WorldWideScience

Sample records for gis-based hydrologic modeling

  1. GIS based generation of dynamic hydrological and land patch simulation models for rural watershed areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a GIS based methodology to generate dynamic process model for the simulation based analysis of a sensitive rural watershed. The Direct Computer Mapping (DCM based solution starts from GIS layers and, via the graph interpretation and graphical edition of the process network, the expert interface is able to integrate the field experts’ knowledge in the computer aided generation of the simulation model. The methodology was applied and tested for the Southern catchment basin of Lake Balaton, Hungary. In the simplified hydrological model the GIS description of nine watercourses, 121 water sections, 57 small lakes and 20 Lake Balaton compartments were mapped through the expert interface to the dynamic databases of the DCM model. The hydrological model involved precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, runoff, infiltration. The COoRdination of INformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover based simplified “land patch” model considered the effect of meteorological and hydrological scenarios on freshwater resources in the land patches, rivers and lakes. The first results show that the applied model generation methodology helps to build complex models, which, after validation can support the analysis of various land use, with the consideration of environmental aspects.

  2. Integrating Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with Hydrological Modelling – Applicability and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh VijayKumar Kherde; Dr. Priyadarshi. H. Sawant

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of Geographic information systems (GIS) facilitated the use digital terrain data for topography based hydrological modelling. The use of spatial data for hydrological modelling emerged from the great capability of GIS tools to store and handle the data associated hydro-morphology of the basin. These models utilize the spatially variable terrain data for converting rainfall into surface runoff.Manual map manipulation has always posed difficulty in analysing and designing large sc...

  3. GIS embedded hydrological modeling: the SID&GRID project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsi, I.; Rossetto, R.; Schifani, C.

    2012-04-01

    The SID&GRID research project, started April 2010 and funded by Regione Toscana (Italy) under the POR FSE 2007-2013, aims to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) for water resource management and planning based on open source and public domain solutions. In order to quantitatively assess water availability in space and time and to support the planning decision processes, the SID&GRID solution consists of hydrological models (coupling 3D existing and newly developed surface- and ground-water and unsaturated zone modeling codes) embedded in a GIS interface, applications and library, where all the input and output data are managed by means of DataBase Management System (DBMS). A graphical user interface (GUI) to manage, analyze and run the SID&GRID hydrological models based on open source gvSIG GIS framework (Asociación gvSIG, 2011) and a Spatial Data Infrastructure to share and interoperate with distributed geographical data is being developed. Such a GUI is thought as a "master control panel" able to guide the user from pre-processing spatial and temporal data, running the hydrological models, and analyzing the outputs. To achieve the above-mentioned goals, the following codes have been selected and are being integrated: 1. Postgresql/PostGIS (PostGIS, 2011) for the Geo Data base Management System; 2. gvSIG with Sextante (Olaya, 2011) geo-algorithm library capabilities and Grass tools (GRASS Development Team, 2011) for the desktop GIS; 3. Geoserver and Geonetwork to share and discover spatial data on the web according to Open Geospatial Consortium; 4. new tools based on the Sextante GeoAlgorithm framework; 5. MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005) groundwater modeling code; 6. MODFLOW-LGR (Mehl and Hill 2005) for local grid refinement; 7. VSF (Thoms et al., 2006) for the variable saturated flow component; 8. new developed routines for overland flow; 9. new algorithms in Jython integrated in gvSIG to compute the net rainfall rate reaching the soil surface, as input for

  4. GIS-Based KW-GIUH hydrological model of semiarid catchments: The case of Faria Catchment, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadeed, S.; Shaheen, H.; Jayyousi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the quantitative understanding of the processes of runoff generation and prediction of flow hydrographs. Traditional techniques have been widely applied for the estimation of runoff hydrographs of gauged catchments using historical rainfall-runoff data and unit hydrographs. Such procedures are questioned as to their reliability and their application to ungauged, arid and semiarid catchments. To overcome such difficulties, the use of physically based rainfall-runoff process of Faria Catchment using the lately developed KW-GIUH. Faria catchment, located in the northeastern part of the West Bank, Palestine, is characterized as a semiarid region with annual rainfall depths ranging on average from 150 to 640 mm at both ends of the catchment. The Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were used to shape the geomorphological features of the catchment. A GIS based KW-GIUH hydrological model was used to stimulate the rainfall-runoff process in the three sub-catchments of Faria, namely: Al-Badan, Al-Faria and Al-Malaqi. The simulated runoff hydrographs proved that the GIS-based KW-GIUH model is applicable to semiarid regions and can be used to estimate the unit hydrographs in the West Bank catchments. (author)

  5. Integration of SRTM and TRMM date into the GIS-based hydrological model for the purpose of flood modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, A.; Abu Samah, A.; Othman, F.

    2012-04-01

    Due to land use and climate changes, more severe and frequent floods occur worldwide. Flood simulation as the first step in flood risk management can be robustly conducted with integration of GIS, RS and flood modeling tools. The primary goal of this research is to examine the practical use of public domain satellite data and GIS-based hydrologic model. Firstly, database development process is described. GIS tools and techniques were used in the light of relevant literature to achieve the appropriate database. Watershed delineation and parameterizations were carried out using cartographic DEM derived from digital topography at a scale of 1:25 000 with 30 m cell size and SRTM elevation data at 30 m cell size. The SRTM elevation dataset is evaluated and compared with cartographic DEM. With the assistance of statistical measures such as Correlation coefficient (r), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Percent Bias (PBias) or Percent of Error (PE). According to NSE index, SRTM-DEM can be used for watershed delineation and parameterization with 87% similarity with Topo-DEM in a complex and underdeveloped terrains. Primary TRMM (V6) data was used as satellite based hytograph for rainfall-runoff simulation. The SCS-CN approach was used for losses and kinematic routing method employed for hydrograph transformation through the reaches. It is concluded that TRMM estimates do not give adequate information about the storms as it can be drawn from the rain gauges. Event-based flood modeling using HEC-HMS proved that SRTM elevation dataset has the ability to obviate the lack of terrain data for hydrologic modeling where appropriate data for terrain modeling and simulation of hydrological processes is unavailable. However, TRMM precipitation estimates failed to explain the behavior of rainfall events and its resultant peak discharge and time of peak.

  6. Flood Modelling of Banjir Kanal Barat (Integration of Hydrology Model and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aris Marfai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological modelling has an advantage on river flood study. Hydrological factors can be easily determined and calculated using hydrological model. HEC-RAS (Hydrological Engineering Centre-River Analysis System software is well known as hydrological modelling software for flood simulation and encroachment analysis of the floodplain area. For spatial performance and analysis of flood, the integration of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS and hydrological model is needed. The aims of this research are 1 to perform a flood encroachment using HEC-RAS software, and 2 to generate a flood hazard map. The methodology for this research omprise of 1 generating geometric data as a requirement of the data input on HEC-RAS hydrological model, 2 Hydrological data inputting, 3 generating of the flood encroachment analysis, and 4 transformation of flood encroachment into flood hazard map. The spatial pattern of the flood hazard is illustrated in a map. The result shows that hydrological model as integration with GIS can be used for flood hazard map generation. This method has advantages on the calculation of the hydrological factors of flood and spatial performance of the flood hazard map. For further analysis, the landuse map can be used on the overlay operation with the flood hazard map in order to obtain the impact of the flood on the landuse.

  7. A GIS Tool for evaluating and improving NEXRAD and its application in distributed hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Srinivasan, R.

    2008-12-01

    In this study, a user friendly GIS tool was developed for evaluating and improving NEXRAD using raingauge data. This GIS tool can automatically read in raingauge and NEXRAD data, evaluate the accuracy of NEXRAD for each time unit, implement several geostatistical methods to improve the accuracy of NEXRAD through raingauge data, and output spatial precipitation map for distributed hydrologic model. The geostatistical methods incorporated in this tool include Simple Kriging with varying local means, Kriging with External Drift, Regression Kriging, Co-Kriging, and a new geostatistical method that was newly developed by Li et al. (2008). This tool was applied in two test watersheds at hourly and daily temporal scale. The preliminary cross-validation results show that incorporating raingauge data to calibrate NEXRAD can pronouncedly change the spatial pattern of NEXRAD and improve its accuracy. Using different geostatistical methods, the GIS tool was applied to produce long term precipitation input for a distributed hydrologic model - Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Animated video was generated to vividly illustrate the effect of using different precipitation input data on distributed hydrologic modeling. Currently, this GIS tool is developed as an extension of SWAT, which is used as water quantity and quality modeling tool by USDA and EPA. The flexible module based design of this tool also makes it easy to be adapted for other hydrologic models for hydrological modeling and water resources management.

  8. Investigating impacts of natural and human-induced environmental changes on hydrological processes and flood hazards using a GIS-based hydrological/hydraulic model and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    Natural and human-induced environmental changes have been altering the earth's surface and hydrological processes, and thus directly contribute to the severity of flood hazards. To understand these changes and their impacts, this research developed a GIS-based hydrological and hydraulic modeling system, which incorporates state-of-the-art remote sensing data to simulate flood under various scenarios. The conceptual framework and technical issues of incorporating multi-scale remote sensing data have been addressed. This research develops an object-oriented hydrological modeling framework. Compared with traditional lumped or cell-based distributed hydrological modeling frameworks, the object-oriented framework allows basic spatial hydrologic units to have various size and irregular shape. This framework is capable of assimilating various GIS and remotely-sensed data with different spatial resolutions. It ensures the computational efficiency, while preserving sufficient spatial details of input data and model outputs. Sensitivity analysis and comparison of high resolution LIDAR DEM with traditional USGS 30m resolution DEM suggests that the use of LIDAR DEMs can greatly reduce uncertainty in calibration of flow parameters in the hydrologic model and hence increase the reliability of modeling results. In addition, subtle topographic features and hydrologic objects like surface depressions and detention basins can be extracted from the high resolution LiDAR DEMs. An innovative algorithm has been developed to efficiently delineate surface depressions and detention basins from LiDAR DEMs. Using a time series of Landsat images, a retrospective analysis of surface imperviousness has been conducted to assess the hydrologic impact of urbanization. The analysis reveals that with rapid urbanization the impervious surface has been increased from 10.1% to 38.4% for the case study area during 1974--2002. As a result, the peak flow for a 100-year flood event has increased by 20% and

  9. gis-based hydrological model based hydrological model upstream

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    (GIS) environment to simulate various parame attributed to a ... water, sediment and agricultural chem large complex .... The 90m resolution topography data (see Figure 2) used for this .... results of the calibration and validation exercise are as.

  10. Characteristics and Impact of Imperviousness From a GIS-based Hydrological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglen, G. E.; Kim, S.

    2005-12-01

    With the concern that imperviousness can be differently quantified depending on data sources and methods, this study assessed imperviousness estimates using two different data sources: land use and land cover. Year 2000 land use developed by the Maryland Department of Planning was utilized to estimate imperviousness by assigning imperviousness coefficients to unique land use categories. These estimates were compared with imperviousness estimates based on satellite-derived land cover from the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset. Our study developed the relationships between these two estimates in the form of regression equations to convert imperviousness derived from one data source to the other. The regression equations are considered reliable, based on goodness-of-fit measures. Furthermore, this study examined how quantitatively different imperviousness estimates affect the prediction of hydrological response both in the flow regime and in the thermal regime. We assessed the relationships between indicators of hydrological response and imperviousness-descriptors. As indicators of flow variability, coefficient of variance, lag-one autocorrelation, and mean daily flow change were calculated based on measured mean daily stream flow from the water year 1997 to 2003. For thermal variability, indicators such as percent-days of surge, degree-day, and mean daily temperature difference were calculated base on measured stream temperature over several basins in Maryland. To describe imperviousness through the hydrological process, GIS-based spatially distributed hydrological models were developed based on a water-balance method and the SCS-CN method. Imperviousness estimates from land use and land cover were used as predictors in these models to examine the effect of imperviousness using different data sources on the prediction of hydrological response. Indicators of hydrological response were also regressed on aggregate imperviousness. This allowed for identifying if

  11. HYDROLOGIC AND HYDRAULIC MODELLING INTEGRATED WITH GIS: A STUDY OF THE ACARAÚ RIVER BASIN – CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuellson Lopes Cabral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study integrating hydrologic models, hydraulic models and a geographic information system (GIS to delineate flooded areas in the medium-sized Acaraú River Basin in Ceará State, Brazil. The computational tools used were HEC-HMS for hydrologic modelling, HEC-RAS for hydraulic modelling and HEC-GeoRAS for the GIS. The results showed that a substantial portion of the riverine populations of the cities of Sobral, Santana do Acaraú and Groairas were affected by floods. Overall, the flood model satisfactorily represents the affected areas and shows the locations with the greatest flooding.

  12. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  13. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  14. A practical demonstration in modelling diclofenac and propranolol river water concentrations using a GIS hydrology model in a rural UK catchment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajo@ceh.ac.uk; Keller, V. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Williams, R.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Young, A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) Wallingford, Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    An existing GIS hydrology water quality model, LF2000-WQX, was applied to predict the concentrations of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and propranalol in catchments. As a practical exercise the predominantly rural Tamar (UK) catchment was chosen. Consumption, excretion, and fate data were used to estimate the pharmaceutical input load for the model. The predicted concentrations throughout most of the catchment were 1 ng/L or less under low flow (90th percentile) conditions. However, at a few locations, downstream of small sewage treatment plants, concentrations above 25 ng/L were predicted. This exercise shows that it is relatively straightforward to predict the concentrations of new and emerging organic microcontaminants in real catchments using existing GIS hydrology water quality models. Further testing will be required to establish their accuracy. - A GIS hydrology model was used to predict pharmaceutical concentration hot spots in a rural catchment.

  15. A practical demonstration in modelling diclofenac and propranolol river water concentrations using a GIS hydrology model in a rural UK catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.C.; Keller, V.; Williams, R.J.; Young, A.

    2007-01-01

    An existing GIS hydrology water quality model, LF2000-WQX, was applied to predict the concentrations of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and propranalol in catchments. As a practical exercise the predominantly rural Tamar (UK) catchment was chosen. Consumption, excretion, and fate data were used to estimate the pharmaceutical input load for the model. The predicted concentrations throughout most of the catchment were 1 ng/L or less under low flow (90th percentile) conditions. However, at a few locations, downstream of small sewage treatment plants, concentrations above 25 ng/L were predicted. This exercise shows that it is relatively straightforward to predict the concentrations of new and emerging organic microcontaminants in real catchments using existing GIS hydrology water quality models. Further testing will be required to establish their accuracy. - A GIS hydrology model was used to predict pharmaceutical concentration hot spots in a rural catchment

  16. Interaction between GIS and hydrologic model: A preliminary approach using ArcHydro Framework Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Jorge C. Simões

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In different regions of Brazil, population growth and economic development can degrade water quality, compromising watershed health and human supply. Because of its ability to combine spatial and temporal data in the same environment and to create water resources management (WRM models, the Geographical Information System (GIS is a powerful tool for managing water resources, preventing floods and estimating water supply. This paper discusses the integration between GIS and hydrological models and presents a case study relating to the upper section of the Paraíba do Sul Basin (Sao Paulo State portion, situated in the Southeast of Brazil. The case study presented in this paper has a database suitable for the basin’s dimensions, including digitized topographic maps at a 50,000 scale. From an ArcGIS®/ArcHydro Framework Data Model, a geometric network was created to produce different raster products. This first grid derived from the digital elevation model grid (DEM is the flow direction map followed by flow accumulation, stream and catchment maps. The next steps in this research are to include the different multipurpose reservoirs situated along the Paraíba do Sul River and to incorporate rainfall time series data in ArcHydro to build a hydrologic data model within a GIS environment in order to produce a comprehensive spatial temporal model.

  17. A GIS-based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamdan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrology is the study of water in all its forms, origins, and destinations on the earth.This paper develops a novel modeling technique using a geographic information system (GIS) to facilitate watershed hydrological routing using RADAR data. The RADAR rainfall data, segmented to 4 km by 4 km blocks, divides the watershed into several sub basins which are modeled independently. A case study for the GIS-based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data is provided for South Fork Cowikee Creek near Batesville, Alabama. All the data necessary to complete the analysis is maintained in the ArcView GIS software. This paper concludes that the GIS-Based disaggregate spatial watershed analysis using RADAR data is a viable method to calculate hydrological routing for large watersheds. (author)

  18. Hydrological modeling of the Simly Dam watershed (Pakistan using GIS and SWAT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimaa M. Ghoraba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern mathematical models have been developed for studying the complex hydrological processes of a watershed and their direct relation to weather, topography, geology and land use. In this study the hydrology of Simly Dam watershed located in Saon River basin at the north-east of Islamabad is modeled, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. It aims to simulate the stream flow, establish the water balance and estimate the monthly volume inflow to Simly Dam in order to help the managers to plan and handle this important reservoir. The ArcSWAT interface implemented in the ArcGIS software was used to delineate the study area and its sub-components, combine the data layers and edit the model database. The model was calibrated from 1990 to 2001 and evaluated from 2002 to 2011. Based on four recommended statistical coefficients, the evaluation indicates a good performance for both calibration and validation periods and acceptable agreement between measured and simulated values of both annual and monthly scale discharge. The water balance components were correctly estimated and the Simly Dam inflow was successfully reproduced with Coefficient of Determination (R2 of 0.75. These results revealed that if properly calibrated, SWAT model can be used efficiently in semi-arid regions to support water management policies.

  19. Integration of Spatially Hydrological Modelling on Bentong Catchment, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia Using Distributed GIS-based Rainfall Runoff Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli, M.H.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of GIS technology, hydrology model can simulated at catchment wide scale. The objective is to integrate National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS Curve Number (CN with kinematic wave and manning’s equation using GIS to develop a simple GIS-based distributed model to simulate rainfall runoff in Bentong catchment. Model was built using Spatial Distributed Direct Hydrograph (SDDH concept and applying the time area (TA approach in presenting the predicted discharge hydrograph. The effective precipitation estimation was first calculated using the NRCS CN method. Then, the core maps that consists of digital elevation model (DEM, soil and land use map in grid. DEM was used to derive slope, flow direction and flow accumulation while soil and land use map used to derive roughness coefficient and CN. The overland velocity and channel velocity estimation derived from combination of kinematic wave theory with Manning’s equation. To capture the time frame, the travel time map was divided into isochrones in order to generate the TA histogram and finally. The creation of SDDH using the TA histogram which will lead to the estimation of travel time for the catchment. Simulated hydrograph was plotted together with the observed discharge for comparison. Six storm events used for model performance evaluation using statistical measure such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE, percent bias (PBIAS and coefficient of determination (R2;. SDDH model performed quite well as NSE gave result ranging from 0.55 to 0.68 with mean of 0.6. PBIAS indicate that the model slightly over predicted compared to observed hydrograph with result ranges from -46.71 (the most over predicted to +4.83 (the most under predicted with average of -20.73%. R2; ranges between 0.55 to 0.82 with mean of 0.67. When comparing the time to peak, (tp, min, and peak discharge, (pd, m3/s, results gave NSEtp 0.82, PBIAStp 0.65, R2tp 0.32, NSEpd 0.95, PBIASpd 14.49 and R2pd 0

  20. APPLICATION OF GIS IN MODELING ZILBERCHAI BASIN RUNOFF

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    L. Malekani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Runoff is one of most important hydrological variables that are used in many civil works, planning for optimal use of reservoirs, organizing rivers and warning flood. The runoff curve number (CN is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS are now being used in combination with the SCS-CN method. This work uses a methodology of determining surface runoff by Geographic Information System model and applying SCS-CN method that needs the necessary parameters such as land use map, hydrologic soil groups, rainfall data, DEM, physiographic characteristic of the basin. The model is built by implementing some well known hydrologic methods in GIS like as ArcHydro, ArcCN-Runoff for modeling of Zilberchai basin runoff. The results show that the high average weighted of curve number indicate that permeability of the basin is low and therefore likelihood of flooding is high. So the fundamental works is essential in order to increase water infiltration in Zilberchai basin and to avoid wasting surface water resources. Also comparing the results of the computed and observed runoff value show that use of GIS tools in addition to accelerate the calculation of the runoff also increase the accuracy of the results. This paper clearly demonstrates that the integration of GIS with the SCS-CN method provides a powerful tool for estimating runoff volumes in large basins.

  1. Application of GIS in Modeling Zilberchai Basin Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekani, L.; Khaleghi, S.; Mahmoodi, M.

    2014-10-01

    Runoff is one of most important hydrological variables that are used in many civil works, planning for optimal use of reservoirs, organizing rivers and warning flood. The runoff curve number (CN) is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS) are now being used in combination with the SCS-CN method. This work uses a methodology of determining surface runoff by Geographic Information System model and applying SCS-CN method that needs the necessary parameters such as land use map, hydrologic soil groups, rainfall data, DEM, physiographic characteristic of the basin. The model is built by implementing some well known hydrologic methods in GIS like as ArcHydro, ArcCN-Runoff for modeling of Zilberchai basin runoff. The results show that the high average weighted of curve number indicate that permeability of the basin is low and therefore likelihood of flooding is high. So the fundamental works is essential in order to increase water infiltration in Zilberchai basin and to avoid wasting surface water resources. Also comparing the results of the computed and observed runoff value show that use of GIS tools in addition to accelerate the calculation of the runoff also increase the accuracy of the results. This paper clearly demonstrates that the integration of GIS with the SCS-CN method provides a powerful tool for estimating runoff volumes in large basins.

  2. Cloud GIS Based Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediroğlu, G.; Colak, H. E.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service) and DAAS (Data as a Service). We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries). We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes), Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  3. Automatic pre-processing for an object-oriented distributed hydrological model using GRASS-GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.

    2012-04-01

    Landscapes are very heterogeneous, which impact the hydrological processes occurring in the catchments, especially in the modeling of peri-urban catchments. The Hydrological Response Units (HRUs), resulting from the intersection of different maps, such as land use, soil types and geology, and flow networks, allow the representation of these elements in an explicit way, preserving natural and artificial contours of the different layers. These HRUs are used as model mesh in some distributed object-oriented hydrological models, allowing the application of a topological oriented approach. The connectivity between polygons and polylines provides a detailed representation of the water balance and overland flow in these distributed hydrological models, based on irregular hydro-landscape units. When computing fluxes between these HRUs, the geometrical parameters, such as the distance between the centroid of gravity of the HRUs and the river network, and the length of the perimeter, can impact the realism of the calculated overland, sub-surface and groundwater fluxes. Therefore, it is necessary to process the original model mesh in order to avoid these numerical problems. We present an automatic pre-processing implemented in the open source GRASS-GIS software, for which several Python scripts or some algorithms already available were used, such as the Triangle software. First, some scripts were developed to improve the topology of the various elements, such as snapping of the river network to the closest contours. When data are derived with remote sensing, such as vegetation areas, their perimeter has lots of right angles that were smoothed. Second, the algorithms more particularly address bad-shaped elements of the model mesh such as polygons with narrow shapes, marked irregular contours and/or the centroid outside of the polygons. To identify these elements we used shape descriptors. The convexity index was considered the best descriptor to identify them with a threshold

  4. GIS model-based real-time hydrological forecasting and operation management system for the Lake Balaton and its watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf Szabó, János; Zoltán Réti, Gábor; Tóth, Tünde

    2017-04-01

    Today, the most significant mission of the decision makers on integrated water management issues is to carry out sustainable management for sharing the resources between a variety of users and the environment under conditions of considerable uncertainty (such as climate/land-use/population/etc. change) conditions. In light of this increasing water management complexity, we consider that the most pressing needs is to develop and implement up-to-date GIS model-based real-time hydrological forecasting and operation management systems for aiding decision-making processes to improve water management. After years of researches and developments the HYDROInform Ltd. has developed an integrated, on-line IT system (DIWA-HFMS: DIstributed WAtershed - Hydrologyc Forecasting & Modelling System) which is able to support a wide-ranging of the operational tasks in water resources management such as: forecasting, operation of lakes and reservoirs, water-control and management, etc. Following a test period, the DIWA-HFMS has been implemented for the Lake Balaton and its watershed (in 500 m resolution) at Central-Transdanubian Water Directorate (KDTVIZIG). The significant pillars of the system are: - The DIWA (DIstributed WAtershed) hydrologic model, which is a 3D dynamic water-balance model that distributed both in space and its parameters, and which was developed along combined principles but its mostly based on physical foundations. The DIWA integrates 3D soil-, 2D surface-, and 1D channel-hydraulic components as well. - Lakes and reservoir-operating component; - Radar-data integration module; - fully online data collection tools; - scenario manager tool to create alternative scenarios, - interactive, intuitive, highly graphical user interface. In Vienna, the main functions, operations and results-management of the system will be presented.

  5. Hydrological Modeling and WEB-GIS for the Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierleoni, A.; Bellezza, M.; Casadei, S.; Manciola, P.

    2006-12-01

    Water resources are a strategically natural resource although they can be extremely susceptible to degradation. As a matter of fact the increasing demand from multipurpose uses, which often are in competition amongst themselves, seems to affect the concept of sustainability per se', thus highlighting phenomena of quality-quantity degradation of water resources. In this context, the issue of water resource management rises to a more important role, especially when, other then the traditional uses for civil, industrial and agronomic purposes, environmental demands are taken into consideration. In particular, for environmental demands we mean: to preserve minimal flows, to conserve ecosystems and biodiversities, to protect and improve the environment and finally also the recreational facilities. In the present work, two software tools are presented; they combine the scientific aspect of the issues with a feasible and widely accessible application of the mathematical modeling in techno-operative fields within a sustainable management policy of the water resource at the basin scale. The first evaluation model of the available superficial water resource bases its algorithms upon regionalization procedures of flow parameters deduced from the geomorphologic features of the soil of the basin (BFI, Area) and presents, as output, a set of duration curves (DC) of the natural, measurable (natural after withdrawal), and residual (discharge usable for dissipative use) flow. The hydrological modeling combined with a GIS engine allows to process the dataset and regionalize the information of each section of the hydrographic network, in order to attain information about the effect of upriver withdrawals, in terms of evaluation parameters (measurable DC) to maintain an optimal water supply all along the entire downstream network. This model, projected with a WEB interface developed in PERL and connected to a MySQL database, has also been tested at the basin and sub-basin scale as an

  6. Integrated Application of Remote Sensing, GIS and Hydrological Modeling to Estimate the Potential Impact Area of Earthquake-Induced Dammed Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dammed lakes are an important secondary hazard caused by earthquakes. They can induce further damage to nearby humans. Current hydrology calculation research on dammed lakes usually lacks spatial expressive ability and cannot accurately conduct impact assessment without the support of remote sensing, which obtains important characteristic information of dammed lakes. The current study aims to address the issues of the potential impact area estimate of earthquake-induced dammed lakes by combining remote sensing (RS, a geographic information system (GIS, and hydrological modeling. The Tangjiashan dammed lake induced by the Wenchuan earthquake was selected as the case for study. The elevation-versus-reservoir capacity curve was first calculated using the seed-growing algorithm based on digital elevation model (DEM data. The simulated annealing algorithm was applied to train the hydrological modeling parameters according to the historical hydrologic data. Then, the downstream water elevation variational process under different collapse capacity conditions was performed based on the obtained parameters. Finally, the downstream potential impact area was estimated by the highest water elevation values at different hydrologic sections. Results show that a flood with a collapse elevation of at least 680 m will impact the entire downstream region of Beichuan town. We conclude that spatial information technology combined with hydrological modeling can accurately predict and demonstrate the potential impact area with limited data resources. This paper provides a better guide for future immediate responses to dammed lake hazard mitigation.

  7. GIS-BASED PREDICTION OF HURRICANE FLOOD INUNDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-17

    A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from the USGS), land use/cover (30-m NLCD), stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and soils data from the NRCS (STATSGO) to create stream network, subbasins, and cross-section shapefiles for drainage basins selected for analysis. Rainfall predictions are made by a numerical weather model and ingested in gridded format into the simulation environment. Runoff hydrographs are estimated using Green-Ampt infiltration excess runoff prediction and a 1D diffusive wave overland flow routing approach. The hydrographs are fed into the stream network and integrated in a dynamic wave routing module using the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict flood depth. The flood depths are then transformed into inundation maps and exported for damage assessment. Hydrologic/hydraulic results are presented for Tropical Storm Allison.

  8. Modeling the Hydrologic Effects of Large-Scale Green Infrastructure Projects with GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado, R. A.; Fekete, B. M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Impervious surfaces in urban areas generate excess runoff, which in turn causes flooding, combined sewer overflows, and degradation of adjacent surface waters. Municipal environmental protection agencies have shown a growing interest in mitigating these effects with 'green' infrastructure practices that partially restore the perviousness and water holding capacity of urban centers. Assessment of the performance of current and future green infrastructure projects is hindered by the lack of adequate hydrological modeling tools; conventional techniques fail to account for the complex flow pathways of urban environments, and detailed analyses are difficult to prepare for the very large domains in which green infrastructure projects are implemented. Currently, no standard toolset exists that can rapidly and conveniently predict runoff, consequent inundations, and sewer overflows at a city-wide scale. We demonstrate how streamlined modeling techniques can be used with open-source GIS software to efficiently model runoff in large urban catchments. Hydraulic parameters and flow paths through city blocks, roadways, and sewer drains are automatically generated from GIS layers, and ultimately urban flow simulations can be executed for a variety of rainfall conditions. With this methodology, users can understand the implications of large-scale land use changes and green/gray storm water retention systems on hydraulic loading, peak flow rates, and runoff volumes.

  9. Application of GIS-based SCS-CN method in West Bank catchments, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Shadeed

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the prediction and quantification of catchment surface runoff. The runoff curve number (CN is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number is very tedious and consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS are now being used in combination with the SCS-CN method. This paper assesses the modeling of flow in West Bank catchments using the GIS-based SCS-CN method. The West Bank, Palestine, is characterized as an arid to semi-arid region with annual rainfall depths ranging between 100 mm in the vicinity of the Jordan River to 700 mm in the mountains extending across the central parts of the region. The estimated composite curve number for the entire West Bank is about 50 assuming dry conditions. This paper clearly demonstrates that the integration of GIS with the SCS-CN method provides a powerful tool for estimating runoff volumes in West Bank catchments, representing arid to semi-arid catchments of Palestine.

  10. Modelling catchment hydrological responses in a Himalayan Lake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water extent of the lake barely covers 11.5 km2. (Badar and Romshoo ... Recent developments of decision support systems based on GIS and distributed hydrological models .... flow of the methodology is given in figure 2. 3.1.1 Model structure ...

  11. Application of GIS-based SCS-CN method in West Bank catchments, Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Shadeed; Mohammad Almasri

    2010-01-01

    Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the prediction and quantification of catchment surface runoff. The runoff curve number (CN) is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number is very tedious and consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS) are now being used in combination with the SCS...

  12. User Friendly Open GIS Tool for Large Scale Data Assimilation - a Case Study of Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P. K.

    2012-08-01

    Open source software (OSS) coding has tremendous advantages over proprietary software. These are primarily fuelled by high level programming languages (JAVA, C++, Python etc...) and open source geospatial libraries (GDAL/OGR, GEOS, GeoTools etc.). Quantum GIS (QGIS) is a popular open source GIS package, which is licensed under GNU GPL and is written in C++. It allows users to perform specialised tasks by creating plugins in C++ and Python. This research article emphasises on exploiting this capability of QGIS to build and implement plugins across multiple platforms using the easy to learn - Python programming language. In the present study, a tool has been developed to assimilate large spatio-temporal datasets such as national level gridded rainfall, temperature, topographic (digital elevation model, slope, aspect), landuse/landcover and multi-layer soil data for input into hydrological models. At present this tool has been developed for Indian sub-continent. An attempt is also made to use popular scientific and numerical libraries to create custom applications for digital inclusion. In the hydrological modelling calibration and validation are important steps which are repetitively carried out for the same study region. As such the developed tool will be user friendly and used efficiently for these repetitive processes by reducing the time required for data management and handling. Moreover, it was found that the developed tool can easily assimilate large dataset in an organised manner.

  13. A Web GIS Enabled Comprehensive Hydrologic Information System for Indian Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, A.; Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological systems across the globe are getting increasingly water stressed with each passing season due to climate variability & snowballing water demand. Hence, to safeguard food, livelihood & economic security, it becomes imperative to employ scientific studies for holistic management of indispensable resource like water. However, hydrological study of any scale & purpose is heavily reliant on various spatio-temporal datasets which are not only difficult to discover/access but are also tough to use & manage. Besides, owing to diversity of water sector agencies & dearth of standard operating procedures, seamless information exchange is challenging for collaborators. Extensive research is being done worldwide to address these issues but regrettably not much has been done in developing countries like India. Therefore, the current study endeavours to develop a Hydrological Information System framework in a Web-GIS environment for empowering Indian water resources systems. The study attempts to harmonize the standards for metadata, terminology, symbology, versioning & archiving for effective generation, processing, dissemination & mining of data required for hydrological studies. Furthermore, modelers with humble computing resources at their disposal, can consume this standardized data in high performance simulation modelling using cloud computing within the developed Web-GIS framework. They can also integrate the inputs-outputs of different numerical models available on the platform and integrate their results for comprehensive analysis of the chosen hydrological system. Thus, the developed portal is an all-in-one framework that can facilitate decision makers, industry professionals & researchers in efficient water management.

  14. HydroDesktop: An Open Source GIS-Based Platform for Hydrologic Data Discovery, Visualization, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Cao, Y.; Grover, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T.; Goodall, J. L.; Valentine, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of hydrologic information servers are being deployed by government agencies, university networks, and individual researchers using the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS). The CUAHSI HIS Project has developed a standard software stack, called HydroServer, for publishing hydrologic observations data. It includes the Observations Data Model (ODM) database and Water Data Service web services, which together enable publication of data on the Internet in a standard format called Water Markup Language (WaterML). Metadata describing available datasets hosted on these servers is compiled within a central metadata catalog called HIS Central at the San Diego Supercomputer Center and is searchable through a set of predefined web services based queries. Together, these servers and central catalog service comprise a federated HIS of a scale and comprehensiveness never previously available. This presentation will briefly review/introduce the CUAHSI HIS system with special focus on a new HIS software tool called "HydroDesktop" and the open source software development web portal, www.HydroDesktop.org, which supports community development and maintenance of the software. HydroDesktop is a client-side, desktop software application that acts as a search and discovery tool for exploring the distributed network of HydroServers, downloading specific data series, visualizing and summarizing data series and exporting these to formats needed for analysis by external software. HydroDesktop is based on the open source DotSpatial GIS developer toolkit which provides it with map-based data interaction and visualization, and a plug-in interface that can be used by third party developers and researchers to easily extend the software using Microsoft .NET programming languages. HydroDesktop plug-ins that are presently available or currently under development within the project and by third party

  15. HYDROLOGIC MODEL UNCERTAINTY ASSOCIATED WITH SIMULATING FUTURE LAND-COVER/USE SCENARIOS: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIS-based hydrologic modeling offers a convenient means of assessing the impacts associated with land-cover/use change for environmental planning efforts. Alternative future scenarios can be used as input to hydrologic models and compared with existing conditions to evaluate pot...

  16. Application of the hydrologic model AÇUMOD based on GIS for water resources management of Pirapama River, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richarde Marques da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the application of the distributed hydrological model based on GIS – AÇUMOD to estimate the water discharges and potentialities of Pirapama river sub-basins, to be used by the Pirapama River Basin Committee (COBH-Pirapama. The model application included several steps, such as: precipitation data selection, basin discretization into cells, and model parameter calibration using try-and-error technique. The model was calibrated and validated with monthly precipitation data for the period 1987–2001. It was noted that the following parameters were the most important ones during the calibration process: infiltration function, soil minimum water capacity to generate runoff, and soil mean water storage capacity, which directly affect the computed runoff volume. The difference between observed and computed runoff during the calibration and validation processes were respectively -12.65% and 18.87%. The results of the simulated discharges by AÇUMOD, compared to observed ones, showed that the model satisfactorily represents the water basin behavior and, therefore, it can be considered a promising tool for rain-runoff simulation, permanence curve estimation, and discharge regionalization or prediction for Pirapama river basin as well as to other basins in the northeastern Brazil costal area.

  17. Creation of a Web-Based GIS Server and Custom Geoprocessing Tools for Enhanced Hydrologic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, B.; Chouinard, K.; Sultan, M.; Becker, D.; Milewski, A.; Becker, R.

    2010-12-01

    Rising populations in the arid and semi arid parts of the World are increasing the demand for fresh water supplies worldwide. Many data sets needed for assessment of hydrologic applications across vast regions of the world are expensive, unpublished, difficult to obtain, or at varying scales which complicates their use. Fortunately, this situation is changing with the development of global remote sensing datasets and web-based platforms such as GIS Server. GIS provides a cost effective vehicle for comparing, analyzing, and querying a variety of spatial datasets as geographically referenced layers. We have recently constructed a web-based GIS, that incorporates all relevant geological, geochemical, geophysical, and remote sensing data sets that were readily used to identify reservoir types and potential well locations on local and regional scales in various tectonic settings including: (1) extensional environment (Red Sea rift), (2) transcurrent fault system (Najd Fault in the Arabian-Nubian Shield), and (3) compressional environments (Himalayas). The web-based GIS could also be used to detect spatial and temporal trends in precipitation, recharge, and runoff in large watersheds on local, regional, and continental scales. These applications were enabled through the construction of a web-based ArcGIS Server with Google Map’s interface and the development of customized geoprocessing tools. ArcGIS Server provides out-of-the-box setups that are generic in nature. This platform includes all of the standard web based GIS tools (e.g. pan, zoom, identify, search, data querying, and measurement). In addition to the standard suite of tools provided by ArcGIS Server an additional set of advanced data manipulation and display tools was also developed to allow for a more complete and customizable view of the area of interest. The most notable addition to the standard GIS Server tools is the custom on-demand geoprocessing tools (e.g., graph, statistical functions, custom raster

  18. Development and evaluation of a watershed-scale hybrid hydrologic model

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Younghyun

    2016-01-01

    A watershed-scale hybrid hydrologic model (Distributed-Clark), which is a lumped conceptual and distributed feature model, was developed to predict spatially distributed short- and long-term rainfall runoff generation and routing using relatively simple methodologies and state-of-the-art spatial data in a GIS environment. In Distributed-Clark, spatially distributed excess rainfall estimated with the SCS curve number method and a GIS-based set of separated unit hydrographs (spatially distribut...

  19. Estimation Curve Numbers using GIS and Hec-GeoHMS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Kareem Shukur

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development and application of the hydrological models based on Geographical Information System (GIS has increased around the world. One of the most important applications of GIS is mapping the Curve Number (CN of a catchment. In this research, three softwares, such as an ArcView GIS 9.3 with ArcInfo, Arc Hydro Tool and Geospatial Hydrologic Modeling Extension (Hec-GeoHMS model for ArcView GIS 9.3, were used to calculate CN of (19210 ha Salt Creek watershed (SC which is located in Osage County, Oklahoma, USA. Multi layers were combined and examined using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI ArcMap 2009. These layers are soil layer (Soil Survey Geographic SSURGO, 30 m x 30 m resolution of Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use layer (LU, “Look–Up tables” and other layers resulted from running the software. Curve Number which expresses a catchment’s response to a storm event has been estimated in this study to each land parcel based on LU layer and soil layer within each parcel. The results showed that a CN of 100 (dark Blue means surface water. The high curve numbers (100 -81 (Blue and light Blue corresponding to urbanized areas means high runoff and low infiltration; whereas low curve numbers (77- 58 (Brown and light Brown corresponding to the forested area means low runoff and high infiltration. Four classes of land cover have been identified; these are surface water, medium residential, forest and agriculture.

  20. Quantifying the performance of automated GIS-based geomorphological approaches for riparian zone delineation using digital elevation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for managing rivers and adjacent areas; however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is usually only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. In this work we created several floodplain surfaces by means of two different GIS-based geomorphological approaches using digital elevation models (DEMs, in an attempt to find hydrologically meaningful potential riparian zones for river networks at the river basin scale. Objective quantification of the performance of the two geomorphologic models is provided by analysing coinciding and exceeding areas with respect to the 50-yr flood surface in different river geomorphological types.

  1. GIS Based Distributed Runoff Predictions in Variable Source Area Watersheds Employing the SCS-Curve Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Mendoza, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Gerard Marchant, P.; Walter, M. T.; Schneiderman, E.

    2003-04-01

    Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be ubiquitously used in GIS-BASED water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed within an integrated GIS modeling environment a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Spatial representation of hydrologic processes is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point source pollution. The methodology presented here uses the traditional SCS-CN method to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and uses a topographic index to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was incorporated in an existing GWLF water quality model and applied to sub-watersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State. We found that the distributed CN-VSA approach provided a physically-based method that gives realistic results for watersheds with VSA hydrology.

  2. USER FRIENDLY OPEN GIS TOOL FOR LARGE SCALE DATA ASSIMILATION – A CASE STUDY OF HYDROLOGICAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gupta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Open source software (OSS coding has tremendous advantages over proprietary software. These are primarily fuelled by high level programming languages (JAVA, C++, Python etc... and open source geospatial libraries (GDAL/OGR, GEOS, GeoTools etc.. Quantum GIS (QGIS is a popular open source GIS package, which is licensed under GNU GPL and is written in C++. It allows users to perform specialised tasks by creating plugins in C++ and Python. This research article emphasises on exploiting this capability of QGIS to build and implement plugins across multiple platforms using the easy to learn – Python programming language. In the present study, a tool has been developed to assimilate large spatio-temporal datasets such as national level gridded rainfall, temperature, topographic (digital elevation model, slope, aspect, landuse/landcover and multi-layer soil data for input into hydrological models. At present this tool has been developed for Indian sub-continent. An attempt is also made to use popular scientific and numerical libraries to create custom applications for digital inclusion. In the hydrological modelling calibration and validation are important steps which are repetitively carried out for the same study region. As such the developed tool will be user friendly and used efficiently for these repetitive processes by reducing the time required for data management and handling. Moreover, it was found that the developed tool can easily assimilate large dataset in an organised manner.

  3. The CLIMB Geoportal - A web-based dissemination and documentation platform for hydrological modelling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Gerken, Daniel; Ludwig, Ralf; Duttmann, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Geoportals are important elements of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) that are strongly based on GIS-related web services. These services are basically meant for distributing, documenting and visualizing (spatial) data in a standardized manner; an important but challenging task especially in large scientific projects with a high number of data suppliers and producers from various countries. This presentation focuses on introducing the free and open-source based geoportal solution developed within the research project CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins, www.climb-fp7.eu) that serves as the central platform for interchanging project-related spatial data and information. In this collaboration, financed by the EU-FP7-framework and coordinated at the LMU Munich, 21 partner institutions from nine European and non-European countries were involved. The CLIMB Geoportal (lgi-climbsrv.geographie.uni-kiel.de) stores and provides spatially distributed data about the current state and future changes of the hydrological conditions within the seven CLIMB test sites around the Mediterranean. Hydrological modelling outcome - validated by the CLIMB partners - is offered to the public in forms of Web Map Services (WMS), whereas downloading the underlying data itself through Web Coverage Services (WCS) is possible for registered users only. A selection of common indicators such as discharge, drought index as well as uncertainty measures including their changes over time were used in different spatial resolution. Besides map information, the portal enables the graphical display of time series of selected variables calculated by the individual models applied within the CLIMB-project. The implementation of the CLIMB Geoportal is finally based on version 2.0c5 of the open source geospatial content management system GeoNode. It includes a GeoServer instance for providing the OGC-compliant web services and comes with a metadata catalog (pycsw) as well

  4. Proposal of a Python interface to OpenMI, as the base for open source hydrological framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Szczepanek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologists need simple, yet powerful, open source framework for developing and testing mathematical models. Such framework should ensure long-term interoperability and high scalability. This can be done by implementation of the existing, already tested standards. At the moment two interesting options exist: Open Modelling Interface (OpenMI and Object Modeling System (OMS. OpenMI was developed within the Fifth European Framework Programme for integrated watershed management, described in the Water Framework Directive. OpenMI interfaces are available for the C# and Java programming languages. OpenMI Association is now in the process of agreement with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC, so the spatial standards existing in OpenMI 2.0 should be better implemented in the future. The OMS project is pure Java, object-oriented modeling framework coordinated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Big advantage of OMS compared to OpenMI is its simplicity of implementation. On the other hand, OpenMI seems to be more powerful and better suited for hydrological models. Finally, OpenMI model was selected as the base interface for the proposed open source hydrological framework.  The existing hydrological libraries and models focus usually on just one GIS package (HydroFOSS – GRASS or one operating system (HydroDesktop – Microsoft Windows. The new hydrological framework should break those limitations. To make hydrological models’ implementation as easy as possible, the framework should be based on a simple, high-level computer language. Low and mid-level languages, like Java (SEXTANTE or C (GRASS, SAGA were excluded, as too complicated for regular hydrologist. From popular, high-level languages, Python seems to be a good choice. Leading GIS desktop applications – GRASS and QGIS – use Python as second native language, providing well documented API. This way, a Python-based hydrological library could be easily integrated with any GIS package supporting

  5. Gsflow-py: An integrated hydrologic model development tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, M.; Niswonger, R. G.; Morton, C.; Henson, W.; Huntington, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated hydrologic modeling encompasses a vast number of processes and specifications, variable in time and space, and development of model datasets can be arduous. Model input construction techniques have not been formalized or made easily reproducible. Creating the input files for integrated hydrologic models (IHM) requires complex GIS processing of raster and vector datasets from various sources. Developing stream network topology that is consistent with the model resolution digital elevation model is important for robust simulation of surface water and groundwater exchanges. Distribution of meteorologic parameters over the model domain is difficult in complex terrain at the model resolution scale, but is necessary to drive realistic simulations. Historically, development of input data for IHM models has required extensive GIS and computer programming expertise which has restricted the use of IHMs to research groups with available financial, human, and technical resources. Here we present a series of Python scripts that provide a formalized technique for the parameterization and development of integrated hydrologic model inputs for GSFLOW. With some modifications, this process could be applied to any regular grid hydrologic model. This Python toolkit automates many of the necessary and laborious processes of parameterization, including stream network development and cascade routing, land coverages, and meteorological distribution over the model domain.

  6. GIS-based Approach to Estimate Surface Runoff in Small Catchments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Matej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of surface runoff assessment is one of the important and relevant topics of hydrological as well as geographical research. The aim of the paper is therefore to estimate and assess surface runoff on the example of Vyčoma catchment which is located in the Western Slovakia. For this purpose, SCS runoff curve number method, modeling in GIS and remote sensing were used. An important task was the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM, which enters the surface runoff modeling and affects its accuracy. Great attention was paid to the spatial interpretation of land use categories applying aerial imagery from 2013 and hydrological soil groups as well as calculation of maximum daily rainfall with N-year return periods as partial tasks in estimating surface runoff. From the methodological point of view, the importance of the paper can be seen in the use of a simple GIS-based approach to assess the surface runoff conditions in a small catchment.

  7. BUILDING A COMPLETE FREE AND OPEN SOURCE GIS INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HYDROLOGICAL COMPUTING AND DATA PUBLICATION USING GIS.LAB AND GISQUICK PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Landa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Building a complete free and open source GIS computing and data publication platform can be a relatively easy task. This paper describes an automated deployment of such platform using two open source software projects – GIS.lab and Gisquick. GIS.lab (http: //web.gislab.io is a project for rapid deployment of a complete, centrally managed and horizontally scalable GIS infrastructure in the local area network, data center or cloud. It provides a comprehensive set of free geospatial software seamlessly integrated into one, easy-to-use system. A platform for GIS computing (in our case demonstrated on hydrological data processing requires core components as a geoprocessing server, map server, and a computation engine as eg. GRASS GIS, SAGA, or other similar GIS software. All these components can be rapidly, and automatically deployed by GIS.lab platform. In our demonstrated solution PyWPS is used for serving WPS processes built on the top of GRASS GIS computation platform. GIS.lab can be easily extended by other components running in Docker containers. This approach is shown on Gisquick seamless integration. Gisquick (http://gisquick.org is an open source platform for publishing geospatial data in the sense of rapid sharing of QGIS projects on the web. The platform consists of QGIS plugin, Django-based server application, QGIS server, and web/mobile clients. In this paper is shown how to easily deploy complete open source GIS infrastructure allowing all required operations as data preparation on desktop, data sharing, and geospatial computation as the service. It also includes data publication in the sense of OGC Web Services and importantly also as interactive web mapping applications.

  8. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli

    2017-07-01

    Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.

  9. Quantifying the performance of automated GIS-based geomorphological approaches for riparian zone delineation using digital elevation models

    OpenAIRE

    D. Fernández; J. Barquín; M. Álvarez-Cabria; F. J. Peñas

    2012-01-01

    Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for managing rivers and adjacent areas; however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is usually only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. In this work we created several floodplain surfaces by means of two different GIS-based geomorphological appro...

  10. Groundwater potentiality mapping using geoelectrical-based aquifer hydraulic parameters: A GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Anthony Mogaji Hwee San Lim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted a robust analysis on acquired 2D resistivity imaging data and borehole pumping test records to optimize groundwater potentiality mapping in Perak province, Malaysia using derived aquifer hydraulic properties. The transverse resistance (TR parameter was determined from the interpreted 2D resistivity imaging data by applying the Dar-Zarrouk parameter equation. Linear regression and GIS techniques were used to regress the estimated values for TR parameters with the aquifer transmissivity values extracted from the geospatially produced BPT records-based aquifer transmissivity map to develop the aquifer transmissivity parameter predictive (ATPP model. The reliability evaluated ATPP model using the Theil inequality coefficient measurement approach was used to establish geoelectrical-based hydraulic parameters (GHP modeling equations for the modeling of transmissivity (Tr, hydraulic conductivity (K, storativity (St, and hydraulic diffusivity (D properties. The applied GHP modeling equation results to the delineated aquifer media was used to produce aquifer potential conditioning factor maps for Tr, K, St, and D. The maps were modeled to develop an aquifer potential mapping index (APMI model via applying the multi-criteria decision analysis-analytic hierarchy process principle. The area groundwater reservoir productivity potential model map produced based on the processed APMI model estimates in the GIS environment was found to be 71% accurate. This study establishes a good alternative approach to determine aquifer hydraulic parameters even in areas where pumping test information is unavailable using a cost effective geophysical data. The produced map can be explored for hydrological decision making.

  11. The evolution of process-based hydrologic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; Samaniego, Luis; Woods, Ross A.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Bennett, Katrina E.; Pauwels, Valentijn R.N.; Cai, Xitian; Wood, Andrew W.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity in hydrologic models has historically led to great controversy on the "correct" approach to process-based hydrologic modeling, with debates centered on the adequacy of process parameterizations, data limitations and uncertainty, and computational constraints on model analysis. In this

  12. A Community Data Model for Hydrologic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Zaslavsky, I.; Maidment, D. R.; Valentine, D.; Jennings, B.

    2006-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project is developing information technology infrastructure to support hydrologic science. Hydrologic information science involves the description of hydrologic environments in a consistent way, using data models for information integration. This includes a hydrologic observations data model for the storage and retrieval of hydrologic observations in a relational database designed to facilitate data retrieval for integrated analysis of information collected by multiple investigators. It is intended to provide a standard format to facilitate the effective sharing of information between investigators and to facilitate analysis of information within a single study area or hydrologic observatory, or across hydrologic observatories and regions. The observations data model is designed to store hydrologic observations and sufficient ancillary information (metadata) about the observations to allow them to be unambiguously interpreted and used and provide traceable heritage from raw measurements to usable information. The design is based on the premise that a relational database at the single observation level is most effective for providing querying capability and cross dimension data retrieval and analysis. This premise is being tested through the implementation of a prototype hydrologic observations database, and the development of web services for the retrieval of data from and ingestion of data into the database. These web services hosted by the San Diego Supercomputer center make data in the database accessible both through a Hydrologic Data Access System portal and directly from applications software such as Excel, Matlab and ArcGIS that have Standard Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. This paper will (1) describe the data model; (2) demonstrate the capability for representing diverse data in the same database; (3) demonstrate the use of the database from applications software for the performance of hydrologic analysis

  13. Distributed Hydrologic Modeling Apps for Decision Support in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, N. R.; Latu, K.; Christiensen, S.; Jones, N.; Nelson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in computation resources and greater availability of water resources data represent an untapped resource for addressing hydrologic uncertainties in water resources decision-making. The current practice of water authorities relies on empirical, lumped hydrologic models to estimate watershed response. These models are not capable of taking advantage of many of the spatial datasets that are now available. Physically-based, distributed hydrologic models are capable of using these data resources and providing better predictions through stochastic analysis. However, there exists a digital divide that discourages many science-minded decision makers from using distributed models. This divide can be spanned using a combination of existing web technologies. The purpose of this presentation is to present a cloud-based environment that will offer hydrologic modeling tools or 'apps' for decision support and the web technologies that have been selected to aid in its implementation. Compared to the more commonly used lumped-parameter models, distributed models, while being more intuitive, are still data intensive, computationally expensive, and difficult to modify for scenario exploration. However, web technologies such as web GIS, web services, and cloud computing have made the data more accessible, provided an inexpensive means of high-performance computing, and created an environment for developing user-friendly apps for distributed modeling. Since many water authorities are primarily interested in the scenario exploration exercises with hydrologic models, we are creating a toolkit that facilitates the development of a series of apps for manipulating existing distributed models. There are a number of hurdles that cloud-based hydrologic modeling developers face. One of these is how to work with the geospatial data inherent with this class of models in a web environment. Supporting geospatial data in a website is beyond the capabilities of standard web frameworks and it

  14. Real Time Integration of Field Data Into a GIS Platform for the Management of Hydrological Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiameli, M.; Mussumeci, G.

    2013-01-01

    A wide series of events requires immediate availability of information and field data to be provided to decision-makers. An example is the necessity of quickly transferring the information acquired from monitoring and alerting sensors or the data of the reconnaissance of damage after a disastrous event to an Emergency Operations Center. To this purpose, we developed an integrated GIS and WebGIS system to dynamically create and populate via Web a database with spatial features. In particular, this work concerns the gathering and transmission of spatial data and related information to the desktop GIS so that they can be displayed and analyzed in real time to characterize the operational scenario and to decide the rescue interventions. As basic software, we used only free and open source: QuantumGIS and Grass as Desktop GIS, Map Server with PMapper application for the Web-Gis functionality and PostGreSQL/PostGIS as Data Base Management System (DBMS). The approach has been designed, developed and successfully tested in the management of GIS-based navigation of an autonomous robot, both to map its trajectories and to assign optimal paths. This paper presents the application of our system to a simulated hydrological event that could interest the province of Catania, in Sicily. In particular, assuming that more teams draw up an inventory of the damage, we highlight the benefits of real-time transmission of the information collected from the field to headquarters.

  15. REAL TIME INTEGRATION OF FIELD DATA INTO A GIS PLATFORM FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF HYDROLOGICAL EMERGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mangiameli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide series of events requires immediate availability of information and field data to be provided to decision-makers. An example is the necessity of quickly transferring the information acquired from monitoring and alerting sensors or the data of the reconnaissance of damage after a disastrous event to an Emergency Operations Center. To this purpose, we developed an integrated GIS and WebGIS system to dynamically create and populate via Web a database with spatial features. In particular, this work concerns the gathering and transmission of spatial data and related information to the desktop GIS so that they can be displayed and analyzed in real time to characterize the operational scenario and to decide the rescue interventions. As basic software, we used only free and open source: QuantumGIS and Grass as Desktop GIS, Map Server with PMapper application for the Web-Gis functionality and PostGreSQL/PostGIS as Data Base Management System (DBMS. The approach has been designed, developed and successfully tested in the management of GIS-based navigation of an autonomous robot, both to map its trajectories and to assign optimal paths. This paper presents the application of our system to a simulated hydrological event that could interest the province of Catania, in Sicily. In particular, assuming that more teams draw up an inventory of the damage, we highlight the benefits of real-time transmission of the information collected from the field to headquarters.

  16. Advancing Collaboration through Hydrologic Data and Model Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D. P.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Hooper, R. P.; Maidment, D. R.; Dash, P. K.; Stealey, M.; Yi, H.; Gan, T.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Li, Z.; Morsy, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system for open sharing of hydrologic data, analytical tools, and models. It supports the sharing of and collaboration around "resources" which are defined primarily by standardized metadata, content data models for each resource type, and an overarching resource data model based on the Open Archives Initiative's Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) standard and a hierarchical file packaging system called "BagIt". HydroShare expands the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated to include geospatial and multidimensional space-time datasets commonly used in hydrology. HydroShare also includes new capability for sharing models, model components, and analytical tools and will take advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. It also supports web services and server/cloud based computation operating on resources for the execution of hydrologic models and analysis and visualization of hydrologic data. HydroShare uses iRODS as a network file system for underlying storage of datasets and models. Collaboration is enabled by casting datasets and models as "social objects". Social functions include both private and public sharing, formation of collaborative groups of users, and value-added annotation of shared datasets and models. The HydroShare web interface and social media functions were developed using the Django web application framework coupled to iRODS. Data visualization and analysis is supported through the Tethys Platform web GIS software stack. Links to external systems are supported by RESTful web service interfaces to HydroShare's content. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date and describe ongoing development of functionality to support collaboration and integration of data and models.

  17. GIS-Based Population Model Applied to Nevada Transportation Routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a model based on geographic information system (GIS) processing of US Census Block data has made high-resolution population analysis for transportation risk analysis technically and economically feasible. Population density bordering each kilometer of a route may be tabulated with specific route sections falling into each of three categories (Rural, Suburban or Urban) identified for separate risk analysis. In addition to the improvement in resolution of Urban areas along a route, the model provides a statistically-based correction to population densities in Rural and Suburban areas where Census Block dimensions may greatly exceed the 800-meter scale of interest. A semi-automated application of the GIS model to a subset of routes in Nevada (related to the Yucca Mountain project) are presented, and the results compared to previous models including a model based on published Census and other data. These comparisons demonstrate that meaningful improvement in accuracy and specificity of transportation risk analyses is dependent on correspondingly accurate and geographically-specific population density data

  18. Development of the Hydrological-Ecological Integrated watershed Flow Model (HEIFLOW): an application to the Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, C.; Han, F., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Physically based and fully-distributed integrated hydrological models (IHMs) can quantitatively depict hydrological processes, both surface and subsurface, with sufficient spatial and temporal details. However, the complexity involved in pre-processing data and setting up models seriously hindered the wider application of IHMs in scientific research and management practice. This study introduces our design and development of Visual HEIFLOW, hereafter referred to as VHF, a comprehensive graphical data processing and modeling system for integrated hydrological simulation. The current version of VHF has been structured to accommodate an IHM named HEIFLOW (Hydrological-Ecological Integrated watershed-scale FLOW model). HEIFLOW is a model being developed by the authors, which has all typical elements of physically based and fully-distributed IHMs. It is based on GSFLOW, a representative integrated surface water-groundwater model developed by USGS. HEIFLOW provides several ecological modules that enable to simulate growth cycle of general vegetation and special plants (maize and populus euphratica). VHF incorporates and streamlines all key steps of the integrated modeling, and accommodates all types of GIS data necessary to hydrological simulation. It provides a GIS-based data processing framework to prepare an IHM for simulations, and has functionalities to flexibly display and modify model features (e.g., model grids, streams, boundary conditions, observational sites, etc.) and their associated data. It enables visualization and various spatio-temporal analyses of all model inputs and outputs at different scales (i.e., computing unit, sub-basin, basin, or user-defined spatial extent). The above system features, as well as many others, can significantly reduce the difficulty and time cost of building and using a complex IHM. The case study in the Heihe River Basin demonstrated the applicability of VHF for large scale integrated SW-GW modeling. Visualization and spatial

  19. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system...... shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too....

  20. Assessment of Managed Aquifer Recharge Site Suitability Using a GIS and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Tess A; Fisher, Andrew T; Lockwood, Brian S

    2015-01-01

    We completed a two-step regional analysis of a coastal groundwater basin to (1) assess regional suitability for managed aquifer recharge (MAR), and (2) quantify the relative impact of MAR activities on groundwater levels and sea water intrusion. The first step comprised an analysis of surface and subsurface hydrologic properties and conditions, using a geographic information system (GIS). Surface and subsurface data coverages were compiled, georeferenced, reclassified, and integrated (including novel approaches for combining related datasets) to derive a spatial distribution of MAR suitability values. In the second step, results from the GIS analysis were used with a regional groundwater model to assess the hydrologic impact of potential MAR placement and operating scenarios. For the region evaluated in this study, the Pajaro Valley Groundwater Basin, California, GIS results suggest that about 7% (15 km2) of the basin may be highly suitable for MAR. Modeling suggests that simulated MAR projects placed near the coast help to reduce sea water intrusion more rapidly, but these projects also result in increased groundwater flows to the ocean. In contrast, projects placed farther inland result in more long-term reduction in sea water intrusion and less groundwater flowing to the ocean. This work shows how combined GIS analysis and modeling can assist with regional water supply planning, including evaluation of options for enhancing groundwater resources. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  1. Integrated landscape-based approach of remote sensing, GIS, and physical modelling to study the hydrological connectivity of wetlands to the downstream water: progress and challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    We report the recent progress on our effort to improve the mapping of wetland dynamics and the modelling of its functioning and hydrological connection to the downstream waters. Our study focused on the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), the Delmarva Peninsula, where the most of wetlands in CBW are densely distributed. The wetland ecosystem plays crucial roles in improving water quality and ecological integrity for the downstream waters and the Chesapeake Bay, and headwater wetlands in the region, such as Delmarva Bay, are now subject to the legal protection under the Clean Water Rules. We developed new wetland maps using time series Landsat images and a highly accurate LiDAR map over last 30 years. These maps show the changes in surface water fraction at a 30-m grid cell at annual time scale. Using GIS, we analyse these maps to characterize changing dynamics of wetland inundation due to the physical environmental factors (e.g., weather variability, tide) and assessed the hydrological connection of wetlands to the downstream water at the watershed scale. Focusing on the two adjacent watersheds in the upper region of the Choptank River Basin, we study how wetland inundation dynamics and the hydrologic linkage of wetlands to downstream water would vary by the local hydrogeological setting and attempt to identify the key landscape factors affecting the wetland ecosystems and functioning. We then discuss the potential of using remote sensing products to improve the physical modelling of wetlands from our experience with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool).

  2. A web GIS based integrated flood assessment modeling tool for coastal urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A. T.; Mohanty, J.; Eldho, T. I.; Rao, E. P.; Mohan, B. K.

    2014-03-01

    Urban flooding has become an increasingly important issue in many parts of the world. In this study, an integrated flood assessment model (IFAM) is presented for the coastal urban flood simulation. A web based GIS framework has been adopted to organize the spatial datasets for the study area considered and to run the model within this framework. The integrated flood model consists of a mass balance based 1-D overland flow model, 1-D finite element based channel flow model based on diffusion wave approximation and a quasi 2-D raster flood inundation model based on the continuity equation. The model code is written in MATLAB and the application is integrated within a web GIS server product viz: Web Gram Server™ (WGS), developed at IIT Bombay, using Java, JSP and JQuery technologies. Its user interface is developed using open layers and the attribute data are stored in MySQL open source DBMS. The model is integrated within WGS and is called via Java script. The application has been demonstrated for two coastal urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai, India. Simulated flood extents for extreme rainfall event of 26 July, 2005 in the two urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai city are presented and discussed. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of the flood simulation tool in a web GIS environment to facilitate data access and visualization of GIS datasets and simulation results.

  3. Integration agent-based models and GIS as a virtual urban dynamic laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Liu, Miaolong

    2007-06-01

    Based on the Agent-based Model and spatial data model, a tight-coupling integrating method of GIS and Agent-based Model (ABM) is to be discussed in this paper. The use of object-orientation for both spatial data and spatial process models facilitates their integration, which can allow exploration and explanation of spatial-temporal phenomena such as urban dynamic. In order to better understand how tight coupling might proceed and to evaluate the possible functional and efficiency gains from such a tight coupling, the agent-based model and spatial data model are discussed, and then the relationships affecting spatial data model and agent-based process models interaction. After that, a realistic crowd flow simulation experiment is presented. Using some tools provided by general GIS systems and a few specific programming languages, a new software system integrating GIS and MAS as a virtual laboratory applicable for simulating pedestrian flows in a crowd activity centre has been developed successfully. Under the environment supported by the software system, as an applicable case, a dynamic evolution process of the pedestrian's flows (dispersed process for the spectators) in a crowds' activity center - The Shanghai Stadium has been simulated successfully. At the end of the paper, some new research problems have been pointed out for the future.

  4. Hydrological modeling of the Simly Dam watershed (Pakistan) using GIS and SWAT model

    OpenAIRE

    Shimaa M. Ghoraba

    2015-01-01

    Modern mathematical models have been developed for studying the complex hydrological processes of a watershed and their direct relation to weather, topography, geology and land use. In this study the hydrology of Simly Dam watershed located in Saon River basin at the north-east of Islamabad is modeled, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). It aims to simulate the stream flow, establish the water balance and estimate the monthly volume inflow to Simly Dam in order to help the manage...

  5. A GIS-based approach for identifying potential runoff harvesting sites in the Thukela River basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winnaar, G.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Horan, M.

    Water scarce countries such as South Africa are subject to various hydrological constraints which can often be attributed to poor rainfall partitioning, particularly within resource poor farming communities that are reliant on rainfed agriculture. Recent initiatives to address this have shifted focus to explore more efficient alternatives to water supply and the recognition of numerous opportunities to implement runoff harvesting as a means to supplement water availability. However, increasing the implementation of runoff harvesting, without encountering unintended impacts on downstream hydrological and ecological systems, requires better understanding of the hydrologic and environmental impacts at catchment scale. In this paper the representation of spatial variations in landscape characteristics such as soil, land use, rainfall and slope information is shown to be an important step in identifying potential runoff harvesting sites, after which modelling the hydrological response in catchments where extensive runoff harvesting is being considered can be performed and likely impacts assessed. Geographic information systems (GIS) was utilised as an integrating tool to store, analyse and manage spatial information and when linked to hydrological response models, provided a rational means to facilitate decision making by providing catchment level identification, planning and assessment of runoff harvesting sites as illustrated by a case study at the Potshini catchment, a small sub-catchment in the Thukela River basin, South Africa. Through the linked GIS, potential runoff harvesting sites are identified relative to areas that concentrate runoff and where the stored water will be appropriately distributed. Based on GIS analysis it was found that 17% percent of the Potshini catchment area has a high potential for generating surface runoff, whereas an analysis of all factors which influence the location of such systems, shows that 18% is highly suitable for runoff

  6. A Review On Accuracy and Uncertainty of Spatial Data and Analyses with special reference to Urban and Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendran, A. A.; Lakshmanan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Data quality for GIS processing and analysis is becoming an increased concern due to the accelerated application of GIS technology for problem solving and decision making roles. Uncertainty in the geographic representation of the real world arises as these representations are incomplete. Identification of the sources of these uncertainties and the ways in which they operate in GIS based representations become crucial in any spatial data representation and geospatial analysis applied to any field of application. This paper reviews the articles on the various components of spatial data quality and various uncertainties inherent in them and special focus is paid to two fields of application such as Urban Simulation and Hydrological Modelling. Urban growth is a complicated process involving the spatio-temporal changes of all socio-economic and physical components at different scales. Cellular Automata (CA) model is one of the simulation models, which randomly selects potential cells for urbanisation and the transition rules evaluate the properties of the cell and its neighbour. Uncertainty arising from CA modelling is assessed mainly using sensitivity analysis including Monte Carlo simulation method. Likewise, the importance of hydrological uncertainty analysis has been emphasized in recent years and there is an urgent need to incorporate uncertainty estimation into water resources assessment procedures. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a continuous time watershed model to evaluate various impacts of land use management and climate on hydrology and water quality. Hydrological model uncertainties using SWAT model are dealt primarily by Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method.

  7. A DISTRIBUTED HYPERMAP MODEL FOR INTERNET GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The rapid development of Internet technology makes it possible to integrate GIS with the Internet,forming Internet GIS.Internet GIS is based on a distributed client/server architecture and TCP/IP & IIOP.When constructing and designing Internet GIS,we face the problem of how to express information units of Internet GIS.In order to solve this problem,this paper presents a distributed hypermap model for Internet GIS.This model provides a solution to organize and manage Internet GIS information units.It also illustrates relations between two information units and in an internal information unit both on clients and servers.On the basis of this model,the paper contributes to the expressions of hypermap relations and hypermap operations.The usage of this model is shown in the implementation of a prototype system.

  8. WATGIS: A GIS-Based Lumped Parameter Water Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn P. Fernandez; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2002-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS)­based, lumped parameter water quality model was developed to estimate the spatial and temporal nitrogen­loading patterns for lower coastal plain watersheds in eastern North Carolina. The model uses a spatially distributed delivery ratio (DR) parameter to account for nitrogen retention or loss along a drainage network. Delivery...

  9. A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model for pollutants emitted by complex source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, Grazia; Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gaussian dispersion models are widely used to simulate the concentrations and deposition fluxes of pollutants emitted by source areas. Very often, the calculation time limits the number of sources and receptors and the geometry of the sources must be simple and without holes. This paper presents CAREA, a new GIS-based Gaussian model for complex source areas. CAREA was coded in the Python language, and is largely based on a simplified formulation of the very popular and recognized AERMOD model. The model allows users to define in a GIS environment thousands of gridded or scattered receptors and thousands of complex sources with hundreds of vertices and holes. CAREA computes ground level, or near ground level, concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of pollutants. The input/output and the runs of the model can be completely managed in GIS environment (e.g. inside a GIS project). The paper presents the CAREA formulation and its applications to very complex test cases. The tests shows that the processing time are satisfactory and that the definition of sources and receptors and the output retrieval are quite easy in a GIS environment. CAREA and AERMOD are compared using simple and reproducible test cases. The comparison shows that CAREA satisfactorily reproduces AERMOD simulations and is considerably faster than AERMOD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ocena zmiany warunków hydrologicznych na terenach zurbanizowanych z wykorzystaniem technik GIS = GIS-based assessment of changes related to hydrological conditions in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Szumińska

    2015-05-01

    email: dszum@ukw.edu.pl1   Streszczenie   W artykule zaprezentowano możliwości wykorzystania technik GIS do przeprowadzenia analizy zmiany warunków hydrologicznych. Badania przeprowadzono na terenie zurbanizowanym, na którym dokonano zmian rzeźby oraz sposobu użytkowania terenu. Spowodowało to pojawieniem się problemów z odwodnieniem terenu, przede wszystkim w czasie wzmożonego zasilania z opadów deszczu i roztopów śniegu. W celu określenia przyczyn występujących problemów porównano rzeźbę terenu oraz wyznaczono kierunki odpływu wód powierzchniowych przed i po zagospodarowaniu działki d (Ryc. 1. Czasochłonne i kosztochłonne badania geologiczne wykonano w minimalnym zakresie (Tab. 1 i zostały one wykorzystane jako informacja uzupełniająca, pozwalająca na ocenę możliwości infiltracji wody w podłoże. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że główne przyczyny problemów z odwodnieniem terenu związane są ze stworzeniem barier w postaci podmurówek ogrodzeń zlokalizowanych prostopadle do kierunków odpływu wody (Fot. 1, Fot. 2. Zmiany rzeźby były w analizowanym przypadku czynnikiem mniej istotnym.   Słowa kluczowe: warunki hydrologiczne, infiltracja, model rzeźby terenu, kierunki odpływu, użytkowanie terenu, tereny zurbanizowane.   Abstract   The paper discusses the possibilities of employing GIS for conducting analysis of changes in hydrological conditions. The study was carried out in an urban area featuring altered relief and use of land. This caused problems with draining the terrain, particularly at times of increased rainwater and meltwater supply. In order to identify the causes of the occurring problems, we compared land relief prior and after the plot was developed, as well as indicated the directions of surface water runoff (Fig. 1. Time-consuming and expensive geological research activities were restricted to minimum (Tab. 2 and the data thus obtained were used as supplementary information to

  11. Use of hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling for ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeysekera, J.; Kuebler, L.; Ahmed, S.; Chang, M.-L.; Engel, V.; Langevin, C.; Swain, E.; Wan, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Planning and implementation of unprecedented projects for restoring the greater Everglades ecosystem are underway and the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of restoration alternatives has become essential for success of restoration efforts. In view of the complex nature of the South Florida water resources system, regional-scale (system-wide) hydrologic models have been developed and used extensively for the development of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In addition, numerous subregional-scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic models have been developed and are being used for evaluating project-scale water management plans associated with urban, agricultural, and inland costal ecosystems. The authors provide a comprehensive summary of models of all scales, as well as the next generation models under development to meet the future needs of ecosystem restoration efforts in South Florida. The multiagency efforts to develop and apply models have allowed the agencies to understand the complex hydrologic interactions, quantify appropriate performance measures, and use new technologies in simulation algorithms, software development, and GIS/database techniques to meet the future modeling needs of the ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. A Framework for Sharing and Integrating Remote Sensing and GIS Models Based on Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeqiang; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Liu, Deer; Bao, Ying; Ding, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    Sharing and integrating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System/Science (GIS) models are critical for developing practical application systems. Facilitating model sharing and model integration is a problem for model publishers and model users, respectively. To address this problem, a framework based on a Web service for sharing and integrating RS and GIS models is proposed in this paper. The fundamental idea of the framework is to publish heterogeneous RS and GIS models into standard Web services for sharing and interoperation and then to integrate the RS and GIS models using Web services. For the former, a “black box” and a visual method are employed to facilitate the publishing of the models as Web services. For the latter, model integration based on the geospatial workflow and semantic supported marching method is introduced. Under this framework, model sharing and integration is applied for developing the Pearl River Delta water environment monitoring system. The results show that the framework can facilitate model sharing and model integration for model publishers and model users. PMID:24901016

  13. A framework for sharing and integrating remote sensing and GIS models based on Web service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeqiang; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Liu, Deer; Bao, Ying; Ding, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    Sharing and integrating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System/Science (GIS) models are critical for developing practical application systems. Facilitating model sharing and model integration is a problem for model publishers and model users, respectively. To address this problem, a framework based on a Web service for sharing and integrating RS and GIS models is proposed in this paper. The fundamental idea of the framework is to publish heterogeneous RS and GIS models into standard Web services for sharing and interoperation and then to integrate the RS and GIS models using Web services. For the former, a "black box" and a visual method are employed to facilitate the publishing of the models as Web services. For the latter, model integration based on the geospatial workflow and semantic supported marching method is introduced. Under this framework, model sharing and integration is applied for developing the Pearl River Delta water environment monitoring system. The results show that the framework can facilitate model sharing and model integration for model publishers and model users.

  14. A Lightweight Modeling System for Region-Wide Monitoring of Hydrologic Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, D.; Hernandez, F.; Wang, R.; Liang, Y.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure is subject to multiple hydrology-related threats, including floods, bridge scouring, landslides, and icing. While modern land-surface models could potentially assist in forecast and response operations, applying these models is challenging, because of the extensiveness of the infrastructure that the government transportation agencies are responsible for. Constructing detailed models for every point of interest and running them in real time would require significant efforts from a team of modeling professionals and considerable computational resources. To address this challenge, we introduce the Hydrologic Disaster Forecast and Response (HDFR) system, a lightweight software framework (under development) that streamlines the process of acquiring real-time and forecast data, inputting it into hydrologic models, and translating the results into concrete actionable information for field-team deployment. HDFR integrates a series of data, modeling, and severity modules behind a unified GIS graphical user interface. The latter interface allows non-expert users to easily execute complex workflows, ranging from forcing information acquisition to severity level computations at specific locations. The HDFR allows the performance of these monitoring tasks without the need of a supercomputer-grade infrastructure. Currently, the HDFR uses a regression algorithm as a proxy for physically-based models, to estimate return periods of variables of interest for watersheds of concern, based on key forcing and state variables (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture). This method only requires the execution of land-surface simulations during an offline training phase; however, the HDFR also features a hierarchical multi-scale modeling strategy for improved forecast precision. This approach minimizes the number of models runs to those for selected areas and resolutions, depending on observed conditions. Several prototype versions of the HDFR built on GRASS GIS

  15. GIS-Based Planning and Modeling for Renewable Energy: Challenges and Future Research Avenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Resch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the face of the broad political call for an “energy turnaround”, we are currently witnessing three essential trends with regard to energy infrastructure planning, energy generation and storage: from planned production towards fluctuating production on the basis of renewable energy sources, from centralized generation towards decentralized generation and from expensive energy carriers towards cost-free energy carriers. These changes necessitate considerable modifications of the energy infrastructure. Even though most of these modifications are inherently motivated by geospatial questions and challenges, the integration of energy system models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS is still in its infancy. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of previous approaches in using GIS in renewable energy-related projects, extracts distinct challenges from these previous efforts and, finally, defines a set of core future research avenues for GIS-based energy infrastructure planning with a focus on the use of renewable energy. These future research avenues comprise the availability base data and their “geospatial awareness”, the development of a generic and unified data model, the usage of volunteered geographic information (VGI and crowdsourced data in analysis processes, the integration of 3D building models and 3D data analysis, the incorporation of network topologies into GIS, the harmonization of the heterogeneous views on aggregation issues in the fields of energy and GIS, fine-grained energy demand estimation from freely-available data sources, decentralized storage facility planning, the investigation of GIS-based public participation mechanisms, the transition from purely structural to operational planning, data privacy aspects and, finally, the development of a new dynamic power market design.

  16. Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-08-01

    3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.

  17. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Tool for hydrologic modeling and watershed assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using basic, easily attainable GIS data, AGWA provides a simple, direct, and repeatable methodology for hydrologic model setup, execution, and visualization. AGWA experiences activity from over 170 countries. It l has been downloaded over 11,000 times.

  18. Advancing the Implementation of Hydrologic Models as Web-based Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, P.; Tarboton, D. G.; Castronova, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced computer simulations are required to understand hydrologic phenomenon such as rainfall-runoff response, groundwater hydrology, snow hydrology, etc. Building a hydrologic model instance to simulate a watershed requires investment in data (diverse geospatial datasets such as terrain, soil) and computer resources, typically demands a wide skill set from the analyst, and the workflow involved is often difficult to reproduce. This work introduces a web-based prototype infrastructure in the form of a web application that provides researchers with easy to use access to complete hydrological modeling functionality. This includes creating the necessary geospatial and forcing data, preparing input files for a model by applying complex data preprocessing, running the model for a user defined watershed, and saving the results to a web repository. The open source Tethys Platform was used to develop the web app front-end Graphical User Interface (GUI). We used HydroDS, a webservice that provides data preparation processing capability to support backend computations used by the app. Results are saved in HydroShare, a hydrologic information system that supports the sharing of hydrologic data, model and analysis tools. The TOPographic Kinematic APproximation and Integration (TOPKAPI) model served as the example for which we developed a complete hydrologic modeling service to demonstrate the approach. The final product is a complete modeling system accessible through the web to create input files, and run the TOPKAPI hydrologic model for a watershed of interest. We are investigating similar functionality for the preparation of input to Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). Key Words: hydrologic modeling, web services, hydrologic information system, HydroShare, HydroDS, Tethys Platform

  19. Cyberinfrastructure to Support Collaborative and Reproducible Computational Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, J. L.; Castronova, A. M.; Bandaragoda, C.; Morsy, M. M.; Sadler, J. M.; Essawy, B.; Tarboton, D. G.; Malik, T.; Nijssen, B.; Clark, M. P.; Liu, Y.; Wang, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Creating cyberinfrastructure to support reproducibility of computational hydrologic models is an important research challenge. Addressing this challenge requires open and reusable code and data with machine and human readable metadata, organized in ways that allow others to replicate results and verify published findings. Specific digital objects that must be tracked for reproducible computational hydrologic modeling include (1) raw initial datasets, (2) data processing scripts used to clean and organize the data, (3) processed model inputs, (4) model results, and (5) the model code with an itemization of all software dependencies and computational requirements. HydroShare is a cyberinfrastructure under active development designed to help users store, share, and publish digital research products in order to improve reproducibility in computational hydrology, with an architecture supporting hydrologic-specific resource metadata. Researchers can upload data required for modeling, add hydrology-specific metadata to these resources, and use the data directly within HydroShare.org for collaborative modeling using tools like CyberGIS, Sciunit-CLI, and JupyterHub that have been integrated with HydroShare to run models using notebooks, Docker containers, and cloud resources. Current research aims to implement the Structure For Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) hydrologic model within HydroShare to support hypothesis-driven hydrologic modeling while also taking advantage of the HydroShare cyberinfrastructure. The goal of this integration is to create the cyberinfrastructure that supports hypothesis-driven model experimentation, education, and training efforts by lowering barriers to entry, reducing the time spent on informatics technology and software development, and supporting collaborative research within and across research groups.

  20. HYDROGEIOS: a semi-distributed GIS-based hydrological model for modified river basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Efstratiadis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The HYDROGEIOS modelling framework represents the main processes of the hydrological cycle in heavily modified catchments, with decision-depended abstractions and interactions between surface and groundwater flows. A semi-distributed approach and a monthly simulation time step are adopted, which are sufficient for water resources management studies. The modelling philosophy aims to ensure consistency with the physical characteristics of the system, while keeping the number of parameters as low as possible. Therefore, multiple levels of schematization and parameterization are adopted, by combining multiple levels of geographical data. To optimally allocate human abstractions from the hydrosystem during a planning horizon or even to mimic the allocation occurred in a past period (e.g. the calibration period, in the absence of measured data, a linear programming problem is formulated and solved within each time step. With this technique the fluxes across the hydrosystem are estimated, and the satisfaction of physical and operational constraints is ensured. The model framework includes a parameter estimation module that involves various goodness-of-fit measures and state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms for global and multiobjective optimization. By means of a challenging case study, the paper discusses appropriate modelling strategies which take advantage of the above framework, with the purpose to ensure a robust calibration and reproduce natural and human induced processes in the catchment as faithfully as possible.

  1. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address

  2. WebGIS based on semantic grid model and web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, WangFei; Yue, CaiRong; Gao, JianGuo

    2009-10-01

    As the combination point of the network technology and GIS technology, WebGIS has got the fast development in recent years. With the restriction of Web and the characteristics of GIS, traditional WebGIS has some prominent problems existing in development. For example, it can't accomplish the interoperability of heterogeneous spatial databases; it can't accomplish the data access of cross-platform. With the appearance of Web Service and Grid technology, there appeared great change in field of WebGIS. Web Service provided an interface which can give information of different site the ability of data sharing and inter communication. The goal of Grid technology was to make the internet to a large and super computer, with this computer we can efficiently implement the overall sharing of computing resources, storage resource, data resource, information resource, knowledge resources and experts resources. But to WebGIS, we only implement the physically connection of data and information and these is far from the enough. Because of the different understanding of the world, following different professional regulations, different policies and different habits, the experts in different field will get different end when they observed the same geographic phenomenon and the semantic heterogeneity produced. Since these there are large differences to the same concept in different field. If we use the WebGIS without considering of the semantic heterogeneity, we will answer the questions users proposed wrongly or we can't answer the questions users proposed. To solve this problem, this paper put forward and experienced an effective method of combing semantic grid and Web Services technology to develop WebGIS. In this paper, we studied the method to construct ontology and the method to combine Grid technology and Web Services and with the detailed analysis of computing characteristics and application model in the distribution of data, we designed the WebGIS query system driven by

  3. Upscaling from research watersheds: an essential stage of trustworthy general-purpose hydrologic model building

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Semenova, O.; Restrepo, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Highly instrumented research watersheds provide excellent opportunities for investigating hydrologic processes. A danger, however, is that the processes observed at a particular research watershed are too specific to the watershed and not representative even of the larger scale watershed that contains that particular research watershed. Thus, models developed based on those partial observations may not be suitable for general hydrologic use. Therefore demonstrating the upscaling of hydrologic process from research watersheds to larger watersheds is essential to validate concepts and test model structure. The Hydrograph model has been developed as a general-purpose process-based hydrologic distributed system. In its applications and further development we evaluate the scaling of model concepts and parameters in a wide range of hydrologic landscapes. All models, either lumped or distributed, are based on a discretization concept. It is common practice that watersheds are discretized into so called hydrologic units or hydrologic landscapes possessing assumed homogeneous hydrologic functioning. If a model structure is fixed, the difference in hydrologic functioning (difference in hydrologic landscapes) should be reflected by a specific set of model parameters. Research watersheds provide the possibility for reasonable detailed combining of processes into some typical hydrologic concept such as hydrologic units, hydrologic forms, and runoff formation complexes in the Hydrograph model. And here by upscaling we imply not the upscaling of a single process but upscaling of such unified hydrologic functioning. The simulation of runoff processes for the Dry Creek research watershed, Idaho, USA (27 km2) was undertaken using the Hydrograph model. The information on the watershed was provided by Boise State University and included a GIS database of watershed characteristics and a detailed hydrometeorological observational dataset. The model provided good simulation results in

  4. Lowering the barriers to computational modeling of Earth's surface: coupling Jupyter Notebooks with Landlab, HydroShare, and CyberGIS for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Castronova, A. M.; Phuong, J.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Strauch, R. L.; Nudurupati, S. S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Wang, S. W.; Yin, D.; Barnhart, K. R.; Tucker, G. E.; Hutton, E.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Gasparini, N. M.; Adams, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to test hypotheses about hydrology, geomorphology and atmospheric processes is invaluable to research in the era of big data. Although community resources are available, there remain significant educational, logistical and time investment barriers to their use. Knowledge infrastructure is an emerging intellectual framework to understand how people are creating, sharing and distributing knowledge - which has been dramatically transformed by Internet technologies. In addition to the technical and social components in a cyberinfrastructure system, knowledge infrastructure considers educational, institutional, and open source governance components required to advance knowledge. We are designing an infrastructure environment that lowers common barriers to reproducing modeling experiments for earth surface investigation. Landlab is an open-source modeling toolkit for building, coupling, and exploring two-dimensional numerical models. HydroShare is an online collaborative environment for sharing hydrologic data and models. CyberGIS-Jupyter is an innovative cyberGIS framework for achieving data-intensive, reproducible, and scalable geospatial analytics using the Jupyter Notebook based on ROGER - the first cyberGIS supercomputer, so that models that can be elastically reproduced through cloud computing approaches. Our team of geomorphologists, hydrologists, and computer geoscientists has created a new infrastructure environment that combines these three pieces of software to enable knowledge discovery. Through this novel integration, any user can interactively execute and explore their shared data and model resources. Landlab on HydroShare with CyberGIS-Jupyter supports the modeling continuum from fully developed modelling applications, prototyping new science tools, hands on research demonstrations for training workshops, and classroom applications. Computational geospatial models based on big data and high performance computing can now be more efficiently

  5. Grid based calibration of SWAT hydrological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gorgan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The calibration and execution of large hydrological models, such as SWAT (soil and water assessment tool, developed for large areas, high resolution, and huge input data, need not only quite a long execution time but also high computation resources. SWAT hydrological model supports studies and predictions of the impact of land management practices on water, sediment, and agricultural chemical yields in complex watersheds. The paper presents the gSWAT application as a web practical solution for environmental specialists to calibrate extensive hydrological models and to run scenarios, by hiding the complex control of processes and heterogeneous resources across the grid based high computation infrastructure. The paper highlights the basic functionalities of the gSWAT platform, and the features of the graphical user interface. The presentation is concerned with the development of working sessions, interactive control of calibration, direct and basic editing of parameters, process monitoring, and graphical and interactive visualization of the results. The experiments performed on different SWAT models and the obtained results argue the benefits brought by the grid parallel and distributed environment as a solution for the processing platform. All the instances of SWAT models used in the reported experiments have been developed through the enviroGRIDS project, targeting the Black Sea catchment area.

  6. Hydrological models are mediating models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting

  7. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jangwon; Kim, Sung-Min; Yi, Huiuk; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-11-27

    In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest. Because GIS is appropriated for the handling of geospatial data in relation to mining-induced hazards, the application and feasibility of exploiting GIS-based modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards within the mining industry could be expanded further.

  8. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Yi, Huiuk; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest. Because GIS is appropriated for the handling of geospatial data in relation to mining-induced hazards, the application and feasibility of exploiting GIS-based modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards within the mining industry could be expanded further. PMID:29186922

  9. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwon Suh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, current geographic information system (GIS-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest. Because GIS is appropriated for the handling of geospatial data in relation to mining-induced hazards, the application and feasibility of exploiting GIS-based modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards within the mining industry could be expanded further.

  10. SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE DESIGN OF GIS WEB SERVICE AGGREGATION BASED ON SERVICE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of research status of domestic and international GIS web service aggregation and development tendency of public platform of GIS web service, the paper designed software architecture of GIS web service aggregation based on GIS web service group. Firstly, using heterogeneous GIS services model, the software architecture converted a variety of heterogeneous services to a unified interface of GIS services, and divided different types of GIS services into different service groups referring to description of GIS services. Secondly, a service aggregation process model was designed. This model completed the task of specific service aggregation instance, by automatically selecting member GIS Web services in the same service group. Dynamic capabilities and automatic adaptation of GIS Web services aggregation process were achieved. Thirdly, this paper designed a service evaluation model of GIS web service aggregation based on service group from three aspects, i.e. GIS Web Service itself, networking conditions and service consumer. This model implemented effective quality evaluation and performance monitoring of GIS web service aggregation. It could be used to guide the execution, monitor and service selection of aggregation process. Therefore, robustness of aggregated GIS web service was improved. Finally, the software architecture has been widely used in public platform of GIS web service and a number of geo-spatial framework constructions for digital city in Sichuan Province, and aggregated various GIS web services such as World Map(National Public Platform of Geo-spatial Service, ArcGIS, SuperMap, MapGIS, NewMap etc. Applications of items showed that this software architecture was practicability.

  11. GIS-based hydrogeological databases and groundwater modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogu, Radu Constantin; Carabin, Guy; Hallet, Vincent; Peters, Valerie; Dassargues, Alain

    2001-12-01

    Reliability and validity of groundwater analysis strongly depend on the availability of large volumes of high-quality data. Putting all data into a coherent and logical structure supported by a computing environment helps ensure validity and availability and provides a powerful tool for hydrogeological studies. A hydrogeological geographic information system (GIS) database that offers facilities for groundwater-vulnerability analysis and hydrogeological modelling has been designed in Belgium for the Walloon region. Data from five river basins, chosen for their contrasting hydrogeological characteristics, have been included in the database, and a set of applications that have been developed now allow further advances. Interest is growing in the potential for integrating GIS technology and groundwater simulation models. A "loose-coupling" tool was created between the spatial-database scheme and the groundwater numerical model interface GMS (Groundwater Modelling System). Following time and spatial queries, the hydrogeological data stored in the database can be easily used within different groundwater numerical models. Résumé. La validité et la reproductibilité de l'analyse d'un aquifère dépend étroitement de la disponibilité de grandes quantités de données de très bonne qualité. Le fait de mettre toutes les données dans une structure cohérente et logique soutenue par les logiciels nécessaires aide à assurer la validité et la disponibilité et fournit un outil puissant pour les études hydrogéologiques. Une base de données pour un système d'information géographique (SIG) hydrogéologique qui offre toutes les facilités pour l'analyse de la vulnérabilité des eaux souterraines et la modélisation hydrogéologique a été établi en Belgique pour la région Wallonne. Les données de cinq bassins de rivières, choisis pour leurs caractéristiques hydrogéologiques différentes, ont été introduites dans la base de données, et un ensemble d

  12. Integrated hydrological modelling of a managed coastal Mediterranean wetland (Rhone delta, France: initial calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chauvelon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of a heavily managed coastal Mediterranean wetland. The hydrosystem studied , called ``Ile de Camargue', is the central part of the Rhone river delta. It comprises flat agricultural drainage basins, marshes, and shallow brackish lagoons whose connection to the sea is managed. This hydrosystem is subject to strong natural hydrological variability due to the combination of a Mediterranean climate and the artificial hydrological regime imposed by flooded rice cultivation. To quantify the hydrological balance at different spatial and temporal scales, a simplified model is developed — including the basin and the lagoons — using a time step that enables the temporal dynamic to be reproduced that is adapted to data availability. This modelling task takes into account the functioning of the natural and anthropogenic components of the hydrosystem. A conceptual approach is used for modelling drainage from the catchment, using a GIS to estimate water input for rice irrigation. The lagoon system is modelled using a two-dimensional finite element hydrodynamic model. Simulated results from the hydrodynamic model run under various hydro-climatic forcing conditions (water level, wind speed and direction, sea connection are used to calculate hydraulic exchanges between lagoon sub units considered as boxes. Finally, the HIC ('Hydrologie de l’Ile de Camargue' conceptual model is applied to simulate the water inputs and exchanges between the different units, together with the salt balance in the hydrosystem during a calibration period. Keywords: water management,conceptual hydrological model, hydrodynamic model, box model, GIS, Rhone delta, Camargue.

  13. lumpR 2.0.0: an R package facilitating landscape discretisation for hillslope-based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Tobias; Francke, Till; Bronstert, Axel

    2017-08-01

    The characteristics of a landscape pose essential factors for hydrological processes. Therefore, an adequate representation of the landscape of a catchment in hydrological models is vital. However, many of such models exist differing, amongst others, in spatial concept and discretisation. The latter constitutes an essential pre-processing step, for which many different algorithms along with numerous software implementations exist. In that context, existing solutions are often model specific, commercial, or depend on commercial back-end software, and allow only a limited or no workflow automation at all. Consequently, a new package for the scientific software and scripting environment R, called lumpR, was developed. lumpR employs an algorithm for hillslope-based landscape discretisation directed to large-scale application via a hierarchical multi-scale approach. The package addresses existing limitations as it is free and open source, easily extendible to other hydrological models, and the workflow can be fully automated. Moreover, it is user-friendly as the direct coupling to a GIS allows for immediate visual inspection and manual adjustment. Sufficient control is furthermore retained via parameter specification and the option to include expert knowledge. Conversely, completely automatic operation also allows for extensive analysis of aspects related to landscape discretisation. In a case study, the application of the package is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the most important discretisation parameters demonstrates its efficient workflow automation. Considering multiple streamflow metrics, the employed model proved reasonably robust to the discretisation parameters. However, parameters determining the sizes of subbasins and hillslopes proved to be more important than the others, including the number of representative hillslopes, the number of attributes employed for the lumping algorithm, and the number of sub-discretisations of the representative hillslopes.

  14. Nonlinear Prediction Model for Hydrologic Time Series Based on Wavelet Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, H.; Khalil, A.; Brown, C.; Lall, U.; Ahn, H.; Moon, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Traditionally forecasting and characterizations of hydrologic systems is performed utilizing many techniques. Stochastic linear methods such as AR and ARIMA and nonlinear ones such as statistical learning theory based tools have been extensively used. The common difficulty to all methods is the determination of sufficient and necessary information and predictors for a successful prediction. Relationships between hydrologic variables are often highly nonlinear and interrelated across the temporal scale. A new hybrid approach is proposed for the simulation of hydrologic time series combining both the wavelet transform and the nonlinear model. The present model employs some merits of wavelet transform and nonlinear time series model. The Wavelet Transform is adopted to decompose a hydrologic nonlinear process into a set of mono-component signals, which are simulated by nonlinear model. The hybrid methodology is formulated in a manner to improve the accuracy of a long term forecasting. The proposed hybrid model yields much better results in terms of capturing and reproducing the time-frequency properties of the system at hand. Prediction results are promising when compared to traditional univariate time series models. An application of the plausibility of the proposed methodology is provided and the results conclude that wavelet based time series model can be utilized for simulating and forecasting of hydrologic variable reasonably well. This will ultimately serve the purpose of integrated water resources planning and management.

  15. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS-based statistical models and Remote sensing data in tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Himan; Hashim, Mazlan

    2015-04-22

    This research presents the results of the GIS-based statistical models for generation of landslide susceptibility mapping using geographic information system (GIS) and remote-sensing data for Cameron Highlands area in Malaysia. Ten factors including slope, aspect, soil, lithology, NDVI, land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from SAR data, SPOT 5 and WorldView-1 images. The relationships between the detected landslide locations and these ten related factors were identified by using GIS-based statistical models including analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) models. The landslide inventory map which has a total of 92 landslide locations was created based on numerous resources such as digital aerial photographs, AIRSAR data, WorldView-1 images, and field surveys. Then, 80% of the landslide inventory was used for training the statistical models and the remaining 20% was used for validation purpose. The validation results using the Relative landslide density index (R-index) and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) demonstrated that the SMCE model (accuracy is 96%) is better in prediction than AHP (accuracy is 91%) and WLC (accuracy is 89%) models. These landslide susceptibility maps would be useful for hazard mitigation purpose and regional planning.

  16. Modelling floods in the Ammer catchment: limitations and challenges with a coupled meteo-hydrological model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ludwig

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous applications of hydrological models have shown their capability to simulate hydrological processes with a reasonable degree of certainty. For flood modelling, the quality of precipitation data — the key input parameter — is very important but often remains questionable. This paper presents a critical review of experience in the EU-funded RAPHAEL project. Different meteorological data sources were evaluated to assess their applicability for flood modelling and forecasting in the Bavarian pre-alpine catchment of the Ammer river (709 km2, for which the hydrological aspects of runoff production are described as well as the complex nature of floods. Apart from conventional rain gauge data, forecasts from several Numerical Weather Prediction Models (NWP as well as rain radar data are examined, scaled and applied within the framework of a GIS-structured and physically based hydrological model. Multi-scenario results are compared and analysed. The synergetic approach leads to promising results under certain meteorological conditions but emphasises various drawbacks. At present, NWPs are the only source of rainfall forecasts (up to 96 hours with large spatial coverage and high temporal resolution. On the other hand, the coarse spatial resolution of NWP grids cannot yet address, adequately, the heterogeneous structures of orographic rainfields in complex convective situations; hence, a major downscaling problem for mountain catchment applications is introduced. As shown for two selected Ammer flood events, a high variability in prediction accuracy has still to be accepted at present. Sensitivity analysis of both meteo-data input and hydrological model performance in terms of process description are discussed and positive conclusions have been drawn for future applications of an advanced meteo-hydro model synergy. Keywords: RAPHAEL, modelling, forecasting, model coupling, PROMET-D, TOPMODEL

  17. GIS-based modelling of odour emitted from the waste processing plant: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sόwka Izabela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of odours into the atmospheric air from the municipal economy and industrial plants, especially in urbanized areas, causes a serious problem, which the mankind has been struggling with for years. The excessive exposure of people to odours may result in many negative health effects, including, for example, headaches and vomiting. There are many different methods that are used in order to evaluate the odour nuisance. The results obtained through those methods can then be used to carry out a visualization and an analysis of a distribution of the odour concentrations in a given area by using the GIS (Geographic Information System. By their application to the spatial analysis of the impact of odours, we can enable the assessment of the magnitude and likelihood of the occurrence of odour nuisance. Modelling using GIS tools and spatial interpolation like IDW method and kriging can provide an alternative to the standard modelling tools, which generally use the emission values from sources that are identified as major emitters of odours. The work presents the result, based on the odour measurements data from waste processing plant, of the attempt to connect two different tools – the reference model OPERAT FB and GIS-based dispersion modelling performed using IDW method and ordinary kriging to analyse their behaviour in terms of limited observation values.

  18. Integration of a Hydrological Model within a Geographical Information System: Application to a Forest Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Fotakis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Watershed simulation software used for operational purposes must possess both dependability of results and flexibility in parameter selection and testing. The UBC watershed model (UBCWM contains a wide spectrum of parameters expressing meteorological, geological, as well as ecological watershed characteristics. The hydrological model was coupled to the MapInfo GIS and the software created was named Watershed Mapper (WM. WM is endowed with several features permitting operational utilization. These include input data and basin geometry visualization, land use/cover and soil simulation, exporting of statistical results and thematic maps and interactive variation of disputed parameters. For the application of WM two hypothetical scenarios of forest fires were examined in a study watershed. Four major rainfall events were selected from 12-year daily precipitation data and the corresponding peak flows were estimated for the base line data and hypothetical scenarios. A significant increase was observed as an impact of forest fires on peak flows. Due to its flexibility the combined tool described herein may be utilized in modeling long-term hydrological changes in the context of unsteady hydrological analyses.

  19. Hydrological and hydraulic models for determination of flood-prone and flood inundation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Hafzullah; Sadan Ozgur Kirca, Veysel; Burgan, Halil Ibrahim; Kellecioglu, Dorukhan

    2016-05-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are widely used in most studies on water resources. Especially, when the topography and geomorphology of study area are considered, GIS can ease the work load. Detailed data should be used in this kind of studies. Because of, either the complication of the models or the requirement of highly detailed data, model outputs can be obtained fast only with a good optimization. The aim in this study, firstly, is to determine flood-prone areas in a watershed by using a hydrological model considering two wetness indexes; the topographical wetness index, and the SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses) wetness index. The wetness indexes were obtained in the Quantum GIS (QGIS) software by using the Digital Elevation Model of the study area. Flood-prone areas are determined by considering the wetness index maps of the watershed. As the second stage of this study, a hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, was executed to determine flood inundation areas under different return period-flood events. River network cross-sections required for this study were derived from highly detailed digital elevation models by QGIS. Also river hydraulic parameters were used in the hydraulic model. Modelling technology used in this study is made of freely available open source softwares. Based on case studies performed on watersheds in Turkey, it is concluded that results of such studies can be used for taking precaution measures against life and monetary losses due to floods in urban areas particularly.

  20. Hydrological and hydraulic models for determination of flood-prone and flood inundation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aksoy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS are widely used in most studies on water resources. Especially, when the topography and geomorphology of study area are considered, GIS can ease the work load. Detailed data should be used in this kind of studies. Because of, either the complication of the models or the requirement of highly detailed data, model outputs can be obtained fast only with a good optimization. The aim in this study, firstly, is to determine flood-prone areas in a watershed by using a hydrological model considering two wetness indexes; the topographical wetness index, and the SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses wetness index. The wetness indexes were obtained in the Quantum GIS (QGIS software by using the Digital Elevation Model of the study area. Flood-prone areas are determined by considering the wetness index maps of the watershed. As the second stage of this study, a hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, was executed to determine flood inundation areas under different return period-flood events. River network cross-sections required for this study were derived from highly detailed digital elevation models by QGIS. Also river hydraulic parameters were used in the hydraulic model. Modelling technology used in this study is made of freely available open source softwares. Based on case studies performed on watersheds in Turkey, it is concluded that results of such studies can be used for taking precaution measures against life and monetary losses due to floods in urban areas particularly.

  1. Scale effect challenges in urban hydrology highlighted with a distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Bompard, Philippe; Ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire

    2018-01-01

    Hydrological models are extensively used in urban water management, development and evaluation of future scenarios and research activities. There is a growing interest in the development of fully distributed and grid-based models. However, some complex questions related to scale effects are not yet fully understood and still remain open issues in urban hydrology. In this paper we propose a two-step investigation framework to illustrate the extent of scale effects in urban hydrology. First, fractal tools are used to highlight the scale dependence observed within distributed data input into urban hydrological models. Then an intensive multi-scale modelling work is carried out to understand scale effects on hydrological model performance. Investigations are conducted using a fully distributed and physically based model, Multi-Hydro, developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. The model is implemented at 17 spatial resolutions ranging from 100 to 5 m. Results clearly exhibit scale effect challenges in urban hydrology modelling. The applicability of fractal concepts highlights the scale dependence observed within distributed data. Patterns of geophysical data change when the size of the observation pixel changes. The multi-scale modelling investigation confirms scale effects on hydrological model performance. Results are analysed over three ranges of scales identified in the fractal analysis and confirmed through modelling. This work also discusses some remaining issues in urban hydrology modelling related to the availability of high-quality data at high resolutions, and model numerical instabilities as well as the computation time requirements. The main findings of this paper enable a replacement of traditional methods of model calibration by innovative methods of model resolution alteration based on the spatial data variability and scaling of flows in urban hydrology.

  2. A GIS-based model for the hydrological and hydraulic reconstruction of historical flash-floods in urban areas. The case of the river Turia in Valencia (1957)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugués Mollá, Iván; Felici, Xavier Bonache i.; Mateu Bellés, Joan F.; Segura, Juan B. Marco

    2015-04-01

    a more effective and accurate risk management within the Valencian metropolitan area. The development of a GIS-based model enables the utilization of these materials, most of them unpublished. This non-systematic information can be treated jointly from a new perspective. In short, this model facilitates the provision of a database through a vast amount of organized, structured and georeferenced information about the event. In a second stage, it makes possible to interpret the hydro-geomorphic processes from the 1957 event (trenches along barrier beaches, erosion, deposition processes…) and hydraulic processes (main flow encroachment versus quasi-hydrostatic-flood, or 1D versus 2D flood behavior), which can be identified in order to obtain georeferenced information about spatial variability, directional information of flows and point distribution of water levels and flooded points. It is also necessary to carry out photo-interpretation works to clarify some unresolved issues with the objective of establishing the real order of magnitude of the flash-flood concerning the discharge rank. In the same way, some other elements can be identified such as urban streams along the streets, levees overtopping and breaks, flooded area, etc. Lastly, in the future the GIS database will enable to obtain a more accurate both hydraulic mathematical modelling and calibration/validation.

  3. Evaluating hydrological model performance using information theory-based metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accuracy-based model performance metrics not necessarily reflect the qualitative correspondence between simulated and measured streamflow time series. The objective of this work was to use the information theory-based metrics to see whether they can be used as complementary tool for hydrologic m...

  4. Feedback loops and temporal misalignment in component-based hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, Mostafa M.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Castronova, Anthony M.

    2011-12-01

    In component-based modeling, a complex system is represented as a series of loosely integrated components with defined interfaces and data exchanges that allow the components to be coupled together through shared boundary conditions. Although the component-based paradigm is commonly used in software engineering, it has only recently been applied for modeling hydrologic and earth systems. As a result, research is needed to test and verify the applicability of the approach for modeling hydrologic systems. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate two aspects of using component-based software architecture for hydrologic modeling: (1) simulation of feedback loops between components that share a boundary condition and (2) data transfers between temporally misaligned model components. We investigated these topics using a simple case study where diffusion of mass is modeled across a water-sediment interface. We simulated the multimedia system using two model components, one for the water and one for the sediment, coupled using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) standard. The results were compared with a more conventional numerical approach for solving the system where the domain is represented by a single multidimensional array. Results showed that the component-based approach was able to produce the same results obtained with the more conventional numerical approach. When the two components were temporally misaligned, we explored the use of different interpolation schemes to minimize mass balance error within the coupled system. The outcome of this work provides evidence that component-based modeling can be used to simulate complicated feedback loops between systems and guidance as to how different interpolation schemes minimize mass balance error introduced when components are temporally misaligned.

  5. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  6. Agricultural watershed modeling: a review for hydrology and soil erosion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Models have been used by man for thousands of years to control his environment in a favorable way to better human living conditions. The use of hydrologic models has been a widely effective tool in order to support decision makers dealing with watersheds related to several economic and social activities, like public water supply, energy generation, and water availability for agriculture, among others. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss some models on soil and water movement on landscapes (RUSLE, WEPP, GeoWEPP, LASH, DHSVM and AnnAGNPS to provide information about them to help and serve in a proper manner in order to discuss particular problems related to hydrology and soil erosion processes. Models have been changed and evaluated significantly in recent years, highlighting the use of remote sense, GIS and automatic calibration process, allowing them capable of simulating watersheds under a given land-use and climate change effects. However, hydrology models have almost the same physical structure, which is not enough for simulating problems related to the long-term effects of different land-uses. That has been our challenge for next future: to understand entirely the hydrology cycle, having as reference the critical zone, in which the hydrological processes act together from canopy to the bottom of aquifers.

  7. An integrated GIS-based interval-probabilistic programming model for land-use planning management under uncertainty--a case study at Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shasha; Zhou, Min; Guan, Xingliang; Tao, Lizao

    2015-03-01

    A large number of mathematical models have been developed for supporting optimization of land-use allocation; however, few of them simultaneously consider land suitability (e.g., physical features and spatial information) and various uncertainties existing in many factors (e.g., land availabilities, land demands, land-use patterns, and ecological requirements). This paper incorporates geographic information system (GIS) technology into interval-probabilistic programming (IPP) for land-use planning management (IPP-LUPM). GIS is utilized to assemble data for the aggregated land-use alternatives, and IPP is developed for tackling uncertainties presented as discrete intervals and probability distribution. Based on GIS, the suitability maps of different land users are provided by the outcomes of land suitability assessment and spatial analysis. The maximum area of every type of land use obtained from the suitability maps, as well as various objectives/constraints (i.e., land supply, land demand of socioeconomic development, future development strategies, and environmental capacity), is used as input data for the optimization of land-use areas with IPP-LUPM model. The proposed model not only considers the outcomes of land suitability evaluation (i.e., topography, ground conditions, hydrology, and spatial location) but also involves economic factors, food security, and eco-environmental constraints, which can effectively reflect various interrelations among different aspects in a land-use planning management system. The case study results at Suzhou, China, demonstrate that the model can help to examine the reliability of satisfying (or risk of violating) system constraints under uncertainty. Moreover, it may identify the quantitative relationship between land suitability and system benefits. Willingness to arrange the land areas based on the condition of highly suitable land will not only reduce the potential conflicts on the environmental system but also lead to a lower

  8. Smart caching based on mobile agent of power WebGIS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wu, Kehe; Chen, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Power information construction is developing towards intensive, platform, distributed direction with the expansion of power grid and improvement of information technology. In order to meet the trend, power WebGIS was designed and developed. In this paper, we first discuss the architecture and functionality of power WebGIS, and then we study caching technology in detail, which contains dynamic display cache model, caching structure based on mobile agent, and cache data model. We have designed experiments of different data capacity to contrast performance between WebGIS with the proposed caching model and traditional WebGIS. The experimental results showed that, with the same hardware environment, the response time of WebGIS with and without caching model increased as data capacity growing, while the larger the data was, the higher the performance of WebGIS with proposed caching model improved.

  9. The benefits of GIS to land use planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strielko, Irina; Pereira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    The development of information technologies has significantly changed the approach to land use and spatial planning, management of natural resources. GIS considerably simplifies territorial planning operating analyzing necessary data concerning their spatial relationship that allows carrying out complex assessment of the situation and creates a basis for adoption of more exact and scientifically reasonable decisions in the course of land use. To assess the current land use situation and the possibility of modeling possible future changes associated with complex of adopted measures GIS allows the integration of diverse spatial data, for example, data about soils, climate, vegetation, and other and also to visualize available information in the form of maps, graphs or charts, 3D models. For the purposes of land use GIS allow using data of remote sensing, which allows to make monitoring of anthropogenic influence in a particular area and estimate scales and rates of degradation of green cover, flora and fauna. Assessment of land use can be made in complex or componentwise, indicating the test sites depending on the goals. GIS make it easy to model spatial distribution of various types of pollution of stationary and mobile sources in soil, atmosphere and the hydrological network. Based on results of the analysis made by GIS choose the optimal solutions of land use that provide the minimum impact on environment, make optimal decisions of conflict associated with land use and control of their using. One of the major advantages of using GIS is possibility of the complex analysis in concrete existential aspect. Analytical opportunities of GIS define conditionality of spatial distribution of objects and interrelation communication between them. For a variety of land management objectives analysis method is chosen based on the parameters of the problem and parameters of use of its results.

  10. Initial hydrological modelling to assess impacts of different land uses on process hydrology in a small-scale semi-arid catchment in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steudel, T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available in those areas. GIS DATA ? highly precise GPS field measurements and contour line information for digital elevation model (DEM) generation and watershed derivation ? different raster layers (spatial resolution = 7.6 m) containing plot specific...2000 is capable of representing the hydrological conditions within such a small- scale catchment (Fig. 5, Fig 6) OUTLOOK ? J2000 can be used for a detailed analysis of the individual hydrological components affected by land use change ? further...

  11. GIS and RS-based modelling of potential natural hazard areas in Pehchevo municipality, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milevski Ivica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, one approach of Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS assessment of potential natural hazard areas (excess erosion, landslides, flash floods and fires is presented. For that purpose Pehchevo Municipality in the easternmost part of the Republic of Macedonia is selected as a case study area because of high local impact of natural hazards on the environment, social-demographic situation and local economy. First of all, most relevant static factors for each type of natural hazard are selected (topography, land cover, anthropogenic objects and infrastructure. With GIS and satellite imagery, multi-layer calculation is performed based on available traditional equations, clustering or discreditation procedures. In such way suitable relatively “static” natural hazard maps (models are produced. Then, dynamic (mostly climate related factors are included in previous models resulting in appropriate scenarios correlated with different amounts of precipitation, temperature, wind direction etc. Finally, GIS based scenarios are evaluated and tested with field check or very fine resolution Google Earth imagery showing good accuracy. Further development of such GIS models in connection with automatic remote meteorological stations and dynamic satellite imagery (like MODIS will provide on-time warning for coming natural hazard avoiding potential damages or even causalities.

  12. GIS-based analysis and modelling with empirical and remotely-sensed data on coastline advance and retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sajid Rashid

    -term memory processes were indicative of transitory hydrodynamic and other processes. An innovative framework for a spatio-temporal information-based system (STIBS) was developed. STIBS incorporated diverse datasets within a GIS, dynamic computer-based simulation models, and a spatial information query and graphical subsystem. Tests of the STIBS proved that it could be used to simulate and visualize temporal variability in shifting morphological states of the coastline.

  13. Newtonian nudging for a Richards equation-based distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniconi, Claudio; Marrocu, Marino; Putti, Mario; Verbunt, Mark

    The objective of data assimilation is to provide physically consistent estimates of spatially distributed environmental variables. In this study a relatively simple data assimilation method has been implemented in a relatively complex hydrological model. The data assimilation technique is Newtonian relaxation or nudging, in which model variables are driven towards observations by a forcing term added to the model equations. The forcing term is proportional to the difference between simulation and observation (relaxation component) and contains four-dimensional weighting functions that can incorporate prior knowledge about the spatial and temporal variability and characteristic scales of the state variable(s) being assimilated. The numerical model couples a three-dimensional finite element Richards equation solver for variably saturated porous media and a finite difference diffusion wave approximation based on digital elevation data for surface water dynamics. We describe the implementation of the data assimilation algorithm for the coupled model and report on the numerical and hydrological performance of the resulting assimilation scheme. Nudging is shown to be successful in improving the hydrological simulation results, and it introduces little computational cost, in terms of CPU and other numerical aspects of the model's behavior, in some cases even improving numerical performance compared to model runs without nudging. We also examine the sensitivity of the model to nudging term parameters including the spatio-temporal influence coefficients in the weighting functions. Overall the nudging algorithm is quite flexible, for instance in dealing with concurrent observation datasets, gridded or scattered data, and different state variables, and the implementation presented here can be readily extended to any of these features not already incorporated. Moreover the nudging code and tests can serve as a basis for implementation of more sophisticated data assimilation

  14. Development of a GIS approach to mining risk assessment. Supervising Scientist report 159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) offers a means by which the data collected during the assessment of possible mining impacts can be stored and manipulated. A GIS that provides a central focus point for the storage, manipulation and retrieval of information generated by the investigation into the geomorphological impact of the ERA Jabiluka Mine has been developed. Implementing a flexible, GIS-centred approach to data management allows the data storage, manipulation and retrieval powers of GIS to be retained whilst maintaining access to the functionality contained within these other software packages. The GIS has also been linked to the DistFW hydrology model and SIBERIA landform evolution model, to provide a more spatial approach to assessing the impact of mining on the long-term landform evolution of a catchment. A GIS based rapid erosion assessment method has been developed and evaluated. The method allows the user to quickly acquire and evaluate existing data to assist in the planning of more detailed monitoring, modelling and erosion assessment programs. The rapid erosion assessment method is based on a simplified version of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), and allows the rapid parametrisation of the model from widely available land unit and elevation datasets. The rapid erosion assessment method is evaluated through the investigation of the effects of elevation data resolution on erosion predictions and field data validation. More detailed, quantitative risk assessment can be conducted using a combination of landform evolution modelling and basin analysis in a GIS framework. SIBERIA has been parameterized using field data from Ngarradj and applied to the catchment. Due to complexities of the catchment there were some difficulties with the hydrology component. However, the results indicate that SIBERIA is suitable and simulations showed little change in the catchment in the long term. Combining these with newly developed GIS tools to

  15. Applications and issues of GIS as tool for civil engineering modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, S.B.; Ho, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    A tool that has proliferated within civil engineering in recent years is geographic information systems (GIS). The goal of a tool is to supplement ability and knowledge that already exists, not to serve as a replacement for that which is lacking. To secure the benefits and avoid misuse of a burgeoning tool, engineers must understand the limitations, alternatives, and context of the tool. The common benefits of using GIS as a supplement to engineering modeling are summarized. Several brief case studies of GIS modeling applications are taken from popular civil engineering literature to demonstrate the wide use and varied implementation of GIS across the discipline. Drawing from the case studies, limitations regarding traditional GIS data models find the implementation of civil engineering models within current GIS are identified and countered by discussing the direction of the next generation of GIS. The paper concludes by highlighting the potential for the misuse of GIS in the context of engineering modeling and suggests that this potential can be reduced through education and awareness. The goal of this paper is to promote awareness of the issues related to GIS-based modeling and to assist in the formulation of questions regarding the application of current GIS. The technology has experienced much publicity of late, with many engineers being perhaps too excited about the usefulness of current GIS. An undoubtedly beneficial side effect of this, however, is that engineers are becoming more aware of GIS and, hopefully, the associated subtleties. Civil engineers must stay informed of GIS issues and progress, but more importantly, civil engineers must inform the GIS community to direct the technology development optimally.

  16. Virtual hydrology observatory: an immersive visualization of hydrology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Simon; Cruz-Neira, Carolina; Habib, Emad; Gerndt, Andreas

    2009-02-01

    The Virtual Hydrology Observatory will provide students with the ability to observe the integrated hydrology simulation with an instructional interface by using a desktop based or immersive virtual reality setup. It is the goal of the virtual hydrology observatory application to facilitate the introduction of field experience and observational skills into hydrology courses through innovative virtual techniques that mimic activities during actual field visits. The simulation part of the application is developed from the integrated atmospheric forecast model: Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), and the hydrology model: Gridded Surface/Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA). Both the output from WRF and GSSHA models are then used to generate the final visualization components of the Virtual Hydrology Observatory. The various visualization data processing techniques provided by VTK are 2D Delaunay triangulation and data optimization. Once all the visualization components are generated, they are integrated into the simulation data using VRFlowVis and VR Juggler software toolkit. VR Juggler is used primarily to provide the Virtual Hydrology Observatory application with fully immersive and real time 3D interaction experience; while VRFlowVis provides the integration framework for the hydrologic simulation data, graphical objects and user interaction. A six-sided CAVETM like system is used to run the Virtual Hydrology Observatory to provide the students with a fully immersive experience.

  17. Teaching Thousands with Cloud-based GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Michael; DiBiase, David; Beale, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Teaching Thousands with Cloud-based GIS Educators often draw a distinction between "teaching about GIS" and "teaching with GIS." Teaching about GIS involves helping students learn what GIS is, what it does, and how it works. On the other hand, teaching with GIS involves using the technology as a means to achieve education objectives in the sciences, social sciences, professional disciplines like engineering and planning, and even the humanities. The same distinction applies to CyberGIS. Understandably, early efforts to develop CyberGIS curricula and educational resources tend to be concerned primarily with CyberGIS itself. However, if CyberGIS becomes as functional, usable and scalable as it aspires to be, teaching with CyberGIS has the potential to enable large and diverse global audiences to perform spatial analysis using hosted data, mapping and analysis services all running in the cloud. Early examples of teaching tens of thousands of students across the globe with cloud-based GIS include the massive open online courses (MOOCs) offered by Penn State University and others, as well as the series of MOOCs more recently developed and offered by Esri. In each case, ArcGIS Online was used to help students achieve educational objectives in subjects like business, geodesign, geospatial intelligence, and spatial analysis, as well as mapping. Feedback from the more than 100,000 total student participants to date, as well as from the educators and staff who supported these offerings, suggest that online education with cloud-based GIS is scalable to very large audiences. Lessons learned from the course design, development, and delivery of these early examples may be useful in informing the continuing development of CyberGIS education. While MOOCs may have passed the peak of their "hype cycle" in higher education, the phenomenon they revealed persists: namely, a global mass market of educated young adults who turn to free online education to expand their horizons. The

  18. Genetic Programming for Automatic Hydrological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadalawada, Jayashree; Babovic, Vladan

    2017-04-01

    One of the recent challenges for the hydrologic research community is the need for the development of coupled systems that involves the integration of hydrologic, atmospheric and socio-economic relationships. This poses a requirement for novel modelling frameworks that can accurately represent complex systems, given, the limited understanding of underlying processes, increasing volume of data and high levels of uncertainity. Each of the existing hydrological models vary in terms of conceptualization and process representation and is the best suited to capture the environmental dynamics of a particular hydrological system. Data driven approaches can be used in the integration of alternative process hypotheses in order to achieve a unified theory at catchment scale. The key steps in the implementation of integrated modelling framework that is influenced by prior understanding and data, include, choice of the technique for the induction of knowledge from data, identification of alternative structural hypotheses, definition of rules, constraints for meaningful, intelligent combination of model component hypotheses and definition of evaluation metrics. This study aims at defining a Genetic Programming based modelling framework that test different conceptual model constructs based on wide range of objective functions and evolves accurate and parsimonious models that capture dominant hydrological processes at catchment scale. In this paper, GP initializes the evolutionary process using the modelling decisions inspired from the Superflex framework [Fenicia et al., 2011] and automatically combines them into model structures that are scrutinized against observed data using statistical, hydrological and flow duration curve based performance metrics. The collaboration between data driven and physical, conceptual modelling paradigms improves the ability to model and manage hydrologic systems. Fenicia, F., D. Kavetski, and H. H. Savenije (2011), Elements of a flexible approach

  19. HydroShare: A Platform for Collaborative Data and Model Sharing in Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D. P.; Goodall, J. L.; Couch, A.; Hooper, R. P.; Dash, P. K.; Stealey, M.; Yi, H.; Bandaragoda, C.; Castronova, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaboration system for sharing of hydrologic data, analytical tools, and models. It supports the sharing of and collaboration around "resources" which are defined by standardized content types for data formats and models commonly used in hydrology. With HydroShare you can: Share your data and models with colleagues; Manage who has access to the content that you share; Share, access, visualize and manipulate a broad set of hydrologic data types and models; Use the web services application programming interface (API) to program automated and client access; Publish data and models and obtain a citable digital object identifier (DOI); Aggregate your resources into collections; Discover and access data and models published by others; Use web apps to visualize, analyze and run models on data in HydroShare. This presentation will describe the functionality and architecture of HydroShare highlighting its use as a virtual environment supporting education and research. HydroShare has components that support: (1) resource storage, (2) resource exploration, and (3) web apps for actions on resources. The HydroShare data discovery, sharing and publishing functions as well as HydroShare web apps provide the capability to analyze data and execute models completely in the cloud (servers remote from the user) overcoming desktop platform limitations. The HydroShare GIS app provides a basic capability to visualize spatial data. The HydroShare JupyterHub Notebook app provides flexible and documentable execution of Python code snippets for analysis and modeling in a way that results can be shared among HydroShare users and groups to support research collaboration and education. We will discuss how these developments can be used to support different types of educational efforts in Hydrology where being completely web based is of value in an educational setting as students can all have access to the same functionality regardless of their computer.

  20. On the effects of adaptive reservoir operating rules in hydrological physically-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Federico; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have seen a significant increase of the human influence on the natural systems both at the global and local scale. Accurately modeling the human component and its interaction with the natural environment is key to characterize the real system dynamics and anticipate future potential changes to the hydrological regimes. Modern distributed, physically-based hydrological models are able to describe hydrological processes with high level of detail and high spatiotemporal resolution. Yet, they lack in sophistication for the behavior component and human decisions are usually described by very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the catchment dynamics. In the case of water reservoir operators, these simplistic rules usually consist of target-level rule curves, which represent the average historical level trajectory. Whilst these rules can reasonably reproduce the average seasonal water volume shifts due to the reservoirs' operation, they cannot properly represent peculiar conditions, which influence the actual reservoirs' operation, e.g., variations in energy price or water demand, dry or wet meteorological conditions. Moreover, target-level rule curves are not suitable to explore the water system response to climate and socio economic changing contexts, because they assume a business-as-usual operation. In this work, we quantitatively assess how the inclusion of adaptive reservoirs' operating rules into physically-based hydrological models contribute to the proper representation of the hydrological regime at the catchment scale. In particular, we contrast target-level rule curves and detailed optimization-based behavioral models. We, first, perform the comparison on past observational records, showing that target-level rule curves underperform in representing the hydrological regime over multiple time scales (e.g., weekly, seasonal, inter-annual). Then, we compare how future hydrological changes are affected by the two modeling

  1. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  2. A Modular GIS-Based Software Architecture for Model Parameter Estimation using the Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, D. P.; Osorio-Murillo, C.; Over, M. W.; Rubin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD) is an inverse modeling technique that is well-suited for estimation of spatially varying parameter fields using limited observations and Bayesian methods. This presentation will discuss the design, development, and testing of a free software implementation of the MAD technique using the open source DotSpatial geographic information system (GIS) framework, R statistical software, and the MODFLOW groundwater model. This new tool, dubbed MAD-GIS, is built using a modular architecture that supports the integration of external analytical tools and models for key computational processes including a forward model (e.g. MODFLOW, HYDRUS) and geostatistical analysis (e.g. R, GSLIB). The GIS-based graphical user interface provides a relatively simple way for new users of the technique to prepare the spatial domain, to identify observation and anchor points, to perform the MAD analysis using a selected forward model, and to view results. MAD-GIS uses the Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF) provided by the Microsoft .NET programming platform to support integration of different modeling and analytical tools at run-time through a custom "driver." Each driver establishes a connection with external programs through a programming interface, which provides the elements for communicating with core MAD software. This presentation gives an example of adapting the MODFLOW to serve as the external forward model in MAD-GIS for inferring the distribution functions of key MODFLOW parameters. Additional drivers for other models are being developed and it is expected that the open source nature of the project will engender the development of additional model drivers by 3rd party scientists.

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF GIS-BASED MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS WITH VB IN ArcGIS

    OpenAIRE

    DERYA OZTURK; FATMAGUL BATUK

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and geographical information systems (GIS) and introduces a tool, GIS–MCDA, written in visual basic in ArcGIS for GIS-based MCDA. The GIS–MCDA deals with raster-based data sets and includes standardization, weighting and decision analysis methods, and sensitivity analysis. Simple additive weighting, weighted product method, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution, compromise programming, a...

  4. Uncertainty in hydrological change modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seaby, Lauren Paige

    applied at the grid scale. Flux and state hydrological outputs which integrate responses over time and space showed more sensitivity to precipitation mean spatial biases and less so on extremes. In the investigated catchments, the projected change of groundwater levels and basin discharge between current......Hydrological change modelling methodologies generally use climate models outputs to force hydrological simulations under changed conditions. There are nested sources of uncertainty throughout this methodology, including choice of climate model and subsequent bias correction methods. This Ph.......D. study evaluates the uncertainty of the impact of climate change in hydrological simulations given multiple climate models and bias correction methods of varying complexity. Three distribution based scaling methods (DBS) were developed and benchmarked against a more simplistic and commonly used delta...

  5. Application of gis - technology for modelling motion water in the open channels

    OpenAIRE

    Venherskyi, Petro; Kokovska, Yaryna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper technology that would be allowed to use ArcGIS-Extension, that is GIS-components for Webapplications based on ArcGIS Server'a. Such technologies provide simple and easy integration and use of GIS-component on the WEB-site, where a separate layer provided opportunities modeling and solving applied problems of moving water flow in rivers.

  6. Engineering sustainable ecosystems: using GIS-based habitat modeling for oil sands mine reclamation and closure planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, K.

    1997-01-01

    A GIS model was built to predict the climax vegetation habitat types on reclaimed mine surfaces in the Fort McMurray region of the Mid-Boreal Mixedwood Ecoregion of northwestern Alberta. Regional vegetation habitat types were classified by digital remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data. Terrain data was derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model. The validated model was applied to the GIS database of Syncrude Canada's Mildred Lake Mine to predict future vegetation patterns based on the final closure mine surface. The results were compared to revegetation and closure plans created by experts to analyze performance and sustainability of reclamation efforts

  7. Application of GIS Technology - cadastral base of the municipality of Gostivar

    OpenAIRE

    Serafimoski, Toni

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis is presented modern GIS technology and its application in the field of cadastre. GIS technology is essentially based on the display and information processing related to given geographical coordinates. In the paper is implemented GIS software package Microstation, widely applied in the field of cadastre. The paper developed model using data from the cadastre of the municipality of Gostivar. Applied GIS technology opens up wide possibilities of processing of cadastral data,...

  8. Landscape-based hydrological modelling : Understanding the influence of climate, topography, and vegetation on catchment hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, a novel landscape-based hydrological model is presented that was developed and tested in numerous catchments around the world with various landscapes and climate conditions. A landscape is considered to consist of a topography and an ecosystem living on it. Firstly, the influence of

  9. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Jangwon; Kim, Sung-Min; Yi, Huiuk; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or t...

  10. On-line applications of numerical models in the Black Sea GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nikolaidis, M.; Stylianou, Stavros

    2017-09-01

    The Black Sea Geographical Information System (GIS) is developed based on cutting edge information technologies, and provides automated data processing and visualization on-line. Mapserver is used as a mapping service; the data are stored in MySQL DBMS; PHP and Python modules are utilized for data access, processing, and exchange. New numerical models can be incorporated in the GIS environment as individual software modules, compiled for a server-based operational system, providing interaction with the GIS. A common interface allows setting the input parameters; then the model performs the calculation of the output data in specifically predefined files and format. The calculation results are then passed to the GIS for visualization. Initially, a test scenario of integration of a numerical model into the GIS was performed, using software, developed to describe a two-dimensional tsunami propagation in variable basin depth, based on a linear long surface wave model which is legitimate for more than 5 m depth. Furthermore, the well established oil spill and trajectory 3-D model MEDSLIK (http://www.oceanography.ucy.ac.cy/medslik/) was integrated into the GIS with more advanced GIS functionality and capabilities. MEDSLIK is able to forecast and hind cast the trajectories of oil pollution and floating objects, by using meteo-ocean data and the state of oil spill. The MEDSLIK module interface allows a user to enter all the necessary oil spill parameters, i.e. date and time, rate of spill or spill volume, forecasting time, coordinates, oil spill type, currents, wind, and waves, as well as the specification of the output parameters. The entered data are passed on to MEDSLIK; then the oil pollution characteristics are calculated for pre-defined time steps. The results of the forecast or hind cast are then visualized upon a map.

  11. Groundwater Flow and Transport Model in Cecina Plain (Tuscany, Italy using GIS processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Armellini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a groundwater flow and transport model of trichlorethylene and tetrachlorethylene contamination in the Cecina’s coastal aquifer. The contamination analysis, with source located in the Poggio Gagliardo area (Montescudaio, Pisa, was necessary to optimize the groundwater monitoring and remediation design. The work was carried out in two phases: • design of a conceptual model of the aquifer using GIS analysis of many stratigraphic, chemical and hydrogeological data, collected from 2004 to 2012 in six aqueduct wells; • implementation of a groundwater flow and transport numerical model using the MODFLOW 88/96 and MT3D code and the graphical user interface GroundWaterVistas 5. The conceptual model hypothesizes a multilayer aquifer in the coastal plain extended to the sandy-clay hills, recharged by rainfall and by the Cecina River. The aquifer shows important hydrodynamic features affecting both the contamination spreading, due to the presence of a perched and heavily polluted layer separate from the underlying productive aquifer, and the hydrological balance, due to a thick separation layer that limits exchanges between the river and the second groundwater aquifer. The numerical model, built using increasingly complex versions of the initial conceptual model, has been calibrated using monitoring surveys conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency of Regione Toscana (ARPAT, in order to obtain possible forecast scenarios based on the minimum and maximum flow periods, and it is currently used as a tool for decision support regarding the reclamation and/or protection of the aquifer. Future developments will regard the implementation of the multilayer transport model, based on a new survey, and the final coupling with the regional hydrological model named MOBIDIC.

  12. Modelling and Mapping Oxygen-18 Isotope Composition of Precipitation in Spain for Hydrologic and Climatic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Arevalo, J.; Diaz-Teijeiro, M.F.; Castano, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple multiple regression model based on two geographic factors (latitude and elevation) has been developed that reproduces reasonably well the spatial distribution of the current mean oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation over Spain. In a preliminary analysis, additional geographic and climatic factors do not improve the performance of the model. A continuous digital map of oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation has been produced by combining the polynomial model with a Digital Elevation Model using GIS tools. Application of the resulting map to several case studies in Spain has shown it to be useful as a reference of the isotope input function to groundwater recharge and surface runoff. The results obtained so far show a good fit between modelled stable isotope values and those measured in surface and ground waters from different aquifers and recharge areas. The GIS tools applied to a continuous digital layer of spatial isotope are able to provide accurate information at detailed scales that are not affordable by other means. Further validation of the model, and further testing of its usefulness in surface hydrology and climatic studies, is going on.

  13. GIS UTILITY FOR HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT EVALUATION CAUSED BY DAMAGES OF WATER SUPPLY NETWORK IN RURAL AREAS. APPLICATIONS IN BAIA MARE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU ALEXANDRU MARIAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available GIS utility for hydrological impact evaluation caused by damages of water supply network in rural areas. Applications in Baia Mare Depression. Occurrence of a failure within the water supply network is an element of risk with important hydrological implications. Although at first glance you might think that a pipe diameter of only 20 cm can generate large effects, however, in case of significant damage or even burst pipe, a good part of high water flow in the pipe (approx. 25 m3/h on average in the Baia Mare associated with a long duration of failure (several hours may be in the drain area, impact on the local community. Regarding rural settlements, surface drainage allow a quantity of water retention tank underground infiltration but in many cases lack of a sewage system effectively contribute to increased negative consequences related to such damage (flooding farms, roads, crops compromise of flooding or drought in the event of damage to the hot water supply pipe and so on. This paper focuses on the role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS to assess the impact of runoff induced by damages in rural areas. The study therefore spatial aspect, through GIS, on the one hand runoff along the flow path with the start point of the network fault location and view previous hydrological conditions of the terrain, and on the other hand the impact of runoff the rural community. Study area Dumbrăviţa settlement located in Baia Mare Depression. This village is part of water supply system to the south and southeast of Baia Mare.

  14. Geographical information system (GIS) application for flood prediction at Sungai Sembrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Masiri; Ahmad, Nor Farah Atiqah; Razali, Siti Nooraiin Mohd; Hilaham, Mashuda Mohamad; Rahman, Mohamad Abdul; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Sahat, Suhaila

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence of flood is one of natural disaster that often beset Malaysia. The latest incident that happened in 2007 was the worst occurrence of floods ever be set in Johor. Reporting floods mainly focused on rising water rising levels, so about once a focus on the area of flood delineation. A study focused on the effectiveness of using Geographic Information System (GIS) to predict the flood by taking Sg. Sembrong, Batu Pahat, Johor as study area. This study combined hydrological model and water balance model in the display to show the expected flood area for future reference. The minimum, maximum and average rainfall data for January 2007 at Sg Sembrong were used in this study. The data shows that flood does not occurs at the minimum and average rainfall of 17.2mm and 2mm respectively. At maximum rainfall, 203mm, shows the flood area was 9983 hectares with the highest level of the water depth was 2m. The result showed that the combination of hydrological models and water balance model in GIS is very suitable to be used as a tool to obtain preliminary information on flood immediately. Besides that, GIS system is a very powerful tool used in hydrology engineering to help the engineer and planner to imagine the real situation of flood events, doing flood analysis, problem solving and provide a rational, accurate and efficient decision making.

  15. GIS-based methods for establishing the datafoundation for traffic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker

    1997-01-01

    Traffic models demand large amounts of data - some of which are: Traffic network topology, traffic network data, zone-data and trip matrices. GIS is a natural tool for handling most of these data as it can ease the work process and improve the quality control. However, traffic models demand a com......-plex topology not very well covered by the traditional GIS-topology. The paper describes a number of applications where ARC/INFO and ArcView have been used to automate the process of building a traffic network topology. The methodology has been used on a number of full-scale models, from medium sized urban...... areas to metropolitan areas (Copenhagen, Denmark and Bandung, Indonesia). The paper covers key subjects in the work process which has been eased considerably by using AML and Avenue scripts or by using the information from ARC/INFO in external applications:· Semi-automatic procedures for attaching zones...

  16. Tsunami Hazard Preventing Based Land Use Planning Model Using GIS Techniques in Muang Krabi, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Soomro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The terrible tsunami disaster, on 26 December 2004 hit Krabi, one of the ecotourist and very fascinating provinces of southern Thailand including its various regions e.g. Phangna and Phuket by devastating the human lives, coastal communications and the financially viable activities. This research study has been aimed to generate the tsunami hazard preventing based lands use planning model using GIS (Geographical Information Systems based on the hazard suitability analysis approach. The different triggering factors e.g. elevation, proximity to shore line, population density, mangrove, forest, stream and road have been used based on the land use zoning criteria. Those criteria have been used by using Saaty scale of importance one, of the mathematical techniques. This model has been classified according to the land suitability classification. The various techniques of GIS, namely subsetting, spatial analysis, map difference and data conversion have been used. The model has been generated with five categories such as high, moderate, low, very low and not suitable regions illustrating with their appropriate definition for the decision makers to redevelop the region.

  17. Tsunami hazard preventing based land use planing model using GIS technique in Muang Krabi, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soormo, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The terrible tsunami disaster, on 26 December 2004 hit Krabi, one of the ecotourist and very fascinating provinces of southern Thailand including its various regions e.g. Phangna and Phuket by devastating the human lives, coastal communications and the financially viable activities. This research study has been aimed to generate the tsunami hazard preventing based lands use planning model using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) based on the hazard suitability analysis approach. The different triggering factors e.g. elevation, proximity to shore line, population density, mangrove, forest, stream and road have been used based on the land use zoning criteria. Those criteria have been used by using Saaty scale of importance one, of the mathematical techniques. This model has been classified according to the land suitability classification. The various techniques of GIS, namely subsetting, spatial analysis, map difference and data conversion have been used. The model has been generated with five categories such as high, moderate, low, very low and not suitable regions illustrating with their appropriate definition for the decision makers to redevelop the region. (author)

  18. Multi-criteria evaluation of hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, Oldrich; Clark, Martyn; Weerts, Albrecht; Hill, Mary; Teuling, Ryan; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2013-04-01

    Over the last years, there is a tendency in the hydrological community to move from the simple conceptual models towards more complex, physically/process-based hydrological models. This is because conceptual models often fail to simulate the dynamics of the observations. However, there is little agreement on how much complexity needs to be considered within the complex process-based models. One way to proceed to is to improve understanding of what is important and unimportant in the models considered. The aim of this ongoing study is to evaluate structural model adequacy using alternative conceptual and process-based models of hydrological systems, with an emphasis on understanding how model complexity relates to observed hydrological processes. Some of the models require considerable execution time and the computationally frugal sensitivity analysis, model calibration and uncertainty quantification methods are well-suited to providing important insights for models with lengthy execution times. The current experiment evaluates two version of the Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE), which both enable running model inter-comparison experiments. One supports computationally efficient conceptual models, and the second supports more-process-based models that tend to have longer execution times. The conceptual FUSE combines components of 4 existing conceptual hydrological models. The process-based framework consists of different forms of Richard's equations, numerical solutions, groundwater parameterizations and hydraulic conductivity distribution. The hydrological analysis of the model processes has evolved from focusing only on simulated runoff (final model output), to also including other criteria such as soil moisture and groundwater levels. Parameter importance and associated structural importance are evaluated using different types of sensitivity analyses techniques, making use of both robust global methods (e.g. Sobol') as well as several

  19. Modeling urbanized watershed flood response changes with distributed hydrological model: key hydrological processes, parameterization and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization is the world development trend for the past century, and the developing countries have been experiencing much rapider urbanization in the past decades. Urbanization brings many benefits to human beings, but also causes negative impacts, such as increasing flood risk. Impact of urbanization on flood response has long been observed, but quantitatively studying this effect still faces great challenges. For example, setting up an appropriate hydrological model representing the changed flood responses and determining accurate model parameters are very difficult in the urbanized or urbanizing watershed. In the Pearl River Delta area, rapidest urbanization has been observed in China for the past decades, and dozens of highly urbanized watersheds have been appeared. In this study, a physically based distributed watershed hydrological model, the Liuxihe model is employed and revised to simulate the hydrological processes of the highly urbanized watershed flood in the Pearl River Delta area. A virtual soil type is then defined in the terrain properties dataset, and its runoff production and routing algorithms are added to the Liuxihe model. Based on a parameter sensitive analysis, the key hydrological processes of a highly urbanized watershed is proposed, that provides insight into the hydrological processes and for parameter optimization. Based on the above analysis, the model is set up in the Songmushan watershed where there is hydrological data observation. A model parameter optimization and updating strategy is proposed based on the remotely sensed LUC types, which optimizes model parameters with PSO algorithm and updates them based on the changed LUC types. The model parameters in Songmushan watershed are regionalized at the Pearl River Delta area watersheds based on the LUC types of the other watersheds. A dozen watersheds in the highly urbanized area of Dongguan City in the Pearl River Delta area were studied for the flood response changes due to

  20. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Simpevarp 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten

    2005-04-01

    This report presents and evaluates the site investigations and primary data on meteorology, surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that are available in the Simpevarp 1.2 'data freeze'. The main objective is to update the previous Simpevarp 1.1 description of the meteorological, surface hydrological and near-surface hydrogeological conditions in the Simpevarp area. Based on the Simpevarp 1.2 dataset, an updated conceptual and descriptive model of the surface and near-surface water flow conditions in the Simpevarp area is presented. In cases where site investigation data are not yet available, regional and/or generic data are used as input to the modelling. GIS- and process-based tools, used for initial quantitative flow modelling, are also presented. The objectives of this initial quantitative modelling are to illustrate, quantify and support the site descriptive model, and also to produce relevant input data to the ecological systems modelling within the SKB SurfaceNet framework.For the Simpevarp 1.2 model, the relevant site investigations include the establishment of one local meteorological station and surface-hydrological stations for discharge measurements, delineation and description of catchment areas, manual discharge measurements in water courses, slug tests in groundwater monitoring wells, and manual groundwater level measurements. In addition, other investigations have also contributed to the modelling, providing data on geometry (including topography), data from surface-based geological investigations and boreholes in Quaternary deposits, and data on the hydrogeological properties of the bedrock. The conceptual and descriptive modelling includes an identification and basic description of type areas, domains and interfaces between domains within the model area. The surface and near-surface flow system is described, including the assignment of hydrogeological properties to HSDs (Hydraulic Soil Domains) of Quaternary deposits based on a

  1. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Simpevarp 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [SWECO VIAK AB/Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    This report presents and evaluates the site investigations and primary data on meteorology, surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that are available in the Simpevarp 1.2 'data freeze'. The main objective is to update the previous Simpevarp 1.1 description of the meteorological, surface hydrological and near-surface hydrogeological conditions in the Simpevarp area. Based on the Simpevarp 1.2 dataset, an updated conceptual and descriptive model of the surface and near-surface water flow conditions in the Simpevarp area is presented. In cases where site investigation data are not yet available, regional and/or generic data are used as input to the modelling. GIS- and process-based tools, used for initial quantitative flow modelling, are also presented. The objectives of this initial quantitative modelling are to illustrate, quantify and support the site descriptive model, and also to produce relevant input data to the ecological systems modelling within the SKB SurfaceNet framework.For the Simpevarp 1.2 model, the relevant site investigations include the establishment of one local meteorological station and surface-hydrological stations for discharge measurements, delineation and description of catchment areas, manual discharge measurements in water courses, slug tests in groundwater monitoring wells, and manual groundwater level measurements. In addition, other investigations have also contributed to the modelling, providing data on geometry (including topography), data from surface-based geological investigations and boreholes in Quaternary deposits, and data on the hydrogeological properties of the bedrock. The conceptual and descriptive modelling includes an identification and basic description of type areas, domains and interfaces between domains within the model area. The surface and near-surface flow system is described, including the assignment of hydrogeological properties to HSDs (Hydraulic Soil Domains) of Quaternary deposits based on a

  2. Sediment transport modelling in a distributed physically based hydrological catchment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedload sediment transport and erosion processes in channels are important components of water induced natural hazards in alpine environments. A raster based distributed hydrological model, TOPKAPI, has been further developed to support continuous simulations of river bed erosion and deposition processes. The hydrological model simulates all relevant components of the water cycle and non-linear reservoir methods are applied for water fluxes in the soil, on the ground surface and in the channel. The sediment transport simulations are performed on a sub-grid level, which allows for a better discretization of the channel geometry, whereas water fluxes are calculated on the grid level in order to be CPU efficient. Several transport equations as well as the effects of an armour layer on the transport threshold discharge are considered. Flow resistance due to macro roughness is also considered. The advantage of this approach is the integrated simulation of the entire basin runoff response combined with hillslope-channel coupled erosion and transport simulation. The comparison with the modelling tool SETRAC demonstrates the reliability of the modelling concept. The devised technique is very fast and of comparable accuracy to the more specialised sediment transport model SETRAC.

  3. Scale effect challenges in urban hydrology highlighted with a Fully Distributed Model and High-resolution rainfall data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Bompard, Philippe; Ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing interest on small-scale rainfall information, provided by weather radars, to be used in urban water management and decision-making. Therefore, an increasing interest is in parallel devoted to the development of fully distributed and grid-based models following the increase of computation capabilities, the availability of high-resolution GIS information needed for such models implementation. However, the choice of an appropriate implementation scale to integrate the catchment heterogeneity and the whole measured rainfall variability provided by High-resolution radar technologies still issues. This work proposes a two steps investigation of scale effects in urban hydrology and its effects on modeling works. In the first step fractal tools are used to highlight the scale dependency observed within distributed data used to describe the catchment heterogeneity, both the structure of the sewer network and the distribution of impervious areas are analyzed. Then an intensive multi-scale modeling work is carried out to understand scaling effects on hydrological model performance. Investigations were conducted using a fully distributed and physically based model, Multi-Hydro, developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. The model was implemented at 17 spatial resolutions ranging from 100 m to 5 m and modeling investigations were performed using both rain gauge rainfall information as well as high resolution X band radar data in order to assess the sensitivity of the model to small scale rainfall variability. Results coming out from this work demonstrate scale effect challenges in urban hydrology modeling. In fact, fractal concept highlights the scale dependency observed within distributed data used to implement hydrological models. Patterns of geophysical data change when we change the observation pixel size. The multi-scale modeling investigation performed with Multi-Hydro model at 17 spatial resolutions confirms scaling effect on hydrological model

  4. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  5. Water Hammer Modelling and Simulation by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hariri Asli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work defined an Eulerian-based computational model compared with regression of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables for water hammer surge wave in transmission pipeline. The work also mentioned control of Unaccounted-for-Water (UFW based on the Geography Information System (GIS for water transmission pipeline. The experimental results of laboratory model and the field test results showed the validity of prediction achieved by computational model.

  6. Setting up a hydrological model based on global data for the Ayeyarwady basin in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Velden, Corine; Sloff, Kees; Nauta, Tjitte

    2017-04-01

    The use of global datasets in local hydrological modelling can be of great value. It opens up the possibility to include data for areas where local data is not or only sparsely available. In hydrological modelling the existence of both static physical data such as elevation and land use, and dynamic meteorological data such as precipitation and temperature, is essential for setting up a hydrological model, but often such data is difficult to obtain at the local level. For the Ayeyarwady catchment in Myanmar a distributed hydrological model (Wflow: https://github.com/openstreams/wflow) was set up with only global datasets, as part of a water resources study. Myanmar is an emerging economy, which has only recently become more receptive to foreign influences. It has a very limited hydrometeorological measurement network, with large spatial and temporal gaps, and data that are of uncertain quality and difficult to obtain. The hydrological model was thus set up based on resampled versions of the SRTM digital elevation model, the GlobCover land cover dataset and the HWSD soil dataset. Three global meteorological datasets were assessed and compared for use in the hydrological model: TRMM, WFDEI and MSWEP. The meteorological datasets were assessed based on their conformity with several precipitation station measurements, and the overall model performance was assessed by calculating the NSE and RVE based on discharge measurements of several gauging stations. The model was run for the period 1979-2012 on a daily time step, and the results show an acceptable applicability of the used global datasets in the hydrological model. The WFDEI forcing dataset gave the best results, with a NSE of 0.55 at the outlet of the model and a RVE of 8.5%, calculated over the calibration period 2006-2012. As a general trend the modelled discharge at the upstream stations tends to be underestimated, and at the downstream stations slightly overestimated. The quality of the discharge measurements

  7. Understanding forest-derived biomass supply with GIS modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, B. K.; Blomqvist, L.; Hall, P.

    2012-01-01

    distribution, and the cost of delivery as forests are frequently remote from energy users. A GIS-based model was developed to predict supply curves of forest biomass material for a site or group of sites, both now and in the future. The GIS biomass supply model was used to assist the New Zealand Energy...... Efficiency and Conservation Authority's development of a national target for biomass use for industrial heat production, to determine potential forest residue volumes for industrial heat and their delivery costs for 19 processing plants of the dairy company Fonterra, and towards investigating options...

  8. Developing the Model for the GIS Applications in National Hydro-Meteorological Service in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubacka, D.; Barszczynska, M.; Madej, P.

    2003-04-01

    Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) manages the national hydrological-meteorological service, the task of which is to maintain the network of stations, process data, as well issue warnings, reports and announcements. There are 5 divisions of IMWM scattered all over Poland. Each division includes numerous stations and the scientific-research departments. The data gathered, processed and analysed in IMWM are space-related, therefore spatial information systems are indispensable for its processing and visualisation. The project of GIS application in (IMWM) will be discussed in the presentation. With the divisions being so dispersed, numerous and heterogeneous in structure, GIS implementation is very complicated. On the one hand GIS should enable advanced spatial analyses to be carried out by the research, as well as data processing departments. On the other hand, it should provide passive access to a limited scope of information (e.g. for outside customers). Need analysis was carried out first. It resulted in proposals concerning the content of shared resources of geometrical data and connections with attribute data, as well as in proposals of GIS use in routine works. A model was prepared using various types of GIS software depending on the requirements of each division. It is based on standard solutions involving professional GIS, desktop GIS and simple tools for data presentation. In some departments the specialised software had to be taken into account (e.g. satellite data processing). It is necessary to develop and implement dedicated research methods for some individual tasks. The analysis of mapping requirements showed that there is a need to prepare thematic maps at least at two levels of detail. Presently, the works are concentrated on assembling thematic layers for a general map (at 1: 500000 scale) sufficient for many applications, including data visualisation in the Internet and IMWM publications, as well as the tool for measurements and

  9. ABM and GIS-based multi-scenarios volcanic evacuation modelling of Merapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Carver, Steve; Quincey, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Conducting effective evacuation is one of the successful keys to deal with such crisis. Therefore, a plan that considers the probability of the spatial extent of the hazard occurrences is needed. Likewise, the evacuation plan in Merapi is already prepared before the eruption on 2010. However, the plan could not be performed because the eruption magnitude was bigger than it was predicted. In this condition, the extent of the hazardous area was increased larger than the prepared hazard model. Managing such unpredicted situation need adequate information that flexible and adaptable to the current situation. Therefore, we applied an Agent-based Model (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) using multi-scenarios hazard model to support the evacuation management. The methodology and the case study in Merapi is provided.

  10. Geostatistical modelling of carbon monoxide levels in Khartoum State (Sudan) - GIS pilot based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhuseen, A [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Dept. of Landscape Ecology, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Madani, M [Ministry of Environment and Physical Development, 1111 Khartoum (Sudan)

    2012-04-25

    The objective of this study is to develop a digital GIS model; that can evaluate, predict and visualize carbon monoxide (CO) levels in Khartoum state. To achieve this aim, sample data had been collected, processed and managed to generate a dynamic GIS model of carbon monoxide levels in the study area. Parametric data collected from the field and analysis carried throughout this study show that (CO) emissions were lower than the allowable ambient air quality standards released by National Environment Protection Council (NEPC-USA) for 1998. However, this pilot study has found emissions of (CO) in Omdurman city were the highest. This pilot study shows that GIS and geostatistical modeling can be used as a powerful tool to produce maps of exposure. (authors)

  11. Sensitivity of wildlife habitat models to uncertainties in GIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.; Cogan, Christopher B.

    1992-01-01

    Decision makers need to know the reliability of output products from GIS analysis. For many GIS applications, it is not possible to compare these products to an independent measure of 'truth'. Sensitivity analysis offers an alternative means of estimating reliability. In this paper, we present a CIS-based statistical procedure for estimating the sensitivity of wildlife habitat models to uncertainties in input data and model assumptions. The approach is demonstrated in an analysis of habitat associations derived from a GIS database for the endangered California condor. Alternative data sets were generated to compare results over a reasonable range of assumptions about several sources of uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis indicated that condor habitat associations are relatively robust, and the results have increased our confidence in our initial findings. Uncertainties and methods described in the paper have general relevance for many GIS applications.

  12. Coupling a basin erosion and river sediment transport model into a large scale hydrological model: an application in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buarque, D. C.; Collischonn, W.; Paiva, R. C. D.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents the first application and preliminary results of the large scale hydrodynamic/hydrological model MGB-IPH with a new module to predict the spatial distribution of the basin erosion and river sediment transport in a daily time step. The MGB-IPH is a large-scale, distributed and process based hydrological model that uses a catchment based discretization and the Hydrological Response Units (HRU) approach. It uses physical based equations to simulate the hydrological processes, such as the Penman Monteith model for evapotranspiration, and uses the Muskingum Cunge approach and a full 1D hydrodynamic model for river routing; including backwater effects and seasonal flooding. The sediment module of the MGB-IPH model is divided into two components: 1) prediction of erosion over the basin and sediment yield to river network; 2) sediment transport along the river channels. Both MGB-IPH and the sediment module use GIS tools to display relevant maps and to extract parameters from SRTM DEM (a 15" resolution was adopted). Using the catchment discretization the sediment module applies the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation to predict soil loss from each HRU considering three sediment classes defined according to the soil texture: sand, silt and clay. The effects of topography on soil erosion are estimated by a two-dimensional slope length (LS) factor which using the contributing area approach and a local slope steepness (S), both estimated for each DEM pixel using GIS algorithms. The amount of sediment releasing to the catchment river reach in each day is calculated using a linear reservoir. Once the sediment reaches the river they are transported into the river channel using an advection equation for silt and clay and a sediment continuity equation for sand. A sediment balance based on the Yang sediment transport capacity, allowing to compute the amount of erosion and deposition along the rivers, is performed for sand particles as bed load, whilst no

  13. GIS modelling of solar potential in Toplica region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valjarević Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigated possible potential solar area on Toplica region based on GIS (Geographical Information system and using a special kriging method with the help of open sources GIS software Quantum GIS. This kriging method is very special to vectorized and calculated the small area. The statistical approach calculated between datasets of three meteorological stations (Niš, Prokuplje, Kuršumlija. Data using of insolation from that meteorological stations from the period of (1953-2013 is useful for a solution to calculating solar potential. The also used parameter is hypsometry of relief of the whole area of Toplica region. Area of Toplica region is 2.231 km2 with a population of 90600 citizens. Divided into fourth municipalities (Prokuplje, Žitoradja, Black, Kuršumlija. The GIS modeling indicates that ideal areas for solar development are located the potential places in Toplica region. Only 13.6 km2 of the head model scores that were in the 90-100% range. However, given the statewide high insolation values with minimal variance, solar projects may be better suited for small-scale residential or commercial projects.

  14. Integrating 3D geological information with a national physically-based hydrological modelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Parkin, Geoff; Kessler, Holger; Whiteman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Robust numerical models are an essential tool for informing flood and water management and policy around the world. Physically-based hydrological models have traditionally not been used for such applications due to prohibitively large data, time and computational resource requirements. Given recent advances in computing power and data availability, a robust, physically-based hydrological modelling system for Great Britain using the SHETRAN model and national datasets has been created. Such a model has several advantages over less complex systems. Firstly, compared with conceptual models, a national physically-based model is more readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. Secondly, the results of a physically-based system may be more robust under changing conditions such as climate and land cover, as physical processes and relationships are explicitly accounted for. Finally, a fully integrated surface and subsurface model such as SHETRAN offers a wider range of applications compared with simpler schemes, such as assessments of groundwater resources, sediment and nutrient transport and flooding from multiple sources. As such, SHETRAN provides a robust means of simulating numerous terrestrial system processes which will add physical realism when coupled to the JULES land surface model. 306 catchments spanning Great Britain have been modelled using this system. The standard configuration of this system performs satisfactorily (NSE > 0.5) for 72% of catchments and well (NSE > 0.7) for 48%. Many of the remaining 28% of catchments that performed relatively poorly (NSE land cover change studies and integrated assessments of groundwater and surface water resources.

  15. Diagnosis of the hydrology of a small Arctic basin at the tundra-taiga transition using a physically based hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Sebastian A.; Pomeroy, John W.; Marsh, Philip

    2017-07-01

    A better understanding of cold regions hydrological processes and regimes in transitional environments is critical for predicting future Arctic freshwater fluxes under climate and vegetation change. A physically based hydrological model using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model platform was created for a small Arctic basin in the tundra-taiga transition region. The model represents snow redistribution and sublimation by wind and vegetation, snowmelt energy budget, evapotranspiration, subsurface flow through organic terrain, infiltration to frozen soils, freezing and thawing of soils, permafrost and streamflow routing. The model was used to reconstruct the basin water cycle over 28 years to understand and quantify the mass fluxes controlling its hydrological regime. Model structure and parameters were set from the current understanding of Arctic hydrology, remote sensing, field research in the basin and region, and calibration against streamflow observations. Calibration was restricted to subsurface hydraulic and storage parameters. Multi-objective evaluation of the model using observed streamflow, snow accumulation and ground freeze/thaw state showed adequate simulation. Significant spatial variability in the winter mass fluxes was found between tundra, shrubs and forested sites, particularly due to the substantial blowing snow redistribution and sublimation from the wind-swept upper basin, as well as sublimation of canopy intercepted snow from the forest (about 17% of snowfall). At the basin scale, the model showed that evapotranspiration is the largest loss of water (47%), followed by streamflow (39%) and sublimation (14%). The models streamflow performance sensitivity to a set of parameter was analysed, as well as the mean annual mass balance uncertainty associated with these parameters.

  16. Spatial pattern evaluation of a calibrated national hydrological model - a remote-sensing-based diagnostic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguren, Gorka; Koch, Julian; Stisen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Distributed hydrological models are traditionally evaluated against discharge stations, emphasizing the temporal and neglecting the spatial component of a model. The present study widens the traditional paradigm by highlighting spatial patterns of evapotranspiration (ET), a key variable at the land-atmosphere interface, obtained from two different approaches at the national scale of Denmark. The first approach is based on a national water resources model (DK-model), using the MIKE-SHE model code, and the second approach utilizes a two-source energy balance model (TSEB) driven mainly by satellite remote sensing data. Ideally, the hydrological model simulation and remote-sensing-based approach should present similar spatial patterns and driving mechanisms of ET. However, the spatial comparison showed that the differences are significant and indicate insufficient spatial pattern performance of the hydrological model.The differences in spatial patterns can partly be explained by the fact that the hydrological model is configured to run in six domains that are calibrated independently from each other, as it is often the case for large-scale multi-basin calibrations. Furthermore, the model incorporates predefined temporal dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), root depth (RD) and crop coefficient (Kc) for each land cover type. This zonal approach of model parameterization ignores the spatiotemporal complexity of the natural system. To overcome this limitation, this study features a modified version of the DK-model in which LAI, RD and Kc are empirically derived using remote sensing data and detailed soil property maps in order to generate a higher degree of spatiotemporal variability and spatial consistency between the six domains. The effects of these changes are analyzed by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to evaluate spatial patterns. The EOF analysis shows that including remote-sensing-derived LAI, RD and Kc in the distributed hydrological model adds

  17. Spatial-temporal data model and fractal analysis of transportation network in GIS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Tong, Xiaohua; Li, Yangdong

    2008-10-01

    How to organize transportation data characterized by multi-time, multi-scale, multi-resolution and multi-source is one of the fundamental problems of GIS-T development. A spatial-temporal data model for GIS-T is proposed based on Spatial-temporal- Object Model. Transportation network data is systemically managed using dynamic segmentation technologies. And then a spatial-temporal database is built to integrally store geographical data of multi-time for transportation. Based on the spatial-temporal database, functions of spatial analysis of GIS-T are substantively extended. Fractal module is developed to improve the analyzing in intensity, density, structure and connectivity of transportation network based on the validation and evaluation of topologic relation. Integrated fractal with GIS-T strengthens the functions of spatial analysis and enriches the approaches of data mining and knowledge discovery of transportation network. Finally, the feasibility of the model and methods are tested thorough Guangdong Geographical Information Platform for Highway Project.

  18. GIS-based terrain analysis of linear infrastructure corridors in the Mackenzie River Valley, NWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ednie, M.; Wright, J.F.; Duchesne, C.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of global warming on permafrost terrain was discussed with particular reference to the structural stability and performance reliability of the proposed pipelines and roads in the Mackenzie River Valley in the Northwest Territories. Engineers, regulators and decision makers responsible for the development of these networks must have access to information about current and future terrain conditions, both local and regional. The Geological Survey of Canada is developing an ArcGIS resident, multi-component terrain analysis methodology for evaluating permafrost terrain in terms of the probable geothermal and geomorphological responses to climate warming. A GIS-integrated finite-element transient ground thermal model (T-ONE) can predict local-regional permafrost conditions and future responses of permafrost to climate warming. The influences of surface and channel hydrology on local erosion potentials can be determined by analyzing the topographic and topologic characteristics of the terrain. A weights of evidence-based landscape-process model, currently under development, will consider multiple terrain factors for mapping terrain that is susceptible to slope failure, subsidence or erosion. This terrain analysis methodology is currently being applied to a 2 km buffer spanning the proposed Mackenzie Gas Pipeline right-of-way, and along winter and all-weather road networks in the Mackenzie River Valley. Initial ground thermal modeling has identified thermally sensitive terrain for which permafrost will either completely disappear or warm significantly to near isothermal conditions within the next 25 to 55 years

  19. Hydrological model calibration for flood prediction in current and future climates using probability distributions of observed peak flows and model based rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberlandt, Uwe; Wallner, Markus; Radtke, Imke

    2013-04-01

    Derived flood frequency analysis based on continuous hydrological modelling is very demanding regarding the required length and temporal resolution of precipitation input data. Often such flood predictions are obtained using long precipitation time series from stochastic approaches or from regional climate models as input. However, the calibration of the hydrological model is usually done using short time series of observed data. This inconsistent employment of different data types for calibration and application of a hydrological model increases its uncertainty. Here, it is proposed to calibrate a hydrological model directly on probability distributions of observed peak flows using model based rainfall in line with its later application. Two examples are given to illustrate the idea. The first one deals with classical derived flood frequency analysis using input data from an hourly stochastic rainfall model. The second one concerns a climate impact analysis using hourly precipitation from a regional climate model. The results show that: (I) the same type of precipitation input data should be used for calibration and application of the hydrological model, (II) a model calibrated on extreme conditions works quite well for average conditions but not vice versa, (III) the calibration of the hydrological model using regional climate model data works as an implicit bias correction method and (IV) the best performance for flood estimation is usually obtained when model based precipitation and observed probability distribution of peak flows are used for model calibration.

  20. Land-surface modelling in hydrological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jesper; Rosbjerg, Dan; Butts, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the different types of energy-based land-surface models (LSMs) and discuss some of the new possibilities that will arise when energy-based LSMs are combined with distributed hydrological modelling. We choose to focus on energy-based approaches......, and the difficulties inherent in various evaluation procedures are presented. Finally, the dynamic coupling of hydrological and atmospheric models is explored, and the perspectives of such efforts are discussed......., because in comparison to the traditional potential evapotranspiration models, these approaches allow for a stronger link to remote sensing and atmospheric modelling. New opportunities for evaluation of distributed land-surface models through application of remote sensing are discussed in detail...

  1. A new GIS-based model for automated extraction of Sand Dune encroachment case study: Dakhla Oases, western desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghadiry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The movements of the sand dunes are considered as a threat for roads, irrigation networks, water resources, urban areas, agriculture and infrastructures. The main objectives of this study are to develop a new GIS-based model for automated extraction of sand dune encroachment using remote sensing data and to assess the rate of sand dune movement. To monitor and assess the movements of sand dunes in Dakhla oases area, multi-temporal satellite images and a GIS-developed model, using Python script in Arc GIS, were used. The satellite images (SPOT images, 1995 and 2007 were geo-rectified using Erdas Imagine. Image subtraction was performed using spatial analyst in Arc GIS, the result of image subtraction obtains the sand dune movement between the two dates. The raster and vector shape of sand dune migration was automatically extracted using spatial analyst tools. The frontiers of individual dunes were measured at different dates and movement rates were analyzed in GIS. The ModelBuilder in Arc GIS was used in order to create a user friendly tool. The custom built model window is easy to handle by any user who wishes to adapt the model in his work. It was found that the rate of sand dune movement ranged between 3 and 9 m per year. The majority of sand dunes have a rate movement between 0 and 6 m and very few dunes had a movement rate between 6 and 9 m. Integrating remote sensing and GIS provided the necessary information for determining the minimum, maximum, mean, rate and area of sand dune migration.

  2. Dynamic Hydrological Modeling in Drylands with TRMM Based Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tarnavsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and evaluates DryMOD, a dynamic water balance model of the key hydrological process in drylands that is based on free, public-domain datasets. The rainfall model of DryMOD makes optimal use of spatially disaggregated Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM datasets to simulate hourly rainfall intensities at a spatial resolution of 1-km. Regional-scale applications of the model in seasonal catchments in Tunisia and Senegal characterize runoff and soil moisture distribution and dynamics in response to varying rainfall data inputs and soil properties. The results highlight the need for hourly-based rainfall simulation and for correcting TRMM 3B42 rainfall intensities for the fractional cover of rainfall (FCR. Without FCR correction and disaggregation to 1 km, TRMM 3B42 based rainfall intensities are too low to generate surface runoff and to induce substantial changes to soil moisture storage. The outcomes from the sensitivity analysis show that topsoil porosity is the most important soil property for simulation of runoff and soil moisture. Thus, we demonstrate the benefit of hydrological investigations at a scale, for which reliable information on soil profile characteristics exists and which is sufficiently fine to account for the heterogeneities of these. Where such information is available, application of DryMOD can assist in the spatial and temporal planning of water harvesting according to runoff-generating areas and the runoff ratio, as well as in the optimization of agricultural activities based on realistic representation of soil moisture conditions.

  3. A flexible hydrological modelling system developed using an object oriented methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinde, Trond

    1998-12-31

    The report presents a software system called Process Integrating Network (PINE). The capabilities, working principles, programming technical design and principles of use of the system are described as are some practical applications. PINE is a simulation tool for modelling of hydrological and hydrologically related phenomena. The system is based on object oriented programming principles and was specially designed to provide freedom in the choice of model structures and algorithms for process descriptions. It supports full freedom with regards to spatial distribution and temporal resolution. Geographical information systems (GIS) may be integrated with PINE in order to provide full spatial distribution in system parametrisation, process simulation and visualisation of simulation results. Simulation models are developed by linking components for process description together in a structure. The system can handle compound working media such as water with chemical or biological constituents. Non-hydrological routines may then be included to describe the responses of such constituents. Features such as extensibility and reuse of program components are emphasised in the program design. Separation between process topology, process descriptions and process data facilitates simple and consistent implementation of components for process description. Such components may be automatically prototyped and their response functions may be implemented without knowledge of other parts of the program system and without the need to program import or export routines or a user interface. Model extension is thus a rapid process that does not require extensive programming skills. Components for process descriptions may further be placed in separate program libraries, which can be included in the program as required. The program system can thus be very compact while it still has a large number of process algorithms available. The system can run on both PC and UNIX platforms. 106 figs., 20

  4. Highway traffic noise prediction based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianghua; Qin, Qiming

    2014-05-01

    Before building a new road, we need to predict the traffic noise generated by vehicles. Traditional traffic noise prediction methods are based on certain locations and they are not only time-consuming, high cost, but also cannot be visualized. Geographical Information System (GIS) can not only solve the problem of manual data processing, but also can get noise values at any point. The paper selected a road segment from Wenxi to Heyang. According to the geographical overview of the study area and the comparison between several models, we combine the JTG B03-2006 model and the HJ2.4-2009 model to predict the traffic noise depending on the circumstances. Finally, we interpolate the noise values at each prediction point and then generate contours of noise. By overlaying the village data on the noise contour layer, we can get the thematic maps. The use of GIS for road traffic noise prediction greatly facilitates the decision-makers because of GIS spatial analysis function and visualization capabilities. We can clearly see the districts where noise are excessive, and thus it becomes convenient to optimize the road line and take noise reduction measures such as installing sound barriers and relocating villages and so on.

  5. Regional planning and modelling of nitrate leaching in Denmark using DaisyGIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veihe, Anita; Jensen, Niels H.; Boegh, Eva

    Spatial deterministic simulation models such as DaisyGIS are increasingly being used for decision-making in European planning and there is a growing interest in using DaisyGIS as an administrative tool at the regional level in Denmark. This study evaluates the use of Daisy-GIS for nitrate leaching...... assessments based on nitrate leaching experiments carried out at the Marbjerg experimental site at Roskilde University....

  6. Effects of Land Use Changes on the Runoff in the Landscape Based on Hydrological Simulation in HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS Using Different Elevation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Divín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of land use changes on the runoff in the landscape by means of hydrological modelling. Our partial aim is also to determine the effect of different elevation data and define optimal data sources for this modelling. The research was conducted on the Starozuberský stream experimental watershed. For comparing elevation models, three scenarios were developed with different input data. Based on a comparison of these models an optimal data source for hydrological modelling was selected. To simulate the change in land use, we have created two scenarios based either upon the current land use and historical data from the fifties of the twentieth century. Comparison was carried out using the HEC-HMS software interface for rainfall-runoff simulation and HEC-RAS for the flooding simulation. Data for the simulation were prepared using the ESRI ArcGIS extensions, namely HEC- GeoHMS and HEC-GeoRAS.

  7. Process-based interpretation of conceptual hydrological model performance using a multinational catchment set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, Carine; Merz, Ralf; Merz, Bruno; Parajka, Juraj; Oudin, Ludovic; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles

    2017-08-01

    Most of previous assessments of hydrologic model performance are fragmented, based on small number of catchments, different methods or time periods and do not link the results to landscape or climate characteristics. This study uses large-sample hydrology to identify major catchment controls on daily runoff simulations. It is based on a conceptual lumped hydrological model (GR6J), a collection of 29 catchment characteristics, a multinational set of 1103 catchments located in Austria, France, and Germany and four runoff model efficiency criteria. Two analyses are conducted to assess how features and criteria are linked: (i) a one-dimensional analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test and (ii) a multidimensional analysis based on regression trees and investigating the interplay between features. The catchment features most affecting model performance are the flashiness of precipitation and streamflow (computed as the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations by the total amount in a year), the seasonality of evaporation, the catchment area, and the catchment aridity. Nonflashy, nonseasonal, large, and nonarid catchments show the best performance for all the tested criteria. We argue that this higher performance is due to fewer nonlinear responses (higher correlation between precipitation and streamflow) and lower input and output variability for such catchments. Finally, we show that, compared to national sets, multinational sets increase results transferability because they explore a wider range of hydroclimatic conditions.

  8. [Correlation coefficient-based classification method of hydrological dependence variability: With auto-regression model as example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu Xi; Xie, Ping; Sang, Yan Fang; Wu, Zi Yi

    2018-04-01

    Hydrological process evaluation is temporal dependent. Hydrological time series including dependence components do not meet the data consistency assumption for hydrological computation. Both of those factors cause great difficulty for water researches. Given the existence of hydrological dependence variability, we proposed a correlationcoefficient-based method for significance evaluation of hydrological dependence based on auto-regression model. By calculating the correlation coefficient between the original series and its dependence component and selecting reasonable thresholds of correlation coefficient, this method divided significance degree of dependence into no variability, weak variability, mid variability, strong variability, and drastic variability. By deducing the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient in each order of series, we found that the correlation coefficient was mainly determined by the magnitude of auto-correlation coefficient from the 1 order to p order, which clarified the theoretical basis of this method. With the first-order and second-order auto-regression models as examples, the reasonability of the deduced formula was verified through Monte-Carlo experiments to classify the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient. This method was used to analyze three observed hydrological time series. The results indicated the coexistence of stochastic and dependence characteristics in hydrological process.

  9. iTree-Hydro: Snow hydrology update for the urban forest hydrology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak

    2011-01-01

    This article presents snow hydrology updates made to iTree-Hydro, previously called the Urban Forest Effects—Hydrology model. iTree-Hydro Version 1 was a warm climate model developed by the USDA Forest Service to provide a process-based planning tool with robust water quantity and quality predictions given data limitations common to most urban areas. Cold climate...

  10. The hydrological modeling in terms of determining the potential European beaver effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Marta; Jagodzińska, Jadwiga

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the paper was the hydrological analysis, in terms of categorizing main watercourses (based on coupled catchments) and marking areas covered by potential impact of the occurrence and activities of the European beaver Castor fiber. At the analysed area - the Forest District Głogów Małopolski there is a population of about 200 beavers in that Forest District. Damage inflicted by beavers was detected on 33.0 ha of the Forest District, while in the area of 13.9 ha the damage was small (below 10%). The monitoring of the beavers' behaviour and the analysis of their influence on hydrology of the area became an important element of using geoinformationtools in the management of forest areas. ArcHydro ArcGIS Esri module was applied, as an integrated set of tools for hydrographical analysis and modelling. Further steps of the procedure are hydrologic analyses such as: marking river networks on the DTM, filling holes, making maps of the flow direction, making the map of the accumulation flow, defining and segmentation of streams, marking elementary basins, marking coupled basins, making dams in the places, where beavers occur and localization of the area with a visible impact of damming. The result of the study includes maps prepared for the Forest District: the map of main rivers and their basins, categories of watercourses and compartments particularly threatened by beaver's foraging.

  11. Using Web-Based GIS in Introductory Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songer, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    Advocates for using a geographic information system (GIS) in education assert that GIS improves student learning. However, studies to clarify the relationship between learning and using GIS are still needed. This study examines the effects of using Web-based GIS maps in place of paper maps on students' geography content knowledge and motivation…

  12. An overview of current applications, challenges, and future trends in distributed process-based models in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Odgen, Fred L; Ivanov, Valeriy Y; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Gochis, David; Downer, Charles W; Camporese, Matteo; Davison, Jason H; Ebel, Brian A.; Jones, Norm; Kim, Jongho; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Niswonger, Richard G.; Restrepo, Pedro; Rigon, Riccardo; Shen, Chaopeng; Sulis, Mauro; Tarboton, David

    2016-01-01

    Process-based hydrological models have a long history dating back to the 1960s. Criticized by some as over-parameterized, overly complex, and difficult to use, a more nuanced view is that these tools are necessary in many situations and, in a certain class of problems, they are the most appropriate type of hydrological model. This is especially the case in situations where knowledge of flow paths or distributed state variables and/or preservation of physical constraints is important. Examples of this include: spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture, groundwater flow and runoff generation, sediment and contaminant transport, or when feedbacks among various Earth’s system processes or understanding the impacts of climate non-stationarity are of primary concern. These are situations where process-based models excel and other models are unverifiable. This article presents this pragmatic view in the context of existing literature to justify the approach where applicable and necessary. We review how improvements in data availability, computational resources and algorithms have made detailed hydrological simulations a reality. Avenues for the future of process-based hydrological models are presented suggesting their use as virtual laboratories, for design purposes, and with a powerful treatment of uncertainty.

  13. An overview of current applications, challenges, and future trends in distributed process-based models in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Ogden, Fred L.; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Mirus, Benjamin; Gochis, David; Downer, Charles W.; Camporese, Matteo; Davison, Jason H.; Ebel, Brian; Jones, Norm; Kim, Jongho; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Niswonger, Richard; Restrepo, Pedro; Rigon, Riccardo; Shen, Chaopeng; Sulis, Mauro; Tarboton, David

    2016-06-01

    Process-based hydrological models have a long history dating back to the 1960s. Criticized by some as over-parameterized, overly complex, and difficult to use, a more nuanced view is that these tools are necessary in many situations and, in a certain class of problems, they are the most appropriate type of hydrological model. This is especially the case in situations where knowledge of flow paths or distributed state variables and/or preservation of physical constraints is important. Examples of this include: spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture, groundwater flow and runoff generation, sediment and contaminant transport, or when feedbacks among various Earth's system processes or understanding the impacts of climate non-stationarity are of primary concern. These are situations where process-based models excel and other models are unverifiable. This article presents this pragmatic view in the context of existing literature to justify the approach where applicable and necessary. We review how improvements in data availability, computational resources and algorithms have made detailed hydrological simulations a reality. Avenues for the future of process-based hydrological models are presented suggesting their use as virtual laboratories, for design purposes, and with a powerful treatment of uncertainty.

  14. Format conversion between CAD data and GIS data based on ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Wei, Bo; Zhang, Kailin; Wang, Zhichao

    2015-12-01

    To make full use of the data resources and realize a sharing for the different types of data in different industries, a method of format conversion between CAD data and GIS data based on ArcGIS was proposed. To keep the integrity of the converted data, some key steps to process CAD data before conversion were made in AutoCAD. For examples, deleting unnecessary elements such as title, border and legend avoided the appearance of unnecessary elements after conversion, as layering data again by a national standard avoided the different types of elements to appear in a same layer after conversion. In ArcGIS, converting CAD data to GIS data was executed by the correspondence of graphic element classification between AutoCAD and ArcGIS. In addition, an empty geographic database and feature set was required to create in ArcGIS for storing the text data of CAD data. The experimental results show that the proposed method avoids a large amount of editing work in data conversion and maintains the integrity of spatial data and attribute data between before and after conversion.

  15. A study on spatial decision support systems for HIV/AIDS prevention based on COM GIS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Luo, Huasong; Peng, Shungyun; Xu, Quanli

    2007-06-01

    Based on the deeply analysis of the current status and the existing problems of GIS technology applications in Epidemiology, this paper has proposed the method and process for establishing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention by integrating the COM GIS, Spatial Database, GPS, Remote Sensing, and Communication technologies, as well as ASP and ActiveX software development technologies. One of the most important issues for constructing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention is how to integrate the AIDS spreading models with GIS. The capabilities of GIS applications in the AIDS epidemic prevention have been described here in this paper firstly. Then some mature epidemic spreading models have also been discussed for extracting the computation parameters. Furthermore, a technical schema has been proposed for integrating the AIDS spreading models with GIS and relevant geospatial technologies, in which the GIS and model running platforms share a common spatial database and the computing results can be spatially visualized on Desktop or Web GIS clients. Finally, a complete solution for establishing the decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention has been offered in this paper based on the model integrating methods and ESRI COM GIS software packages. The general decision support systems are composed of data acquisition sub-systems, network communication sub-systems, model integrating sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial database sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information querying and statistical analysis sub-systems, AIDS epidemic dynamic surveillance sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial analysis and decision support sub-systems, as well as AIDS epidemic information publishing sub-systems based on Web GIS.

  16. Moving university hydrology education forward with community-based geoinformatics, data and modeling resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Merwade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this opinion paper, we review recent literature related to data and modeling driven instruction in hydrology, and present our findings from surveying the hydrology education community in the United States. This paper presents an argument that that data and modeling driven geoscience cybereducation (DMDGC approaches are essential for teaching the conceptual and applied aspects of hydrology, as a part of the broader effort to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education at the university level. The authors have undertaken a series of surveys and a workshop involving university hydrology educators to determine the state of the practice of DMDGC approaches to hydrology. We identify the most common tools and approaches currently utilized, quantify the extent of the adoption of DMDGC approaches in the university hydrology classroom, and explain the community's views on the challenges and barriers preventing DMDGC approaches from wider use. DMDGC approaches are currently emphasized at the graduate level of the curriculum, and only the most basic modeling and visualization tools are in widespread use. The community identifies the greatest barriers to greater adoption as a lack of access to easily adoptable curriculum materials and a lack of time and training to learn constantly changing tools and methods. The community's current consensus is that DMDGC approaches should emphasize conceptual learning, and should be used to complement rather than replace lecture-based pedagogies. Inadequate online material publication and sharing systems, and a lack of incentives for faculty to develop and publish materials via such systems, is also identified as a challenge. Based on these findings, we suggest that a number of steps should be taken by the community to develop the potential of DMDGC in university hydrology education, including formal development and assessment of curriculum materials, integrating lecture-format and DMDGC

  17. Integrating hydrologic modeling web services with online data sharing to prepare, store, and execute models in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Dash, P. K.; Gichamo, T.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Web based apps, web services and online data and model sharing technology are becoming increasingly available to support research. This promises benefits in terms of collaboration, platform independence, transparency and reproducibility of modeling workflows and results. However, challenges still exist in real application of these capabilities and the programming skills researchers need to use them. In this research we combined hydrologic modeling web services with an online data and model sharing system to develop functionality to support reproducible hydrologic modeling work. We used HydroDS, a system that provides web services for input data preparation and execution of a snowmelt model, and HydroShare, a hydrologic information system that supports the sharing of hydrologic data, model and analysis tools. To make the web services easy to use, we developed a HydroShare app (based on the Tethys platform) to serve as a browser based user interface for HydroDS. In this integration, HydroDS receives web requests from the HydroShare app to process the data and execute the model. HydroShare supports storage and sharing of the results generated by HydroDS web services. The snowmelt modeling example served as a use case to test and evaluate this approach. We show that, after the integration, users can prepare model inputs or execute the model through the web user interface of the HydroShare app without writing program code. The model input/output files and metadata describing the model instance are stored and shared in HydroShare. These files include a Python script that is automatically generated by the HydroShare app to document and reproduce the model input preparation workflow. Once stored in HydroShare, inputs and results can be shared with other users, or published so that other users can directly discover, repeat or modify the modeling work. This approach provides a collaborative environment that integrates hydrologic web services with a data and model sharing

  18. Assessment of vulnerability zones for ground water pollution using GIS-DRASTIC-EC model: A field-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha Rao, D.; Naik, Pradeep K.; Jain, Sunil K.; Vinod Kumar, K.; Dhanamjaya Rao, E. N.

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution is an essential pre-requisite for better planning of an area. We present the groundwater vulnerability assessment in parts of the Yamuna Nagar District, Haryana State, India in an area of about 800 km2, considered to be a freshwater zone in the foothills of the Siwalik Hill Ranges. Such areas in the Lower Himalayas form good groundwater recharge zones, and should always be free from contamination. But, the administration has been trying to promote industrialization along these foothill zones without actually assessing the environmental consequences such activities may invite in the future. GIS-DRASTIC model has been used with field based data inputs for studying the vulnerability assessment. But, we find that inclusion electrical conductivity (EC) as a model parameter makes it more robust. Therefore, we rename it as GIS-DRASTIC-EC model. The model identifies three vulnerability zones such as low, moderate and high with an areal extent of 5%, 80% and 15%, respectively. On the basis of major chemical parameters alone, the groundwater in the foothill zones apparently looks safe, but analysis with the help of GIS-DRASTIC-EC model gives a better perspective of the groundwater quality in terms of identifying the vulnerable areas.

  19. Integrated prediction based on GIS for sandstone-type uranium deposits in the northwest of Ordos Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoyang; Ke Dan; Hu Shuiqing; Guo Qingyin; Hou Huiqun

    2005-01-01

    The integrated prediction model of sandstone-type uranium deposits and its integrated evaluation methods as well as flow of the work based on GIS are studied. A software for extracting metallogenic information is also developed. A multi-source exploring information database is established in the northwest of Ordos Basin, and an integrated digital mineral deposit prospecting model of sandstone-type uranium deposits is designed based on GIS. The authors have completed metallogenic information extraction and integrated evaluation of sandstone-type uranium deposits based on GIS in the study area. Research results prove that the integrated prediction of sandstone-type uranium deposits based on GIS may further delineate prospective target areas rapidly and improve the predictive precision. (authors)

  20. [Location selection for Shenyang urban parks based on GIS and multi-objective location allocation model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Shi, Tie-Mao; Hu, Yuan-Man; Gao, Chang; Liu, Miao; Song, Lin-Qi

    2011-12-01

    Based on geographic information system (GIS) technology and multi-objective location-allocation (LA) model, and in considering of four relatively independent objective factors (population density level, air pollution level, urban heat island effect level, and urban land use pattern), an optimized location selection for the urban parks within the Third Ring of Shenyang was conducted, and the selection results were compared with the spatial distribution of existing parks, aimed to evaluate the rationality of the spatial distribution of urban green spaces. In the location selection of urban green spaces in the study area, the factor air pollution was most important, and, compared with single objective factor, the weighted analysis results of multi-objective factors could provide optimized spatial location selection of new urban green spaces. The combination of GIS technology with LA model would be a new approach for the spatial optimizing of urban green spaces.

  1. One-dimensional GIS-based model compared with a two-dimensional model in urban floods simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, J; Bouvier, C; Mignot, E; Paquier, A

    2006-01-01

    A GIS-based one-dimensional flood simulation model is presented and applied to the centre of the city of Nîmes (Gard, France), for mapping flow depths or velocities in the streets network. The geometry of the one-dimensional elements is derived from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The flow is routed from one element to the next using the kinematic wave approximation. At the crossroads, the flows in the downstream branches are computed using a conceptual scheme. This scheme was previously designed to fit Y-shaped pipes junctions, and has been modified here to fit X-shaped crossroads. The results were compared with the results of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on the full shallow water equations. The comparison shows that good agreements can be found in the steepest streets of the study zone, but differences may be important in the other streets. Some reasons that can explain the differences between the two models are given and some research possibilities are proposed.

  2. Using a GIS model to assess terrestrial salamander response to alternative forest management plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Nathan L. Murphy; Thomas R. Crow

    2001-01-01

    A GIS model predicting the spatial distribution of terrestrial salamander abundance based on topography and forest age was developed using parameters derived from the literature. The model was tested by sampling salamander abundance across the full range of site conditions used in the model. A regression of the predictions of our GIS model against these sample data...

  3. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  4. SWAT-based streamflow and embayment modeling of Karst-affected Chapel branch watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; M. Jha; A.E. Edwards; T.M. Williams; D.R. Hitchcock

    2011-01-01

    SWAT is a GIS-based basin-scale model widely used for the characterization of hydrology and water quality of large, complex watersheds; however, SWAT has not been fully tested in watersheds with karst geomorphology and downstream reservoir-like embayment. In this study, SWAT was applied to test its ability to predict monthly streamflow dynamics for a 1,555 ha karst...

  5. Data Access System for Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D.; Djokic, D.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc., Hydrologic Information System), the CUAHSI HIS team has developed Data Access System for Hydrology or DASH. DASH is based on commercial off the shelf technology, which has been developed in conjunction with a commercial partner, ESRI. DASH is a web-based user interface, developed in ASP.NET developed using ESRI ArcGIS Server 9.2 that represents a mapping, querying and data retrieval interface over observation and GIS databases, and web services. This is the front end application for the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System Server. The HIS Server is a software stack that organizes observation databases, geographic data layers, data importing and management tools, and online user interfaces such as the DASH application, into a flexible multi- tier application for serving both national-level and locally-maintained observation data. The user interface of the DASH web application allows online users to query observation networks by location and attributes, selecting stations in a user-specified area where a particular variable was measured during a given time interval. Once one or more stations and variables are selected, the user can retrieve and download the observation data for further off-line analysis. The DASH application is highly configurable. The mapping interface can be configured to display map services from multiple sources in multiple formats, including ArcGIS Server, ArcIMS, and WMS. The observation network data is configured in an XML file where you specify the network's web service location and its corresponding map layer. Upon initial deployment, two national level observation networks (USGS NWIS daily values and USGS NWIS Instantaneous values) are already pre-configured. There is also an optional login page which can be used to restrict access as well as providing a alternative to immediate downloads. For large request, users would be notified via

  6. Modelling and Mapping Oxygen-18 Isotope Composition of Precipitation in Spain for Hydrologic and Climatic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Arevalo, J.; Diaz-Teijeiro, M. F. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Madrid (Spain); Castano, S. [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    A simple multiple regression model based on two geographic factors (latitude and elevation) has been developed that reproduces reasonably well the spatial distribution of the current mean oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation over spain. In a preliminary analysis, additional geographic and climatic factors do not improve the performance of the model. A continuous digital map of oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation has been produced by combining the polynomial model with a digital elevation model using GIS tools. Application of the resulting map to several groundwater case studies in spain has shown it to be useful as a reference of the input function to recharge. Further validation of the model, and further testing of its usefulness in surface hydrology and climatic studies, is ongoing through comparison of model results with isotope data from the GNIP database and from isotope studies in hydrogeology and climate change taking place in spain. (author)

  7. Regionalization Study of Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM) in Hydrologically Homogeneous River Basins of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Babita; Paul, Pranesh Kumar; Singh, Rajendra; Mishra, Ashok; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Raghvendra P.

    2017-04-01

    A new semi-distributed conceptual hydrological model, namely Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM), has been developed under 'PRACRITI-2' program of Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for sustainable water resources management of India by using data from Indian Remote Sensing satellites. Entire India is divided into 5km x 5km grid cells and properties at the center of the cells are assumed to represent the property of the cells. SHM contains five modules namely surface water, forest, snow, groundwater and routing. Two empirical equations (SCS-CN and Hargreaves) and water balance method have been used in the surface water module; the forest module is based on the calculations of water balancing & dynamics of subsurface. 2-D Boussinesq equation is used for groundwater modelling which is solved using implicit finite-difference. The routing module follows a distributed routing approach which requires flow path and network with the key point of travel time estimation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of SHM using regionalization technique which also checks the usefulness of a model in data scarce condition or for ungauged basins. However, homogeneity analysis is pre-requisite to regionalization. Similarity index (Φ) and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis are adopted to test the homogeneity in terms of physical attributes of three basins namely Brahmani (39,033 km km^2)), Baitarani (10,982 km km^2)) and Kangsabati (9,660 km km^2)) with respect to Subarnarekha (29,196 km km^2)) basin. The results of both homogeneity analysis show that Brahmani basin is the most homogeneous with respect to Subarnarekha river basin in terms of physical characteristics (land use land cover classes, soiltype and elevation). The calibration and validation of model parameters of Brahmani basin is in progress which are to be transferred into the SHM set up of Subarnarekha basin and results are to be compared with the results of calibrated and validated

  8. The evolution of process-based hydrologic models: historical challenges and the collective quest for physical realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.; Wood, A.; Mizukami, N.; Newman, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The diversity in hydrologic models has historically led to great controversy on the "correct" approach to process-based hydrologic modeling, with debates centered on the adequacy of process parameterizations, data limitations and uncertainty, and computational constraints on model analysis. In this paper, we revisit key modeling challenges on requirements to (1) define suitable model equations, (2) define adequate model parameters, and (3) cope with limitations in computing power. We outline the historical modeling challenges, provide examples of modeling advances that address these challenges, and define outstanding research needs. We illustrate how modeling advances have been made by groups using models of different type and complexity, and we argue for the need to more effectively use our diversity of modeling approaches in order to advance our collective quest for physically realistic hydrologic models.

  9. Improved regional-scale groundwater representation by the coupling of the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM v5.7) to the groundwater model OpenGeoSys (OGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Miao; Heße, Falk; Kumar, Rohini; Wang, Wenqing; Fischer, Thomas; Walther, Marc; Zink, Matthias; Zech, Alraune; Samaniego, Luis; Kolditz, Olaf; Attinger, Sabine

    2018-06-01

    Most large-scale hydrologic models fall short in reproducing groundwater head dynamics and simulating transport process due to their oversimplified representation of groundwater flow. In this study, we aim to extend the applicability of the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM v5.7) to subsurface hydrology by coupling it with the porous media simulator OpenGeoSys (OGS). The two models are one-way coupled through model interfaces GIS2FEM and RIV2FEM, by which the grid-based fluxes of groundwater recharge and the river-groundwater exchange generated by mHM are converted to fixed-flux boundary conditions of the groundwater model OGS. Specifically, the grid-based vertical reservoirs in mHM are completely preserved for the estimation of land-surface fluxes, while OGS acts as a plug-in to the original mHM modeling framework for groundwater flow and transport modeling. The applicability of the coupled model (mHM-OGS v1.0) is evaluated by a case study in the central European mesoscale river basin - Nägelstedt. Different time steps, i.e., daily in mHM and monthly in OGS, are used to account for fast surface flow and slow groundwater flow. Model calibration is conducted following a two-step procedure using discharge for mHM and long-term mean of groundwater head measurements for OGS. Based on the model summary statistics, namely the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), and the interquartile range error (QRE), the coupled model is able to satisfactorily represent the dynamics of discharge and groundwater heads at several locations across the study basin. Our exemplary calculations show that the one-way coupled model can take advantage of the spatially explicit modeling capabilities of surface and groundwater hydrologic models and provide an adequate representation of the spatiotemporal behaviors of groundwater storage and heads, thus making it a valuable tool for addressing water resources and management problems.

  10. Improving the GIS-DRP Approach by Means of DelineatingRunoff Characteristics with New Discharge Relevant Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hümann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present it is common to use geographic information system (GIS applications to assess runoff generation. One of these GIS-based tools to generate maps of dominant runoff processes is the so called GIS-DRP approach. The tool, which has been developed mainly based on agricultural areas, uses commonly available input data like a digital elevation model (DEM, geological information as well as land use information. The aim of this study is to test, validate and improve this GIS-DRP method for forested and silviculture areas. Hence, soil-hydrologic investigations and several mapping techniques of dominant runoff processes were conducted on 25 test-plots in four forested catchments in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. By comparing the results of the mapping techniques and those of the test plots, weak points in the original GIS-DRP method were detected. Subsequently, it was possible to enhance the GIS-DRP approach by incorporating new discharge relevant parameters like topsoil sealing, extreme weather events and semipermeability of the substratum. Moreover, the improved GIS-DRP approach can be widely used in different landscapes and for different fields of application. The adapted method can now support foresters and decision makers in forestry planning, answer questions concerning the landscape water balance and peripheral water retention or provide extra information for sustainable forest planning in times of a changing climate.

  11. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  12. GIS In-Service Teacher Training Based on TPACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jung Eun; Stonier, Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the geographic information systems (GIS) in-service teacher training, focusing on the intersection of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) for successful implementation of GIS in the classroom. Eleven social studies teachers in Georgia learned GIS technologies, inquiry-based learning, and social studies…

  13. URBAN RAIN GAUGE SITING SELECTION BASED ON GIS-MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge location, a spatial decision support system (DSS aided by geographical information system (GIS has been developed. In terms of a series of criteria, the rain gauge optimal site-search problem can be addressed by a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA. A series of spatial analytical techniques are required for MCDA to identify the prospective sites. With the platform of GIS, using spatial kernel density analysis can reflect the population density; GIS buffer analysis is used to optimize the location with the rain gauge signal transmission character. Experiment results show that the rules and the proposed method are proper for the rain gauge site selection in urban areas, which is significant for the siting selection of urban hydrological facilities and infrastructure, such as water gauge.

  14. Improving Simulations of Extreme Flows by Coupling a Physically-based Hydrologic Model with a Machine Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, K.; Islam, A. S.; Khan, M. J. U.; Das, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    With the large number of hydrologic models presently available along with the global weather and geographic datasets, streamflows of almost any river in the world can be easily modeled. And if a reasonable amount of observed data from that river is available, then simulations of high accuracy can sometimes be performed after calibrating the model parameters against those observed data through inverse modeling. Although such calibrated models can succeed in simulating the general trend or mean of the observed flows very well, more often than not they fail to adequately simulate the extreme flows. This causes difficulty in tasks such as generating reliable projections of future changes in extreme flows due to climate change, which is obviously an important task due to floods and droughts being closely connected to people's lives and livelihoods. We propose an approach where the outputs of a physically-based hydrologic model are used as an input to a machine learning model to try and better simulate the extreme flows. To demonstrate this offline-coupling approach, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was selected as the physically-based hydrologic model, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) as the machine learning model and the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river system as the study area. The GBM river system, located in South Asia, is the third largest in the world in terms of freshwater generated and forms the largest delta in the world. The flows of the GBM rivers were simulated separately in order to test the performance of this proposed approach in accurately simulating the extreme flows generated by different basins that vary in size, climate, hydrology and anthropogenic intervention on stream networks. Results show that by post-processing the simulated flows of the SWAT models with ANN models, simulations of extreme flows can be significantly improved. The mean absolute errors in simulating annual maximum/minimum daily flows were minimized from 4967

  15. On the Representation of Subgrid Microtopography Effects in Process-based Hydrologic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, A.; Painter, S. L.; Coon, E. T.

    2017-12-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution digital elevation are enabling process-based hydrologic modeling on finer and finer scales. However, spatial variability in surface elevation (microtopography) exists below the scale of a typical hyper-resolution grid cell and has the potential to play a significant role in water retention, runoff, and surface/subsurface interactions. Though the concept of microtopographic features (depressions, obstructions) and the associated implications on flow and discharge are well established, representing those effects in watershed-scale integrated surface/subsurface hydrology models remains a challenge. Using the complex and coupled hydrologic environment of the Arctic polygonal tundra as an example, we study the effects of submeter topography and present a subgrid model parameterized by small-scale spatial heterogeneities for use in hyper-resolution models with polygons at a scale of 15-20 meters forming the surface cells. The subgrid model alters the flow and storage terms in the diffusion wave equation for surface flow. We compare our results against sub-meter scale simulations (acts as a benchmark for our simulations) and hyper-resolution models without the subgrid representation. The initiation of runoff in the fine-scale simulations is delayed and the recession curve is slowed relative to simulated runoff using the hyper-resolution model with no subgrid representation. Our subgrid modeling approach improves the representation of runoff and water retention relative to models that ignore subgrid topography. We evaluate different strategies for parameterizing subgrid model and present a classification-based method to efficiently move forward to larger landscapes. This work was supported by the Interoperable Design of Extreme-scale Application Software (IDEAS) project and the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments-Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project. NGEE-Arctic is supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the

  16. Using a lumped conceptual hydrological model for five different catchments in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ekenberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Hydrological models offer powerful tools for understanding and predicting. In this thesis we havereviewed the advantages and disadvantages of physically based distributed hydrological models andconceptually lumped hydrological models. Based on that review, we went into depth and developed aMATLAB code to test if a simple conceptual lumped hydrological model, namely GR2M, wouldperform satisfactory for five different catchments in different parts of Sweden. The model had ratherunsatisfactory re...

  17. GIS-based assessment of landslide susceptibility using certainty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion systems (GIS) using different models. Many of these ... as spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach ... 2013), support vec- ... Landslide susceptibility assessment using mathematical methods in GIS, Qianyang China 1401.

  18. Hydrological system dynamics of glaciated Karnali River Basin Nepal Himalaya using J2000 Hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, K. R.; Nepal, S.; Panthi, J., Sr.; Shrestha, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological modelling plays an important role in understanding hydrological processes of a catchment. In the context of climate change, the understanding of hydrological characteristic of the catchment is very vital to understand how the climate change will affect the hydrological regime. This research facilitates in better understanding of the hydrological system dynamics of a himalayan mountainous catchment in western Nepal. The Karnali River, longest river flowing inside Nepal, is one of the three major basins of Nepal, having the area of 45269 sq. km. is unique. The basin has steep topography and high mountains to the northern side. The 40% of the basin is dominated by forest land while other land cover are: grass land, bare rocky land etc. About 2% of the areas in basin is covered by permanent glacier apart from that about 12% of basin has the snow and ice cover. There are 34 meteorological stations distributed across the basin. A process oriented distributed J2000 hydrologial model has been applied to understand the hydrological system dynamics. The model application provides distributed output of various hydrological components. The J2000 model applies Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) as a modelling entity. With 6861 HRU and 1010 reaches, the model was calibrated (1981-1999) and validated (2000-2004) at a daily scale using split-sample test. The model is able to capture the overall hydrological dynamics well. The rising limbs and recession limbs are simulated equally and with satisfactory ground water conditions. Based on the graphical and statistical evaluation of the model performance the model is able to simulate hydrological processes fairly well. Calibration shows that Nash Sutcliffe efficiency is 0.91, coefficient of determination is 0.92 Initial observation shows that during the pre-monsoon season(March to May) the glacial runoff is 25% of the total discharge while in the monsoon(June to September) season it is only 13%. The surface runoff

  19. Impact of urbanization on the sediment yield in tropical watershed using temporal land-use changes and a GIS-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Al-Amin D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abundant rainfall areas promote sediment yield at both sub-watershed and watershed scale due to soil erosion and increase siltation of river channel, but it can be curtailed through planned urbanization. The urbanization of Skudai watershed is analysed from historical and future perspective. A GIS-based model (Hydrological Simulation Programme-FORTRAN-HSPF is used to modelled sediment flow using basin-wide simulation, and the output result is utilized in evaluating sediment yield reduction due to increased urbanization by swapping multiple temporal land-use of decadent time-steps. The analysis indicates that sediment yield reduces with increase urban built-up and decrease forest and agricultural land. An estimated 12 400 tons of sediment will be reduced for every 27% increase in built-up areas under high rainfall condition and 1 490 tons at low rainfall. The sensitivity analysis of land-use classes shows that built-up, forest and barren are more sensitive to sediment yield reduction compared to wetland and agricultural land at both high and low rainfall. The result of the study suggests that increased urbanization reduced sediment yield in proportion to the rainfall condition and can be used as an alternative approach for soil conservation at watershed scale independent of climate condition.

  20. A radar-based hydrological model for flash flood prediction in the dry regions of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Alon; Peleg, Nadav; Morin, Efrat

    2014-05-01

    Flash floods are floods which follow shortly after rainfall events, and are among the most destructive natural disasters that strike people and infrastructures in humid and arid regions alike. Using a hydrological model for the prediction of flash floods in gauged and ungauged basins can help mitigate the risk and damage they cause. The sparsity of rain gauges in arid regions requires the use of radar measurements in order to get reliable quantitative precipitation estimations (QPE). While many hydrological models use radar data, only a handful do so in dry climate. This research presents a robust radar-based hydro-meteorological model built specifically for dry climate. Using this model we examine the governing factors of flash floods in the arid and semi-arid regions of Israel in particular and in dry regions in general. The hydrological model built is a semi-distributed, physically-based model, which represents the main hydrological processes in the area, namely infiltration, flow routing and transmission losses. Three infiltration functions were examined - Initial & Constant, SCS-CN and Green&Ampt. The parameters for each function were found by calibration based on 53 flood events in three catchments, and validation was performed using 55 flood events in six catchments. QPE were obtained from a C-band weather radar and adjusted using a weighted multiple regression method based on a rain gauge network. Antecedent moisture conditions were calculated using a daily recharge assessment model (DREAM). We found that the SCS-CN infiltration function performed better than the other two, with reasonable agreement between calculated and measured peak discharge. Effects of storm characteristics were studied using synthetic storms from a high resolution weather generator (HiReS-WG), and showed a strong correlation between storm speed, storm direction and rain depth over desert soils to flood volume and peak discharge.

  1. Regional scale flood modeling using NEXRAD rainfall, GIS, and HEC-HMS/RAS: a case study for the San Antonio River Basin Summer 2002 storm event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebl, M R; Yang, Z-L; Hutchison, K; Maidment, D R

    2005-06-01

    This paper develops a framework for regional scale flood modeling that integrates NEXRAD Level III rainfall, GIS, and a hydrological model (HEC-HMS/RAS). The San Antonio River Basin (about 4000 square miles, 10,000 km2) in Central Texas, USA, is the domain of the study because it is a region subject to frequent occurrences of severe flash flooding. A major flood in the summer of 2002 is chosen as a case to examine the modeling framework. The model consists of a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-HMS) that converts precipitation excess to overland flow and channel runoff, as well as a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) that models unsteady state flow through the river channel network based on the HEC-HMS-derived hydrographs. HEC-HMS is run on a 4 x 4 km grid in the domain, a resolution consistent with the resolution of NEXRAD rainfall taken from the local river authority. Watershed parameters are calibrated manually to produce a good simulation of discharge at 12 subbasins. With the calibrated discharge, HEC-RAS is capable of producing floodplain polygons that are comparable to the satellite imagery. The modeling framework presented in this study incorporates a portion of the recently developed GIS tool named Map to Map that has been created on a local scale and extends it to a regional scale. The results of this research will benefit future modeling efforts by providing a tool for hydrological forecasts of flooding on a regional scale. While designed for the San Antonio River Basin, this regional scale model may be used as a prototype for model applications in other areas of the country.

  2. Coupling Hydrologic and Hydrodynamic Models to Estimate PMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, G.; Weingartner, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most sophisticated probable maximum flood (PMF) estimations derive the PMF from the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) by applying deterministic hydrologic models calibrated with observed data. This method is based on the assumption that the hydrological system is stationary, meaning that the system behaviour during the calibration period or the calibration event is presumed to be the same as it is during the PMF. However, as soon as a catchment-specific threshold is reached, the system is no longer stationary. At or beyond this threshold, retention areas, new flow paths, and changing runoff processes can strongly affect downstream peak discharge. These effects can be accounted for by coupling hydrologic and hydrodynamic models, a technique that is particularly promising when the expected peak discharge may considerably exceed the observed maximum discharge. In such cases, the coupling of hydrologic and hydraulic models has the potential to significantly increase the physical plausibility of PMF estimations. This procedure ensures both that the estimated extreme peak discharge does not exceed the physical limit based on riverbed capacity and that the dampening effect of inundation processes on peak discharge is considered. Our study discusses the prospect of considering retention effects on PMF estimations by coupling hydrologic and hydrodynamic models. This method is tested by forcing PREVAH, a semi-distributed deterministic hydrological model, with randomly generated, physically plausible extreme precipitation patterns. The resulting hydrographs are then used to externally force the hydraulic model BASEMENT-ETH (riverbed in 1D, potential inundation areas in 2D). Finally, the PMF estimation results obtained using the coupled modelling approach are compared to the results obtained using ordinary hydrologic modelling.

  3. Evaluating terrain based criteria for snow avalanche exposure ratings using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delparte, Donna; Jamieson, Bruce; Waters, Nigel

    2010-05-01

    Snow avalanche terrain in backcountry regions of Canada is increasingly being assessed based upon the Avalanche Terrain Exposure Scale (ATES). ATES is a terrain based classification introduced in 2004 by Parks Canada to identify "simple", "challenging" and "complex" backcountry areas. The ATES rating system has been applied to well over 200 backcountry routes, has been used in guidebooks, trailhead signs and maps and is part of the trip planning component of the AVALUATOR™, a simple decision-support tool for backcountry users. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers a means to model and visualize terrain based criteria through the use of digital elevation model (DEM) and land cover data. Primary topographic variables such as slope, aspect and curvature are easily derived from a DEM and are compatible with the equivalent evaluation criteria in ATES. Other components of the ATES classification are difficult to extract from a DEM as they are not strictly terrain based. An overview is provided of the terrain variables that can be generated from DEM and land cover data; criteria from ATES which are not clearly terrain based are identified for further study or revision. The second component of this investigation was the development of an algorithm for inputting suitable ATES criteria into a GIS, thereby mimicking the process avalanche experts use when applying the ATES classification to snow avalanche terrain. GIS based classifications were compared to existing expert assessments for validity. The advantage of automating the ATES classification process through GIS is to assist avalanche experts with categorizing and mapping remote backcountry terrain.

  4. 1:250,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Peter; Nebert, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    The Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) was developed in the mid 70s to put into digital form a numberof data layers which were of interest to the USGS. One of these data layers was the Hydrologic Units. The map is based on the Hydrologic Unit Maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Data Coordination, together with the list descriptions and name of region, subregion, accounting units, and cataloging unit. The hydrologic units are encoded with an eight-digit number that indicates the hydrologic region (first two digits), hydrologic subregion (second two digits), accounting unit (third two digits), and cataloging unit (fourth two digits). The data produced by GIRAS was originally collected at a scale of 1:250K. Some areas, notably major cities in the west, were recompiled at a scale of 1:100K. In order to join the data together and use the data in a geographic information system (GIS) the data were processed in the ARC/INFO GUS software package. Within the GIS, the data were edgematched and the neatline boundaries between maps were removed to create a single data set for the conterminous

  5. A GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) for air pollution assessment--a North American case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Zhen; Chen, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a GIS-based multi-source and multi-box modeling approach (GMSMB) to predict the spatial concentration distributions of airborne pollutant on local and regional scales. In this method, an extended multi-box model combined with a multi-source and multi-grid Gaussian model are developed within the GIS framework to examine the contributions from both point- and area-source emissions. By using GIS, a large amount of data including emission sources, air quality monitoring, meteorological data, and spatial location information required for air quality modeling are brought into an integrated modeling environment. It helps more details of spatial variation in source distribution and meteorological condition to be quantitatively analyzed. The developed modeling approach has been examined to predict the spatial concentration distribution of four air pollutants (CO, NO(2), SO(2) and PM(2.5)) for the State of California. The modeling results are compared with the monitoring data. Good agreement is acquired which demonstrated that the developed modeling approach could deliver an effective air pollution assessment on both regional and local scales to support air pollution control and management planning.

  6. Assimilation of remote sensing observations into a continuous distributed hydrological model: impacts on the hydrologic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Campo, Lorenzo; Cenci, Luca; Silvestro, Francesco; Delogu, Fabio; Boni, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The reliable estimation of hydrological variables (e.g. soil moisture, evapotranspiration, surface temperature) in space and time is of fundamental importance in operational hydrology to improve the forecast of the rainfall-runoff response of catchments and, consequently, flood predictions. Nowadays remote sensing can offer a chance to provide good space-time estimates of several hydrological variables and then improve hydrological model performances especially in environments with scarce in-situ data. This work investigates the impact of the assimilation of different remote sensing products on the hydrological cycle by using a continuous physically based distributed hydrological model. Three soil moisture products derived by ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) are used to update the model state variables. The satellite-derived products are assimilated into the hydrological model using different assimilation techniques: a simple nudging and the Ensemble Kalman Filter. Moreover two assimilation strategies are evaluated to assess the impact of assimilating the satellite products at model spatial resolution or at the satellite scale. The experiments are carried out for three Italian catchments on multi year period. The benefits on the model predictions of discharge, LST, evapotranspiration and soil moisture dynamics are tested and discussed.

  7. Adaptive Parameter Optimization of a Grid-based Conceptual Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L.; Kumar, R.; Attinger, S.

    2007-12-01

    Any spatially explicit hydrological model at the mesoscale is a conceptual approximation of the hydrological cycle and its dominant process occurring at this scale. Manual-expert calibration of this type of models may become quite tedious---if not impossible---taking into account the enormous amount of data required by these kind of models and the intrinsic uncertainty of both the data (input-output) and the model structure. Additionally, the model should be able to reproduce well several process which are accounted by a number of predefined objectives. As a consequence, some degree of automatic calibration would be required to find "good" solutions, each one constituting a trade-off among all calibration criteria. In other words, it is very likely that a number of parameter sets fulfil the optimization criteria and thus can be considered a model solution. In this study, we dealt with two research questions: 1) How to assess the adequate level of model complexity so that model overparameterization is avoided? And, 2) How to find a good solution with a relatively low computational burden? In the present study, a grid-based conceptual hydrological model denoted as HBV-UFZ based on some of the original HBV concepts was employed. This model was driven by 12~h precipitation, temperature, and PET grids which are acquired either from satellite products or from data of meteorological stations. In the latter case, the data was interpolated with external drift Kriging. The first research question was addressed in this study with the implementation of nonlinear transfer functions that regionalize most model parameters as a function of other spatially distributed observables such as land cover (time dependent) and other time independent basin characteristics such as soil type, slope, aspect, geological formations among others. The second question was addressed with an adaptive constrained optimization algorithm based on a parallel implementation of simulated annealing (SA

  8. Using large hydrological datasets to create a robust, physically based, spatially distributed model for Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Kilsby, Chris; Fowler, Hayley

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on hydrological systems requires further quantification in order to inform water management. This study intends to conduct such analysis using hydrological models. Such models are of varying forms, of which conceptual, lumped parameter models and physically-based models are two important types. The majority of hydrological studies use conceptual models calibrated against measured river flow time series in order to represent catchment behaviour. This method often shows impressive results for specific problems in gauged catchments. However, the results may not be robust under non-stationary conditions such as climate change, as physical processes and relationships amenable to change are not accounted for explicitly. Moreover, conceptual models are less readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. As such, the physically based, spatially distributed model SHETRAN is used in this study to develop a robust and reliable framework for modelling historic and future behaviour of gauged and ungauged catchments across the whole of Great Britain. In order to achieve this, a large array of data completely covering Great Britain for the period 1960-2006 has been collated and efficiently stored ready for model input. The data processed include a DEM, rainfall, PE and maps of geology, soil and land cover. A desire to make the modelling system easy for others to work with led to the development of a user-friendly graphical interface. This allows non-experts to set up and run a catchment model in a few seconds, a process that can normally take weeks or months. The quality and reliability of the extensive dataset for modelling hydrological processes has also been evaluated. One aspect of this has been an assessment of error and uncertainty in rainfall input data, as well as the effects of temporal resolution in precipitation inputs on model calibration. SHETRAN has been updated to accept gridded rainfall

  9. Development and application of GIS-based PRISM integration through a plugin approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Chun, Jong Ahn; Kang, Kwangmin

    2014-05-01

    A PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) QGIS-plugin was developed on Quantum GIS platform in this study. This Quantum GIS plugin system provides user-friendly graphic user interfaces (GUIs) so that users can obtain gridded meteorological data of high resolutions (1 km × 1 km). Also, this software is designed to run on a personal computer so that it does not require an internet access or a sophisticated computer system. This module is a user-friendly system that a user can generate PRISM data with ease. The proposed PRISM QGIS-plugin is a hybrid statistical-geographic model system that uses coarse resolution datasets (APHRODITE datasets in this study) with digital elevation data to generate the fine-resolution gridded precipitation. To validate the performance of the software, Prek Thnot River Basin in Kandal, Cambodia is selected for application. Overall statistical analysis shows promising outputs generated by the proposed plugin. Error measures such as RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) and MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) were used to evaluate the performance of the developed PRISM QGIS-plugin. Evaluation results using RMSE and MAPE were 2.76 mm and 4.2%, respectively. This study suggested that the plugin can be used to generate high resolution precipitation datasets for hydrological and climatological studies at a watershed where observed weather datasets are limited.

  10. High resolution global flood hazard map from physically-based hydrologic and hydraulic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnudelli, L.; Kaheil, Y.; McCollum, J.

    2017-12-01

    The global flood map published online at http://www.fmglobal.com/research-and-resources/global-flood-map at 90m resolution is being used worldwide to understand flood risk exposure, exercise certain measures of mitigation, and/or transfer the residual risk financially through flood insurance programs. The modeling system is based on a physically-based hydrologic model to simulate river discharges, and 2D shallow-water hydrodynamic model to simulate inundation. The model can be applied to large-scale flood hazard mapping thanks to several solutions that maximize its efficiency and the use of parallel computing. The hydrologic component of the modeling system is the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model. HRR simulates hydrological processes using a Green-Ampt parameterization, and is calibrated against observed discharge data from several publicly-available datasets. For inundation mapping, we use a 2D Finite-Volume Shallow-Water model with wetting/drying. We introduce here a grid Up-Scaling Technique (UST) for hydraulic modeling to perform simulations at higher resolution at global scale with relatively short computational times. A 30m SRTM is now available worldwide along with higher accuracy and/or resolution local Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in many countries and regions. UST consists of aggregating computational cells, thus forming a coarser grid, while retaining the topographic information from the original full-resolution mesh. The full-resolution topography is used for building relationships between volume and free surface elevation inside cells and computing inter-cell fluxes. This approach almost achieves computational speed typical of the coarse grids while preserving, to a significant extent, the accuracy offered by the much higher resolution available DEM. The simulations are carried out along each river of the network by forcing the hydraulic model with the streamflow hydrographs generated by HRR. Hydrographs are scaled so that the peak

  11. Development of Load Duration Curve System in Data Scarce Watersheds Based on a Distributed Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, J.

    2017-12-01

    In stream water quality control, the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program is very effective. However, the load duration curves (LDC) of TMDL are difficult to be established because no sufficient observed flow and pollutant data can be provided in data-scarce watersheds in which no hydrological stations or consecutively long-term hydrological data are available. Although the point sources or a non-point sources of pollutants can be clarified easily with the aid of LDC, where does the pollutant come from and to where it will be transported in the watershed cannot be traced by LDC. To seek out the best management practices (BMPs) of pollutants in a watershed, and to overcome the limitation of LDC, we proposed to develop LDC based on a distributed hydrological model of SWAT for the water quality management in data scarce river basins. In this study, firstly, the distributed hydrological model of SWAT was established with the scarce-hydrological data. Then, the long-term daily flows were generated with the established SWAT model and rainfall data from the adjacent weather station. Flow duration curves (FDC) was then developed with the aid of generated daily flows by SWAT model. Considering the goal of water quality management, LDC curves of different pollutants can be obtained based on the FDC. With the monitored water quality data and the LDC curves, the water quality problems caused by the point or non-point source pollutants in different seasons can be ascertained. Finally, the distributed hydrological model of SWAT was employed again to tracing the spatial distribution and the origination of the pollutants of coming from what kind of agricultural practices and/or other human activities. A case study was conducted in the Jian-jiang river, a tributary of Yangtze river, of Duyun city, Guizhou province. Results indicate that this kind of method can realize the water quality management based on TMDL and find out the suitable BMPs for reducing pollutant in a watershed.

  12. Real-time GIS data model and sensor web service platform for environmental data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianya; Geng, Jing; Chen, Zeqiang

    2015-01-09

    Effective environmental data management is meaningful for human health. In the past, environmental data management involved developing a specific environmental data management system, but this method often lacks real-time data retrieving and sharing/interoperating capability. With the development of information technology, a Geospatial Service Web method is proposed that can be employed for environmental data management. The purpose of this study is to determine a method to realize environmental data management under the Geospatial Service Web framework. A real-time GIS (Geographic Information System) data model and a Sensor Web service platform to realize environmental data management under the Geospatial Service Web framework are proposed in this study. The real-time GIS data model manages real-time data. The Sensor Web service platform is applied to support the realization of the real-time GIS data model based on the Sensor Web technologies. To support the realization of the proposed real-time GIS data model, a Sensor Web service platform is implemented. Real-time environmental data, such as meteorological data, air quality data, soil moisture data, soil temperature data, and landslide data, are managed in the Sensor Web service platform. In addition, two use cases of real-time air quality monitoring and real-time soil moisture monitoring based on the real-time GIS data model in the Sensor Web service platform are realized and demonstrated. The total time efficiency of the two experiments is 3.7 s and 9.2 s. The experimental results show that the method integrating real-time GIS data model and Sensor Web Service Platform is an effective way to manage environmental data under the Geospatial Service Web framework.

  13. Computer-based instrumentation for partial discharge detection in GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Enamul Haque; Ahmad Darus; Yaacob, M.M.; Halil Hussain; Feroz Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Partial discharge is one of the prominent indicators of defects and insulation degradation in a Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS). Partial discharges (PD) have a harmful effect on the life of insulation of high voltage equipment. The PD detection using acoustic technique and subsequent analysis is currently an efficient method of performing non-destructive testing of GIS apparatus. A low cost PC-based acoustic PD detection instrument has been developed for the non-destructive diagnosis of GIS. This paper describes the development of a PC-based instrumentation system for partial discharge detection in GIS and some experimental results have also presented. (Author)

  14. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    over temporal aggregation, temporal accumulation, spatio-temporal statistics, spatio-temporal sampling, temporal algebra, temporal topology analysis, time series animation and temporal topology visualization to time series import and export capabilities with support for NetCDF and VTK data formats. We will present several temporal modules that support parallel processing of raster and 3D raster time series. [1] GRASS GIS Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling In Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling, Vol. 2 (2008), pp. 171-199, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74831-19 by M. Neteler, D. Beaudette, P. Cavallini, L. Lami, J. Cepicky edited by G. Brent Hall, Michael G. Leahy [2] Gebbert, S., Pebesma, E., 2014. A temporal GIS for field based environmental modeling. Environ. Model. Softw. 53, 1-12. [3] Zambelli, P., Gebbert, S., Ciolli, M., 2013. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API) for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Geographic Information System (GIS). ISPRS Intl Journal of Geo-Information 2, 201-219. [4] Löwe, P., Klump, J., Thaler, J. (2012): The FOSS GIS Workbench on the GFZ Load Sharing Facility compute cluster, (Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-4491, 2012), General Assembly European Geosciences Union (Vienna, Austria 2012). [5] Akhter, S., Aida, K., Chemin, Y., 2010. "GRASS GIS on High Performance Computing with MPI, OpenMP and Ninf-G Programming Framework". ISPRS Conference, Kyoto, 9-12 August 2010

  15. Integrating an agent-based model into a large-scale hydrological model for evaluating drought management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; He, X.; Wada, Y.; Burek, P.; Kahil, M.; Wood, E. F.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    California has endured record-breaking drought since winter 2011 and will likely experience more severe and persistent drought in the coming decades under changing climate. At the same time, human water management practices can also affect drought frequency and intensity, which underscores the importance of human behaviour in effective drought adaptation and mitigation. Currently, although a few large-scale hydrological and water resources models (e.g., PCR-GLOBWB) consider human water use and management practices (e.g., irrigation, reservoir operation, groundwater pumping), none of them includes the dynamic feedback between local human behaviors/decisions and the natural hydrological system. It is, therefore, vital to integrate social and behavioral dimensions into current hydrological modeling frameworks. This study applies the agent-based modeling (ABM) approach and couples it with a large-scale hydrological model (i.e., Community Water Model, CWatM) in order to have a balanced representation of social, environmental and economic factors and a more realistic representation of the bi-directional interactions and feedbacks in coupled human and natural systems. In this study, we focus on drought management in California and considers two types of agents, which are (groups of) farmers and state management authorities, and assumed that their corresponding objectives are to maximize the net crop profit and to maintain sufficient water supply, respectively. Farmers' behaviors are linked with local agricultural practices such as cropping patterns and deficit irrigation. More precisely, farmers' decisions are incorporated into CWatM across different time scales in terms of daily irrigation amount, seasonal/annual decisions on crop types and irrigated area as well as the long-term investment of irrigation infrastructure. This simulation-based optimization framework is further applied by performing different sets of scenarios to investigate and evaluate the effectiveness

  16. Black Sea GIS developed in MHI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Khaliulin, A.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Isaeva, E.

    2016-08-01

    The work aims at creating the Black Sea geoinformation system (GIS) and complementing it with a model bank. The software for data access and visualization was developed using client server architecture. A map service based on MapServer and MySQL data management system were chosen for the Black Sea GIS. Php-modules and python-scripts are used to provide data access, processing, and exchange between the client application and the server. According to the basic data types, the module structure of GIS was developed. Each type of data is matched to a module which allows selection and visualization of the data. At present, a GIS complement with a model bank (the models build in to the GIS) and users' models (programs launched on users' PCs but receiving and displaying data via GIS) is developed.

  17. Modeling of geoelectric parameters for assessing groundwater potentiality in a multifaceted geologic terrain, Ipinsa Southwest, Nigeria - A GIS-based GODT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Omobude, Osayande Bright

    2017-12-01

    Modeling of groundwater potentiality zones is a vital scheme for effective management of groundwater resources. This study developed a new multi-criteria decision making algorithm for groundwater potentiality modeling through modifying the standard GOD model. The developed model christened as GODT model was applied to assess groundwater potential in a multi-faceted crystalline geologic terrain, southwestern, Nigeria using the derived four unify groundwater potential conditioning factors namely: Groundwater hydraulic confinement (G), aquifer Overlying strata resistivity (O), Depth to water table (D) and Thickness of aquifer (T) from the interpreted geophysical data acquired in the area. With the developed model algorithm, the GIS-based produced G, O, D and T maps were synthesized to estimate groundwater potential index (GWPI) values for the area. The estimated GWPI values were processed in GIS environment to produce groundwater potential prediction index (GPPI) map which demarcate the area into four potential zones. The produced GODT model-based GPPI map was validated through application of both correlation technique and spatial attribute comparative scheme (SACS). The performance of the GODT model was compared with that of the standard analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model. The correlation technique results established 89% regression coefficients for the GODT modeling algorithm compared with 84% for the AHP model. On the other hand, the SACS validation results for the GODT and AHP models are 72.5% and 65%, respectively. The overall results indicate that both models have good capability for predicting groundwater potential zones with the GIS-based GODT model as a good alternative. The GPPI maps produced in this study can form part of decision making model for environmental planning and groundwater management in the area.

  18. ANNIE - INTERACTIVE PROCESSING OF DATA BASES FOR HYDROLOGIC MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Alan M.; Kittle, John L.

    1985-01-01

    ANNIE is a data storage and retrieval system that was developed to reduce the time and effort required to calibrate, verify, and apply watershed models that continuously simulate water quantity and quality. Watershed models have three categories of input: parameters to describe segments of a drainage area, linkage of the segments, and time-series data. Additional goals for ANNIE include the development of software that is easily implemented on minicomputers and some microcomputers and software that has no special requirements for interactive display terminals. Another goal is for the user interaction to be based on the experience of the user so that ANNIE is helpful to the inexperienced user and yet efficient and brief for the experienced user. Finally, the code should be designed so that additional hydrologic models can easily be added to ANNIE.

  19. Large-watershed flood simulation and forecasting based on different-resolution distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large-watershed flood simulation and forecasting is very important for a distributed hydrological model in the application. There are some challenges including the model's spatial resolution effect, model performance and accuracy and so on. To cope with the challenge of the model's spatial resolution effect, different model resolution including 1000m*1000m, 600m*600m, 500m*500m, 400m*400m, 200m*200m were used to build the distributed hydrological model—Liuxihe model respectively. The purpose is to find which one is the best resolution for Liuxihe model in Large-watershed flood simulation and forecasting. This study sets up a physically based distributed hydrological model for flood forecasting of the Liujiang River basin in south China. Terrain data digital elevation model (DEM), soil type and land use type are downloaded from the website freely. The model parameters are optimized by using an improved Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) algorithm; And parameter optimization could reduce the parameter uncertainty that exists for physically deriving model parameters. The different model resolution (200m*200m—1000m*1000m ) are proposed for modeling the Liujiang River basin flood with the Liuxihe model in this study. The best model's spatial resolution effect for flood simulation and forecasting is 200m*200m.And with the model's spatial resolution reduction, the model performance and accuracy also become worse and worse. When the model resolution is 1000m*1000m, the flood simulation and forecasting result is the worst, also the river channel divided based on this resolution is differs from the actual one. To keep the model with an acceptable performance, minimum model spatial resolution is needed. The suggested threshold model spatial resolution for modeling the Liujiang River basin flood is a 500m*500m grid cell, but the model spatial resolution with a 200m*200m grid cell is recommended in this study to keep the model at a best performance.

  20. Primena GIS-a u hidrološkim istraživanjima - primer reke Lepenice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic component of GIS technology (Geographical Information Systems is the base of graphical data, which can be used for geographical definition of spaces elements- entities. As a new, modern, technology, it has more application in different hydrological researches. In GIS creation Lepenica river basin, it was applied softwares: Micro Station, GeoMedia, Surfer 7. Map and AutoCAD. After data base creation, it was enabled for users to get different information of Lepenica river basin on the simple way. Getting data are used for creation of three thematic maps (altitude zones map, hydrographical net map and precipitation isoline map.

  1. Modelling land use changes according to transportation scenarios using raster based GIS indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Morten; Münier, Bernd; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    the cellular automata model LUCIA. An Eastern Danish case area was selected, comprising the Copenhagen metropolitan area and its hinterland. The different scenarios are described using a range of different GIS datasets. These include mapping of accessibility based on public and private transportation, urban....... In the EU-FP7 research project PASHMINA (Paradigm Shift modelling and innovative approaches), three storylines of future transportation paradigm shifts towards 2050 are created. These storylines are translated into spatial planning strategies and their implication on land use changes were modelled via...... in urban distribution that different spatial planning strategies may initiate, and thus change the shape of the urban landscape. The scenarios outline different planning strategies, leading to a more homogenous urban structure, targeted at a reduction of transportation work and thus energy consumption...

  2. Application of a Groundwater Modeling Tool for Managing Hydrologically Connected Area in State of Nebraska, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Flyr, B.; Bradley, J.; Pun, M.; Schneider, J.; Wietjes, J.; Chinta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Determination of the nature and degree of hydrologically connected groundwater and surface water resources is of paramount importance to integrated water management within the State of Nebraska to understand the impact of water uses on available supplies, such as depletion of streams and aquifers caused by groundwater pumping. The ability to quantify effects of surface water-groundwater hydrologic connection and interactions, is regarded as one of the most important steps towards effectively managing water resources in Nebraska and provides the basis for designating management areas. Designation of management areas allows the state and other management entities to focus various efforts and resources towards those projects that have the greatest impact to water users. Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NDNR) developed a groundwater modeling tool, Cycle Well Analysis, to determine the areas defined to have a high degree of connectivity between groundwater and surface water (in accordance with the state regulations). This tool features two graphic user interfaces to allow the analysis to be fully compatible with most MODFLOW-based numerical groundwater models currently utilized by NDNR. Case studies showed that the tool, in combination of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), can be used to quantify the degree of stream depletion and delineate the boundary of hydrologically connected areas within different political boundaries and subbasins in Nebraska. This approach may be applied to other regions with similar background and need for integrated water management.

  3. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  4. GIS-based Watershed Management Modeling for Surface Runoff Calculation in Tatara River Basin, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ix, Hour; Mori, Makito; Hiramatsu, Kazuaki; Harada, Masayoshi

    2007-01-01

    In the past few decades when Geographical Information System (GIS) technology was not fully developed in practical use, watershed delineation work used to be conducted manually by hydrologists based on topographic maps. The work was a tedious operation, since it had to be done repeatedly in similar manner for each basin or sub-basin of interest, and its process always left some unpredicted errors. Nowadays, GIS software is being upgraded regularly with powerful tools responding to the needs o...

  5. Modelling soil erosion risk based on RUSLE-3D using GIS in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    watershed ... Click here to view fulltext PDF ... The RUSLE-3D (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation-3D) model was implemented in geographic information system (GIS) for predicting the soil loss and the spatial patterns of soil ...

  6. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT: A GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planning and assessment in land and water resource management are evolving toward complex, spatially explicit regional assessments. These problems have to be addressed with distributed models that can compute runoff and erosion at different spatial and temporal scales. The extens...

  7. JAMS - a software platform for modular hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralisch, Sven; Fischer, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Current challenges of understanding and assessing the impacts of climate and land use changes on environmental systems demand for an ever-increasing integration of data and process knowledge in corresponding simulation models. Software frameworks that allow for a seamless creation of integrated models based on less complex components (domain models, process simulation routines) have therefore gained increasing attention during the last decade. JAMS is an Open-Source software framework that has been especially designed to cope with the challenges of eco-hydrological modelling. This is reflected by (i) its flexible approach for representing time and space, (ii) a strong separation of process simulation components from the declarative description of more complex models using domain specific XML, (iii) powerful analysis and visualization functions for spatial and temporal input and output data, and (iv) parameter optimization and uncertainty analysis functions commonly used in environmental modelling. Based on JAMS, different hydrological and nutrient-transport simulation models were implemented and successfully applied during the last years. We will present the JAMS core concepts and give an overview of models, simulation components and support tools available for that framework. Sample applications will be used to underline the advantages of component-based model designs and to show how JAMS can be used to address the challenges of integrated hydrological modelling.

  8. A GIS-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INFORMATION SOURCE FOR MALAYSIAN CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Lau Tiu Chung; Lau Bee Theng; Henry Lee Seldon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a GIS-based system for collection and targeted distribution of latest alerts and real-time environmental factors to the Malaysian population. We call it the Environmental Health Management System (EHMS). This GIS-based system is designed to facilitate and encourage research into environmental health quality issues by providing a comprehensive tracking and monitoring tool. This GIS-based system is embedded with Google Maps API and Geocoding API services to visualize t...

  9. airGRteaching: an R-package designed for teaching hydrology with lumped hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; Delaigue, Olivier; Coron, Laurent; Andréassian, Vazken; Brigode, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Lumped hydrological models are useful and convenient tools for research, engineering and educational purposes. They propose catchment-scale representations of the precipitation-discharge relationship. Thanks to their limited data requirements, they can be easily implemented and run. With such models, it is possible to simulate a number of hydrological key processes over the catchment with limited structural and parametric complexity, typically evapotranspiration, runoff, underground losses, etc. The Hydrology Group at Irstea (Antony) has been developing a suite of rainfall-runoff models over the past 30 years. This resulted in a suite of models running at different time steps (from hourly to annual) applicable for various issues including water balance estimation, forecasting, simulation of impacts and scenario testing. Recently, Irstea has developed an easy-to-use R-package (R Core Team, 2016), called airGR (Coron et al., 2016, 2017), to make these models widely available. Although its initial target public was hydrological modellers, the package is already used for educational purposes. Indeed, simple models allow for rapidly visualising the effects of parameterizations and model components on flows hydrographs. In order to avoid the difficulties that students may have when manipulating R and datasets, we developed (Delaigue and Coron, 2016): - Three simplified functions to prepare data, calibrate a model and run a simulation - Simplified and dynamic plot functions - A shiny (Chang et al., 2016) interface that connects this R-package to a browser-based visualisation tool. On this interface, the students can use different hydrological models (including the possibility to use a snow-accounting model), manually modify their parameters and automatically calibrate their parameters with diverse objective functions. One of the visualisation tabs of the interface includes observed precipitation and temperature, simulated snowpack (if any), observed and simulated

  10. Hydropower systems planning in distribution networks based on GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Rosado, I.J.; Zorzano-Santamaria, P.; Fernandez-Jiminez, L.A.; Garcia-Garrido, E.; Zorzano-Alba, E.; Lara-Santillan, P.M.; Mendoza-Villena, M. [La Rioja Univ., La Rioja (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Planning models for hydraulic energy systems developed with a new computational geographic information system (GIS) tool were presented. The GIS tool was used to identify sections of rivers that are suitable for small-scale run-of-river hydropower generation in the La Rioja region of Spain. The tool was also used to evaluate economic data related to financing grants, technological costs, installation costs, and forecast demands for various consumption scenarios. Case studies of 2 hydropower systems were used to test the tool. The planning models were based on levelized electric costs (LEC) of run-of-river hydropower systems, and enabled the systems to be analyzed in isolation as well as when connected to an existing electricity network. Results of the modelling studies showed that the tool is capable of analyzing the LEC of potential hydropower systems in a range of different scenarios while maintaining the geographic characteristics and requirements of individual regions. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  11. APPLICATION OF GIS AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN MARITIME CRISIS SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Mladineo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to propose a decision support system for maritime crisis situation, due to fact that Croatia has decided to implement Directive 2002/59/EC to define places of refuge for ships in need of assistance off their coasts, or to develop techniques for providing assistance to such ships. In order to fulfill this Directive it is necessary to build an effective Decision Support System (DSS based on GIS and mathematical modeling. The basic module of the proposed system is GIS, for all levels of DSS, that comprise information subsystems about spatial and other data and serves the other modules with data and information. Starting points for analysis are shipping corridors, and 380 potential locations for places of refuge designated in the official navigational pilot book. Multicriteria analysis, with GIS-generated input data, has been used to establish "worthiness" of a place of refuge for each ship category, taking into account kinds of accident. Proposed mathematical models facilitate optimal usage of "available intervention resources".

  12. Improving student comprehension of the interconnectivity of the hydrologic cycle with a novel 'hydrology toolbox', integrated watershed model, and companion textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, L. S.; Margulis, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Concepts in introductory hydrology courses are often taught in the context of process-based modeling that ultimately is integrated into a watershed model. In an effort to reduce the learning curve associated with applying hydrologic concepts to real-world applications, we developed and incorporated a 'hydrology toolbox' that complements a new, companion textbook into introductory undergraduate hydrology courses. The hydrology toolbox contains the basic building blocks (functions coded in MATLAB) for an integrated spatially-distributed watershed model that makes hydrologic topics (e.g. precipitation, snow, radiation, evaporation, unsaturated flow, infiltration, groundwater, and runoff) more user-friendly and accessible for students. The toolbox functions can be used in a modular format so that students can study individual hydrologic processes and become familiar with the hydrology toolbox. This approach allows such courses to emphasize understanding and application of hydrologic concepts rather than computer coding or programming. While topics in introductory hydrology courses are often introduced and taught independently or semi-independently, they are inherently interconnected. These toolbox functions are therefore linked together at the end of the course to reinforce a holistic understanding of how these hydrologic processes are measured, interconnected, and modeled. They are integrated into a spatially-distributed watershed model or numerical laboratory where students can explore a range of topics such as rainfall-runoff modeling, urbanization, deforestation, watershed response to changes in parameters or forcings, etc. Model output can readily be visualized and analyzed by students to understand watershed response in a real river basin or a simple 'toy' basin. These tools complement the textbook, each of which has been well received by students in multiple hydrology courses with various disciplinary backgrounds. The same governing equations that students have

  13. Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrological process simulation in an inland river basin in China, Heihe River basin. It is divided into the upper, middle, and lower reaches based on the distinctive hydrological characteristics in the Heihe River basin, and three hydrological models are selected, applied, and tested to simulate the hydrological cycling processes for each reach. The upper reach is the contributing area with the complex runoff generation processes, therefore, the hydrological informatic modeling system (HIMS is utilized due to its combined runoff generation mechanisms. The middle reach has strong impacts of intensive human activities on the interactions of surface and subsurface flows, so a conceptual water balance model is applied to simulate the water balance process. For the lower reach, as the dissipative area with groundwater dominating the hydrological process, a groundwater modeling system with the embedment of MODFLOW model is applied to simulate the groundwater dynamics. Statistical parameters and water balance analysis prove that the three models have excellent performances in simulating the hydrological process of the three reaches. Therefore, it is an effective way to simulate the hydrological process of inland river basin with multiple hydrological models according to the characteristics of each subbasin.

  14. Calibration and validation of the SWAT model for a forested watershed in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Elizabeth B. Haley; Norman S. Levine; Timothy J. Callahan; Artur Radecki-Pawlik; Manoj K. Jha

    2008-01-01

    Modeling the hydrology of low-gradient coastal watersheds on shallow, poorly drained soils is a challenging task due to the complexities in watershed delineation, runoff generation processes and pathways, flooding, and submergence caused by tropical storms. The objective of the study is to calibrate and validate a GIS-based spatially-distributed hydrologic model, SWAT...

  15. Hydrological inferences through morphometric analysis of lower Kosi river basin of India for water resource management based on remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Praveen Kumar; Chandel, Rajeev Singh; Mishra, Varun Narayan; Singh, Prafull

    2018-03-01

    Satellite based remote sensing technology has proven to be an effectual tool in analysis of drainage networks, study of surface morphological features and their correlation with groundwater management prospect at basin level. The present study highlights the effectiveness and advantage of remote sensing and GIS-based analysis for quantitative and qualitative assessment of flood plain region of lower Kosi river basin based on morphometric analysis. In this study, ASTER DEM is used to extract the vital hydrological parameters of lower Kosi river basin in ARC GIS software. Morphometric parameters, e.g., stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, drainage frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circularity ratio, elongation ratio, etc., have been calculated for the Kosi basin and their hydrological inferences were discussed. Most of the morphometric parameters such as bifurcation ratio, drainage density, drainage frequency, drainage texture concluded that basin has good prospect for water management program for various purposes and also generated data base that can provide scientific information for site selection of water-harvesting structures and flood management activities in the basin. Land use land cover (LULC) of the basin were also prepared from Landsat data of 2005, 2010 and 2015 to assess the change in dynamic of the basin and these layers are very noteworthy for further watershed prioritization.

  16. Tight-coupling of groundwater flow and transport modelling engines with spatial databases and GIS technology: a new approach integrating Feflow and ArcGIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Crestaz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of groundwater flow and transport numerical models is generally a challenge, time-consuming and financially-demanding task, in charge to specialized modelers and consulting firms. At a later stage, within clearly stated limits of applicability, these models are often expected to be made available to less knowledgeable personnel to support/design and running of predictive simulations within more familiar environments than specialized simulation systems. GIS systems coupled with spatial databases appear to be ideal candidates to address problem above, due to their much wider diffusion and expertise availability. Current paper discusses the issue from a tight-coupling architecture perspective, aimed at integration of spatial databases, GIS and numerical simulation engines, addressing both observed and computed data management, retrieval and spatio-temporal analysis issues. Observed data can be migrated to the central database repository and then used to set up transient simulation conditions in the background, at run time, while limiting additional complexity and integrity failure risks as data duplication during data transfer through proprietary file formats. Similarly, simulation scenarios can be set up in a familiar GIS system and stored to spatial database for later reference. As numerical engine is tightly coupled with the GIS, simulations can be run within the environment and results themselves saved to the database. Further tasks, as spatio-temporal analysis (i.e. for postcalibration auditing scopes, cartography production and geovisualization, can then be addressed using traditional GIS tools. Benefits of such an approach include more effective data management practices, integration and availability of modeling facilities in a familiar environment, streamlining spatial analysis processes and geovisualization requirements for the non-modelers community. Major drawbacks include limited 3D and time-dependent support in

  17. HIS Design: Big Data that Supports Hydrologic Modeling from Continental to Hillslope Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, T. C.; Deemy, J. B.; Younger, S. E.; Kirk, S. E.; Brockman, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Analogous to Google Maps, hydrologic data, information, and knowledge resolve differently depending upon the spatial and temporal scales of interest. We show how a multi-scale hydrologic information system (HIS) can be designed and populated for a broad range of spatial (e.g., hillslope, local, regional, continental) and temporal (e.g., current, recent, historic, geologic) scales. Surface and subsurface hydrologic and transport processes are assumed to be scale-dependent, requiring unique governing equations and parameters at each scale. This robust and flexible framework is designed to meet the inventory, monitoring, and management needs of multiple federal agencies (i.e., Forest Service, National Park Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wildlife Reserves). Multi-scale HIS examples are provided using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the Southeastern US.

  18. GIS-based landscape design research: Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Nijhuis

    2017-11-01

    analysed, such as the visible form and the shape of the walk, and serves as the basis for the landscape architectonic analysis in which GIS is used as the primary analytical tool.  GIS-based design research has the possibility to cultivate spatial intelligence in landscape architecture through three fields of operation: • GIS-based modelling: description of existing and future landscape architectonic compositions in digital form; • GIS-based analysis: exploration, analysis and synthesis of landscape architectonic compositions in order to reveal latent architectonic relationships and principles, while utilizing the processing capacities and possibilities of computers for ex-ante and ex-post simulation and evaluation; • GIS-based visual representation: representation of (virtual landscape architectonic compositions in space and time, in order to retrieve and communicate information and knowledge of the landscape design.  Though there are limitations, this study exemplifies that GIS is a powerful instrument to acquire knowledge from landscape architectonic compositions. The study points out that the application of GIS in landscape design research can be seen as an extension of the fundamental cycle of observation, visual representation, analysis and interpretation in the process of knowledge acquisition, with alternative visualisations and digital landscape models as important means for this process. Using the calculating power of computers, combined with inventive modelling, analysis and visualisation concepts in an interactive process, opened up possibilities to reveal new information and knowledge about the basic, spatial, symbolic and programmatic form of Stourhead. GIS extended the design researchers’ perception via measurement, simulation and experimentation, and at the same time offered alternative ways of understanding the landscape architectonic composition. This gave rise to the possibility of exploring new elements in the framework of landscape design

  19. Combined effects of climate models, hydrological model structures and land use scenarios on hydrological impacts of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ida B.; Sonnenborg, Torben O.; Refsgaard, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    Impact studies of the hydrological response of future climate change are important for the water authorities when risk assessment, management and adaptation to a changing climate are carried out. The objective of this study was to model the combined effect of land use and climate changes...... use scenarios. The results revealed that even though the hydrological models all showed similar performance during calibration, the mean discharge response to climate change varied up to 30%, and the variations were even higher for extreme events (1th and 99th percentile). Land use changes appeared...... to cause little change in mean hydrological responses and little variation between hydrological models. Differences in hydrological model responses to land use were, however, significant for extremes due to dissimilarities in hydrological model structure and process equations. The climate model choice...

  20. A GIS based hydrogeomorphic approach for identification of site ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a Geographical Information System (GIS) based hydrogeomorphic approach in the Bhatsa and. Kalu river basins of Thane district, in western DVP. The criteria adopted for the GIS analysis were based .... segments of the rivers. The majority of the lineaments correspond to either dyke ridges or stream channels which are of ...

  1. Distributed hydrological modelling of total dissolved phosphorus transport in an agricultural landscape, part I: distributed runoff generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gérard-Marchant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of best management practices for reducing non-point source (NPS pollution requires knowledge of the location of saturated areas that produce runoff. A physically-based, fully-distributed, GIS-integrated model, the Soil Moisture Distribution and Routing (SMDR model was developed to simulate the hydrologic behavior of small rural upland watersheds with shallow soils and steep to moderate slopes. The model assumes that gravity is the only driving force of water and that most overland flow occurs as saturation excess. The model uses available soil and climatic data, and requires little calibration. The SMDR model was used to simulate runoff production on a 164-ha farm watershed in Delaware County, New York, in the headwaters of New York City water supply. Apart from land use, distributed input parameters were derived from readily available data. Simulated hydrographs compared reasonably with observed flows at the watershed outlet over a eight year simulation period, and peak timing and intensities were well reproduced. Using off-site weather input data produced occasional missed event peaks. Simulated soil moisture distribution agreed well with observed hydrological features and followed the same spatial trend as observed soil moisture contents sampled on four transects. Model accuracy improved when input variables were calibrated within the range of SSURGO-available parameters. The model will be a useful planning tool for reducing NPS pollution from farms in landscapes similar to the Northeastern US.

  2. Hydrological model in STEALTH 2-D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.; Hofmann, R.

    1979-10-01

    Porous media fluid flow logic has been added to the two-dimensional version of the STEALTH explicit finite-difference code. It is a first-order hydrological model based upon Darcy's Law. Anisotropic permeability can be prescribed through x and y directional permeabilities. The fluid flow equations are formulated for either two-dimensional translation symmetry or two-dimensional axial symmetry. The addition of the hydrological model to STEALTH is a first step toward analyzing a physical system's response to the coupling of thermal, mechanical, and fluid flow phenomena

  3. Rainfall-runoff modeling of the Chapel Branch Creek Watershed using GIS-based rational and SCS-CN methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth N. Mihalik; Norm S. Levine; Devendra M. Amatya

    2008-01-01

    Chapel Branch Creek (CBC), located within the Town of Santee adjacent to Lake Marion in Orangeburg County, SC, is listed on the SC 2004 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies due to elevated levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), chlorophyll-a, and pH. In this study, using a GIS-based approach, two runoff modeling methods, the Rational and SCS-CN methods, have been...

  4. Hillslope chemical weathering across Paraná, Brazil: A data mining-GIS hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Fabio; Friedel, Michael J.; Filho, Carlos Roberto de Souza; Fraser, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    Self-organizing map (SOM) and geographic information system (GIS) models were used to investigate the nonlinear relationships associated with geochemical weathering processes at local (~100 km 2) and regional (~50,000 km 2) scales. The data set consisted of 1) 22 B-horizon soil variables: P, C, pH, Al, total acidity, Ca, Mg, K, total cation exchange capacity, sum of exchangeable bases, base saturation, Cu, Zn, Fe, B, S, Mn, gammaspectrometry (total count, potassium, thorium, and uranium) and magnetic susceptibility measures; and 2) six topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, hydrological accumulated flux, horizontal curvature and vertical curvature. It is characterized at 304 locations from a quasi-regular grid spaced about 24 km across the state of Paraná. This data base was split into two subsets: one for analysis and modeling (274 samples) and the other for validation (30 samples) purposes. The self-organizing map and clustering methods were used to identify and classify the relations among solid-phase chemical element concentrations and GIS derived topographic models. The correlation between elevation and k-means clusters related the relative position inside hydrologic macro basins, which was interpreted as an expression of the weathering process reaching a steady-state condition at the regional scale. Locally, the chemical element concentrations were related to the vertical curvature representing concave-convex hillslope features, where concave hillslopes with convergent flux tends to be a reducing environment and convex hillslopes with divergent flux, oxidizing environments. Stochastic cross validation demonstrated that the SOM produced unbiased classifications and quantified the relative amount of uncertainty in predictions. This work strengthens the hypothesis that, at B-horizon steady-state conditions, the terrain morphometry were linked with the soil geochemical weathering in a two-way dependent process: the topographic relief was a factor on

  5. Hillslope chemical weathering across Paraná, Brazil: a data mining-GIS hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Fabio; Friedel, Michael J.; Filho, Carlos Roberto de Souza; Fraser, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Self-organizing map (SOM) and geographic information system (GIS) models were used to investigate the nonlinear relationships associated with geochemical weathering processes at local (~100 km2) and regional (~50,000 km2) scales. The data set consisted of 1) 22 B-horizon soil variables: P, C, pH, Al, total acidity, Ca, Mg, K, total cation exchange capacity, sum of exchangeable bases, base saturation, Cu, Zn, Fe, B, S, Mn, gammaspectrometry (total count, potassium, thorium, and uranium) and magnetic susceptibility measures; and 2) six topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, hydrological accumulated flux, horizontal curvature and vertical curvature. It is characterized at 304 locations from a quasi-regular grid spaced about 24 km across the state of Paraná. This data base was split into two subsets: one for analysis and modeling (274 samples) and the other for validation (30 samples) purposes. The self-organizing map and clustering methods were used to identify and classify the relations among solid-phase chemical element concentrations and GIS derived topographic models. The correlation between elevation and k-means clusters related the relative position inside hydrologic macro basins, which was interpreted as an expression of the weathering process reaching a steady-state condition at the regional scale. Locally, the chemical element concentrations were related to the vertical curvature representing concave–convex hillslope features, where concave hillslopes with convergent flux tends to be a reducing environment and convex hillslopes with divergent flux, oxidizing environments. Stochastic cross validation demonstrated that the SOM produced unbiased classifications and quantified the relative amount of uncertainty in predictions. This work strengthens the hypothesis that, at B-horizon steady-state conditions, the terrain morphometry were linked with the soil geochemical weathering in a two-way dependent process: the topographic relief was a factor on

  6. Hydrological Modelling the Middle Magdalena Valley (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, M. C.; Duque, N.; Arboleda, P.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.; Donado-Garzon, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological distributed modeling is key point for a comprehensive assessment of the feedback between the dynamics of the hydrological cycle, climate conditions and land use. Such modeling results are markedly relevant in the fields of water resources management, natural hazards and oil and gas industry. Here, we employ TopModel (TOPography based hydrological MODEL) for the hydrological modeling of an area in the Middle Magdalena Valley (MMV), a tropical basin located in Colombia. This study is located over the intertropical convergence zone and is characterized by special meteorological conditions, with fast water fluxes over the year. It has been subject to significant land use changes, as a result of intense economical activities, i.e., and agriculture, energy and oil & gas production. The model employees a record of 12 years of daily precipitation and evapotranspiration data as inputs. Streamflow data monitored across the same time frame are used for model calibration. The latter is performed by considering data from 2000 to 2008. Model validation then relies on observations from 2009 to 2012. The robustness of our analyses is based on the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (values of this metric being 0.62 and 0.53, respectively for model calibration and validation). Our results reveal high water storage capacity in the soil, and a marked subsurface runoff, consistent with the characteristics of the soil types in the regions. A significant influence on runoff response of the basin to topographical factors represented in the model is evidenced. Our calibrated model provides relevant indications about recharge in the region, which is important to quantify the interaction between surface water and groundwater, specially during the dry season, which is more relevant in climate-change and climate-variability scenarios.

  7. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrologic community has long recognized the need for broad reform in hydrologic education. A paradigm shift is critically sought in undergraduate hydrology and water resource education by adopting context-rich, student-centered, and active learning strategies. Hydrologists currently deal with intricate issues rooted in complex natural ecosystems containing a multitude of interconnected processes. Advances in the multi-disciplinary field include observational settings such as Critical Zone and Water, Sustainability and Climate Observatories, Hydrologic Information Systems, instrumentation and modeling methods. These research advances theory and practices call for similar efforts and improvements in hydrologic education. The typical, text-book based approach in hydrologic education has focused on specific applications and/or unit processes associated with the hydrologic cycle with idealizations, rather than the contextual relations in the physical processes and the spatial and temporal dynamics connecting climate and ecosystems. An appreciation of the natural variability of these processes will lead to graduates with the ability to develop independent learning skills and understanding. This appreciation cannot be gained in curricula where field components such as observational and experimental data are deficient. These types of data are also critical when using simulation models to create environments that support this type of learning. Additional sources of observations in conjunction with models and field data are key to students understanding of the challenges associated with using models to represent such complex systems. Recent advances in scientific visualization and web-based technologies provide new opportunities for the development of active learning techniques utilizing ongoing research. The overall goal of the current study is to develop visual, case-based, data and simulation driven learning experiences to instructors and students through a web

  8. Comparing the Performance of Commonly Available Digital Elevation Models in GIS-based Flood Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybanez, R. L.; Lagmay, A. M. A.; David, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    With climatological hazards increasing globally, the Philippines is listed as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world due to its location in the Western Pacific. Flood hazards mapping and modelling is one of the responses by local government and research institutions to help prepare for and mitigate the effects of flood hazards that constantly threaten towns and cities in floodplains during the 6-month rainy season. Available digital elevation maps, which serve as the most important dataset used in 2D flood modelling, are limited in the Philippines and testing is needed to determine which of the few would work best for flood hazards mapping and modelling. Two-dimensional GIS-based flood modelling with the flood-routing software FLO-2D was conducted using three different available DEMs from the ASTER GDEM, the SRTM GDEM, and the locally available IfSAR DTM. All other parameters kept uniform, such as resolution, soil parameters, rainfall amount, and surface roughness, the three models were run over a 129-sq. kilometer watershed with only the basemap varying. The output flood hazard maps were compared on the basis of their flood distribution, extent, and depth. The ASTER and SRTM GDEMs contained too much error and noise which manifested as dissipated and dissolved hazard areas in the lower watershed where clearly delineated flood hazards should be present. Noise on the two datasets are clearly visible as erratic mounds in the floodplain. The dataset which produced the only feasible flood hazard map is the IfSAR DTM which delineates flood hazard areas clearly and properly. Despite the use of ASTER and SRTM with their published resolution and accuracy, their use in GIS-based flood modelling would be unreliable. Although not as accessible, only IfSAR or better datasets should be used for creating secondary products from these base DEM datasets. For developing countries which are most prone to hazards, but with limited choices for basemaps used in hazards

  9. A GIS-based time-dependent seismic source modeling of Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Alesheikh, Ali Asghar; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    The first step in any seismic hazard study is the definition of seismogenic sources and the estimation of magnitude-frequency relationships for each source. There is as yet no standard methodology for source modeling and many researchers have worked on this topic. This study is an effort to define linear and area seismic sources for Northern Iran. The linear or fault sources are developed based on tectonic features and characteristic earthquakes while the area sources are developed based on spatial distribution of small to moderate earthquakes. Time-dependent recurrence relationships are developed for fault sources using renewal approach while time-independent frequency-magnitude relationships are proposed for area sources based on Poisson process. GIS functionalities are used in this study to introduce and incorporate spatial-temporal and geostatistical indices in delineating area seismic sources. The proposed methodology is used to model seismic sources for an area of about 500 by 400 square kilometers around Tehran. Previous researches and reports are studied to compile an earthquake/fault catalog that is as complete as possible. All events are transformed to uniform magnitude scale; duplicate events and dependent shocks are removed. Completeness and time distribution of the compiled catalog is taken into account. The proposed area and linear seismic sources in conjunction with defined recurrence relationships can be used to develop time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Northern Iran.

  10. Hydrological application of the INCA model with varying spatial resolution and nitrogen dynamics in a northern river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rankinen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As a first step in applying the Integrated Nitrogen model for CAtchments (INCA to the Simojoki river basin (3160 km2, this paper focuses on calibration of the hydrological part of the model and nitrogen (N dynamics in the river during the 1980s and 1990s. The model application utilised the GIS land-use and forest classification of Finland together with a recent forest inventory based on remote sensing. In the INCA model, the Hydrologically Effective Rainfall (HER is used to drive the water flow and N fluxes through the catchment system. HER was derived from the Watershed Simulation and Forecast System (WSFS. The basic component of the WSFS is a conceptual hydrological model which simulates runoff using precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and temperature data as inputs. Spatially uniform, lumped input data were calculated for the whole river basin and spatially semi-distributed input data were calculated for each of the nine sub-basins. When comparing discharges simulated by the INCA model with observed values, a better fit was obtained with the semi-distributed data than with the spatially uniform data (R2 0.78 v. 0.70 at Hosionkoski and 0.88 v. 0.78 at the river outlet. The timing of flow peaks was simulated rather well with both approaches, although the semi-distributed input data gave a more realistic simulation of low flow periods and the magnitude of spring flow peaks. The river basin has a relatively closed N cycle with low input and output fluxes of inorganic N. During 1982-2000, the average total N flux to the sea was 715 tonnes yr–1, of which 6% was NH4-N, 14% NO3-N, and 80% organic N. Annual variation in river flow and the concentrations of major N fractions in river water, and factors affecting this variation are discussed. Keywords: northern river basin, nitrogen, forest management, hydrology, dynamic modelling, semi-distributed modelling

  11. Modeling post-wildfire hydrological processes with ParFlow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, I. S.; Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfires alter the natural processes within a watershed, such as surface runoff, evapotranspiration rates, and subsurface water storage. Post-fire hydrologic models are typically one-dimensional, empirically-based models or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models are useful for modeling and predictions at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide detailed, distributed hydrologic processes at the point scale within the watershed. This research uses ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model to simulate post-fire hydrologic processes by representing the spatial and temporal variability of soil burn severity (via hydrophobicity) and vegetation recovery. Using this approach, we are able to evaluate the change in post-fire water components (surface flow, lateral flow, baseflow, and evapotranspiration). This work builds upon previous field and remote sensing analysis conducted for the 2003 Old Fire Burn in Devil Canyon, located in southern California (USA). This model is initially developed for a hillslope defined by a 500 m by 1000 m lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 12.4 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness to explicitly consider soil burn severity throughout the stages of recovery and vegetation regrowth. We consider four slope and eight hydrophobic layer configurations. Evapotranspiration is used as a proxy for vegetation regrowth and is represented by the satellite-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBOP) product. The pre- and post-fire surface runoff, subsurface storage, and surface storage interactions are evaluated at the point scale. Results will be used as a basis for developing and fine-tuning a watershed-scale model. Long-term simulations will advance our understanding of post-fire hydrological partitioning between water balance components and the spatial variability of watershed processes, providing improved guidance for post-fire watershed management. In reference

  12. Hydrologic and Water Quality Model Development Using Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Bowen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A stormwater runoff model based on the Soil Conservation Service (SCS method and a finite-volume based water quality model have been developed to investigate the use of Simulink for use in teaching and research. Simulink, a MATLAB extension, is a graphically based model development environment for system modeling and simulation. Widely used for mechanical and electrical systems, Simulink has had less use for modeling of hydrologic systems. The watershed model is being considered for use in teaching graduate-level courses in hydrology and/or stormwater modeling. Simulink’s block (data process and arrow (data transfer object model, the copy and paste user interface, the large number of existing blocks, and the absence of computer code allows students to become model developers almost immediately. The visual depiction of systems, their component subsystems, and the flow of data through the systems are ideal attributes for hands-on teaching of hydrologic and mass balance processes to today’s computer-savvy visual learners. Model development with Simulink for research purposes is also investigated. A finite volume, multi-layer pond model using the water quality kinetics present in CE-QUAL-W2 has been developed using Simulink. The model is one of the first uses of Simulink for modeling eutrophication dynamics in stratified natural systems. The model structure and a test case are presented. One use of the model for teaching a graduate-level water quality modeling class is also described.

  13. Bayesian analysis of data and model error in rainfall-runoff hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavetski, D.; Franks, S. W.; Kuczera, G.

    2004-12-01

    A major unresolved issue in the identification and use of conceptual hydrologic models is realistic description of uncertainty in the data and model structure. In particular, hydrologic parameters often cannot be measured directly and must be inferred (calibrated) from observed forcing/response data (typically, rainfall and runoff). However, rainfall varies significantly in space and time, yet is often estimated from sparse gauge networks. Recent work showed that current calibration methods (e.g., standard least squares, multi-objective calibration, generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) ignore forcing uncertainty and assume that the rainfall is known exactly. Consequently, they can yield strongly biased and misleading parameter estimates. This deficiency confounds attempts to reliably test model hypotheses, to generalize results across catchments (the regionalization problem) and to quantify predictive uncertainty when the hydrologic model is extrapolated. This paper continues the development of a Bayesian total error analysis (BATEA) methodology for the calibration and identification of hydrologic models, which explicitly incorporates the uncertainty in both the forcing and response data, and allows systematic model comparison based on residual model errors and formal Bayesian hypothesis testing (e.g., using Bayes factors). BATEA is based on explicit stochastic models for both forcing and response uncertainty, whereas current techniques focus solely on response errors. Hence, unlike existing methods, the BATEA parameter equations directly reflect the modeler's confidence in all the data. We compare several approaches to approximating the parameter distributions: a) full Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods and b) simplified approaches based on linear approximations. Studies using synthetic and real data from the US and Australia show that BATEA systematically reduces the parameter bias, leads to more meaningful model fits and allows model comparison taking

  14. Hydrological simulation of Sperchios River basin in Central Greece using the MIKE SHE model and geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios

    2017-05-01

    The MIKE SHE model is able to simulate the entire stream flow which includes direct and basic flow. Many models either do not simulate or use simplistic methods to determine the basic flow. The MIKE SHE model takes into account many hydrological data. Since this study was directed towards the simulation of surface runoff and infiltration into saturated and unsaturated zone, the MIKE SHE is an appropriate model for reliable conclusions. In the current research, the MIKE SHE model was used to simulate runoff in the area of Sperchios River basin. Meteorological data from eight rainfall stations within the Sperchios River basin were used as inputs. Vegetation as well as geological data was used to perform the calibration and validation of the physical processes of the model. Additionally, ArcGIS program was used. The results indicated that the model was able to simulate the surface runoff satisfactorily, representing all the hydrological data adequately. Some minor differentiations appeared which can be eliminated with the appropriate adjustments that can be decided by the researcher's experience.

  15. A meteo-hydrological prediction system based on a multi-model approach for precipitation forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Davolio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation forecasted by a numerical weather prediction model, even at high resolution, suffers from errors which can be considerable at the scales of interest for hydrological purposes. In the present study, a fraction of the uncertainty related to meteorological prediction is taken into account by implementing a multi-model forecasting approach, aimed at providing multiple precipitation scenarios driving the same hydrological model. Therefore, the estimation of that uncertainty associated with the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF, conveyed by the multi-model ensemble, can be exploited by the hydrological model, propagating the error into the hydrological forecast.

    The proposed meteo-hydrological forecasting system is implemented and tested in a real-time configuration for several episodes of intense precipitation affecting the Reno river basin, a medium-sized basin located in northern Italy (Apennines. These episodes are associated with flood events of different intensity and are representative of different meteorological configurations responsible for severe weather affecting northern Apennines.

    The simulation results show that the coupled system is promising in the prediction of discharge peaks (both in terms of amount and timing for warning purposes. The ensemble hydrological forecasts provide a range of possible flood scenarios that proved to be useful for the support of civil protection authorities in their decision.

  16. WATERSHED BASED WEB GIS: CASE STUDY OF PALOPO WATERSHED AREA SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaluddin Rumi PRASAD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Data and land resource information complete, accurate, and current is an input in management planning, evaluation, and monitoring Watershed. Implementation of this research is conducted with optimum utilization of secondary data that is supported by direct field measurement data, digitalizing the maps associated, Geographic Information Systems modeling, and model calibration. This research has resulted in a Geographic Information System Management of potential Watershed GIS Web-based or abbreviated WEB GIS MPPDAS using Palopo watershed area, South Sulawesi as a case study sites for the development of a prototype that consists of three applications the main website ie Web Portal, Web GIS, and Web Tutorial. The system is built to show online (and offline maps watershed in the administrative area of Palopo along with the location of its potential accumulated in the four (4 groups of layers, including groups of main layer (2 layer, a group of base layer (14 layers, groups of thematic layers (12 layers, a group of policy layer (8 layer. In addition to display a map, use the WEB application of GIS MPPDAS can also use tools or controls in the application to perform analyzes in its monitoring and evaluation, including: Geocoding, Add layer, Digitizing, Selection, Measurements, Graph, Filtering, Geolocation, Overlay cartographic, and etc.

  17. Comparing GIS-based habitat models for applications in EIA and SEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontier, Mikael; Moertberg, Ulla; Balfors, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Land use changes, urbanisation and infrastructure developments in particular, cause fragmentation of natural habitats and threaten biodiversity. Tools and measures must be adapted to assess and remedy the potential effects on biodiversity caused by human activities and developments. Within physical planning, environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) play important roles in the prediction and assessment of biodiversity-related impacts from planned developments. However, adapted prediction tools to forecast and quantify potential impacts on biodiversity components are lacking. This study tested and compared four different GIS-based habitat models and assessed their relevance for applications in environmental assessment. The models were implemented in the Stockholm region in central Sweden and applied to data on the crested tit (Parus cristatus), a sedentary bird species of coniferous forest. All four models performed well and allowed the distribution of suitable habitats for the crested tit in the Stockholm region to be predicted. The models were also used to predict and quantify habitat loss for two regional development scenarios. The study highlighted the importance of model selection in impact prediction. Criteria that are relevant for the choice of model for predicting impacts on biodiversity were identified and discussed. Finally, the importance of environmental assessment for the preservation of biodiversity within the general frame of biodiversity conservation is emphasised.

  18. Data assimilation in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, Jean-Philippe

    Data assimilation is an invaluable tool in hydrological modelling as it allows to efficiently combine scarce data with a numerical model to obtain improved model predictions. In addition, data assimilation also provides an uncertainty analysis of the predictions made by the hydrological model....... In this thesis, the Kalman filter is used for data assimilation with a focus on groundwater modelling. However the developed techniques are general and can be applied also in other modelling domains. Modelling involves conceptualization of the processes of Nature. Data assimilation provides a way to deal...... with model non-linearities and biased errors. A literature review analyzes the most popular techniques and their application in hydrological modelling. Since bias is an important problem in groundwater modelling, two bias aware Kalman filters have been implemented and compared using an artificial test case...

  19. Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff

    1996-01-01

    The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....

  20. Open source GIS based tools to improve hydrochemical water resources management in EU H2020 FREEWAT platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criollo, Rotman; Velasco, Violeta; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Nardi, Albert; Marazuela, Miguel A.; Rossetto, Rudy; Borsi, Iacopo; Foglia, Laura; Cannata, Massimiliano; De Filippis, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    being used in the realization of groundwater modelling. They include, ionic balance calculations, chemical time-series analysis, correlation of chemical parameters, and calculation of various common hydrochemical diagrams (Salinity, Schöeller-Berkaloff, Piper, and Stiff), among others. Furthermore, it allows the generation of maps of the spatial distributions of parameters and diagrams and thematic maps for the parameters measured and classified in the queried area. References: Rossetto R., Borsi I., Schifani C., Bonari E., Mogorovich P., Primicerio M. (2013). SID&GRID: Integrating hydrological modeling in GIS environment. Rendiconti Online Societa Geologica Italiana, Vol. 24, 282-283 Steduto, P., Faurès, J.M., Hoogeveen, J., Winpenny, J.T., Burke, J.J. (2012). Coping with water scarcity: an action framework for agriculture and food security. ISSN 1020-1203 ; 38 Velasco, V., Tubau, I., Vázquez-Suñé, E., Gogu, R., Gaitanaru, D., Alcaraz, M., Sanchez-Vila, X. (2014). GIS-based hydrogeochemical analysis tools (QUIMET). Computers & Geosciences, 70, 164-180.

  1. FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT IN RIVER TIMIS BASIN - THE CARANSEBES - LUGOJ SECTOR- USING GIS TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI VALENTIN HERBEI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk assessment in Timis River basin - the Caransebes -Lugoj sector- using GIS technique. Over time freshets, thus floods constituted and constitute a particularly important issue that requires attention. In many cases, flood damages are extensive to the environment, to the economy and also socially. The purpose of this paper is to identify flood-prone areas between Caransebes and Lugoj, land that is part of the Timis river basin. This paper is based on a theoretical model in which we considered the building elements of the flood produced on the Timis river in April 2005 (levels and flows. to represent the zones flood – prone, we used the numerical model of the terrain, created for the abovementioned area. On this model , according to levels measured at hydrometric stations, were defined those flood prone areas. The Timis river hydrographic basin includes a varied terrain (mountains, hills and plains, with pronounced differences in altitude and massiveness, resulting from tectonic movements that have affected the region, this fact has affected water flow processes, both directly through fragmentation and slope, and indirectly, by creating the vertical climate, vegetation and soils zones. Using GIS technology to study hydrological phenomena and their impact on the geographic area are of particular importance due to the complexity of these techniques, which enables detailed analysis and analytical precision as well as an increased speed of the analysis. Creating theoretical models that give scale to the hydrological phenomena, in this case representing the flood areas, is of great practical importance because based on these models the areas can be defined and viewed, having the possibility of taking measures to prevent environmental effects on the natural and / or anthropogenic environment. In the studied area review of the flood of 2005, were represented flood areas, therefore, according with the researches, several villages, located in

  2. Modelling the effect of land use change on hydrological model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling the effect of land use change on hydrological model parameters via linearized calibration method in the upstream of Huaihe River Basin, China. ... is presented, based on the analysis of the problems of the objective function of the ...

  3. Stochastic Modelling of Hydrologic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains...... an introduction and an overview of the papers published. Then an introduction to basic concepts in hydrology along with a description of hydrological data is given. Finally an introduction to stochastic modelling is given. The second part contains the research papers. In the research papers the stochastic methods...... are described, as at the time of publication these methods represent new contribution to hydrology. The second part also contains additional description of software used and a brief introduction to stiff systems. The system in one of the papers is stiff....

  4. Upscaling Empirically Based Conceptualisations to Model Tropical Dominant Hydrological Processes for Historical Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, R.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Jones, J.

    2009-12-01

    Surface runoff and percolation to ground water are two hydrological processes of concern to the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica because of their impacts on flooding and drinking water contamination. As per legislation, the Costa Rican Government funds land use management from the farm to the regional scale to improve or conserve hydrological ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how land use (e.g., forest, coffee, sugar cane, and pasture) affects hydrological response at the point, plot (1 m2), and the field scale (1-6ha) to empirically conceptualize the dominant hydrological processes in each land use. Using our field data, we upscaled these conceptual processes into a physically-based distributed hydrological model at the field, watershed (130 km2), and regional (1500 km2) scales. At the point and plot scales, the presence of macropores and large roots promoted greater vertical percolation and subsurface connectivity in the forest and coffee field sites. The lack of macropores and large roots, plus the addition of management artifacts (e.g., surface compaction and a plough layer), altered the dominant hydrological processes by increasing lateral flow and surface runoff in the pasture and sugar cane field sites. Macropores and topography were major influences on runoff generation at the field scale. Also at the field scale, antecedent moisture conditions suggest a threshold behavior as a temporal control on surface runoff generation. However, in this tropical climate with very intense rainstorms, annual surface runoff was less than 10% of annual precipitation at the field scale. Significant differences in soil and hydrological characteristics observed at the point and plot scales appear to have less significance when upscaled to the field scale. At the point and plot scales, percolation acted as the dominant hydrological process in this tropical environment. However, at the field scale for sugar cane and pasture sites, saturation-excess runoff increased as

  5. GIS Data Modeling of a Regional Geological Structure by Integrating Geometric and Semantic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Handong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS, data models of geology via geometric descriptions and expressions are being developed. However, the role played by these data models in terms of the description and expression of geological structure phenomenon is limited. To improve the semantic information in geological GIS data models, this study adopts an object-oriented method that describes and expresses the geometric and semantic features of the geological structure phenomenon using geological objects and designs a data model of regional geological structures by integrating geometry and semantics. Moreover, the study designs a semantic "vocabulary-explanation-graph" method for describing the geological phenomenon of structures. Based on the semantic features of regional geological structures and a linear classification method, it divides the regional geological structure phenomenon into 3 divisions, 10 groups, 33 classes and defines the element set and element class. Moreover, it builds the basic geometric network for geological elements based on the geometric and semantic relations among geological objects. Using the ArcGIS Diagrammer Geodatabase, it considers the regional geological structure of the Ning-Zhen Mountains to verify the data model, and the results indicate a high practicability.

  6. Hydrologic response to multimodel climate output using a physically based model of groundwater/surface water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, M.; Paniconi, C.; Marrocu, M.; Huard, D.; Chaumont, D.

    2012-12-01

    General circulation models (GCMs) are the primary instruments for obtaining projections of future global climate change. Outputs from GCMs, aided by dynamical and/or statistical downscaling techniques, have long been used to simulate changes in regional climate systems over wide spatiotemporal scales. Numerous studies have acknowledged the disagreements between the various GCMs and between the different downscaling methods designed to compensate for the mismatch between climate model output and the spatial scale at which hydrological models are applied. Very little is known, however, about the importance of these differences once they have been input or assimilated by a nonlinear hydrological model. This issue is investigated here at the catchment scale using a process-based model of integrated surface and subsurface hydrologic response driven by outputs from 12 members of a multimodel climate ensemble. The data set consists of daily values of precipitation and min/max temperatures obtained by combining four regional climate models and five GCMs. The regional scenarios were downscaled using a quantile scaling bias-correction technique. The hydrologic response was simulated for the 690 km2des Anglais catchment in southwestern Quebec, Canada. The results show that different hydrological components (river discharge, aquifer recharge, and soil moisture storage) respond differently to precipitation and temperature anomalies in the multimodel climate output, with greater variability for annual discharge compared to recharge and soil moisture storage. We also find that runoff generation and extreme event-driven peak hydrograph flows are highly sensitive to any uncertainty in climate data. Finally, the results show the significant impact of changing sequences of rainy days on groundwater recharge fluxes and the influence of longer dry spells in modifying soil moisture spatial variability.

  7. A distributed eco-hydrological model and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-xue Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-hydrological processes in arid areas are the focus of many hydrological and water resources studies. However, the hydrological cycle and the ecological system have usually been considered separately in most previous studies, and the correlation between the two has not been fully understood. Interdisciplinary research on eco-hydrological processes using multidisciplinary knowledge has been insufficient. In order to quantitatively analyze and evaluate the interaction between the ecosystem and the hydrological cycle, a new kind of eco-hydrological model, the ecology module for a grid-based integrated surface and groundwater model (Eco-GISMOD, is proposed with a two-way coupling approach, which combines the ecological model (EPIC and hydrological model (GISMOD by considering water exchange in the soil layer. Water interaction between different soil layers is simply described through a generalized physical process in various situations. A special method was used to simulate the water exchange between plants and the soil layer, taking into account precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration, soil water replenishment, and root water uptake. In order to evaluate the system performance, the Heihe River Basin in northwestern China was selected for a case study. The results show that forests and crops were generally growing well with sufficient water supply, but water shortages, especially in the summer, inhibited the growth of grass and caused grass degradation. This demonstrates that water requirements and water consumption for different kinds of vegetation can be estimated by considering the water-supply rules of Eco-GISMOD, which will be helpful for the planning and management of water resources in the future.

  8. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  9. Globally-Applicable Predictive Wildfire Model   a Temporal-Spatial GIS Based Risk Analysis Using Data Driven Fuzzy Logic Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Dool, G.

    2017-11-01

    This study (van den Dool, 2017) is a proof of concept for a global predictive wildfire model, in which the temporal-spatial characteristics of wildfires are placed in a Geographical Information System (GIS), and the risk analysis is based on data-driven fuzzy logic functions. The data sources used in this model are available as global datasets, but subdivided into three pilot areas: North America (California/Nevada), Europe (Spain), and Asia (Mongolia), and are downscaled to the highest resolution (3-arc second). The GIS is constructed around three themes: topography, fuel availability and climate. From the topographical data, six derived sub-themes are created and converted to a fuzzy membership based on the catchment area statistics. The fuel availability score is a composite of four data layers: land cover, wood loads, biomass, biovolumes. As input for the climatological sub-model reanalysed daily averaged, weather-related data is used, which is accumulated to a global weekly time-window (to account for the uncertainty within the climatological model) and forms the temporal component of the model. The final product is a wildfire risk score (from 0 to 1) by week, representing the average wildfire risk in an area. To compute the potential wildfire risk the sub-models are combined usinga Multi-Criteria Approach, and the model results are validated against the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve.

  10. GIS Framework for Large River Geomorphic Classification to Aid in the Evaluation of Flow-Ecology Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, Christopher R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Richmond, Marshall C.; McManamay, R. A.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.

    2013-02-01

    Assessing the environmental benefits of proposed flow modification to large rivers provides invaluable insight into future hydropower project operations and relicensing activities. Providing a means to quantitatively define flow-ecology relationships is integral in establishing flow regimes that are mutually beneficial to power production and ecological needs. To compliment this effort an opportunity to create versatile tools that can be applied to broad geographic areas has been presented. In particular, integration with efforts standardized within the ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA) is highly advantageous (Poff et al. 2010). This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS) framework for large river classification that houses a base geomorphic classification that is both flexible and accurate, allowing for full integration with other hydrologic models focused on addressing ELOHA efforts. A case study is also provided that integrates publically available National Hydrography Dataset Plus Version 2 (NHDPlusV2) data, Modular Aquatic Simulation System two-dimensional (MASS2) hydraulic data, and field collected data into the framework to produce a suite of flow-ecology related outputs. The case study objective was to establish areas of optimal juvenile salmonid rearing habitat under varying flow regimes throughout an impounded portion of the lower Snake River, USA (Figure 1) as an indicator to determine sites where the potential exists to create additional shallow water habitat. Additionally, an alternative hydrologic classification useable throughout the contiguous United States which can be coupled with the geomorphic aspect of this framework is also presented. This framework provides the user with the ability to integrate hydrologic and ecologic data into the base geomorphic aspect of this framework within a geographic information system (GIS) to output spatiotemporally variable flow-ecology relationship scenarios.

  11. How to handle spatial heterogeneity in hydrological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loritz, Ralf; Neuper, Malte; Gupta, Hoshin; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    The amount of data we observe in our environmental systems is larger than ever. This leads to a new kind of problem where hydrological modelers can have access to large datasets with various quantitative and qualitative observations but are uncertain about the information content with respect to the hydrological functioning of a landscape. For example digital elevation models obviously contain plenty of information about the topography of a landscape; however the question of relevance for Hydrology is how much of this information is important for the hydrological functioning of a landscape. This kind of question is not limited to topography and we can ask similar questions when handling distributed rainfall data or geophysical images. In this study we would like to show how one can separate dominant patterns in the landscape from idiosyncratic system details. We use a 2D numerical hillslope model in combination with an extensive research data set to test a variety of different model setups that are built upon different landscape characteristics and run by different rainfalls measurements. With the help of information theory based measures we can identify and learn how much heterogeneity is really necessary for successful hydrological simulations and how much of it we can neglect.

  12. It's the parameters, stupid! Moving beyond multi-model and multi-physics approaches to characterize and reduce predictive uncertainty in process-based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Freer, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Multi-model and multi-physics approaches are a popular tool in environmental modelling, with many studies focusing on optimally combining output from multiple model simulations to reduce predictive errors and better characterize predictive uncertainty. However, a careful and systematic analysis of different hydrological models reveals that individual models are simply small permutations of a master modeling template, and inter-model differences are overwhelmed by uncertainty in the choice of the parameter values in the model equations. Furthermore, inter-model differences do not explicitly represent the uncertainty in modeling a given process, leading to many situations where different models provide the wrong results for the same reasons. In other cases, the available morphological data does not support the very fine spatial discretization of the landscape that typifies many modern applications of process-based models. To make the uncertainty characterization problem worse, the uncertain parameter values in process-based models are often fixed (hard-coded), and the models lack the agility necessary to represent the tremendous heterogeneity in natural systems. This presentation summarizes results from a systematic analysis of uncertainty in process-based hydrological models, where we explicitly analyze the myriad of subjective decisions made throughout both the model development and parameter estimation process. Results show that much of the uncertainty is aleatory in nature - given a "complete" representation of dominant hydrologic processes, uncertainty in process parameterizations can be represented using an ensemble of model parameters. Epistemic uncertainty associated with process interactions and scaling behavior is still important, and these uncertainties can be represented using an ensemble of different spatial configurations. Finally, uncertainty in forcing data can be represented using ensemble methods for spatial meteorological analysis. Our systematic

  13. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  14. Description of the National Hydrologic Model for use with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R. Steven; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Viger, Roland J.; Norton, Parker A.; Driscoll, Jessica M.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.

    2018-01-08

    This report documents several components of the U.S. Geological Survey National Hydrologic Model of the conterminous United States for use with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). It provides descriptions of the (1) National Hydrologic Model, (2) Geospatial Fabric for National Hydrologic Modeling, (3) PRMS hydrologic simulation code, (4) parameters and estimation methods used to compute spatially and temporally distributed default values as required by PRMS, (5) National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database, and (6) model extraction tool named Bandit. The National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database contains values for all PRMS parameters used in the National Hydrologic Model. The methods and national datasets used to estimate all the PRMS parameters are described. Some parameter values are derived from characteristics of topography, land cover, soils, geology, and hydrography using traditional Geographic Information System methods. Other parameters are set to long-established default values and computation of initial values. Additionally, methods (statistical, sensitivity, calibration, and algebraic) were developed to compute parameter values on the basis of a variety of nationally-consistent datasets. Values in the National Hydrologic Model Parameter Database can periodically be updated on the basis of new parameter estimation methods and as additional national datasets become available. A companion ScienceBase resource provides a set of static parameter values as well as images of spatially-distributed parameters associated with PRMS states and fluxes for each Hydrologic Response Unit across the conterminuous United States.

  15. Bim and Gis: when Parametric Modeling Meets Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, L.; Banfi, F.

    2017-12-01

    Geospatial data have a crucial role in several projects related to infrastructures and land management. GIS software are able to perform advanced geospatial analyses, but they lack several instruments and tools for parametric modelling typically available in BIM. At the same time, BIM software designed for buildings have limited tools to handle geospatial data. As things stand at the moment, BIM and GIS could appear as complementary solutions, notwithstanding research work is currently under development to ensure a better level of interoperability, especially at the scale of the building. On the other hand, the transition from the local (building) scale to the infrastructure (where geospatial data cannot be neglected) has already demonstrated that parametric modelling integrated with geoinformation is a powerful tool to simplify and speed up some phases of the design workflow. This paper reviews such mixed approaches with both simulated and real examples, demonstrating that integration is already a reality at specific scales, which are not dominated by "pure" GIS or BIM. The paper will also demonstrate that some traditional operations carried out with GIS software are also available in parametric modelling software for BIM, such as transformation between reference systems, DEM generation, feature extraction, and geospatial queries. A real case study is illustrated and discussed to show the advantage of a combined use of both technologies. BIM and GIS integration can generate greater usage of geospatial data in the AECOO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner and Operator) industry, as well as new solutions for parametric modelling with additional geoinformation.

  16. BIM AND GIS: WHEN PARAMETRIC MODELING MEETS GEOSPATIAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Barazzetti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data have a crucial role in several projects related to infrastructures and land management. GIS software are able to perform advanced geospatial analyses, but they lack several instruments and tools for parametric modelling typically available in BIM. At the same time, BIM software designed for buildings have limited tools to handle geospatial data. As things stand at the moment, BIM and GIS could appear as complementary solutions, notwithstanding research work is currently under development to ensure a better level of interoperability, especially at the scale of the building. On the other hand, the transition from the local (building scale to the infrastructure (where geospatial data cannot be neglected has already demonstrated that parametric modelling integrated with geoinformation is a powerful tool to simplify and speed up some phases of the design workflow. This paper reviews such mixed approaches with both simulated and real examples, demonstrating that integration is already a reality at specific scales, which are not dominated by “pure” GIS or BIM. The paper will also demonstrate that some traditional operations carried out with GIS software are also available in parametric modelling software for BIM, such as transformation between reference systems, DEM generation, feature extraction, and geospatial queries. A real case study is illustrated and discussed to show the advantage of a combined use of both technologies. BIM and GIS integration can generate greater usage of geospatial data in the AECOO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner and Operator industry, as well as new solutions for parametric modelling with additional geoinformation.

  17. A "total parameter estimation" method in the varification of distributed hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Qin, D.; Wang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Conventionally hydrological models are used for runoff or flood forecasting, hence the determination of model parameters are common estimated based on discharge measurements at the catchment outlets. With the advancement in hydrological sciences and computer technology, distributed hydrological models based on the physical mechanism such as SWAT, MIKESHE, and WEP, have gradually become the mainstream models in hydrology sciences. However, the assessments of distributed hydrological models and model parameter determination still rely on runoff and occasionally, groundwater level measurements. It is essential in many countries, including China, to understand the local and regional water cycle: not only do we need to simulate the runoff generation process and for flood forecasting in wet areas, we also need to grasp the water cycle pathways and consumption process of transformation in arid and semi-arid regions for the conservation and integrated water resources management. As distributed hydrological model can simulate physical processes within a catchment, we can get a more realistic representation of the actual water cycle within the simulation model. Runoff is the combined result of various hydrological processes, using runoff for parameter estimation alone is inherits problematic and difficult to assess the accuracy. In particular, in the arid areas, such as the Haihe River Basin in China, runoff accounted for only 17% of the rainfall, and very concentrated during the rainy season from June to August each year. During other months, many of the perennial rivers within the river basin dry up. Thus using single runoff simulation does not fully utilize the distributed hydrological model in arid and semi-arid regions. This paper proposed a "total parameter estimation" method to verify the distributed hydrological models within various water cycle processes, including runoff, evapotranspiration, groundwater, and soil water; and apply it to the Haihe river basin in

  18. Informing hydrological models with ground-based time-lapse relative gravimetry: potential and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Christiansen, Lars; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    parameter uncertainty decreased significantly when TLRG data was included in the inversion. The forced infiltration experiment caused changes in unsaturated zone storage, which were monitored using TLRG and ground-penetrating radar. A numerical unsaturated zone model was subsequently conditioned on both......Coupled hydrogeophysical inversion emerges as an attractive option to improve the calibration and predictive capability of hydrological models. Recently, ground-based time-lapse relative gravity (TLRG) measurements have attracted increasing interest because there is a direct relationship between...

  19. Depth data research of GIS based on clustering analysis algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Xu, Wenli

    2018-03-01

    The data of GIS have spatial distribution. Geographic data has both spatial characteristics and attribute characteristics, and also changes with time. Therefore, the amount of data is very large. Nowadays, many industries and departments in the society are using GIS. However, without proper data analysis and mining scheme, GIS will not exert its maximum effectiveness and will waste a lot of data. In this paper, we use the geographic information demand of a national security department as the experimental object, combining the characteristics of GIS data, taking into account the characteristics of time, space, attributes and so on, and using cluster analysis algorithm. We further study the mining scheme for depth data, and get the algorithm model. This algorithm can automatically classify sample data, and then carry out exploratory analysis. The research shows that the algorithm model and the information mining scheme can quickly find hidden depth information from the surface data of GIS, thus improving the efficiency of the security department. This algorithm can also be extended to other fields.

  20. Development and comparison in uncertainty assessment based Bayesian modularization method in hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Xu, Chong-Yu; Engeland, Kolbjørn

    2013-04-01

    SummaryWith respect to model calibration, parameter estimation and analysis of uncertainty sources, various regression and probabilistic approaches are used in hydrological modeling. A family of Bayesian methods, which incorporates different sources of information into a single analysis through Bayes' theorem, is widely used for uncertainty assessment. However, none of these approaches can well treat the impact of high flows in hydrological modeling. This study proposes a Bayesian modularization uncertainty assessment approach in which the highest streamflow observations are treated as suspect information that should not influence the inference of the main bulk of the model parameters. This study includes a comprehensive comparison and evaluation of uncertainty assessments by our new Bayesian modularization method and standard Bayesian methods using the Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithm with the daily hydrological model WASMOD. Three likelihood functions were used in combination with standard Bayesian method: the AR(1) plus Normal model independent of time (Model 1), the AR(1) plus Normal model dependent on time (Model 2) and the AR(1) plus Multi-normal model (Model 3). The results reveal that the Bayesian modularization method provides the most accurate streamflow estimates measured by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and provide the best in uncertainty estimates for low, medium and entire flows compared to standard Bayesian methods. The study thus provides a new approach for reducing the impact of high flows on the discharge uncertainty assessment of hydrological models via Bayesian method.

  1. The use of GIS-based support of recreational trail planning by local governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Skov-Petersen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, multiple GIS-based planning support systems have been developed in order to improve the basis for spatial planning. Recent research has focused on problems regarding a lack of utilisation or barriers to the use of advanced GIS and GIS-based planning support systems in planning...... applications. This paper discusses these research findings in the context of outdoor recreational planning by local governments in Denmark. According to a national survey of municipal planners, GIS-based planning support is widely used in Denmark, but more GIS is needed and is being requested for local outdoor...... recreation planning. However, considerable differences exist between the ways municipalities assess their need for and use of GIS planning support. These differences are explored in more detail using a factor analysis of planning variables and uses of GIS. Three situations are described: 1) extensive network...

  2. GIS-based flood risk model evaluated by Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukcharoen, Tharapong; Weng, Jingnong; Teetat, Charoenkalunyuta

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 2-3 decades, the economy of many countries around the world has been developed rapidly but it was unbalanced development because of expecting on economic growth only. Meanwhile it lacked of effective planning in the use of natural resources. This can significantly induce climate change which is major cause of natural disaster. Hereby, Thailand has also suffered from natural disaster for ages. Especially, the flood which is most hazardous disaster in Thailand can annually result in the great loss of life and property, environment and economy. Since the flood management of country is inadequate efficiency. It is unable to support the flood analysis comprehensively. This paper applied Geographic Information System and Multi-Criteria Decision Making to create flood risk model at regional scale. Angthong province in Thailand was used as the study area. In practical process, Fuzzy logic technique has been used to improve specialist's assessment by implementing with Fuzzy membership because human decision is flawed under uncertainty then AHP technique was processed orderly. The hierarchy structure in this paper was categorized the spatial flood factors into two levels as following: 6 criteria (Meteorology, Geology, Topography, Hydrology, Human and Flood history) and 8 factors (Average Rainfall, Distance from Stream, Soil drainage capability, Slope, Elevation, Land use, Distance from road and Flooded area in the past). The validity of the pair-wise comparison in AHP was shown as C.R. value which indicated that the specialist judgment was reasonably consistent. FAHP computation result has shown that the first priority of criteria was Meteorology. In addition, the Rainfall was the most influencing factor for flooding. Finally, the output was displayed in thematic map of Angthong province with flood risk level processed by GIS tools. The map was classified into: High Risk, Moderate Risk and Low Risk (13.20%, 75.58%, and 11.22% of total area).

  3. OpenClimateGIS - A Web Service Providing Climate Model Data in Commonly Used Geospatial Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, T. A.; Koziol, B. W.; Rood, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the OpenClimateGIS project is to make climate model datasets readily available in commonly used, modern geospatial formats used by GIS software, browser-based mapping tools, and virtual globes.The climate modeling community typically stores climate data in multidimensional gridded formats capable of efficiently storing large volumes of data (such as netCDF, grib) while the geospatial community typically uses flexible vector and raster formats that are capable of storing small volumes of data (relative to the multidimensional gridded formats). OpenClimateGIS seeks to address this difference in data formats by clipping climate data to user-specified vector geometries (i.e. areas of interest) and translating the gridded data on-the-fly into multiple vector formats. The OpenClimateGIS system does not store climate data archives locally, but rather works in conjunction with external climate archives that expose climate data via the OPeNDAP protocol. OpenClimateGIS provides a RESTful API web service for accessing climate data resources via HTTP, allowing a wide range of applications to access the climate data.The OpenClimateGIS system has been developed using open source development practices and the source code is publicly available. The project integrates libraries from several other open source projects (including Django, PostGIS, numpy, Shapely, and netcdf4-python).OpenClimateGIS development is supported by a grant from NOAA's Climate Program Office.

  4. From spatially variable streamflow to distributed hydrological models: Analysis of key modeling decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Kavetski, Dmitri; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the development and application of distributed hydrological models, focusing on the key decisions of how to discretize the landscape, which model structures to use in each landscape element, and how to link model parameters across multiple landscape elements. The case study considers the Attert catchment in Luxembourg—a 300 km2 mesoscale catchment with 10 nested subcatchments that exhibit clearly different streamflow dynamics. The research questions are investigated using conceptual models applied at hydrologic response unit (HRU) scales (1-4 HRUs) on 6 hourly time steps. Multiple model structures are hypothesized and implemented using the SUPERFLEX framework. Following calibration, space/time model transferability is tested using a split-sample approach, with evaluation criteria including streamflow prediction error metrics and hydrological signatures. Our results suggest that: (1) models using geology-based HRUs are more robust and capture the spatial variability of streamflow time series and signatures better than models using topography-based HRUs; this finding supports the hypothesis that, in the Attert, geology exerts a stronger control than topography on streamflow generation, (2) streamflow dynamics of different HRUs can be represented using distinct and remarkably simple model structures, which can be interpreted in terms of the perceived dominant hydrologic processes in each geology type, and (3) the same maximum root zone storage can be used across the three dominant geological units with no loss in model transferability; this finding suggests that the partitioning of water between streamflow and evaporation in the study area is largely independent of geology and can be used to improve model parsimony. The modeling methodology introduced in this study is general and can be used to advance our broader understanding and prediction of hydrological behavior, including the landscape characteristics that control hydrologic response, the

  5. Classifying the hydrologic function of prairie potholes with remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, Jennifer R.; Wright, C.K.; Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2011-01-01

    A sequence of Landsat TM/ETM+ scenes capturing the substantial surface water variations exhibited by prairie pothole wetlands over a drought to deluge period were analyzed in an attempt to determine the general hydrologic function of individual wetlands (recharge, flow-through, and discharge). Multipixel objects (water bodies) were clustered according to their temporal changes in water extents. We found that wetlands receiving groundwater discharge responded differently over the time period than wetlands that did not. Also, wetlands located within topographically closed discharge basins could be distinguished from discharge basins with overland outlets. Field verification data showed that discharge wetlands with closed basins were most distinct and identifiable with reasonable accuracies (user’s accuracy = 97%, producer’s accuracy = 71%). The classification of other hydrologic function types had lower accuracies reducing the overall accuracy for the four hydrologic function classes to 51%. A simplified classification approach identifying only two hydrologic function classes was 82%. Although this technique has limited success for detecting small wetlands, Landsat-derived multipixel-object clustering can reliably differentiate wetlands receiving groundwater discharge and provides a new approach to quantify wetland dynamics in landscape scale investigations and models.

  6. Results and Lessons Learned from a Coupled Social and Physical Hydrology Model: Testing Alternative Water Management Policies and Institutional Structures Using Agent-Based Modeling and Regional Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Lammers, R. B.; Prousevitch, A.; Ozik, J.; Altaweel, M.; Collier, N. T.; Kliskey, A. D.; Alessa, L.

    2015-12-01

    Water Management in the U.S. Southwest is under increasing scrutiny as many areas endure persistent drought. The impact of these prolonged dry conditions is a product of regional climate and hydrological conditions, but also of a highly engineered water management infrastructure and a complex web of social arrangements whereby water is allocated, shared, exchanged, used, re-used, and finally consumed. We coupled an agent-based model with a regional hydrological model to understand the dynamics in one richly studied and highly populous area: southern Arizona, U.S.A., including metropolitan Phoenix and Tucson. There, multiple management entities representing an array of municipalities and other water providers and customers, including private companies and Native American tribes are enmeshed in a complex legal and economic context in which water is bought, leased, banked, and exchanged in a variety of ways and on multiple temporal and physical scales. A recurrent question in the literature of adaptive management is the impact of management structure on overall system performance. To explore this, we constructed an agent-based model to capture this social complexity, and coupled this with a physical hydrological model that we used to drive the system under a variety of water stress scenarios and to assess the regional impact of the social system's performance. We report the outcomes of ensembles of runs in which varieties of alternative policy constraints and management strategies are considered. We hope to contribute to policy discussions in this area and connected and legislatively similar areas (such as California) as current conditions change and existing legal and policy structures are revised. Additionally, we comment on the challenges of integrating models that ostensibly are in different domains (physical and social) but that independently represent a system in which physical processes and human actions are closely intertwined and difficult to disentangle.

  7. A question driven socio-hydrological modeling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M.; Portney, K.; Islam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Human and hydrological systems are coupled: human activity impacts the hydrological cycle and hydrological conditions can, but do not always, trigger changes in human systems. Traditional modeling approaches with no feedback between hydrological and human systems typically cannot offer insight into how different patterns of natural variability or human-induced changes may propagate through this coupled system. Modeling of coupled human-hydrological systems, also called socio-hydrological systems, recognizes the potential for humans to transform hydrological systems and for hydrological conditions to influence human behavior. However, this coupling introduces new challenges and existing literature does not offer clear guidance regarding model conceptualization. There are no universally accepted laws of human behavior as there are for the physical systems; furthermore, a shared understanding of important processes within the field is often used to develop hydrological models, but there is no such consensus on the relevant processes in socio-hydrological systems. Here we present a question driven process to address these challenges. Such an approach allows modeling structure, scope and detail to remain contingent on and adaptive to the question context. We demonstrate the utility of this process by revisiting a classic question in water resources engineering on reservoir operation rules: what is the impact of reservoir operation policy on the reliability of water supply for a growing city? Our example model couples hydrological and human systems by linking the rate of demand decreases to the past reliability to compare standard operating policy (SOP) with hedging policy (HP). The model shows that reservoir storage acts both as a buffer for variability and as a delay triggering oscillations around a sustainable level of demand. HP reduces the threshold for action thereby decreasing the delay and the oscillation effect. As a result, per capita demand decreases during

  8. Determining hydrological changes in a small Arctic treeline basin using cold regions hydrological modelling and a pseudo-global warming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, S. A.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are producing higher rainfall ratios, shorter snow-covered periods, permafrost thaw, more shrub coverage, more northerly treelines and greater interaction between groundwater and surface flow in Arctic basins. How these changes will impact the hydrology of the Arctic treeline environment represents a great challenge. To diagnose the future hydrology along the current Arctic treeline, a physically based cold regions model was used to simulate the hydrology of a small basin near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. The hydrological model includes hydrological processes such as snow redistribution and sublimation by wind, canopy interception of snow/rain and sublimation/evaporation, snowmelt energy balance, active layer freeze/thaw, infiltration into frozen and unfrozen soils, evapotranspiration, horizontal flow through organic terrain and snowpack, subsurface flow and streamflow routing. The model was driven with weather simulated by a high-resolution (4 km) numerical weather prediction model under two scenarios: (1) control run, using ERA-Interim boundary conditions (2001-2013) and (2) future, using a Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) approach based on the RCP8.5 projections perturbing the control run. Transient changes in vegetation based on recent observations and ecological expectations were then used to re-parameterise the model. Historical hydrological simulations were validated against daily streamflow, snow water equivalent and active layer thickness records, showing the model's suitability in this environment. Strong annual warming ( 6 °C) and more precipitation ( 20%) were simulated by the PGW scenario, with winter precipitation and fall temperature showing the largest seasonal increase. The joint impact of climate and transient vegetation changes on snow accumulation and redistribution, evapotranspiration, active layer development, runoff generation and hydrograph characteristics are analyzed and discussed.

  9. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendyk, Derek G.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Rice, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    Soils lie at the interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface and are a key component that control ecosystem services, food production, and many other processes at the Earth’s surface. There is a long-established convention for identifying and mapping soils by texture. These readily available, georeferenced soil maps and databases are used widely in environmental sciences. Here, we show that these traditional soil classifications can be inappropriate, contributing to bias and uncertainty in applications from slope stability to water resource management. We suggest a new approach to soil classification, with a detailed example from the science of hydrology. Hydrologic simulations based on common meteorological conditions were performed using HYDRUS-1D, spanning textures identified by the United States Department of Agriculture soil texture triangle. We consider these common conditions to be: drainage from saturation, infiltration onto a drained soil, and combined infiltration and drainage events. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, we created soil classifications based on the modeled hydrologic responses of these soils. The hydrologic-process-based classifications were compared to those based on soil texture and a single hydraulic property, Ks. Differences in classifications based on hydrologic response versus soil texture demonstrate that traditional soil texture classification is a poor predictor of hydrologic response. We then developed a QGIS plugin to construct soil maps combining a classification with georeferenced soil data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The spatial patterns of hydrologic response were more immediately informative, much simpler, and less ambiguous, for use in applications ranging from trafficability to irrigation management to flood control. The ease with which hydrologic-process-based classifications can be made, along with the improved quantitative predictions of soil responses and visualization of landscape

  10. Development and challenges of using web-based GIS for health applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Boley, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Web-based GIS is increasingly used in health applications. It has the potential to provide critical information in a timely manner, support health care policy development, and educate decision makers and the general public. This paper describes the trends and recent development of health...... applications using a Web-based GIS. Recent progress on the database storage and geospatial Web Services has advanced the use of Web-based GIS for health applications, with various proprietary software, open source software, and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) available. Current challenges in applying...... care planning, and public health participation....

  11. A GIS-based decision support system for regional eco-security assessment and its application on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaodan, Wang; Xianghao, Zhong; Pan, Gao

    2010-10-01

    Regional eco-security assessment is an intricate, challenging task. In previous studies, the integration of eco-environmental models and geographical information systems (GIS) usually takes two approaches: loose coupling and tight coupling. However, the present study used a full coupling approach to develop a GIS-based regional eco-security assessment decision support system (ESDSS). This was achieved by merging the pressure-state-response (PSR) model and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) into ArcGIS 9 as a dynamic link library (DLL) using ArcObjects in ArcGIS and Visual Basic for Applications. Such an approach makes it easy to capitalize on the GIS visualization and spatial analysis functions, thereby significantly supporting the dynamic estimation of regional eco-security. A case study is presented for the Tibetan Plateau, known as the world's "third pole" after the Arctic and Antarctic. Results verified the usefulness and feasibility of the developed method. As a useful tool, the ESDSS can also help local managers to make scientifically-based and effective decisions about Tibetan eco-environmental protection and land use. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Renewable energy: GIS-based mapping and modelling of potentials and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Schardinger, Ingrid.; Gadocha, Sabine; Zocher, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide demand of energy is growing and will continue to do so for the next decades to come. IEA has estimated that global primary energy demand will increase by 40 - 50% from 2003 to 2030 (IEA, 2005) depending on the fact whether currently contemplated energy policies directed towards energy-saving and fuel-diversification will be effectuated. The demand for Renewable Energy (RE) is undenied but clear figures and spatially disaggregated potentials for the various energy carriers are very rare. Renewable Energies are expected to reduce pressures on the environment and CO2 production. In several studies in Germany (North-Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony) and Austria we studied the current and future pattern of energy production and consumption. In this paper we summarize and benchmark different RE carriers, namely wind, biomass (forest and non-forest, geothermal, solar and hydro power. We demonstrate that GIS-based scalable and flexible information delivery sheds new light on the prevailing metaphor of GIS as a processing engine serving needs of users more on demand rather than through ‘maps on stock'. We compare our finding with those of several energy related EU-FP7 projects in Europe where we have been involved - namely GEOBENE, REACCESS, ENERGEO - and demonstrate that more and more spatial data will become available together with tools that allow experts to do their own analyses and to communicate their results in ways which policy makers and the public can readily understand and use as a basis for their own actions. Geoportals in combination with standardised geoprocessing today supports the older vision of an automated presentation of data on maps, and - if user privileges are given - facilities to interactively manipulate these maps. We conclude that the most critical factor in modelling energy supply and demand remain the economic valuation of goods and services, especially the forecast of future end consumer energy costs.

  13. Unifying distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators for hydrologic model assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qinbo; Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Chen, Xi; Schulte, Achim

    2014-05-01

    The goodness-of-fit indicator, i.e. efficiency criterion, is very important for model calibration. However, recently the knowledge about the goodness-of-fit indicators is all empirical and lacks a theoretical support. Based on the likelihood theory, a unified distance-based goodness-of-fit indicator termed BC-GED model is proposed, which uses the Box-Cox (BC) transformation to remove the heteroscedasticity of model errors and the generalized error distribution (GED) with zero-mean to fit the distribution of model errors after BC. The BC-GED model can unify all recent distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators, and reveals the mean square error (MSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) that are widely used goodness-of-fit indicators imply statistic assumptions that the model errors follow the Gaussian distribution and the Laplace distribution with zero-mean, respectively. The empirical knowledge about goodness-of-fit indicators can be also easily interpreted by BC-GED model, e.g. the sensitivity to high flow of the goodness-of-fit indicators with large power of model errors results from the low probability of large model error in the assumed distribution of these indicators. In order to assess the effect of the parameters (i.e. the BC transformation parameter λ and the GED kurtosis coefficient β also termed the power of model errors) of BC-GED model on hydrologic model calibration, six cases of BC-GED model were applied in Baocun watershed (East China) with SWAT-WB-VSA model. Comparison of the inferred model parameters and model simulation results among the six indicators demonstrates these indicators can be clearly separated two classes by the GED kurtosis β: β >1 and β ≤ 1. SWAT-WB-VSA calibrated by the class β >1 of distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators captures high flow very well and mimics the baseflow very badly, but it calibrated by the class β ≤ 1 mimics the baseflow very well, because first the larger value of β, the greater emphasis is put on

  14. A GIS-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INFORMATION SOURCE FOR MALAYSIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Tiu Chung

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a GIS-based system for collection and targeted distribution of latest alerts and real-time environmental factors to the Malaysian population. We call it the Environmental Health Management System (EHMS. This GIS-based system is designed to facilitate and encourage research into environmental health quality issues by providing a comprehensive tracking and monitoring tool. This GIS-based system is embedded with Google Maps API and Geocoding API services to visualize the location and environmental health reports from the aggregated online newspaper and social media news feeds. We introduce the design and implementation of EHMS, including the web frontend, backend, ontology, database, data acquisition, classification engine, and the standard news feeds.

  15. Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick; Houseworth, James

    2013-11-22

    The objective of this report is to build upon previous compilations of shale formations within many of the major sedimentary basins in the US by developing GIS data delineating isopach and structural depth maps for many of these units. These data are being incorporated into the LANL digital GIS database being developed for determining host rock distribution and depth/thickness parameters consistent with repository design. Methods were developed to assess hydrological and geomechanical properties and conditions for shale formations based on sonic velocity measurements.

  16. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  17. Revisiting an interdisciplinary hydrological modelling project. A socio-hydrology (?) example from the early 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasingly important role in global change research. Also, in the field of water resources interdisciplinarity as well as cooperation with stakeholders from outside academia have been recognized as important. In this contribution, we revisit an integrated regional modelling system (DANUBIA), which was developed by an interdisciplinary team of researchers and relied on stakeholder participation in the framework of the GLOWA-Danube project from 2001 to 2011 (Mauser and Prasch 2016). As the model was developed before the current increase in literature on participatory modelling and interdisciplinarity, we ask how a socio-hydrology approach would have helped and in what way it would have made the work different. The present contribution firstly presents the interdisciplinary concept of DANUBIA, mainly with focus on the integration of human behaviour in a spatially explicit, process-based numerical modelling system (Roland Barthel, Janisch, Schwarz, Trifkovic, Nickel, Schulz, and Mauser 2008; R. Barthel, Nickel, Meleg, Trifkovic, and Braun 2005). Secondly, we compare the approaches to interdisciplinarity in GLOWA-Danube with concepts and ideas presented by socio-hydrology. Thirdly, we frame DANUBIA and a review of key literature on socio-hydrology in the context of a survey among hydrologists (N = 184). This discussion is used to highlight gaps and opportunities of the socio-hydrology approach. We show that the interdisciplinary aspect of the project and the participatory process of stakeholder integration in DANUBIA were not entirely successful. However, important insights were gained and important lessons were learnt. Against the background of these experiences we feel that in its current state, socio-hydrology is still lacking a plan for knowledge integration. Moreover, we consider necessary that socio-hydrology takes into account the lessons learnt from these earlier examples of knowledge integration

  18. Hydrological model uncertainty due to spatial evapotranspiration estimation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuan; Lamačová, Anna; Duffy, Christopher; Krám, Pavel; Hruška, Jakub

    2016-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) continues to be a difficult process to estimate in seasonal and long-term water balances in catchment models. Approaches to estimate ET typically use vegetation parameters (e.g., leaf area index [LAI], interception capacity) obtained from field observation, remote sensing data, national or global land cover products, and/or simulated by ecosystem models. In this study we attempt to quantify the uncertainty that spatial evapotranspiration estimation introduces into hydrological simulations when the age of the forest is not precisely known. The Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) was implemented for the Lysina headwater catchment, located 50°03‧N, 12°40‧E in the western part of the Czech Republic. The spatial forest patterns were digitized from forest age maps made available by the Czech Forest Administration. Two ET methods were implemented in the catchment model: the Biome-BGC forest growth sub-model (1-way coupled to PIHM) and with the fixed-seasonal LAI method. From these two approaches simulation scenarios were developed. We combined the estimated spatial forest age maps and two ET estimation methods to drive PIHM. A set of spatial hydrologic regime and streamflow regime indices were calculated from the modeling results for each method. Intercomparison of the hydrological responses to the spatial vegetation patterns suggested considerable variation in soil moisture and recharge and a small uncertainty in the groundwater table elevation and streamflow. The hydrologic modeling with ET estimated by Biome-BGC generated less uncertainty due to the plant physiology-based method. The implication of this research is that overall hydrologic variability induced by uncertain management practices was reduced by implementing vegetation models in the catchment models.

  19. INTEGRATION OF GIS AND BIM FOR INDOOR GEOVISUAL ANALYTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an endeavour of integration of GIS (Geographical Information System and BIM (Building Information Modelling for indoor geovisual analytics. The merits of two types of technologies, GIS and BIM are firstly analysed in the context of indoor environment. GIS has well-developed capabilities of spatial analysis such as network analysis, while BIM has the advantages for indoor 3D modelling and dynamic simulation. This paper firstly investigates the important aspects for integrating GIS and BIM. Different data standards and formats such as the IFC (Industry Foundation Classes and GML (Geography Markup Language are discussed. Their merits and limitations in data transformation between GIS and BIM are analysed in terms of semantic and geometric information. An optimized approach for data exchange between GIS and BIM datasets is then proposed. After that, a strategy of using BIM for 3D indoor modelling, GIS for spatial analysis, and BIM again for visualization and dynamic simulation of the analysis results is presented. Based on the developments, this paper selects a typical problem, optimized indoor emergency evacuation, to demonstrate the integration of GIS and BIM for indoor geovisual analytics. The block Z of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University is selected as a test site. Detailed indoor and outdoor 3D models of the block Z are created using a BIM software Revit. The 3D models are transferred to a GIS software ArcGIS to carry out spatial analysis. Optimized evacuation plans considering dynamic constraints are generated based on network analysis in ArcGIS assuming there is a fire accident inside the building. The analysis results are then transferred back to BIM software for visualization and dynamic simulation. The developed methods and results are of significance to facilitate future development of GIS and BIM integrated solutions in various applications.

  20. GIS environmental information analysis of the Darro River basin as the key for the management and hydrological forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paz; Delgado, Expectación; Lopez-Alonso, Mónica; Poyatos, José Manuel

    2018-02-01

    This article presents analyses of soil and environmental information for the Darro River basin (Granada-Spain) preliminary to its hydrological and forestry restoration. These analyses were carried out using a geographical information system (GIS) and employing a new procedure that adapts hydrological forest-restoration methods. The complete analysis encompasses morphological conditions, soil and climate characteristics as well as vegetation and land use. The study investigates soil erosion in the basin by using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and by mapping erosion fragility units. The results are presented in a set of maps and their analysis, providing the starting point for river basin management and the hydrological and forestry-restoration project that was approved at the end of 2015. The presence of soft substrates (e.g. gravel and sand) indicates that the area is susceptible to erosion, particularly the areas that are dominated by human activity and have little soil protection. Finally, land use and vegetation cover were identified as key factors in the soil erosion in the basin. According to the results, river authorities have included several measures in the restoration project aimed at reducing the erosion and helping to recover the environmental value of this river basin and to include it in recreation possibilities for the community of Granada. The presented analytical approach, designed by the authors, would be useful as a tool for environmental restoration in other small Mediterranean river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A remote sensing driven distributed hydrological model of the Senegal River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Simon; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sandholt, Inge

    2008-01-01

    outputs of AET from both model setups was carried out. This revealed substantial differences in the spatial patterns of AET for the examined subcatchment, in spite of similar values of predicted discharge and average AET. The potential for driving large scale hydrological models using remote sensing data......Distributed hydrological models require extensive data amounts for driving the models and for parameterization of the land surface and subsurface. This study investigates the potential of applying remote sensing (RS) based input data in a hydrological model for the 350,000 km2 Senegal River basin...... in West Africa. By utilizing remote sensing data to estimate precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and leaf area index (LAI) the model was driven entirely by remote sensing based data and independent of traditional meteorological data. The remote sensing retrievals were based on data from...

  2. SWAT Modeling for Depression-Dominated Areas: How Do Depressions Manipulate Hydrologic Modeling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tahmasebi Nasab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling hydrologic processes for depression-dominated areas such as the North American Prairie Pothole Region is complex and reliant on a clear understanding of dynamic filling-spilling-merging-splitting processes of numerous depressions over the surface. Puddles are spatially distributed over a watershed and their sizes, storages, and interactions vary over time. However, most hydrologic models fail to account for these dynamic processes. Like other traditional methods, depressions are filled as a required preprocessing step in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The objective of this study was to facilitate hydrologic modeling for depression-dominated areas by coupling SWAT with a Puddle Delineation (PD algorithm. In the coupled PD-SWAT model, the PD algorithm was utilized to quantify topographic details, including the characteristics, distribution, and hierarchical relationships of depressions, which were incorporated into SWAT at the hydrologic response unit (HRU scale. The new PD-SWAT model was tested for a large watershed in North Dakota under real precipitation events. In addition, hydrologic modeling of a small watershed was conducted under two extreme high and low synthetic precipitation conditions. In particular, the PD-SWAT was compared against the regular SWAT based on depressionless DEMs. The impact of depressions on the hydrologic modeling of the large and small watersheds was evaluated. The simulation results for the large watershed indicated that SWAT systematically overestimated the outlet discharge, which can be attributed to the failure to account for the hydrologic effects of depressions. It was found from the PD-SWAT modeling results that at the HRU scale surface runoff initiation was significantly delayed due to the threshold control of depressions. Under the high precipitation scenario, depressions increased the surface runoff peak. However, the low precipitation scenario could not fully fill depressions to reach

  3. Multi-Criteria GIS Methodology Focused on the Location of Optimal Places for Small Hydro Power Via Hydrological and Geostatistic Aplications; Metodologia SIG Multicriterio Enfocada a la Localizacion de Enclaves Optimos para Centrales de Minihidroelectricas mediante Aplicaciones Hidrologicas y Geoestadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, C de la

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this research is the development of a location methodology for sitting optimization of small hydro power (SHP) centrals. In order of achieve this goal, a Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methodology implemented through the use of tools in a GIS environment: Spatial Analysis, Geostatistic Analysis, and Hydrology have been developed. This methodology includes two different models based on the same MCE process. The substantial difference of both models is in the input data and the tools applied to estimate the energy resource and the principal factor of the methodology (caudal or accumulated flow). The first model is generated from caudal data obtained in the study area (El Bierzo), and the second one from pluviometric data and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). Both models include viability maps with greater ability areas to locate SHP facilities. As an additional objective, the study allows contrasting the results of the two developed models to evaluate their similarity. (Author)

  4. Land-surface modelling in hydrological perspective ? a review

    OpenAIRE

    Overgaard , J.; Rosbjerg , D.; Butts , M. B.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the different types of energy-based land-surface models (LSMs) and discuss some of the new possibilities that will arise when energy-based LSMs are combined with distributed hydrological modelling. We choose to focus on energy-based approaches, because in comparison to the traditional potential evapotranspiration models, these approaches allow for a stronger link to remote sensing and atmospheric modelling. New opport...

  5. Implementation of a Geographical Information System. GIS, in the Natural National Park, Cliffs of Cali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata Pardo, Maria Victoria; Martinez Zarate, Camilo; Gonzalez, Carlos A

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project was to generate a tool to improve the handling, conservation and administration of the Park National Natural - Cliffs of Cali, belonging to the Special Administrative Unit of the System of Natural National Parks, UAESPNN, of the Ministry of the Environment. With this purpose it was implemented a System of Geographical Information, GIS, like methodological model. The GIS; Cliffs of Cali used a database relational, developed with the software ACCESS t m, compatible with the used GIS Arc/INFO t m and Arc/View t m (for work station). The data space accessed to the database were those of topography, hydrology, areas of life, geology, limit, fronts, to zone with handling ends, precipitation, indigenous occupation and municipalities; it contain related alphanumeric information, administrative, socioeconomic handling and physique among others

  6. The use of remote sensing and GIS techniques with special emphasis on the use of Arc hydro data model in characterizing Atbara River watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, M. H. M.

    2010-11-01

    Remote sensing and GIS techniques were used successfully to establish hydrological information platform for Atbara sub-basin which drains from Ethiopia and Eretria to Sudan with entire area of about 224299 Km 2 . The study area have strategic importance, for many reasons; rich in minerals wealth, agricultural resources, and endowed with a substantial amount of water resources but the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources is imbalance. Remote Sensing and Digital elevation models (DEMs) are known to be very useful data sources for the automated delineation of flow paths, sub watersheds and flow networks for hydrologic modeling and watershed characterization, Landsat ETM + 30 m and Digital Elevation Models SRTM 90 m data used in this project, many digital image processing techniques used to enhanced images, interpretation and extracted information from satellite images by using ERDAS imagine, wile Arc GIS and arc hydro tools were used to processing and extract information from DEMs, stream network and catchment delineation and creation of geo database. It is the main output of this project, ready made GIS layers used to complete watershed characterizations view. The results of this research present in creation Arc hydro data model, and many thematic maps for Atbara sub-basin characteristics. The use of remote sensing in the study give efficient qualitative and quantitative detailed information about geomorphologic features drainage patterns, addition to general overview for land cover and land use. Moreover, the use of Digital Elevation Models in addition to the delineation of stream network and catchment give valuable information on the pale-geography and pale-climate of the study area. River network and watersheds delineations proved that El Gash River was once joining the Atbara River and it was a part of Nile Basin System. This might indicate that pale climatic conditions in the area were wet than the present. Geo database and Arc hydro data model

  7. Hydrological catchment modelling: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses basic issues in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, ranging from the roles of physically-based and data-driven rainfall runoff models, to the concepts of predictive uncertainty and equifinality and their implications. The evolution of a wide range of hydrological catchment models employing the physically meaningful and data-driven approaches introduces the need for objective test beds or benchmarks to assess the merits of the different models in reconciling the alternative approaches. In addition, the paper analyses uncertainty in models and predictions by clarifying the meaning of uncertainty, by distinguishing between parameter and predictive uncertainty and by demonstrating how the concept of equifinality must be addressed by appropriate and robust inference approaches. Finally, the importance of predictive uncertainty in the decision making process is highlighted together with possible approaches aimed at overcoming the diffidence of end-users.

  8. Regional frameworks applied to hydrology: can landscape-based frameworks capture the hydrologic variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McManamay; D. Orth; C. Dolloff; E. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Regional frameworks have been used extensively in recent years to aid in broad-scale management. Widely used landscape-based regional frameworks, such as hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) and physiographic provinces, may provide predictive tools of hydrologic variability. However, hydrologic-based regional frameworks, created using only streamflow data, are also...

  9. Design and Implementation of Hydrologic Process Knowledge-base Ontology: A case study for the Infiltration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, M.; Goodall, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic modeling often requires the re-use and integration of models from different disciplines to simulate complex environmental systems. Component-based modeling introduces a flexible approach for integrating physical-based processes across disciplinary boundaries. Several hydrologic-related modeling communities have adopted the component-based approach for simulating complex physical systems by integrating model components across disciplinary boundaries in a workflow. However, it is not always straightforward to create these interdisciplinary models due to the lack of sufficient knowledge about a hydrologic process. This shortcoming is a result of using informal methods for organizing and sharing information about a hydrologic process. A knowledge-based ontology provides such standards and is considered the ideal approach for overcoming this challenge. The aims of this research are to present the methodology used in analyzing the basic hydrologic domain in order to identify hydrologic processes, the ontology itself, and how the proposed ontology is integrated with the Water Resources Component (WRC) ontology. The proposed ontology standardizes the definitions of a hydrologic process, the relationships between hydrologic processes, and their associated scientific equations. The objective of the proposed Hydrologic Process (HP) Ontology is to advance the idea of creating a unified knowledge framework for components' metadata by introducing a domain-level ontology for hydrologic processes. The HP ontology is a step toward an explicit and robust domain knowledge framework that can be evolved through the contribution of domain users. Analysis of the hydrologic domain is accomplished using the Formal Concept Approach (FCA), in which the infiltration process, an important hydrologic process, is examined. Two infiltration methods, the Green-Ampt and Philip's methods, were used to demonstrate the implementation of information in the HP ontology. Furthermore, a SPARQL

  10. Modeling Feedbacks Between Individual Human Decisions and Hydrology Using Interconnected Physical and Social Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Lammers, R. B.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Ozik, J.; Altaweel, M.; Collier, N. T.; Alessa, L.; Kliskey, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The global hydrological cycle intersects with human decision making at multiple scales, from dams and irrigation works to the taps in individuals' homes. Residential water consumers are commonly encouraged to conserve; these messages are heard against a background of individual values and conceptions about water quality, uses, and availability. The degree to which these values impact the larger-hydrological dynamics, the way that changes in those values have impacts on the hydrological cycle through time, and the feedbacks by which water availability and quality in turn shape those values, are not well explored. To investigate this domain we employ a global-scale water balance model (WBM) coupled with a social-science-grounded agent-based model (ABM). The integration of a hydrological model with an agent-based model allows us to explore driving factors in the dynamics in coupled human-natural systems. From the perspective of the physical hydrologist, the ABM offers a richer means of incorporating the human decisions that drive the hydrological system; from the view of the social scientist, a physically-based hydrological model allows the decisions of the agents to play out against constraints faithful to the real world. We apply the interconnected models to a study of Tucson, Arizona, USA, and its role in the larger Colorado River system. Our core concept is Technology-Induced Environmental Distancing (TIED), which posits that layers of technology can insulate consumers from direct knowledge of a resource. In Tucson, multiple infrastructure and institutional layers have arguably increased the conceptual distance between individuals and their water supply, offering a test case of the TIED framework. Our coupled simulation allows us to show how the larger system transforms a resource with high temporal and spatial variability into a consumer constant, and the effects of this transformation on the regional system. We use this to explore how pricing, messaging, and

  11. Robust estimation of hydrological model parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bárdossy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of hydrological model parameters is a challenging task. With increasing capacity of computational power several complex optimization algorithms have emerged, but none of the algorithms gives a unique and very best parameter vector. The parameters of fitted hydrological models depend upon the input data. The quality of input data cannot be assured as there may be measurement errors for both input and state variables. In this study a methodology has been developed to find a set of robust parameter vectors for a hydrological model. To see the effect of observational error on parameters, stochastically generated synthetic measurement errors were applied to observed discharge and temperature data. With this modified data, the model was calibrated and the effect of measurement errors on parameters was analysed. It was found that the measurement errors have a significant effect on the best performing parameter vector. The erroneous data led to very different optimal parameter vectors. To overcome this problem and to find a set of robust parameter vectors, a geometrical approach based on Tukey's half space depth was used. The depth of the set of N randomly generated parameters was calculated with respect to the set with the best model performance (Nash-Sutclife efficiency was used for this study for each parameter vector. Based on the depth of parameter vectors, one can find a set of robust parameter vectors. The results show that the parameters chosen according to the above criteria have low sensitivity and perform well when transfered to a different time period. The method is demonstrated on the upper Neckar catchment in Germany. The conceptual HBV model was used for this study.

  12. Research on Livable Community Evaluation Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhangcai; Wu, Yang; Jin, Zhanghaonan; Zhang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Community is the basic unit of the city. Research on livable community could provide a bottom-up research path for the realization of livable city. Livability is the total factor affecting the quality of community life. In this paper, livable community evaluation indexes are evaluated based on GIS and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Then the sum-index and sub-index of community livability are both calculated. And community livable evaluation index system is constructed based on the platform of GIS. This study provides theoretical support for the construction and management of livable communities, so as to guide the development and optimization of city.

  13. On the influence of cell size in physically-based distributed hydrological modelling to assess extreme values in water resource planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Egüen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of changing spatial resolution on the implementation of distributed hydrological modelling for water resource planning in Mediterranean areas. Different cell sizes were used to investigate variations in the basin hydrologic response given by the model WiMMed, developed in Andalusia (Spain, in a selected watershed. The model was calibrated on a monthly basis from the available daily flow data at the reservoir that closes the watershed, for three different cell sizes, 30, 100, and 500 m, and the effects of this change on the hydrological response of the basin were analysed by means of the comparison of the hydrological variables at different time scales for a 3-yr-period, and the effective values for the calibration parameters obtained for each spatial resolution. The variation in the distribution of the input parameters due to using different spatial resolutions resulted in a change in the obtained hydrological networks and significant differences in other hydrological variables, both in mean basin-scale and values distributed in the cell level. Differences in the magnitude of annual and global runoff, together with other hydrological components of the water balance, became apparent. This study demonstrated the importance of choosing the appropriate spatial scale in the implementation of a distributed hydrological model to reach a balance between the quality of results and the computational cost; thus, 30 and 100-m could be chosen for water resource management, without significant decrease in the accuracy of the simulation, but the 500-m cell size resulted in significant overestimation of runoff and consequently, could involve uncertain decisions based on the expected availability of rainfall excess for storage in the reservoirs. Particular values of the effective calibration parameters are also provided for this hydrological model and the study area.

  14. Data assimilation in integrated hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørn

    Integrated hydrological models are useful tools for water resource management and research, and advances in computational power and the advent of new observation types has resulted in the models generally becoming more complex and distributed. However, the models are often characterized by a high...... degree of parameterization which results in significant model uncertainty which cannot be reduced much due to observations often being scarce and often taking the form of point measurements. Data assimilation shows great promise for use in integrated hydrological models , as it allows for observations...... to be efficiently combined with models to improve model predictions, reduce uncertainty and estimate model parameters. In this thesis, a framework for assimilating multiple observation types and updating multiple components and parameters of a catchment scale integrated hydrological model is developed and tested...

  15. Green roof hydrologic performance and modeling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanling; Babcock, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Green roofs reduce runoff from impervious surfaces in urban development. This paper reviews the technical literature on green roof hydrology. Laboratory experiments and field measurements have shown that green roofs can reduce stormwater runoff volume by 30 to 86%, reduce peak flow rate by 22 to 93% and delay the peak flow by 0 to 30 min and thereby decrease pollution, flooding and erosion during precipitation events. However, the effectiveness can vary substantially due to design characteristics making performance predictions difficult. Evaluation of the most recently published study findings indicates that the major factors affecting green roof hydrology are precipitation volume, precipitation dynamics, antecedent conditions, growth medium, plant species, and roof slope. This paper also evaluates the computer models commonly used to simulate hydrologic processes for green roofs, including stormwater management model, soil water atmosphere and plant, SWMS-2D, HYDRUS, and other models that are shown to be effective for predicting precipitation response and economic benefits. The review findings indicate that green roofs are effective for reduction of runoff volume and peak flow, and delay of peak flow, however, no tool or model is available to predict expected performance for any given anticipated system based on design parameters that directly affect green roof hydrology.

  16. A geographic approach to modelling human exposure to traffic air pollution using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.

    1998-10-01

    A new exposure model has been developed that is based on a physical, single media (air) and single source (traffic) micro environmental approach that estimates traffic related exposures geographically with the postal address as exposure indicator. The micro environments: residence, workplace and street (road user exposure) may be considered. The model estimates outdoor levels for selected ambient air pollutants (benzene, CO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}). The influence of outdoor air pollution on indoor levels can be estimated using average (I/O-ratios. The model has a very high spatial resolution (the address), a high temporal resolution (one hour) and may be used to predict past, present and future exposures. The model may be used for impact assessment of control measures provided that the changes to the model inputs are obtained. The exposure model takes advantage of a standard Geographic Information System (GIS) (ArcView and Avenue) for generation of inputs, for visualisation of input and output, and uses available digital maps, national administrative registers and a local traffic database, and the Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The exposure model presents a new approach to exposure determination by integration of digital maps, administrative registers, a street pollution model and GIS. New methods have been developed to generate the required input parameters for the OSPM model: to geocode buildings using cadastral maps and address points, to automatically generate street configuration data based on digital maps, the BBR and GIS; to predict the temporal variation in traffic and related parameters; and to provide hourly background levels for the OSPM model. (EG) 109 refs.

  17. Is there a need for hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Heling, R.; Zheleznyak, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies. In particular, most recent developments such as, the radionuclide transport models integrated in to the decision support system RODOS will be explored. Recent progress in the implementation of physically-based distributed hydrological models for operational forecasting in national and supranational centres, may support a closer cooperation between national hydrological services and therefore, strengthen the use of hydrological and radiological models implemented in decision support systems. (authors)

  18. An Educational Model for Hands-On Hydrology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Nakhjiri, N.; Habib, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of a hands-on modeling tool developed for students in civil engineering and earth science disciplines to help them learn the fundamentals of hydrologic processes, model calibration, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty assessment, and practice conceptual thinking in solving engineering problems. The toolbox includes two simplified hydrologic models, namely HBV-EDU and HBV-Ensemble, designed as a complement to theoretical hydrology lectures. The models provide an interdisciplinary application-oriented learning environment that introduces the hydrologic phenomena through the use of a simplified conceptual hydrologic model. The toolbox can be used for in-class lab practices and homework assignments, and assessment of students' understanding of hydrological processes. Using this modeling toolbox, students can gain more insights into how hydrological processes (e.g., precipitation, snowmelt and snow accumulation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff generation) are interconnected. The educational toolbox includes a MATLAB Graphical User Interface (GUI) and an ensemble simulation scheme that can be used for teaching more advanced topics including uncertainty analysis, and ensemble simulation. Both models have been administered in a class for both in-class instruction and a final project, and students submitted their feedback about the toolbox. The results indicate that this educational software had a positive impact on students understanding and knowledge of hydrology.

  19. Development of Web GIS-Based VFSMOD System with Three Modules for Effective Vegetative Filter Strip Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Soo Kong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Non-Point Source Pollution has been rising as a significant environmental issue. The sediment-laden water problem is causing serious impacts on river ecosystems not only in South Korea but also in most countries. The vegetative filter strip (VFS has been thought to be one of the most effective methods to reduce the transport of sediment to down-gradient area. However, the effective width of the VFS first needs to be determined before VFS installation in the field. To provide an easy-to-use interface with a scientific VFS modeling engine, the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system was developed in this study. The Web GIS-based VFSMOD uses the UH and VFSM executable programs from the VFSMOD-w model as core engines to simulate rainfall-runoff and sediment trapping. To provide soil information for a point of interest, the Google Map interface to the MapServer soil database system was developed using the Google Map API, Javascript, Perl/CGI, and Oracle DB programming. Three modules of the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system were developed for various VFS designs under single storm, multiple storm, and long-term period scenarios. These modules in the Web GIS-based VFSMOD system were applied to the study watershed in South Korea and these were proven as efficient tools for the VFS design for various purposes.

  20. Visualizing complex (hydrological) systems with correlation matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    When trying to understand or visualize the connections of different aspects of a complex system, this often requires deeper understanding to start with, or - in the case of geo data - complicated GIS software. To our knowledge, correlation matrices have rarely been used in hydrology (e.g. Stoll et al., 2011; van Loon and Laaha, 2015), yet they do provide an interesting option for data visualization and analysis. We present a simple, python based way - using a river catchment as an example - to visualize correlations and similarities in an easy and colorful way. We apply existing and easy to use python packages from various disciplines not necessarily linked to the Earth sciences and can thus quickly show how different aquifers work or react, and identify outliers, enabling this system to also be used for quality control of large datasets. Going beyond earlier work, we add a temporal and spatial element, enabling us to visualize how a system reacts to local phenomena such as for example a river, or changes over time, by visualizing the passing of time in an animated movie. References: van Loon, A.F., Laaha, G.: Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics, Journal of Hydrology 526, 3-14, 2015, Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation Stoll, S., Hendricks Franssen, H. J., Barthel, R., Kinzelbach, W.: What can we learn from long-term groundwater data to improve climate change impact studies?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(12), 3861-3875, 2011

  1. Ethiopian Central Rift Valley basin hydrologic modelling using HEC-HMS and ArcSWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Ferrer, Jordi; Candela, Lucila; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí

    2013-04-01

    An Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) shall be applied to achieve a sustainable development, to increase population incomes without affecting lives of those who are highly dependent on the environment. First step should be to understand water dynamics at basin level, starting by modeling the basin water resources. For model implementation, a large number of data and parameters are required, but those are not always available, especially in some developing countries where different sources may have different data, there is lack of information on data collection, etc. The Ethiopian Central Rift Valley (CRV) is an endorheic basin covering an area of approximately 10,000 km2. For the period 1996-2005, the average annual volume of rainfall accounted for 9.1 Mm3, and evapotranspiration for 8 Mm3 (Jansen et al., 2007). From the environmental point of view, basin ecosystems are endangered due to human activities. Also, poverty is widespread all over the basin, with population mainly living from agriculture on a subsistence economy. Hence, there is an urgent need to set an IWRM, but datasets required for water dynamics simulation are not too reliable. In order to reduce uncertainty of numerical simulation, two semi-distributed open software hydrologic models were implemented: HEC-HMS and ArcSWAT. HEC-HMS was developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACoE) Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) to run precipitation-runoff simulations for a variety of applications in dendritic watershed systems. ArcSWAT includes the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, Arnold et al., 1998) model developed for the USDA Agricultural Research Service into ArcGIS (ESRI®). SWAT was developed to assess the impact of land management practices on large complex watersheds with varying soils, land use and management conditions over long periods of time (Neitsch et al., 2005). According to this, ArcSWAT would be the best option for IWRM implementation in the basin. However

  2. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... temperature are explored in a multi-objective calibration experiment to optimize the parameters in a SVAT model in the Sahel. The two satellite derived variables were effective at constraining most land-surface and soil parameters. A data assimilation framework is developed and implemented with an integrated...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...

  3. ARCHES: Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, A.; Fryar, A. E.; Durham, M. C.; Schroeder, P.; Agouridis, C.; Hanley, C.; Rotz, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Educating young scientists and building capacity on a global scale is pivotal towards better understanding and managing our water resources. Based on this premise the ARCHES (Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science) program has been established. This abstract provides an overview of the program, links to access information, and describes the activities and outcomes of student participants from the Middle East and North Africa. The ARCHES program (http://arches.wrrs.uga.edu) is an integrated hydrologic education approach using online courses, field programs, and various hands-on workshops. The program aims to enable young scientists to effectively perform the high level research that will ultimately improve quality of life, enhance science-based decision making, and facilitate collaboration. Three broad, interlinked sets of activities are incorporated into the ARCHES program: (A1) the development of technical expertise, (A2) the development of professional contacts and skills, and (A3) outreach and long-term sustainability. The development of technical expertise (A1) is implemented through three progressive instructional sections. Section 1: Students were guided through a series of online lectures and exercises (Moodle: http://wrrs.uga.edu/moodle) covering three main topics (Remote Sensing, GIS, and Hydrologic Modeling). Section 2: Students participated in a hands-on workshop hosted at the University of Georgia's Water Resources and Remote Sensing Laboratory (WRRSL). Using ENVI, ArcGIS, and ArcSWAT, students completed a series of lectures and real-world applications (e.g., Development of Hydrologic Models). Section 3: Students participated in field studies (e.g., measurements of infiltration, recharge, streamflow, and water-quality parameters) conducted by U.S. partners and international collaborators in the participating countries. The development of professional contacts and skills (A2) was achieved through the promotion of networking

  4. Embedding complex hydrology in the climate system - towards fully coupled climate-hydrology models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, M.; Rasmussen, S.H.; Ridler, M.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the need to develop better tools to understand the impact of future management and climate change on water resources, we present a set of studies with the overall aim of developing a fully dynamic coupling between a comprehensive hydrological model, MIKE SHE, and a regional climate...... distributed parameters using satellite remote sensing. Secondly, field data are used to investigate the effects of model resolution and parameter scales for use in a coupled model. Finally, the development of the fully coupled climate-hydrology model is described and some of the challenges associated...... with coupling models for hydrological processes on sub-grid scales of the regional climate model are presented....

  5. GRASS GIS: a peer-reviewed scientific platform and future research repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Yann; Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Zambelli, Pietro; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter; Di Leo, Margherita

    2015-04-01

    , Y. H. , 2014. Remote Sensing Raster Programming, 3rd Ed., Lulu (Eds). [5] Di Leo, M., de Rigo, D., Rodriguez-Aseretto, D., Bosco, C., Petroliagkis, T., Camia, A., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., 2013. Dynamic data driven ensemble for wildfire behaviour assessment: A case study. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol. 413, pp. 11-22, 2013, ISSN:1868-4238. Special issue: "Environmental Software Systems. Fostering sharing information". [6] García, M., Villagarcía, L., Contreras, S., Domingo, F. & Puigdefábregas, J. (2007). Comparison of three operative models for estimating the surface water deficit using aster reflective and thermal data, Sensors 7(6): 860-883. [7] Gao, Y. & Long, D. ,2008. Intercomparison of remote sensing-based models for estimation of evapotranspiration and accuracy assessment based on swat, Hydrological Processes 22: 4850-4869. [8] GRASS GIS Trac, changelog for v.surf.rst, 2015. http://trac.osgeo.org/grass/ [9] GRASS GIS Trac, changelog for r.li, 2015. http://trac.osgeo.org/grass/ [10] McGarigal, K., and B. J. Marks. 1995. FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for quantifying landscape structure. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-351 [11] Mitas, L., and Mitasova H., 1988, General variational approach to the approximation problem, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, v.16, p. 983-992. [12] Mitas, L., and Mitasova, H., 1998, Distributed soil erosion simulation for effective erosion prevention. Water Resources Research, 34(3), 505-516. [13] Mitasova, H. and Mitas, L., 1993: Interpolation by Regularized Spline with Tension: I. Theory and Implementation, Mathematical Geology, 25, 641-655. [14] North Carolina State University, Geospatial Modeling Course, GIS/MEA582, 2015. http://courses.ncsu.edu/ [15] Petras, V., Gebbert, S., 2014. Testing framework for GRASS GIS: ensuring reproducibility of scientific geospatial computing. Poster presented at: AGU Fall Meeting, December 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, USA. [16] Petrasova, A

  6. Decision Support for Flood Event Prediction and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Liang, Gengsheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the development of Web GIS based decision support system for flood events is presented. To improve flood prediction we developed the decision support system for flood prediction and monitoring that integrates hydrological modelling and CARIS GIS. We present the methodology for data...... integration, floodplain delineation, and online map interfaces. Our Web-based GIS model can dynamically display observed and predicted flood extents for decision makers and the general public. The users can access Web-based GIS that models current flood events and displays satellite imagery and digital...... elevation model integrated with flood plain area. The system can show how the flooding prediction based on the output from hydrological modeling for the next 48 hours along the lower Saint John River Valley....

  7. The research and implementation of coalfield spontaneous combustion of carbon emission WebGIS based on Silverlight and ArcGIS server

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z; Bi, J; Wang, X; Zhu, W

    2014-01-01

    As an important sub-topic of the natural process of carbon emission data public information platform construction, coalfield spontaneous combustion of carbon emission WebGIS system has become an important study object. In connection with data features of coalfield spontaneous combustion carbon emissions (i.e. a wide range of data, which is rich and complex) and the geospatial characteristics, data is divided into attribute data and spatial data. Based on full analysis of the data, completed the detailed design of the Oracle database and stored on the Oracle database. Through Silverlight rich client technology and the expansion of WCF services, achieved the attribute data of web dynamic query, retrieval, statistical, analysis and other functions. For spatial data, we take advantage of ArcGIS Server and Silverlight-based API to invoke GIS server background published map services, GP services, Image services and other services, implemented coalfield spontaneous combustion of remote sensing image data and web map data display, data analysis, thematic map production. The study found that the Silverlight technology, based on rich client and object-oriented framework for WCF service, can efficiently constructed a WebGIS system. And then, combined with ArcGIS Silverlight API to achieve interactive query attribute data and spatial data of coalfield spontaneous emmission, can greatly improve the performance of WebGIS system. At the same time, it provided a strong guarantee for the construction of public information on China's carbon emission data

  8. Investigation of the transferability of hydrological models and a method to improve model calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hartmann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a model parameterization such that the hydrological model performs well even under different conditions, appropriate model performance measures have to be determined. A common performance measure is the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency. Usually it is calculated comparing observed and modelled daily values. In this paper a modified version is suggested in order to calibrate a model on different time scales simultaneously (days up to years. A spatially distributed hydrological model based on HBV concept was used. The modelling was applied on the Upper Neckar catchment, a mesoscale river in south western Germany with a basin size of about 4000 km2. The observation period 1961-1990 was divided into four different climatic periods, referred to as "warm", "cold", "wet" and "dry". These sub periods were used to assess the transferability of the model calibration and of the measure of performance. In a first step, the hydrological model was calibrated on a certain period and afterwards applied on the same period. Then, a validation was performed on the climatologically opposite period than the calibration, e.g. the model calibrated on the cold period was applied on the warm period. Optimal parameter sets were identified by an automatic calibration procedure based on Simulated Annealing. The results show, that calibrating a hydrological model that is supposed to handle short as well as long term signals becomes an important task. Especially the objective function has to be chosen very carefully.

  9. Evaluation and hydrological modelization in the natural hazard prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla Sentis, Ildefonso

    2011-01-01

    Soil degradation affects negatively his functions as a base to produce food, to regulate the hydrological cycle and the environmental quality. All over the world soil degradation is increasing partly due to lacks or deficiencies in the evaluations of the processes and causes of this degradation on each specific situation. The processes of soil physical degradation are manifested through several problems as compaction, runoff, hydric and Eolic erosion, landslides with collateral effects in situ and in the distance, often with disastrous consequences as foods, landslides, sedimentations, droughts, etc. These processes are frequently associated to unfavorable changes into the hydrologic processes responsible of the water balance and soil hydric regimes, mainly derived to soil use changes and different management practices and climatic changes. The evaluation of these processes using simple simulation models; under several scenarios of climatic change, soil properties and land use and management; would allow to predict the occurrence of this disastrous processes and consequently to select and apply the appropriate practices of soil conservation to eliminate or reduce their effects. This simulation models require, as base, detailed climatic information and hydrologic soil properties data. Despite of the existence of methodologies and commercial equipment (each time more sophisticated and precise) to measure the different physical and hydrological soil properties related with degradation processes, most of them are only applicable under really specific or laboratory conditions. Often indirect methodologies are used, based on relations or empiric indexes without an adequate validation, that often lead to expensive mistakes on the evaluation of soil degradation processes and their effects on natural disasters. It could be preferred simple field methodologies, direct and adaptable to different soil types and climates and to the sample size and the spatial variability of the

  10. Advancements in Hydrology and Erosion Process Understanding and Post-Fire Hydrologic and Erosion Model Development for Semi-Arid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. Jason; Pierson, Frederick B.; Al-Hamdan, Osama Z.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Nearing, Mark A.; Hernandez, Mariano; Weltz, Mark A.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Goodrich, David C.

    2017-04-01

    Fire activity continues to increase in semi-arid regions around the globe. Private and governmental land management entities are challenged with predicting and mitigating post-fire hydrologic and erosion responses on these landscapes. For more than a decade, a team of scientists with the US Department of Agriculture has collaborated on extensive post-fire hydrologic field research and the application of field research to development of post-fire hydrology and erosion predictive technologies. Experiments funded through this research investigated the impacts of fire on vegetation and soils and the effects of these fire-induced changes on infiltration, runoff generation, erodibility, and soil erosion processes. The distribution of study sites spans diverse topography across grassland, shrubland, and woodland landscapes throughout the western United States. Knowledge gleaned from the extensive field experiments was applied to develop and enhance physically-based models for hillslope- to watershed-scale runoff and erosion prediction. Our field research and subsequent data syntheses have identified key knowledge gaps and challenges regarding post-fire hydrology and erosion modeling. Our presentation details some consistent trends across a diverse domain and varying landscape conditions based on our extensive field campaigns. We demonstrate how field data have advanced our understanding of post-fire hydrology and erosion for semi-arid landscapes and highlight remaining key knowledge gaps. Lastly, we briefly show how our well-replicated experimental methodologies have contributed to advancements in hydrologic and erosion model development for the post-fire environment.

  11. A positioning system for forest diseases and pests based on GIS and PTZ camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z B; Zhao, F F; Wang, C B; Wang, L L

    2014-01-01

    Forest diseases and pests cause enormous economic losses and ecological damage every year in China. To prevent and control forest diseases and pests, the key is to get accurate information timely. In order to improve monitoring coverage rate and economize on manpower, a cooperative investigation model for forest diseases and pests is put forward. It is composed of video positioning system and manual labor reconnaissance with mobile GIS embedded in PDA. Video system is used to scan the disaster area, and is particularly effective on where trees are withered. Forest diseases prevention and control workers can check disaster area with PDA system. To support this investigation model, we developed a positioning algorithm and a positioning system. The positioning algorithm is based on DEM and PTZ camera. Moreover, the algorithm accuracy is validated. The software consists of 3D GIS subsystem, 2D GIS subsystem, video control subsystem and disaster positioning subsystem. 3D GIS subsystem makes positioning visual, and practically easy to operate. 2D GIS subsystem can output disaster thematic map. Video control subsystem can change Pan/Tilt/Zoom of a digital camera remotely, to focus on the suspected area. Disaster positioning subsystem implements the positioning algorithm. It is proved that the positioning system can observe forest diseases and pests in practical application for forest departments

  12. Analysis of land cover change impact on flood events using remote sensing, GIS and hydrological models: a case study of the Nyando River Basin in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olang, L. O.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, land cover changes in the Nyando River basin (3500 km 2 ) of Kenya were analyzed and their impact of floods quantified. Three Landsat satellite images for 1973, 1986 and 2000 were acquired, processed and classified based on seven major land cover classes prevalent in the basin using a hybrid of supervised and non supervised classification procedures. The detected land cover changes, together with a DEM and a soil map of the basin, were then used to estimate physically based parameters for the selected hydrological models. The models were then used to estimate local and flood peak discharges and volumes arising from selected storm events for each state of the classified land cover dataset. To further understand how changes in the land cover may impact on the flood hydrology, three scenarios that represent quite extreme alternatives were formulated to study the possible bandwidth during floods. Land cover classification results revealed immense land degradation over the span of study. Forests reduced by an area of 488 km 2 representing a 20% decline, while agricultural fields expanded by 581 km 2 representing a 16% increase over the same period of time (1973-2000). Hydrological modeling results indicated that the basin underwent significant increase in the peak discharge value. The flood peak discharges in the whole basin were noted to have increased by at least 16% over the period of 1973 -2000.Flood volumes were also noted to have increased by at least 10% over the same period of time. (author) [de

  13. PROMAB-GIS: A GIS based Tool for Estimating Runoff and Sediment Yield in running Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenewein, S.; Rinderer, M.; Ploner, A.; Sönser, T.

    2003-04-01

    In recent times settlements have expanded, traffic and tourist activities have increased in most alpine regions. As a consequence, on the one hand humans and goods are affected by natural hazard processes more often, while on the other hand the demand for protection by both technical constructions and planning measures carried out by public authorities is growing. This situation results in an ever stronger need of reproducibility, comparability, transparency of all methods applied in modern natural hazard management. As a contribution to a new way of coping this situation Promab-GIS Version 1.0 has been developed. Promab-Gis has been designed as a model for time- and space-dependent determination of both runoff and bedload transport in rivers of small alpine catchment areas. The estimation of the unit hydrograph relies upon the "rational formula" and the time-area curves of the watershed. The time area diagram is a graph of cumulative drainage area contributing to discharge at the watershed outlet within a specified time of travel. The sediment yield is estimated for each cell of the channel network by determining the actual process type (erosion, transport or accumulation). Two types of transport processes are considered, sediment transport and debris flows. All functions of Promab-GIS are integrated in the graphical user interface of ArcView as pull-up menus and tool buttons. Hence the application of Promab-GIS does not rely on a sophisticated knowledge of GIS in general, respectively the ArcView software. However, despite the use of computer assistance, Promab-GIS still is an expert support system. In order to obtain plausible results, the users must be familiar with all the relevant processes controlling runoff and sediment yield in torrent catchments.

  14. The Design and Implement of Tourism Information System Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunchang, Fu; Nan, Zhang

    From the geographical information system concept, discusses the main contents of the geographic information system, and the current of the geographic information system key technological measures of tourism information system, the application of tourism information system for specific requirements and goals, and analyzes a relational database model based on the tourist information system in GIS application methods of realization.

  15. Flexible Environmental Modeling with Python and Open - GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryet, Alexandre; Atteia, Olivier; Delottier, Hugo; Cousquer, Yohann

    2015-04-01

    Numerical modeling now represents a prominent task of environmental studies. During the last decades, numerous commercial programs have been made available to environmental modelers. These software applications offer user-friendly graphical user interfaces that allow an efficient management of many case studies. However, they suffer from a lack of flexibility and closed-source policies impede source code reviewing and enhancement for original studies. Advanced modeling studies require flexible tools capable of managing thousands of model runs for parameter optimization, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. In addition, there is a growing need for the coupling of various numerical models associating, for instance, groundwater flow modeling to multi-species geochemical reactions. Researchers have produced hundreds of open-source powerful command line programs. However, there is a need for a flexible graphical user interface allowing an efficient processing of geospatial data that comes along any environmental study. Here, we present the advantages of using the free and open-source Qgis platform and the Python scripting language for conducting environmental modeling studies. The interactive graphical user interface is first used for the visualization and pre-processing of input geospatial datasets. Python scripting language is then employed for further input data processing, call to one or several models, and post-processing of model outputs. Model results are eventually sent back to the GIS program, processed and visualized. This approach combines the advantages of interactive graphical interfaces and the flexibility of Python scripting language for data processing and model calls. The numerous python modules available facilitate geospatial data processing and numerical analysis of model outputs. Once input data has been prepared with the graphical user interface, models may be run thousands of times from the command line with sequential or parallel calls. We

  16. Towards simplification of hydrologic modeling: Identification of dominant processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2016-01-01

    The Precipitation–Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a distributed-parameter hydrologic model, has been applied to the conterminous US (CONUS). Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to identify: (1) the sensitive input parameters and (2) particular model output variables that could be associated with the dominant hydrologic process(es). Sensitivity values of 35 PRMS calibration parameters were computed using the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test procedure on 110 000 independent hydrologically based spatial modeling units covering the CONUS and then summarized to process (snowmelt, surface runoff, infiltration, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, interflow, baseflow, and runoff) and model performance statistic (mean, coefficient of variation, and autoregressive lag 1). Identified parameters and processes provide insight into model performance at the location of each unit and allow the modeler to identify the most dominant process on the basis of which processes are associated with the most sensitive parameters. The results of this study indicate that: (1) the choice of performance statistic and output variables has a strong influence on parameter sensitivity, (2) the apparent model complexity to the modeler can be reduced by focusing on those processes that are associated with sensitive parameters and disregarding those that are not, (3) different processes require different numbers of parameters for simulation, and (4) some sensitive parameters influence only one hydrologic process, while others may influence many

  17. A simplified GIS-based model for large wood recruitment and connectivity in mountain basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, Ana; Antonello, Andrea; Campana, Daniela; Cavalli, Marco; Crema, Stefano; Franceschi, Silvia; Marchese, Enrico; Niedrist, Martin; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Comiti, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The mobilization of large wood (LW) elements in mountain rivers channels during floods may increase their hazard potential, especially by clogging narrow sections such as bridges. However, the prediction of LW transport magnitude during flood events is a challenging topic. Although some models on LW transport have been recently developed, the objective of this work was to generate a simplified GIS-based model to identify along the channel network the most likely LW-related critical sections during high-magnitude flood events in forested mountain basins. Potential LW contribution generated by landsliding occurring on hillslopes is assessed using SHALSTAB stability model coupled to a GIS-based connectivity index, developed as a modification of the index proposed by Cavalli et al (2013). Connected slope-derived LW volumes are then summed at each raster cell to LW volumes generated by bank erosion along the erodibile part of river corridors, where bank erosion processes are estimated based on user-defined channel widening ratios stemming from observations following recent extreme events in mountain basins. LW volume in the channel is then routed through the stream network applying simple Boolean rules meant to capture the most important limiting transport condition in these high-energy systems at flood stage, i.e. flow width relative to log length. In addition, the role of bridges and retention check-dams in blocking floating logs is accounted for in the model, in particular bridge length and height are used to characterize their clogging susceptibility for different levels of expected LW volumes and size. The model has been tested in the Rienz and Ahr basins (about 630 km2 each), located in the Eastern Italian Alps. Sixty percent of the basin area is forested, and elevations range from 811 m a.s.l. to 3488 m a.s.l.. We used a 2.5 m resolution DTM and DSM, and their difference was used to calculate the canopy height. Data from 35 plots of the National Forest Inventory

  18. Sensitivity Test of Parameters Influencing Flood Hydrograph Routing with a Diffusion-Wave Distributed using Distributed Hydrological Model, Wet Spa, in Ziarat Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    narges javidan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Flood routing is a procedure to calculate flood stage and water depth along a river or to estimate flood hydrograph at river downstream or at reservoir outlets using the upstream hydrography . In river basins, excess rainfall is routed to the basin outlet using flow routing techniques to generate flow hydrograph. A GIS-based distributed hydrological model, Wet Spa, has been under development suitable for flood prediction and watershed management on a catchment scale. The model predicts outflow hydrographs at the basin outlet or at any converging point in the watershed, and it does so in a user-specified time step. The model is physically based, spatially distributed and time-continuous, and simulates hydrological processes of precipitation, snowmelt, interception, depression, surface runoff, infiltration, evapotranspiration, percolation, interflow, groundwater flow, etc. continuously both in time and space, for which the water and energy balance are maintained on each raster cell. Surface runoff is produced using a modified coefficient method based on the cellular characteristics of slope, land use, and soil type, and allowed to vary with soil moisture, rainfall intensity and storm duration. Interflow is computed based on the Darcy’s law and the kinematic approximation as a function of the effective hydraulic conductivity and the hydraulic gradient, while groundwater flow is estimated with a linear reservoir method on a small subcatchment scale as a function of groundwater storage and a recession coefficient. Special emphasis is given to the overland flow and channel flow routing using the method of linear diffusive wave approximation, which is capable to predict flow discharge at any converging point downstream by a unit response function. The model accounts for spatially distributed hydrological and geophysical characteristics of the catchment. Determination of the river flow hydrograph is a main target in hydrology

  19. Large scale debris-flow hazard assessment: a geotechnical approach and GIS modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delmonaco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic distributed model has been developed for large-scale debris-flow hazard analysis in the basin of River Vezza (Tuscany Region – Italy. This area (51.6 km 2 was affected by over 250 landslides. These were classified as debris/earth flow mainly involving the metamorphic geological formations outcropping in the area, triggered by the pluviometric event of 19 June 1996. In the last decades landslide hazard and risk analysis have been favoured by the development of GIS techniques permitting the generalisation, synthesis and modelling of stability conditions on a large scale investigation (>1:10 000. In this work, the main results derived by the application of a geotechnical model coupled with a hydrological model for the assessment of debris flows hazard analysis, are reported. This analysis has been developed starting by the following steps: landslide inventory map derived by aerial photo interpretation, direct field survey, generation of a database and digital maps, elaboration of a DTM and derived themes (i.e. slope angle map, definition of a superficial soil thickness map, geotechnical soil characterisation through implementation of a backanalysis on test slopes, laboratory test analysis, inference of the influence of precipitation, for distinct return times, on ponding time and pore pressure generation, implementation of a slope stability model (infinite slope model and generalisation of the safety factor for estimated rainfall events with different return times. Such an approach has allowed the identification of potential source areas of debris flow triggering. This is used to detected precipitation events with estimated return time of 10, 50, 75 and 100 years. The model shows a dramatic decrease of safety conditions for the simulation when is related to a 75 years return time rainfall event. It corresponds to an estimated cumulated daily intensity of 280–330 mm. This value can be considered the hydrological triggering

  20. A simple rainfall-runoff model based on hydrological units applied to the Teba catchment (south-east Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, N. H. W.

    2001-01-01

    A hydrological model (YWB, yearly water balance) has been developed to model the daily rainfall-runoff relationship of the 202 km2 Teba river catchment, located in semi-arid south-eastern Spain. The period of available data (1976-1993) includes some very rainy years with intensive storms (responsible for flooding parts of the town of Malaga) and also some very dry years.The YWB model is in essence a simple tank model in which the catchment is subdivided into a limited number of meaningful hydrological units. Instead of generating per unit surface runoff resulting from infiltration excess, runoff has been made the result of storage excess. Actual evapotranspiration is obtained by means of curves, included in the software, representing the relationship between the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration as a function of soil moisture content for three soil texture classes.The total runoff generated is split between base flow and surface runoff according to a given baseflow index. The two components are routed separately and subsequently joined. A large number of sequential years can be processed, and the results of each year are summarized by a water balance table and a daily based rainfall runoff time series. An attempt has been made to restrict the amount of input data to the minimum.Interactive manual calibration is advocated in order to allow better incorporation of field evidence and the experience of the model user. Field observations allowed for an approximate calibration at the hydrological unit level.

  1. Probabilistic hydrological nowcasting using radar based nowcasting techniques and distributed hydrological models: application in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Maria Laura; Pignone, Flavio; Rebora, Nicola; Silvestro, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The exposure of the urban areas to flash-floods is particularly significant to Mediterranean coastal cities, generally densely-inhabited. Severe rainfall events often associated to intense and organized thunderstorms produced, during the last century, flash-floods and landslides causing serious damages to urban areas and in the worst events led to human losses. The temporal scale of these events has been observed strictly linked to the size of the catchments involved: in the Mediterranean area a great number of catchments that pass through coastal cities have a small drainage area (less than 100 km2) and a corresponding hydrologic response timescale in the order of a few hours. A suitable nowcasting chain is essential for the on time forecast of this kind of events. In fact meteorological forecast systems are unable to predict precipitation at the scale of these events, small both at spatial (few km) and temporal (hourly) scales. Nowcasting models, covering the time interval of the following two hours starting from the observation try to extend the predictability limits of the forecasting models in support of real-time flood alert system operations. This work aims to present the use of hydrological models coupled with nowcasting techniques. The nowcasting model PhaSt furnishes an ensemble of equi-probable future precipitation scenarios on time horizons of 1-3 h starting from the most recent radar observations. The coupling of the nowcasting model PhaSt with the hydrological model Continuum allows to forecast the flood with a few hours in advance. In this way it is possible to generate different discharge prediction for the following hours and associated return period maps: these maps can be used as a support in the decisional process for the warning system.

  2. A four-stage hybrid model for hydrological time series forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chongli; Yang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xiaochao

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological time series forecasting remains a difficult task due to its complicated nonlinear, non-stationary and multi-scale characteristics. To solve this difficulty and improve the prediction accuracy, a novel four-stage hybrid model is proposed for hydrological time series forecasting based on the principle of 'denoising, decomposition and ensemble'. The proposed model has four stages, i.e., denoising, decomposition, components prediction and ensemble. In the denoising stage, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is utilized to reduce the noises in the hydrological time series. Then, an improved method of EMD, the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), is applied to decompose the denoised series into a number of intrinsic mode function (IMF) components and one residual component. Next, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is adopted to predict the trend of all of the components obtained in the decomposition stage. In the final ensemble prediction stage, the forecasting results of all of the IMF and residual components obtained in the third stage are combined to generate the final prediction results, using a linear neural network (LNN) model. For illustration and verification, six hydrological cases with different characteristics are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed model. The proposed hybrid model performs better than conventional single models, the hybrid models without denoising or decomposition and the hybrid models based on other methods, such as the wavelet analysis (WA)-based hybrid models. In addition, the denoising and decomposition strategies decrease the complexity of the series and reduce the difficulties of the forecasting. With its effective denoising and accurate decomposition ability, high prediction precision and wide applicability, the new model is very promising for complex time series forecasting. This new forecast model is an extension of nonlinear prediction models.

  3. A Four-Stage Hybrid Model for Hydrological Time Series Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chongli; Yang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xiaochao

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological time series forecasting remains a difficult task due to its complicated nonlinear, non-stationary and multi-scale characteristics. To solve this difficulty and improve the prediction accuracy, a novel four-stage hybrid model is proposed for hydrological time series forecasting based on the principle of ‘denoising, decomposition and ensemble’. The proposed model has four stages, i.e., denoising, decomposition, components prediction and ensemble. In the denoising stage, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is utilized to reduce the noises in the hydrological time series. Then, an improved method of EMD, the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), is applied to decompose the denoised series into a number of intrinsic mode function (IMF) components and one residual component. Next, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is adopted to predict the trend of all of the components obtained in the decomposition stage. In the final ensemble prediction stage, the forecasting results of all of the IMF and residual components obtained in the third stage are combined to generate the final prediction results, using a linear neural network (LNN) model. For illustration and verification, six hydrological cases with different characteristics are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed model. The proposed hybrid model performs better than conventional single models, the hybrid models without denoising or decomposition and the hybrid models based on other methods, such as the wavelet analysis (WA)-based hybrid models. In addition, the denoising and decomposition strategies decrease the complexity of the series and reduce the difficulties of the forecasting. With its effective denoising and accurate decomposition ability, high prediction precision and wide applicability, the new model is very promising for complex time series forecasting. This new forecast model is an extension of nonlinear prediction models. PMID:25111782

  4. An ensemble-based dynamic Bayesian averaging approach for discharge simulations using multiple global precipitation products and hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Liu, Junguo; Yang, Hong; Sweetapple, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Global precipitation products are very important datasets in flow simulations, especially in poorly gauged regions. Uncertainties resulting from precipitation products, hydrological models and their combinations vary with time and data magnitude, and undermine their application to flow simulations. However, previous studies have not quantified these uncertainties individually and explicitly. This study developed an ensemble-based dynamic Bayesian averaging approach (e-Bay) for deterministic discharge simulations using multiple global precipitation products and hydrological models. In this approach, the joint probability of precipitation products and hydrological models being correct is quantified based on uncertainties in maximum and mean estimation, posterior probability is quantified as functions of the magnitude and timing of discharges, and the law of total probability is implemented to calculate expected discharges. Six global fine-resolution precipitation products and two hydrological models of different complexities are included in an illustrative application. e-Bay can effectively quantify uncertainties and therefore generate better deterministic discharges than traditional approaches (weighted average methods with equal and varying weights and maximum likelihood approach). The mean Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency values of e-Bay are up to 0.97 and 0.85 in training and validation periods respectively, which are at least 0.06 and 0.13 higher than traditional approaches. In addition, with increased training data, assessment criteria values of e-Bay show smaller fluctuations than traditional approaches and its performance becomes outstanding. The proposed e-Bay approach bridges the gap between global precipitation products and their pragmatic applications to discharge simulations, and is beneficial to water resources management in ungauged or poorly gauged regions across the world.

  5. An Investigation into the Possibilities of BIM and GIS Cooperation and Utilization of GIS in the BIM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tobiáš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coming years we will most probably watch a significant increase of the BIM (building information model utilization in the AEC (Architecture/Engineering/Construction sector even in the Czech Republic. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider possible utilization of the well-established geographic information systems within the building information modelling process. This paper is based on the currently existing literature and is focused on the interrelationship between BIM and GIS. The main goal is to reveal potential fields of cooperation and to find possible utilization of GIS in BIM. To provide a theoretical framework, this article briefly introduces and defines the term of BIM and deals with the most important semantic models in AEC and 3D GIS IFC and CityGML. The paper also contains examples of specific efforts recently dealing with the BIM and GIS collaboration.

  6. GIS based procedure of cumulative environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna Reddy, M; Blah, Baiantimon

    2009-07-01

    Scale and spatial limits of impact assessment study in a GIS platform are two very important factors that could have a bearing on the genuineness and quality of impact assessment. While effect of scale has been documented and well understood, no significant study has been carried out on spatial considerations in an impact assessment study employing GIS technique. A novel technique of impact assessment demonstrable through GIS approach termed hereby as 'spatial data integrated GIS impact assessment method (SGIAM)' is narrated in this paper. The technique makes a fundamental presumption that the importance of environmental impacts is dependent, among other things, on spatial distribution of the effects of the proposed action and of the affected receptors in a study area. For each environmental component considered (e.g., air quality), impact indices are calculated through aggregation of impact indicators which are measures of the severity of the impact. The presence and spread of environmental descriptors are suitably quantified through modeling techniques and depicted. The environmental impact index is calculated from data exported from ArcINFO, thus giving significant importance to spatial data in the impact assessment exercise.

  7. A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Floris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence.

    In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy. The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso.

    Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall

  8. ENGAGING YOUTH THROUGH SPATIAL SOCIO-TECHNICAL STORYTELLING, PARTICIPATORY GIS, AGENT-BASED MODELING, ONLINE GEOGAMES AND ACTION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Poplin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for engaging youth in urban planning activities that simultaneously create locally meaningful positive change. The framework for engaging youth interlinks the use of IT tools such as geographic information systems (GIS, agent-based modelling (ABM, online serious games, and mobile participatory geographic information systems with map-based storytelling and action projects. We summarize the elements of our framework and the first results gained in the program Community Growers established in a neighbourhood community of Des Moines, the capital of Iowa, USA. We conclude the paper with a discussion and future research directions.

  9. Engaging Youth Through Spatial Socio-Technical Storytelling, Participatory GIS, Agent-Based Modeling, Online Geogames and Action Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplin, A.; Shenk, L.; Krejci, C.; Passe, U.

    2017-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for engaging youth in urban planning activities that simultaneously create locally meaningful positive change. The framework for engaging youth interlinks the use of IT tools such as geographic information systems (GIS), agent-based modelling (ABM), online serious games, and mobile participatory geographic information systems with map-based storytelling and action projects. We summarize the elements of our framework and the first results gained in the program Community Growers established in a neighbourhood community of Des Moines, the capital of Iowa, USA. We conclude the paper with a discussion and future research directions.

  10. ERM model analysis for adaptation to hydrological model errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymani-Nezhad, M.; Han, D.

    2018-05-01

    Hydrological conditions are changed continuously and these phenomenons generate errors on flood forecasting models and will lead to get unrealistic results. Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, a concept called model updating is proposed in hydrological studies. Real-time model updating is one of the challenging processes in hydrological sciences and has not been entirely solved due to lack of knowledge about the future state of the catchment under study. Basically, in terms of flood forecasting process, errors propagated from the rainfall-runoff model are enumerated as the main source of uncertainty in the forecasting model. Hence, to dominate the exciting errors, several methods have been proposed by researchers to update the rainfall-runoff models such as parameter updating, model state updating, and correction on input data. The current study focuses on investigations about the ability of rainfall-runoff model parameters to cope with three types of existing errors, timing, shape and volume as the common errors in hydrological modelling. The new lumped model, the ERM model, has been selected for this study to evaluate its parameters for its use in model updating to cope with the stated errors. Investigation about ten events proves that the ERM model parameters can be updated to cope with the errors without the need to recalibrate the model.

  11. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS. Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  12. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudini; Nasir Matori, Abd; Talib, Jasmi Ab; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS). Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  13. Towards simplification of hydrologic modeling: identification of dominant processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Markstrom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available parameter hydrologic model, has been applied to the conterminous US (CONUS. Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to identify: (1 the sensitive input parameters and (2 particular model output variables that could be associated with the dominant hydrologic process(es. Sensitivity values of 35 PRMS calibration parameters were computed using the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test procedure on 110 000 independent hydrologically based spatial modeling units covering the CONUS and then summarized to process (snowmelt, surface runoff, infiltration, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, interflow, baseflow, and runoff and model performance statistic (mean, coefficient of variation, and autoregressive lag 1. Identified parameters and processes provide insight into model performance at the location of each unit and allow the modeler to identify the most dominant process on the basis of which processes are associated with the most sensitive parameters. The results of this study indicate that: (1 the choice of performance statistic and output variables has a strong influence on parameter sensitivity, (2 the apparent model complexity to the modeler can be reduced by focusing on those processes that are associated with sensitive parameters and disregarding those that are not, (3 different processes require different numbers of parameters for simulation, and (4 some sensitive parameters influence only one hydrologic process, while others may influence many.

  14. Hydrological Modeling in Alaska with WRF-Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, N. J.; Zavodsky, B.; Molthan, A.

    2017-12-01

    The operational National Water Model (NWM), implemented in August 2016, is an instantiation of the Weather Research and Forecasting hydrological extension package (WRF-Hydro). Currently, the NWM only covers the contiguous United States, but will be expanded to include an Alaska domain in the future. It is well known that Alaska presents several hydrological modeling challenges, including unique arctic/sub-arctic hydrological processes not observed elsewhere in the United States and a severe lack of in-situ observations for model initialization. This project sets up an experimental version of WRF-Hydro in Alaska mimicking the NWM to gauge the ability of WRF-Hydro to represent hydrological processes in Alaska and identify model calibration challenges. Recent and upcoming launches of hydrology-focused NASA satellite missions such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) expand the spatial and temporal coverage of observations in Alaska, so this study also lays the groundwork for assimilating these NASA datasets into WRF-Hydro in the future.

  15. Multisource data assimilation in a Richards equation-based integrated hydrological model: a real-world application to an experimental hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, M.; Botto, A.

    2017-12-01

    Data assimilation is becoming increasingly popular in hydrological and earth system modeling, as it allows for direct integration of multisource observation data in modeling predictions and uncertainty reduction. For this reason, data assimilation has been recently the focus of much attention also for integrated surface-subsurface hydrological models, whereby multiple terrestrial compartments (e.g., snow cover, surface water, groundwater) are solved simultaneously, in an attempt to tackle environmental problems in a holistic approach. Recent examples include the joint assimilation of water table, soil moisture, and river discharge measurements in catchment models of coupled surface-subsurface flow using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Although the EnKF has been specifically developed to deal with nonlinear models, integrated hydrological models based on the Richards equation still represent a challenge, due to strong nonlinearities that may significantly affect the filter performance. Thus, more studies are needed to investigate the capabilities of EnKF to correct the system state and identify parameters in cases where the unsaturated zone dynamics are dominant. Here, the model CATHY (CATchment HYdrology) is applied to reproduce the hydrological dynamics observed in an experimental hillslope, equipped with tensiometers, water content reflectometer probes, and tipping bucket flow gages to monitor the hillslope response to a series of artificial rainfall events. We assimilate pressure head, soil moisture, and subsurface outflow with EnKF in a number of assimilation scenarios and discuss the challenges, issues, and tradeoffs arising from the assimilation of multisource data in a real-world test case, with particular focus on the capability of DA to update the subsurface parameters.

  16. Legacy model integration for enhancing hydrologic interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, A.; Arabi, M.; David, O.

    2013-12-01

    Many challenges are introduced to interdisciplinary research in and around the hydrologic science community due to advances in computing technology and modeling capabilities in different programming languages, across different platforms and frameworks by researchers in a variety of fields with a variety of experience in computer programming. Many new hydrologic models as well as optimization, parameter estimation, and uncertainty characterization techniques are developed in scripting languages such as Matlab, R, Python, or in newer languages such as Java and the .Net languages, whereas many legacy models have been written in FORTRAN and C, which complicates inter-model communication for two-way feedbacks. However, most hydrologic researchers and industry personnel have little knowledge of the computing technologies that are available to address the model integration process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to address these new challenges by utilizing a novel approach based on a publish-subscribe-type system to enhance modeling capabilities of legacy socio-economic, hydrologic, and ecologic software. Enhancements include massive parallelization of executions and access to legacy model variables at any point during the simulation process by another program without having to compile all the models together into an inseparable 'super-model'. Thus, this study provides two-way feedback mechanisms between multiple different process models that can be written in various programming languages and can run on different machines and operating systems. Additionally, a level of abstraction is given to the model integration process that allows researchers and other technical personnel to perform more detailed and interactive modeling, visualization, optimization, calibration, and uncertainty analysis without requiring deep understanding of inter-process communication. To be compatible, a program must be written in a programming language with bindings to a common

  17. Chance-constrained overland flow modeling for improving conceptual distributed hydrologic simulations based on scaling representation of sub-daily rainfall variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jing-Cheng; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Yuefei; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zhong; Chen, Qiuwen

    2015-01-01

    Lack of hydrologic process representation at the short time-scale would lead to inadequate simulations in distributed hydrological modeling. Especially for complex mountainous watersheds, surface runoff simulations are significantly affected by the overland flow generation, which is closely related to the rainfall characteristics at a sub-time step. In this paper, the sub-daily variability of rainfall intensity was considered using a probability distribution, and a chance-constrained overland flow modeling approach was proposed to capture the generation of overland flow within conceptual distributed hydrologic simulations. The integrated modeling procedures were further demonstrated through a watershed of China Three Gorges Reservoir area, leading to an improved SLURP-TGR hydrologic model based on SLURP. Combined with rainfall thresholds determined to distinguish various magnitudes of daily rainfall totals, three levels of significance were simultaneously employed to examine the hydrologic-response simulation. Results showed that SLURP-TGR could enhance the model performance, and the deviation of runoff simulations was effectively controlled. However, rainfall thresholds were so crucial for reflecting the scaling effect of rainfall intensity that optimal levels of significance and rainfall threshold were 0.05 and 10 mm, respectively. As for the Xiangxi River watershed, the main runoff contribution came from interflow of the fast store. Although slight differences of overland flow simulations between SLURP and SLURP-TGR were derived, SLURP-TGR was found to help improve the simulation of peak flows, and would improve the overall modeling efficiency through adjusting runoff component simulations. Consequently, the developed modeling approach favors efficient representation of hydrological processes and would be expected to have a potential for wide applications. - Highlights: • We develop an improved hydrologic model considering the scaling effect of rainfall. • A

  18. Chance-constrained overland flow modeling for improving conceptual distributed hydrologic simulations based on scaling representation of sub-daily rainfall variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jing-Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience & Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Guohe, E-mail: huang@iseis.org [Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2 (Canada); Huang, Yuefei [State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience & Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Hua [College of Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University — Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX 78412-5797 (United States); Li, Zhong [Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2 (Canada); Chen, Qiuwen [Center for Eco-Environmental Research, Nanjing Hydraulics Research Institute, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Lack of hydrologic process representation at the short time-scale would lead to inadequate simulations in distributed hydrological modeling. Especially for complex mountainous watersheds, surface runoff simulations are significantly affected by the overland flow generation, which is closely related to the rainfall characteristics at a sub-time step. In this paper, the sub-daily variability of rainfall intensity was considered using a probability distribution, and a chance-constrained overland flow modeling approach was proposed to capture the generation of overland flow within conceptual distributed hydrologic simulations. The integrated modeling procedures were further demonstrated through a watershed of China Three Gorges Reservoir area, leading to an improved SLURP-TGR hydrologic model based on SLURP. Combined with rainfall thresholds determined to distinguish various magnitudes of daily rainfall totals, three levels of significance were simultaneously employed to examine the hydrologic-response simulation. Results showed that SLURP-TGR could enhance the model performance, and the deviation of runoff simulations was effectively controlled. However, rainfall thresholds were so crucial for reflecting the scaling effect of rainfall intensity that optimal levels of significance and rainfall threshold were 0.05 and 10 mm, respectively. As for the Xiangxi River watershed, the main runoff contribution came from interflow of the fast store. Although slight differences of overland flow simulations between SLURP and SLURP-TGR were derived, SLURP-TGR was found to help improve the simulation of peak flows, and would improve the overall modeling efficiency through adjusting runoff component simulations. Consequently, the developed modeling approach favors efficient representation of hydrological processes and would be expected to have a potential for wide applications. - Highlights: • We develop an improved hydrologic model considering the scaling effect of rainfall. • A

  19. Ensemble catchment hydrological modelling for climate change impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Thomas; Ntegeka, Victor; Willems, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    , more than in high flow conditions. Hence, the mechanism of the slow flow component simulation requires further attention. It is concluded that a multi-model ensemble approach where different plausible model structures are applied, is extremely useful. It improves the reliability of climate change impact results and allows decision making to be based on uncertainty assessment that includes model structure related uncertainties. References: Ntegeka, V., Baguis, P., Roulin, E., Willems, P., 2014. Developing tailored climate change scenarios for hydrological impact assessments. Journal of Hydrology, 508C, 307-321 Vansteenkiste, Th., Tavakoli, M., Ntegeka, V., Willems, P., De Smedt, F., Batelaan, O., 2013. Climate change impact on river flows and catchment hydrology: a comparison of two spatially distributed models. Hydrological Processes, 27(25), 3649-3662. Vansteenkiste, Th., Tavakoli, M., Ntegeka, V., Van Steenbergen, N., De Smedt, F., Batelaan, O., Pereira, F., Willems, P., 2014. Intercomparison of five lumped and distributed models for catchment runoff and extreme flow simulation. Journal of Hydrology, in press. Vansteenkiste, Th., Tavakoli, M., Ntegeka, V., De Smedt, F., Batelaan, O., Pereira, F., Willems, P., 2014. Intercomparison of climate scenario impact predictions by a lumped and distributed model ensemble. Journal of Hydrology, in revision.

  20. An integrated modeling framework of socio-economic, biophysical, and hydrological processes in Midwest landscapes: Remote sensing data, agro-hydrological model, and agent-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Deng

    Intensive human-environment interactions are taking place in Midwestern agricultural systems. An integrated modeling framework is suitable for predicting dynamics of key variables of the socio-economic, biophysical, hydrological processes as well as exploring the potential transitions of system states in response to changes of the driving factors. The purpose of this dissertation is to address issues concerning the interacting processes and consequent changes in land use, water balance, and water quality using an integrated modeling framework. This dissertation is composed of three studies in the same agricultural watershed, the Clear Creek watershed in East-Central Iowa. In the first study, a parsimonious hydrologic model, the Threshold-Exceedance-Lagrangian Model (TELM), is further developed into RS-TELM (Remote Sensing TELM) to integrate remote sensing vegetation data for estimating evapotranspiration. The goodness of fit of RS-TELM is comparable to a well-calibrated SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and even slightly superior in capturing intra-seasonal variability of stream flow. The integration of RS LAI (Leaf Area Index) data improves the model's performance especially over the agriculture dominated landscapes. The input of rainfall datasets with spatially explicit information plays a critical role in increasing the model's goodness of fit. In the second study, an agent-based model is developed to simulate farmers' decisions on crop type and fertilizer application in response to commodity and biofuel crop prices. The comparison between simulated crop land percentage and crop rotations with satellite-based land cover data suggest that farmers may be underestimating the effects that continuous corn production has on yields (yield drag). The simulation results given alternative market scenarios based on a survey of agricultural land owners and operators in the Clear Creek Watershed show that, farmers see cellulosic biofuel feedstock production in the form

  1. Sharing Hydrologic Data with the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T.; Piasecki, M.; Goodall, J. L.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.

    2009-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system to support the sharing of hydrologic data consisting of databases connected using the internet through web services as well as software for data discovery, access and publication. The HIS is founded upon an information model for observations at stationary points that supports its data services. A data model, the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM), provides community defined semantics needed to allow sharing information from diverse data sources. A defined set of CUAHSI HIS web services allows for the development of data services, which scale from centralized data services which support access to National Datasets such as the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and EPA Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), in a standard way; to distributed data services which allow users to establish their own server and publish their data. User data services are registered to a central HIS website, and they become searchable and accessible through the centralized discovery and data access tools. HIS utilizes both an XML and relational database schema for transmission and storage of data respectively. WaterML is the XML schema used for data transmission that underlies the machine to machine communications, while the ODM is implemented as relational database model for persistent data storage. Web services support access to hydrologic data stored in ODM and communicate using WaterML directly from applications software such as Excel, MATLAB and ArcGIS that have Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. A significant value of web services derives from the capability to use them from within a user’s preferred analysis environment, using community defined semantics, rather than requiring a user to learn new software. This allows a user to work with data from national and academic sources, almost as though it was on their local disk. Users wishing to share or publish their data through CUAHSI

  2. Integration of Local Hydrology into Regional Hydrologic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zee, R. J.; Lal, W. A.

    2002-05-01

    South Florida hydrology is dominated by the Central and South Florida (C&SF) Project that is managed to provide flood protection, water supply and environmental protection. A complex network of levees canals and structures provide these services to the individual drainage basins. The landscape varies widely across the C&SF system, with corresponding differences in the way water is managed within each basin. Agricultural areas are managed for optimal crop production. Urban areas maximize flood protection while maintaining minimum water levels to protect adjacent wetlands and local water supplies. "Natural" areas flood and dry out in response to the temporal distribution of rainfall. The evaluation of planning, regulation and operational issues require access to a simulation model that captures the effects of both regional and local hydrology. The Regional Simulation Model (RSM) uses a "pseudo-cell" approach to integrate local hydrology within the context of a regional hydrologic system. A 2-dimensional triangulated mesh is used to represent the regional surface and ground water systems and a 1-dimensional canal network is superimposed onto this mesh. The movement of water is simulated using a finite volume formulation with a diffusive wave approximation. Each cell in the triangulated mesh has a "pseudo-cell" counterpart, which represents the same area as the cell, but it is conceptualized such that it simulates the localized hydrologic conditions Protocols have been established to provide an interface between a cell and its pseudo-cell counterpart. . A number of pseudo-cell types have already been developed and tested in the simulation of Water Conservation Area 1 and several have been proposed to deal with specific local issues in the Southwest Florida Feasibility Study. This presentation will provide an overview of the overall RSM design, describe the relationship between cells and pseudo-cells, and illustrate how pseudo-cells are be used to simulate agriculture

  3. Calibration by Hydrological Response Unit of a National Hydrologic Model to Improve Spatial Representation and Distribution of Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, P. A., II

    2015-12-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey is developing a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support consistent hydrologic modeling across the conterminous United States (CONUS). The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) simulates daily hydrologic and energy processes in watersheds, and is used for the NHM application. For PRMS each watershed is divided into hydrologic response units (HRUs); by default each HRU is assumed to have a uniform hydrologic response. The Geospatial Fabric (GF) is a database containing initial parameter values for input to PRMS and was created for the NHM. The parameter values in the GF were derived from datasets that characterize the physical features of the entire CONUS. The NHM application is composed of more than 100,000 HRUs from the GF. Selected parameter values commonly are adjusted by basin in PRMS using an automated calibration process based on calibration targets, such as streamflow. Providing each HRU with distinct values that captures variability within the CONUS may improve simulation performance of the NHM. During calibration of the NHM by HRU, selected parameter values are adjusted for PRMS based on calibration targets, such as streamflow, snow water equivalent (SWE) and actual evapotranspiration (AET). Simulated SWE, AET, and runoff were compared to value ranges derived from multiple sources (e.g. the Snow Data Assimilation System, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (i.e. MODIS) Global Evapotranspiration Project, the Simplified Surface Energy Balance model, and the Monthly Water Balance Model). This provides each HRU with a distinct set of parameter values that captures the variability within the CONUS, leading to improved model performance. We present simulation results from the NHM after preliminary calibration, including the results of basin-level calibration for the NHM using: 1) default initial GF parameter values, and 2) parameter values calibrated by HRU.

  4. GIS modeling for canine dirofilariosis risk assessment in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mortarino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in an area of central Italy in order to study the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens in dogs. Blood samples were collected from 283 dogs and examined using a modified Knott’s technique. In addition, in order to detect D. immitis occult infection, 203 serum samples were also analysed for D. immitis antigen detection. The results were analyzed in order to evaluate the behavioural and attitudinal risk factors. A geographical information system (GIS for the study area was constructed, utilizing the following data layers: administrative boundaries, elevation, temperature, rainfall and humidity. Microfilariae were detected in 32 of the 283 dogs surveyed, constituting a total Dirofilaria prevalence of 11.3%. In particular, 20 dogs (7.1% were positive for D. immitis and 12 dogs (4.2% for D. repens microfilariae. One case of D. immitis occult infection was also detected. Choroplethic municipal maps were drawn within the GIS in order to display the distribution of each Dirofilaria species in the study area. Statistical analysis showed a significant association between Dirofilaria infection and animal attitude (hunting/truffle dogs showed a higher prevalence compared to guard/pet dogs. A higher prevalence was also recorded in 2 to 5-years old dogs. Furthermore a GIS-based modelling of climatic data, collected from 5 meteorological stations in the study area, was performed to estimate the yearly number of D. immitis generations in the mosquito vector. The results of the model as depicted by GIS analysis was highly concordant with the territorial distribution of positive dogs and showed that D. immitis spreading is markedly influenced by season. The potential transmission period in the study area was found to be confined to summer months with a peak in July and August, as expected for a temperate region where summer season is the most favourable period for the parasite.

  5. Hydrological excitation of polar motion by different variables from the GLDAS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winska, Malgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Salstein, David

    2017-12-01

    Continental hydrological loading by land water, snow and ice is a process that is important for the full understanding of the excitation of polar motion. In this study, we compute different estimations of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (as hydrological angular momentum, HAM) using various variables from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models of the land-based hydrosphere. The main aim of this study is to show the influence of variables from different hydrological processes including evapotranspiration, runoff, snowmelt and soil moisture, on polar motion excitations at annual and short-term timescales. Hydrological excitation functions of polar motion are determined using selected variables of these GLDAS realizations. Furthermore, we use time-variable gravity field solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to determine the hydrological mass effects on polar motion excitation. We first conduct an intercomparison of the maps of variations of regional hydrological excitation functions, timing and phase diagrams of different regional and global HAMs. Next, we estimate the hydrological signal in geodetically observed polar motion excitation as a residual by subtracting the contributions of atmospheric angular momentum and oceanic angular momentum. Finally, the hydrological excitations are compared with those hydrological signals determined from residuals of the observed polar motion excitation series. The results will help us understand the relative importance of polar motion excitation within the individual hydrological processes, based on hydrological modeling. This method will allow us to estimate how well the polar motion excitation budget in the seasonal and inter-annual spectral ranges can be closed.

  6. Integration of a Three-Dimensional Process-Based Hydrological Model into the Object Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Formetta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of a spatial process model into an environmental modeling framework can enhance the model’s capabilities. This paper describes a general methodology for integrating environmental models into the Object Modeling System (OMS regardless of the model’s complexity, the programming language, and the operating system used. We present the integration of the GEOtop model into the OMS version 3.0 and illustrate its application in a small watershed. OMS is an environmental modeling framework that facilitates model development, calibration, evaluation, and maintenance. It provides innovative techniques in software design such as multithreading, implicit parallelism, calibration and sensitivity analysis algorithms, and cloud-services. GEOtop is a physically based, spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model that performs three-dimensional finite volume calculations of water and energy budgets. Executing GEOtop as an OMS model component allows it to: (1 interact directly with the open-source geographical information system (GIS uDig-JGrass to access geo-processing, visualization, and other modeling components; and (2 use OMS components for automatic calibration, sensitivity analysis, or meteorological data interpolation. A case study of the model in a semi-arid agricultural catchment is presented for illustration and proof-of-concept. Simulated soil water content and soil temperature results are compared with measured data, and model performance is evaluated using goodness-of-fit indices. This study serves as a template for future integration of process models into OMS.

  7. Spatial soil zinc content distribution from terrain parameters: A GIS-based decision-tree model in Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou Kheir, Rania, E-mail: rania.boukheir@agrsci.d [Lebanese University, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Department of Geography, GIS Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 90-1065, Fanar (Lebanon); Department of Agroecology and Environment, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (DJF), Aarhus University, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Greve, Mogens H. [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (DJF), Aarhus University, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Abdallah, Chadi [National Council for Scientific Research, Remote Sensing Center, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Dalgaard, Tommy [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (DJF), Aarhus University, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2010-02-15

    Heavy metal contamination has been and continues to be a worldwide phenomenon that has attracted a great deal of attention from governments and regulatory bodies. In this context, our study proposes a regression-tree model to predict the concentration level of zinc in the soils of northern Lebanon (as a case study of Mediterranean landscapes) under a GIS environment. The developed tree-model explained 88% of variance in zinc concentration using pH (100% in relative importance), surroundings of waste areas (90%), proximity to roads (80%), nearness to cities (50%), distance to drainage line (25%), lithology (24%), land cover/use (14%), slope gradient (10%), conductivity (7%), soil type (7%), organic matter (5%), and soil depth (5%). The overall accuracy of the quantitative zinc map produced (at 1:50.000 scale) was estimated to be 78%. The proposed tree model is relatively simple and may also be applied to other areas. - GIS regression-tree analysis explained 88% of the variability in field/laboratory Zinc concentrations.

  8. Spatial soil zinc content distribution from terrain parameters: A GIS-based decision-tree model in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mogens H.; Abdallah, Chadi; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination has been and continues to be a worldwide phenomenon that has attracted a great deal of attention from governments and regulatory bodies. In this context, our study proposes a regression-tree model to predict the concentration level of zinc in the soils of northern Lebanon (as a case study of Mediterranean landscapes) under a GIS environment. The developed tree-model explained 88% of variance in zinc concentration using pH (100% in relative importance), surroundings of waste areas (90%), proximity to roads (80%), nearness to cities (50%), distance to drainage line (25%), lithology (24%), land cover/use (14%), slope gradient (10%), conductivity (7%), soil type (7%), organic matter (5%), and soil depth (5%). The overall accuracy of the quantitative zinc map produced (at 1:50.000 scale) was estimated to be 78%. The proposed tree model is relatively simple and may also be applied to other areas. - GIS regression-tree analysis explained 88% of the variability in field/laboratory Zinc concentrations.

  9. Defining Primary Care Shortage Areas: Do GIS-based Measures Yield Different Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael R; Mellor, Jennifer M; Millones, Marco

    2018-02-12

    To examine whether geographic information systems (GIS)-based physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) yield determinations of geographic primary care shortage areas that differ from those based on bounded-area PPRs like those used in the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation process. We used geocoded data on primary care physician (PCP) locations and census block population counts from 1 US state to construct 2 shortage area indicators. The first is a bounded-area shortage indicator defined without GIS methods; the second is a GIS-based measure that measures the populations' spatial proximity to PCP locations. We examined agreement and disagreement between bounded shortage areas and GIS-based shortage areas. Bounded shortage area indicators and GIS-based shortage area indicators agree for the census blocks where the vast majority of our study populations reside. Specifically, 95% and 98% of the populations in our full and urban samples, respectively, reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree. Although agreement is generally high in rural areas (ie, 87% of the rural population reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree), agreement is significantly lower compared to urban areas. One source of disagreement suggests that bounded-area measures may "overlook" some shortages in rural areas; however, other aspects of the HPSA designation process likely mitigate this concern. Another source of disagreement arises from the border-crossing problem, and it is more prevalent. The GIS-based PPRs we employed would yield shortage area determinations that are similar to those based on bounded-area PPRs defined for Primary Care Service Areas. Disagreement rates were lower than previous studies have found. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Application of GIS tools in determining the navigability of waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Grzegorz; Rabant, Hubert; Szatten, Dawid

    2017-11-01

    This article presents the results of a research conducted on Lower Noteć river for the application of geographic information system (GIS) tools. The study consisted of longitudinal profile soundings of navigable route combined with statistical analysis of water levels. GIS software - ArcMap v. 10.0 was used to perform analysis of changes in waterway depth depending on hydrological conditions. A mileage of waterway sections was specified depending on whether they met or did not meet classification requirements in accordance with Polish law. The application of spatial data of Lower Noteć river developed for the purpose of the article is presented. Conducted analyses and obtained results demonstrate the importance of GIS tools in inland navigation studies.

  11. Technical note: Representing glacier geometry changes in a semi-distributed hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Seibert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers play an important role in high-mountain hydrology. While changing glacier areas are considered of highest importance for the understanding of future changes in runoff, glaciers are often only poorly represented in hydrological models. Most importantly, the direct coupling between the simulated glacier mass balances and changing glacier areas needs feasible solutions. The use of a complex glacier model is often not possible due to data and computational limitations. The Δh parameterization is a simple approach to consider the spatial variation of glacier thickness and area changes. Here, we describe a conceptual implementation of the Δh parameterization in the semi-distributed hydrological model HBV-light, which also allows for the representation of glacier advance phases and for comparison between the different versions of the implementation. The coupled glacio-hydrological simulation approach, which could also be implemented in many other semi-distributed hydrological models, is illustrated based on an example application.

  12. Erosion Assessment Modeling Using the Sateec Gis Model on the Prislop Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gheorghe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control (SATEEC acts as an extension for ArcView GIS 3, with easy to use commands. The erosion assessment is divided into two modules that consist of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for sheet/rill erosion and the nLS/USPED modeling for gully head erosion. The SATEEC erosion modules can be successfully implemented for areas where sheet, rill and gully erosion occurs, such as the Prislop Catchment. The enhanced SATEEC system does not require experienced GIS users to operate the system therefore it is suitable for local authorities and/or students not so familiar with erosion modeling.

  13. A framework for human-hydrologic system model development integrating hydrology and water management: application to the Cutzamala water system in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, S.; Freeman, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a general approach to developing computational models of human-hydrologic systems where human modification of hydrologic surface processes are significant or dominant. A river basin system is represented by a network of human-hydrologic response units (HHRUs) identified based on locations where river regulations happen (e.g., reservoir operation and diversions). Natural and human processes in HHRUs are simulated in a holistic framework that integrates component models representing rainfall-runoff, river routing, reservoir operation, flow diversion and water use processes. We illustrate the approach in a case study of the Cutzamala water system (CWS) in Mexico, a complex inter-basin water transfer system supplying the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The human-hydrologic system model for CWS (CUTZSIM) is evaluated in terms of streamflow and reservoir storages measured across the CWS and to water supplied for MCMA. The CUTZSIM improves the representation of hydrology and river-operation interaction and, in so doing, advances evaluation of system-wide water management consequences under altered climatic and demand regimes. The integrated modeling framework enables evaluation and simulation of model errors throughout the river basin, including errors in representation of the human component processes. Heretofore, model error evaluation, predictive error intervals and the resultant improved understanding have been limited to hydrologic processes. The general framework represents an initial step towards fuller understanding and prediction of the many and varied processes that determine the hydrologic fluxes and state variables in real river basins.

  14. Design of AN Intelligent Individual Evacuation Model for High Rise Building Fires Based on Neural Network Within the Scope of 3d GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atila, U.; Karas, I. R.; Turan, M. K.; Rahman, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    One of the most dangerous disaster threatening the high rise and complex buildings of today's world including thousands of occupants inside is fire with no doubt. When we consider high population and the complexity of such buildings it is clear to see that performing a rapid and safe evacuation seems hard and human being does not have good memories in case of such disasters like world trade center 9/11. Therefore, it is very important to design knowledge based realtime interactive evacuation methods instead of classical strategies which lack of flexibility. This paper presents a 3D-GIS implementation which simulates the behaviour of an intelligent indoor pedestrian navigation model proposed for a self -evacuation of a person in case of fire. The model is based on Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) which is one of the most preferred artificial neural network architecture in classification and prediction problems. A sample fire scenario following through predefined instructions has been performed on 3D model of the Corporation Complex in Putrajaya (Malaysia) and the intelligent evacuation process has been realized within a proposed 3D-GIS based simulation.

  15. Numerical modeling of the agricultural-hydrologic system in Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyblade, M.; Russo, T. A.; Zikatanov, L.; Zipp, K.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of food security for India's growing population is threatened by the decline in freshwater resources due to unsustainable water use for irrigation. The issue is acute in parts of Punjab, India, where small landholders produce a major quantity of India's food with declining groundwater resources. To further complicate this problem, other regions of the state are experiencing groundwater logging and salinization, and are reliant on canal systems for fresh water delivery. Due to the lack of water use records, groundwater consumption for this study is estimated with available data on crop yields, climate, and total canal water delivery. The hydrologic and agricultural systems are modeled using appropriate numerical methods and software. This is a state-wide hydrologic numerical model of Punjab that accounts for multiple aquifer layers, agricultural water demands, and interactions between the surface canal system and groundwater. To more accurately represent the drivers of agricultural production and therefore water use, we couple an economic crop optimization model with the hydrologic model. These tools will be used to assess and optimize crop choice scenarios based on farmer income, food production, and hydrologic system constraints. The results of these combined models can be used to further understand the hydrologic system response to government crop procurement policies and climate change, and to assess the effectiveness of possible water conservation solutions.

  16. Assessing climate change impact by integrated hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajer Hojberg, Anker; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans; Olsen, Martin; der Keur Peter, van; Seaby, Lauren Paige; Troldborg, Lars; Sonnenborg, Torben; Refsgaard, Jens Christian

    2013-04-01

    Future climate may have a profound effect on the freshwater cycle, which must be taken into consideration by water management for future planning. Developments in the future climate are nevertheless uncertain, thus adding to the challenge of managing an uncertain system. To support the water managers at various levels in Denmark, the national water resources model (DK-model) (Højberg et al., 2012; Stisen et al., 2012) was used to propagate future climate to hydrological response under considerations of the main sources of uncertainty. The DK-model is a physically based and fully distributed model constructed on the basis of the MIKE SHE/MIKE11 model system describing groundwater and surface water systems and the interaction between the domains. The model has been constructed for the entire 43.000 km2 land area of Denmark only excluding minor islands. Future climate from General Circulation Models (GCM) was downscaled by Regional Climate Models (RCM) by a distribution-based scaling method (Seaby et al., 2012). The same dataset was used to train all combinations of GCM-RCMs and they were found to represent the mean and variance at the seasonal basis equally well. Changes in hydrological response were computed by comparing the short term development from the period 1990 - 2010 to 2021 - 2050, which is the time span relevant for water management. To account for uncertainty in future climate predictions, hydrological response from the DK-model using nine combinations of GCMs and RCMs was analysed for two catchments representing the various hydrogeological conditions in Denmark. Three GCM-RCM combinations displaying high, mean and low future impacts were selected as representative climate models for which climate impact studies were carried out for the entire country. Parameter uncertainty was addressed by sensitivity analysis and was generally found to be of less importance compared to the uncertainty spanned by the GCM-RCM combinations. Analysis of the simulations

  17. The Coastal Area Development Using GIS (Review of GIS Application Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastowo Sutanto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available GIS, Geographical Information System, is a means that an be used to plan and to develop the coastal area because in carrying out the analysis this system combines the space data and their  attributes. The activities done among others the prototype development of algae cultivation and tourism ativities, the development of fish pond location, the reclamation of the Jakarta Bay, and the concept of development the floating “Keramba” for pearl oysters and white sea fish similar to sole. GIS analysis with heaviness and overlay mapping yields the appropriate map to plan and to develop the coastal area. The result of GIS analysis can be used to plan and to develop the coastal area.

  18. GIS4schools: a new approach in GIS education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demharter, Timo; Michel, Ulrich

    2012-10-01

    From a didactic point of view the procurement and the application of modern geographical methods and functions become more and more important. Although the integration of GIS in the classroom is repeatedly demanded, inter alia in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, the number of GIS users is small in comparison to other European countries or the USA. Possible reasons for this could, for instance, lie in the lack of GIS and computer knowledge of the teachers themselves and the subsequent extensive training effort in Desktop-GIS (KERSKI 2000, SCHLEICHER 2004). Today you have the technological possibilities to provide the broad public with geoinformation and geotechnology: Web technologies offer access to web-based, mobile and local applications through simple gateways. The objective of the project "GIS4schools" is to generate a service-based infrastructure, which can be operated via mobile clients as well as via Desktop-GIS or a Browser. Due to the easy availability of the services the focus is in particular on students. This circumstance is a novelty through which a differentiated approach to the implementation of GIS in schools is established. Accordingly, the pilot nature of this project becomes apparent as well as its greater importance beyond its actual content especially for the sector of media development at colleges of education. The continuity from Web-GIS to Desktop-GIS is innovative: The goal is to create an adapted multi-level solution which allows both, an easy introduction if desired or a detailed analysis - either to be achieved with a focus especially on students and their cooperation among one another.

  19. GIS-based two-dimensional numerical simulation of rainfall-induced debris flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a useful numerical method to simulate the propagation and deposition of debris flow across the three dimensional complex terrain. A depth-averaged two-dimensional numerical model is developed, in which the debris and water mixture is assumed to be continuous, incompressible, unsteady flow. The model is based on the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations. Raster grid networks of digital elevation model in GIS provide a uniform grid system to describe complex topography. As the raster grid can be used as the finite difference mesh, the continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically using the finite difference method. The numerical model is applied to simulate the rainfall-induced debris flow occurred in 20 July 2003, in Minamata City of southern Kyushu, Japan. The simulation reproduces the propagation and deposition and the results are in good agreement with the field investigation. The synthesis of numerical method and GIS makes possible the solution of debris flow over a realistic terrain, and can be used to estimate the flow range, and to define potentially hazardous areas for homes and road section.

  20. Integrating pipeline data management application and Google maps dataset on web based GIS application unsing open source technology Sharp Map and Open Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisianto, Arie; Sania, Hidayatus [PT PERTAMINA GAS, Bontang (Indonesia); Gumilar, Oki [PT PERTAMINA GAS, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    PT Pertamina Gas operates 3 pipe segments carrying natural gas from producers to PT Pupuk Kaltim in the Kalimantan area. The company wants to build a pipeline data management system consisting of pipeline facilities, inspections and risk assessments which would run on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) platforms. The aim of this paper is to present the integration of the pipeline data management system with GIS. A web based GIS application is developed using the combination of Google maps datasets with local spatial datasets. In addition, Open Layers is used to integrate pipeline data model and Google Map dataset into a single map display on Sharp Map. The GIS based pipeline data management system developed herein constitutes a low cost, powerful and efficient web based GIS solution.

  1. Remote sensing inputs to landscape models which predict future spatial land use patterns for hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. D.; Tom, C.; Nualchawee, K.

    1977-01-01

    A tropical forest area of Northern Thailand provided a test case of the application of the approach in more natural surroundings. Remote sensing imagery subjected to proper computer analysis has been shown to be a very useful means of collecting spatial data for the science of hydrology. Remote sensing products provide direct input to hydrologic models and practical data bases for planning large and small-scale hydrologic developments. Combining the available remote sensing imagery together with available map information in the landscape model provides a basis for substantial improvements in these applications.

  2. Subdivision of Texas watersheds for hydrologic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of findings and examples for subdivision of watersheds for hydrologic modeling. Three approaches were used to examine the impact of watershed subdivision on modeled hydrologic response: (1) An equal-area...

  3. Determination of the hydrological properties of a small-scale catchment area in Northern Greece from ASTER and SRTM DEMs and accuracy assessment with a local DTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanou, E. A.; Vergos, G. S.

    2012-04-01

    The combined use of Geographic Information Systems and recent high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from Remote Sensing imagery offers a unique opportunity to study the hydrological properties of basin and catchment dynamics and derive the hydrological features of specific regions of various spatial scales. Until recently, the availability of global DEMs was restricted to low-resolution and accuracy models, e.g., ETOPO5, ETOPO2 and GTOPO30, compared to local Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from photogrammetric methods and offered usually in the form of topographic maps of various scales. The advent of the SRTM and ASTER missions, offer some new tools and opportunities in order to use their data within a GIS to study the hydrological properties of basins and consequently validate their performance both amongst each other, as well as in terms of the results derived from a local DTM. The present work focuses on the use of the recent SRTM v2 90 m and ASTER v2 30 m DEMs along with the national 500 m DTM generated by the Hellenic Military Geographic Service (HMGS), within a GIS in order to assess their performance in determining the hydrological properties of basins. To this respect, the ArcHydro extension tool of ArcGIS v9.3 and HEC-GeoRAS v4.3 have been exploited to determine the hydrographic data of the basins under study which are located in Northern Greece. The hydrological characteristics refer to stream geometry, curve number, flooding areas, etc. as well as the topographic characteristics of the basin itself, such as aspect, hillshade, slope e.t.c..

  4. An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis approach for GIS-based multicriteria landslide susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizizadeh, Bakhtiar; Blaschke, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods are increasingly being used in landslide susceptibility mapping. However, the uncertainties that are associated with MCDA techniques may significantly impact the results. This may sometimes lead to inaccurate outcomes and undesirable consequences. This article introduces a new GIS-based MCDA approach. We illustrate the consequences of applying different MCDA methods within a decision-making process through uncertainty analysis. Three GIS-MCDA methods in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and Dempster–Shafer theory are analyzed for landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) in the Urmia lake basin in Iran, which is highly susceptible to landslide hazards. The methodology comprises three stages. First, the LSM criteria are ranked and a sensitivity analysis is implemented to simulate error propagation based on the MCS. The resulting weights are expressed through probability density functions. Accordingly, within the second stage, three MCDA methods, namely analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and ordered weighted average (OWA), are used to produce the landslide susceptibility maps. In the third stage, accuracy assessments are carried out and the uncertainties of the different results are measured. We compare the accuracies of the three MCDA methods based on (1) the Dempster–Shafer theory and (2) a validation of the results using an inventory of known landslides and their respective coverage based on object-based image analysis of IRS-ID satellite images. The results of this study reveal that through the integration of GIS and MCDA models, it is possible to identify strategies for choosing an appropriate method for LSM. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the integration of MCDA and MCS can significantly improve the accuracy of the results. In LSM, the AHP method performed best, while the OWA reveals better performance in the reliability assessment. The WLC

  5. Integrated climate and hydrology modelling - Coupling of the HIRHAM regional climate model and the MIKE SHE hydrological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl Larsen, M.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    To ensure optimal management and sustainable strategies for water resources, infrastructures, food production and ecosystems there is a need for an improved understanding of feedback and interaction mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface. This is especially true in light of expected global warming and increased frequency of extreme events. The skill in developing projections of both the present and future climate depends essentially on the ability to numerically simulate the processes of atmospheric circulation, hydrology, energy and ecology. Previous modelling efforts of climate and hydrology have used each model component in an offline mode where the models are run in sequential steps and one model serves as a boundary condition or data input source to the other. Within recent years a new field of research has emerged where efforts have been made to dynamically couple existing climate and hydrology models to more directly include the interaction between the atmosphere and the land surface. The present PhD study is motivated by an ambition of developing and applying a modelling tool capable of including the interaction and feedback mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface. The modelling tool consists of a fully dynamic two-way coupling of the HIRHAM regional climate model and the MIKE SHE hydrological model. The expected gain is twofold. Firstly, HIRHAM utilizes the land surface component of the combined MIKE SHE/SWET hydrology and land surface model (LSM), which is superior to the LSM in HIRHAM. A wider range of processes are included at the land surface, subsurface flow is distributed in three dimensions and the temporal and spatial resolution is higher. Secondly, the feedback mechanisms of e.g. soil moisture and precipitation between the two models are included. The preparation of the HIRHAM and MIKE SHE models for the coupled study revealed several findings. The performance of HIRHAM was highly affected by the domain size, domain

  6. Impacts of climate and land-use changes on the hydrological dynamics in the upper Citarum River basin based on the J2000 hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenika Julian, Miga; Fink, Manfred; Fischer, Christian; Krause, Peter; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2015-04-01

    Changes of land-use and climate will most likely result in changes of the hydrological dynamics in river basins. Such changes can be noticed in the upper Citarum River basin (UCB), Java Island, Indonesia. This basin covers 1821km2 and is located in a hilly area of the backcountry of Jakarta. Between 2005 and 2009, the basin's forest cover has been reduced by 5.0%, residential areas grew around 8.2% expanding around the existing residential areas, and 3.9% of shrubland was converted into agricultural areas. From 1985 through 2009, the mean annual air temperature increased by 0.01° C/year; whereas, precipitation slightly decreased by 6.8mm/year. The process-oriented hydrological model JAMS/J2000 was adapted and implemented to assess the impact of land-use change and climate variability on the hydrological dynamics of this basin, including consideration of the temporal and spatial distributions. For this assessment, three scenarios based on realistic events were investigated; these consisted of the following (i) land-use changes in 2005 versus 2009; (ii) temperature increase from 1984 to 2009, while keeping a precipitation constant from year 1984; and (iii) variability of precipitation from 1984 to 2009, while keeping temperature constant from year 1984. The model-input conditions of land-use, precipitation, and temperature changes where applied individually, holding the other factors constant. Model simulations were conducted for the UCB. The J2000 model for the UCB was calibrated and validated using a split-sample approach. For model calibration and validation, fairly good objective functions were achieved: i.e. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (E) by 0.79 and 0.76, log E of 0.89 and 0.84, coefficient of determination of 0.79 and 0.77, and a percent bias of -1.4% and -1.1%. From the model-simulation results, it was concluded that the land-use changes resulted in a slight increase in stream discharge (4.6%) and a decrease of evaporation of 3.7%. The analysis of the

  7. METHODOLOGY FOR AUTOMATICALLY DELIMITING PERMANENT PRESERVATION AREAS ALONG WATER COURSES - THE USE OF GIS IN THE HYDROLOGICAL BASIN OF THE SERGIPE RIVER, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janisson Batista de Jesus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along watercourses have been the focus of numerous studies, not only because of the fragility and ecological relevance of riverine vegetation, but also because of the inefficiency demonstrated in conforming to the legislation protecting it. One of the major difficulties encountered in terms of guaranteeing the effective conservation of these riverside areas is the absence of methodologies that can be used to define them rapidly and accurately without manually determining the widths of the rivers or assigning only uniform linear values for the entire watercourse. The present work sought to develop a spatial analysis methodology capable of automatically defining permanent preservation areas along watercourses using geographic information system (GIS software. The present study was undertaken in the Sergipe River basin, "considering the river itself and its principal affluents. We used the database of the Digital Atlas of Hydrological Resources (SEMARH/SE, and the delimitations of the PPAs were performed using ArcGIS 10.1 and the XToolPro 9.0 extension. A total of 5,003.82 hectares of Permanent Preservation Areas were delimited along the margins of the rivers analyzed, with a margin of error of <1% in delimiting the widths of the rivers within the entire area considered. The methodology described here can be used to define PPAs efficiently, relatively rapidly, and with very small margins of error, thus representing a technological advance in terms of using GIS for land management.

  8. Cloud Computing and Its Applications in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cao

    2011-12-01

    of cloud computing. This paper presents a parallel Euclidean distance algorithm that works seamlessly with the distributed nature of cloud computing infrastructures. The mechanism of this algorithm is to subdivide a raster image into sub-images and wrap them with a one pixel deep edge layer of individually computed distance information. Each sub-image is then processed by a separate node, after which the resulting sub-images are reassembled into the final output. It is shown that while any rectangular sub-image shape can be used, those approximating squares are computationally optimal. This study also serves as a demonstration of this subdivide and layer-wrap strategy, which would enable the migration of many truly spatial GIS algorithms to cloud computing infrastructures. However, this research also indicates that certain spatial GIS algorithms such as cost distance cannot be migrated by adopting this mechanism, which presents significant challenges for the development of cloud-based GIS systems. The third article is entitled "A Distributed Storage Schema for Cloud Computing based Raster GIS Systems". This paper proposes a NoSQL Database Management System (NDDBMS) based raster GIS data storage schema. NDDBMS has good scalability and is able to use distributed commodity computers, which make it superior to Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) in a cloud computing environment. In order to provide optimized data service performance, the proposed storage schema analyzes the nature of commonly used raster GIS data sets. It discriminates two categories of commonly used data sets, and then designs corresponding data storage models for both categories. As a result, the proposed storage schema is capable of hosting and serving enormous volumes of raster GIS data speedily and efficiently on cloud computing infrastructures. In addition, the scheme also takes advantage of the data compression characteristics of Quadtrees, thus promoting efficient data storage. Through

  9. The Curve Number Concept as a Driver for Delineating Hydrological Response Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Savvidou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new methodology for delineating Hydrological Response Units (HRUs, based on the Curve Number (CN concept, is presented. Initially, a semi-automatic procedure in a GIS environment is used to produce basin maps of distributed CN values as the product of the three classified layers, soil permeability, land use/land cover characteristics and drainage capacity. The map of CN values is used in the context of model parameterization, in order to identify the essential number and spatial extent of HRUs and, consequently, the number of control variables of the calibration problem. The new approach aims at reducing the subjectivity introduced by the definition of HRUs and providing parsimonious modelling schemes. In particular, the CN-based parameterization (1 allows the user to assign as many parameters as can be supported by the available hydrological information, (2 associates the model parameters with anticipated basin responses, as quantified in terms of CN classes across HRUs, and (3 reduces the effort for model calibration, simultaneously ensuring good predictive capacity. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated in the hydrological simulation of the Nedontas River Basin, Greece, where parameterizations of different complexities are employed in a recently improved version of the HYDROGEIOS model. A modelling experiment with a varying number of HRUs, where the parameter estimation problem was handled through automatic optimization, showed that the parameterization with three HRUs, i.e., equal to the number of flow records, ensured the optimal performance. Similarly, tests with alternative HRU configurations confirmed that the optimal scores, both in calibration and validation, were achieved by the CN-based approach, also resulting in parameters values across the HRUs that were in agreement with their physical interpretation.

  10. Modeling Flood Hazard Zones at the Sub-District Level with the Rational Model Integrated with GIS and Remote Sensing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asare-Kyei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust risk assessment requires accurate flood intensity area mapping to allow for the identification of populations and elements at risk. However, available flood maps in West Africa lack spatial variability while global datasets have resolutions too coarse to be relevant for local scale risk assessment. Consequently, local disaster managers are forced to use traditional methods such as watermarks on buildings and media reports to identify flood hazard areas. In this study, remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were combined with hydrological and statistical models to delineate the spatial limits of flood hazard zones in selected communities in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Benin. The approach involves estimating peak runoff concentrations at different elevations and then applying statistical methods to develop a Flood Hazard Index (FHI. Results show that about half of the study areas fall into high intensity flood zones. Empirical validation using statistical confusion matrix and the principles of Participatory GIS show that flood hazard areas could be mapped at an accuracy ranging from 77% to 81%. This was supported with local expert knowledge which accurately classified 79% of communities deemed to be highly susceptible to flood hazard. The results will assist disaster managers to reduce the risk to flood disasters at the community level where risk outcomes are first materialized.

  11. Modeling the Hydrological Regime of Turkana Lake (Kenya, Ethiopia) by Combining Spatially Distributed Hydrological Modeling and Remote Sensing Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Kaelin, A.; Peleg, N.; Fatichi, S.; Molnar, P.; Roques, C.; Longuevergne, L.; Burlando, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological modeling in poorly gauged basins can benefit from the use of remote sensing datasets although there are challenges associated with the mismatch in spatial and temporal scales between catchment scale hydrological models and remote sensing products. We model the hydrological processes and long-term water budget of the Lake Turkana catchment, a transboundary basin between Kenya and Ethiopia, by integrating several remote sensing products into a spatially distributed and physically explicit model, Topkapi-ETH. Lake Turkana is the world largest desert lake draining a catchment of 145'500 km2. It has three main contributing rivers: the Omo river, which contributes most of the annual lake inflow, the Turkwel river, and the Kerio rivers, which contribute the remaining part. The lake levels have shown great variations in the last decades due to long-term climate fluctuations and the regulation of three reservoirs, Gibe I, II, and III, which significantly alter the hydrological seasonality. Another large reservoir is planned and may be built in the next decade, generating concerns about the fate of Lake Turkana in the long run because of this additional anthropogenic pressure and increasing evaporation driven by climate change. We consider different remote sensing datasets, i.e., TRMM-V7 for precipitation, MERRA-2 for temperature, as inputs to the spatially distributed hydrological model. We validate the simulation results with other remote sensing datasets, i.e., GRACE for total water storage anomalies, GLDAS-NOAH for soil moisture, ERA-Interim/Land for surface runoff, and TOPEX/Poseidon for satellite altimetry data. Results highlight how different remote sensing products can be integrated into a hydrological modeling framework accounting for their relative uncertainties. We also carried out simulations with the artificial reservoirs planned in the north part of the catchment and without any reservoirs, to assess their impacts on the catchment hydrological

  12. From Particles and Point Clouds to Voxel Models: High Resolution Modeling of Dynamic Landscapes in Open Source GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitasova, H.; Hardin, E. J.; Kratochvilova, A.; Landa, M.

    2012-12-01

    Multitemporal data acquired by modern mapping technologies provide unique insights into processes driving land surface dynamics. These high resolution data also offer an opportunity to improve the theoretical foundations and accuracy of process-based simulations of evolving landforms. We discuss development of new generation of visualization and analytics tools for GRASS GIS designed for 3D multitemporal data from repeated lidar surveys and from landscape process simulations. We focus on data and simulation methods that are based on point sampling of continuous fields and lead to representation of evolving surfaces as series of raster map layers or voxel models. For multitemporal lidar data we present workflows that combine open source point cloud processing tools with GRASS GIS and custom python scripts to model and analyze dynamics of coastal topography (Figure 1) and we outline development of coastal analysis toolbox. The simulations focus on particle sampling method for solving continuity equations and its application for geospatial modeling of landscape processes. In addition to water and sediment transport models, already implemented in GIS, the new capabilities under development combine OpenFOAM for wind shear stress simulation with a new module for aeolian sand transport and dune evolution simulations. Comparison of observed dynamics with the results of simulations is supported by a new, integrated 2D and 3D visualization interface that provides highly interactive and intuitive access to the redesigned and enhanced visualization tools. Several case studies will be used to illustrate the presented methods and tools and demonstrate the power of workflows built with FOSS and highlight their interoperability.Figure 1. Isosurfaces representing evolution of shoreline and a z=4.5m contour between the years 1997-2011at Cape Hatteras, NC extracted from a voxel model derived from series of lidar-based DEMs.

  13. Hydrologic modeling of the Columbia Plateau basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.; Zimmerman, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) directed the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program to conduct a technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques for the Department of Energy (DOE) as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The hydrologic simulation was divided into three major parts: (1) aquifer recharge calculations, (2) a regional hydrologic model, and (3) a local hydrologic model of the Pasco Basin. The presentation discusses the regional model. An estimate of the amount of water transmitted through the groundwater system was required to bound the transmissivity values and to estimate the transmissivity distributions for the deeper basalts. The multiple layer two-dimensional Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) code was selected as appropriate for the amount of data available and for the conditions existing in the regional systems. This model uses a finite difference formulation to represent the partial differential flow equation. The regional study area as defined for the VTT model was divided into 55 by 55 square pattern with each grid 5 kilometers on a side. The regional system was modeled as a held potential surface layer and two underlying basalt layers. The regional model established the boundary conditions for the hydrologic model the Pasco Basin

  14. Modelling domestic stock energy use and heat-related health risk : a GIS-based bottom-up modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrogianni, A.; Davies, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom). Bartlett School of Graduate Studies; Chalabi, Z.; Wilkinson, P. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medecine, London (United Kingdom); Kolokotroni, M. [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). School of Engineering Design

    2009-07-01

    Approximately 8 per cent of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions produced in the United Kingdom are produced in London, one of the fastest growing cities worldwide. Based on the projected rates of population and economic growth, a 15 per cent increase of emissions is predicted. In addition to the national target to cut emissions by 80 per cent by 2050, the Mayor of London Climate Change Action Plan set a target to reduce London's CO{sub 2} emissions by 60 per cent by 2025. Significant carbon savings can be achieved in the building sector, particularly since 38 per cent of the total delivered energy in London is associated with domestic energy use. This paper demonstrated a systematic approach towards exploring the impact of urban built form and the combined effect of climate change and the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon on the levels of domestic energy consumption and heat-related health risk in London. It presented work in progress on the development of a GIS-based energy consumption model and heat vulnerability index of the Greater London Area domestic stock. Comparison of the model output for 10 case study areas with topdown energy statistics revealed that the model successfully ranks areas based on their domestic space heating demand. The health module can be used to determine environments prone to higher risk of heat stress by investigating urban texture factors. A newly developed epidemiological model will be feed into the health module to examine the influence on risk of heat-related mortality of local urban built form characteristics. The epidemiological model is based on multi-variable analysis of deaths during heat wave and non-heat wave days. 29 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  15. Modelling Multi Hazard Mapping in Semarang City Using GIS-Fuzzy Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. L.; Awaluddin, M.; Sasmito, B.

    2018-02-01

    One important aspect of disaster mitigation planning is hazard mapping. Hazard mapping can provide spatial information on the distribution of locations that are threatened by disaster. Semarang City as the capital of Central Java Province is one of the cities with high natural disaster intensity. Frequent natural disasters Semarang city is tidal flood, floods, landslides, and droughts. Therefore, Semarang City needs spatial information by doing multi hazard mapping to support disaster mitigation planning in Semarang City. Multi Hazards map modelling can be derived from parameters such as slope maps, rainfall, land use, and soil types. This modelling is done by using GIS method with scoring and overlay technique. However, the accuracy of modelling would be better if the GIS method is combined with Fuzzy Logic techniques to provide a good classification in determining disaster threats. The Fuzzy-GIS method will build a multi hazards map of Semarang city can deliver results with good accuracy and with appropriate threat class spread so as to provide disaster information for disaster mitigation planning of Semarang city. from the multi-hazard modelling using GIS-Fuzzy can be known type of membership that has a good accuracy is the type of membership Gauss with RMSE of 0.404 the smallest of the other membership and VAF value of 72.909% of the largest of the other membership.

  16. Modeling of Aerosol Vertical Profiles Using GIS and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Ho Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS by climatologists, environmentalists and urban planners for three dimensional modeling and visualization of the landscape is well established. However no previous study has implemented these techniques for 3D modeling of atmospheric aerosols because air quality data is traditionally measured at ground points, or from satellite images, with no vertical dimension. This study presents a prototype for modeling and visualizing aerosol vertical profiles over a 3D urban landscape in Hong Kong. The method uses a newly developed technique for the derivation of aerosol vertical profiles from AERONET sunphotometer measurements and surface visibility data, and links these to a 3D urban model. This permits automated modeling and visualization of aerosol concentrations at different atmospheric levels over the urban landscape in near-real time. Since the GIS platform permits presentation of the aerosol vertical distribution in 3D, it can be related to the built environment of the city. Examples are given of the applications of the model, including diagnosis of the relative contribution of vehicle emissions to pollution levels in the city, based on increased near-surface concentrations around weekday rush-hour times. The ability to model changes in air quality and visibility from ground level to the top of tall buildings is also demonstrated, and this has implications for energy use and environmental policies for the tall mega-cities of the future.

  17. Vertical Integration of Geographic Information Sciences: A Recruitment Model for GIS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jaehyung; Huynh, Niem Tu; McGehee, Thomas Lee

    2011-01-01

    An innovative vertical integration model for recruiting to GIS education was introduced and tested following four driving forces: curriculum development, GIS presentations, institutional collaboration, and faculty training. Curriculum development was a useful approach to recruitment, student credit hour generation, and retention-rate improvement.…

  18. Modelling topographic potential for erosion and deposition using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helena Mitasova; Louis R. Iverson

    1996-01-01

    Modelling of erosion and deposition in complex terrain within a geographical information system (GIS) requires a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM), reliable estimation of topographic parameters, and formulation of erosion models adequate for digital representation of spatially distributed parameters. Regularized spline with tension was integrated within a...

  19. Open source data assimilation framework for hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, Marc; Hummel, Stef; van Velzen, Nils; Katrine Falk, Anne; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    An open-source data assimilation framework is proposed for hydrological modeling. Data assimilation (DA) in hydrodynamic and hydrological forecasting systems has great potential to improve predictions and improve model result. The basic principle is to incorporate measurement information into a model with the aim to improve model results by error minimization. Great strides have been made to assimilate traditional in-situ measurements such as discharge, soil moisture, hydraulic head and snowpack into hydrologic models. More recently, remotely sensed data retrievals of soil moisture, snow water equivalent or snow cover area, surface water elevation, terrestrial water storage and land surface temperature have been successfully assimilated in hydrological models. The assimilation algorithms have become increasingly sophisticated to manage measurement and model bias, non-linear systems, data sparsity (time & space) and undetermined system uncertainty. It is therefore useful to use a pre-existing DA toolbox such as OpenDA. OpenDA is an open interface standard for (and free implementation of) a set of tools to quickly implement DA and calibration for arbitrary numerical models. The basic design philosophy of OpenDA is to breakdown DA into a set of building blocks programmed in object oriented languages. To implement DA, a model must interact with OpenDA to create model instances, propagate the model, get/set variables (or parameters) and free the model once DA is completed. An open-source interface for hydrological models exists capable of all these tasks: OpenMI. OpenMI is an open source standard interface already adopted by key hydrological model providers. It defines a universal approach to interact with hydrological models during simulation to exchange data during runtime, thus facilitating the interactions between models and data sources. The interface is flexible enough so that models can interact even if the model is coded in a different language, represent

  20. Water allocation assessment in low flow river under data scarce conditions: a study of hydrological simulation in Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Rubab F; Passuello, Ana; Hammond, Michael; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2012-12-01

    River Francolí is a small river in Catalonia (northeastern Spain) with an average annual low flow (~2 m(3)/s). The purpose of the River Francolí watershed assessments is to support and inform region-wide planning efforts from the perspective of water protection, climate change and water allocation. In this study, a hydrological model of the Francolí River watershed was developed for use as a tool for watershed planning, water resource assessment, and ultimately, water allocation purposes using hydrological data from 2002 to 2006 inclusive. The modeling package selected for this application is DHI's MIKE BASIN. This model is a strategic scale water resource management simulation model, which includes modeling of both land surface and subsurface hydrological processes. Topographic, land use, hydrological, rainfall, and meteorological data were used to develop the model segmentation and input. Due to the unavailability of required catchment runoff data, the NAM rainfall-runoff model was used to calculate runoff of all the sub-watersheds. The results reveal a potential pressure on the availability of groundwater and surface water in the lower part of River Francolí as was expected by the IPCC for Mediterranean river basins. The study also revealed that due to the complex hydrological regime existing in the study area and data scarcity, a comprehensive physically based method was required to better represent the interaction between groundwater and surface water. The combined ArcGIS/MIKE BASIN models appear as a useful tool to assess the hydrological cycle and to better understand water allocation to different sectors in the Francolí River watershed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    of two papers where the stochastic differential equation based model is used for sewer runoff from a drainage system. A simple model is used to describe a complex rainfall-runoff process in a catchment, but the stochastic part of the system is formulated to include the increasing uncertainty when...... rainwater flows through the system, as well as describe the lower limit of the uncertainty when the flow approaches zero. The first paper demonstrates in detail the grey box model and all related transformations required to obtain a feasible model for the sewer runoff. In the last paper this model is used......The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...

  2. The Hydrograph Analyst, an Arcview GIS Extension That Integrates Point, Spatial, and Temporal Data Provides A Graphical User Interface for Hydrograph Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.L.; O'Brien, G.M.; Jones, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Hydrograph Analyst (HA) is an ArcView GIS 3.2 extension developed by the authors to analyze hydrographs from a network of ground-water wells and springs in a regional ground-water flow model. ArcView GIS integrates geographic, hydrologic, and descriptive information and provides the base functionality needed for hydrograph analysis. The HA extends ArcView's base functionality by automating data integration procedures and by adding capabilities to visualize and analyze hydrologic data. Data integration procedures were automated by adding functionality to the View document's Document Graphical User Interface (DocGUI). A menu allows the user to query a relational database and select sites which are displayed as a point theme in a View document. An ''Identify One to Many'' tool is provided within the View DocGUI to retrieve all hydrologic information for a selected site and display it in a simple and concise tabular format. For example, the display could contain various records from many tables storing data for one site. Another HA menu allows the user to generate a hydrograph for sites selected from the point theme. Hydrographs generated by the HA are added as hydrograph documents and accessed by the user with the Hydrograph DocGUI, which contains tools and buttons for hydrograph analysis. The Hydrograph DocGUI has a ''Select By Polygon'' tool used for isolating particular points on the hydrograph inside a user-drawn polygon or the user could isolate the same points by constructing a logical expression with the ArcView GIS ''Query Builder'' dialog that is also accessible in the Hydrograph DocGUI. Other buttons can be selected to alter the query applied to the active hydrograph. The selected points on the active hydrograph can be attributed (or flagged) individually or as a group using the ''Flag'' tool found on the Hydrograph DocGUI. The ''Flag'' tool activates a dialog box that prompts the user to select an attribute and ''methods'' or ''conditions'' that qualify

  3. Health risks zonation in megacities vis-à-vis PM using GIS-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the air quality, considering PM2.5 varies over space and time, in this paper, RBF method in a based GIS model was utilized to zone air quality and its health risks upon PM2.5 concentrations dispersion over Tehran, during one year, from 21 March 2013 to 20 March 2014. The RBF method was applied to obtain the ...

  4. Parameterization of a Hydrological Model for a Large, Ungauged Urban Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization leads to the replacement of natural areas by impervious surfaces and affects the catchment hydrological cycle with adverse environmental impacts. Low impact development tools (LID that mimic hydrological processes of natural areas have been developed and applied to mitigate these impacts. Hydrological simulations are one possibility to evaluate the LID performance but the associated small-scale processes require a highly spatially distributed and explicit modeling approach. However, detailed data for model development are often not available for large urban areas, hampering the model parameterization. In this paper we propose a methodology to parameterize a hydrological model to a large, ungauged urban area by maintaining at the same time a detailed surface discretization for direct parameter manipulation for LID simulation and a firm reliance on available data for model conceptualization. Catchment delineation was based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM and model parameterization relied on a novel model regionalization approach. The impact of automated delineation and model regionalization on simulation results was evaluated for three monitored study catchments (5.87–12.59 ha. The simulated runoff peak was most sensitive to accurate catchment discretization and calibration, while both the runoff volume and the fit of the hydrograph were less affected.

  5. HYDROGRAV - Hydrological model calibration and terrestrial water storage monitoring from GRACE gravimetry and satellite altimetry, First results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O.B.; Krogh, P.E.; Michailovsky, C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-borne and ground-based time-lapse gravity observations provide new data for water balance monitoring and hydrological model calibration in the future. The HYDROGRAV project (www.hydrograv.dk) will explore the utility of time-lapse gravity surveys for hydrological model calibration and terre...... change from 2002 to 2008 along with in-situ gravity time-lapse observations and radar altimetry monitoring of surface water for the southern Africa river basins will be presented.......Space-borne and ground-based time-lapse gravity observations provide new data for water balance monitoring and hydrological model calibration in the future. The HYDROGRAV project (www.hydrograv.dk) will explore the utility of time-lapse gravity surveys for hydrological model calibration...... and terrestrial water storage monitoring. Merging remote sensing data from GRACE with other remote sensing data like satellite altimetry and also ground based observations are important to hydrological model calibration and water balance monitoring of large regions and can serve as either supplement or as vital...

  6. Uncertainty analysis of hydrological modeling in a tropical area using different algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei Emam, Ammar; Kappas, Martin; Fassnacht, Steven; Linh, Nguyen Hoang Khanh

    2018-01-01

    Hydrological modeling outputs are subject to uncertainty resulting from different sources of errors (e.g., error in input data, model structure, and model parameters), making quantification of uncertainty in hydrological modeling imperative and meant to improve reliability of modeling results. The uncertainty analysis must solve difficulties in calibration of hydrological models, which further increase in areas with data scarcity. The purpose of this study is to apply four uncertainty analysis algorithms to a semi-distributed hydrological model, quantifying different source of uncertainties (especially parameter uncertainty) and evaluate their performance. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) eco-hydrological model was implemented for the watershed in the center of Vietnam. The sensitivity of parameters was analyzed, and the model was calibrated. The uncertainty analysis for the hydrological model was conducted based on four algorithms: Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI), Parameter Solution method (ParaSol) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The performance of the algorithms was compared using P-factor and Rfactor, coefficient of determination (R 2), the Nash Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE) and Percent Bias (PBIAS). The results showed the high performance of SUFI and PSO with P-factor>0.83, R-factor 0.91, NSE>0.89, and 0.18model use for policy or management decisions.

  7. A 3D radiative transfer model based on lidar data and its application on hydrological and ecosystem modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Su, Y.; Harmon, T. C.; Guo, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) is an optical remote sensing technology that measures properties of scattered light to find range and/or other information of a distant object. Due to its ability to generate 3-dimensional data with high spatial resolution and accuracy, lidar technology is being increasingly used in ecology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, remote sensing, and atmospheric physics. In this study we construct a 3-dimentional (3D) radiative transfer model (RTM) using lidar data to simulate the spatial distribution of solar radiation (direct and diffuse) on the surface of water and mountain forests. The model includes three sub-models: a light model simulating the light source, a sensor model simulating the camera, and a scene model simulating the landscape. We use ground-based and airborne lidar data to characterize the 3D structure of the study area, and generate a detailed 3D scene model. The interactions between light and object are simulated using the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method. A large number of rays are generated from the light source. For each individual ray, the full traveling path is traced until it is absorbed or escapes from the scene boundary. By locating the sensor at different positions and directions, we can simulate the spatial distribution of solar energy at the ground, vegetation and water surfaces. These outputs can then be incorporated into meteorological drivers for hydrologic and energy balance models to improve our understanding of hydrologic processes and ecosystem functions.

  8. Multi-model analysis in hydrological prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthier, M.; Arsenault, R.; Brissette, F.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic modelling, by nature, is a simplification of the real-world hydrologic system. Therefore ensemble hydrological predictions thus obtained do not present the full range of possible streamflow outcomes, thereby producing ensembles which demonstrate errors in variance such as under-dispersion. Past studies show that lumped models used in prediction mode can return satisfactory results, especially when there is not enough information available on the watershed to run a distributed model. But all lumped models greatly simplify the complex processes of the hydrologic cycle. To generate more spread in the hydrologic ensemble predictions, multi-model ensembles have been considered. In this study, the aim is to propose and analyse a method that gives an ensemble streamflow prediction that properly represents the forecast probabilities and reduced ensemble bias. To achieve this, three simple lumped models are used to generate an ensemble. These will also be combined using multi-model averaging techniques, which generally generate a more accurate hydrogram than the best of the individual models in simulation mode. This new predictive combined hydrogram is added to the ensemble, thus creating a large ensemble which may improve the variability while also improving the ensemble mean bias. The quality of the predictions is then assessed on different periods: 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months using a PIT Histogram of the percentiles of the real observation volumes with respect to the volumes of the ensemble members. Initially, the models were run using historical weather data to generate synthetic flows. This worked for individual models, but not for the multi-model and for the large ensemble. Consequently, by performing data assimilation at each prediction period and thus adjusting the initial states of the models, the PIT Histogram could be constructed using the observed flows while allowing the use of the multi-model predictions. The under-dispersion has been

  9. GIS4schools: custom-made GIS-applications for educational use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demharter, Timo; Michel, Ulrich

    2013-10-01

    From a didactic point of view the procurement and the application of modern geographical methods and functions become more and more important. Although the integration of GIS in the classroom is repeatedly demanded, inter alia in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, the number of GIS users is small in comparison to other European countries or the USA. Possible reasons for this could, for instance, lie in the lack of GIS and computer knowledge of the teachers themselves and the subsequent extensive training effort in Desktop-GIS [1]. Today you have the technological possibilities to provide the broad public with geoinformation and geotechnology: Web technologies offer access to web-based, mobile and local applications through simple gateways. The objective of the project "GIS4schools" is to generate a service-based infrastructure, which can be operated via mobile clients as well as via Desktop-GIS or a Browser. Due to the easy availability of the services the focus is in particular on students. This circumstance is a novelty through which a differentiated approach to the implementation of GIS in schools is established. Accordingly, the pilot nature of this project becomes apparent as well as its greater importance beyond its actual content especially for the sector of media development at colleges of education. The continuity from Web-GIS to Desktop-GIS is innovative: The goal is to create an adapted multi-level solution which allows both, an easy introduction if desired or a detailed analysis - either to be achieved with a focus especially on students and their cooperation among one another.

  10. Retrieval of Landuse and Hydrology-based Parameters from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Landuse and hydrology-based information on the Volta Lake Basin have been retrieved from Satellite remote sensing data. The results obtained could be applied in Hydro-Geographical Information System models, such as the TOPMODEL, for water balance studies. Eight Synthetic Aperture Radar Precision Images of the ...

  11. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  12. A GIS-Enabled, Michigan-Specific, Hierarchical Groundwater Modeling and Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; Mandle, R.; Simard, A.; Fisher, B.; Brown, E.; Ross, S.

    2005-12-01

    Efficient management of groundwater resources relies on a comprehensive database that represents the characteristics of the natural groundwater system as well as analysis and modeling tools to describe the impacts of decision alternatives. Many agencies in Michigan have spent several years compiling expensive and comprehensive surface water and groundwater inventories and other related spatial data that describe their respective areas of responsibility. However, most often this wealth of descriptive data has only been utilized for basic mapping purposes. The benefits from analyzing these data, using GIS analysis functions or externally developed analysis models or programs, has yet to be systematically realized. In this talk, we present a comprehensive software environment that allows Michigan groundwater resources managers and frontline professionals to make more effective use of the available data and improve their ability to manage and protect groundwater resources, address potential conflicts, design cleanup schemes, and prioritize investigation activities. In particular, we take advantage of the Interactive Ground Water (IGW) modeling system and convert it to a customized software environment specifically for analyzing, modeling, and visualizing the Michigan statewide groundwater database. The resulting Michigan IGW modeling system (IGW-M) is completely window-based, fully interactive, and seamlessly integrated with a GIS mapping engine. The system operates in real-time (on the fly) providing dynamic, hierarchical mapping, modeling, spatial analysis, and visualization. Specifically, IGW-M allows water resources and environmental professionals in Michigan to: * Access and utilize the extensive data from the statewide groundwater database, interactively manipulate GIS objects, and display and query the associated data and attributes; * Analyze and model the statewide groundwater database, interactively convert GIS objects into numerical model features

  13. Multicriteria GIS modeling of wind and solar farms in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Jason R. [Metropolitan State College of Denver, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, CB 22 P.O. Box 173362-22, Denver, CO 80217-3362 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The majority of electricity and heat in Colorado comes from coal and natural gas; however, renewable energy sources will play an integral role in the state's energy future. Colorado is the 11th windiest state and has more than 250 sunny days per year. The objectives of this research are to: 1) determine which landcover classes are affiliated with high wind and solar potential; and 2) identify areas that are suitable for wind and solar farms using multicriteria GIS modelling techniques. Renewable potential (NREL wind speed measurements at 50 m above the ground and NREL annual insolation data), landcover, population density, federal lands, and distance to roads, transmission lines, and cities were reclassified according to their suitability. Each was assigned weights based on their relative importance to one another. Superb wind classes are located in high alpine areas. Unfortunately, these areas are not suitable for large-scale wind farm development due to their inaccessibility and location within a sensitive ecosystem. Federal lands have low wind potential. According to the GIS model, ideal areas for wind farm development are located in northeastern Colorado. About 41 850 km{sup 2} of the state has model scores that are in the 90-100% range. Although annual solar radiation varies slightly, inter-mountain areas receive the most insolation. As far as federal lands, Indian reservations have the greatest solar input. The GIS model indicates that ideal areas for solar development are located in northwestern Colorado and east of Denver. Only 191 km{sup 2} of the state had model scores that were in the 90-100% range. These results suggest that the variables used in this analysis have more of an effect at eliminating non-suitable areas for large-scale solar farms; a greater area exists for suitable wind farms. However, given the statewide high insolation values with minimal variance, solar projects may be better suited for small-scale residential or commercial

  14. Prediction of Hydrologic Characteristics for Ungauged Catchments to Support Hydroecological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Nick R.; Kennard, Mark J.

    2017-11-01

    Hydrologic variability is a fundamental driver of ecological processes and species distribution patterns within river systems, yet the paucity of gauges in many catchments means that streamflow data are often unavailable for ecological survey sites. Filling this data gap is an important challenge in hydroecological research. To address this gap, we first test the ability to spatially extrapolate hydrologic metrics calculated from gauged streamflow data to ungauged sites as a function of stream distance and catchment area. Second, we examine the ability of statistical models to predict flow regime metrics based on climate and catchment physiographic variables. Our assessment focused on Australia's largest catchment, the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB). We found that hydrologic metrics were predictable only between sites within ˜25 km of one another. Beyond this, correlations between sites declined quickly. We found less than 40% of fish survey sites from a recent basin-wide monitoring program (n = 777 sites) to fall within this 25 km range, thereby greatly limiting the ability to utilize gauge data for direct spatial transposition of hydrologic metrics to biological survey sites. In contrast, statistical model-based transposition proved effective in predicting ecologically relevant aspects of the flow regime (including metrics describing central tendency, high- and low-flows intermittency, seasonality, and variability) across the entire gauge network (median R2 ˜ 0.54, range 0.39-0.94). Modeled hydrologic metrics thus offer a useful alternative to empirical data when examining biological survey data from ungauged sites. More widespread use of these statistical tools and modeled metrics could expand our understanding of flow-ecology relationships.

  15. A geographic approach to modelling human exposure to traffic air pollution using GIS. Separate appendix report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.

    1998-10-01

    A new exposure model has been developed that is based on a physical, single media (air) and single source (traffic) micro environmental approach that estimates traffic related exposures geographically with the postal address as exposure indicator. The micro environments: residence, workplace and street (road user exposure) may be considered. The model estimates outdoor levels for selected ambient air pollutants (benzene, CO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}). The influence of outdoor air pollution on indoor levels can be estimated using average (I/O-ratios. The model has a very high spatial resolution (the address), a high temporal resolution (one hour) and may be used to predict past, present and future exposures. The model may be used for impact assessment of control measures provided that the changes to the model inputs are obtained. The exposure model takes advantage of a standard Geographic Information System (GIS) (ArcView and Avenue) for generation of inputs, for visualisation of input and output, and uses available digital maps, national administrative registers and a local traffic database, and the Danish Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The exposure model presents a new approach to exposure determination by integration of digital maps, administrative registers, a street pollution model and GIS. New methods have been developed to generate the required input parameters for the OSPM model: to geocode buildings using cadastral maps and address points, to automatically generate street configuration data based on digital maps, the BBR and GIS; to predict the temporal variation in traffic and related parameters; and to provide hourly background levels for the OSPM model. (EG)

  16. A physically based catchment partitioning method for hydrological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menduni, Giovanni; Riboni, Vittoria

    2000-07-01

    We propose a partitioning method for the topographic surface, which is particularly suitable for hydrological distributed modelling and shallow-landslide distributed modelling. The model provides variable mesh size and appears to be a natural evolution of contour-based digital terrain models. The proposed method allows the drainage network to be derived from the contour lines. The single channels are calculated via a search for the steepest downslope lines. Then, for each network node, the contributing area is determined by means of a search for both steepest upslope and downslope lines. This leads to the basin being partitioned into physically based finite elements delimited by irregular polygons. In particular, the distributed computation of local geomorphological parameters (i.e. aspect, average slope and elevation, main stream length, concentration time, etc.) can be performed easily for each single element. The contributing area system, together with the information on the distribution of geomorphological parameters provide a useful tool for distributed hydrological modelling and simulation of environmental processes such as erosion, sediment transport and shallow landslides.

  17. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road