica, the mass loss is still on the rise with increased contributions from the Amundsen Sea sector and surprisingly from the Wilkes Land sector of East Antarctica, including Victoria Land. Conversely, the Queen Maud Land sector experienced a large snowfall in 2009-2013 and has now resumed to a zero mass gain since 2013. We compare sea level changes from these GRACE derived mass fluxes after including the atmospheric and ocean loading signal with sea level change from satellite radar altimetry (AVISO) corrected for steric signal of the ocean using Argo measurements and find an excellent agreement in amplitude, phase and trend in these estimates

  12. Application of electrical tomography to study the internal structure of rock glaciers in Altai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Dyakova


    Full Text Available Internal structure of rock glaciers was investigated at two key sites in Altai by means of electric tomography. It had been found that the rock glaciers of the same type, located at different altitude levels, differ in electric resistances of ice nuclei and the degree of consolidation of the ice material inside of them. Typical characteristics of the ice core of a rock glacier in the high-mountain area are the following: electrical resistivity is about 1000–2000 kOhm∙m and a high degree of the ice consolidation, while the same for the mid-mountain region: the electrical resistivity is 150–300 kOhm∙m and the presence of the talik zones within the glacier body. Using the method of electric tomography for investigation of the internal structure of the rock-glaciers makes possible to reveal presence of frozen soils and ice and to find the upper boundary of occurrence of them from anomalously high specific electric resistance. However, it is not always possible to determine a thickness of the rock-ice formation, and to estimate a degree of its consolidation that does not allow calculating the ice content volume. Limitations of this technology can be overcome by the use of electric tomography in combination with other geophysical methods.

  13. Direct chemical analysis of frozen ice cores by UV-laser ablation ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Wolfgang; Shelley, J. Michael G.; Rasmussen, Sune Olander


    Cryo-cell UV-LA-ICPMS is a new technique for direct chemical analysis of frozen ice cores at high spatial resolution (dust records and annual layer signatures at unprecedented spatial/time resolution. Uniquely......, the location of cation impurities relative to grain boundaries in recrystallized ice can be assessed....

  14. Visual-stratigraphic dating of the GISP2 ice core: Basis, reproducibility, and application (United States)

    Alley, R. B.; Shuman, C. A.; Meese, D. A.; Gow, A. J.; Taylor, K. C.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fitzpatrick, J. J.; Grootes, P. M.; Zielinski, G. A.; Ram, M.; Spinelli, G.; Elder, B.


    Annual layers are visible in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core from central Greenland, allowing rapid dating of the core. Changes in bubble and grain structure caused by near-surface, primarily summertime formation of hoar complexes provide the main visible annual marker in the Holocene, and changes in "cloudiness" of the ice correlated with dustiness mark Wisconsinan annual cycles; both markers are evident and have been intercalibrated in early Holocene ice. Layer counts are reproducible between different workers and for one worker at different times, with 1% error over century-length times in the Holocene. Reproducibility is typically 5% in Wisconsinan ice-age ice and decreases with increasing age and depth. Cumulative ages from visible stratigraphy are not significantly different from independent ages of prominent events for ice older than the historical record and younger than approximately 50,000 years. Visible observations are not greatly degraded by "brittle ice" or many other core-quality problems, allowing construction of long, consistently sampled time series. High accuracy requires careful study of the core by dedicated observers.

  15. On the use of δ18Oatm for ice core dating (United States)

    Extier, Thomas; Landais, Amaelle; Bréant, Camille; Prié, Frédéric; Bazin, Lucie; Dreyfus, Gabrielle; Roche, Didier M.; Leuenberger, Markus


    Deep ice core chronologies have been improved over the past years through the addition of new age constraints. However, dating methods are still associated with large uncertainties for ice cores from the East Antarctic plateau where layer counting is not possible. Indeed, an uncertainty up to 6 ka is associated with AICC2012 chronology of EPICA Dome C (EDC) ice core, which mostly arises from uncertainty on the delay between changes recorded in δ18Oatm and in June 21st insolation variations at 65°N used for ice core orbital dating. Consequently, we need to enhance the knowledge of this delay to improve ice core chronologies. We present new high-resolution EDC δ18Oatm record (153-374 ka) and δO2/N2 measurements (163-332 ka) performed on well-stored ice to provide continuous records of δ18Oatm and δO2/N2 between 100 and 800 ka. The comparison of δ18Oatm with the δ18Ocalcite from East Asian speleothems shows that both signals present similar orbital and millennial variabilities, which may represent shifts in the InterTropical Convergence Zone position, themselves associated with Heinrich events. We thus propose to use the δ18Ocalcite as target for δ18Oatm orbital dating. Such a tuning method improves the ice core chronology of the last glacial inception compared to AICC2012 by reconciling NGRIP and mid-latitude climatic records. It is especially marked during Dansgaard-Oeschger 25 where the proposed chronology is 2.2 ka older than AICC2012. This δ18Oatm - δ18Ocalcite alignment method applied between 100 and 640 ka improves the EDC ice core chronology, especially over MIS 11, and leads to lower ice age uncertainties compared to AICC2012.

  16. Direct north-south synchronization of abrupt climate change record in ice cores using Beryllium 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Raisbeck


    Full Text Available A new, decadally resolved record of the 10Be peak at 41 kyr from the EPICA Dome C ice core (Antarctica is used to match it with the same peak in the GRIP ice core (Greenland. This permits a direct synchronisation of the climatic variations around this time period, independent of uncertainties related to the ice age-gas age difference in ice cores. Dansgaard-Oeschger event 10 is in the period of best synchronisation and is found to be coeval with an Antarctic temperature maximum. Simulations using a thermal bipolar seesaw model agree reasonably well with the observed relative climate chronology in these two cores. They also reproduce three Antarctic warming events observed between A1 and A2.

  17. Comparison of northern and central Greenland ice cores records of methanesulfonate covering the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsell, U.; Hansson, M. E.; Siggaard-Andersen, M-L-


    Methanesulfonate (MS-) is measured in ice cores with the objective to obtain a proxy record of marine phytoplankton production of dimethylsulfide (DMS). We present a continuous MS- record covering the last glacial period from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) ice core and compare...... this record with the corresponding records previously presented from Greenland and, in particular, with the GISP2 ice core located 320 km south of NGRIP. Despite that the records have similar mean concentrations, their responses to climatic changes during the last glacial period are slightly different. NGRIP...... MS- concentrations were higher during the cold marine isotopic stages (MIS) 2 and 4 and lower during the warm MIS 5. This long-term trend in MS-, which is similar to the inverse of the corresponding trend in d 18O, is not detected in the GISP2 MS- record. A systematic response in MS- concentrations...

  18. Digital Imaging for Siple Dome Ice Core Analysis, Antarctica, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains high-resolution digital images of thin and thick sections cut from the 1003 meter Siple Dome A main ice core. The images are useful for...

  19. Ultra-trace Measurements in the WAIS Divide 06A Ice Core, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data contain the results of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of 207 samples from the WAIS Divide 06A ice core. The trace gases found in...

  20. Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, Ice Core, 1991 and 1992, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Major ion concentration values (Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, NO3, SO4, MSA) were analyzed from a 20-meter ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (location - 65 01'...

  1. Two Extreme Climate Events of the Last 1000 Years Recorded in Himalayan and Andean Ice Cores: Impacts on Humans (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.; Kenny, D. V.; Lin, P.


    In the last few decades numerous studies have linked pandemic influenza, cholera, malaria, and viral pneumonia, as well as droughts, famines and global crises, to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Two annually resolved ice core records, one from Dasuopu Glacier in the Himalaya and one from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the tropical Peruvian Andes provide an opportunity to investigate these relationships on opposite sides of the Pacific Basin for the last 1000 years. The Dasuopu record provides an annual history from 1440 to 1997 CE and a decadally resolved record from 1000 to 1440 CE while the Quelccaya ice core provides annual resolution over the last 1000 years. Major ENSO events are often recorded in the oxygen isotope, insoluble dust, and chemical records from these cores. Here we investigate outbreaks of diseases, famines and global crises during two of the largest events recorded in the chemistry of these cores, particularly large peaks in the concentrations of chloride (Cl-) and fluoride (Fl-). One event is centered on 1789 to 1800 CE and the second begins abruptly in 1345 and tapers off after 1360 CE. These Cl- and F- peaks represent major droughts and reflect the abundance of continental atmospheric dust, derived in part from dried lake beds in drought stricken regions upwind of the core sites. For Dasuopu the likely sources are in India while for Quelccaya the sources would be the Andean Altiplano. Both regions are subject to drought conditions during the El Niño phase of the ENSO cycle. These two events persist longer (10 to 15 years) than today's typical ENSO events in the Pacific Ocean Basin. The 1789 to 1800 CE event was associated with a very strong El Niño event and was coincidental with the Boji Bara famine resulting from extended droughts that led to over 600,000 deaths in central India by 1792. Similarly extensive droughts are documented in Central and South America. Likewise, the 1345 to 1360 CE event, although poorly documented

  2. Listening to Glaciers: Passive hydroacoustics near marine-terminating glaciers (United States)

    Pettit, E.C.; Nystuen, J.A.; O'Neel, Shad


    The catastrophic breakup of the Larsen B Ice Shelf in the Weddell Sea in 2002 paints a vivid portrait of the effects of glacier-climate interactions. This event, along with other unexpected episodes of rapid mass loss from marine-terminating glaciers (i.e., tidewater glaciers, outlet glaciers, ice streams, ice shelves) sparked intensified study of the boundaries where marine-terminating glaciers interact with the ocean. These dynamic and dangerous boundaries require creative methods of observation and measurement. Toward this effort, we take advantage of the exceptional sound-propagating properties of seawater to record and interpret sounds generated at these glacial ice-ocean boundaries from distances safe for instrument deployment and operation.

  3. Experimental results on improved JARE deep ice core drill-Experiments in Rikubetsu, Hokkaido in 2002 -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Kameda


    Full Text Available Deep ice coring to bedrock (3028m in depth at Dome Fuji Station is planned during three successive summer seasons starting from 2003/2004. An improved JARE deep ice core drill (12.2m in length and 3.8m in maximum core length was developed in December 2001 for the ice coring at Dome Fuji. In January/February of 2002,we performed experiments on drill performance using artificial ice blocks in Rikubetsu, Hokkaido. In this paper, we outline the experiment and report the results. It was found through the experiment that an ice core of 3.8m length was smoothly obtained by the improved drill with three screws in the chip chamber and cutting pitch of 5mm/cycle. About 45000 small holes 1.2mm in diameter were made on the surface of the chip chamber. These small holes enabled liquid to circulate between cutters and outside of the drill through the chip chamber in the drill. The dry density of the chips was 440 to 500kg/m^3 and the chip recovery rate during ice coring was 65 to 91%. A check valve installed at the bottom of the chip chamber to prevent outflow of chips from the drill was not tested enough, but more durability is needed for the valve. The newly developed motor system and core catchers of the drill worked perfectly. The average coring speed was 24.5cm/min with cutting pitch of 5mm/cycle. The average power consumption during ice coring was 171W.

  4. Cosmogenic 10Be Depth Profile in top 560 m of West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Ice Core (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Woodruff, T. E.; Caffee, M. W.; Edwards, R.; McConnell, J. R.; Bisiaux, M. M.; Nishiizumi, K.


    Concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be in polar ice samples are a function of variations in solar activity, geomagnetic field strength, atmospheric mixing and annual snow accumulation rates. The 10Be depth profile in ice cores also provides independent chronological markers to tie Antarctic to Greenland ice cores and to tie Holocene ice cores to the 14C dendrochronology record. We measured 10Be concentrations in 187 samples from depths of 0-560 m of the main WAIS Divide core, WDC06A. The ice samples are typically 1-2 kg and represent 2-4 m of ice, equivalent to an average temporal resolution of ~12 years, based on the preliminary age-depth scale proposed for the WDC core, (McConnell et al., in prep). Be, Al and Cl were separated using ion exchange chromatography techniques and the 10Be concentrations were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at PRIME lab. The 10Be concentrations range from 8.1 to 19.1 x 10^3 at/g, yielding an average of (13.1±2.1) x 10^3 at/g. Adopting an average snow accumulation rate of 20.9 cm weq/yr, as derived from the age-depth scale, this value corresponds to an average 10Be flux of (2.7±0.5) x 10^5 atoms/yr/cm2. This flux is similar to that of the Holocene part of the Siple Dome (Nishiizumi and Finkel, 2007) and Dome Fuji (Horiuchi et al. 2008) ice cores, but ~30% lower than the value of 4.0 x 10^5 atoms/yr/cm2 for GISP2 (Finkel and Nishiizumi, 1997). The periods of low solar activity, known as Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder and Dalton minima, show ~20% higher 10Be concentrations/fluxes than the periods of average solar activity in the last millennium. The maximum 10Be fluxes during some of these periods of low solar activity are up to ~50% higher than average 10Be fluxes, as seen in other polar ice cores, which makes these peaks suitable as chronologic markers. We will compare the 10Be record in the WAIS Divide ice core with that in other Antarctic as well as Greenland ice cores and with the 14C treering record. Acknowledgment. This

  5. Retrieving a common accumulation record from Greenland ice cores for the past 1800 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Katrine K.; Ditlevsen, Peter D.; Rasmussen, Sune Olander


    In the accumulation zone of the Greenland ice sheet the annual accumulation rate may be determined through identification of the annual cycle in the isotopic climate signal and other parameters that exhibit seasonal variations. On an annual basis the accumulation rate in different Greenland ice...... cores is highly variable, and the degree of correlation between accumulation series from different ice cores is low. However, when using multiyear averages of the different accumulation records, the correlation increases significantly. A statistical model has been developed to estimate the common...

  6. Optimization of High-Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis for Transient Climate Signals in Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigler, Matthias; Svensson, Anders; Kettner, Ernesto


    Over the past two decades, continuous flow analysis (CFA) systems have been refined and widely used to measure aerosol constituents in polar and alpine ice cores in very high-depth resolution. Here we present a newly designed system consisting of sodium, ammonium, dust particles, and electrolytic...... meltwater conductivity detection modules. The system is optimized for high- resolution determination of transient signals in thin layers of deep polar ice cores. Based on standard measurements and by comparing sections of early Holocene and glacial ice from Greenland, we find that the new system features...

  7. Using high-resolution tritium profiles to quantify the effects of melt on two Spitsbergen ice cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, L.G. van der; Streurman, H.J.; Isaksson, E.; Helsen, M.M.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Martma, T.; Pohjola, V.A.; Moore, J.C.; Meijer, H.A.J.


    Ice cores from small ice caps provide valuable climatic information, additional to that of Greenland and Antarctica. However, their integrity is usually compromised by summer meltwater percolation. To determine to what extent this can affect such ice cores, we performed high-resolution tritium

  8. Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoclimate and alpine glacier fluctuations recorded by high-resolution grain-size data from an alpine lake sediment core, Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA (United States)

    Thompson Davis, P.; Machalett, Björn; Gosse, John


    Varved lake sediments, which provide ideal high-resolution climate proxies, are not commonly available in many geographic areas over long time scales. This paper utilizes high-resolution grain-size analyses (n = 1040) from a 520-cm long sediment core from Lower Titcomb Lake (LTL), which lies just outside the type Titcomb Basin (TTB) moraines in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. The TTB moraines lie between Lower Titcomb Lake and Upper Titcomb Lake (UTL), about 3 km beyond, and 200 m lower than the modern glacier margin and Gannett Peak (Little Ice Age) moraines in the basin. Based on cosmogenic exposure dating, the TTB moraines are believed to be Younger Dryas (YD) age (Gosse et al., 1995) and lie in a geomorphic position similar to several other outer cirque moraines throughout the western American Cordillera. Until recently, many of these outer cirque moraines were believed to be Neoglacial age. The sediment core discussed here is one of five obtained from the two Titcomb Lakes, but is by the far the longest with the oldest sediment depositional record. Two AMS radiocarbon ages from the 445- and 455-cm core depths (about 2% loss on ignition, LOI) suggest that the lake basin may have been ice-free as early as 16.1 or even 16.8 cal 14C kyr, consistent with 10Be and 26Al exposure ages from boulders and bedrock surfaces outside the TTB moraines. The 257-cm depth in the core marks an abrupt transition from inorganic, sticky gray silt below (rock flour production between the 257 and 466 cm core depths appear to be roughly correlative with the YD-Alleröd-Bölling-Meiendorf-Heinrich 1 climate events recognized in other terrestrial records and Northern Atlantic Ocean marine cores, but provide much higher resolution than most of those records from a climate-sensitive alpine region in North America.

  9. Microshear in the deep EDML ice core analyzed using cryogenic EBSD (United States)

    Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Pennock, Gill; Drury, Martyn; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Faria, Sérgio; Weikusat, Ilka


    Ice sheets play an important role in sea level evolution by storing large amounts of fresh water on land. The ice in an ice sheet flows from the interior of the ice sheet to the edges where it either melts or calves into the ocean. This flow of ice results from internal deformation of the ice aggregate. Dislocation creep is assumed to be the dominant deformation mechanism for polar ice and is grain size insensitive. Recently, a different deformation mechanism was identified in the deeper part of the EDML ice core (Antarctica) where, at a depth of 2385 meters, the grain size strongly decreases, the grain aspect ratio increase and, the inclination of the grain elongation changes (Faria et al., 2006; Weikusat et al., 2017). At this depth the borehole displacement increases strongly (Weikusat et al., 2017), which indicates a relatively high strain rate. Part of this EDML ice core section was studied using cryogenic electron backscattered diffraction (cryo-EBSD) (Weikusat et al, 2011). EBSD produces high resolution, full crystallographic (a-axis and c-axis) maps of the ice core samples. EBSD samples were taken from an ice core section at 2392.2 meter depth. This section was chosen for its very small grain size and the strongly aligned grain boundaries. The EBSD maps show a very low orientation gradient of <0.3° per millimetre inside the grains, which is 5-10 times lower than the orientation gradients found in other parts of the ice core. Furthermore, close to some grain boundaries, a relatively strong orientation gradient of 1°-2° per millimetre was found. The subgrain boundaries developed such that they elongate the sliding boundaries in order to accommodate the incompatibilities and maintain the strongly aligned grain boundary network. We identify the dominant deformation mechanism in this part of the ice core as grain boundary sliding accommodated by localized dislocation creep, which is a process similar to microshear (Drury and Humpreys, 1988). The existence of

  10. A High-Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Kjær, Helle Astrid


    of Polar Research (NIPR) in Tokyo. The system allows the continuous analysis of stable water isotopes and electrical conductivity, as well as the collection of discrete samples from both inner and outer parts of the core. This CFA system was designed to have sufficiently high temporal resolution to detect...... signals of abrupt climate change in deep polar ice cores. To test its performance, we used the system to analyze different climate intervals in ice drilled at the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) site, Greenland. The quality of our continuous measurement of stable water isotopes has been......In recent decades, the development of continuous flow analysis (CFA) technology for ice core analysis has enabled greater sample throughput and greater depth resolution compared with the classic discrete sampling technique. We developed the first Japanese CFA system at the National Institute...

  11. Two Millennia of Pb Pollution Related to Altiplano Metallurgical Activities and Leaded Gasoline in South America from Illimani Ice Core (United States)

    Eichler, A.; Gramlich, G.; Kellerhals, T.; Tobler, L.; Schwikowski, M.


    The exploitation of the extended polymetallic deposits of the Altiplano in South America led to significant emissions of the neurotoxic Pb into the atmosphere already since pre-Colonial times. Long-term histories of Pb pollution in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and North America suggest that within the Northern Hemisphere emissions from metallurgy and coal combustion are minor compared to that from leaded gasoline during the second half of the 20th century. However, there is no equivalent data for Southern America. Here we present the first comprehensive, high-resolution two millennia Pb emission history for South America, based on an ice core record from Illimani glacier in Bolivia. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Bolivian Altiplano. The 2000 year ice-core based decadal Pb deposition history revealed highest Pb Enrichment Factors (EFs) during the period 1965-85. Metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku culture (400-900 AD), the Inca empire (1450-1532 AD), colonial times (1532-1900 AD), and the tin production at the beginning of the 20th century were identified as major sources for enhanced Pb EFs before the 1960s. Gasoline related Pb emissions in 1965-85, however, led to a threefold increase of the Pb EFs compared to the emission level from metal production, considerably preceding those of the past 2000 years. This finding is complementary to the local air pollution signal preserved in lake sediments and in good agreement with various studies from the Northern Hemisphere.

  12. The Little Ice Age climate of New Zealand reconstructed from Southern Alps cirque glaciers: a synoptic type approach (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew; Fauchereau, Nicolas; Stanton, Craig; Chappell, Petra; Phipps, Steven; Mackintosh, Andrew; Renwick, James; Goodwin, Ian; Fowler, Anthony


    Little Ice Age (LIA) austral summer temperature anomalies were derived from palaeoequilibrium line altitudes at 22 cirque glacier sites across the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Modern analog seasons with temperature anomalies akin to the LIA reconstructions were selected, and then applied in a sampling of high-resolution gridded New Zealand climate data and global reanalysis data to generate LIA climate composites at local, regional and hemispheric scales. The composite anomaly patterns assist in improving our understanding of atmospheric circulation contributions to the LIA climate state, allow an interrogation of synoptic type frequency changes for the LIA relative to present, and provide a hemispheric context of the past conditions in New Zealand. An LIA summer temperature anomaly of -0.56 °C (±0.29 °C) for the Southern Alps based on palaeo-equilibrium lines compares well with local tree-ring reconstructions of austral summer temperature. Reconstructed geopotential height at 1,000 hPa (z1000) suggests enhanced southwesterly flow across New Zealand occurred during the LIA to generate the terrestrial temperature anomalies. The mean atmospheric circulation pattern for summer resulted from a crucial reduction of the `HSE'-blocking synoptic type (highs over and to the west of NZ; largely settled conditions) and increases in both the `T'- and `SW'-trough synoptic types (lows passing over NZ; enhanced southerly and southwesterly flow) relative to normal. Associated land-based temperature and precipitation anomalies suggest both colder- and wetter-than-normal conditions were a pervasive component of the base climate state across New Zealand during the LIA, as were colder-than-normal Tasman Sea surface temperatures. Proxy temperature and circulation evidence were used to corroborate the spatially heterogeneous Southern Hemisphere composite z1000 and sea surface temperature patterns generated in this study. A comparison of the composites to climate mode archetypes

  13. The Open Global Glacier Model (United States)

    Marzeion, B.; Maussion, F.


    Mountain glaciers are one of the few remaining sub-systems of the global climate system for which no globally applicable, open source, community-driven model exists. Notable examples from the ice sheet community include the Parallel Ice Sheet Model or Elmer/Ice. While the atmospheric modeling community has a long tradition of sharing models (e.g. the Weather Research and Forecasting model) or comparing them (e.g. the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project or CMIP), recent initiatives originating from the glaciological community show a new willingness to better coordinate global research efforts following the CMIP example (e.g. the Glacier Model Intercomparison Project or the Glacier Ice Thickness Estimation Working Group). In the recent past, great advances have been made in the global availability of data and methods relevant for glacier modeling, spanning glacier outlines, automatized glacier centerline identification, bed rock inversion methods, and global topographic data sets. Taken together, these advances now allow the ice dynamics of glaciers to be modeled on a global scale, provided that adequate modeling platforms are available. Here, we present the Open Global Glacier Model (OGGM), developed to provide a global scale, modular, and open source numerical model framework for consistently simulating past and future global scale glacier change. Global not only in the sense of leading to meaningful results for all glaciers combined, but also for any small ensemble of glaciers, e.g. at the headwater catchment scale. Modular to allow combinations of different approaches to the representation of ice flow and surface mass balance, enabling a new kind of model intercomparison. Open source so that the code can be read and used by anyone and so that new modules can be added and discussed by the community, following the principles of open governance. Consistent in order to provide uncertainty measures at all realizable scales.

  14. Peeking Below the Snow Surface to Explore Amundsen Sea Climate Variability and Locate Optimal Ice-Core Sites (United States)

    Neff, P. D.; Fudge, T. J.; Medley, B.


    Observations over recent decades reveal rapid changes in ice shelves and fast-flowing grounded ice along the Amundsen Sea coast of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Long-term perspectives on this ongoing ice loss are needed to address a central question of Antarctic research: how much and how fast will Antarctic ice-loss raise sea level? Ice cores can provide insight into past variability of the atmospheric (wind) forcing of regional ocean dynamics affecting ice loss. Interannual variability of snow accumulation on coastal ice domes grounded near or within ice shelves reflects local to regional atmospheric circulation near the ice-ocean interface. Records of snow accumulation inferred from shallow ice cores strongly correlate with reanalysis precipitation and pressure fields, but ice cores have not yet been retrieved along the Amundsen Sea coast. High-frequency airborne radar data (NASA Operation IceBridge), however, have been collected over this region and we demonstrate that these data accurately reflect annual stratigraphy in shallow snow and firn (1 to 2 decades of accumulation). This further validates the agreement between radar snow accumulation records and climate reanalysis products. We then explore regional climate controls on local snow accumulation through comparison with gridded reanalysis products, providing a preview of what information longer coastal ice core records may provide with respect to past atmospheric forcing of ocean circulation and WAIS ice loss.

  15. Glacier melting during lava dome growth at Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico): Evidences of a major threat before main eruptive phases at ice-caped volcanoes (United States)

    Capra, L.; Roverato, M.; Groppelli, G.; Caballero, L.; Sulpizio, R.; Norini, G.


    Nevado de Toluca volcano is one of the largest stratovolcanoes in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. During Late Pleistocene its activity was characterized by large dome growth and subsequent collapse emplacing large block and ash flow deposits, intercalated by Plinian eruptions. Morphological and paleoclimate studies at Nevado de Toluca and the surrounding area evidenced that the volcano was affected by extensive glaciation during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. During the older recognized glacial period (27-60 ka, MIS 3), the glacier was disturbed by the intense magmatic and hydrothermal activity related to two dome extrusion episodes (at 37 ka and 28 ka). Glacier reconstruction indicates maximum ice thickness of 90 m along main valleys, as at the Cano ravines, the major glacial valley on the northern slope of the volcano. Along this ravine, both 37 and 28 ka block-and-ash deposits are exposed, and they directly overlay a fluviatile sequence, up to 40 m-thick, which 14C ages clearly indicate that their emplacement occurred just before the dome collapsed. These evidences point to a clear interaction between the growing dome and its hydrothermal system with the glacier. During dome growth, a large amount of melting water was released along major glacial valleys forming thick fluvioglacial sequences that were subsequently covered by the block-and-ash flow deposits generated by the collapse of the growing dome. Even though this scenario is no longer possible at the Nevado de Toluca volcano, the data presented here indicate that special attention should be paid to the possible inundation areas from fluviatile/lahar activity prior to the main magmatic eruption at ice-capped volcanoes.

  16. A comparison of the present and last interglacial periods in six Antarctic ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Masson-Delmotte


    Full Text Available We compare the present and last interglacial periods as recorded in Antarctic water stable isotope records now available at various temporal resolutions from six East Antarctic ice cores: Vostok, Taylor Dome, EPICA Dome C (EDC, EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML, Dome Fuji and the recent TALDICE ice core from Talos Dome. We first review the different modern site characteristics in terms of ice flow, meteorological conditions, precipitation intermittency and moisture origin, as depicted by meteorological data, atmospheric reanalyses and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics. These different factors can indeed alter the relationships between temperature and water stable isotopes. Using five records with sufficient resolution on the EDC3 age scale, common features are quantified through principal component analyses. Consistent with instrumental records and atmospheric model results, the ice core data depict rather coherent and homogenous patterns in East Antarctica during the last two interglacials. Across the East Antarctic plateau, regional differences, with respect to the common East Antarctic signal, appear to have similar patterns during the current and last interglacials. We identify two abrupt shifts in isotopic records during the glacial inception at TALDICE and EDML, likely caused by regional sea ice expansion. These regional differences are discussed in terms of moisture origin and in terms of past changes in local elevation histories, which are compared to ice sheet model results. Our results suggest that elevation changes may contribute significantly to inter-site differences. These elevation changes may be underestimated by current ice sheet models.

  17. Deuterium excess record in a southern Tibetan ice core and its potential climatic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Huabiao; Xu, Baiqing; Yao, Tandong; Wu, Guangjian; Lin, Shubiao; Gao, Jing; Wang, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Beijing (China)


    A 55-m long ice core, drilled close to bedrock from Mt. Noijin Kangsang on the southern Tibetan Plateau in summer 2007, was annually dated covering the period of 1864-2006 AD. The stable isotope ratios ({delta} {sup 18}O and {delta}D) of the ice core were measured and thereby the deuterium excess (d) was calculated by d = {delta}D - 8*{delta} {sup 18}O for the individual ice samples. Results show that the d values of the ice samples were predominantly controlled by the moisture sources. The significant increasing trend of annual mean d values along the ice core is mainly related to the rapid warming of the tropical Indian Ocean, although the tendency is subjected to the modulation by the western-derived moisture. The decreasing Indian monsoon precipitation on the southern Tibetan Plateau, physically linked with the increasing tropical Indian Ocean SST, reduced the share of monsoon precipitation in the annual total accumulation, making an additional contribution to the significant increase of annual mean d in the Noijin Kangsang ice core with high values during the past 143 years. (orig.)

  18. Holocene glacier fluctuations inferred from lacustrine sediment, Emerald Lake, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska (United States)

    LaBrecque, Taylor S.; Kaufman, Darrell S.


    Physical and biological characteristics of lacustrine sediment from Emerald Lake were used to reconstruct the Holocene glacier history of Grewingk Glacier, southern Alaska. Emerald Lake is an ice-marginal threshold lake, receiving glaciofluvial sediment when Grewingk Glacier overtops the topographic divide that separates it from the lake. Sub-bottom acoustical profiles were used to locate core sites to maximize both the length and resolution of the sedimentary sequence recovered in the 4-m-long cores. The age model for the composite sequence is based on 13 14C ages and a 210Pb profile. A sharp transition from the basal inorganic mud to organic-rich mud at 11.4 ± 0.2 ka marks the initial retreat of Grewingk Glacier below the divide of Emerald Lake. The overlaying organic-rich mud is interrupted by stony mud that records a re-advance between 10.7 ± 0.2 and 9.8 ± 0.2 ka. The glacier did not spill meltwater into the lake again until the Little Ice Age, consistent with previously documented Little Ice Ages advances on the Kenai Peninsula. The retreat of Grewingk Glacier at 11.4 ka took place as temperature increased following the Younger Dryas, and the subsequent re-advance corresponds with a climate reversal beginning around 11 ka across southern Alaska.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lannutti


    Full Text Available In this work, we assessed the feasibility of using optical flow to obtain the motion estimation of a glacier. In general, former investigations used to detect glacier changes involve solutions that require repeated observations which are many times based on extensive field work. Taking into account glaciers are usually located in geographically complex and hard to access areas, deploying time-lapse imaging sensors, optical flow may provide an efficient solution at good spatial and temporal resolution to describe mass motion. Several studies in computer vision and image processing community have used this method to detect large displacements. Therefore, we carried out a test of the proposed Large Displacement Optical Flow method at the Viedma Glacier, located at South Patagonia Icefield, Argentina. We collected monoscopic terrestrial time-lapse imagery, acquired by a calibrated camera at every 24 hour from April 2014 until April 2015. A filter based on temporal correlation and RGB color discretization between the images was applied to minimize errors related to changes in lighting, shadows, clouds and snow. This selection allowed discarding images that do not follow a sequence of similarity. Our results show a flow field in the direction of the glacier movement with acceleration in the terminus. We analyzed the errors between image pairs, and the matching generally appears to be adequate, although some areas show random gross errors related to the presence of changes in lighting. The proposed technique allowed the determination of glacier motion during one year, providing accurate and reliable motion data for subsequent analysis.

  20. Arctic polynya and glacier interactions (United States)

    Edwards, Laura


    Major uncertainties surround future estimates of sea level rise attributable to mass loss from the polar ice sheets and ice caps. Understanding changes across the Arctic is vital as major potential contributors to sea level, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic archipelago, have experienced dramatic changes in recent times. Most ice mass loss is currently focused at a relatively small number of glacier catchments where ice acceleration, thinning and calving occurs at ocean margins. Research suggests that these tidewater glaciers accelerate and iceberg calving rates increase when warming ocean currents increase melt on the underside of floating glacier ice and when adjacent sea ice is removed causing a reduction in 'buttressing' back stress. Thus localised changes in ocean temperatures and in sea ice (extent and thickness) adjacent to major glacial catchments can impact hugely on the dynamics of, and hence mass lost from, terrestrial ice sheets and ice caps. Polynyas are areas of open water within sea ice which remain unfrozen for much of the year. They vary significantly in size (~3 km2 to > ~50,000 km2 in the Arctic), recurrence rates and duration. Despite their relatively small size, polynyas play a vital role in the heat balance of the polar oceans and strongly impact regional oceanography. Where polynyas develop adjacent to tidewater glaciers their influence on ocean circulation and water temperatures may play a major part in controlling subsurface ice melt rates by impacting on the water masses reaching the calving front. Areas of open water also play a significant role in controlling the potential of the atmosphere to carry moisture, as well as allowing heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean, and so can influence accumulation on (and hence thickness of) glaciers and ice caps. Polynya presence and size also has implications for sea ice extent and therefore potentially the buttressing effect on neighbouring

  1. A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner-Roer, I.; Naegeli, K.; Huss, M.


    One of the grand challenges in glacier research is to assess the total ice volume and its global distribution. Over the past few decades the compilation of a world glacier inventory has been well-advanced both in institutional set-up and in spatial coverage. The inventory is restricted to glacier...... the different estimation approaches. This initial database of glacier and ice caps thickness will hopefully be further enlarged and intensively used for a better understanding of the global glacier ice volume and its distribution....... surface observations. However, although thickness has been observed on many glaciers and ice caps around the globe, it has not yet been published in the shape of a readily available database. Here, we present a standardized database of glacier thickness observations compiled by an extensive literature...... review and from airborne data extracted from NASA's Operation IceBridge. This database contains ice thickness observations from roughly 1100 glaciers and ice caps including 550 glacier-wide estimates and 750,000 point observations. A comparison of these observational ice thicknesses with results from...

  2. Brief communication: Getting Greenland's glaciers right - a new data set of all official Greenlandic glacier names (United States)

    Bjørk, A. A.; Kruse, L. M.; Michaelsen, P. B.


    Place names in Greenland can be difficult to get right, as they are a mix of Greenlandic, Danish, and other foreign languages. In addition, orthographies have changed over time. With this new data set, we give the researcher working with Greenlandic glaciers the proper tool to find the correct name for glaciers and ice caps in Greenland and to locate glaciers described in the historic literature with the old Greenlandic orthography. The data set contains information on the names of 733 glaciers, 285 originating from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and 448 from local glaciers and ice caps (LGICs).

  3. Detection of Organic Matter in Greenland Ice Cores by Deep-UV Fluorescence (United States)

    Willis, M.; Malaska, M.; Wanger, G.; Bhartia, R.; Eshelman, E.; Abbey, W.; Priscu, J. C.


    The Greenland Ice Sheet is an Earthly analog for icy ocean worlds in the outer Solar System. Future missions to such worlds including Europa, Enceladus, and Titan may potentially include spectroscopic instrumentation to examine the surface/subsurface. The primary goal of our research is to test deep UV/Raman systems for in the situ detection and localization of organics in ice. As part of this effort we used a deep-UV fluorescence instrument able to detect naturally fluorescent biological materials such as aromatic molecules found in proteins and whole cells. We correlated these data with more traditional downstream analyses of organic material in natural ices. Supraglacial ice cores (2-4 m) were collected from several sites on the southwest outlet of the Greenland Ice Sheet using a 14-cm fluid-free mechanical coring system. Repeat spectral mapping data were initially collected longitudinally on uncut core sections. Cores were then cut into 2 cm thick sections along the longitudinal axis, slowly melted and analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), and bacterial density. These data reveal a spatial correlation between organic matter concentration, cell density, and the deep UV fluorescence maps. Our results provide a profile of the organics embedded within the ice from the top surface into the glacial subsurface, and the TOC:TDN data from the clean interior of the cores are indicative of a biological origin. This work provides a background dataset for future work to characterize organic carbon in the Greenland Ice Sheet and validation of novel instrumentation for in situ data collection on icy bodies.

  4. Location of a new ice core site at Talos Dome (East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tabacco


    Full Text Available In the frame of glaciology and palaeoclimate research, Talos Dome (72°48lS; 159°06lE, an ice dome on the East Antarctic plateau, represents the new selected site for a new deep ice core drilling. The increasing interest in this region is due to the fact that the ice accumulation is higher here than in other domes in East Antarctica. A new deep drilling in this site could give important information about the climate changes near the coast. Previous papers showed that the dome summit is situated above a sloped bedrock. A new position on a relatively flat bedrock 5-6 km far from here in the SE direction was defined as a possible new ice core site for an European (Italy, France, Swiss and United Kingdom drilling project named as TALDICE (TALos Dome Ice Core Project. This point, named as ID1 (159°11l00mE; 72°49l40mS, became the centre of the Radio Echo Sounding (RES flight plan during the 2003 Italian Antarctic expedition, with the aim of confirming the new drilling site choice. In this paper 2001 and 2003 RES data sets have been used to draw a better resolution of ice thickness, bottom morphology and internal layering of a restricted area around the dome. Based on the final results, point ID1 has been confirmed as the new coring site. Finally, the preliminary operations about the installation of the summer ice core camp (TALDICE at ID1 site carried out during the XX Italian Antarctic expedition (November 2004-December 2005 are briefly described.

  5. Paleoclimate from ice cores : abrupt climate change and the prolonged Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.C.


    Ice cores provide valuable information about the Earth's past climates and past environments. They can also help in predicting future climates and the nature of climate change. Recent findings in ice cores have shown large and abrupt climate changes in the past. This paper addressed abrupt climate changes and the peculiar nature of the Holocene. An abrupt climate change is a shift of 5 degrees C in mean annual temperature in less than 50 years. This is considered to be the most threatening aspect of potential future climate change since it leaves very little time for adaptation by humans or any other part of the Earth's ecosystem. This paper also discussed the arrival of the next glacial period. In the past 50 years, scientists have recognized the importance of the Earth's orbit around the sun in pacing the occurrence of large ice sheets. The timing of orbital forcing suggests that the Earth is overdue for the next major glaciation. The reason for this anomaly was discussed. Abrupt climate shifts seem to be caused by mode changes in sensitive points in the climate system, such as the North Atlantic Deep Water Formation and its impact on sea ice cover in the North Atlantic. These changes have been observed in ice cores in Greenland but they are not restricted to Greenland. Evidence from Antarctic ice cores suggest that abrupt climate change may also occur in the Southern Hemisphere. The Vostok ice core in Antarctica indicates that the 11,000 year long interglacial period that we are in right now is longer than the previous four interglacial periods. The Holocene epoch is unique because both methane and carbon dioxide rise in the last 6,000 years, an atypical response from these greenhouse gases during an interglacial period. It was suggested that the rise in methane can be attributed to human activities. 13 refs., 2 figs

  6. RICE ice core: Black Carbon reflects climate variability at Roosevelt Island, West Antarctica (United States)

    Ellis, Aja; Edwards, Ross; Bertler, Nancy; Winton, Holly; Goodwin, Ian; Neff, Peter; Tuohy, Andrea; Proemse, Bernadette; Hogan, Chad; Feiteng, Wang


    The Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project successfully drilled a deep ice core from Roosevelt Island during the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons. Located in the Ross Ice Shelf in West Antarctica, the site is an ideal location for investigating climate variability and the past stability of the Ross Ice Shelf. Black carbon (BC) aerosols are emitted by both biomass burning and fossil fuels, and BC particles emitted in the southern hemisphere are transported in the atmosphere and preserved in Antarctic ice. The past record of BC is expected to be sensitive to climate variability, as it is modulated by both emissions and transport. To investigate BC variability over the past 200 years, we developed a BC record from two overlapping ice cores (~1850-2012) and a high-resolution snow pit spanning 2010-2012 (cal. yr). Consistent results are found between the snow pit profiles and ice core records. Distinct decadal trends are found with respect to BC particle size, and the record indicates a steady rise in BC particle size over the last 100 years. Differences in emission sources and conditions may be a possible explanation for changes in BC size. These records also show a significant increase in BC concentration over the past decade with concentrations rising over 1.5 ppb (1.5*10^-9 ng/g), suggesting a fundamental shift in BC deposition to the site.

  7. Past climate changes derived from isotope measurements in polar ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.; Muscheler, R.; Wagner, G.; Kubik, P.K.


    Measurements of stable and radioactive isotopes in polar ice cores provide a wealth of information on the climate conditions of the past. Stable isotopes (δ 18 O, δD) reflect mainly the temperature, whereas δ 18 O of oxygen in air bubbles reveals predominantly the global ice volume and the biospheric activity. Cosmic ray produced radioisotopes (cosmogenic nuclides) such as 10 Be and 36 Cl record information on the solar variability and possibly also on the solar irradiance. If the flux of a cosmogenic nuclide into the ice is known the accumulation rate can be derived from the measured concentration. The comparison of 10 Be from ice with 14 C from tree rings allows deciding whether observed 14 C variations are caused by production or system effects. Finally, isotope measurements are very useful for establishing and improving time scales. The 10 Be/ 36 Cl ratio changes with an apparent half-life of 376,000 years and is therefore well suited to date old ice. Significant abrupt changes in the records of 10 Be, 36 Cl from ice and of δ 18 O from atmospheric oxygen representing global signals can be used to synchronize ice and sediment cores. (author)

  8. A deposition record of inorganic ions from a high-alpine glacier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, T. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Bruetsch, S.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Schotterer, U.; Schwikowski, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The lowest five metres of an ice core from a high-alpine glacier (Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa massif, 4450m a.s.l., Switzerland) were analysed for ammonium, calcium, chloride, magnesium, nitrate, potassium, sodium, and sulphate by ion chromatography. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  9. A study of the decontamination procedures used for chemical analysis of polar deep ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Miyake


    Full Text Available We investigated the decontamination procedures used on polar deep ice cores before chemical analyses such as measurements of the concentrations of iron species and dust (microparticles. We optimized cutting and melting protocols for decontamination using chemically ultraclean polyethylene bags and simulated ice samples made from ultrapure water. For dust and ion species including acetate, which represented a high level of contamination, we were able to decrease contamination to below several μg l^ for ion concentrations and below 10000 particles ml^ for the dust concentration. These concentration levels of ion species and dust are assumed to be present in the Dome Fuji ice core during interglacial periods. Decontamination of the ice core was achieved by cutting away approximately 3 mm of the outside of a sample and by melting away approximately 30% of a sample's weight. Furthermore, we also report the preparation protocols for chemical analyses of the 2nd Dome Fuji ice core, including measurements of ion and dust concentrations, pH, electric conductivity (EC, and stable isotope ratios of water (δD and δO, based on the results of the investigation of the decontamination procedures.

  10. Towards a Highly Efficient Meshfree Simulation of Non-Newtonian Free Surface Ice Flow: Application to the Haut Glacier d'Arolla (United States)

    Shcherbakov, V.; Ahlkrona, J.


    In this work we develop a highly efficient meshfree approach to ice sheet modeling. Traditionally mesh based methods such as finite element methods are employed to simulate glacier and ice sheet dynamics. These methods are mature and well developed. However, despite of numerous advantages these methods suffer from some drawbacks such as necessity to remesh the computational domain every time it changes its shape, which significantly complicates the implementation on moving domains, or a costly assembly procedure for nonlinear problems. We introduce a novel meshfree approach that frees us from all these issues. The approach is built upon a radial basis function (RBF) method that, thanks to its meshfree nature, allows for an efficient handling of moving margins and free ice surface. RBF methods are also accurate and easy to implement. Since the formulation is stated in strong form it allows for a substantial reduction of the computational cost associated with the linear system assembly inside the nonlinear solver. We implement a global RBF method that defines an approximation on the entire computational domain. This method exhibits high accuracy properties. However, it suffers from a disadvantage that the coefficient matrix is dense, and therefore the computational efficiency decreases. In order to overcome this issue we also implement a localized RBF method that rests upon a partition of unity approach to subdivide the domain into several smaller subdomains. The radial basis function partition of unity method (RBF-PUM) inherits high approximation characteristics form the global RBF method while resulting in a sparse system of equations, which essentially increases the computational efficiency. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RBF methods we model the velocity field of ice flow in the Haut Glacier d'Arolla. We assume that the flow is governed by the nonlinear Blatter-Pattyn equations. We test the methods for different basal conditions and for a free moving

  11. High-resolution Greenland Ice Core data show abrupt climate change happens in few years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Andersen, Katrine Krogh; Bigler, Matthias


    The last two abrupt warmings at the onset of our present warm interglacial period, interrupted by the Younger Dryas cooling event, were investigated at high temporal resolution from the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core. The deuterium excess, a proxy of Greenland precipitation moisture...... source, switched mode within 1 to 3 years over these transitions and initiated a more gradual change (over 50 years) of the Greenland air temperature, as recorded by stable water isotopes. The onsets of both abrupt Greenland warmings were slightly preceded by decreasing Greenland dust deposition...

  12. Interlaboratory comparison of {sup 10}Be concentrations in two ice cores from Central West Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Thomas E., E-mail: [PRIME Laboratory, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Welten, Kees C. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Caffee, Marc W. [PRIME Laboratory, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Nishiizumi, Kunihiko [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    To improve sample processing efficiency for cosmogenic radionuclide measurements in samples from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide core, two chemical lines, one at Purdue University and one at University of California, Berkeley, are being used. Sections from two shallow ice cores from West Antarctica were processed at each lab, while all {sup 10}Be accelerator mass spectrometry measurements were performed at PRIME Lab, Purdue University. Duplicate samples gave {sup 10}Be results that are identical to within the AMS measurement uncertainties of 2-3%.

  13. Direct observation of salts as micro-inclusions in the Greenland GRIP ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Sakurai, Toshimitsu; Iizuka, Yoshinori


    We provide the first direct evidence that a number of water-soluble compounds, in particular calcium sulfate (CaSO4·2H2O) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3), are present as solid, micron-sized inclusions within the Greenland GRIP ice core. The compounds are detected by two independent methods: micro...... distributions of the micro-inclusions. These results suggest that water-soluble aerosols in the GRIP ice core are dependable proxies for past atmospheric conditions. Udgivelsesdato: December...

  14. Identifying deformation mechanisms in the NEEM ice core using EBSD measurements (United States)

    Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Weikusat, Ilka; Drury, Martyn R.; Pennock, Gill M.; de Winter, Matthijs D. A.


    Deformation of ice in continental sized ice sheets determines the flow behavior of ice towards the sea. Basal dislocation glide is assumed to be the dominant deformation mechanism in the creep deformation of natural ice, but non-basal glide is active as well. Knowledge of what types of deformation mechanisms are active in polar ice is critical in predicting the response of ice sheets in future warmer climates and its contribution to sea level rise, because the activity of deformation mechanisms depends critically on deformation conditions (such as temperature) as well as on the material properties (such as grain size). One of the methods to study the deformation mechanisms in natural materials is Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). We obtained ca. 50 EBSD maps of five different depths from a Greenlandic ice core (NEEM). The step size varied between 8 and 25 micron depending on the size of the deformation features. The size of the maps varied from 2000 to 10000 grid point. Indexing rates were up to 95%, partially by saving and reanalyzing the EBSP patterns. With this method we can characterize subgrain boundaries and determine the lattice rotation configurations of each individual subgrain. Combining these observations with arrangement/geometry of subgrain boundaries the dislocation types can be determined, which form these boundaries. Three main types of subgrain boundaries have been recognized in Antarctic (EDML) ice core¹². Here, we present the first results obtained from EBSD measurements performed on the NEEM ice core samples from the last glacial period, focusing on the relevance of dislocation activity of the possible slip systems. Preliminary results show that all three subgrain types, recognized in the EDML core, occur in the NEEM samples. In addition to the classical boundaries made up of basal dislocations, subgrain boundaries made of non-basal dislocations are also common. ¹Weikusat, I.; de Winter, D. A. M.; Pennock, G. M.; Hayles, M

  15. A 21 000-year record of fluorescent organic matter markers in the WAIS Divide ice core (United States)

    D'Andrilli, Juliana; Foreman, Christine M.; Sigl, Michael; Priscu, John C.; McConnell, Joseph R.


    Englacial ice contains a significant reservoir of organic material (OM), preserving a chronological record of materials from Earth's past. Here, we investigate if OM composition surveys in ice core research can provide paleoecological information on the dynamic nature of our Earth through time. Temporal trends in OM composition from the early Holocene extending back to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WD) ice core were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Multivariate parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis is widely used to isolate the chemical components that best describe the observed variation across three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (excitation-emission matrices; EEMs) assays. Fluorescent OM markers identified by PARAFAC modeling of the EEMs from the LGM (27.0-18.0 kyr BP; before present 1950) through the last deglaciation (LD; 18.0-11.5 kyr BP), to the mid-Holocene (11.5-6.0 kyr BP) provided evidence of different types of fluorescent OM composition and origin in the WD ice core over 21.0 kyr. Low excitation-emission wavelength fluorescent PARAFAC component one (C1), associated with chemical species similar to simple lignin phenols was the greatest contributor throughout the ice core, suggesting a strong signature of terrestrial OM in all climate periods. The component two (C2) OM marker, encompassed distinct variability in the ice core describing chemical species similar to tannin- and phenylalanine-like material. Component three (C3), associated with humic-like terrestrial material further resistant to biodegradation, was only characteristic of the Holocene, suggesting that more complex organic polymers such as lignins or tannins may be an ecological marker of warmer climates. We suggest that fluorescent OM markers observed during the LGM were the result of greater continental dust loading of lignin precursor (monolignol) material in a drier climate, with lower marine influences when sea ice extent was higher and

  16. The significance of volcanic ash in Greenland ice cores during the Common Era (United States)

    Plunkett, G.; Pilcher, J. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Sigl, M.; Chellman, N.


    Volcanic forcing is now widely regarded as a leading natural factor in short-term climate variability. Polar ice cores provide an unrivalled and continuous record of past volcanism through their chemical and particulate content. With an almost annual precision for the Common Era, the ice core volcanic record can be combined with historical data to investigate the climate and social impacts of the eruptions. The sulfate signature in ice cores is critical for determining the possible climate effectiveness of an eruption, but the presence and characterization of volcanic ash (tephra) in the ice is requisite for establishing the source eruption so that location and eruptive style can be better factored in to climate models. Here, we review the Greenland tephra record for the Common Era, and present the results of targeted sampling for tephra of volcanic events that are of interest either because of their suspected climate and societal impacts or because of their potential as isochrons in paleoenvironmental (including ice core) archives. The majority of identifiable tephras derive from Northern Hemisphere mid- to high latitude eruptions, demonstrating the significance of northern extra-tropical volcanic regions as a source of sulfates in Greenland. A number of targets are represented by sparse or no tephra, or shards that cannot be firmly correlated with a source. We consider the challenges faced in isolating and characterizing tephra from low latitude eruptions, and the implications for accurately modelling climate response to large, tropical events. Finally, we compare the ice core tephra record with terrestrial tephrostratigraphies in the circum-North Atlantic area to evaluate the potential for intercontinental tephra linkages and the refinement of volcanic histories.

  17. Beryllium-10 in the Taylor Dome ice core: Applications to Antarctic glaciology and paleoclimatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steig, E.J.


    An ice core was drilled at Taylor dome, East Antarctica, reaching to bedrock at 554 meters. Oxygen-isotope measurements reveal climatic fluctuations through the last interglacial period. To facilitate comparison of the Taylor Dome paleoclimate record with geologic data and results from other deep ice cores, several glaciological issues need to be addressed. In particular, accumulation data are necessary as input for numerical ice-flow-models, for determining the flux of chemical constituents from measured concentrations, and for calculation of the offset in age between ice and trapped air in the core. The analysis of cosmogenic beryllium-10 provides a geochemical method for constraining the accumulation-rate history at Taylor Dome. High-resolution measurements were made in shallow firn cores and snow pits to determine the relationship among beryllium-10 concentrations, wet and dry deposition mechanisms, and snow-accumulation rates. Comparison between theoretical and measured variations in deposition over the last 75 years constrains the relationship between beryllium-10 deposition and global average production rates. The results indicate that variations in geomagnetically-modulated production-rate do not strongly influence beryllium-10 deposition at Taylor Dome. Although solar modulation of production rate is important for time scales of years to centuries, snow-accumulation rate is the dominant control on ice-core beryllium-10 concentrations for longer periods. Results show that the Taylor Dome core can be used to provide new constraints on regional climate over the last 130,000 years, complementing the terrestrial and marine geological record from the Dry Valley, Transantarctic Mountains and western Ross Sea.

  18. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wal, R.S.W.; Meijer, H.A.J.; van Rooij, M.; van der Veen, C.


    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for 14CO and 14CO2 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced 14CO fraction show a very low concentration of in situ produced 14CO.

  19. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. S. W.; Meijer, H. A. J.; De Rooij, M.; Van der Veen, C.

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for (CO)-C-14 and (CO2)-C-14 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced (CO)-C-14 fraction show a very low concentration of in situ

  20. An investigation of the thermomechanical features of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 on Qilian Shan, western China, using a two-dimensional first-order flow-band ice flow model (United States)

    Wang, Yuzhe; Zhang, Tong; Ren, Jiawen; Qin, Xiang; Liu, Yushuo; Sun, Weijun; Chen, Jizu; Ding, Minghu; Du, Wentao; Qin, Dahe


    By combining in situ measurements and a two-dimensional thermomechanically coupled ice flow model, we investigate the thermomechanical features of the largest valley glacier (Laohugou Glacier No. 12; LHG12) on Qilian Shan located in the arid region of western China. Our model results suggest that LHG12, previously considered as fully cold, is probably polythermal, with a lower temperate ice layer overlain by an upper layer of cold ice over a large region of the ablation area. Modelled ice surface velocities match well with the in situ observations in the east branch (main branch) but clearly underestimate those near the glacier terminus, possibly because the convergent flow is ignored and the basal sliding beneath the confluence area is underestimated. The modelled ice temperatures are in very good agreement with the in situ measurements from a deep borehole (110 m deep) in the upper ablation area. The model results are sensitive to surface thermal boundary conditions, for example surface air temperature and near-surface ice temperature. In this study, we use a Dirichlet surface thermal condition constrained by 20 m borehole temperatures and annual surface air temperatures. Like many other alpine glaciers, strain heating is important in controlling the englacial thermal structure of LHG12. Our transient simulations indicate that the accumulation zone becomes colder during the last two decades as a response to the elevated equilibrium line altitude and the rising summer air temperatures. We suggest that the extent of accumulation basin (the amount of refreezing latent heat from meltwater) of LHG12 has a considerable impact on the englacial thermal status.

  1. Annually resolved ice core records of tropical climate variability over the past ~1800 years. (United States)

    Thompson, L G; Mosley-Thompson, E; Davis, M E; Zagorodnov, V S; Howat, I M; Mikhalenko, V N; Lin, P-N


    Ice cores from low latitudes can provide a wealth of unique information about past climate in the tropics, but they are difficult to recover and few exist. Here, we report annually resolved ice core records from the Quelccaya ice cap (5670 meters above sea level) in Peru that extend back ~1800 years and provide a high-resolution record of climate variability there. Oxygen isotopic ratios (δ(18)O) are linked to sea surface temperatures in the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas concentrations of ammonium and nitrate document the dominant role played by the migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the region of the tropical Andes. Quelccaya continues to retreat and thin. Radiocarbon dates on wetland plants exposed along its retreating margins indicate that it has not been smaller for at least six millennia.

  2. Characteristics of the Yala Glacier from theview point of tritium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, K.; Kitaoka, K.; Watanabe, O.


    The vertical distributions of tritium content in glacier ice were determined at two different heights of the Yala Glacier in the Langtang Region, Nepal Himalayas. In the vertical profile of tritium content at the upper point (about 5,400 m high) there exists a clear peak, which shows the injection of artificial tritium due to nuclear weapon test series. The average accumulation rate from 1963 to 1982 at this point is estimated to be 0.85 m of water equivalent per year. At the lower point (about 5,200 m high) the tritium content is relatively low throughout the ice core, decreasing with depth. Precipitation nourishes the glacier in the accumulation area and, after a long time, it appears in the ablation area with the movement of the ice body, resulting in the different profiles of the tritium content between the two points. From the viewpoint of tritium content, the precipitation in the Yala Glacier is more similar to that in New Delhi, India, than that in Karizimir, Afghanistan. Generally speaking, the tritium content in the pricipitation is lower in the coastal area than in the continental area. The precipitation in the Yala Glacier belongs to the coastal type. There possibly exists a great difference in tritium content between the glaciers nourished by water vapor coming directly from the sea and by that coming over the continent

  3. Estimating Past Temperature Change in Antarctica Based on Ice Core Stable Water Isotope Diffusion (United States)

    Kahle, E. C.; Markle, B. R.; Holme, C.; Jones, T. R.; Steig, E. J.


    The magnitude of the last glacial-interglacial transition is a key target for constraining climate sensitivity on long timescales. Ice core proxy records and general circulation models (GCMs) both provide insight on the magnitude of climate change through the last glacial-interglacial transition, but appear to provide different answers. In particular, the magnitude of the glacial-interglacial temperature change reconstructed from East Antarctic ice-core water-isotope records is greater ( 9 degrees C) than that from most GCM simulations ( 6 degrees C). A possible source of this difference is error in the linear-scaling of water isotopes to temperature. We employ a novel, nonlinear temperature-reconstruction technique using the physics of water-isotope diffusion to infer past temperature. Based on new, ice-core data from the South Pole, this diffusion technique suggests East Antarctic temperature change was smaller than previously thought. We are able to confirm this result using a simple, water-isotope fractionation model to nonlinearly reconstruct temperature change at ice core locations across Antarctica based on combined oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. Both methods produce a temperature change of 6 degrees C for South Pole, agreeing with GCM results for East Antarctica. Furthermore, both produce much larger changes in West Antarctica, also in agreement with GCM results and independent borehole thermometry. These results support the fidelity of GCMs in simulating last glacial maximum climate, and contradict the idea, based on previous work, that the climate sensitivity of current GCMs is too low.

  4. TALDICE-1 age scale of the Talos Dome deep ice core, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Buiron


    Full Text Available A new deep ice core drilling program, TALDICE, has been successfully handled by a European team at Talos Dome, in the Ross Sea sector of East Antarctica, down to 1620 m depth. Using stratigraphic markers and a new inverse method, we produce the first official chronology of the ice core, called TALDICE-1. We show that it notably improves an a priori chronology resulting from a one-dimensional ice flow model. It is in agreement with a posteriori controls of the resulting accumulation rate and thinning function along the core. An absolute uncertainty of only 300 yr is obtained over the course of the last deglaciation. This uncertainty remains lower than 600 yr over Marine Isotope Stage 3, back to 50 kyr BP. The phasing of the TALDICE ice core climate record with respect to the central East Antarctic plateau and Greenland records can thus be determined with a precision allowing for a discussion of the mechanisms at work at sub-millennial time scales.

  5. High resolution climate reconstructions of recent warming using instrumental and ice core records from coastal Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Naik, S.S.; Laluraj, C.M.; Ravindra, R.

    for the past 4 years (Thamban et al., 2006). Chronological control for the IND-25/B5 ice core was based on multiple and complimentary methods: (i) atomic bomb (Tritium) markers; (ii) annual layer counting using stable isotope records; and (iii) volcanic...

  6. Extracting the annual signal from Greenland ice-core chemistry and isotopic records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Andersen, Katrine K.; Andersen, Marie Louise Siggaard


    Stratigraphic dating of ice cores by identification and counting of annual cycles in, for example, chemical measurements requires skill and experience. The work presented here investigates a method of data enhancement which is a first step towards an automated and more objective method of annual...

  7. A 600-year annual 10Be record from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggren, A.M.; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe


    in an ice core from the NGRIP site in Greenland. NGRIP and Dye-3 10Be exhibits similar long-term variability, although occasional short term differences between the two sites indicate that at least two high resolution 10Be records are needed to assess local variations and to confidently reconstruct past...

  8. Radiocarbon analysis in an Alpine ice core: record of anthropogenic and biogenic contributions to carbonaceous aerosols in the past (1650–1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Jenk


    Full Text Available Long-term concentration records of carbonaceous particles (CP are of increasing interest in climate research due to their not yet completely understood effects on climate. Nevertheless, only poor data on their concentrations and sources before the 20th century are available. We present a first long-term record of organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC concentrations – the two main fractions of CP – along with the corresponding fraction of modern carbon (fM derived from radiocarbon (14C analysis in ice. This allows a distinction and quantification of natural (biogenic and anthropogenic (fossil sources in the past. CP were extracted from an ice archive, with resulting carbon quantities in the microgram range. Analysis of 14C by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS was therefore highly demanding. We analysed 33 samples of 0.4 to 1 kg ice from a 150.5 m long ice core retrieved at Fiescherhorn glacier in December 2002 (46°33'3.2" N, 08°04'0.4" E; 3900 m a.s.l.. Samples were taken from bedrock up to the firn/ice transition, covering the time period 1650–1940 and thus the transition from the pre-industrial to the industrial era. Before ~1850, OC was approaching a purely biogenic origin with a mean concentration of 24 μg kg−1 and a standard deviation of 7 μg kg−1. In 1940, OC concentration was about a factor of 3 higher than this biogenic background, almost half of it originating from anthropogenic sources, i.e. from combustion of fossil fuels. The biogenic EC concentration was nearly constant over the examined time period with 6 μg kg−1 and a standard deviation of 1 μg kg−1. In 1940, the additional anthropogenic input of atmospheric EC was about 50 μg kg−1.

  9. Ice Cliff Backwasting over debris-covered Glaciers - Insights into their Formation and Development based on new Measurements and a point-scale Model (United States)

    Steiner, J. F.; Pellicciotti, F.; Buri, P.; Miles, E. S.; Reid, T. D.; Immerzeel, W.


    The presence of ice cliffs has been identified as one possible reason for relatively high overall ablation rates on debris covered glaciers. Few measurements exist for such cliffs and their formation and evolution processes are still poorly understood. On Lirung Glacier, in the Nepalese Himalayas, numerous cliffs were monitored for two consecutive years in the pre- and post-monsoon season. Slope varied between 30° and full vertical faces. Backwasting rates were highly variable depending on slope and aspect of the location on the cliff. Only a physically based energy balance model can reproduce this heterogeneity and provide insights into the importance of atmospheric forcing and cliff characteristics on their melt. Building on two previous studies such a model was developed. It was improved with measurements of radiative fluxes perpendicular to the cliff and by applying a high resolution DEM of the surrounding topography to estimate shading and radiative fluxes incident to the cliff including longwave radiation emitted by surrounding debris. We obtain a considerable reduction in incoming shortwave radiation for north-oriented cliffs compared to horizontal measurements, and significant incident longwave component that varies with height on the cliffs. Melt rates are highly variable in time and space for the cliff. While maximum values of up to 8 cm/day are reached during monsoon, melt rates in the post-monsoon season are considerably lower than in the pre-monsoon season. Nighttime refreezing processes during this period also played an important role. Apart from topography, cliff backwasting is extremely sensitive to albedo of the ice surface, reaching values as low as 0.05. Measurements of surface temperature and wind on the cliff further improved the understanding of outgoing radiation and turbulent fluxes. Once validated against stakes readings, the model was used to explain the presence and persistence of cliffs over Lirung glacier. We show that only North

  10. Classification of debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers in the Andes of central Chile (United States)

    Janke, Jason R.; Bellisario, Antonio C.; Ferrando, Francisco A.


    In the Dry Andes of Chile (17 to 35° S), debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers are differentiated from true glaciers based on the percentage of surface debris cover, thickness of surface debris, and ice content. Internal ice is preserved by an insulating cover of thick debris, which acts as a storage reservoir to release water during the summer and early fall. These landforms are more numerous than glaciers in the central Andes; however, the existing legislation only recognizes uncovered or semicovered glaciers as a water resource. Glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers are being altered or removed by mining operations to extract valuable minerals from the mountains. In addition, agricultural expansion and population growth in this region have placed additional demands on water resources. In a warmer climate, as glaciers recede and seasonal water availability becomes condensed over the course of a snowmelt season, rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers contribute a larger component of base flow to rivers and streams. As a result, identifying and locating these features to implement sustainable regional planning for water resources is important. The objective of this study is to develop a classification system to identify debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers based on the interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs. The classification system is linked to field observations and measurements of ice content. Debris-covered glaciers have three subclasses: surface coverage of semi (class 1) and fully covered (class 2) glaciers differentiates the first two forms, whereas debris thickness is critical for class 3 when glaciers become buried with more than 3 m of surface debris. Based on field observations, the amount of ice decreases from more than 85%, to 65-85%, to 45-65% for semi, fully, and buried debris-covered glaciers, respectively. Rock glaciers are characterized by three stages. Class 4 rock glaciers have pronounced

  11. Black Carbon Concentrations from ~1850-1980 from a High-Resolution Ice Core from Geladandong, Central Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Jenkins, M.; Kaspari, S.; Kang, S.; Grigholm, B. O.; Mayewski, P. A.


    Black carbon (BC), produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil and bio-fuels, is estimated to be the second largest contributor to global warming behind CO2; when deposited on snow and ice BC reduces albedos, potentially enhancing surface melt and glacial retreat. The study of BC's past and present variability is imperative in order to better understand and estimate its potential impact on climate and water resources. This is especially important in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau, a region that provides fresh water to over a billion people and where BC's climatic effects are estimated to be the largest (Flanner et al., 2007; Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). To more accurately constrain BC's past variability in this sensitive region, an ice core recovered in 2005 from Mt. Geladandong (5800 m a.s.l.) on the central Tibetan Plateau was analyzed for BC at high resolution using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Results indicate that 1) average BC concentrations at this location are higher than at other locations closer to BC sources and analyzed by the same method (Mt. Everest by Kaspari et al., 2011 and Muztagh Ata by Wang et al., in prep), and 2) BC exists in peak concentrations high enough (>10 μg/L) to cause a >1% reduction in surface albedo at the sampling location (Ming et al., 2009; Hadley et al., 2010). Potential causes of the higher BC concentrations at the Geladandong site include lower annual precipitation and the mechanical trapping and concentration of BC caused by surface melt and/or sublimation (Conway et al., 1996; Huang et al., 2011). Preliminary dating (Grigholm et al., in prep) has dated the top of the core to ~1980, suggesting that annual mass loss at the site has removed the upper portion of the record. This supports the findings of Kehrwald et al. (2008) who reported that glaciers below ~6050 m a.s.l. in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau are losing mass annually. Presented here is the record of BC on the central Tibetan Plateau over the time

  12. Detection of Organic Compounds in Ice Cores for Application to Palaeoclimate Reconstruction - Methodological Development (United States)

    Giorio, C.; King, A. C. F.; Wolff, E. W.; Kalberer, M.; Thomas, E. R.; Mulvaney, R.


    Records of inorganic gases and particles trapped in ice core layers have provided some of the most important insights to our understanding of climate of the last 800,000 years. Organic compounds within the ice, however, are an un-tapped reservoir of information. In particular, two groups of compounds emitted from the terrestrial biosphere, fatty acids and terpene secondary oxidation aerosols (SOAs), display characteristics required for ice core paleoclimate reconstruction; emission rates depend on atmospheric states (e.g. temperature), compounds survive long-distance transport in the atmosphere to high altitudes and latitudes (Grannas et al., 2004; Fu et al., 2013 among others), and are shown to survive in ice layers up to 450 yrs old for fatty acids in Greenland (Kawamura et al., 1996) and 350 yrs for SOAs in Alaska (Pokhrel et al., 2015). Here, we aim to develop a single method for quantification of all compounds of interest over longer timescales and further locations using liquid chromatography (LC) ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ Orbitrap). Initial quantification of compound contamination from sources such as drilling fluids and storage bags, diffusing through outer ice core surfaces, suggests compound contamination is limited to the outer few mm's of ice over periods of a few months. Detection limits were in the order of 1-5 ppb for the compounds of interest, leading to the trial of pre-concentration methods using stir bar sorbtive extraction (SBSE) to facilitate detection of ppt concentration levels, as expected for these types of compounds based on previous analysis of snow samples (Pokhrel et al., 2015). Detection of these compounds seems highly viable, with promise for long-term records being achieved in the near future. Fu et al.(2013) Biogeosciences, 10(2), 653-667; Grannas et al.(2004) Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB1006; Kawamura et al.(1996) Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(19), 2665-2668; Pokhrel et al.(2015) Atmos. Environ., 130, 105-112.

  13. Reconstruction of Antarctic climate change using ice core proxy records from the coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Laluraj, C.M.; Naik, S.S.; Chaturvedi, A.

    the austral summer of 2003. The retrieved ice core samples were labelled, packed in good quality LDPE containers and subsequently shipped in -20ºC deep freezer facilities. These cores were archived in frozen conditions in custom-made expanded polypropylene...: Glaciochemistry, Stable isotope, Ice core, Solar activity, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. regions offer continuous and highly resolved long-term records of reliable information on major atmospheric parameters like temperature, composition and trace gases. Among...

  14. Archival processes of the water stable isotope signal in East Antarctic ice cores (United States)

    Casado, Mathieu; Landais, Amaelle; Picard, Ghislain; Münch, Thomas; Laepple, Thomas; Stenni, Barbara; Dreossi, Giuliano; Ekaykin, Alexey; Arnaud, Laurent; Genthon, Christophe; Touzeau, Alexandra; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Jouzel, Jean


    The oldest ice core records are obtained from the East Antarctic Plateau. Water isotopes are key proxies to reconstructing past climatic conditions over the ice sheet and at the evaporation source. The accuracy of climate reconstructions depends on knowledge of all processes affecting water vapour, precipitation and snow isotopic compositions. Fractionation processes are well understood and can be integrated in trajectory-based Rayleigh distillation and isotope-enabled climate models. However, a quantitative understanding of processes potentially altering snow isotopic composition after deposition is still missing. In low-accumulation sites, such as those found in East Antarctica, these poorly constrained processes are likely to play a significant role and limit the interpretability of an ice core's isotopic composition. By combining observations of isotopic composition in vapour, precipitation, surface snow and buried snow from Dome C, a deep ice core site on the East Antarctic Plateau, we found indications of a seasonal impact of metamorphism on the surface snow isotopic signal when compared to the initial precipitation. Particularly in summer, exchanges of water molecules between vapour and snow are driven by the diurnal sublimation-condensation cycles. Overall, we observe in between precipitation events modification of the surface snow isotopic composition. Using high-resolution water isotopic composition profiles from snow pits at five Antarctic sites with different accumulation rates, we identified common patterns which cannot be attributed to the seasonal variability of precipitation. These differences in the precipitation, surface snow and buried snow isotopic composition provide evidence of post-deposition processes affecting ice core records in low-accumulation areas.

  15. Reconstructing the Paleo ENSO records from tropical and subtropical ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    dislocations of rainfall regimes in the tropics. Whereas the northern coastal desert regions of Peru experienced abnormally high precipitation, the southern highlands of Peru, where Quelccaya is located, experienced drought. Annual variations in the amount and chemical composition of precipitation accumulating on both polar and alpine (high elevation glaciers produce laminations which allow precise dating of these stratigraphic sequences. This paper examines the interannual climate variability in the Quelccaya ice core records (1 over the last 150 years where a limited amount of documentary data exist by which the ice core data can be evaluated and (2 the longer record covering the last 1500 years where independent evaluation becomes more difficult. The Quelccaya precipitation records derived from the ice cores are compared to the early history of man in South America. There is archeological evidence that, when compared to the Quelccaya net balance record over the last 1500 years, suggests that periods of flourishing highland cultures appear during periods when the mountains are wetter than average and that coastal cultures flourish when the mountains are drier than normal. These data suggest that there may exist longer period ocean/atmospheric links which yield «El Niño-like» precipitation responses on the longer term.

  16. Past temperature reconstructions from deep ice cores: relevance for future climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Masson-Delmotte


    Full Text Available Ice cores provide unique archives of past climate and environmental changes based only on physical processes. Quantitative temperature reconstructions are essential for the comparison between ice core records and climate models. We give an overview of the methods that have been developed to reconstruct past local temperatures from deep ice cores and highlight several points that are relevant for future climate change. We first analyse the long term fluctuations of temperature as depicted in the long Antarctic record from EPICA Dome C. The long term imprint of obliquity changes in the EPICA Dome C record is highlighted and compared to simulations conducted with the ECBILT-CLIO intermediate complexity climate model. We discuss the comparison between the current interglacial period and the long interglacial corresponding to marine isotopic stage 11, ~400 kyr BP. Previous studies had focused on the role of precession and the thresholds required to induce glacial inceptions. We suggest that, due to the low eccentricity configuration of MIS 11 and the Holocene, the effect of precession on the incoming solar radiation is damped and that changes in obliquity must be taken into account. The EPICA Dome C alignment of terminations I and VI published in 2004 corresponds to a phasing of the obliquity signals. A conjunction of low obliquity and minimum northern hemisphere summer insolation is not found in the next tens of thousand years, supporting the idea of an unusually long interglacial ahead. As a second point relevant for future climate change, we discuss the magnitude and rate of change of past temperatures reconstructed from Greenland (NorthGRIP and Antarctic (Dome C ice cores. Past episodes of temperatures above the present-day values by up to 5°C are recorded at both locations during the penultimate interglacial period. The rate of polar warming simulated by coupled climate models forced by a CO2 increase of 1% per year is compared to ice-core

  17. Tree ring and ice core time scales around the Santorini eruption (United States)

    Löfroth, Elin; Muscheler, Raimund; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Berggren, Ann-Marie


    When studying cosmogenic radionuclides in ice core and tree ring archives around the Santorini eruption a ~20 year discrepancy was found between the records (Muscheler 2009). In this study a new 10Be dataset from the NGRIP ice core is presented. It has a resolution of 7 years and spans the period 3752-3244 BP (1803-1295 BC). The NGRIP 10Be record and the previously published 10Be GRIP record were compared to the IntCal datasets to further investigate the discrepancy between the ice core and tree ring chronologies. By modelling the 14C production rate based on atmospheric 14C records a comparison could be made to the 10Be flux which is assumed to represent the 10Be production rate. This showed a time shift of ~23 years between the records. The sensitivity of the results to changes in important model parameters was evaluated. Uncertainties in the carbon cycle model cannot explain a substantial part of the timing differences. Potential influences of climate and atmospheric processes on the 10Be deposition were studied using δ18O from the respective cores and GISP2 ice core ion data. The comparison to δ18O revealed a small but significant correlation between 10Be flux and δ18O when the 14C-derived production signal was removed from the 10Be curves. The ion data, as proxies for atmospheric circulation changes, did not show any correlations to the 10Be record or the 10Be/14C difference. When including possible data uncertainties there is still a minimum discrepancy of ~10 years between the 10Be ice core and the 14C tree ring record. Due to lack of alternative explanations it is concluded that the ice core and/or the tree ring chronologies contains unaccounted errors in this range. This also reconciles the radiocarbon 1627-1600 BC (Friedrich et al., 2006) and ice core 1642±5 BC (Vinther et al., 2006) datings of the Santorini eruption. Friedrich, W.L., Kromer, B., Friedrich, M., Heinemeier, J., Pfeiffer, T., & Talamo, S., 2006: Santorini eruption radiocarbon dated to

  18. Multilayer Formation and Evaporation of Deuterated Ices in Prestellar and Protostellar Cores (United States)

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B.; Sipilä, Olli


    Extremely large deuteration of several molecules has been observed toward prestellar cores and low-mass protostars for a decade. New observations performed toward low-mass protostars suggest that water presents a lower deuteration in the warm inner gas than in the cold external envelope. We coupled a gas-grain astrochemical model with a one-dimensional model of a collapsing core to properly follow the formation and the deuteration of interstellar ices as well as their subsequent evaporation in the low-mass protostellar envelopes with the aim of interpreting the spatial and temporal evolutions of their deuteration. The astrochemical model follows the formation and the evaporation of ices with a multilayer approach and also includes a state-of-the-art deuterated chemical network by taking the spin states of H2 and light ions into account. Because of their slow formation, interstellar ices are chemically heterogeneous and show an increase of their deuterium fractionation toward the surface. The differentiation of the deuteration in ices induces an evolution of the deuteration within protostellar envelopes. The warm inner region is poorly deuterated because it includes the whole molecular content of ices, while the deuteration predicted in the cold external envelope scales with the highly deuterated surface of ices. We are able to reproduce the observed evolution of water deuteration within protostellar envelopes, but we are still unable to predict the super-high deuteration observed for formaldehyde and methanol. Finally, the extension of this study to the deuteration of complex organics, important for the prebiotic chemistry, shows good agreement with the observations, suggesting that we can use the deuteration to retrace their mechanisms and their moments of formation.

  19. Multilayer formation and evaporation of deuterated ices in prestellar and protostellar cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B.; Sipilä, Olli


    Extremely large deuteration of several molecules has been observed toward prestellar cores and low-mass protostars for a decade. New observations performed toward low-mass protostars suggest that water presents a lower deuteration in the warm inner gas than in the cold external envelope. We coupled a gas-grain astrochemical model with a one-dimensional model of a collapsing core to properly follow the formation and the deuteration of interstellar ices as well as their subsequent evaporation in the low-mass protostellar envelopes with the aim of interpreting the spatial and temporal evolutions of their deuteration. The astrochemical model follows the formation and the evaporation of ices with a multilayer approach and also includes a state-of-the-art deuterated chemical network by taking the spin states of H 2 and light ions into account. Because of their slow formation, interstellar ices are chemically heterogeneous and show an increase of their deuterium fractionation toward the surface. The differentiation of the deuteration in ices induces an evolution of the deuteration within protostellar envelopes. The warm inner region is poorly deuterated because it includes the whole molecular content of ices, while the deuteration predicted in the cold external envelope scales with the highly deuterated surface of ices. We are able to reproduce the observed evolution of water deuteration within protostellar envelopes, but we are still unable to predict the super-high deuteration observed for formaldehyde and methanol. Finally, the extension of this study to the deuteration of complex organics, important for the prebiotic chemistry, shows good agreement with the observations, suggesting that we can use the deuteration to retrace their mechanisms and their moments of formation.

  20. Multilayer formation and evaporation of deuterated ices in prestellar and protostellar cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory and The Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Mailstop 691, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Sipilä, Olli [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)


    Extremely large deuteration of several molecules has been observed toward prestellar cores and low-mass protostars for a decade. New observations performed toward low-mass protostars suggest that water presents a lower deuteration in the warm inner gas than in the cold external envelope. We coupled a gas-grain astrochemical model with a one-dimensional model of a collapsing core to properly follow the formation and the deuteration of interstellar ices as well as their subsequent evaporation in the low-mass protostellar envelopes with the aim of interpreting the spatial and temporal evolutions of their deuteration. The astrochemical model follows the formation and the evaporation of ices with a multilayer approach and also includes a state-of-the-art deuterated chemical network by taking the spin states of H{sub 2} and light ions into account. Because of their slow formation, interstellar ices are chemically heterogeneous and show an increase of their deuterium fractionation toward the surface. The differentiation of the deuteration in ices induces an evolution of the deuteration within protostellar envelopes. The warm inner region is poorly deuterated because it includes the whole molecular content of ices, while the deuteration predicted in the cold external envelope scales with the highly deuterated surface of ices. We are able to reproduce the observed evolution of water deuteration within protostellar envelopes, but we are still unable to predict the super-high deuteration observed for formaldehyde and methanol. Finally, the extension of this study to the deuteration of complex organics, important for the prebiotic chemistry, shows good agreement with the observations, suggesting that we can use the deuteration to retrace their mechanisms and their moments of formation.

  1. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation Recorded in Ice Core Major Ion Time Series (United States)

    Wawrzeniak, T. L.; Wake, C. P.; Fischer, H.; Fisher, D. A.; Schwikowski, M.


    The North Atlantic Oscillation represents a significant mode of atmospheric variability for the Arctic and sub- Artic climate system. Developing a longer-term record of the spatial and temporal variability of the NAO could improve our understanding of natural climate variability in the region. Previous work has shown a significant relationship between Greenland ice core records and the NAO. Here, we have compared sea-salt and dust records from nine ice cores around the Arctic region to sea level pressure and NAO indices to evaluate the extent to which these ice cores can be used to reconstruct the NAO.

  2. 1500 Years of Annual Climate and Environmental Variability as Recorded in Bona-Churchill (Alaska) Ice Cores (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Zagorodnov, V.; Davis, M. E.; Mashiotta, T. A.; Lin, P.


    In 2003, six ice cores measuring 10.5, 11.5, 11.8, 12.4, 114 and 460 meters were recovered from the col between Mount Bona and Mount Churchill (61° 24'N; 141° 42'W; 4420 m asl). These cores have been analyzed for stable isotopic ratios, insoluble dust content and concentrations of major chemical species. Total Beta radioactivity was measured in the upper sections. The 460-meter core, extending to bedrock, captured the entire depositional record at this site where ice temperatures ranged from -24° C at 10 meters to -19.8° C at the ice/bedrock contact. The shallow cores allow assessment of surface processes under modern meteorological conditions while the deep core offers a ˜1500-year climate and environmental perspective. The average annual net balance is ˜~1000 mm of water equivalent and distinct annual signals in dust and calcium concentrations along with δ 18O allow annual resolution over most of the core. The excess sulfate record reflects many known large volcanic eruptions such as Katmai, Krakatau, Tambora, and Laki which allow validation of the time scale in the upper part of the core. The lower part of the core yields a history of earlier volcanic events. The 460-m Bona-Churchill ice core provides a detailed history of the `Little Ice Age' and medieval warm periods for southeastern Alaska. The source of the White River Ash will be discussed in light of the evidence from this core. The 460-m core also provides a long-term history of the dust fall that originates in north-central China. The annual ice core-derived climate records from southeastern Alaska will facilitate an investigation of the likelihood that the high resolution 1500-year record from the tropical Quelccaya Ice Cap (Peru) preserves a history of the variability of both the PDO and the Aleutian Low.

  3. Precipitation regime influence on oxygen triple-isotope distributions in Antarctic precipitation and ice cores (United States)

    Miller, Martin F.


    The relative abundance of 17O in meteoric precipitation is usually reported in terms of the 17O-excess parameter. Variations of 17O-excess in Antarctic precipitation and ice cores have hitherto been attributed to normalised relative humidity changes at the moisture source region, or to the influence of a temperature-dependent supersaturation-controlled kinetic isotope effect during in-cloud ice formation below -20 °C. Neither mechanism, however, satisfactorily explains the large range of 17O-excess values reported from measurements. A different approach, based on the regression characteristics of 103 ln (1 +δ17 O) versus 103 ln (1 +δ18 O), is applied here to previously published isotopic data sets. The analysis indicates that clear-sky precipitation ('diamond dust'), which occurs widely in inland Antarctica, is characterised by an unusual relative abundance of 17O, distinct from that associated with cloud-derived, synoptic snowfall. Furthermore, this distinction appears to be largely preserved in the ice core record. The respective mass contributions to snowfall accumulation - on both temporal and spatial scales - provides the basis of a simple, first-order explanation for the observed oxygen triple-isotope ratio variations in Antarctic precipitation, surface snow and ice cores. Using this approach, it is shown that precipitation during the last major deglaciation, both in western Antarctica at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide and at Vostok on the eastern Antarctic plateau, consisted essentially of diamond dust only, despite a large temperature differential (and thus different water vapour supersaturation conditions) at the two locations. In contrast, synoptic snowfall events dominate the accumulation record throughout the Holocene at both sites.

  4. Long memory effect of past climate change in Vostok ice core records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yuuki; Kitahara, Naoki; Kano, Makoto


    Time series analysis of Vostok ice core data has been done for understanding of palaeoclimate change from a stochastic perspective. The Vostok ice core is one of the proxy data for palaeoclimate in which local temperature and precipitation rate, moisture source conditions, wind strength and aerosol fluxes of marine, volcanic, terrestrial, cosmogenic and anthropogenic origin are indirectly stored. Palaeoclimate data has a periodic feature and a stochastic feature. For the proxy data, spectrum analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were conducted to characterize periodicity and scaling property (long memory effect) in the climate change. The result of spectrum analysis indicates there exist periodicities corresponding to the Milankovitch cycle in past climate change occurred. DFA clarified time variability of scaling exponents (Hurst exponent) is associated with abrupt warming in past climate.

  5. 10Be evidence for the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal in the EPICA Dome C ice core. (United States)

    Raisbeck, G M; Yiou, F; Cattani, O; Jouzel, J


    An ice core drilled at Dome C, Antarctica, is the oldest ice core so far retrieved. On the basis of ice flow modelling and a comparison between the deuterium signal in the ice with climate records from marine sediment cores, the ice at a depth of 3,190 m in the Dome C core is believed to have been deposited around 800,000 years ago, offering a rare opportunity to study climatic and environmental conditions over this time period. However, an independent determination of this age is important because the deuterium profile below a depth of 3,190 m depth does not show the expected correlation with the marine record. Here we present evidence for enhanced 10Be deposition in the ice at 3,160-3,170 m, which we interpret as a result of the low dipole field strength during the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal, which occurred about 780,000 years ago. If correct, this provides a crucial tie point between ice cores, marine cores and a radiometric timescale.

  6. Constraining recent lead pollution sources in the North Pacific using ice core stable lead isotopes (United States)

    Gross, B. H.; Kreutz, K. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; McConnell, J. R.; Handley, M.; Wake, C. P.; Yalcin, K.


    Trends and sources of lead (Pb) aerosol pollution in the North Pacific rim of North America from 1850 to 2001 are investigated using a high-resolution (subannual to annual) ice core record recovered from Eclipse Icefield (3017 masl; St. Elias Mountains, Canada). Beginning in the early 1940s, increasing Pb concentration at Eclipse Icefield occurs coevally with anthropogenic Pb deposition in central Greenland, suggesting that North American Pb pollution may have been in part or wholly responsible in both regions. Isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/207Pb) from 1970 to 2001 confirm that a portion of the Pb deposited at Eclipse Icefield is anthropogenic, and that it represents a variable mixture of East Asian (Chinese and Japanese) emissions transported eastward across the Pacific Ocean and a North American component resulting from transient meridional atmospheric flow. Based on comparison with source material Pb isotope ratios, Chinese and North American coal combustion have likely been the primary sources of Eclipse Icefield Pb over the 1970-2001 time period. The Eclipse Icefield Pb isotope composition also implies that the North Pacific mid-troposphere is not directly impacted by transpolar atmospheric flow from Europe. Annually averaged Pb concentrations in the Eclipse Icefield ice core record show no long-term trend during 1970-2001; however, increasing208Pb/207Pb and decreasing 206Pb/207Pb ratios reflect the progressive East Asian industrialization and increase in Asian pollutant outflow. The post-1970 decrease in North American Pb emissions is likely necessary to explain the Eclipse Icefield Pb concentration time series. When compared with low (lichen) and high (Mt. Logan ice core) elevation Pb data, the Eclipse ice core record suggests a gradual increase in pollutant deposition and stronger trans-Pacific Asian contribution with rising elevation in the mountains of the North Pacific rim.

  7. Transport of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from an arctic glacier to downstream locations: implications for sources. (United States)

    Kwok, Karen Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Murphy, Margaret B; Horii, Yuichi; Petrick, Gert; Kallerborn, Roland; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Murano, Kentaro; Lam, Paul K S


    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been globally detected in various environmental matrices, yet their fate and transport to the Arctic is still unclear, especially for the European Arctic. In this study, concentrations of 17 PFAS were quantified in two ice cores (n=26), surface snow (n=9) and surface water samples (n=14) collected along a spatial gradient in Svalbard, Norway. Concentrations of selected ions (Na(+), SO4(2-), etc.) were also determined for tracing the origins and sources of PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were the dominant compounds found in ice core samples. Taking PFOA, PFNA and perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) as examples, higher concentrations were detected in the middle layers of the ice cores representing the period of 1997-2000. Lower concentrations of C8-C12 perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were detected in comparison with concentrations measured previously in an ice core from the Canadian Arctic, indicating that contamination levels in the European Arctic are lower. Average PFAS concentrations were found to be lower in surface snow and melted glacier water samples, while increased concentrations were observed in river water downstream near the coastal area. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) was detected in the downstream locations, but not in the glacier, suggesting existence of local sources of this compound. Long-range atmospheric transport of PFAS was the major deposition pathway for the glaciers, while local sources (e.g., skiing activities) were identified in the downstream locations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures and Marine Primary Productivity (United States)

    Polashenski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Wake, C. P.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S. W.


    Chemical analyses of precipitation preserved in glacial ice cores provide a unique opportunity to study changes in atmospheric circulation patterns and ocean surface conditions through time. In this study, we aim to investigate changes in both the physical and biological parameters of the north-central Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea over the twentieth century using the deuterium excess (d-excess) and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from the Mt. Hunter ice cores drilled in Denali National Park, Alaska. These parallel, 208 m-long ice cores were drilled to bedrock during the 2013 field season on the Mt. Hunter plateau (63° N, 151° W, 3,900 m above sea level) by a collaborative research team consisting of members from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores were sampled on a continuous melter system at Dartmouth College and analyzed for the concentrations major ions (Dionex IC) and trace metals (Element2 ICPMS), and for stable water isotope ratios (Picarro). The depth-age scale has been accurately dated to 400 AD using annual layer counting of several chemical species and further validated using known historical volcanic eruptions and the Cesium-137 spike associated with nuclear weapons testing in 1963. We use HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling to identify likely source areas of moisture and aerosol MSA being transported to the core site. Satellite imagery allows for a direct comparison between chlorophyll a concentrations in these source areas and MSA concentrations in the core record. Preliminary analysis of chlorophyll a and MSA concentrations, both derived almost exclusively from marine biota, suggest that the Mt. Hunter ice cores reflect changes in North Pacific and Bering Sea marine primary productivity. Analysis of the water isotope and MSA data in conjunction with climate reanalysis products shows significant correlations (psea surface temperatures in the Bering Sea and North Central Pacific. These findings, coupled with

  9. Search for sterile neutrinos with IceCube DeepCore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terliuk, Andrii [DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration


    The DeepCore detector is a sub-array of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory that lowers the energy threshold for neutrino detection down to approximately 10 GeV. DeepCore is used for a variety of studies including atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The standard three-neutrino oscillation paradigm is tested using the DeepCore detector by searching for an additional light, sterile neutrino with a mass on the order of 1 eV. Sterile neutrinos do not interact with the ordinary matter, however they can be mixed with the three active neutrino states. Such mixture changes the picture of standard neutrino oscillations for atmospheric neutrinos with energies below 100 GeV. The capabilities of DeepCore detector to measure such sterile neutrino mixing will be presented in this talk.

  10. Particle shape accounts for instrumental discrepancy in ice core dust size distributions (United States)

    Folden Simonsen, Marius; Cremonesi, Llorenç; Baccolo, Giovanni; Bosch, Samuel; Delmonte, Barbara; Erhardt, Tobias; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Potenza, Marco; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul


    The Klotz Abakus laser sensor and the Coulter counter are both used for measuring the size distribution of insoluble mineral dust particles in ice cores. While the Coulter counter measures particle volume accurately, the equivalent Abakus instrument measurement deviates substantially from the Coulter counter. We show that the difference between the Abakus and the Coulter counter measurements is mainly caused by the irregular shape of dust particles in ice core samples. The irregular shape means that a new calibration routine based on standard spheres is necessary for obtaining fully comparable data. This new calibration routine gives an increased accuracy to Abakus measurements, which may improve future ice core record intercomparisons. We derived an analytical model for extracting the aspect ratio of dust particles from the difference between Abakus and Coulter counter data. For verification, we measured the aspect ratio of the same samples directly using a single-particle extinction and scattering instrument. The results demonstrate that the model is accurate enough to discern between samples of aspect ratio 0.3 and 0.4 using only the comparison of Abakus and Coulter counter data.

  11. The relevance of grain dissection for grain size reduction in polar ice: insights from numerical models and ice core microstructure analysis (United States)

    Steinbach, Florian; Kuiper, Ernst-Jan N.; Eichler, Jan; Bons, Paul D.; Drury, Martyn R.; Griera, Albert; Pennock, Gill M.; Weikusat, Ilka


    The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We investigated the relevance of the process of grain dissection as a grain-size-modifying process in natural ice. For that purpose, we performed numerical multi-process microstructure modelling and analysed microstructure and crystallographic orientation maps from natural deep ice-core samples from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) project. Full crystallographic orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) have been used together with c-axis orientations using an optical technique (Fabric Analyser). Grain dissection is a feature of strain-induced grain boundary migration. During grain dissection, grain boundaries bulge into a neighbouring grain in an area of high dislocation energy and merge with the opposite grain boundary. This splits the high dislocation-energy grain into two parts, effectively decreasing the local grain size. Currently, grain size reduction in ice is thought to be achieved by either the progressive transformation from dislocation walls into new high-angle grain boundaries, called subgrain rotation or polygonisation, or bulging nucleation that is assisted by subgrain rotation. Both our time-resolved numerical modelling and NEEM ice core samples show that grain dissection is a common mechanism during ice deformation and can provide an efficient process to reduce grain sizes and counter-act dynamic grain-growth in addition to polygonisation or bulging nucleation. Thus, our results show that solely strain-induced boundary migration, in absence of subgrain rotation, can reduce grain sizes in polar ice, in particular if strain energy gradients are high. We describe the microstructural characteristics that can be used to

  12. The Relevance of Grain Dissection for Grain Size Reduction in Polar Ice: Insights from Numerical Models and Ice Core Microstructure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Steinbach


    Full Text Available The flow of ice depends on the properties of the aggregate of individual ice crystals, such as grain size or lattice orientation distributions. Therefore, an understanding of the processes controlling ice micro-dynamics is needed to ultimately develop a physically based macroscopic ice flow law. We investigated the relevance of the process of grain dissection as a grain-size-modifying process in natural ice. For that purpose, we performed numerical multi-process microstructure modeling and analyzed microstructure and crystallographic orientation maps from natural deep ice-core samples from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM project. Full crystallographic orientations measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD have been used together with c-axis orientations using an optical technique (Fabric Analyser. Grain dissection is a feature of strain-induced grain boundary migration. During grain dissection, grain boundaries bulge into a neighboring grain in an area of high dislocation energy and merge with the opposite grain boundary. This splits the high dislocation-energy grain into two parts, effectively decreasing the local grain size. Currently, grain size reduction in ice is thought to be achieved by either the progressive transformation from dislocation walls into new high-angle grain boundaries, called subgrain rotation or polygonisation, or bulging nucleation that is assisted by subgrain rotation. Both our time-resolved numerical modeling and NEEM ice core samples show that grain dissection is a common mechanism during ice deformation and can provide an efficient process to reduce grain sizes and counter-act dynamic grain-growth in addition to polygonisation or bulging nucleation. Thus, our results show that solely strain-induced boundary migration, in absence of subgrain rotation, can reduce grain sizes in polar ice, in particular if strain energy gradients are high. We describe the microstructural characteristics that can be

  13. Major Ion Concentrations in WDC05Q and WDC06A Ice Cores (WAIS Divide), Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains major ion concentrations from the chemical analysis of two WAIS Divide ice cores (WDC05Q, 0-114 m; WDC06A, 0-129 m). The analytical technique...

  14. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Wisconsin Ice Island T3 Core Collection (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1963 to 1972, 349 piston cores were collected from the Arctic Ocean using Ice Island T3 as a sampling platform and sent to the University of Wisconsin-Madison...

  15. Sediment transport drives tidewater glacier periodicity. (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Douglas; Truffer, Martin; Aschwanden, Andy


    Most of Earth's glaciers are retreating, but some tidewater glaciers are advancing despite increasing temperatures and contrary to their neighbors. This can be explained by the coupling of ice and sediment dynamics: a shoal forms at the glacier terminus, reducing ice discharge and causing advance towards an unstable configuration followed by abrupt retreat, in a process known as the tidewater glacier cycle. Here we use a numerical model calibrated with observations to show that interactions between ice flow, glacial erosion, and sediment transport drive these cycles, which occur independent of climate variations. Water availability controls cycle period and amplitude, and enhanced melt from future warming could trigger advance even in glaciers that are steady or retreating, complicating interpretations of glacier response to climate change. The resulting shifts in sediment and meltwater delivery from changes in glacier configuration may impact interpretations of marine sediments, fjord geochemistry, and marine ecosystems.The reason some of the Earth's tidewater glaciers are advancing despite increasing temperatures is not entirely clear. Here, using a numerical model that simulates both ice and sediment dynamics, the authors show that internal dynamics drive glacier variability independent of climate.

  16. Reconciling radiocarbon and ice core timescales over the Holocene - Cosmogenic radionuclides as synchronization tools (United States)

    Muscheler, R.; Adolphi, F.; Mekhaldi, F.


    The atmospheric production rates of cosmogenic radionuclides, such as 14C and 10Be, vary globally due to external processes, namely the solar and geomagnetic modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux as well as solar proton events. This signature is recorded in various archives such as ice cores (10Be) and tree-rings (14C). Hence, cosmogenic radionuclides offer a means to continuously assess timescale differences between two of the most widely used timescales in paleoclimatology - the radiocarbon and the ice core timescales. Short lived solar proton events additionally provide distinct marker horizons that allow synchronization of discrete horizons at annual precision. We will present a cosmogenic radionuclide based synchronization of the Greenland ice core timescale (GICC05, Svensson et al., 2008) and the radiocarbon timescale (IntCal13, Reimer et al., 2013) over the Holocene. This synchronization allows radiocarbon dated and ice core paleoclimate records to be compared on a common timescale at down to sub-decadal precision. We will compare these results to independent discrete isochrones obtained from tephrochronology and solar proton events. In addition, we will discuss implications for the accuracy and uncertainty estimates of GICC05 over the Holocene. Reimer, P. J., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J. W., Blackwell, P. G., Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C. E., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P. M., Guilderson, T. P., Haflidason, H., Hajdas, I., Hatté, C., Heaton, T. J., Hoffmann, D. L., Hogg, A. G., Hughen, K. A., Kaiser, K. F., Kromer, B., Manning, S. W., Niu, M., Reimer, R. W., Richards, D. A., Scott, E. M., Southon, J. R., Staff, R. A., Turney, C. S. M., and van der Plicht, J.: IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0-50,000 Years cal BP, Radiocarbon, 55, 1869-1887, 10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947, 2013. Svensson, A., Andersen, K. K., Bigler, M., Clausen, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Davies, S. M., Johnsen, S. J., Muscheler, R., Parrenin


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Huard, T. L.; Knez, C.; Cook, A. M.; Chiar, J. E.; Decin, L.; Blake, G. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.


    The relation between ices in the envelopes and disks surrounding young stellar objects (YSOs) and those in the quiescent interstellar medium (ISM) is investigated. For a sample of 31 stars behind isolated dense cores, ground-based and Spitzer spectra and photometry in the 1-25 μm wavelength range are combined. The baseline for the broad and overlapping ice features is modeled, using calculated spectra of giants, H 2 O ice and silicates. The adopted extinction curve is derived empirically. Its high resolution allows for the separation of continuum and feature extinction. The extinction between 13 and 25 μm is ∼50% relative to that at 2.2 μm. The strengths of the 6.0 and 6.85 μm absorption bands are in line with those of YSOs. Thus, their carriers, which, besides H 2 O and CH 3 OH, may include NH + 4 , HCOOH, H 2 CO, and NH 3 , are readily formed in the dense core phase, before stars form. The 3.53 μm C-H stretching mode of solid CH 3 OH was discovered. The CH 3 OH/H 2 O abundance ratios of 5%-12% are larger than upper limits in the Taurus molecular cloud. The initial ice composition, before star formation occurs, therefore depends on the environment. Signs of thermal and energetic processing that were found toward some YSOs are absent in the ices toward background stars. Finally, the peak optical depth of the 9.7 μm band of silicates relative to the continuum extinction at 2.2 μm is significantly shallower than in the diffuse ISM. This extends the results of Chiar et al. to a larger sample and higher extinctions.

  18. Iron-oxide Magnetic, Morphologic, and Compositional Tracers of Sediment Provenance and Ice Sheet Extent in the ANDRILL AND-1B Drill Core, Ross Sea, Antarctica (Invited) (United States)

    Brachfeld, S. A.; Pinzon, J.; Darley, J. S.; Sagnotti, L.; Kuhn, G.; Florindo, F.; Wilson, G. S.; Ohneiser, C.; Monien, D.; Joseph, L. H.


    The first drilling season of the Antarctic Drilling Program (ANDRILL) recovered a 13.57 million year Miocene through Pleistocene record of paleoclimate change (core AND-1B) within the Ross Sea. The magnetic mineral assemblage records the varying contributions of biological productivity, changing sediment sources, the emergence of volcanic centers, and post-depositional diagenesis. Characterization of bedrock samples from the McMurdo Volcanic Group (MVG) and Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) lithologic units allows us to construct fingerprints for the major source rocks bordering the Ross Sea, and identify their signatures within the AND-1B sediment. Key parameters that can be traced from source rock to sediment for the MVG-derived sediment include a 100-200 C order-disorder transition, titanomaghemite grains with homogenous textures but with substantial Al and Mg content, Fe-spinels with substantial Al, Cr, Mg, and Ti content, and titanomagnetite host grains with 1-3 swarms of ilmenite lamellae (both with variable amounts of oxidation). Distinctive signatures in TAM lithologies include low S-ratios in Koettlitz Group gneisses and Fe-sulfides with magnetite intergrowths in Byrd Glacier basement samples. The Cambrian Granite Harbor Intrusive Complex is characterized by coarse, homogeneous Mn-bearing ilmenite and nearly pure magnetite. The Jurassic dolerites and basalts of the Ferrar Group contain pseudo single domain to stable single domain-sized Fe-oxides with low-Ti content and homogeneous textures. Cu-Fe sulfides are also present in the Ferrar Group. Diamictites in the Pliocene-Pleistocene section of the AND-1B drill core contains Fe-oxide assemblages with MVG-type rock magnetic and textural characteristics, while the Miocene diamictites contain TAM-type signatures. These observations can be explained by increased ice flow from the west during the Miocene and/or the absence of MVG volcanic centers, which had not yet reached a significant size. During the Pliocene and

  19. Snow precipitation at four ice core sites in East Antarctica: provenance, seasonality and blocking factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarchilli, Claudio [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Universita degli studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Frezzotti, Massimo; Ruti, Paolo Michele [ENEA, Rome (Italy)


    Snow precipitation is the primary mass input to the Antarctic ice sheet and is one of the most direct climatic indicators, with important implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction from ice cores. Provenance of precipitation and the dynamic conditions that force these precipitation events at four deep ice core sites (Dome C, Law Dome, Talos Dome, and Taylor Dome) in East Antarctica were analysed with air mass back trajectories calculated using the Lagrangian model and the mean composite data for precipitation, geopotential height and wind speed field data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast from 1980 to 2001. On an annual basis, back trajectories showed that the Atlantic-Indian and Ross-Pacific Oceans were the main provenances of precipitation in Wilkes Land (80%) and Victoria Land (40%), respectively, whereas the greatest influence of the ice sheet was on the interior near the Vostok site (80%) and in the Southwest Ross Sea (50%), an effect that decreased towards the coast and along the Antarctic slope. Victoria Land received snowfall atypically with respect to other Antarctica areas in terms of pathway (eastern instead of western), seasonality (summer instead of winter) and velocity (old air age). Geopotential height patterns at 500 hPa at low (>10 days) and high (2-6 days) frequencies during snowfall cycles at two core sites showed large positive anomalies at low frequencies developing in the Tasman Sea-Eastern Indian Ocean at higher latitudes (60-70 S) than normal. This could be considered part of an atmospheric blocking event, with transient eddies acting to decelerate westerlies in a split region area and accelerate the flow on the flanks of the low-frequency positive anomalies. (orig.)

  20. Report on workshop "Study of the Antarctic ice sheet and glacier using ERS-1/JERS-1 SAR data"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiko Hirasawa


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the workshop is to discuss recent results of Antarctic research using SAR data. It was held on February 6,1996 at the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR, the number of participants being about 30. The contents of the workshop are demonstration of various SAR images, comparison with pictures from an airplane and visible images, comparison with observational data on ice conditions and demonstration of problems in interferometry.

  1. Annually resolved southern hemisphere volcanic history from two Antarctic ice cores (United States)

    Cole-Dai, Jihong; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; Thompson, Lonnie G.


    The continuous sulfate analysis of two Antarctic ice cores, one from the Antarctic Peninsula region and one from West Antarctica, provides an annually resolved proxy history of southern semisphere volcanism since early in the 15th century. The dating is accurate within ±3 years due to the high rate of snow accumulation at both core sites and the small sample sizes used for analysis. The two sulfate records are consistent with each other. A systematic and objective method of separating outstanding sulfate events from the background sulfate flux is proposed and used to identify all volcanic signals. The resulting volcanic chronology covering 1417-1989 A.D. resolves temporal ambiguities about several recently discovered events. A number of previously unknown, moderate eruptions during late 1600s are uncovered in this chronology. The eruption of Tambora (1815) and the recently discovered eruption of Kuwae (1453) in the tropical South Pacific injected the greatest amount of sulfur dioxide into the southern hemisphere stratosphere during the last half millennium. A technique for comparing the magnitude of volcanic events preserved within different ice cores is developed using normalized sulfate flux. For the same eruptions the variability of the volcanic sulfate flux between the cores is within ±20% of the sulfate flux from the Tambora eruption.

  2. Denali Ice Core MSA: A Record of North Pacific Primary Productivity (United States)

    Polashenski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Winski, D.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S. W.


    The high nutrient, low chlorophyll region of the North Pacific is one of the most biologically productive marine ecosystems in the world and forms the basis of commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries worth more than a billion dollars annually. Marine phytoplankton prove to be important both as the primary producers in these ecosystems and as a major source of biogenic sulfur emissions which have long been hypothesized to serve as a biological control on Earth's climate system. Despite their importance, the record of marine phytoplankton abundance and the flux of biogenic sulfur from these regions is not well constrained. In situ measurements of marine phytoplankton from oceanographic cruises over the past several decades are limited in both spatial and temporal resolution. Meanwhile, marine sediment records may provide insight on million year timescales, but lack decadal resolution due to slow sediment deposition rates and bioturbation. In this study, we aim to investigate changes in marine phytoplankton productivity of the northeastern subarctic Pacific Ocean (NSPO) over the twentieth century using the methanesulfonic acid (MSA) record from the Mt. Hunter ice cores drilled in Denali National Park, Alaska. These parallel, 208 meter long ice cores were drilled during the 2013 field season on the Mt. Hunter plateau (63° N, 151° W, 4,000 m above sea level). Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) modeling is used to identify likely source areas in the NSPO for MSA being transported to the core site. SeaWiFS satellite imagery allows for a direct comparison of chlorophyll a concentrations in these source areas with MSA concentrations in the core record through time. Our findings suggest that the Denali ice core MSA record reflects changes in the biological productivity of marine phytoplankton and shows a significant decline in MSA beginning in 1961. We investigate several hypotheses for potential mechanisms driving this MSA decline

  3. Dendro-chronological analysis of fossilised wood in order to reconstruct the post-ice-age history of glaciers; Dendrochronologische Auswertung fossiler Hoelzer zur Rekonstruktion der nacheiszeitlichen Gletschergeschichte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzhauser, H.


    Around the middle of the 19th century, alpine glaciers advanced to their last maximum extension within the Holocene (the last 11'600 years). Some of the glaciers, especially the Great Aletsch and Gorner, penetrated deeply into wooded land and destroyed numerous trees. Not only were trees destroyed but also valuable arable farmland, alpine farm buildings and dwelling houses. Since the last maximum extension in the 19th century the retreat of the glaciers has accelerated revealing, within the glacier forefields, the remainders of trees once buried. Some of this fossil wood is found in the place where it grew (in situ). Often the wood dates back to a time before the last glacier advance, most of it is several thousands of years old because glacial advance and retreat periods occurred repeatedly within the Holocene. This paper shows the characteristics of fossil wood and how it can be analysed to reconstruct glacial history. It will be demonstrated how glacier length variation can be exactly reconstructed with help of dendrochronology. Thanks to the very exact reconstruction of the glacier length change during the advance periods in the 14th and 16th centuries, the velocities of both the Gorner and Great Aletsch glaciers can be estimated. They range between 7-8 and 20 m per year, in the case of the Gorner glacier, and between 7-8 and 36 m per year, in the case of the Great Aletsch glacier. (author)

  4. Reconstruction of glacier variability from lake sediments reveals dynamic Holocene climate in Svalbard (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem G. M.; Bakke, Jostein; Vasskog, Kristian; D'Andrea, William J.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Ólafsdóttir, Sædis


    The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere else on Earth. Holocene proxy time-series are increasingly used to put this amplified response in perspective by understanding Arctic climate processes beyond the instrumental period. However, available datasets are scarce, unevenly distributed and often of coarse resolution. Glaciers are sensitive recorders of climate shifts and variations in rock-flour production transfer this signal to the lacustrine sediment archives of downstream lakes. Here, we present the first full Holocene record of continuous glacier variability on Svalbard from glacier-fed Lake Hajeren. This reconstruction is based on an undisturbed lake sediment core that covers the entire Holocene and resolves variability on centennial scales owing to 26 dating points. A toolbox of physical, geochemical (XRF) and magnetic proxies in combination with multivariate statistics has allowed us to fingerprint glacier activity in addition to other processes affecting the sediment record. Evidence from variations in sediment density, validated by changes in Ti concentrations, reveal glaciers remained present in the catchment following deglaciation prior to 11,300 cal BP, culminating in a Holocene maximum between 9.6 and 9.5 ka cal BP. Correspondence with freshwater pulses from Hudson Strait suggests that Early Holocene glacier advances were driven by the melting Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). We find that glaciers disappeared from the catchment between 7.4 and 6.7 ka cal BP, following a late Hypsithermal. Glacier reformation around 4250 cal BP marks the onset of the Neoglacial, supporting previous findings. Between 3380 and 3230 cal BP, we find evidence for a previously unreported centennial-scale glacier advance. Both events are concurrent with well-documented episodes of North Atlantic cooling. We argue that this brief forcing created suitable conditions for glaciers to reform in the catchment against a background of gradual orbital cooling. These findings highlight the

  5. Solving the riddle of interglacial temperatures over the last 1.5 million years with a future IPICS "Oldest Ice" ice core (United States)

    Fischer, Hubertus


    The sequence of the last 8 glacial cycles is characterized by irregular 100,000 year cycles in temperature and sea level. In contrast, the time period between 1.5-1.2 million years ago is characterized by more regular cycles with an obliquity periodicity of 41,000 years. Based on a deconvolution of deep ocean temperature and ice volume contributions to benthic δ18O (Elderfield et al., Science, 2012), it is suggested that glacial sea level became progressively lower over the last 1.5 Myr, while glacial deep ocean temperatures were very similar. At the same time many interglacials prior to the Mid Brunhes event showed significantly cooler deep ocean temperatures than the Holocene, while at the same time interglacial ice volume remained essentially the same. In contrast, interglacial sea surface temperatures in the tropics changed little (Herbert et al., Science,2010) and proxy reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 using δ11B in planktic foraminifera (Hönisch et al., Science, 2009) suggest that prior to 900,000 yr before present interglacial CO2 levels did not differ substantially from those over the last 450,000 years. Accordingly, the conundrum arises how interglacials can differ in deep ocean temperature without any obvious change in ice volume or greenhouse gas forcing and what caused the change in cyclicity of glacial interglacial cycles over the Mid Pleistocene Transition. Probably the most important contribution to solve this riddle is the recovery of a 1.5 Myr old ice core from Antarctica, which among others would provide an unambiguous, high-resolution record of the greenhouse gas history over this time period. Accordingly, the international ice core community, as represented by the International Partnership for Ice Core Science (IPICS), has identified such an 'Oldest Ice' ice core as one of the most important scientific targets for the future ( However, finding stratigraphically undisturbed ice, which covers this

  6. Modelling glacier-bed overdeepenings and possible future lakes for the glaciers in the Himalaya-Karakoram region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linsbauer, A.; Frey, H.; Haeberli, W.


    Surface digital elevation models (DEMs) and slope-related estimates of glacier thickness enable modelling of glacier-bed topographies over large ice-covered areas. Due to the erosive power of glaciers, such bed topographies can contain numerous overdeepenings, which when exposed following glacier...... retreat may fill with water and form new lakes. In this study, the bed overdeepenings for ∼28000 glaciers (40 775km2) of the Himalaya-Karakoram region are modelled using GlabTop2 (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2), in which ice thickness is inferred from surface slope by parameterizing basal shear...... stress as a function of elevation range for each glacier. The modelled ice thicknesses are uncertain (±30%), but spatial patterns of ice thickness and bed elevation primarily depend on surface slopes as derived from the DEM and, hence, are more robust. About 16 000 overdeepenings larger than 104m2 were...

  7. Millennial and sub-millennial scale climatic variations recorded in polar ice cores over the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capron, E.; Landais, A.; Chappellaz, J.


    Since its discovery in Greenland ice cores, the millennial scale climatic variability of the last glacial period has been increasingly documented at all latitudes with studies focusing mainly on Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (MIS 3; 28–60 thousand of years before present, hereafter ka) and characterized...... that when ice sheets are extensive, Antarctica does not necessarily warm during the whole GS as the thermal bipolar seesaw model would predict, questioning the Greenland ice core temperature records as a proxy for AMOC changes throughout the glacial period....

  8. Soot on snow in Iceland: First results on black carbon and organic carbon in Iceland 2016 snow and ice samples, including the glacier Solheimajökull (United States)

    Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Gritsevich, Maria; Aurela, Minna; Arnalds, Olafur; Dragosics, Monika; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Kontu, Anna; Kivekäs, Niku; Leppäranta, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Laaksonen, Ari; Lihavainen, Heikki; Arslan, Ali N.; Paatero, Jussi


    New results on black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) on snow and ice in Iceland in 2016 will be presented in connection to our earlier results on BC and OC on Arctic seasonal snow surface, and in connection to our 2013 and 2016 experiments on effects of light absorbing impurities, including Icelandic dust, on snow albedo, melt and density. Our sampling included the glacier Solheimajökull in Iceland. The mass balance of this glacier is negative and it has been shrinking during the last 20 years by 900 meters from its southwestern corner. Icelandic snow and ice samples were not expected to contain high concentrations of BC, as power generation with domestic renewable water and geothermal power energy sources cover 80 % of the total energy consumption in Iceland. Our BC results on filters analyzed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC) confirm this assumption. Other potential soot sources in Iceland include agricultural burning, industry (aluminum and ferroalloy production and fishing industry), open burning, residential heating and transport (shipping, road traffic, aviation). On the contrary to low BC, we have found high concentrations of organic carbon in our Iceland 2016 samples. Some of the possible reasons for those will be discussed in this presentation. Earlier, we have measured and reported unexpectedly low snow albedo values of Arctic seasonally melting snow in Sodankylä, north of Arctic Circle. Our low albedo results of melting snow have been confirmed by three independent data sets. We have explained these low values to be due to: (i) large snow grain sizes up to 3 mm in diameter (seasonally melting snow); (ii) meltwater surrounding the grains and increasing the effective grain size; (iii) absorption caused by impurities in the snow, with concentration of elemental carbon (black carbon) in snow of 87 ppb, and organic carbon 2894 ppb. The high concentrations of carbon were due to air masses originating from the Kola Peninsula, Russia

  9. Climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale recorded by the Guliya ice core in Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚檀栋; 徐柏青; 蒲健辰


    Based on ice core records in the Tibetan Plateau and Greenland, the features and possible causes of climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale were discussed. Orbital time scale climatic change recorded in ice core from the Tibetan Plateau is typically ahead of that from polar regions, which indicates that climatic change in the Tibetan Plateau might be earlier than polar regions. The solar radiation change is a major factor that dominates the climatic change on orbital time scale. However, climatic events on sub-orbital time scale occurred later in the Tibetan Plateau than in the Arctic Region, indicating a different mechanism. For example, the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events took place earlier in Greenland ice core record than in Guliya ice core record. It is reasonable to propose the hypothesis that these climatic events were affected possibly by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Therefore, ice sheet is critically important to climatic change on sub-orbital time scale in some ice ages.

  10. Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet and Icelandic Glaciers in the 20th Century Using Geodetic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    by bedrock geometry. It is revealed that dynamic ice loss recently seen in the southeast and northwest GrIS also occurred in the northwest between 1985 and 1993, highlighting the difficulty of capturing these events in mass balance models. Extending the record back to the LIA, the results show...... that for the past 110 years, the surface mass balance has been decreasing, while the dynamic term has been constant. The spatial pattern of thinning in the 20th century is identical to that of current change, suggesting this pattern will continue in the near future. The mass change of the GrIS in 20th century...

  11. Velocities of antarctic outlet glaciers determined from sequential Landsat images (United States)

    MacDonald, Thomas R.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.


    Approximately 91.0 percent of the volume of present-day glacier ice on Earth is in Antarctica; Greenland contains about another 8.3 percent of the volume. Thus, together, these two great ice sheets account for an estimated 99.3 percent of the total. Long-term changes in the volume of glacier ice on our planet are the result of global climate change. Because of the relationship of global ice volume to sea level (± 330 cubic kilometers of glacier ice equals ± 1 millimeter sea level), changes in the mass balance of the antarctic ice sheet are of particular importance.Whether the mass balance of the east and west antarctic ice sheets is positive or negative is not known. Estimates of mass input by total annual precipitation for the continent have been made from scattered meteorological observations (Swithinbank 1985). The magnitude of annual ablation of the ice sheet from calving of outlet glaciers and ice shelves is also not well known. Although the velocities of outlet glaciers can be determined from field measurements during the austral summer,the technique is costly, does not cover a complete annual cycle,and has been applied to just a few glaciers. To increase the number of outlet glaciers in Antarctica for which velocities have been determined and to provide additional data for under-standing the dynamics of the antarctic ice sheets and their response to global climate change, sequential Landsat image of several outlet glaciers were measured.

  12. An inventory and estimate of water stored in firn fields, glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers in the Aconcagua River Basin, Chile (United States)

    Janke, Jason R.; Ng, Sam; Bellisario, Antonio


    An inventory of firn fields, glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers was conducted in the Aconcagua River Basin of the semiarid Andes of central Chile. A total of 916 landforms were identified, of which rock glaciers were the most abundant (669) and occupied the most total area. Glaciers and debris-covered glaciers were less numerous, but were about five times larger in comparison. The total area occupied by glaciers and debris-covered glaciers was roughly equivalent to the total area of rock glaciers. Debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers were subcategorized into six ice-content classes based on interpretation of surface morphology with high-resolution satellite imagery. Over 50% of rock glaciers fell within a transitional stage; 85% of debris-covered glaciers were either fully covered or buried. Most landforms occupied elevations between 3500 and 4500 m. Glaciers and firn occurred at higher elevations compared to rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. Rock glaciers had a greater frequency in the northern part of the study area where arid climate conditions exist. Firn and glaciers were oriented south, debris-covered glaciers west, and rock glaciers southwest. An analysis of water contribution of each landform in the upper Andes of the Aconcagua River Basin was conducted using formulas that associate the size of the landforms to estimates of water stored. Minimum and maximum water storage was calculated based on a range of debris to ice content ratios for debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers. In the Aconcagua River Basin, rock glaciers accounted for 48 to 64% of the water stored within the landforms analyzed; glaciers accounted for 15 to 25%; debris-covered glaciers were estimated at 15 to 19%; firn fields contained only about 5 to 8% of the water stored. Expansion of agriculture, prolonged drought, and removal of ice-rich landforms for mining have put additional pressure on already scarce water resources. To develop long

  13. Changes in Black Carbon Deposition to Antarctica from Two Ice Core Records, A.D. 1850-2000 (United States)

    Bisiaux, Marion M.; Edward, Ross; McConnell, Joseph R.; Curran, Mark A. J.; VanOmmen, Tas D.; Smith, Andrew M.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Penner, Joyce E.; Taylor, Kendrick


    Continuous flow analysis was based on a steady sample flow and in-line detection of BC and other chemical substances as described in McConnell et al. (2007). In the cold room, previously cut one meter ice core sticks of 3x3cm, are melted continuously on a heated melter head specifically designed to eliminate contamination from the atmosphere or by the external parts of the ice. The melted ice from the most inner part of the ice stick is continuously pumped by a peristaltic pump and carried to a clean lab by Teflon lines. The recorded signal is continuous, integrating a sample volume of about 0.05 mL, for which the temporal resolution depends on the speed of melting, ice density and snow accumulation rate at the ice core drilling site. For annual accumulation derived from the WAIS and Law Dome ice cores, we assumed 3.1 cm water equivalent uncertainty in each year's accumulation from short scale spatial variability (glaciological noise) which was determined from several measurements of annual accumulation in multiple parallel ice cores notably from the WAIS Divide ice core site (Banta et al., 2008) and from South Pole site (McConnell et al., 1997; McConnell et al., 2000). Refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were determined using the same method as in (Bisiaux et al., 2011) and adapted to continuous flow measurements as described by (McConnell et al., 2007). The technique uses a single particle intracavity laser induced incandescence photometer (SP2, Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, Colorado) coupled to an ultrasonic nebulizer/desolvation (CETAC UT5000) Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). All analyses, sample preparation etc, were performed in a class 100 cleanroom using anti contamination "clean techniques". The samples were not acidified.

  14. Understanding Recent Mass Balance Changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    vanderVeen, Cornelius


    The ultimate goal of this project is to better understand the current transfer of mass between the Greenland Ice Sheet, the world's oceans and the atmosphere, and to identify processes controlling the rate of this transfer, to be able to predict with greater confidence future contributions to global sea level rise. During the first year of this project, we focused on establishing longer-term records of change of selected outlet glaciers, reevaluation of mass input to the ice sheet and analysis of climate records derived from ice cores, and modeling meltwater production and runoff from the margins of the ice sheet.

  15. The EDC3 chronology for the EPICA Dome C ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parrenin


    Full Text Available The EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C drilling in East Antarctica has now been completed to a depth of 3260 m, at only a few meters above bedrock. Here we present the new EDC3 chronology, which is based on the use of 1 a snow accumulation and mechanical flow model, and 2 a set of independent age markers along the core. These are obtained by pattern matching of recorded parameters to either absolutely dated paleoclimatic records, or to insolation variations. We show that this new time scale is in excellent agreement with the Dome Fuji and Vostok ice core time scales back to 100 kyr within 1 kyr. Discrepancies larger than 3 kyr arise during MIS 5.4, 5.5 and 6, which points to anomalies in either snow accumulation or mechanical flow during these time periods. We estimate that EDC3 gives accurate event durations within 20% (2σ back to MIS11 and accurate absolute ages with a maximum uncertainty of 6 kyr back to 800 kyr.

  16. Novel automated inversion algorithm for temperature reconstruction using gas isotopes from ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Döring


    Full Text Available Greenland past temperature history can be reconstructed by forcing the output of a firn-densification and heat-diffusion model to fit multiple gas-isotope data (δ15N or δ40Ar or δ15Nexcess extracted from ancient air in Greenland ice cores using published accumulation-rate (Acc datasets. We present here a novel methodology to solve this inverse problem, by designing a fully automated algorithm. To demonstrate the performance of this novel approach, we begin by intentionally constructing synthetic temperature histories and associated δ15N datasets, mimicking real Holocene data that we use as true values (targets to be compared to the output of the algorithm. This allows us to quantify uncertainties originating from the algorithm itself. The presented approach is completely automated and therefore minimizes the subjective impact of manual parameter tuning, leading to reproducible temperature estimates. In contrast to many other ice-core-based temperature reconstruction methods, the presented approach is completely independent from ice-core stable-water isotopes, providing the opportunity to validate water-isotope-based reconstructions or reconstructions where water isotopes are used together with δ15N or δ40Ar. We solve the inverse problem T(δ15N, Acc by using a combination of a Monte Carlo based iterative approach and the analysis of remaining mismatches between modelled and target data, based on cubic-spline filtering of random numbers and the laboratory-determined temperature sensitivity for nitrogen isotopes. Additionally, the presented reconstruction approach was tested by fitting measured δ40Ar and δ15Nexcess data, which led as well to a robust agreement between modelled and measured data. The obtained final mismatches follow a symmetric standard-distribution function. For the study on synthetic data, 95 % of the mismatches compared to the synthetic target data are in an envelope between 3.0 to 6.3 permeg for δ15N and 0.23 to 0

  17. Inverse stochastic-dynamic models for high-resolution Greenland ice core records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boers, Niklas; Chekroun, Mickael D.; Liu, Honghu


    as statistical properties such as probability density functions, waiting times and power spectra, with no need for any external forcing. The crucial ingredients for capturing these properties are (i) high-resolution training data, (ii) cubic drift terms, (iii) nonlinear coupling terms between the 18O and dust......Proxy records from Greenland ice cores have been studied for several decades, yet many open questions remain regarding the climate variability encoded therein. Here, we use a Bayesian framework for inferring inverse, stochastic-dynamic models from 18O and dust records of unprecedented, subdecadal...

  18. The ice-core record - Climate sensitivity and future greenhouse warming (United States)

    Lorius, C.; Raynaud, D.; Jouzel, J.; Hansen, J.; Le Treut, H.


    The prediction of future greenhouse-gas-warming depends critically on the sensitivity of earth's climate to increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases. Data from cores drilled in polar ice sheets show a remarkable correlation between past glacial-interglacial temperature changes and the inferred atmospheric concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These and other palaeoclimate data are used to assess the role of greenhouse gases in explaining past global climate change, and the validity of models predicting the effect of increasing concentrations of such gases in the atmosphere.

  19. Proxies and measurement techinques for mineral dust in antarctic ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruth..[], Urs; Bigler, Matthias


    analysis), elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy at pH 1 and after full acid digestion), and water-insoluble elemental analysis (proton induced X-ray emission). Antarctic ice core samples covering the last deglaciation from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and the EPICA Dronning Maud Land......-MS measurements depends on the digestion method and is different for different elements and during different climatic periods. EDC and EDML samples have similar dust composition, which suggests a common dust source or a common mixture of sources for the two sites. The analyzed samples further reveal a change...

  20. High-frequency paleoclimatic variability: a spectral analysis of the Vostok ice-core isotopic record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiou, P.; Genthon, C.; Jouzel, J.; Le Treut, H.; Lorius, C.; Ghil, M.; Korotkevich, Y.S.


    This paper uses a recently analysed isotopic record from an ice core drilled at the Soviet Antartic Station VOSTOK, representing a total time span of about 160,000 years. Results obtained show the existence of a significative climatic variability at the time scale of 10,000 years and below. The many spectral peaks appear to be approximate linear combination of a little number among them, a clear indication of the non linear nature of climate fluctuations at these ''short'' time scales.

  1. Determining glacier velocity with single frequency GPS receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, C.H.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Boot, W.


    A well-known phenomenon in glacier dynamics is the existence of a relation between the glacier velocity and available amount of melt water (Zwally et al., 2002; Van de Wal et al., 2008). This relation is of particular importance when estimating the reaction of glaciers and ice sheets to climate

  2. Tidal Movement of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, Northeast Greenland: Observations and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Mayer, C.; Olesen, O. B.


    Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden glacier is a > 60 km long and 20 km wide floating outlet glacier located at 79 degrees 30' N, 22 degrees W, draining a large area of the northeast Greenland ice sheet. Climate, mass-balance and dynamics studies were carried out on the glacier in three field seasons in 1996...

  3. Combined ice core and climate-model evidence for the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet during Marine Isotope Stage 5e. (United States)

    Steig, Eric J.; Huybers, Kathleen; Singh, Hansi A.; Steiger, Nathan J.; Frierson, Dargan M. W.; Popp, Trevor; White, James W. C.


    It has been speculated that collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet explains the very high eustatic sea level rise during the last interglacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, but the evidence remains equivocal. Changes in atmospheric circulation resulting from a collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) would have significant regional impacts that should be detectable in ice core records. We conducted simulations using general circulation models (GCMs) at varying levels of complexity: a gray-radiation aquaplanet moist GCM (GRaM), the slab ocean version of GFDL-AM2 (also as an aquaplanet), and the fully-coupled version of NCAR's CESM with realistic topography. In all the experiments, decreased elevation from the removal of the WAIS leads to greater cyclonic circulation over the West Antarctic region. This creates increased advection of relatively warm marine air from the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas towards the South Pole, and increased cold-air advection from the East Antarctic plateau towards the Ross Sea and coastal Marie Byrd Land. The result is anomalous warming in some areas of the East Antarctic interior, and significant cooling in Marie Byrd Land. Comparison of ice core records shows good agreement with the model predictions. In particular, isotope-paleotemperature records from ice cores in East Antarctica warmed more between the previous glacial period (MIS 6) and MIS 5e than coastal Marie Byrd Land. These results add substantial support to other evidence for WAIS collapse during the last interglacial period.

  4. The GLIMS Glacier Database (United States)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.


    The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project has built a geospatial and temporal database of glacier data, composed of glacier outlines and various scalar attributes. These data are being derived primarily from satellite imagery, such as from ASTER and Landsat. Each "snapshot" of a glacier is from a specific time, and the database is designed to store multiple snapshots representative of different times. We have implemented two web-based interfaces to the database; one enables exploration of the data via interactive maps (web map server), while the other allows searches based on text-field constraints. The web map server is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant Web Map Server (WMS) and Web Feature Server (WFS). This means that other web sites can display glacier layers from our site over the Internet, or retrieve glacier features in vector format. All components of the system are implemented using Open Source software: Linux, PostgreSQL, PostGIS (geospatial extensions to the database), MapServer (WMS and WFS), and several supporting components such as Proj.4 (a geographic projection library) and PHP. These tools are robust and provide a flexible and powerful framework for web mapping applications. As a service to the GLIMS community, the database contains metadata on all ASTER imagery acquired over glacierized terrain. Reduced-resolution of the images (browse imagery) can be viewed either as a layer in the MapServer application, or overlaid on the virtual globe within Google Earth. The interactive map application allows the user to constrain by time what data appear on the map. For example, ASTER or glacier outlines from 2002 only, or from Autumn in any year, can be displayed. The system allows users to download their selected glacier data in a choice of formats. The results of a query based on spatial selection (using a mouse) or text-field constraints can be downloaded in any of these formats: ESRI shapefiles, KML (Google Earth), Map

  5. Pollution from the 2014-15 Bárðarbunga eruption monitored by snow cores from the Vatnajökull glacier, Iceland (United States)

    Galeczka, Iwona; Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Pálsson, Finnur; Oelkers, Eric; Lutz, Stefanie; Benning, Liane G.; Stefánsson, Andri; Kjartansdóttir, Ríkey; Gunnarsson-Robin, Jóhann; Ono, Shuhei; Ólafsdóttir, Rósa; Jónasdóttir, Elín Björk; Gislason, Sigurdur R.


    The chemical composition of Icelandic rain and snow is dominated by marine aerosols, however human and volcanic activity can also affect these compositions. The six month long 2014-15 Bárðarbunga volcanic eruption was the largest in Iceland for more than 200 years and it released into the atmosphere an average of 60 kt/day SO2, 30 kt/day CO2, 500 t/day HCl and 280 t/day HF. To study the effect of this eruption on the winter precipitation, snow cores were collected from the Vatnajökull glacier and the highlands northeast of the glacier. In addition to 29 bulk snow cores from that precipitated from September 2014 until March 2015, two cores were sampled in 21 and 44 increments to quantify the spatial and time evolution of the chemical composition of the snow. The pH and chemical compositions of melted snow samples indicate that snow has been affected by the volcanic gases emitted during the Bárðarbunga eruption. The pH of the melted bulk snow cores ranged from 4.41 to 5.64 with an average value of 5.01. This is four times greater H+ activity than pure water saturated with the atmospheric CO2. The highest concentrations of volatiles in the snow cores were found close to the eruption site as predicted from CALPUFF SO2 gas dispersion quality model. The anion concentrations (SO4, Cl, and F) were higher and the pH was lower compared to equivalent snow samples collected during 1997-2006 from the unpolluted Icelandic Langjökull glacier. Higher SO4 and Cl concentrations in the snow compared with the unpolluted rainwater of marine origin confirm the addition of a non-seawater SO4 and Cl. The δ34S isotopic composition confirms that the sulphur addition is of volcanic aerosol origin. The chemical evolution of the snow with depth reflects changes in the lava effusion and gas emission rates. Those rates were the highest at the early stage of the eruption. Snow that fell during that time, represented by samples from the deepest part of the snow cores, had the lowest pH and

  6. Measuring stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in ice by means of laser spectrometry : The Bolling transition in the Dye-3 (south Greenland) ice core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trigt, R. van; Meijer, H.A.J.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A.E.; Johnsen, S.J.; Kerstel, E.R.Th.


    We report on the first application of a new technique in ice-core research, based on direct absorption infrared laser spectrometry (LS), for measuring H-2 O-17 and O-18 isotope ratios. The data are used to calculate the deuterium excess d (defined as delta(2)H - 8delta(18)O) for a section of the

  7. Expression and partial characterization of an ice binding protein from a bacterium isolated at a depth of 3,519 meters in the Vostok ice core, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Marie Achberger


    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of microorganisms in ancient glacial ice is possible if lethal levels of macromolecular damage are not incurred and cellular integrity is not compromised via intracellular ice formation or recrystallization. Previously, a bacterium (isolate 3519-10 recovered from a depth of 3,519 meters below the surface in the Vostok ice core was shown to secrete an IBP that inhibits the recrystallization of ice. To explore the advantage that IBPs confer to ice-entrapped cells, experiments were designed to examine the expression of 3519-10’s IBP gene and protein at different temperatures, assess the effect of the IBP on bacterial viability in ice, and determine how the IBP influences the physical structure of the ice. Total RNA isolated from cultures grown between 4 to 25⁰C and analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR indicated constitutive expression of the IBP gene. SDS-PAGE analysis of 3519-10’s extracellular proteins also revealed a polypeptide of the predicted size of the 54 kDa IBP at all temperatures tested. In the presence of 100 µg mL-1 of extracellular protein from 3519-10, the survival of Escherichia coli was increased by greater than 34-fold after freeze-thaw cycling. Microscopic analysis of ice formed in the presence of the IBP indicated that per mm2 field of view, there were ~5 times as many crystals as in ice formed in the presence of washed 3519-10 cells and non-IBP producing bacteria, and ~10 times as many crystals as in filtered deionized water. Presumably, the effect that the IBP has on bacterial viability and ice crystal structure is due to its activity as an inhibitor of ice recrystallization. A myriad of molecular adaptations are likely to play a role in bacterial persistence under frozen conditions, but the ability of 3519-10’s IBP to control ice crystal structure, and thus the liquid vein network within the ice, may provide one explanation for its successful survival deep within the Antarctic ice sheet for

  8. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromova, Tatiana; Nosenko, Gennady; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Muraviev, Anton; Chernova, Ludmila


    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965–1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s–1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km 2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of

  9. Supporting evidence from the EPICA Dronning Maud Land ice core for atmospheric CO2 changes during the past millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegenthaler, Urs; Monnin, Eric; Kawamura, Kenji; Spahni, Renato; Schwander, Jakob; Stauffer, Bernhard; Stocker, Thomas F.; Fischer, Hubertus


    The most direct method of investigating past variations of the atmospheric CO 2 concentration before 1958, when continuous direct atmospheric CO 2 measurements started, is the analysis of air extracted from suitable ice cores. Here we present a new detailed CO 2 record from the Dronning Maud Land (DML) ice core, drilled in the framework of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) and some new measurements on a previously drilled ice core from the South Pole. The DML CO 2 record shows an increase from about 278 to 282 parts per million by volume (ppmv) between ad 1000 and ad 1200 and a fairly continuous decrease to a mean value of about 277 ppmv around ad 1700. While the new South Pole measurements agree well with DML at the minimum at ad 1700 they are on average about 2 ppmv lower during the period ad 1000-1500. Published measurements from the coastal high-accumulation site Law Dome are considered as very reliable because of the reproducibility of the measurements, high temporal resolution and an accurate time scale. Other Antarctic ice cores could not, or only partly, reproduce the pre-industrial measurements from Law Dome. A comparison of the trends of DML and Law Dome shows a general agreement. However we should be able to rule out co-variations caused by the same artefact. Two possible effects are discussed, first production of CO 2 by chemical reactions and second diffusion of dissolved air through the ice matrix into the bubbles. While the first effect cannot be totally excluded, comparison of the Law Dome and DML record shows that dissolved air diffusing to bubbles cannot be responsible for the pre-industrial variation. Therefore, the new record is not a proof of the Law Dome results but the first very strong support from an ice core of the Antarctic plateau

  10. Design and Implementation of a Wireless Sensor Network of GPS-enabled Seismic Sensors for the Study of Glaciers and Ice Sheets (United States)

    Bilen, S. G.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Urbina, J. V.


    In an effort to provide new and improved geophysical sensing capabilities for the study of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, or to study mountain glaciers, we are developing a network of wirelessly interconnected seismic and GPS sensor nodes (called "geoPebbles"), with the primary objective of making such instruments more capable and cost effective. We describe our design methodology, which has enabled us to develop these state-of-the art sensors using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware combined with custom-designed hardware and software. Each geoPebble is a self-contained, wirelessly connected sensor for collecting seismic measurements and position information. Each node is built around a three-component seismic recorder, which includes an amplifier, filter, and 24-bit analog-to-digital card that can sample up to 10 kHz. Each unit also includes a microphone channel to record the ground-coupled airwave. The timing for each node is available through a carrier-phase measurement of the L1 GPS signal at an absolute accuracy of better than a microsecond. Each geoPebble includes 16 GB of solid-state storage, wireless communications capability to a central supervisory unit, and auxiliary measurements capability (up to eight 10-bit channels at low sample rates). We will report on current efforts to test this new instrument and how we are addressing the challenges imposed by the extreme weather conditions on the Antarctic continent. After fully validating its operational conditions, the geoPebble system will be available for NSF-sponsored glaciology research projects. Geophysical experiments in the polar region are logistically difficult. With the geoPebble system, the cost of doing today's experiments (low-resolution, 2D) will be significantly reduced, and the cost and feasibility of doing tomorrow's experiments (integrated seismic, positioning, 3D, etc.) will be reasonable. Sketch of an experiment with geoPebbles scattered on the surface of the ice sheet. The seismic

  11. [The relevance of core muscles in ice hockey players: a feasibility study]. (United States)

    Rogan, S; Blasimann, A; Nyffenegger, D; Zimmerli, N; Radlinger, L


    Good core strength is seen as a condition for high performance in sports. In general, especially maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and strength endurance (SE) measurements of the core muscles are used. In addition, a few studies can be found that examine the core muscles in terms of MVC, rate of force development (RFD) and SE. Primary aims of this feasibility study were to investigate the feasibility regarding recruiting process, compliance and safety of the testing conditions and raise the force capabilities MVC, RFD and SE of the core muscles in amateur ice hockey players. Secondarily, tendencies of correlations between muscle activity and either shot speed and sprint time shall be examined. In this feasibility study the recruitment process has been approved by 29 ice hockey players, their adherence to the study measurements of trunk muscles, and safety of the measurements was evaluated. To determine the MVC, RFD and SE for the ventral, lateral and dorsal core muscles a dynamic force measurement was performed. To determine the correlation between core muscles and shot speed and 40-m sprint, respectively, the rank correlation coefficient (rho) from Spearman was used. The recruited number of eight field players and one goal-keeper was not very high. The compliance with 100 % was excellent. The players reported no adverse symptoms or injuries after the measurements. The results show median values for the ventral core muscles for MVC with 46.5 kg for RFD with 2.23 m/s2 and 96 s for the SE. For lateral core muscle median values of the lateral core muscles for MVC with 71.10 kg, RFD with 2.59 m/s2 and for SE over 66 s were determined. The dorsal core muscles shows values for MVC 69.7 kg, for RFD 3.39 m/s2 and for SE of 75 s. High correlations between MVC of the ventral core muscles (rho = -0.721, p = 0.021), and between the SE of the ventral core muscles (rho = 0.787, p = 0.012), and the shot velocity rate were determined. Another

  12. Inverse stochastic–dynamic models for high-resolution Greenland ice core records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Boers


    Full Text Available Proxy records from Greenland ice cores have been studied for several decades, yet many open questions remain regarding the climate variability encoded therein. Here, we use a Bayesian framework for inferring inverse, stochastic–dynamic models from δ18O and dust records of unprecedented, subdecadal temporal resolution. The records stem from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP, and we focus on the time interval 59–22 ka b2k. Our model reproduces the dynamical characteristics of both the δ18O and dust proxy records, including the millennial-scale Dansgaard–Oeschger variability, as well as statistical properties such as probability density functions, waiting times and power spectra, with no need for any external forcing. The crucial ingredients for capturing these properties are (i high-resolution training data, (ii cubic drift terms, (iii nonlinear coupling terms between the δ18O and dust time series, and (iv non-Markovian contributions that represent short-term memory effects.

  13. Inverse stochastic-dynamic models for high-resolution Greenland ice core records (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Chekroun, Mickael D.; Liu, Honghu; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Svensson, Anders; Bigler, Matthias; Ghil, Michael


    Proxy records from Greenland ice cores have been studied for several decades, yet many open questions remain regarding the climate variability encoded therein. Here, we use a Bayesian framework for inferring inverse, stochastic-dynamic models from δ18O and dust records of unprecedented, subdecadal temporal resolution. The records stem from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP), and we focus on the time interval 59-22 ka b2k. Our model reproduces the dynamical characteristics of both the δ18O and dust proxy records, including the millennial-scale Dansgaard-Oeschger variability, as well as statistical properties such as probability density functions, waiting times and power spectra, with no need for any external forcing. The crucial ingredients for capturing these properties are (i) high-resolution training data, (ii) cubic drift terms, (iii) nonlinear coupling terms between the δ18O and dust time series, and (iv) non-Markovian contributions that represent short-term memory effects.

  14. Ice Core Perspective on Mercury Pollution during the Past 600 Years. (United States)

    Beal, Samuel A; Osterberg, Erich C; Zdanowicz, Christian M; Fisher, David A


    Past emissions of the toxic metal mercury (Hg) persist in the global environment, yet these emissions remain poorly constrained by existing data. Ice cores are high-resolution archives of atmospheric deposition that may provide crucial insight into past atmospheric Hg levels during recent and historical time. Here we present a record of total Hg (HgT) in an ice core from the pristine summit plateau (5340 m asl) of Mount Logan, Yukon, Canada, representing atmospheric deposition from AD 1410 to 1998. The Colonial Period (∼1603-1850) and North American "Gold Rush" (1850-1900) represent minor fractions (8% and 14%, respectively) of total anthropogenic Hg deposition in the record, with the majority (78%) occurring during the 20th Century. A period of maximum HgT fluxes from 1940 to 1975 coincides with estimates of enhanced anthropogenic Hg emissions from commercial sources, as well as with industrial emissions of other toxic metals. Rapid declines in HgT fluxes following peaks during the Gold Rush and the mid-20th Century indicate that atmospheric Hg deposition responds quickly to reductions in emissions. Increasing HgT fluxes from 1993 until the youngest samples in 1998 may reflect the resurgence of Hg emissions from unregulated coal burning and small-scale gold mining.

  15. Aromatic acids in a Eurasian Arctic ice core: a 2600-year proxy record of biomass burning (United States)

    Grieman, Mackenzie M.; Aydin, Murat; Fritzsche, Diedrich; McConnell, Joseph R.; Opel, Thomas; Sigl, Michael; Saltzman, Eric S.


    Wildfires and their emissions have significant impacts on ecosystems, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and carbon cycling. Well-dated proxy records are needed to study the long-term climatic controls on biomass burning and the associated climate feedbacks. There is a particular lack of information about long-term biomass burning variations in Siberia, the largest forested area in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study we report analyses of aromatic acids (vanillic and para-hydroxybenzoic acids) over the past 2600 years in the Eurasian Arctic Akademii Nauk ice core. These compounds are aerosol-borne, semi-volatile organic compounds derived from lignin combustion. The analyses were made using ion chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometric detection. The levels of these aromatic acids ranged from below the detection limit (0.01 to 0.05 ppb; 1 ppb = 1000 ng L-1) to about 1 ppb, with roughly 30 % of the samples above the detection limit. In the preindustrial late Holocene, highly elevated aromatic acid levels are observed during three distinct periods (650-300 BCE, 340-660 CE, and 1460-1660 CE). The timing of the two most recent periods coincides with the episodic pulsing of ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic known as Bond events and a weakened Asian monsoon, suggesting a link between fires and large-scale climate variability on millennial timescales. Aromatic acid levels also are elevated during the onset of the industrial period from 1780 to 1860 CE, but with a different ratio of vanillic and para-hydroxybenzoic acid than is observed during the preindustrial period. This study provides the first millennial-scale record of aromatic acids. This study clearly demonstrates that coherent aromatic acid signals are recorded in polar ice cores that can be used as proxies for past trends in biomass burning.

  16. Trials and Tribulations of Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter Chemical Interpretations: A case study of polar ice cores (United States)

    D'Andrilli, J.


    Excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy is widely applied for rapid dissolved organic matter (DOM) characterization in aquatic systems. Fluorescent DOM surveys are booming, not only as a central focus in aquatic environments, but also as an important addition to interdisciplinary research (e.g., DOM analysis in concert with ice core paleoclimate reconstructions, stream metabolism, hydrologic regimes, agricultural developments, and biological activity), opening new doors, not just for novelty, but also for more challenges with chemical interpretations. Recently, the commonly used protein- versus humic-like classifications of DOM have been ineffective at describing DOM chemistry in various systems (e.g., ice cores, wastewaters, incubations/engineered). Moreover, the oversimplification of such classifications used to describe fluorescing components, without further scrutiny, has become commonplace, ultimately producing vague reporting. For example, West Antarctic ice core DOM was shown to contain fluorescence in the low excitation/emission wavelength region, however resolved fluorophores depicting tyrosine- and tryptophan-like DOM were not observed. At first, as literature suggested, we reported this result as protein-like, and concluded that microbial contributions were dominant in deep ice. That initial interpretation would disintegrate the conservation paradigm of atmospheric composition during deposition, the crux of ice core research, and contradict other lines of evidence. This begged the question, "How can we describe DOM chemistry without distinct fluorophores?" Antarctic ice core DOM was dominated by neither tyrosine- nor tryptophan-like fluorescence, causing "unusual" looking fluorescent components. After further examination, deep ice DOM was reported to contain fluorescent species most similar to monolignols and tannin-like phenols, describing the precursors of lignin from low carbon producing environments, consistent with marine sediment

  17. All-flavour search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in the Milky Way with IceCube/DeepCore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide (Australia); Abraham, K.; Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Holzapfel, K.; Huber, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Krings, K.; Resconi, E.; Turcati, A.; Veenkamp, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-department, Garching (Germany); Ackermann, M.; Bernardini, E.; Blot, S.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Franckowiak, A.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Gora, D.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Kintscher, T.; Kunwar, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Satalecka, K.; Schoenwald, A.; Spiering, C.; Stasik, A.; Stoessl, A.; Strotjohann, N.L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; Santen, J. van; Yanez, J.P. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O' Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Fahey, S.; Feintzeig, J.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hoshina, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; Krueger, C.; Mancina, S.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Sabbatini, L.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Rossem, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Xu, D.L. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J.P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D.; Anton, G.; Katz, U.; Kittler, T.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Andeen, K. [Marquette University, Department of Physics, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Anderson, T.; Arlen, T.C.; Dunkman, M.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J.L.; Pankova, D.V.; Quinnan, M.; Tesic, G. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Boeser, S.; Del Pino Rosendo, E.; Di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Foesig, C.C.; Koepke, L.; Krueckl, G.; Sandroos, J.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Arguelles, C.; Axani, S.; Collin, G.H.; Conrad, J.M.; Jones, B.J.P.; Moulai, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Glagla, M.; Haack, C.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Kemp, J.; Konietz, R.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Penek, Oe.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schimp, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stahlberg, M.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebusch, C.H. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Physics Department, Rapid City, SD (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Becker Tjus, J.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Mandelartz, M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Tenholt, F. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); BenZvi, S. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Berghaus, P. [National Research Nuclear University, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Tatar, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); and others


    We present the first IceCube search for a signal of dark matter annihilations in the Milky Way using all-flavour neutrino-induced particle cascades. The analysis focuses on the DeepCore sub-detector of IceCube, and uses the surrounding IceCube strings as a veto region in order to select starting events in the DeepCore volume. We use 329 live-days of data from IceCube operating in its 86-string configuration during 2011-2012. No neutrino excess is found, the final result being compatible with the background-only hypothesis. From this null result, we derive upper limits on the velocity-averaged self-annihilation cross-section, left angle σ{sub A}v right angle, for dark matter candidate masses ranging from 30 GeV up to 10 TeV, assuming both a cuspy and a flat-cored dark matter halo profile. For dark matter masses between 200 GeV and 10 TeV, the results improve on all previous IceCube results on left angle σ{sub A}v right angle, reaching a level of 10{sup -23} cm{sup 3} s {sup -1}, depending on the annihilation channel assumed, for a cusped NFW profile. The analysis demonstrates that all-flavour searches are competitive with muon channel searches despite the intrinsically worse angular resolution of cascades compared to muon tracks in IceCube. (orig.)

  18. Detection prospects for GeV neutrinos from collisionally heated gamma-ray bursts with IceCube/DeepCore. (United States)

    Bartos, I; Beloborodov, A M; Hurley, K; Márka, S


    Jet reheating via nuclear collisions has recently been proposed as the main mechanism for gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission. In addition to producing the observed gamma rays, collisional heating must generate 10-100 GeV neutrinos, implying a close relation between the neutrino and gamma-ray luminosities. We exploit this theoretical relation to make predictions for possible GRB detections by IceCube + DeepCore. To estimate the expected neutrino signal, we use the largest sample of bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in 1991-2000. GRB neutrinos could have been detected if IceCube + DeepCore operated at that time. Detection of 10-100 GeV neutrinos would have significant implications, shedding light on the composition of GRB jets and their Lorentz factors. This could be an important target in designing future upgrades of the IceCube + DeepCore observatory.

  19. Ice, Ice, Baby! (United States)

    Hamilton, C.


    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  20. Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution Project (RICE): A 65 Kyr ice core record of black carbon aerosol deposition to the Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica. (United States)

    Edwards, Ross; Bertler, Nancy; Tuohy, Andrea; Neff, Peter; Proemse, Bernedette; Feiteng, Wang; Goodwin, Ian; Hogan, Chad


    Emitted by fires, black carbon aerosols (rBC) perturb the atmosphere's physical and chemical properties and are climatically active. Sedimentary charcoal and other paleo-fire records suggest that rBC emissions have varied significantly in the past due to human activity and climate variability. However, few paleo rBC records exist to constrain reconstructions of the past rBC atmospheric distribution and its climate interaction. As part of the international Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, we have developed an Antarctic rBC ice core record spanning the past ~65 Kyr. The RICE deep ice core was drilled from the Roosevelt Island ice dome in West Antarctica from 2011 to 2013. The high depth resolution (~ 1 cm) record was developed using a single particle intracavity laser-induced incandescence soot photometer (SP2) coupled to an ice core melter system. The rBC record displays sub-annual variability consistent with both austral dry-season and summer biomass burning. The record exhibits significant decadal to millennial-scale variability consistent with known changes in climate. Glacial rBC concentrations were much lower than Holocene concentrations with the exception of several periods of abrupt increases in rBC. The transition from glacial to interglacial rBC concentrations occurred over a much longer time relative to other ice core climate proxies such as water isotopes and suggests . The protracted increase in rBC during the transition may reflected Southern hemisphere ecosystem / fire regime changes in response to hydroclimate and human activity.

  1. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring: strategy and datasets (United States)

    Hoelzle, Martin; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeff; Nussbaumer, Samuel; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce; Zemp, Michael


    Internationally coordinated monitoring of long-term glacier changes provide key indicator data about global climate change and began in the year 1894 as an internationally coordinated effort to establish standardized observations. Today, world-wide monitoring of glaciers and ice caps is embedded within the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as an important Essential Climate Variable (ECV). The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) was established in 1999 with the task of coordinating measurements and to ensure the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. The basic monitoring principles must be relevant, feasible, comprehensive and understandable to a wider scientific community as well as to policy makers and the general public. Data access has to be free and unrestricted, the quality of the standardized and calibrated data must be high and a combination of detailed process studies at selected field sites with global coverage by satellite remote sensing is envisaged. Recently a GTN-G Steering Committee was established to guide and advise the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. Several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types having different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. For world-wide inventories, data are now available through (a) the World Glacier Inventory containing tabular information of about 130,000 glaciers covering an area of around 240,000 km2, (b) the GLIMS-database containing digital outlines of around 118,000 glaciers with different time stamps and

  2. Reconstructing the temperature regime of the Weichselian ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmlund, P.


    Areas in Sweden are described, where the ice could have been at the pressure melting point during the last ice age. In order to calculate probable degrees of glacial erosion, estimates on the time of ice coverage and the temperature distribution in time are combined data on erosion rates from present day glaciers. An estimate of the extent of ice cover can be made using the proxy temperature record from the Greenland ice cores and a model of the ice sheet. Adding the estimations on climate and ice sheet shape outlined in this contribution, to erosion figures we may conclude that the crucial areas for glaciation erosion are within the mountains and where the present Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia are situated. At these sites erosion rates of some tens of meters may have occurred. In inland northern Sweden and inland southern Sweden the potential for glacial erosion seems to be small. 14 refs

  3. Reconstructing the temperature regime of the Weichselian ice sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmlund, P. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography


    Areas in Sweden are described, where the ice could have been at the pressure melting point during the last ice age. In order to calculate probable degrees of glacial erosion, estimates on the time of ice coverage and the temperature distribution in time are combined data on erosion rates from present day glaciers. An estimate of the extent of ice cover can be made using the proxy temperature record from the Greenland ice cores and a model of the ice sheet. Adding the estimations on climate and ice sheet shape outlined in this contribution, to erosion figures we may conclude that the crucial areas for glaciation erosion are within the mountains and where the present Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia are situated. At these sites erosion rates of some tens of meters may have occurred. In inland northern Sweden and inland southern Sweden the potential for glacial erosion seems to be small. 14 refs.

  4. Calcareous nannofossil evidence for Marine Isotope Stage 31 (1 Ma) in the AND-1B Core, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project (Antarctica). (United States)

    Villa, G.; Persico, D.; Wise, S. W.; Gadaleta, A.


    During the austral summer 2006 the ANDRILL Program recovered a 1285 m-long succession of cyclic glacimarine sediments from the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS). The aim of the MIS Project was to obtain continuous Neogene (c. 0-10 Ma) glacial, glacimarine, volcanic, and biogenic sediments that have accumulated in the region of the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Ross Sea) nourished by ice flowing from East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) outlet glaciers in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The MIS AND-1B drill core represents the longest and most complete (98% recovery) geological record from the Antarctic continental margin to date, and will provide a key reference record of climate and ice-sheet variability through the Late Neogene; detailed investigations of this record will contribute for improving our knowledge of Antarctica's influence on global climate. Preliminary on-ice analysis of the smear slides of the Andrill core revealed calcareous microfossils (dinoflagellates, calciosponge spicula and small foraminifera) occurring with variable concentrations. The presence of thoracosphaerid fragments in the smear slides of the first 600 mbsf (Quaternary), probably belong to the species Thoracosphaera saxea (Stradner 1961), and Thoracosphaera heimi (Kamptner, 1941) and other, potentially undescribed species (Villa & Wise 1998), suggests either a peculiar adaptation to this environment, due to their ability to develop cysts or warmer conditions at the time of their deposition, or a combination of both. However, they represent an additional element to use with the other proxies for inferring palaeoenvironmental conditions of the core. Subsequent shore-based analyses of 100 samples from 86-96 mbsf revealed for the first time the presence of Pleistocene coccolithophorids at these high southern latitudes (77° S), including: Coccolithus pelagicus, small Gephyrocapsa, Reticulofenestra asanoi, Pseudoemiliania lacunosa, Dictyoccocites productus, Reticulofenestra sp., Reticulofenestra minutula

  5. Surface studies of water isotopes in Antarctica for quantitative interpretation of deep ice core data (United States)

    Landais, Amaelle; Casado, Mathieu; Prié, Frédéric; Magand, Olivier; Arnaud, Laurent; Ekaykin, Alexey; Petit, Jean-Robert; Picard, Ghislain; Fily, Michel; Minster, Bénédicte; Touzeau, Alexandra; Goursaud, Sentia; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Jouzel, Jean; Orsi, Anaïs


    Polar ice cores are unique climate archives. Indeed, most of them have a continuous stratigraphy and present high temporal resolution of many climate variables in a single archive. While water isotopic records (δD or δ18O) in ice cores are often taken as references for past atmospheric temperature variations, their relationship to temperature is associated with a large uncertainty. Several reasons are invoked to explain the limitation of such an approach; in particular, post-deposition effects are important in East Antarctica because of the low accumulation rates. The strong influence of post-deposition processes highlights the need for surface polar research programs in addition to deep drilling programs. We present here new results on water isotopes from several recent surface programs, mostly over East Antarctica. Together with previously published data, the new data presented in this study have several implications for the climatic reconstructions based on ice core isotopic data: (1) The spatial relationship between surface mean temperature and mean snow isotopic composition over the first meters in depth can be explained quite straightforwardly using simple isotopic models tuned to d-excess vs. δ18O evolution in transects on the East Antarctic sector. The observed spatial slopes are significantly higher (∼ 0.7-0.8‰·°C-1 for δ18O vs. temperature) than seasonal slopes inferred from precipitation data at Vostok and Dome C (0.35 to 0.46‰·°C-1). We explain these differences by changes in condensation versus surface temperature between summer and winter in the central East Antarctic plateau, where the inversion layer vanishes in summer. (2) Post-deposition effects linked to exchanges between the snow surface and the atmospheric water vapor lead to an evolution of δ18O in the surface snow, even in the absence of any precipitation event. This evolution preserves the positive correlation between the δ18O of snow and surface temperature, but is

  6. A gas extraction system for the measurement of carbon dioxide and carbon isotopes in polar ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steig, E.


    Knowledge of the distribution of Carbon 13 in the glacial ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere is important to understanding the causes of glacial/interglacial changes in atmospheric CO 2 levels. Although deep-ocean Carbon 13 values are well-constrained by ocean sediment studies, model-based estimates of changes in the carbon budget for the biosphere and atmosphere vary considerably. Measurement of atmospheric Carbon 13 in CO 2 in ice cores will provide additional constraints on this budget and will also improve estimates of changes in the ocean surface layer Carbon 13. Direct measurement of ancient atmospheric Carbon 13 can be accomplished through polar ice core studies. A gas-extraction line for ice cores has been designed and constructed with particular attention to the specific difficulties of measuring Carbon 13 in CO 2 . The ice is shaved, rather than crushed, to minimize fractionation effects resulting from gas travel through long air-paths in the ice. To minimize the risk of isotopic contamination and fractionation within the vacuum line, CO 2 is separated immediately from the air; the CO 2 concentration is then measured by a simple pressure/volume comparison rather than by gas chromatography or spectroscopy. Measurements from Greenland ice core samples give an average value of 280±2 ppM CO 2 for preindustrial samples, demonstrating that the extraction system gives accurate, precise determinations Of CO 2 concentrations. Measurement of δ 13 C from polar ice samples has not been achieved at this time. However, results on standard air samples demonstrate a precision for δ 13 C of less than 0.2 per-thousand at the 95% confidence level

  7. Quantifying seasonal velocity at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal (United States)

    Miles, E.; Quincey, D. J.; Miles, K.; Hubbard, B. P.; Rowan, A. V.


    While the low-gradient debris-covered tongues of many Himalayan glaciers exhibit low surface velocities, quantifying ice flow and its variation through time remains a key challenge for studies aimed at determining the long-term evolution of these glaciers. Recent work has suggested that glaciers in the Everest region of Nepal may show seasonal variability in surface velocity, with ice flow peaking during the summer as monsoon precipitation provides hydrological inputs and thus drives changes in subglacial drainage efficiency. However, satellite and aerial observations of glacier velocity during the monsoon are greatly limited due to cloud cover. Those that do exist do not span the period over which the most dynamic changes occur, and consequently short-term (i.e. daily) changes in flow, as well as the evolution of ice dynamics through the monsoon period, remain poorly understood. In this study, we combine field and remote (satellite image) observations to create a multi-temporal, 3D synthesis of ice deformation rates at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, focused on the 2017 monsoon period. We first determine net annual and seasonal surface displacements for the whole glacier based on Landsat-8 (OLI) panchromatic data (15m) processed with ImGRAFT. We integrate inclinometer observations from three boreholes drilled by the EverDrill project to determine cumulative deformation at depth, providing a 3D perspective and enabling us to assess the role of basal sliding at each site. We additionally analyze high-frequency on-glacier L1 GNSS data from three sites to characterize variability within surface deformation at sub-seasonal timescales. Finally, each dataset is validated against repeat-dGPS observations at gridded points in the vicinity of the boreholes and GNSS dataloggers. These datasets complement one another to infer thermal regime across the debris-covered ablation area of the glacier, and emphasize the seasonal and spatial variability of ice deformation for glaciers in High

  8. Search for indications of the neutrino mass hierarchy using IceCube/DeepCore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuermann, Martin; Vehring, Markus; Wallraff, Marius; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration


    In 2015, the Nobel prize in physics was awarded for ''the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass'', showing the high relevance of neutrino masses for modern particle physics. However, the ordering of the three neutrino masses is still unknown and is often referred to as neutrino mass hierarchy. Its measurement is a major goal for future experiments. One strategy is to measure matter effects in the oscillation pattern of atmospheric neutrinos e.g. as proposed for the PINGU extension of the IceCube neutrino observatory. Already now, the IceCube/DeepCore detector at the Geographic South Pole can be used to search for this signature. In this talk, we present an analysis based on data taken between 2011 and 2015. Due to recent improvements in the detector's reconstruction performance and the quality of the data selection, a measurement on the significance level of 1 sigma is expected.

  9. Search for nonstandard neutrino interactions with IceCube DeepCore (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bagherpour, H.; Bai, X.; Barron, J. P.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bourbeau, E.; Bourbeau, J.; Bradascio, F.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Brenzke, M.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Brostean-Kaiser, J.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; DeLaunay, J. J.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Dvorak, E.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Glauch, T.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Hokanson-Fasig, B.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; Hünnefeld, M.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kalaczynski, P.; Kang, W.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kirby, C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koschinsky, J. P.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Kyriacou, A.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Liu, Q. R.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Luszczak, W.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Micallef, J.; Momenté, G.; Montaruli, T.; Moore, R. W.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nakarmi, P.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Plum, M.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Rea, I. C.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sälzer, T.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, A.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soedingrekso, J.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Stuttard, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Tung, C. F.; Turcati, A.; Turley, C. F.; Ty, B.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Driessche, W.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandler, F. D.; Wandkowsky, N.; Waza, A.; Weaver, C.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Werthebach, J.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, J.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Yuan, T.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration


    As atmospheric neutrinos propagate through the Earth, vacuumlike oscillations are modified by Standard Model neutral- and charged-current interactions with electrons. Theories beyond the Standard Model introduce heavy, TeV-scale bosons that can produce nonstandard neutrino interactions. These additional interactions may modify the Standard Model matter effect producing a measurable deviation from the prediction for atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The result described in this paper constrains nonstandard interaction parameters, building upon a previous analysis of atmospheric muon-neutrino disappearance with three years of IceCube DeepCore data. The best fit for the muon to tau flavor changing term is ɛμ τ=-0.0005 , with a 90% C.L. allowed range of -0.0067 <ɛμ τ<0.0081 . This result is more restrictive than recent limits from other experiments for ɛμ τ. Furthermore, our result is complementary to a recent constraint on ɛμ τ using another publicly available IceCube high-energy event selection. Together, they constitute the world's best limits on nonstandard interactions in the μ -τ sector.

  10. Use of water stable isotopes in climatology and paleoclimatology illustrated from polar ice cores studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouzel, J.; Lorius, C.


    The isotopic content of ancient waters (deuterium and oxygen 18) gives a key access to past climatic changes. An essentially linear relationship exists between the isotopic content of a precipitation and the temperature of the site (at least for medium and high latitudes). This link between water isotope atmospheric cycle and climate is presented through various isotopic models and illustrated from the deuterium profile obtained along the Vostok ice core in East Antarctica. This 2 km record which covers a full glacial-interglacial cycle (160000 years) confirms the existence of a link between insolation changes and climate (Milankovitch theory). It shows also that the greenhouse effect has played a role in glacial-interglacial changes in amplifying this orbital forcing. (authors). 10 figs., 23 refs

  11. Neutrino oscillations with the full IceCube DeepCore detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez Garza, Juan Pablo [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration


    The IceCube detector and its low energy extension, DeepCore, have recorded over 300,000 atmospheric neutrino events since completion almost two years ago. With an energy threshold of about 10 GeV and the possibility of observing different baselines between source and detector location, these events can be used to probe neutrino oscillations with unprecedented statistics. However, the measurement uncertainties, due to unknown properties of the detector and the medium where it stands, limit the sensitivity of such a study. The particular analysis under discussion is a special attempt to diminish the impact of systematic uncertainties while keeping a large high quality neutrino sample. The tools developed for it, as well as the current status of the analysis are presented.

  12. 210Po/210Pb Activity Ratios as a Possible `Dating Tool' of Ice Cores and Ice-rafted Sediments from the Western Arctic Ocean - Preliminary Results (United States)

    Krupp, K.; Baskaran, M. M.


    We have collected and analyzed a suite of surface snow samples, ice cores, ice-rafted sediments (IRS) and aerosol samples from the Western Arctic for Po-210 and Pb-210 to examine the extent of disequilibrium between this pair to possibly use 210Po/210Pb activity ratio to date different layers of ice cores and time of incorporation of ice-rafted sediments into the sea ice. We have earlier reported that the activity concentrations of 210Pb in IRS vary over an order of magnitude and it is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of the benthic sediments (1-2 dpm/g in benthic sediments compared to 25 to 300 dpm/g in IRS). In this study, we have measured 210Po/210Pb activity ratios in aerosols from the Arctic Ocean to constrain the initial 210Po/210Pb ratio at the time of deposition during precipitation. The 210Po activity concentration in recent snow is compared to surface ice samples. The `age' of IRS incorporation can be calculated as follows: [210Po]measured = [210Po]initial + [210Pb] (1 - exp(-λt)) (1) where λ is the decay constant of 210Po, 138.4 days, and `t' is the in-growth time period. From this equation, `t' can be calculated as follows: t = (-1/λ) [ln (1- ((210Po/210Pb)measured - (210Po/210Pb)initial)] (2) The assumption involved in this approach are: i) there is no preferential uptake of 210Po (highly biogenic - S group); and iii) both 210Po and 210Pb remain as closed system. The calculated age using equation (2) will be discussed and presented.

  13. All-flavour Search for Neutrinos from Dark Matter Annihilations in the Milky Way with IceCube/DeepCore

    CERN Document Server



    We present the first IceCube search for a signal of dark matter annihilations in the Milky Way using all-flavour neutrino-induced particle cascades. The analysis focuses on the DeepCore sub-detector of IceCube, and uses the surrounding IceCube strings as a veto region in order to select starting events in the DeepCore volume. We use 329 live-days of data from IceCube operating in its 86-string configuration during 2011-2012. No neutrino excess is found, the final result being compatible with the background-only hypothesis. From this null result, we derive upper limits on the velocity-averaged self-annihilation cross-section, , for dark matter candidate masses ranging from 30 GeV up to 10 TeV, assuming both a cuspy and a flat-cored dark matter halo profile. For dark matter masses between 200 GeV and 10 TeV, the results improve on all previous IceCube results on , reaching a level of 10^{-23} cm^3 s^-1, depending on the annihilation channel assumed, for a cusped NFW profile. The analysis demonstrates that all-f...

  14. Construction on a new deep ice coring site at Dome Fuji Station -Operations carried out by the JARE-44 Dome Fuji overwintering team-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Kameda


    Full Text Available Eight members of the 44th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-44 stayed at Dome Fuji Station (77°19′01″S, 39°42′11″E; 3810 m a.s.l.; ice thickness 3028±15 m; mean air temperature -54.4°C; lowest air temperature -79.7°C from January 19, 2003 to January 25, 2004 for glaciological, meteorological, and upper atmospheric observations, and for construction at a new ice coring site for deep ice coring. The construction was a continuation of the activities of JARE-43; JARE-44 primarily carried out interior work at the ice coring site. The following works were carried out during the overwintering period and are described in this paper: retrieval of casing pipes from the borehole, enlargement of the borehole, insertion of casing pipes into the borehole, movement of the winch system from the old to the new ice coring sites (44.5 m apart, floor construction, construction and preparation of a 10 m depth pit for the rotating mast, construction of stairs between the old and the new ice coring sites, construction of working tables, assembling the mast and the small goliath crane, setting up a lifter, testing the winch system, setting the winch for the chip collector, cable replacement for deep ice coring, assembling of a deep ice core drill, adjustment of a rotating mast, enlargement of caves for ice core storage, and general electrical work in the new ice coring site. The total working time for the above operations was 593.5 person-days. Since the average working time was 6 h/day, the total working time was 3561 person-hours. Preparations for borehole temperature measurements in a 2503 m borehole and the ice coring operation that was mainly conducted by the JARE-45 team are briefly described.

  15. δ13Catm and [CO2] measurements in Antarctic ice cores, 160 kyrBP - present (United States)

    Eggleston, Sarah; Schmitt, Jochen; Schneider, Robert; Joos, Fortunat; Fischer, Hubertus


    Measurements from Antarctic ice cores allow us to reconstruct atmospheric concentrations of climatically important gases including CO2 over the past 800 kyr. Such measurements show that [CO2] has varied in parallel with Antarctic temperatures on glacial-interglacial timescales. Knowledge of the variations of the stable carbon isotope of CO2, δ13Catm, can help us better understand the processes involved in these fluctuations. Here, we present a first complete δ13Catmrecord extending from 160 kyrBP to the present accompanied by δ15N2 measurements during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 57 - 29 kyrBP). The present record, measured primarily on ice from the EPICA Dome C and Talos Dome ice cores, has an average resolution of 500 yr, focused mainly on the Last Glacial Maximum and termination (180 yr; Schmitt et al., 2012), MIS 3 (660 yr), and Termination II through MIS 5.4 (590 yr; Schneider et al., 2013). Throughout the record, δ13Catm varies between approximately -6.8 and -6.4‰Following a period of relatively constant δ13Catm at the end of MIS 6 (around -6.8), the boundaries of MIS 5 correspond roughly with the beginning and end of a gradual enrichment in this isotope. In comparison, the more recent record depicts three more abrupt excursions to lighter values around 63 - 59, 46, and 17 kyrBP, in each case followed by a slower return (0.4o over the course of 5 - 15 kyr) to more enriched isotopic values. These coincide with Heinrich events 6, 5, and 1, respectively. No direct correlation is observed between the concentration and carbon isotope of CO2 over the last 160 kyr. The data indicate rather that numerous processes, such as uptake and release of atmospheric CO2 by the ocean and land biosphere, perhaps influenced by regions of growing permafrost during MIS 3 and 4, acting on a variety of timescales must be considered in explaining the evolution of δ13Catm on glacial-interglacial timescales. References: Schmitt, J. et al. Science 336, 711-714 (2012) Schneider

  16. Constraints on N2O budget changes since pre-industrial time from new firn air and ice core isotope measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard, S.; Röckmann, T.; Kaiser, J.; Barnola, j.m.; Fischer, H; Blunier, T.; Chappellaz, J.


    A historical record of changes in the N2O isotope composition is important for a better understanding of the global N2O atmospheric budget. Here we have combined measurements of trapped gases in the firn and in ice cores of one Arctic site (North GReenland Ice core Project – NGRIP) and one Antarctic

  17. Heterogeneous condensation of ice mantle around silicate core grain in molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.


    Interstellar water ice grains are observed in the cold and dense regions such as molecular clouds, HII regions and protostellar objects. The water ice is formed from gas phase during the cooling stage of cosmic gas with solid grain surfaces of high temperature silicate minerals. It is a question whether the ice is formed through the homogeneous condensation process (as the ice alone) or the heterogeneous one (as the ice around the pre-existing high temperature mineral grains). (author)

  18. 10Be and δ2H in polar ice cores as a probe of the solar variability's influence on climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.; Jouzel, J.; Domaine Univ., 38 - St-Martin-d'Heres; Petit, J.R.


    By using the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry, it is now possible to measure detailed profiles of cosmogenic (cosmic ray produced) 10 Be in polar ice cores. Recent work has demonstrated that these profiles contain information on solar activity, via its influence on the intensity of galactic cosmic rays arriving in the Earth's atmosphere. It has been known for some time that, as a result of temperature-dependent fractionation effects, the stable isotope profiles δ 2 O and δ 2 H in polar ice cores contain palaeoclimate information. Thus by comparing the 10 Be and stable isotope profiles in the same ice core, one can test the influence of solar variability on climate, and this independent of possible uncertainties in the absolute chronology of the records. We present here the results of such a comparison for two Antarctic ice cores; one from the South Pole, covering the past ca. 1000 years, and one from Dome C, covering the past ca. 3000 years. (author)

  19. Volcanic synchronisation of the EPICA-DC and TALDICE ice cores for the last 42 kyr BP (United States)

    Severi, M.; Udisti, R.; Becagli, S.; Stenni, B.; Traversi, R.


    An age scale synchronisation between the Talos Dome and the EPICA Dome C ice cores was carried on through the identification of several common volcanic signatures for the last 42 kyr. Using this tight stratigraphic link we transferred the EDC age scale to the Talos Dome ice core producing a new age scale for the last 12 kyr. We estimated the discrepancies between the modeled TALDICE-1 age scale and the new one during the studied period, by evaluating the ratio R of the apparent duration of temporal intervals between pairs of isochrones. Except for a very few cases, R ranges between 0.8 and 1.2 corresponding to an uncertainty of up to 20% in the estimate of the time duration in at least one of the two ice cores. At this stage our approach does not allow us unequivocally to find out which of the models is affected by errors, but, taking into account only the historically known volcanic events, we found that discrepancies up to 200 years appears in the last two millennia in the TALDICE-1 model, while our new age scale shows a much better agreement with the volcanic absolute horizons. Thus, we propose for the Talos Dome ice core a new age scale (covering the whole Holocene) obtained by a direct transfer, via our stratigraphic link, from the EDC modelled age scale by Lemieux-Dudon et al. (2010).

  20. Lithology and chronology of ice-sheet fluctuations (magnetic susceptibility of cores from the western Ross Sea) (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.


    The goals of the marine geology part of WAIS include reconstructing the chronology and areal extent of ice-sheet fluctuations and understanding the climatic and oceanographic influences on ice-sheet history. As an initial step toward attaining these goals, down-core volume magnetic susceptibility (MS) logs of piston cores from three N-S transects in the western Ross Sea are compared. The core transects are within separate petrographic provinces based on analyses of till composition. The provinces are thought to reflect the previous locations of ice streams on the shelf during the last glaciation. Magnetic susceptibility is a function of magnetic mineral composition, sediment texture, and sediment density. It is applied in the western Ross Sea for two purposes: (1) to determine whether MS data differentiates the three transects (i.e., flow lines), and thus can be used to make paleodrainage reconstructions of the late Wisconsinan ice sheet; and (2) to determine whether the MS data can aid in distinguishing basal till diamictons from diamictons of glacial-marine origin and thus, aid paleoenvironmental interpretations. A comparison of the combined data of cores in each transect is presented.

  1. Snow Accumulation Variability Over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Since 1900: A Comparison of Ice Core Records With ERA-20C Reanalysis (United States)

    Wang, Yetang; Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Hou, Shugui; Huai, Baojuan; Wu, Shuangye; Sun, Weijun; Qi, Shanzhong; Ding, Minghu; Zhang, Yulun


    This study uses a set of 37 firn core records over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) to test the performance of the twentieth century from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-20C) reanalysis for snow accumulation and quantify temporal variability in snow accumulation since 1900. The firn cores are allocated to four geographical areas demarcated by drainage divides (i.e., Antarctic Peninsula (AP), western WAIS, central WAIS, and eastern WAIS) to calculate stacked records of regional snow accumulation. Our results show that the interannual variability in ERA-20C precipitation minus evaporation (P - E) agrees well with the corresponding ice core snow accumulation composites in each of the four geographical regions, suggesting its skill for simulating snow accumulation changes before the modern satellite era (pre-1979). Snow accumulation experiences significantly positive trends for the AP and eastern WAIS, a negative trend for the western WAIS, and no significant trend for the central WAIS from 1900 to 2010. The contrasting trends are associated with changes in the large-scale moisture transport driven by a deepening of the low-pressure systems and anomalies of sea ice in the Amundsen Sea Low region.

  2. Air content and O2/N2 tuned chronologies on local insolation signatures in the Vostok ice core are similar (United States)

    Lipenkov, V.; Raynaud, D.; Loutre, M.-F.; Duval, P.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.


    An accurate chronology of ice cores is needed for interpreting the paleoclimatic record and understanding the relation between insolation and climate. A new domain of research in this area has been initially stimulated by the work of M. Bender (2002) linking the record of O2/N2 ratio in the air trapped in the Vostok ice with the local insolation. More recently, it has been proposed that the long-term changes in air content, V, recorded in ice from the high Antarctic plateau is also dominantly imprinted by the local summer insolation (Raynaud et al., 2007). The present paper presents a new V record from Vostok, which is compared with the published Vostok O2/N2 record for the same period of time (150-400 ka BP) by using the same spectral analysis methods. The spectral differences between the two properties and the possible mechanisms linking them with insolation through the surface snow structure and the close-off processes are discussed. The main result of our study is that the two experimentally independent local insolation proxies lead to absolute (orbital) time scales, which agree together within a standard deviation of 0.6 ka. This result strongly adds credibility to the air content of ice and the O2 to N2 ratio of the air trapped in ice as equally reliable and complementary tools for accurate dating of existing and future deep ice cores. References: M. Bender, Orbital tuning chronology for the Vostok climate record supported by trapped gas composition, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204(2002) 275-289. D. Raynaud, V. Lipenkov, B. Lemieux-Dudon, P. Duval, M.F. Loutre, N. Lhomme, The local insolation signature of air content in Antarctic ice: a new step toward an absolute dating of ice records, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261(2007) 337-349.

  3. How do glacier inventory data aid global glacier assessments and projections? (United States)

    Hock, R.


    Large-scale glacier modeling relies heavily on datasets that are collected by many individuals across the globe, but managed and maintained in a coordinated fashion by international data centers. The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) provides the framework for coordinating and making available a suite of data sets such as the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI), the Glacier Thickness Dataset or the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). These datasets have greatly increased our ability to assess global-scale glacier mass changes. These data have also been vital for projecting the glacier mass changes of all mountain glaciers in the world outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet, a total >200,000 glaciers covering an area of more than 700,000 km2. Using forcing from 8 to 15 GCMs and 4 different emission scenarios, global-scale glacier evolution models project multi-model mean net mass losses of all glaciers between 7 cm and 24 cm sea-level equivalent by the end of the 21st century. Projected mass losses vary greatly depending on the choice of the forcing climate and emission scenario. Insufficiently constrained model parameters likely are an important reason for large differences found among these studies even when forced by the same emission scenario, especially on regional scales.

  4. Large-scale drivers of Caucasus climate variability in meteorological records and Mt El'brus ice cores (United States)

    Kozachek, Anna; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Ekaykin, Alexey; Ginot, Patrick; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Legrand, Michel; Lipenkov, Vladimir; Preunkert, Susanne


    A 181.8 m ice core was recovered from a borehole drilled into bedrock on the western plateau of Mt El'brus (43°20'53.9'' N, 42°25'36.0'' E; 5115 m a.s.l.) in the Caucasus, Russia, in 2009 (Mikhalenko et al., 2015). Here, we report on the results of the water stable isotope composition from this ice core with additional data from the shallow cores. The distinct seasonal cycle of the isotopic composition allows dating by annual layer counting. Dating has been performed for the upper 126 m of the deep core combined with 20 m from the shallow cores. The whole record covers 100 years, from 2013 back to 1914. Due to the high accumulation rate (1380 mm w.e. year-1) and limited melting, we obtained isotopic composition and accumulation rate records with seasonal resolution. These values were compared with available meteorological data from 13 weather stations in the region and also with atmosphere circulation indices, back-trajectory calculations, and Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) data in order to decipher the drivers of accumulation and ice core isotopic composition in the Caucasus region. In the warm season (May-October) the isotopic composition depends on local temperatures, but the correlation is not persistent over time, while in the cold season (November-April), atmospheric circulation is the predominant driver of the ice core's isotopic composition. The snow accumulation rate correlates well with the precipitation rate in the region all year round, which made it possible to reconstruct and expand the precipitation record at the Caucasus highlands from 1914 until 1966, when reliable meteorological observations of precipitation at high elevation began.

  5. Age, origin and evolution of Antarctic debris-covered glaciers: Implications for landscape evolution and long-term climate change (United States)

    Mackay, Sean Leland

    Antarctic debris-covered glaciers are potential archives of long-term climate change. However, the geomorphic response of these systems to climate forcing is not well understood. To address this concern, I conducted a series of field-based and numerical modeling studies in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (MDV), with a focus on Mullins and Friedman glaciers. I used data and results from geophysical surveys, ice-core collection and analysis, geomorphic mapping, micro-meteorological stations, and numerical-process models to (1) determine the precise origin and distribution of englacial and supraglacial debris within these buried-ice systems, (2) quantify the fundamental processes and feedbacks that govern interactions among englacial and supraglacial debris, (3) establish a process-based model to quantify the inventory of cosmogenic nuclides within englacial and supraglacial debris, and (4) isolate the governing relationships between the evolution of englacial /supraglacial debris and regional climate forcing. Results from 93 field excavations, 21 ice cores, and 24 km of ground-penetrating radar data show that Mullins and Friedman glaciers contain vast areas of clean glacier ice interspersed with inclined layers of concentrated debris. The similarity in the pattern of englacial debris bands across both glaciers, along with model results that call for negligible basal entrainment, is best explained by episodic environmental change at valley headwalls. To constrain better the timing of debris-band formation, I developed a modeling framework that tracks the accumulation of cosmogenic 3He in englacial and supraglacial debris. Results imply that ice within Mullins Glacier increases in age non-linearly from 12 ka to ˜220 ka in areas of active flow (up to >> 1.6 Ma in areas of slow-moving-to-stagnant ice) and that englacial debris bands originate with a periodicity of ˜41 ka. Modeling studies suggest that debris bands originate in synchronicity with changes in

  6. Decoherence in Neutrino Propagation Through Matter, and Bounds from IceCube/DeepCore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, Pilar [Fermilab; Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo [CERN; Martinez-Soler, Ivan [Madrid, IFT; Nunokawa, Hiroshi [Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol.


    We revisit neutrino oscillations in matter considering the open quantum system framework which allows to introduce possible decoherence effects generated by New Physics in a phenomenological manner. We assume that the decoherence parameters $\\gamma_{ij}$ may depend on the neutrino energy, as $\\gamma_{ij}=\\gamma_{ij}^{0}(E/\\text{GeV})^n$ $(n = 0,\\pm1,\\pm2) $. The case of non-uniform matter is studied in detail, both within the adiabatic approximation and in the more general non-adiabatic case. In particular, we develop a consistent formalism to study the non-adiabatic case dividing the matter profile into an arbitrary number of layers of constant densities. This formalism is then applied to explore the sensitivity of IceCube and DeepCore to this type of effects. Our study is the first atmospheric neutrino analysis where a consistent treatment of the matter effects in the three-neutrino case is performed in presence of decoherence. We show that matter effects are indeed extremely relevant in this context. We find that IceCube is able to considerably improve over current bounds in the solar sector ($\\gamma_{21}$) and in the atmospheric sector ($\\gamma_{31}$ and $\\gamma_{32}$) for $n=0,1,2$ and, in particular, by several orders of magnitude (between 3 and 9) for the $n=1,2$ cases. For $n=0$ we find $\\gamma_{32},\\gamma_{31}< 4.0\\cdot10^{-24} (1.3\\cdot10^{-24})$ GeV and $\\gamma_{21}<1.3\\cdot10^{-24} (4.1\\cdot10^{-24})$ GeV, for normal (inverted) mass ordering.

  7. Isotopic composition of ice core air reveals abrupt Antarctic warming during and after Heinrich Event 1a (United States)

    Morgan, J. D.; Bereiter, B.; Baggenstos, D.; Kawamura, K.; Shackleton, S. A.; Severinghaus, J. P.


    Antarctic temperature variations during Heinrich events, as recorded by δ18O­ice­, generally show more gradual changes than the abrupt warmings seen in Greenland ice. However, quantitative temperature interpretation of the water isotope temperature proxy is difficult as the relationship between δ18Oice and temperature is not constant through time. Fortunately, ice cores offer a second temperature proxy based on trapped gases. During times of surface warming, thermal fractionation of gases in the column of unconsolidated snow (firn) on top of the ice sheet results in isotopically heavier nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) being trapped in the ice core bubbles. During times of surface cooling, isotopically lighter gases are trapped. Measurements of δ15N and δ40Ar can therefore be used, in combination with a model for the height of the column of firn, to quantitatively reconstruct surface temperatures. In the WAIS Divide Ice Core, the two temperature proxies show a brief disagreement during Heinrich Stadial 1. Despite δ18Oice recording relatively constant temperature, the nitrogen and argon isotopes imply an abrupt warming between 16 and 15.8 kyr BP, manifest as an abrupt 1.25oC increase in the firn temperature gradient. To our knowledge, this would be the first evidence that such abrupt climate change has been recorded in an Antarctic climate proxy. If confirmed by more detailed studies, this event may represent warming due to an extreme southward shift of the Earth's thermal equator (and the southern hemisphere westerly wind belt), caused by the 16.1 ka Heinrich Event.

  8. Geostatistical analysis and isoscape of ice core derived water stable isotope records in an Antarctic macro region (United States)

    Hatvani, István Gábor; Leuenberger, Markus; Kohán, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán


    Water stable isotopes preserved in ice cores provide essential information about polar precipitation. In the present study, multivariate regression and variogram analyses were conducted on 22 δ2H and 53 δ18O records from 60 ice cores covering the second half of the 20th century. Taking the multicollinearity of the explanatory variables into account, as also the model's adjusted R2 and its mean absolute error, longitude, elevation and distance from the coast were found to be the main independent geographical driving factors governing the spatial δ18O variability of firn/ice in the chosen Antarctic macro region. After diminishing the effects of these factors, using variography, the weights for interpolation with kriging were obtained and the spatial autocorrelation structure of the dataset was revealed. This indicates an average area of influence with a radius of 350 km. This allows the determination of the areas which are as yet not covered by the spatial variability of the existing network of ice cores. Finally, the regional isoscape was obtained for the study area, and this may be considered the first step towards a geostatistically improved isoscape for Antarctica.

  9. TRACEing Last Glacial Period (25-80 ka b2k) tephra horizons within North Atlantic marine cores and exploring links to the Greenland ice-cores (United States)

    Abbott, P. M.; Davies, S. M.; Griggs, A. J.; Bourne, A. J.; Cook, E.; Pearce, N. J. G.; Austin, W. E. N.; Chapman, M.; Hall, I. R.; Purcell, C. S.; Scourse, J. D.; Rasmussen, T. L.


    Tephrochronology is a powerful technique for the correlation and synchronisation of disparate palaeoclimatic records from different depositional environments and has considerable potential for testing climatic phasing. For example, the relative timing of atmospheric and marine changes caused by the abrupt climatic events that punctuated the last glacial period within the North Atlantic region. Here we report on efforts to establish a framework of tephra horizons within North Atlantic marine sequences that can correlate these records and if traced in the Greenland ice-cores can act as isochronous tie-lines. Investigations have been conducted on a network of marine cores from a number of sites across the North Atlantic. Tephra horizons have been identified using cryptotephra extraction techniques more commonly applied to the study of terrestrial sequences. There are two main challenges with assessing cryptotephras in the glacial North Atlantic; i) determining the transportation processes and ii) assessing the influence of secondary reworking processes and the stratigraphic integrity of the isochrons. These processes and their influence are investigated for each cryptotephra using shard size variations, major element heterogeneity and co-variance of IRD input for some cores. Numerous Icelandic cryptophras have been successfully identified in the marine records and we will discuss the integration of a number of these with an isochronous nature into a marine tephra framework and how potential correlations to the Greenland ice-core tephra framework are determined. Spatial patterns in the nature of tephra records that are emerging from the core network will be highlighted to outline some of the key areas that could be explored in the future. In addition, the synchronisation of multiple North Atlantic records to the Greenland ice-cores using the North Atlantic Ash Zone II to test the synchroneity of an abrupt cooling in the North Atlantic will be discussed.

  10. Ocean impact on Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, Northeast Greenland (United States)

    Schaffer, Janin; Kanzow, Torsten; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Mayer, Christoph


    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet by delivering heat to the marine-terminating outlet glaciers around Greenland. The largest of three outlet glaciers draining the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream is Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier (also referred to as 79 North Glacier). Historic observations showed that warm waters of Atlantic origin are present in the subglacial cavity below the 80 km long floating ice tongue of the Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and cause strong basal melt at the grounding line, but to date it has been unknown how those warm water enter the cavity. In order to understand how Atlantic origin waters carry heat into the subglacial cavity beneath Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, we performed bathymetric, hydrographic, and velocity observations in the vicinity of the main glacier calving front aboard RV Polarstern in summer 2016. The bathymetric multibeam data shows a 500 m deep and 2 km narrow passage downstream of a 310 m deep sill. This turned out to be the only location deep enough for an exchange of Atlantic waters between the glacier cavity and the continental shelf. Hydrographic and velocity measurements revealed a density driven plume in the vicinity of the glacier calving front causing a rapid flow of waters of Atlantic origin warmer 1°C into the subglacial cavity through the 500 m deep passage. In addition, glacially modified waters flow out of the glacier cavity below the 80 m deep ice base. In the vicinity of the glacier, the glacially modified waters form a distinct mixed layer situated above the Atlantic waters and below the ambient Polar water. At greater distances from the glacier this layer is eroded by lateral mixing with ambient water. Based on our observations we will present an estimate of the ocean heat transport into the subglacial cavity. In comparison with historic observations we find an increase in Atlantic water temperatures throughout the last 20 years. The resulting

  11. Synchronisation of the EDML and EDC ice cores for the last 52 kyr by volcanic signature matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severi, M.; Becagli, S.; Castellano, E.


    stratigraphic link between EDML and EDC, which was dated by a simpler 1D ice-flow model. The synchronisation between the two EPICA ice cores was done through the identification of several common volcanic signatures. This paper describes the rigorous method, using the signature of volcanic sulfate, which...... to find out which of the models is affected by errors, but assuming that the thinning function at both sites and accumulation history at Dome C (which was drilled on a dome) are correct, this anomaly can be ascribed to a complex spatial accumulation variability (which may be different in the past compared...

  12. Glacial–interglacial dynamics of Antarctic firn columns: comparison between simulations and ice core air-δ15N measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Capron


    Full Text Available Correct estimation of the firn lock-in depth is essential for correctly linking gas and ice chronologies in ice core studies. Here, two approaches to constrain the firn depth evolution in Antarctica are presented over the last deglaciation: outputs of a firn densification model, and measurements of δ15N of N2 in air trapped in ice core, assuming that δ15N is only affected by gravitational fractionation in the firn column. Since the firn densification process is largely governed by surface temperature and accumulation rate, we have investigated four ice cores drilled in coastal (Berkner Island, BI, and James Ross Island, JRI and semi-coastal (TALDICE and EPICA Dronning Maud Land, EDML Antarctic regions. Combined with available ice core air-δ15N measurements from the EPICA Dome C (EDC site, the studied regions encompass a large range of surface accumulation rates and temperature conditions. Our δ15N profiles reveal a heterogeneous response of the firn structure to glacial–interglacial climatic changes. While firn densification simulations correctly predict TALDICE δ15N variations, they systematically fail to capture the large millennial-scale δ15N variations measured at BI and the δ15N glacial levels measured at JRI and EDML – a mismatch previously reported for central East Antarctic ice cores. New constraints of the EDML gas–ice depth offset during the Laschamp event (~41 ka and the last deglaciation do not favour the hypothesis of a large convective zone within the firn as the explanation of the glacial firn model–δ15N data mismatch for this site. While we could not conduct an in-depth study of the influence of impurities in snow for firnification from the existing datasets, our detailed comparison between the δ15N profiles and firn model simulations under different temperature and accumulation rate scenarios suggests that the role of accumulation rate may have been underestimated in the current description of firnification

  13. Ice loss from GrIS glaciers feeding Nuup Kangerlua (Godthåbsfjord), southwest Greenland: 1985–2008–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motyka, Roman; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Fahnestock, Mark

    glacier Narsap Sermia (NS) has remained relatively stable at its LIA extent until quite recently. Comparison of Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data (flown May 2011) to the 2008 DEM indicates that KNS continues to thin at rates of 1–5 m a–1 below 800 m, but has been stable at higher elevations...

  14. Holocene glacier variations and sea level change in Wahlenbergfjorden, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard (United States)

    Schomacker, A.; Farnsworth, W. R.; Ingolfsson, O.; Allaart, L.; Håkansson, L.; Retelle, M.


    Here we present preliminary results on the Holocene glacier variations in Wahlenbergfjorden on Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. The reconstructions are based on lake sediment records from Lake Kl\\overbladvatna covering the last 9500 years. This lake captures meltwater from the Etonbreen glacier, a main outlet of the Austfonna ice cap, when the glacier extends further than present. Additionally, Kl\\overbladvatna is an isolation basin capturing the postglacial isolation from the marine to lacustrine environment due to glacioisostatic rebound. The chronology is based on radiocarbon dating of terrestrial and marine macrofossils. The lake sediment record also reveals that glacial meltwater exceeded the threshold into Lake Kl\\overbladvatna during the Little Ice Age as witnessed by glacial meltwater clay in the upper part of the sediment cores. In periods of less advanced glaciers, the lake sediment record is dominated by laminated clayey gyttja. Based on radiocarbon datings of driftwood, whalebone, and marine mollusc shells in raised beaches and marine deposits in Pallanderbukta, south Wahlenbergfjorden, we also present a new postglacial sea level curve from this region.

  15. A Younger Dryas re-advance of local glaciers in north Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Funder, Svend; Linge, Henriette


    The Younger Dryas (YD) is a well-constrained cold event from 12,900 to 11,700 years ago but it remains unclear how the cooling and subsequent abrupt warming recorded in ice cores was translated into ice margin fluctuations in Greenland. Here we present 10Be surface exposure ages from three moraines...... in front of local glaciers on a 50 km stretch along the north coast of Greenland, facing the Arctic Ocean. Ten ages range from 11.6 ± 0.5 to 27.2 ± 0.9 ka with a mean age of 12.5 ± 0.7 ka after exclusion of two outliers. We consider this to be a minimum age for the abandonment of the moraines. The ages...... the interval 11.8-13.0 ka ago. This is the first time a synchronous YD glacier advance and subsequent retreat has been recorded for several independent glaciers in Greenland. In most other areas, there is no evidence for re-advance and glaciers were retreating during YD. We explain the different behaviour...

  16. Formation of Glycerol through Hydrogenation of CO Ice under Prestellar Core Conditions (United States)

    Fedoseev, G.; Chuang, K.-J.; Ioppolo, S.; Qasim, D.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.


    Observational studies reveal that complex organic molecules (COMs) can be found in various objects associated with different star formation stages. The identification of COMs in prestellar cores, I.e., cold environments in which thermally induced chemistry can be excluded and radiolysis is limited by cosmic rays and cosmic-ray-induced UV photons, is particularly important as this stage sets up the initial chemical composition from which ultimately stars and planets evolve. Recent laboratory results demonstrate that molecules as complex as glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol are efficiently formed on icy dust grains via nonenergetic atom addition reactions between accreting H atoms and CO molecules, a process that dominates surface chemistry during the “CO freeze-out stage” in dense cores. In the present study we demonstrate that a similar mechanism results in the formation of the biologically relevant molecule glycerol—HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH—a three-carbon-bearing sugar alcohol necessary for the formation of membranes of modern living cells and organelles. Our experimental results are fully consistent with a suggested reaction scheme in which glycerol is formed along a chain of radical-radical and radical-molecule interactions between various reactive intermediates produced upon hydrogenation of CO ice or its hydrogenation products. The tentative identification of the chemically related simple sugar glyceraldehyde—HOCH2CH(OH)CHO—is discussed as well. These new laboratory findings indicate that the proposed reaction mechanism holds much potential to form even more complex sugar alcohols and simple sugars.

  17. Formation of Glycerol through Hydrogenation of CO Ice under Prestellar Core Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoseev, G.; Chuang, K.-J.; Qasim, D.; Linnartz, H. [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ioppolo, S. [School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Dishoeck, E. F. van, E-mail: [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)


    Observational studies reveal that complex organic molecules (COMs) can be found in various objects associated with different star formation stages. The identification of COMs in prestellar cores, i.e., cold environments in which thermally induced chemistry can be excluded and radiolysis is limited by cosmic rays and cosmic-ray-induced UV photons, is particularly important as this stage sets up the initial chemical composition from which ultimately stars and planets evolve. Recent laboratory results demonstrate that molecules as complex as glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol are efficiently formed on icy dust grains via nonenergetic atom addition reactions between accreting H atoms and CO molecules, a process that dominates surface chemistry during the “CO freeze-out stage” in dense cores. In the present study we demonstrate that a similar mechanism results in the formation of the biologically relevant molecule glycerol—HOCH{sub 2}CH(OH)CH{sub 2}OH—a three-carbon-bearing sugar alcohol necessary for the formation of membranes of modern living cells and organelles. Our experimental results are fully consistent with a suggested reaction scheme in which glycerol is formed along a chain of radical–radical and radical–molecule interactions between various reactive intermediates produced upon hydrogenation of CO ice or its hydrogenation products. The tentative identification of the chemically related simple sugar glyceraldehyde—HOCH{sub 2}CH(OH)CHO—is discussed as well. These new laboratory findings indicate that the proposed reaction mechanism holds much potential to form even more complex sugar alcohols and simple sugars.

  18. Iron from melting glaciers fuels phytoplankton blooms in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean): Phytoplankton characteristics and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, A.C.; Mills, M.M.; van Dijken, G.L.; Laan, P.; Thuróczy, C.-E.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Payne, C.D.; Visser, R.J.W.; Buma, A.G.J.; Arrigo, K.R.


    The phytoplankton community composition and productivity in waters of the Amundsen Sea and surrounding sea ice zone were characterized with respect to iron (Fe) input from melting glaciers. High Fe input from glaciers such as the Pine Island Glacier, and the Dotson and Crosson ice shelves resulted

  19. Geochemical analysis of ice cores from Antarctic crossing-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammes, Daiane; Simoes, Jefferson; Ceron, Masiel; Santos, Maria; Vieria, Rosemary


    Two ice cores, IC-5 (82 Celsius degrade 30.5'S, 79 Celsius degrade 28'W, 950 m a.s.l.; 42.5 m) and one IC-6 (81 Celsius degrade 03'S, 79 Celsius degrade 51'W, 750 m a.s.l; 36 m) were collected as part of the 2004/2005 Chilean (with Brazilian collaboration) ITASE traverse from Patriot Hills to the South Pole. Mean accumulation rates in water equivalent calculated for the upper 10 m at the IC5 site is 0.37 m a-1 and 0.33 m a-1 at the site IC6. Coregistered samples (1595 for IC5 and 1368 for IC6) were obtained using a discrete continuous melter system with a pure nickel melt head at the Climate Change Institute under class 100 clean room conditions. All samples were analysed by ion chromatography (IC), inductively coupled plasma field mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

  20. Changes in the Surface Area of Glaciers in Northern Eurasia (United States)

    Khromova, T.; Nos