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  1. Obese adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have more severe insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR score than obese girls without PCOS.

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    Sawathiparnich, Pairunyar; Weerakulwattana, Linda; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Likitmaskul, Supawadee

    2005-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in Thai children is increasing. These individuals are at increased risks of metabolic syndrome that includes insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), dyslipidemia and hypertension. PCOS has been known to be associated with insulin resistance. To compare the insulin sensitivity between obese adolescent girls with PCOS and those without PCOS. We reviewed demographic and hormonal data of 6 obese adolescent girls with PCOS and compared with 6 age, weight and BMI-matched non-PCOS controls. Each subject underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (HOMA-IR score) in obese adolescent girls with PCOS was significantly higher than in girls without PCOS with median and range as follows (16.5 [3.8, 21.8] vs. 4.1 [3.3, 6.9], p = 0.04). Our study demonstrates that obese adolescent girls with PCOS have more severe insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR score than girls without PCOS independent of the degree of obesity. Since insulin resistance is a metabolic precursor of future cardiovascular diseases, obese adolescent girls with PCOS might be at greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease in later adulthood than their non-PCOS counterparts.

  2. Pubertal status, interaction with significant others, and self-esteem of adolescent girls.

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    Lacković-Grgin, K; Dekovíc, M; Opacić, G

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pubertal status, the quality of interactions with significant others, and the self-esteem of adolescent girls. The model which was tested, hypothesized that pubertal status affects self-esteem through girls' interactions with their parents and friends. Pubertal status was operationalized as the number of months between occurrence of the first menstrual periods and time of the investigation. The measure of self-esteem was the shortened form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Analyses revealed that girls who begun menstruating six months before the investigation obtained higher scores on the measure of self-esteem than did girls who had been menstruating 13 months or more. The best predictor of self-esteem, however, was the quality of interaction with their mothers. The results support the theoretical view that stresses the importance of interaction with significant others for the development of self-esteem.

  3. The effects of educating mothers and girls on the girls' attitudes toward puberty health: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Afsari, Atousa; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Valizadeh, Sousan; Abbasnezhadeh, Massomeh; Galshi, Mina; Fatahi, Samira

    2017-04-01

    The attitude of a girl toward her menstruation and puberty has a considerable impact on her role during motherhood, social adjustment, and future marital life. This study was conducted in 2014 with the aim of comparing the effects of educating mothers and girls on the attitudes of adolescent girls of Tabriz City, Iran, towards puberty health. This randomized control clinical trial was conducted on 364 adolescent girls who experienced menstruation. Twelve schools were selected randomly among 107 secondary schools for girls. One-third of the students of each school were selected randomly using a table of random numbers and socio-demographic and each participant was asked to answer the attitude questionnaires. The schools were randomly allocated to the groups of mother's education, girl's education, and no-intervention. The attitude questionnaire was filled out by the participants again 2 months after intervention. The general linear model, in which the baseline values were controlled, was employed to compare the scores of the three groups after the intervention. No significant differences were observed among the three groups in terms of the attitude score before intervention (p>0.05). Attitude score improvement after intervention in the girl's education group was significantly higher than the one of both mother's education (adjusted mean difference [AMD]: 1.8; [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4-1.3]) and no-intervention groups (AMD: 1.3; [95% CI: 0.0-2.6]) by controlling the attitude score before intervention. Based on the findings, it is more effective to educate girls directly about puberty health to improve adolescent girls' attitudes than educating mothers and asking them to transfer information to the girls. Nevertheless, studies with longer training period and follow-up are proposed to determine the effects of educating girls (through their mothers) on their attitudes about puberty health.

  4. NetGirls: the Internet, Facebook, and body image concern in adolescent girls.

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    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between Internet exposure and body image concern in adolescent girls, with a particular focus on the social networking site of Facebook. A sample of 1,087 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) completed questionnaire measures of Internet consumption and body image concerns. The overwhelming majority of girls (95.9%) had access to the Internet in their home. Time spent on the Internet was significantly related to internalization of the thin ideal, body surveillance, and drive for thinness. Further, 75% of the girls had a Facebook profile, and spent an average of 1.5 hours there daily. Facebook users scored significantly more highly on all body image concern measures than non-users. It was concluded that the Internet represents a potent socio-cultural medium of relevance to the body image of adolescent girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Associations of Anthropometric, Behavioral, and Social Factors on Level of Body Esteem in Peripubertal Girls.

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    Szamreta, Elizabeth A; Qin, Bo; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A; Devine, Katie A; Stapleton, Jerod L; Ferrante, Jeanne M; Bandera, Elisa V

    2017-01-01

    Lower body esteem may decrease self-esteem and lead to adverse health effects in children. This study explored the role of anthropometric, behavioral, and social factors on body esteem in peripubertal girls. We evaluated associations of body esteem (measured by the Revised Body Esteem Scale) with body mass index (BMI), mother's BMI, puberty, physical activity, role models for appearance, and screen time among girls (ages 9 and 10) participating in the Jersey Girl Study (n = 120). Linear models were used to evaluate differences in body esteem scores. Overweight/obese girls had a significantly lower mean body esteem score compared with underweight/healthy weight girls {14.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.53-15.27) vs. 17.17 (95% CI: 16.87-17.43)}. Girls who were physically active for at least 7 hours per week had a significantly higher body esteem score than those who were less active, after adjusting for BMI (17.00 [95% CI: 16.62-17.32] vs. 16.39 [95% CI: 15.82-16.86]). Girls whose mothers were overweight/obese, who had entered puberty, and who cited girls at school or females in the media as role models had lower body esteem scores, but differences disappeared after adjusting for girl's BMI. A trend of higher body esteem scores was found for girls whose mothers were role models. Lower BMI and higher levels of physical activity are independently associated with higher body esteem score. Having classmates or girls/women in the media as role models may detrimentally affect girls' body esteem, but having mothers as role models may have a positive effect.

  6. Social anxiety, depression and self-esteem in obese adolescent girls with acanthosis nigricans.

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    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN.

  7. Why Girl Students Achieve English Presentation Learning Significantly Better in Shanghai University of Engineering Science (SUES)

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    Zhu, Wen; Liu, Zhixin

    2017-01-01

    In non literature major dominated university, it is obviously noted that girl students' English (as the second language) presentation scores often higher than boy students in the same teaching environment and evaluation system. A 397 samples' survey has been studied from the aspects of after school activities and sleep schedule to discuss if any…

  8. 78 FR 48216 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Balthus: Cats and Girls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8410] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Balthus: Cats and Girls--Paintings and Provocations'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Balthus: Cats and Girls--Paintings and Provocations...

  9. 78 FR 144 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition-Determinations: “Girl With a Pearl Earring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8139] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition-- Determinations: ``Girl With a Pearl Earring: Dutch Paintings From the Mauritshuis SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Girl with a Pearl Earring: Dutch Paintings from the Mauritshuis...

  10. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome score in girls.

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    DuBose, Katrina D; McKune, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

  11. Boys' and girls' involvement in science learning and their self-efficacy in Taiwan.

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    Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the significant differences in students' self-efficacy and their involvement in learning science. Nine hundred and twenty-two elementary school fifth graders, 499 junior high school eighth graders, and 1455 senior or vocational high school eleventh graders completed the students' questionnaire. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and independent t-tests compared the significant similarities and differences across school levels and genders. The initial findings were as follows: A sharp decline in boys' and girls' self-efficacy scores from elementary to secondary school levels; boys have significantly higher self-efficacy scores than girls at vocational and senior high school levels; students with more involvement in science learning presented significantly higher self-efficacy scores than those with less involvement. The significant discrepancies in terms of gender and age in students' self-efficacy and involvement in learning science need to be addressed. Implications and limitations are provided.

  12. A Comparison of Religious Orientation and General Health in Runaway Girls and Normal Ones

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    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Due to the negative consequence of girls’ escape, this study was conducted to compare personality, demographic, and religious characteristics of runaway girls and normal ones in Qom city. Methods: In a case control study, 66 single runaway girls and 66 normal girls were selected as experimental group and control group, respectively. Data was culled using interview method, demographic information questionnaire, Allport religious orientation, and general health questionnaires (GHQ. Chi square and independent t-test were applied to analyze final data. Results: Average general health scores were calculated to be 13.9±11 and 9±6.2 in runaway and normal girls, respectively. The score of religious orientation is significantly lower in runaway girls than normal girls (p0.05. Conclusion: Religious orientation was found to be lower in runaway girls than in normal ones. Since runaway girls are subject to physical and sexual abuse, their psychological health is highly vulnerable—the fact which might pave the way for other social abnormalities.

  13. The Relationship Between Premenstrual Syndrome and Food Patterns in University Student Girls

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    Darabi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a group of disorders that many girls and women suffer from. It is well known that an appropriate diet as well as environmental factors plays a major role in quality of life. Objectives This study evaluates food patterns for university student girls who suffer from PMS and are healthy. Materials and Methods Eighty-six university student girls from Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences participated in the survey and PMS was diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. They completed a daily symptom-rating questionnaire for PMS symptoms. The score of categorical symptoms (mood-emotional and gastrointestinal disorders, pain, fatigue-focus, and other disorders were determined separately. Student food pattern was determined according to the Iranian food pyramid. The correlation between symptom scores and food group servings was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The score for each categorical symptom showed significant differences between healthy and students who suffered from PMS (P < 0.001. A significant negative relationship was observed between milk consumption and pain score (P = 0.038, r = -0.224, and between total dairy consumption and pain score (P = 0.019, r = -0.253. Total disorder scores showed a significant negative relationship with total dairy product (P = 0.024, r = -0.243. Conclusions The results of the survey indicate that PMS symptoms are related to consuming less milk or dairy products. Therefore, an appropriate intake of foods according to standard food patterns (like the Iranian food pyramid is recommended.

  14. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

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    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z-scores

  15. Relationship between Cardiovascular Risk Score and Traditional and Nontraditional Cardiometabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescent Girls

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    Klisic Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the cardiovascular (CV risk score in the young population, children and adolescents, is underestimated, especially in developing countries such as Montenegro, where a strong interaction exists between the genetically conditioned CV risk and environmental factors, the purpose of this study was to estimate CV risk in apparently healthy adolescent girls. Moreover, we aimed to test some new, emerging CV risk factors and their interaction with the traditional ones, such as obesity. Precisely, we aimed to assess the impact of low bilirubin levels, as a routine biochemical parameter, as an additional risk factor for atherosclerotic disease in the adult phase.

  16. Comparison of Motor Skills in Boys and Girls First Grade Student in Tehran

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    Sepideh Nazi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the motor skills differences between girls and boys (aged 7 in Tehran in 2004. Materials & Methods: This research was analytical descriptive The subjects were 120 children includes 60 girls and 60 boys. those were selected by simple random sampling at the first grade of primary School. Each subject was individually assessed by Lincoln Oseretsky motor developmental scale. Results: The findings of this research after data analysis by spss soft ware and sample t Test indicated that: There is not any significant differences between total score of motor skills, total balance score, static and dynamic balance with open eyes, bilateral motor coordination, upper limbs coordination, upper and lower limbs coordination, velocity and dexterity of hand movements in boys and girls (P>0/005. The only Significant differences between boys and girls motor skills is eye hand coordination (P<0/03. Conclusion: The findings of this research is used to better planning and defining the theraputic and educational programs in the field of motor development.

  17. Disordered Eating Attitudes and Their Correlates among Iranian High School Girls

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    Mahdiyeh Hamed Behzad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disordered eating attitudes are contributing factors to the development of eatingdisorders. Adolescent girls are at high risk for eating diseases. In Iran, there is few data onthe subject, especially in Azarian adolescent girls, so we did this study for assessing disorderedeating attitudes and their correlates among Iranian Azarbaijani high school girls.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 1887 high school girls were selected. Eating AttitudeTest-26 (EAT-26 and socio economical questionnaires were used. The EAT-26 score of 20or higher defined as disordered eating attitudes. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Programfor Social Sciences, by using from descriptive and analytical statistics.Results: Reliability and validity of the translated EAT-26 were 0.80, 0.76, respectively. Instudied subjects, mean (SD of EAT-26 was 11.71(8.48. Totally, 16.7% (C.I with 95%: 15.1-18.3% of students had disordered eating attitudes. About half of the participants were unhappywith their body weight and considered themselves as obese. Mean of EAT-26 washigher in this group. Groups, who intent to weight loss, were smoker, and who had age ofmenarche less than 11 years, also had higher EAT-26 scores. Parent’s literacy or job, birthorder, family size or income and house ownership had not any significant effect on EAT-26score.Conclusions: Persian version of EAT-26 has good reliability and validity for assessing disorderedeating attitudes in Azarian girl adolescents. Prevalence of disordered eating attitudesamong Azarian adolescent girls are in the range of some studies, but are less than Arabiancountries, and some European ones. In adolescent girls, body weight dissatisfaction, smokingand early menarche has important role in eating attitudes.

  18. The Training Effectiveness of Prevention Disability Package in High School Girls; a Community Intervention Trial

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    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training programs and providing essential information such as preborn educational programs for women, unmarried girls are essential as the most important prevention methods for control and prevention of health outcomes and disability. The current study conducted to assess the training effectiveness of Prevention Disability Package in high school girls in a community trail.Materials and Methods: A community trial executed among 1,339 high school girls in Qom, Iran. Subjects were the students that training in 10th and 11th years of education. All of students in each class from all majors were included in the study. According to sampling framework, 55 classes selected randomly assigned to lecture (1264 girls [94.4%], 4 (3% girls to CD-based group and 35 (2.6% girls to control group. Data collection was conducted by a standard and valid questionnaire. Analysis of variance test was used to compare the mean of knowledge score among three groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA used to control the confounding variables.Results: There were significant differences among three groups according to the total score of awareness of disability. Therefore, the mean score of in handicap, musculoskeletal diseases, pregnancy dimensions, and total knowledge about disability causes was higher than in lecture group than CD-based and control groups (P

  19. Girls with generalized joint hypermobility display changed muscle activity and postural sway during static balance tasks

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    Juul-Kristensen, B; Johansen, Kl; Hendriksen, P

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study knee muscle activity and static postural sway in girls with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). METHOD: Sixteen girls with GJH and 11 girls with non-GJH (NGJH) aged 14 years, randomly recruited among schoolchildren, participated in this study. GJH inclusion criteria were......: Beighton score minimum 6/9 and one hypermobile knee; for NGJH: Beighton score maximum 5/9 and no knees with hypermobility. The participants performed a static two-legged balance test with eyes open (2EO) and eyes closed (2EC) and a one-legged stance test with eyes open (1EO). Postural sway (centre......) of Q, H, and G muscle activity was calculated. Knee function was self-reported using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for children (KOOS-Child). RESULTS: GJH had a significantly lower lateral HQ CCI and a higher medial/lateral HQ CCI ratio in all balance tasks. Group mean EMG varied...

  20. Effects of type of physical exercise and leisure activities on the depression scores of obese Brazilian adolescent girls

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    S.G. Stella

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that depressive states may lead to hypokinesia with diminished metabolic rate and energy use. Hypokinesia associated with certain eating behaviors may lead to an unfavorable energy balance that can contribute to the emergence and prevalence of obesity among children and adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possibility of reducing depression inventory scores in female adolescents with third-degree obesity while testing the effectiveness of different exercise programs in reducing anxiety and depression scores. The sample consisted of 40 female subjects (mean age 16 ± 1.56 years divided into 4 groups (aerobic training, anaerobic training, leisure activities, and control. Subjects had a body mass index of 95% or more in relation to the 50th percentile. The aerobic program consisted of three ergometric bicycle sessions per week over a 3-month period (12 weeks and the activities were prescribed after determining the anaerobic ventilatory threshold (VO2 threshold. Anaerobic training was based on the Wingate anaerobic power test. The leisure program consisted of a varied range of activities (games, exercises, etc.. A nutritionist interviewed the members of these two groups and the control group every week in order to adapt them to the nutritional guidelines proposed for the study. The study showed that all three programs (aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and leisure activities were effective in reducing body mass. However, we found a significant reduction when analyzing the depression scores only for aerobic exercise (18.9 ± 9.33 to 10.6 ± 9.56 or 43.9% but no significant alterations for anaerobic exercise (11.36 ± 5.23 to 9.63 ± 4.78 or 15.22% and leisure (17.28 ± 7.55 to 15.07 ± 7.54 or 12.78%, thus indicating that in principle this type of activity could be included to improve emotional well-being of obese adolescent girls.

  1. Effect of a nutrition education program and diet modification in Beninese adolescent girls suffering from mild iron deficiency anemia.

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    Alaofé, Halimatou; Zee, John; Dossa, Romain; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon

    2009-01-01

    A 26-week nutrition intervention, including 4 weeks of nutrition education, combined with an increase in the content and bioavailability of dietary iron for 22 weeks was carried out in 34 intervention and 34 control adolescent girls suffering from mild iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In post-intervention, hemoglobin and serum ferritin were significantly higher in the intervention group, whereas the incidence of IDA was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group. Nutrition knowledge scores were significantly higher in intervention girls compared to control girls. Dietary changes to improve available dietary iron can reduce iron deficiency anemia.

  2. Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty

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    Doosoo Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from 2006 to 2010 for the evaluation of precocious puberty. Study groups comprised fast puberty, true precocious puberty (PP, pseudo PP, premature thelarche, and control. We determined the height standard deviation score (HSDS, weight standard deviation score (WSDS, and body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS of each group using the published 2007 Korean growth charts. Hormone tests were performed at our outpatient clinic. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The PP groups comprised fast puberty (67%, premature thelarche (17%, true PP (15%, and pseudo PP (1%. Advanced bone age and levels of estradiol, basal luteinizing hormone (LH, and peak LH after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation testing were significantly high in the fast puberty and true PP groups compared with the control group. HSDS, WSDS, and BMISDS were significantly higher in the true PP group than in the control group (P&lt;0.05. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The frequent causes of PP were found to be fast puberty, true PP, and premature thelarche. Furthermore, BMISDS were significantly elevated in the true PP group. Therefore, we emphasize the need for regular follow-up of girls who are heavier or taller than others in the same age group.

  3. Body image and eating attitudes among adolescent Chinese girls in Hong Kong.

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    Fung, Maria S C; Yuen, Mantak

    2003-02-01

    The study investigated the relation between body image and eating attitudes among adolescent girls in Hong Kong. A sample of 358 senior secondary school girls completed the measures assessing body-part satisfaction and behaviors associated with eating. Analysis indicated that even though only 4.8% of the girls were overweight, 85.16% desired to weigh less. These Chinese teenage girls were concerned about their weight, and the desire for slimness was widespread. Correlations indicated that higher Body Mass Index was associated with lower satisfaction with weight. Lower scores on weight satisfaction were associated with higher scores on attitudes of dieting and food preoccupation.

  4. Incarcerated Adolescent Girls: Personality, Social Competence, and Delinquency.

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    Ter Laak, Jan; de Goede, Martijn; Aleva, Liesbeth; Brugman, Gerard; van Leuven, Miranda; Hussmann, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Study investigated personality traits and social competence as predictors of delinquency in adolescent girls. Agreeableness did not correlate with the overall delinquency score. The more crimes reported, the less conscientious, more neurotic, and more open the girls were. Correlation between delinquency and extroversion was not statistically…

  5. Better quality of mother-child interaction at 4 years of age decreases emotional overeating in IUGR girls.

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    Escobar, R S; O'Donnell, K A; Colalillo, S; Pawlby, S; Steiner, M; Meaney, M J; Levitan, R D; Silveira, P P

    2014-10-01

    While most "fetal programming" area focused on metabolic disease, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is also associated with a preference for less healthy food. Post-natal factors such as strained maternal-child interactions are equally related to obesogenic eating behaviors. We investigated if IUGR and the quality of the mother/child relationship affect emotional overeating in children. Participants were 196 children from a prospective birth cohort (the MAVAN project). As part of the protocol at 4 years of age, mothers completed the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and mother-child interactions were scored during a structured task. A GLM adjusted for BMI examined the interaction between the "Atmosphere" score (ATM) task, sex and IUGR on the emotional over-eating domain of the CEBQ. There was a significant interaction of BWR vs. sex vs. ATM (P = .02), with no effects of IUGR, sex or ATM. The model was significant for girls with low ATM scores (B = -2.035, P = .014), but not for girls with high (P = 0.94) or boys with high (P = .27) or low (P = .19) ATM scores. Only in IUGR girls, 48 months emotional over-eating correlated with BMI at that age (r = 0.560, P = 0.013) and predicted BMI in the subsequent years (r = 0.654, P = 0.006 at 60 months and r = 0.750, P = 0.005 at 72 months). IUGR and exposure to a negative emotional atmosphere during maternal-child interactions predicted emotional overeating in girls but not in boys. The quality of mother-infant interaction may be an important target for interventions to prevent emotional overeating and overweight in early development, particularly in girls with a history of IUGR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Analysis of Anger in Adolescent Girls Who Practice the Martial Arts

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    Sara Lotfian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of martial arts on adolescents' behavior, especially aggression, is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess and compare anger ratings among adolescent girl athletes of different martial arts. 291 female adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 were assessed according to the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale designed by DM Burney. In the case group, the martial arts practiced were either judo (n=70 or karate (n=66, while the control group was composed of swimmers (n=59 and nonathletes (n=96. Total anger scores showed statistically significant differences between the groups (P=0.001 decreasing from girls who practiced judo to nonathletes, karate, and swimmers. Instrumental and reactive anger subscales also showed significant differences between the groups, but this difference was not found for anger control. As a conclusion, the anger rate did not differ between judoka and nonathletes, but that both of these groups received higher scores in total anger than karateka and swimmers.

  7. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

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    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  8. Effectiveness of Rational- Emotive- Behavior Group Counseling (REBT on Irrational Attitudes about Spouse Selection in Girls and Boys

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    R. Karami boldaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to determine the effectiveness of Rational- Emotional- Behavior therapy (REBT on irrational attitudes about Spouse Selection in girls and boys. Therefore, 32 girls and boys in city of Bandar Abbas were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental and control groups with 16 girls and boys in each group. The experimental group received 8 sessions in each week. Attitudes about Mate Selection Scale (ARMSS were used as the pretest and post-test. Results of analysis of covariate showed that the mean scores of irrational attitudes about romance and mate selection in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group in the post test (p= 0/001. Also, mean scores of subscales of irrational attitudes about romance and mate selection (believe love, pivotal experience, idealization, opposite seeking, easy getting and optimistic view in experimental group was significantly lower than control group in the post test.

  9. C-reactive protein levels in girls with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, H; Ekin, R G; Can, E; Cakmak, O; Yavascan, O; Mutlubas Ozsan, F; Helvaci, M; Zorlu, F

    2016-04-01

    Daytime lower urinary tract (LUT) conditions are identified as daytime incontinence problems for children in whom any cause of neuropathy and uropathy has been excluded. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a common marker of acute or chronic inflammation and infection. Increased CRP levels have been detected in the studies conducted on adults diagnosed with overactive bladders and interstitial cystitis. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum CRP levels in girls suffering from daytime LUT conditions. Out of the 752 patients who presented to the outpatient clinics with lower urinary tract symptoms, 709 were excluded due to: being boys, having previous urinary tract surgery, an active urinary tract infection, a neurological anomaly, a urinary system anomaly, having rheumatic disease, any chronic disease, any febrile infection over the past week, a history of constipation, and enuresis nocturna. Forty-three girls with LUT conditions and aged 8-10 years were included in the study as the patient group. Forty girls who attended the urology outpatient clinic without LUT conditions, or active urinary tract infections and any chronic disease requiring follow-up constituted the control group. Under the control of the parents, all subjects were asked to fill out 3-day voiding diaries. The voiding diaries identified frequency, urgency, urgency urinary incontinence, and functional bladder capacity data. All subjects also completed a dysfunctional voiding scoring system (DVSS). The serum CRP levels of all subjects were measured. There was a significant difference in serum CRP levels and DVSS between the patient group and the control group (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). The mean serum CRP levels showed a significant increase when frequency and urgency scores were ≥8, the urge incontinence score was ≥2 and the DVS score DVSS was ≥14 in the voiding diaries of the patient group (Table). Lower urinary tract dysfunction is defined as a condition involving abnormalities of filling and

  10. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

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    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  11. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

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    Leunissen Jack AM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical significance testing for an alignment. The e-value is the most commonly used statistical validation method for sequence database searching. The CluSTr database and the Protein World database have been created using an alternative statistical significance test: a Z-score based on Monte-Carlo statistics. Several papers have described the superiority of the Z-score as compared to the e-value, using simulated data. We were interested if this could be validated when applied to existing, evolutionary related protein sequences. Results All experiments are performed on the ASTRAL SCOP database. The Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm with both e-value and Z-score statistics is evaluated, using ROC, CVE and AP measures. The BLAST and FASTA algorithms are used as reference. We find that two out of three Smith-Waterman implementations with e-value are better at predicting structural similarities between proteins than the Smith-Waterman implementation with Z-score. SSEARCH especially has very high scores. Conclusion The compute intensive Z-score does not have a clear advantage over the e-value. The Smith-Waterman implementations give generally better results than their heuristic counterparts. We recommend using the SSEARCH algorithm combined with e-values for pairwise sequence comparisons.

  12. [Locus of control in girls with anorexia readiness syndrome].

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    Jaros, Katarzyna; Oszwa, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to indicate whether there are differences between locus of control (LOC) in girls with anorexia readiness syndrome (ARS) and without this syndrome. There was also a question about the relationship between LOC and the tendency to respond in incorrect attitudes towards food, eating and their bodies under stress. The sample consisted of girls aged 13-18 years randomly selected from five public Polish middle and high schools. Tools: 1) Eating Attitudes Questionnaire (EAQ) by B. Ziółkowska; 2) Locus of Control Questionnaire (LOCQ) by G. Krasowicz, A. Kurzyp-Wojnarska, to assess LOC of the subjects. The criterion group (N=23) was formed by girls who received high score in EAQ (signs of ARS) in the first stage of research (N=189). The control group (N = 23) were girls who received a low score in EAQ (no signs of ARS). Subjects with ARS were characterized by more external LOC than girls without any signs of this syndrome (t = -2.898; p control, LOC may play a role as a mediating variable rather than a direct determinant of this syndrome.

  13. Positive Illusions of Social Competence in Girls with and without ADHD

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    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    We compared social self-competence ratings in 9-12 year old girls with (n = 42) versus without (n = 40) ADHD, relative to ratings of the girls' social competence made by mothers, teachers, and blind raters during a social laboratory task. Relative to scores from mothers, teachers, and the lab-task, girls with ADHD over-estimated their competence…

  14. The Reliability and Validity of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory for a Sample of Filipino High School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David; Astilla, Estela

    1980-01-01

    Evidence is presented partially supporting the reliability and construct validity of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory with Filipino adolescent girls. A test-retest coefficient of 0.61 was found over a nine-month period. Self-esteem scores were significantly associated with IQ scores and teacher ratings of pupils' self-esteem. (Author/BW)

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient ratio correlates significantly with prostate cancer gleason score at final pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Løgager, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient measurements (ADCtumor and ADCratio ) and the Gleason score from radical prostatectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients with clinically localized prostate cancer scheduled for radical prostatectomy...... correlated with the Gleason score from the prostatectomy specimens. RESULTS: The association between ADC measurements and Gleason score showed a significant negative correlation (P ... ) and 0.90 (ADCratio ) when discriminating Gleason score ≤7(3+4) from Gleason score ≥7(4+3). CONCLUSION: ADC measurements showed a significant correlation with tumor Gleason score at final pathology. The ADCratio demonstrated the best correlation compared to the ADCtumor value and radically improved...

  16. A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of Government School of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh

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    Anjali Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent girls belong to vital age group, not only because they are the entrant population to motherhood but also because they are threshold between childhood and motherhood. The girls should be educated about significance of menstruation and development of secondary sexual characteristics, selection of sanitary menstrual absorbent and its proper disposal. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the existing knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls and to determine the co-relation of knowledge and practice score among the adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The study conducted was a descriptive cross sectional study done on 100 adolescent girls from class 9th to 12th of Govt. Girls School in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh (Convenience sampling. Prior to the commencement of the study, they were explained the purpose and nature of the study. Information on demographic variables which include age, class, type of family, education of mother, family income, age of menarche were collected from the participants. Results: The data on knowledge scores revealed that 29% had adequate knowledge about menstrual hygiene, 71% had inadequate knowledge about menstrual hygiene. The data revealed on practice scores revealed that 19%, 69%, 12% samples had poor, fair and good score of practices regarding menstrual hygiene respectively. Knowledge and practice scores of participants shows positive correlation between the two scores (*P < 0.001. Conclusion: Lack of information about menstrual hygiene can be attributed to various factors which need to be studied separately. The above findings reinforce the need to encourage safe and hygienic practices among the adolescent girls and bring them out of traditional beliefs, misconceptions and restrictions regarding menstruation. The investigators improved the general awareness about cause of menstruation and the organs involved. Use of sanitary

  17. Motor Deficits of Girls with Down Syndrome in Comparing with Girls with Intellectual Disability in the School Ages Children

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    Tahereh Daftari-Anbardan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Motor function in children with Down syndrome is similar to mentally retarded children. But the movements are slower and have lower quality. The purpose of this study was to identify weaknesses in motor function in children with Down syndrome, by using Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, thirty six children with intellectual disability, 18 girls with Down syndrome and 18 girls without Down syndrome, with chronological aged 8-13 years were investigated. The subjects of Down syndrome were selected by available sampling. The subjects of intellectual disability were selected by simple random sampling. Two groups of participants were matched for chronological age and IQ level. The measurement was BOTMP. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U rank sum test and t-test. Results: The children with Down syndrome scored significantly lower than the mentally retarded children in the areas of gross motor skill composite (P<0.014 balance (P<0.029, response time (P<0.034 and visual motor control (P<0.048, but the fine motor and overlay motor skill composite, and subtests of bilateral coordination, strength, upper limb coordination scores were no significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: Motor rehabilitation is appropriate for children with intellectual disability, especially for children with Down syndrome, in throughout their adolescence. Key words: Motor skill/ Intellectual Disability/ Down syndrome/ BOTMP

  18. The lived experience of girl-to-girl aggression in marginalized girls.

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    Zenz Adamshick, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    Girl-to-girl aggression is increasingly being recognized as a health problem, and the number of teenage girls involved in serious fighting is on the rise. Research on the experiences of girl-to-girl aggression in marginalized girls who are out of the mainstream because of poor relationship skills and physical aggression is notably absent, yet this group is at heightened risk for persistent violence. In this study I used the interpretive phenomenological approach to study the lived experience of girl-to-girl aggression in girls who were marginalized and attending an alternative school because of physically aggressive behavior. Data were collected over a 4-month period by means of in-depth interviews and field notes. For this population, girl-to-girl aggression provided self-protection, expressed girls' identity, and was also a means to finding attachment, connection, and friendship. These findings have multidisciplinary implications for interventions with physically aggressive girls, including mentoring programs, in-school support groups, and exploration of a paradigm shift in the use of alternative schools.

  19. Relationship between irritable bowel syndrome, worry and stress in adolescent girls.

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    Song, Sang-Wook; Park, Seo-Jin; Kim, Se-Hong; Kang, Sung-Goo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among adolescents and difference in worry and stress between normal and IBS groups. Questionnaire survey was conducted at a girl's middle and high school. Students from seventh to eleventh grade participated in the examination on Rome II criteria, lifestyle and dietary habits. Worry and stress were measured with the Korean version Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Children and the Korean version Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument. Worry score was significantly higher in the IBS group (22.07 ± 9.38, P high school students than in middle school students (P = 0.02). Stress score also was higher in the IBS group than in the normal group (P high school girls than in the middle school ones (P = 0.04). Of all the lifestyle factors influencing IBS preference for fatty foods, preference for salty foods, drinking alcohol and sleeping for less than six hours a day were found to be significant. Worry and stress seem to be associated with IBS symptoms. The findings of this study draw a clue that less worry and stress will help decrease IBS symptoms.

  20. Educating girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellew, R; Raney, L; Subbarao, K

    1992-03-01

    20 years of research has established that the economic and social benefits of women's primary and secondary schooling are far reaching. The more educated a population's women are, the fewer children they have, and the ones they do have are healthier. However, social tradition and other economic considerations often force families to exclude young girls from education in favor of boys. The safety of young girls is one consideration as well as their value as household labor. There is also a false impression that the good of the community is served if boys are educated, but not so the same for girls. Evidence has been complied to show that in populations where women are more educated, the level of poverty is lower. Because society gains by educating its girls, how can governments change the traditions that have educating its girls, how can governments change the traditions that have previously kept girls under educated? The government of Bangladesh and Guatemala have been very successful with scholarship programs at the primary and secondary level. In Bangladesh the enrollment of females in secondary school almost doubled. The program is also credited with increasing attendance of primary schools, increasing labor force participation, postponing the age of marriage and reducing fertility. Between 1972-80 there were 105 Bank assisted primary and secondary school programs. Of these 20% identified the presence of genderissues, but only 10% included significant actions to improve females enrollment. Between 1981-1991 about half of the Bank assisted programs identified the presence of gender issues, and a quarter included significant actions to improve female enrollment.

  1. Impact of a nutrition intervention program on the growth and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Moore, Jean Burley

    2007-06-01

    This research examines the impact of a nutrition education intervention program on the nutritional status and knowledge of Nicaraguan adolescent girls. Anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin values, and data concerning nutritional knowledge were collected from adolescent girls living in Managua, Nicaragua. Using a pre-test/post-test design, data are compared prior to and after the nutrition intervention program. When using Mexican American reference data, statistically significant differences in height-for-age z-scores and weight-for-age z-scores were found when comparing the entire sample of baseline data with data collected after three years of the nutrition intervention program (p nutritional knowledge (p hemoglobin data revealed a significant decrease which may be due to specific environmental factors and pubertal changes. This research has implications concerning the development of successful adolescent focused nutrition intervention programs in Nicaragua, and examines the possibility that catch-up growth occurs during adolescence.

  2. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

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    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  3. The effect of a nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.

  4. Facebook photo activity associated with body image disturbance in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Evelyn P; Gray, James

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between body image and adolescent girls' activity on the social networking site (SNS) Facebook (FB). Research has shown that elevated Internet "appearance exposure" is positively correlated with increased body image disturbance among adolescent girls, and there is a particularly strong association with FB use. The present study sought to replicate and extend upon these findings by identifying the specific FB features that correlate with body image disturbance in adolescent girls. A total of 103 middle and high school females completed questionnaire measures of total FB use, specific FB feature use, weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, appearance comparison, and self-objectification. An appearance exposure score was calculated based on subjects' use of FB photo applications relative to total FB use. Elevated appearance exposure, but not overall FB usage, was significantly correlated with weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, and self-objectification. Implications for eating disorder prevention programs and best practices in researching SNSs are discussed.

  5. The Determination of Physical Activity among Girl Adolescents based on Trans-theoretical model (TTM

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    Masoumeh Alidosti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background It has been proved that physical activity has positive effects for all people. However, low activity is common among adolescents especially girl teenagers. The present study aimed to determine the condition of physical activity among girl adolescents by use of the stages of change derived from Trantheoretical model (TTM. Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytical investigation was done (in 2016 and 2017 school year in the first – round girl high school among 324 students studying in state schools of Shahrekord city (Western Iran. They were selected through clustering method. The data were collected by researcher-made questionnaires including demographic characteristics, knowledge construct and the stages of change (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (version 18.0. Results The mean age of participants was 13.69+ 1.95 years old. The mean score of girls' knowledge about types of physical activity was 53.18± 21.82 (a total of 100 scores, which represents the average level of knowledge among them. The study of physical activity in students based on stages of change showed that 165 ones (43 %, 102 ones (26.6 % and only 22 ones (5.7 % of the studied students were in precontemplation, contemplation and maintenance stages, respectively. There was a significant relation between students' knowledge level and their mothers' age (P

  6. Are physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep duration associated with body mass index-for-age and health-related quality of life among high school boys and girls?

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    Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Amiri, Parisa; Chin, Yit Siew

    2016-02-27

    Previous studies reported lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores in overweight and obese adolescents compared to their normal weight counterparts; however, few studies investigated the association between obesity-related behaviors including physical activity and sedentary behaviors and HRQOL in adolescents. This study aimed at investigating the relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep duration and body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age) and HRQOL among high school Tehranian students. A total of 465 high school students (48.8 % girls) were recruited from three different socio-economic zones in Tehran. The BMI-for-age was determined and physical activity and HRQOL were assessed using validated questionnaires including Quantification de l'Activite Physique en Altitude Chez les Enfants (QAPACE) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) respectively. Over one third of students (38.5 %) were either overweight or obese. The means of all self- and parent-reported HRQOL scores were significantly lower in girls, compared to boys, except for the parent-reported social functioning subscale. Mean hours of daily sleeping were significantly higher in girls, compared to boys (8.16 ± 1.27 vs. 7.73 ± 1.22 respectively; p girls and boys spent more time on sedentary activities than engaging in sport activities. During school and vacation periods, boys had significantly higher daily energy expenditure (DEE) compared to girls (p boys but not girls (r = -0.14, p activities were significantly associated with their children HRQOL scores. In summary, time spent on physical and sedentary activities were not associated with BMI-for-age, although both of these were associated with the HRQOL of high school students. The potential role of sedentary activities and physical activity should be considered in future interventions aimed at improving HRQOL in adolescents.

  7. Pubertal development, physical self-perception, and motivation toward physical activity in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Bortoli, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We examined the differences in physical self-perception and motivation toward physical activity in early- and mid-adolescent girls. Body Mass Index (BMI) and pubertal status, assessed by means of the Tanner scale, were collected in 11-year-old (n=74) and 13-year-old girls (n=60). The assessment included six scales from the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale, and the Situational Intrinsic Motivation Scale. Age differences emerged, with older girls showing a poorer physical perception and lower scores in intrinsic motivation and enjoyment of physical activity. In the subsample of 11-year-olds, findings showed that more developed girls reported a poorer physical perception on the scales of body fat, global physical self-concept, and appearance, and a lower score in the PACES positive scale. Results underscore the need to promote interventions aimed at encouraging active lifestyles among children and adolescent girls, in order to prevent overweight prior to pubertal onset. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of school-based reproductive health education program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Taskin, Lale

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based reproductive health education for adolescent girls on the reproductive knowledge level of the girls. This research was carried out as a quasi-experimental study at two vocational girls high schools, one of which was used as the study school and the other as the control school. The study group (97 students) consisted of three classes representing every grade. The control group consisted of students selected likewise (92 students). Reproductive health education was given to students in the study group for 10 weeks; the control group was not subjected to any educational program. The impact of the program was evaluated with reproductive health knowledge test designed for this study. A pretest evaluated baseline knowledge, and a posttest measured the gain in knowledge. Baseline knowledge score of students in study and control group were similar and low (p > 0.05). We found that the reproductive health knowledge level of students in the study group increased significantly after the program of education. Post-test knowledge scores (75.03 +/- 13.82) of the students in the study group were higher than those of the control group (36.65 +/- 14.17). The results showed students' low baseline knowledge and a good ability to learn. A school-based reproductive health education is needed to promote knowledge and prevention in reproductive health among teenagers.

  9. Comparison of Classic vs. Role plays Teaching Methods on the Menstrual Hygiene Behavior of Secondary School Girls in Iran

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    R Ostovar

    2013-09-01

    Background & aim: Awareness about the different aspects of health during puberty plays an important role in the health of girls and finally on their health future pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to to compare the effect of role playing and classical training methods in the the improvement of puberty health among secondary school girls in Yasouj City, Iran. Methods: In this study, the educational need during puberty school girls in the interview was determined. The two schools girls were randomly selected (students any school-60. Next, a knowledge and attitude questionnaire and a behavior checklist related to the main puberty health problems were completed. Then one of the schools randomly was selected as educational interventions schools and other were studied as controls. After grouping the students into four groups of 15, intervention were conducted in four sessions including: role-play, question and answer, and lecture. In the control group, all number of school students received training on puberty health through a classical education (lectures. The results were subsequently compared. Data were analyzed by Student t-test paired t-test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study showed that the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior related to health matters during puberty showed significant improvement in the girls before and after implementation of educational intervention through role play (p<0.05.Thus, the mean score in group role play before intervention was 2.35±1.53 and after was 3.96±1.27 , The mean performance score before intervention 6.04±2.34 and after was, 8.61±1.55, respectively, while in classical group differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05 Conclusion: In comparison with the classical method of health education, teaching through role play significantly improved the level of knowledge, attitude and practice related to puberty health among adolescent girls. Key Words: Education, Adolescent Girls

  10. A group-randomized controlled trial for health promotion in Girl Scouts: Healthier Troops in a SNAP (Scouting Nutrition & Activity Program

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    Behrens Timothy K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Girl Scouting may offer a viable channel for health promotion and obesity prevention programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention program delivered through Girl Scout Junior troops that was designed to foster healthful troop meeting environments and increase obesity prevention behaviors at home. Methods Seven Girl Scout troops were randomized to intervention (n = 3, with 34 girls or standard-care control (n = 4, with 42 girls conditions. Girls ranged in age from 9 to 13 years (mean 10.5 years. Intervention troop leaders were trained to implement policies promoting physical activity (PA and healthful eating opportunities at troop meetings, and to implement a curriculum promoting obesity-prevention behaviors at home. The primary outcome variable was child body mass index (BMI z-score. Secondary outcomes included accelerometer-assessed PA levels in troop meetings, direct observations of snack offerings, time spent in physically active meeting content, and leader encouragement of PA and healthful eating. Results The intervention was delivered with good fidelity, and intervention troops provided greater opportunities for healthful eating and PA (x2 = 210.8, p 2 = 23.46, p 2 = 18.14, p 2 = 9.63, p = .002 compared to control troop leaders. Most effects of the intervention on individual-level variables of girls and parents were not significantly different from the control condition, including the primary outcome of child BMI z-score (F1, 5 = 0.42, p = .544, parent BMI (F1, 5 = 1.58, p = .264, and related behavioral variables. The notable exception was for objectively assessed troop PA, wherein girls in intervention troops accumulated significantly less sedentary (x2 = 6.3, p = .011, significantly more moderate (x2 = 8.2, p = .004, and more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, (x2 = 18.4, p Conclusions Implementing a health promotion curriculum and supporting policies to provide more healthful environments in

  11. Knowledge Towards Prevention of Osteoporosis in Adolescent Girls: Effect of Educational Program

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    Moghimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in women, affecting the quality of life by having the increasing risk of fractures. There are no data on awareness of adolescent girls as a vulnerable group about osteoporosis. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge concerning osteoporosis among high school female students in Semnan, Iran and to evaluate the effect of educational program. Methods This pre and post-study was performed on 583 high-school female students, whom selected from 8 schools using multi-stage sampling. The study questionnaires were completed by interviewing students. All students participated in a single education session (about 2 hours and the level of knowledge about osteoporosis, its risk factors and complications were assessed before and after education. Results The mean ± SD score for general knowledge regarding osteoporosis was 0.35 ± 0.35, about complications of osteoporosis was -0.18 ± 0.53 and about risk factors for osteoporosis was also 0.25 ± 0.21. The mean total knowledge about osteoporosis was the highest in third high school grade girls (P = 0.009, while no difference was observed in score of knowledge towards osteoporosis across the different educational fields (P = 0.156. The mean total score of knowledge toward osteoporosis was significantly increased after educational intervention compared to prior to the educational program with the mean ± SD pre-educational score 0.23 ± 0.19 (median 0.26 and post-educational score 0.45 ± 0.22 (median 0.48 (P < 0.001. Conclusions In conclusion, our results indicated that awareness of Semnan high schools girls on osteoporosis, especially about its complications is poor. Lack of awareness could be due to the lack of training. Thus, more training needed with a focus on understanding the causes of disease and its complications in order to resolve the problem and reduce the incidence of osteoporosis. So by increasing awareness regarding

  12. Girl Talk: A Smartphone Application to Teach Sexual Health Education to Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayboy, Lynae M.; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren Mills, Benedict S.; Spencer, Noelle; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A.

    2017-01-01

    Study Objective Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application’s desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Design, Setting and Participants 39 girls ages 12–17 from Rhode Island participated in a two-phase prospective study. In Phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In Phase 2, 17 girls with iPhones® used Girl Talk for two weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Main Outcome Measures Participants’ responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Results Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants’ free time on weekends for 10–15 minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (35.3% vs. 94.1%; p < .001). Knowledge improved most in topics related to Anatomy and Physiology (4.2%), Sexuality and Relationships (3.5%) and STI Prevention (3.4%). Most participants (76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education prior to using Girl Talk, but 94.1% of participants stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Conclusion Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health versus traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. PMID:27393638

  13. Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress as Measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42) among Secondary School Girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gelban, Khalid S; Al-Amri, Hasan S; Mostafa, Ossama A

    2009-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among secondary school girls. A cross- sectional study was carried out on secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia, using the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42). Of 545 female students recruited in this study, 73.4% had the symptoms of at least one of the three studied disorders; 50.1% had at least two disorders. The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress was 41.5 %, 66.2% and 52.5% respectively. The majority of symptoms were mild to moderate in severity. The scores for depression, anxiety, and stress were positively and significantly correlated. No significant association was found between the girls' sociodemographic characteristics and the scores of the three studied disorders. One of the most important aspects of a primary care physician's care of females is to screen for and treat common mental disorders.

  14. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeGonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP; however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP.MethodsPatient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0–8.9 years with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI] were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment.ResultsNo statistical difference in BMI z-score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P<0.001. In normal-weight subjects in the patient group, BMI z-score was significantly increased during GnRHa treatment (−0.1±0.7 vs. 0.1±0.8, P<0.001, whereas HOMA-IR and QUICKI exhibited no differences. In overweight subjects in the patient group; BMI z-score and HOMA-IR were not significantly different, whereas QUICKI was significantly decreased during GnRHa treatment (0.35±0.03 vs. 0.33±0.02, P=0.044.ConclusionGirls with CPP exhibited increased insulin resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z-scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z-scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  15. Girl Talk: A Smartphone Application to Teach Sexual Health Education to Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayboy, Lynae M; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren-Mills, Benedict S; Spencer, Noelle; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application's desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Thirty-nine girls ages 12 to 17 years from Rhode Island participated in a 2-phase prospective study. In phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In phase II, 17 girls with iPhones used Girl Talk for 2 weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Participants' responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews, and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants' free time on weekends for 10- to 15-minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application from baseline (6 participants) to follow-up (16 participants) increased significantly (35.3% vs 94.1%; P sexuality and relationships (76.5% to 80.0% out of 10 questions), and STI prevention (75.6% to 79.0% out of 7 questions). Most phase II participants (13 out of 17, or 76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education before using Girl Talk, but 16 out of 17 participants (94.1%) stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health vs traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical fitness differences between prepubescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Carlos C; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze in which physical capabilities boys and girls are closer or distant. An additional objective was to find which of the body fat, physical activity, and somatotype factors have a greater effect on prepubescent children's physical fitness. This was a cross-sectional study involving 312 children (10.8 ± 0.4 years). The physical fitness assessment employed sets of aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility, speed, agility, and balance. The boys presented higher values in all selected tests, except tests of balance and flexibility, in which girls scored better. Gender differences in the physical fitness were greatest in the explosive strength of upper (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.09) and lower limbs (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.08), although with a medium-size effect of gender, and smaller in the abdominal (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.007) and upper limbs (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.003) muscular endurance, and trunk extensor strength and flexibility (p > 0.05, η(p)(2) = 0.001). The endomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.26) in the girls, and the ectomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.31) and mesomorphic (p ≤ 0.01, η(p)(2) = 0.26) in the boys, had the high-sized effect on the physical fitness. The physical activity in the girls, and the endomorphic and body fat in the boys, did not have a significant effect. These findings can help in the planning of activities that take into account the success and motivation of both boys and girls and thus increase levels of physical activity and physical fitness at school. However, in prepubescent children, one cannot neglect the influence of genetic determinism, observed from the morphoconstitutional point of view.

  17. Why more boys than girls with ADHD receive treatment: a study of Dutch twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, James J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    More boys than girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) receive treatment. One explanation for this bias may be that boys score higher on disruptive behavior scales than girls. Although this was supported by findings in clinical samples, recent studies in nonreferred samples showed

  18. Human papillomavirus immunization uptake among girls with a refugee background compared with Danish-born girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Møller, Sanne; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Refugee children and their families may experience impaired access to healthcare; therefore, we aimed to uncover human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization patterns among a large group of refugee girls compared with Danish-born girls. We also examined possible predictors of uptake among refugee girls....... We used aregister-based cohort design where refugee girls (n = 3264) who, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark, were included and matched on age and sex with Danish-born girls (n = 19 584). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the National...... Danish Health Service Register, identifying all contacts for HPV-immunization in both the ordinary HPV-immunization program and in a catch-up program. We applied logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of uptake. We found that refugee girls had significantly lower HPV-immunization uptake...

  19. Testing an equifinality model of nonsuicidal self-injury among early adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEENAN, KATE; HIPWELL, ALISON E.; STEPP, STEPHANIE D.; WROBLEWSKI, KRISTEN

    2015-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common behavior among females that has been shown to confer risk for continued self-injury and suicidal attempts. NSSI can be viewed conceptually as behavior that is pathognomonic with aggression and/or depression. Empirical research on concurrent correlates supports this concept: numerous and diverse factors are shown to be significantly associated with self-harm, including depression, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and aggression and other conduct problems, as well as environmental stressors such as bullying, harsh parenting, and negative life events. In the present study, we test hypotheses regarding developmental precursors (measured from ages 8 to 12 years) to NSSI in young adolescent girls (ages 13–14 years), specifically whether aggression, depression, and environmental stressors distinguish girls with and without self-harm, and whether there is evidence for multiple developmental pathways to NSSI. Data were derived from the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study. In this community sample of girls, the prevalence of NSSI at ages 13 or 14 years of age was 6.0%. Initial levels in dimensions measured within the depression, aggression, and environmental stressor domains accounted for variance in NSSI in early adolescence. Changes over time in relational aggression and assertiveness were also significantly associated with risk for NSSI. To a large extent, adolescent NSSI was predicted by psychological deficits and stress exposure that began early in childhood. Risk indices were calculated using the 85th or 15th percentile. Close to 80% of girls who engaged in NSSI during adolescence were identified by at least one risk domain in childhood. A sizable proportion of adolescent girls who later engaged in NSSI had childhood risk scores in all three domains; the remaining girls with adolescent NSSI were relatively evenly distributed across the other risk domain profiles. The observation that multiple pathways to NSSI exist

  20. Boys and girls who reason well mathematically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J C

    1993-01-01

    Since 1971 the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) at Johns Hopkins University has pioneered in discovery of and provision of educational help for 12-year-old boys and girls who reason better mathematically than 99% of other 12-year-olds. SMPY originated widespread searches for such youths and special academic classes for them outside the regular school system. A regional talent search, verbal as well as mathematical, now covers all 50 states of the USA, and many varied residential summer programmes are offered across the country. These have provided educational facilitation for many thousands, and have encouraged greater curricular flexibility in schools and better articulation of in-school with out-of-school learning experiences. From the first talent search conducted by SMPY in 1972, it became obvious that boys tend to score considerably higher than girls on the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test-Mathematical (SAT-M), a test intended mainly for college-bound 17- and 18-year-olds. This difference was reported in 1974 but attracted little attention until a controversial report in 1980 stimulated research on sex differences in various aspects of mathematics. Here I describe a study of sex differences over 10 years on 14 College Board high school achievement tests, which are taken (three usually) by bright 17- and 18-year-olds seeking admission to the USA's selective colleges and universities. Among the high scores on the European history test the ratio of males to females was greatest, 6:1. The next most sex-differentiating test was physics, 2.9:1, followed by elementary-level mathematics (mainly algebra and geometry), 2.5:1. Other ratios favouring males were, in 1991, chemistry (2.4:1), American history (2.1:1), biology (1.8:1), precalculus mathematics (1.6:1), Latin (1.6:1), French (1.4:1), modern Hebrew (1.1:1) and German (1.02:1). Tests in which more females were high scorers were literature (1.26:1), English composition (1.05:1) and Spanish (1

  1. The effect of first ballet classes in the community on various postural parameters in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Anna; Masharawi, Youssef

    2011-11-01

    To examine the effect of first season ballet classes in the community on the thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), hip external rotation (ER) and joint flexibility in young girls. Longitudinal single blinded cohort control study. Institutional. 30 girls aged 6-9, recruited from the same primary school were divided equally into 2 groups: a group bi-weekly community ballet class and a sedentary control group. All girls were assessed prior to ballet classes (t(0)), at the conclusion (t(1)) (6 months), and approximately one year later (t(fu)). Beighton score for joint hyper-flexibility, peak of TK and LL, range of hip ER, ratio TK/LL, and individual's height, weight and BMI. LL at t1 became greater in the ballet girls' group (23.7°± 6) as opposed to the controls (19.5°±3.9) due to a decrease in LL in the controls from t0 to t1 (mean difference = -16.5°) (cut-off score = 3.45°) (p ballet girls' group (mean difference = -26.1°) and controls (mean difference = -31.3°) (cut-off score = 4.85°) (p ballet girls' group (6.1 ± 2.3) as opposed to the controls (4.4 ± 1.5) (p ballet classes for young girls in the community can be associated with relatively greater LL, and left hip ER and joint hyper-flexibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Relationship between Body Image Coping Strategy and Eating Disorders among Iranian Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to physical and psychological changes during puberty, most common problem of young people is body image defined as degree of size, shape and general appearance. Wrong perception of body image and dissatisfaction with body image in people can lead to eating disorders and stress. Peace of mind is in fact a mental mechanism that people use it to reduce physical and emotional strains coping with stressful situations. The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strategy of adolescent girls and its relationship with their eating disorders. Methods: This is study is a cross-sectional study in which 573 female adolescent of Karaj participated. Two-Stage Random Sampling was used in this study. In this study, to assess people who are at risk of eating disorder, the nutritional approach assessment questionnaire of EAT-26 was used, while Strategy Inventory Body Image Coping- BICSI questionnaire was used to determine the type of coping strategy. Results: In this study, the mean age of participants was 16.6 (±26/1 (19- 14 years. In this study, 23.7% of participants had an eating disorder. Mental image of an individual of his body had significant correlation with eating disorder (P= 0.000. Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant relationship between the type of coping strategy adopted by adolescent girls and eating disorder score of them (P= 0.007. The relationship between coping strategy and body image and having or not having the eating disorder was determined by Chi-square test at the borderline level (P= 0.054. Conclusion: In this study, results showed that there is relationship between coping strategy of adolescent girls and the eating disorder score of adolescent girls. The highest score was assigned to getting involved with body image, followed by avoidance and rational acceptance. Since the use of inappropriate coping strategies is associated with negative results such as eating disorders and depression, it is expected

  3. Associations between Race and Eating Disorder Symptom Trajectories in Black and White Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Wildes, Jennifer E; Cheng, Yu; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological research suggests racial differences in the presentation of eating disorder symptoms. However, no studies have examined associations between race and eating disorder symptom trajectories across youth and adolescence, which is necessary to inform culturally sensitive prevention programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the trajectories of eating disorder symptoms from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether race was associated with trajectory group membership. Data were drawn from 2,305 Black and White girls who participated in a community-based longitudinal cohort study (Pittsburgh Girls Study) examining the development of psychopathology. The child and adult versions of the Eating Attitudes Test assessed self-reported eating disorder symptoms at six time points between ages 9 and 21 years. Growth mixture modeling was used to examine developmental trajectories of dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. Given potential confounds with race and disordered eating, financial strain (i.e., receiving public assistance) and weight were included as covariates. Four to six distinct developmental patterns were found across eating disorder symptoms, including none, increasing, decreasing, or increasing-decreasing trajectories. Black girls had a greater likelihood of being in the decreasing trajectories for dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. White girls were more likely to follow increasing trajectories of dieting and total eating disorder symptom scores compared to Black girls. These results highlight the importance of examining the influence of racial background on eating disorder symptoms and the potential need for differences in the timing and focus of prevention interventions in these groups.

  4. Influence of muscle fitness test performance on metabolic risk factors among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Jorge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the association between muscular fitness (MF, assessed by 2 components of Fitnessgram test battery, the Curl-Up and Push-Ups tests and the metabolic risk score among adolescent girls. Methods A total of 229 girls (aged 12-15 years old comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (height, body mass, waist circumference were collected. Body mass index (BMI was also calculated. Muscular strength was assessed taking into account the tests that comprised the FITNESSGRAM test battery, i.e. the curl-up and the push-up. Participants were then categorized in one of 3 categories according the number of tests in which they accomplished the scores that allow them to be classified in health or above health zone. The blood pressure [BP], fasting total cholesterol [TC], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], glucose, and a metabolic risk score (MRS were also examined. Physical Activity Index (PAI was obtained by questionnaire. Results Higher compliance with health-zone criteria (good in the 2 tests, adjusted for age and maturation, were positive and significantly (p ≤ 0.05 associated with height (r = 0.19 and PAI (r = 0.21, while a significant but negative association was found for BMI (r = -0.12; WC (r = -0.19; TC (r = -0.16; TG (r = -0.16; LDL (r = -0.16 and MRS (r = -0.16. Logistic regression showed that who were assigned to MF fittest group were less likely (OR = 0.27; p = 0.003 to be classified overweight/obese and less likely (OR = 0.26; p = 0.03 to be classified as having MRS. This last association was also found for those whom only performed 1 test under the health zone (OR = 0.23; p = 0.02. Conclusions Our data showed that low strength test performance was associated with increased risk for obesity and metabolic risk in adolescent girls even after adjustment for age and maturation.

  5. Resting energy expenditure in girls with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Gerhard; Frank, Laura; Ziegler, Julian; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Schweizer, Roland

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge concerning energy metabolism in Turner syndrome (TS) is lacking. We compared the resting energy expenditure per fat-free mass (REE/FFM) in TS with other girls with short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) and age-related controls. We measured prospectively REE by spirometry under fasting conditions in the morning in 85 short prepubertal girls at the start of GH treatment. Diagnoses were TS (n=20), GH deficiency (GHD) (n=38) and small for gestational age (SGA) short stature (n=27). Additionally, 20 age-related controls were studied. Mean ages were 8.3 (TS), 7.1 (GHD), 6.9 (SGA) and 8.5 years (controls). Mean heights were -2.90 (TS), -3.32 (GHD), -3.69 (SGA) and -0.03 standard deviation scores (SDS) (controls). FFM was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). At the start of GH girls with TS showed insignificantly higher REE per FFM (REE/FFM) (mean±SD; 65±9 kcal/kg×day) than did the other female patients (62±9 kcal/kg×day) (p>0.23). The healthy controls had significantly lower REE/FFM (35±4 kcal/kg×day) (p<0.001). Follow-up examination of the patients after 6 or 12 months revealed decreasing REE/FFM in TS (62±9 kcal/kg×day) resulting in comparable REE/FFM in all three patient groups. At baseline short girls with TS had insignificantly higher REE/FFM than short children with SGA or GHD, but in follow-up this difference was not detectable any more. Future studies are necessary to understand this observation.

  6. Eating behaviors, body image, perfectionism, and self-esteem in a sample of Portuguese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maria D; Pereira, Ana T; Marques, Mariana V; Saraiva, Jorge M; Macedo, António F de

    2016-02-05

    Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339), socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175), self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211), and low self-esteem (r = -0.292) (all p self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.

  7. The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Beth T; Lawton, Rebecca; Dittmar, Helga

    2007-06-01

    Music videos are a particularly influential, new form of mass media for adolescents, which include the depiction of scantily clad female models whose bodies epitomise the ultra-thin sociocultural ideal for young women. The present study is the first exposure experiment that examines the impact of thin models in music videos on the body dissatisfaction of 16-19-year-old adolescent girls (n=87). First, participants completed measures of positive and negative affect, body image, and self-esteem. Under the guise of a memory experiment, they then either watched three music videos, listened to three songs (from the videos), or learned a list of words. Affect and body image were assessed afterwards. In contrast to the music listening and word-learning conditions, girls who watched the music videos reported significantly elevated scores on an adaptation of the Body Image States Scale after exposure, indicating increased body dissatisfaction. Self-esteem was not found to be a significant moderator of this relationship. Implications and future research are discussed.

  8. Kenya studies its schools to identify obstacles for girls. Education and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, K

    1997-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with almost 800 adolescents and their parents in 3 districts representing the range of school experience in Kenya. Researchers also visited 36 primary schools attended by more than 80% of the adolescents sampled, holding interviews with teachers and students, documenting facilities, observing interactions, and compiling measures of performance. Boys were seen bullying girls outside of classrooms, teasing them and blocking their movements. In focus group discussions, boys and girls reported that boys routinely grab girls' breasts, while teachers ignore the abuse. Teachers described girls as stupid and lazy, with both male and female teachers who expressed a preference for teaching one sex or the other preferring boys. The teachers more often allocated menial chores to girls and teaching tasks to boys. Even in schools in which girls performed almost as well as boys on exams, teachers awarded twice as many prizes to boys. The teachers created a context in which girls perform poorly. When the girls do in fact fail to achieve, teachers' prejudices are simply reinforced. On the other hand, schools at which girls performed better on exams had more female teachers who presumably served as role models. Also, girls in schools with more female students scored higher on the final, nationwide exam.

  9. Predicting running away in girls who are victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Sanders, Jasmyn; Chick, Crisanna; Jessup, Megan; Hanlin, Hugh; Cyders, Melissa A

    2018-05-01

    Youth that are victims of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) have a host of clinical problems and often run away from home, residential care, and treatment, which complicates and limits treatment effectiveness. No research to date has attempted to predict running away in CSEC victims. The present study aimed to 1) characterize a clinically referred sample of girls who were victims of CSEC and compare them to other high-risk girls (i.e., girls who also have a history of trauma and running away, but deny CSEC); and 2) examine the utility of using the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) to predict future running away. Data were collected from de-identified charts of 80 girls (mean age = 15.38, SD = 1.3, 37.9% White, 52.5% CSEC victims) who were referred for psychological assessment by the Department of Child Services. Girls in the CSEC group were more likely to have experienced sexual abuse (χ 2  = 6.85, p = .009), an STI (χ 2  = 6.45, p = .01), a post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis (χ 2  = 11.84, p = .001), and a substance use disorder diagnosis (χ 2  = 11.32, p = .001) than high-risk girls. Moderated regression results indicated that YLS/CMI scores significantly predicted future running away among the CSEC group (β = 0.23, SE = .06, p = .02), but not the high-risk group (β = -.008, SE = .11, p =.90). The YLS/CMI shows initial promise for predicting future running away in girls who are CSEC victims. Predicting running away can help identify those at risk for and prevent running away and improve treatment outcomes. We hope current findings stimulate future work in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan; Chang, Ting

    2010-01-01

    People begin to become aware of their sexual drive and erotic feelings as young adolescents. Such activity often has been overlooked in Taiwan, a traditional society, because sexuality is viewed as a private issue. The purpose of this study was to explore the sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent girls in Taiwan. Participants included 372 girls, 12 to 14 years old, from junior high schools in Taiwan who completed two questionnaires on sexual experience and sexually related items: the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, and the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, which were combined into one scale, with separate scores. Girls' self-reports showed low (negative) sexual self-concept, high perceived parental disapproval, and somewhat high perceived friends' disapproval of sexual activities. Sexual self-concept is associated with perceived parental and peer approval of sexual activities, and it is associated with sexual experience and intended sexual activities as well. A young adolescent girl who has a high score on the perceived sexual arousability factor of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory is more likely to report the strongest intention toward sexual behavior. Sexual self-concept may play a key role in girls' intended sexual activities, including engaging in low-level sexual activities (e.g., kissing and breast fondling) that occur before intercourse, even when associated with intercourse intention. The research suggests that addressing sexual self-concept needs to be a priority to prevent young girls from engaging in sexual intercourse.

  11. Birth order and its relationship to depression, anxiety, and self-concept test scores in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, L; Lineberger, M R; Crockett, J; Hubbard, J

    1988-03-01

    Children (N = 404), 7 to 12 years old, were given the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale. First-born children scored significantly lower on depression than second-, third-, fourth-born, and youngest children. First borns showed significantly less trait anxiety than third-born children. First-born children also showed significantly higher levels of self-esteem than second-born and youngest children. Girls in this study showed significantly more trait anxiety than boys.

  12. [Factors related to subjective fatigue symptoms of adolescent girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Junko; Fukuda, Sayuri; Murakami, Toshio; Kawamoto, Naoki

    2011-09-01

    To assess changes in subjective fatigue symptoms of adolescent girls over a 15-year period and investigate factors related to these symptoms. A total of 86 items on physical health (including subjective fatigue symptoms), dietary life, and daily living were investigated and five items on physical activity were measured for approximately 100 female first-year dietetic students at a junior college each October over the 15-year period from 1994 to 2008. A total of 1,547 students (mean age, 19.2 +/- 0.3 years) were studied. Subjects were first divided into two groups using the median subjective fatigue score as the cutoff point, and annual changes in the proportion of students in the high subjective fatigue group were investigated by simple regression analysis. In addition, relationships between the two subjective fatigue groups and each item were investigated. 1) The proportion of students with many subjective fatigue symptoms showed a significantly increasing trend over the 15-year period. 2) Investigation of relationships between subjective fatigue symptoms and each factor revealed significance for many items, including dietary habits, life satisfaction, amount of sleep, and desire for a positive body image. 3) In order to determine which of the items were most strongly related to subjective fatigue symptoms, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for the 15-year period as well as three 5-year periods into which it was divided. The results showed that the dietary habits score (an indicator of dietary habits) and life satisfaction were related to subjective fatigue symptoms during all four periods. As for other items, relationships were observed for amount of sleep in three, diet and salt intake score in two, and liking for coffee/tea, juice drinks, and oily food, bedtime snack, desire for body image, self-assessment of body type, and health consciousness in one. These findings indicate that perspectives in education for promoting the health of

  13. Girls make sense: girls, celebrities and identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, L.; van Romondt Vis, P.

    2009-01-01

    Combining intertextual, audience and feminist perspectives, this article investigates how young girls make meaning from celebrities. Based on focus group interviews with Dutch girls aged 12—13, it argues that girls' talk about celebrities functions as an identity tool in the reflexive project of the

  14. Predicting Depression and Anxiety from Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Elementary School-Age Girls and Boys with Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Michèle; Lapalme, Mélanie; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia; Poirier, Martine; Temcheff, Caroline; Toupin, Jean

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the three DSM-5 categories of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms (irritable mood, defiant behavior, vindictive behavior) and anxiety/depression in girls and boys with conduct problems (CP) while controlling for comorbid child psychopathology at baseline. Data were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of 6- to 9-year-old French-Canadian children (N = 276; 40.8 % girls) receiving special educational services for CP at school and followed for 2 years. Using linear regression analysis, the results showed that irritable mood symptoms predicted a higher level of depression and anxiety in girls and boys 2 years later, whereas the behavioral symptoms of ODD (e.g., defiant, vindictive symptoms) were linked to lower depression scores. The contribution of ODD symptoms to these predictions, while statistically significant, remained modest. The usefulness of ODD irritable symptoms as a marker for identifying girls and boys with CP who are more vulnerable to developing internalizing problems is discussed.

  15. Girl Scout Camps and Badges: Engaging Girls in NASA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, P. K.; DeVore, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps. A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K - 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10: and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Daisy badge will be accomplished by following three steps with two choices each. Brownie to Ambassador badges will be awarded by completing five steps with three choices for each. The badges are interwoven with science activities, role models (SMEs), and steps that lead girls to explore NASA missions. External evaluators monitor three rounds of field-testing and deliver formative assessment reports. Badges will be released in Fall of 2018 and 2019. Girl Scout Stars supports two unique camp experiences. The University of Arizona holds an Astronomy Destination, a travel and immersion adventure for individual girls ages 13 and older, which offers dark skies and science exploration using telescopes, and interacting with SMEs. Girls lean about motion of celestial objects and become astronomers. Councils send teams of two girls, a council representative and an amateur astronomer to Astronomy Camp at Goddard Space Flight Center. The teams were immersed in science content and activities, and a star party; and began to plan their new Girl Scout Astronomy Clubs. The girls will lead the clubs, aided by the council and amateur astronomer. Camps are evaluated by the Girl Scouts Research Institute. In Girl Scouting, girls discover their skills, talents and what they care about; connect with other Girl Scouts and people in their community; and take action to change the world. This is called the Girl Scout Leadership Experience. With girl-led, hands on

  16. "Go Girls!": psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with a group-based healthy lifestyle program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Jung, Mary E; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing cognitions and behaviors targeted by the Go Girls! group-based mentorship lifestyle program. Three hundred and ten adolescent girls (nested within 40 Go Girls! groups) completed questionnaires that assessed cognitions (attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy, and intentions) and behaviors (physical activity and dietary) at four time points (two pre-program, one at the end of the program, and one at 7-week follow-up). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in the outcome variables among Go Girls! participants (M age = 11.68 years, SD = 0.80). No significant changes occurred in the outcome variables during the baseline comparison period (Time 1-2). When compared to the average of the baseline assessments, 7 weeks after completing the program, girls reported significant improvements in physical activity (M Baseline PAtotal = 3.82, SD = 3.49; M T4 PAtotal = 4.38, SD = 3.75) and healthy eating (M Baseline = 10.71, SD = 1.13; M T4 = 11.35, SD = 1.05) behavior and related cognitions (d values ≥0.65). Findings provide preliminary support for programs that foster belongingness and target health behaviors through mentorship models.

  17. Microbiological aspects of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranđelović, Gordana; Mladenović, Vesna; Ristić, Ljiljana; Otašević, Suzana; Branković, Sofija; Mladenović-Antić, Snežana; Bogdanović, Milena; Bogdanović, Dragan

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the vaginal introitus microbial flora in girls with and without symptoms of vulvovaginitis, and to present the distribution of isolated microorganisms by age groups in girls with vulvovaginitis. We enrolled 500 girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms, aged 2-12 years, referred by their pediatricians for microbiological examination of the vaginal introitus swabs, and 30 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Similar microbial flora was isolated in both groups, but the symptomatic girls had significantly more common positive microbiological findings compared to controls (p vulvovaginitis symptoms. The microbial ecosystem in girls with clinical signs of vulvovaginitis is complex and variable, and the presence of a microorganism does not necessarily imply that it is the cause of infection. The diagnosis of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls requires a complex and comprehensive approach, and microbiological findings should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.

  18. Structure and distribution of gynaecological diseases for girls and teenage girls in the Zaporizhzhia area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avramenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent years the question of gynecological diseases in women and teenage girls becomes more and more relevance. Girls of pubertal age should become mothers of new generation, but the health of adolescents continues to deteriorate. Aim. To study the structure of gynecological diseases among children and teens in the Zaporizhzhia region, to develop the main ways of improving the provision of specialized gynecological medical care in the region. Methods. The analysis of major morbidity, prevalence and patterns of gynecological diseases among girls and adolescent girls in the Zaporozhye region over the past 5 years has been done. Results. The analysis showed that the indicator of gynecological morbidity remain high and increases. Main gynecologic pathologies are: menstrual function disorders, sexual development disorders, inflammatory diseases of external and internal genitalia. Detection of pathology among girls who turned to the doctor meets in average 23-24% of cases. In girls, of the youngest age (under 10 years inflammatory diseases of the external genitalia (vulvovaginitis, vulvitis dominate in most cases. In teenage girls the menstrual dysfunction is prevalent. Among menstrual dysfunction the hypomenstrual syndrome is prevalent in 70% (oligomenorrhea, opsomenorrhea, amenorrhea. The Department of Health of Zaporizhzhia Regional State Administration has prepared the order of 15.02.2016r. №158 «On improvement of specialized gynecological care for children of the region", which provides specialized gynecological care to girls and teenage girls, and indications for gynecologist consultation of children and adolescent. Conclusions: In the analysis of morbidity during 5 years a significant increase in the incidence of gynecological morbidity of girls and teenage girls has revealed. Risk factors of menstrual function disorders are: thyreiod gland pathology, diabetis mellitas, bronchial asthma, congenital heart diseases, chronic

  19. Influence of gender role attitudes on smoking and drinking among girls from Jujuy, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Kaplan, Celia P; Alderete, Ethel; Gregorich, Steven E; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2013-09-01

    Evaluate effect of gender role attitudes on tobacco and alcohol use among Argentinean girls. Cross-sectional survey of 10th grade students attending 27 randomly selected schools in Jujuy, Argentina. Questions about tobacco and alcohol use were adapted from global youth surveys. Five items with 5-point response options of agreement-disagreement assessed attitude towards egalitarian (higher score) gender roles. 2133 girls, aged 13-18 years, 71% Indigenous, 22% mixed Indigenous/European, and 7% European responded. Of these, 60% had ever smoked, 32% were current smokers, 58% ever drinkers, 27% drank in previous month, and 13% had ≥5 drinks on one occasion. Mean response to the gender role scale was 3.49 (95% Confidence Intervals = 3.41-3.57) out of 5 tending toward egalitarian attitudes. Logistic regression models using the gender role scale score as the main predictor and adjusting for demographic and social confounders showed that egalitarian gender role was associated with ever smoking (Odds Ratio = 1.25; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.09-1.44), ever drinking (Odds Ratio = 1.24; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.10-1.40), drinking in prior month (Odds Ratio = 1.21; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.07-1.37) and ≥5 drinks on one occasion (Odds Ratio = 1.15; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.00-1.33), but was not significant for current smoking. Girls in Jujuy who reported more egalitarian gender role attitudes had higher odds of smoking or drinking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Method of administration of PROMIS scales did not significantly impact score level, reliability, or validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the impact of the method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Two nonoverlapping parallel forms each containing eight items from......, no significant mode differences were found and all confidence intervals were within the prespecified minimal important difference of 0.2 standard deviation. Parallel-forms reliabilities were very high (ICC = 0.85-0.93). Only one across-mode ICC was significantly lower than the same-mode ICC. Tests of validity...... questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and convergent/discriminant validity. RESULTS: In difference score analyses...

  1. Promoting physical activity among adolescent girls: the Girls in Sport group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cotton, Wayne; Peralta, Louisa; Miller, Judith; Batterham, Marijka; Janssen, Xanne

    2017-06-21

    Slowing the decline in participation in physical activity among adolescent girls is a public health priority. This study reports the outcomes from a multi-component school-based intervention (Girls in Sport), focused on promoting physical activity among adolescent girls. Group randomized controlled trial in 24 secondary schools (12 intervention and 12 control). Assessments were conducted at baseline (2009) and at 18 months post-baseline (2010). The setting was secondary schools in urban, regional and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. All girls in Grade 8 in 2009 who attended these schools were invited to participate in the study (N = 1769). Using a Health Promoting Schools and Action Learning Frameworks, each school formed a committee and developed an action plan for promoting physical activity among Grade 8 girls. The action plan incorporated strategies in three main areas - i) the formal curriculum, ii) school environment, and iii) home/school/community links - based on the results of formative data from target girls and staff and on individual needs of the school. A member of the research team supported each school throughout the intervention. The main outcome measure was accelerometer-derived total physical activity (TPA) spent in physical activity. Data were analyzed from December 2011 to March 2012. 1518 girls (mean age 13.6y ±0.02) were assessed at baseline. There was a significant decline in TPA from baseline to 18-month follow-up with no differences between girls in the intervention and control schools. Only one-third of schools (4/12) implemented the intervention as per their action plan. Per-protocol analyses on these schools revealed a smaller decline in percentage of time spent in MVPA among girls in the intervention group (adjusted difference 0.5%, 95% CI = -0.01, 0.99, P = 0.05). The Girls in Sport intervention was not effective in reducing the decline in physical activity among adolescent girls. Lack of implementation by most

  2. Predictors of stunting and thinness in post-menarcheal adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh. Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls. A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <-2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <-2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; approximately 10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was -0.3 (0.64) and -0.9 (0.40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0.05). Young age (12-14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.88 and OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7.40, 95 % CI 1.43, 38.29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0.05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0.43, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0.05). Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.

  3. Girl Scout Stars: Engaging Girl Scouts in the 2017 Total Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) engages Girl Scouts in observing the 2017 eclipse. Three councils are host-sponsors of Girl Scout Total Eclipse Destinations,. Total Eclipse of the Heartland, sponsored by Girl Scouts of Southern Illinois, begins with planetarium, and science center visits in St. Louis, and transits to Carbondale for the eclipse. The Great Eclipse Adventure, sponsored by the Girl Scouts of the Missouri Heartland, features hands-on science activities led by Astronomy and Physics faculty and grad students at University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, and observing the eclipse at a camp nearby. Eyes to the Sky: A Once in a Lifetime Destination, by the Girl Scouts of South Carolina - Mountains to Midlands, visits a Challenger Center, a planetarium, and observatory, and culminates at Camp MaBak, Marietta, SC. Girl Scout Destinations are travel adventures, for individual girls ages 11 and older, that are inspiring, life-changing experiences. Destinations are determined via an application and review process by Girls Scouts of the USA. Girl Scout Stars also developed an Eclipse Activity Guide and kit box of materials, distributed the materials to 91 Girl Scout Councils, and delivered webinar training to councils. The eclipse materials enrich the girls' summer camp experiences with activities that promote understanding the Sun-Earth-Moon relationship, the solar system and safe eclipse viewing; and that feature science practices. Examples of the reach of the kit boxes are Girl Scouts of Montana and Wyoming Total Eclipse Event in Casper, WY, and the Girl Scouts of Northern California summer camps featuring the activities. In Girl Scouting, girls discover their skills, talents and what they care about; connect with other Girl Scouts and people in their community; and take action to change the world. This is called the Girl Scout Leadership Experience. With girl-led, hands on activities where girls can team up and work together

  4. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  5. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.

  6. The effectiveness of a program designed to enhance the self-esteem of female adolescents of the Rajavithi Home for Girls, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apinuntavech, Suporn; Panichpong, Taveeporn; Shuaytong, Poonsuk; Suparp, Jarueyporn; Ngoenwiwatkul, Yowaluk

    2009-12-01

    To study the effectiveness of group activities designed to enhance the self-esteem of female adolescents aged 12-18 years old of the Rajvithi Home for Girls, Bangkok, (experimental group) and the Saraburi Home for Girls, Saraburi, (comparison group). This was quasi-experimental research. Each group was comprised of 36 adolescents. The experimental group participated in numerous activities designed to improve their self-esteem. The activities were conducted over 4 sessions of 2-3 hours duration per session. The self-esteem assessments were conducted before, immediately after the intervention, and 4 weeks henceforth, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory School Form (CSEI). Prior to the intervention, neither group showed any difference in its general characteristics including its self- esteem mean scores. Immediately after the intervention and, 4 weeks later, the experimental group had significantly higher self-esteem mean scores than they had prior to intervention (p self-esteem mean scores at both time periods of the post intervention period (p > 0.05). It was also found that the experimental group's self-esteem mean scores were significantly higher than the comparison group's, (p self-esteem mean score at the 4 week post intervention stage remained higher than it was after the intervention, even though there was slight decrease with significant difference (p self-esteem level among adolescents could be developed, especially amongst those adolescents in foster homes. Thus related organizations should conduct self-esteem enhancing activities for adolescents in order to strengthen necessary life skills including spiritual health, which are the prerequisites for success in later life.

  7. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-10-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls had significantly lower intakes in calcium (P snack (594.1 ± 312.1kcal) was significantly higher for obese girls than for non-obese girls (360.1 ± 173.1kcal) (P snack and total daily energy intake (r = 0.34 P obese girls. In case of dietary behaviors, obese adolescent girls consumed significantly greater number of items for snacks and fewer foods for regular meals compared to non-obese girls (P obesity management programs for adolescents should focus on providing strategies to reduce snack through enhancing balanced regular meals.

  8. Working for Jewish girls : Lily Montagu, girls' clubs and industrial reform 1890-1914.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, J.

    2004-01-01

    Lily Montagu was involved in social work and religious ministry with the London Jewish community for over sixty years. This article considers the significance of her involvement in the girls' club movement and her efforts towards workplace reform. It argues that the specific circumstances of working-class Jewish girls in the early twentieth century enabled her to develop a comprehensive view of both industrial organisation and social work. Her approach was submerged as social work and trade u...

  9. Sexual Knowledge and Attitude among Girls Who are Getting Married Based on the Information from Yas Pre-marriage Counseling Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghersad, Zahra; Fahami, Fariba; Beigi, Marjan; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2017-01-01

    High prevalence of sexual dysfunction results from inadequate knowledge or inappropriate attitude toward the natural phenomenon of sexual desire. This study aimed to define sexual knowledge and attitude among girls who were getting married and referred to Yas pre-marriage counseling center. This research was a descriptive analytical study. The information of 165 girls, who were about to get married, were collected through convenient sampling using a researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Inferential statistical method and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis. Results showed that the mean scores of sexual knowledge and attitude among the participants were 57.42 and 69.02, respectively. There was a significant association between the mean scores of sexual knowledge and sexual attitude ( P < 0.001, r = 0.63). Results showed that the participants had relatively appropriate knowledge and attitude toward sexual relationship.

  10. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly active eighth-grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W; Pate, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    Although girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Data from 1,866 eighth-grade girls from six field centers across the United States participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed-model analysis of variance examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. High-active girls were taller, had lower body mass indices and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Menarcheal age of girls from dysfunctional families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toromanović, Alma; Tahirović, Husref

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine median age at menarche and the influence of familial instability on maturation. The sample included 7047 girls between the ages of 9 and 17 years from Tuzla Canton. The girls were divided into two groups. Group A (N=5230) comprised girls who lived in families free of strong traumatic events. Group B (N=1817) included girls whose family dysfunction exposed them to prolonged distress. Probit analysis was performed to estimate mean menarcheal age using the Probit procedure of SAS package. The mean menarcheal age calculated by probit analysis for all the girls studied was 13.07 years. In girls from dysfunctional families a very clear shift toward earlier maturation was observed. The mean age at menarche for group B was 13.0 years, which was significantly lower that that for group A, 13.11 years (t=2.92, Pdysfunctional families mature not later but even earlier than girls from normal families. This supports the hypothesis that stressful childhood life events accelerate maturation of girls.

  12. Menarcheal age of girls from dysfunctional families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Toromanović

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine median age at menarche and the influence of familial instability on maturation. The sample included 7047 girls between the ages of 9 and 17 years from Tuzla Canton. The girls were divided into two groups. Group A (N=5230 comprised girls who lived in families free of strong traumatic events. Group B (N=1817 included girls whose family dysfunction exposed them to prolonged distress. Probit analysis was performed to estimate mean menarcheal age using the Probit procedure of SAS package. The mean menarcheal age calculated by probit analysis for all the girls studied was 13.07 years. In girls from dysfunctional families a very clear shift toward earlier maturation was observed. The mean age at menarche for group B was 13.0 years, which was significantly lower that that for group A, 13.11 years (t=2.92, P<0.01. The results surveyed here lead to the conclusion that girls from dysfunctional families mature not later but even earlier than girls from normal families. This supports the hypothesis that stressful childhood life events accelerate maturation of girls.

  13. Leptin and adiponectin levels in girls with central precocious puberty before and during GnRH agonist treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Yoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa treatment on the energy metabolism in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP are controversial. We focused the changes and related factors of serum levels of leptin and adiponectin in girls with CPP before and during GnRHa treatment.MethodsThirty girls with idiopathic CPP were enrolled in the study. Their auxological data and fasting blood were collected at the baseline and after six months of GnRHa treatment.ResultsAfter treatment, height (P<0.001, weight (P<0.001, and serum leptin levels (P=0.033 were significantly increased, whereas body mass index (BMI, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, serum adiponectin levels, and adiponectin/leptin ratio exhibited no significant changes. A Pearson correlation analysis showed that height, weight, BMI, and their standard deviation scores (SDSs, but not basal LH, FSH, and estradiol, were significantly correlated with serum leptin levels before and after GnRHa treatment. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI was associated with serum leptin levels. Moreover, leptin SDSs adjusted for BMI were not significantly different before and after GnRHa. The Δ leptin levels (r2=0.207, P=0.012, but not with Δ leptin SDS (r2=0.019, P=0.556, during GnRHa treatment were positively correlated with Δ BMI.ConclusionThese results suggest that GnRHa treatment in girls with CPP does not affect serum levels of leptin and adiponectin and insulin resistance. Serum leptin levels were depend on the changes in BMI during GnRHa treatment.

  14. THE EFFECT OF n-3 LC-PUFA SUPPLEMENTATION ON TENNIS SKILL ACQUISITION IN 10-12 YEAR OLD GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Şahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 16 weeks of n-3 LC-PUFA (omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on tennis skill acquisition in 10-12 year old girls. This research was a single-blind placebo-controlled trial. 29 girls (10-12 years of age who had never played tennis before took part in the study. Ball Throws to the Target (BTT and Tennis Ability Test (TAT were performed three times. Before participants were allocated to the groups and received n-3 LC-PUFA or olive oil, they underwent preparatory training for three weeks. Anthropometric measurements, nutrition analysis, and 1st BTT and TAT tests were performed and they continued the preparatory training until the 3rd week. Then they were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either n-3 LC-PUFA (omega group; 670 mg · day-1; n=16 or olive oil (placebo group; 670 mg · day-1; n=13 during 16 weeks of tennis training which involved 3 hours per week for 19 weeks. The results show that significant improvements in TAT were found in both groups but the omega group had significantly higher scores than the placebo group at the 3rd measurements. Although there were no differences between groups at all measurements of BTT, the omega group showed significant improvement between the 1st and 3rd measurements. This study suggests that daily 670 mg n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for 16 weeks might improve tennis ability test scores of 10-12 year old girls.

  15. The Indian "girl" psychology: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G Prasad; Vidya, K L; Sriramya, V

    2015-07-01

    India has one of the fastest growing youth populations in the world. Girls below 19 years of age comprise one-quarter of India's rapidly growing population. In spite of India's reputation for respecting women, to an extent to treat her as a goddess, the moment a baby is born, the first thing comes to mind is "boy or girl?" as the differences are beyond just being biological. This article examines the significance of various psychological constructs and psychosocial issues that are important in the life of a "girl" baby born in our country.

  16. Puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well child - puberty in girls; Development - puberty in girls; Menstruation - puberty in girls; Breast development - puberty in girls ... a year. When you are done going through puberty, you will be almost as tall as you ...

  17. An analysis of predictors of enrollment and successful achievement for girls in high school Advanced Placement physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalma, Darlene M.

    females have lower achievement scores, lower attitude, lower self-efficacy, and more stereotypical views regarding science than males. Secondly, the only significant differences found between males and females enrolled in AP physics were for stereotypical views toward science and one factor from the epistemological views questions, both of which favored females. Although the non AP boys significantly outscored non AP girls on science FCAT scores, the only other significant differences found between these groups of students were related to attitude, with the girls scoring higher than the boys on both counts. There were significant differences found for numerous variables between AP and non AP females, however, most of the same differences were found between the two ability groups of male students as well. This leads to the conclusion that these factors certainly play an important role in AP physics enrollment for both genders. But the few significant differences found exclusively between the two female ability groups; reading ability, stereotypical views toward science, and the epistemological beliefs regarding branches of physics being related by common principles and aspects of physics need to be inferred instead of directly measured, may play a more important role in increasing enrollment numbers of females.

  18. Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Girl Scouts of the USA; Girl Scouts of Northern California; University of Arizona; Astronomical Society of the Pacific; Aires Scientific

    2017-01-01

    Girl Scout Stars aims to enhance STEM experiences for Girl Scouts in grades K-12. New space science badges are being created for every Girl Scout level. Using best practices, we engage girls and volunteers with the fundamental STEM concepts that underpin our human quest to explore the universe. Through early and sustained exposure to the people and assets of NASA and the excitement of NASA’s Mission, they explore STEM content, discoveries, and careers. Today’s tech savvy Girl Scout volunteers prefer just-in-time materials and asynchronous learning. The Volunteer Tool Kit taps into the wealth of NASA's online materials for the new space science badges. Training volunteers supports troop activities for the younger girls. For older girls, we enhance Girl Scout summer camp activities, support in-depth experiences at Univ. of Arizona’s Astronomy Camp, and “Destination” events for the 2017 total solar eclipse. We partner with the Night Sky Network to engage amateur astronomers with Girl Scouts. Univ. of Arizona also leads Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout volunteers. Aires Scientific leads eclipse preparation and summer sessions at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for teams of volunteers, amateur astronomers and older Girl Scouts.There are 1,900,000 Girl Scouts and 800,000 volunteers in the USA. During development, we work with the Girl Scouts of Northern California (50,000 girl members and 31,000 volunteers) and expand across the USA to 121 Girl Scout councils over five years. SETI Institute leads the space science educators and scientists at Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Univ. of Arizona, and Aires Scientific. Girl Scouts of the USA leads dissemination of Girl Scout Stars with support of Girl Scouts of Northern California. Through professional development of Girl Scout volunteers, Girl Scout Stars enhances public science literacy. Girl Scout Stars supports the NASA Science Mission Directorate Science Education Objectives and NASA’s STEM Engagement and

  19. The impact of playworks on boys' and girls' physical activity during recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Martha; Beyler, Nicholas; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Fortson, Jane

    2015-03-01

    School-based programs, such as Playworks, that guide students in organized activities during recess and make improvements to the recess play yard may lead to significant increases in physical activity-especially for girls. This study builds on past research by investigating the impact of Playworks separately for girls and boys. Twenty-nine schools were randomly assigned to receive Playworks for 1 school year or serve as a control group. Postintervention physical activity data were collected via accelerometers and recess observations. Impacts were estimated separately for girls and boys using regression models. Girls in Playworks schools had significantly higher accelerometer intensity counts and spent more time in vigorous physical activity than girls in control schools. No significant differences based on accelerometer data were found for boys. A significant impact was also found on the types of activities in which girls engaged during recess; girls in the treatment group were less likely than those in the control group to be sedentary and more likely to engage in jumping, tag, and playground games. The current findings suggest that Playworks had a significant impact on some measures of girls' physical activity, but no significant impact on measures of boys' physical activity. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  20. The effect of educational group therapy plan on self–esteem rate in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Turkashvand

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of major changes in various aspects of physical, mental and social caracters they may get. There are new requirements for the changes have been occurred. Attention to these needs, in turn, are faster and better compatibility and increase self-esteem. Self-esteem is the basic factor of personality development in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of educational group therapy on self-esteem of adolescent girls.Materials and Method: This is a quasi- experimental study. Seventy-one adolescent girls of 13-15 years old were selected cluster-randomly from guidance school and divided in two groups of experimental and control (35 cases, 36 controls. Self-esteem of adolescents in two groups measured using Pop test. Then the educational group therapy plan was utilized based on promotion of adolescent’s self- esteem at 10 sessions for case group. Self-esteem rate was measured just after the performance of planned session and were analyzed with SPSS-14 software.Results: The results of the study indicated that performing educational group therapy session can increase the mean self-esteem score for case group (84.74 comparing to control group (74.05. Independent t-test shows significant difference between self-esteem score in case and control groups.Conclusion: According to our results the authors suggest that using educational group therapy plan is an effective approach in increasing self-esteem in adolescent girls and may improve mental health. Therefore, we suggest this plan for increasing self-esteem of adolescents in the schools

  1. Cross sectional study investigating the differences in knowledge and behaviors about HPV between vaccinated and non-vaccinated girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualano, M R; Stillo, M; Mussa, M V; Zotti, C M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the presents study was to compare the level of knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in vaccinated and non-vaccinated girls and to highlight the reasons why non-vaccinated girls refuse vaccination. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to June 2013 in Turin (Piemonte Region, Italy). Questionnaires were administered to girls attending secondary and high schools randomly selected. A total of 576 were compiled. The principle sources of information were parents and health workers. The main reported reasons for non-adherence to vaccination were the disagreement of the parents among the 11-12 years group (45.3%) and the lack of evidence on efficacy among the 18 years group (26.8%). By comparing the level of knowledge there was a statistically significant difference between groups: vaccinated girls reported higher score than the unvaccinated group in several questions (p ≤ 0.05). Our findings show a lack of information about HPV infection. Parents, school and health care workers have a central role in girl's education and choices about HPV vaccination. The communication campaign for the prevention of cervical cancer must therefore be characterised by messages able to clarify and consolidate messages that may have been partially received or misunderstood.

  2. Who is most affected by prenatal alcohol exposure: Boys or girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Tabachnick, Barbara; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; de Vries, Marlene M; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Botha, Isobel; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Burroughs, Zachary R; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Adnams, Colleen M; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-08-01

    To examine outcomes among boys and girls that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Boys and girls with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and randomly-selected controls were compared on a variety of physical and neurobehavioral traits. Sex ratios indicated that heavy maternal binge drinking may have significantly diminished viability to birth and survival of boys postpartum more than girls by age seven. Case control comparisons of a variety of physical and neurobehavioral traits at age seven indicate that both sexes were affected similarly for a majority of variables. However, alcohol-exposed girls had significantly more dysmorphology overall than boys and performed significantly worse on non-verbal IQ tests than males. A three-step sequential regression analysis, controlling for multiple covariates, further indicated that dysmorphology among girls was significantly more associated with five maternal drinking variables and three distal maternal risk factors. However, the overall model, which included five associated neurobehavioral measures at step three, was not significant (p=0.09, two-tailed test). A separate sequential logistic regression analysis of predictors of a FASD diagnosis, however, indicated significantly more negative outcomes overall for girls than boys (Nagelkerke R 2 =0.42 for boys and 0.54 for girls, z=-2.9, p=0.004). Boys and girls had mostly similar outcomes when prenatal alcohol exposure was linked to poor physical and neurocognitive development. Nevertheless, sex ratios implicate lower viability and survival of males by first grade, and girls have more dysmorphology and neurocognitive impairment than boys resulting in a higher probability of a FASD diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Eating behaviors, body image, perfectionism, and self-esteem in a sample of Portuguese girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. Method: A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. Results: High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339, socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175, self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211, and low self-esteem (r = -0.292 (all p < 0.001. Self-oriented perfectionism partially mediated the relation between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. Conclusion: In this sample, dysfunctional eating behaviors appeared to correlate strongly with body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.

  4. 'Self body-management and thinness in youth: survey study on Italian girls'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Dina; De Liso, Giulia; Ranieri, Jessica

    2018-06-08

    Adherence to the thinness model, self-acceptance such as self-esteem is psychological dynamics influencing the young age and emerging adulthood of women life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the girls and young women' ability to deal with the adherence to thinness model according to their self-body management thought daily self-perception of ownhabits and aptitude. We analysed their emotional patterns and body management to elucidate the Italian phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2287 Italian female distribute in range age 15-25 years old and distributed in girl and young women groups. We conducted a Survey study by snowball sampling technique. Our results showed that girls had higher emotional pattern scores when their weight and shape fit the thinness model: skinny girls felt positively about their body even if when they did not take adequate care of it. Italian girls consider the underweight body mass index an adherence model. Findings suggest the urgent need to plan prevention programme to model healthy behaviours about their daily good practice overcoming social and cultural models based on appearance.

  5. The significant effects of puberty on the genetic diathesis of binge eating in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; O'Connor, Shannon; Fowler, Natasha; Burt, S Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Recent data show significant phenotypic and genetic associations between ovarian hormones and binge eating in adulthood. Theories of hormonal risk focus on puberty and the possibility that hormone activation induces changes in genetic effects that then lead to differential risk for binge eating in postpuberty and adulthood. Although this theory is difficult to test in humans, an indirect test is to examine whether genetic influences on binge eating increase during the pubertal period in girls. Prior work has shown pubertal increases in genetic influences on overall disordered eating symptoms, but no study to date has examined binge eating. The present study was the first to examine these increases for binge eating. Participants included 1,568 female twins (aged 8-25 years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Binge eating and pubertal development were assessed with self-report questionnaires. Twin moderation models showed significant linear increases in genetic effects from prepuberty (5%) to postpuberty (42%), even after controlling for the effects of age and body mass index. Results provide critical support for increased genetic influences on binge eating during puberty. Additional studies are needed to identify hormonal mechanisms and fully test contemporary models of ovarian hormone risk. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Digital Media and "Girling" at an Elite Girls' School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…

  7. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Reaching Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  9. Treatment of rape-induced urogenital and lower gastrointestinal lesions among girls aged 5 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwege, Denis; Alumeti, Desiré; Himpens, Jacques; Cadière, Guy-Bernard

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate outcomes after treatment of rape-induced urogenital and lower gastrointestinal lesions among young girls. In a retrospective study, data were assessed from girls aged 5 years or younger who were treated for sexual-assault-related injuries at the General Referral Hospital, Panzi, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2004 and 2014. Data were obtained from review of charts, records of the mother's impressions and physical examinations, and photographic evidence. Elective surgery had been reserved for patients experiencing fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Overall, 205 girls aged 5 years or younger presented with rape injuries: 162 (79.1%) had only mucocutaneous lesions, 22 (10.7%) had musculocutaneous lesions, and 21 (10.2%) had musculocutaneous lesions complicated by fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Among the 21 girls who underwent perineal surgery, two with fecal and urinary incontinence and perforation of the peritoneum of Douglas pouch were additionally treated by laparoscopy. Among 16 patients with fecal incontinence, the continence score had improved significantly at 10.4 months after surgery (Prape survivors aged 5 years or younger, a treatment strategy by which surgery is reserved for incontinent patients provided good cosmetic and functional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Mauno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. Aims To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. Methods School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. Results The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD: 30.6 (SD 12.2 vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5; p  Conclusions Body mass, self-esteem and eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found.

  11. Significance of determination of female sex hormones (E2, LH, FSH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and leptin in girls with precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianrong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of determination of serum levels of estradiol (E 2 ), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and leptin in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Methods: Serum E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I (with chemiluminescence immunoassay) and leptin (with RIA) levels were determined in 35 girls with early development of breast as the sign of precocious puberty, of which, 15 was considered to be of the ICPP group and 20 of simple premature thelarche group (SPT). Criteria of diagnosis for ICPP were: peak LH value>12IU/L and LH/FSH>1 after GnRH stimulating test. Results: Serum E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I leptin levels in girls with ICPP were significantly higher than those in the girls with SPT (P 0.2 as the cut-off value for diagnosis of ICPP there would still be a positive rate of 86.6% suggesting that the diagnostic criteria might be set lower. Serum IGF-I levels were positively correlated to those of E 2 (r=0.47, P 2 and IGF-I. Conclusion: Determinations of serum E 2 , LH, FHS, IGF-I and leptin levels were helpful for the early diagnosis of ICPP. (author)

  12. Testing a dissonance body image intervention among young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2014-02-01

    Body image and eating disorder interventions based on cognitive dissonance have been shown to be effective among girls and women aged 14 and above. This article reports a preliminary examination of whether a dissonance intervention is also effective when delivered in a school setting to 12- and 13-year-old girls in the United Kingdom. Girls (N = 106, mean age = 12.07 years, SD = .27) were allocated to the intervention condition or a waitlist control. In contrast to the control group, girls in the intervention condition reported significant reductions in body dissatisfaction and internalization of a thin body ideal post-intervention. There was no significant change in self-reported dietary restraint for either condition. In addition, compared with the control group, girls in the intervention condition showed increased resilience to negative media effects 1-month post-intervention. Results suggests that dissonance based programs can reduce body dissatisfaction, internalization and negative media effects among a younger group of girls than previously examined and in a United Kingdom school setting. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Single-gender mathematics and science classes and the effects on urban middle school boys and girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudler, Dawn M.

    This study compared the differences in the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics and science achievement scores of boys and girls in Grade 7 at two urban middle schools. The data allowed the researcher to determine to what degree boys and girls in Grade 7 differ in their mathematics and science achievements within a single-gender environment versus a coeducational learning environment. The study compared any differences between boys and girls in Grade 7 within a single-gender environment in the subjects of mathematics and science, as measured by the CRCT assessments. The study also compared differences between boys and girls in Grade 7 within a coeducational environment in the subjects of mathematics and science, as measured by the CRCT assessments. Two middle schools were used within the study. One middle school was identified as a single-gender school (Middle School A); the other was identified as a coeducational school (Middle School B). This quantitative study applied the use of a descriptive research design. In addition, CRCT scores for the subjects of mathematics and science were taken during the spring of 2008 from both middle schools. Data were measured using descriptive statistics and independent t test calculations. The frequency statistics proceeded to compare each sample performance levels. The data were described in means, standard deviations, standard error means, frequency, and percentages. This method provided an excellent description of a sample scored on the spring 2008 CRCT mathematics and science assessments.

  14. Feeling angry and acting angry: different effects of autonomy-connectedness in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karreman, Annemiek; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2012-04-01

    This study examined effects of the autonomy-connectedness components sensitivity to others, self-awareness and capacity for managing new situations on anger experience versus anger expression in adolescent boys and girls. One hundred thirty-one high school students were randomly assigned to an anger-inducing or neutral condition using the Dictator Game. Whereas after anger induction boys experienced and expressed anger independent of autonomy-connectedness, girls' anger experience depended on the level of sensitivity to others: girls experienced increased anger only when they scored high on sensitivity to others. However, girls' expression of anger did not depend on the level of sensitivity to others. Effects of self-awareness and capacity for managing new situations were found when anger was not induced. This study contributed to emotion regulation research by showing differences in anger experience and anger expression as a function of autonomy-connectedness in boys and girls. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between Dietary Pattern and Depression in Korean Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Ji-young; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Park, Yongsoon

    2015-12-01

    Dietary patterns are important for the physical and psychological development of adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between dietary patterns and depression in this population. We conducted a case-control study in a tertiary university hospital of 849 girls aged 12 to 18 years. The study was conducted from April 2011 to December 2012. Participants were identified as having depression if they had scores greater than 16 on the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Data were obtained using validated Korean-language questionnaires. The subjects' usual dietary patterns during the past 12 months were assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire published by the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Among the 849 enrolled volunteers, 116 were identified as having depressive symptoms. The mean age of the participants was 15.0 ± 1.5 years. The prevalence of girls diagnosed with depression was 13.6%. Multivariate adjusted regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of depression was significantly positively associated with the consumption of instant and processed foods and negatively associated with the intake of green vegetables and 1 to 3 servings/day of fruits, after adjusting for energy intake and menstrual regularity. Additionally, depression was negatively associated with intake of fiber, β-carotene, vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin C, potassium, zinc, folate, iron, and copper after adjusting for confounding variables. Consumption of fast foods including ramen noodles, hamburger, pizza, fried food, and other processed foods was associated with increased risk of depression in adolescent girls. Thus, caution is required regarding dietary choices in this population. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mother-daughter dyadic approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Fischl, Andrea Rodgers; Choi, Jessica; Schmitt, Patricia L; White, Neil H; Becker, Dorothy; Downs, Julie; Hannan, Margaret; Thurheimer, Jennifer; Sereika, Susan M

    2014-12-29

    Preconception counseling (PC) significantly and inexpensively reduces risks of reproductive-health complications for women with diabetes. Our validated technology-based preconception counseling intervention, READY-Girls , is tailored for female teens with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes and targets decision-making regarding effective family planning and seeking PC. Our teen-focused research was instrumental in changing the American Diabetes Association's Practice Recommendations to specify that preconception counseling should "Start at puberty…". This directive requires support from well-informed mothers of teens. Our goal is to provide both teen girls and their mothers with preconception counseling knowledge, and provide mothers with sex-communication training. Evaluation should focus on mother-daughter dyads. This feasibility study explored mother's and daughter's awareness and knowledge of diabetes and pregnancy, and preconception counseling; and compared mother-daughter responses using dyadic analyses. A mixed-method design was conducted with 10 mothers of daughters with T1D. Mothers were given READY-Girls intervention and completed knowledge and support questionnaires. Their responses were compared to those of their daughter's who were participating in a large randomized, control intervention trial with READY-Girls . The major theme from one-on-one interviews was, "I know nothing about diabetes/pregnancy risks and PC". Mother's and daughter's perceptions of having limited knowledge were confirmed by low knowledge scores. Mothers perceived giving higher levels of support compared to their daughter's perceptions of receiving support. Mothers can play a vital role in initiating discussions regarding reproductive-health with their daughters and reinforcing preconception counseling. Mother-daughter team approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes is feasible. Mother-daughter dyadic analyses can be important to explore

  17. An Inaugural Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Wright, Joe; Wright, Rita; Mace, Mikayla; Floyd, Charmayne

    2017-10-01

    The University of Arizona (UA) conducted its first teenage Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp. This program was preceded by 24 Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders, initially supported by EPO funding from NIRCam for JWST. For five days in late June, 24 girls (ages 13-17 years) attended from 16 states. The Camp was led by UA astronomers and long-term educators. Representing Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) were a husband/wife amateur astronomer team who are SOFIA Airborne Astronomy and NASA Solar System Ambassadors. Other leaders included a Stanford undergraduate engineering student who is a lifelong Girl Scout and Gold Award recipient and a recent UA Master’s degree science journalist. The Camp is a residential, hands-on “immersion” adventure in scientific exploration using telescopes in southern Arizona’s Catalina Mountains near Tucson. Under uniquely dark skies girls become real astronomers, operating telescopes (small and large) and associated technologies, interacting with scientists, obtaining images and quantitative data, investigating their own questions, and most importantly having fun actually doing science and building observing equipment. Girls achieve a basic understanding of celestial objects, how and why they move, and their historical significance, leading to an authentic understanding of science, research, and engineering. Girls can lead these activities back home in their own troops and councils, encouraging others to consider STEM field careers. These programs are supported by a 5-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the UA, GSUSA, Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. The Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It’s Your Planet-Love It! and introduces the girls to some of the activities being

  18. Listening to Girls and Boys Talk about Girls' Physical Activity Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Maihan B.; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus…

  19. Students' perceptions of the physical education class environment for boys and girls and the perceived motivational climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, A

    1998-09-01

    Greek students (N = 310) responded to surveys concerning their perceptions of the physical education class environment. Based on factor and reliability analyses, 14 scale scores were computed. Two depicted perceptions of teacher-initiated mastery orientation and teacher-initiated performance orientation. Six scale scores reflected the teacher's negative behavior toward boy's, focus on boys' learning, encouragement toward boys, autonomy given to boys, adjustment of the lesson for boys, and motivation of boys. Six identical scale scores were calculated assessing the physical education class climate for girls. The perception of a teacher who behaves differently toward boys and girls was negatively related to the perception of a teacher who tried to help all students to improve. It is suggested that a mastery orientation increases students' motivation and maintains equality in physical education.

  20. Assessment of intake of iron and nutrients that affect bioavailability of daily food rations of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Broniecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls’ diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability.

  1. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene before and after teaching program among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A true experimental study was conducted among 50 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the Bhaniyawala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n=25 and experimental group (n=25. Adolescent girls from both groups were assessed for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 and on 15th day.  Participants of experimental group were administered educational programme regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 after assessment for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. Data were analysed statistically by simple proportions. Results: The mean age of the adolescent girl was 13.88± 1.5 and age of menarche 12.74±0.98. Out of 50, 32 (64% mothers’ of adolescent girls were educated at graduate level.  The mean pre-test knowledge and practice in experimental group 8.04±1.54, 3.52±1.0 and control group 8.02±2.0, 3.24±1.0 respectively. The level of knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene of subjects who participated in educational program was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the

  2. Menstrual hygiene management among adolescent girls in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Anna Maria; Sivakami, M; Thakkar, Mamita Bora; Bauman, Ashley; Laserson, Kayla F; Coates, Susanne; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the status of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among adolescent girls in India to determine unmet needs. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, The Global Health Database, Google Scholar and references for studies published from 2000 to September 2015 on girls’ MHM. Setting India. Participants Adolescent girls. Outcome measures Information on menarche awareness, type of absorbent used, disposal, hygiene, restrictions and school absenteeism was extracted from eligible materials; a quality score was applied. Meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled prevalence (PP), and meta-regression to examine the effect of setting, region and time. Results Data from 138 studies involving 193 subpopulations and 97 070 girls were extracted. In 88 studies, half of the girls reported being informed prior to menarche (PP 48%, 95% CI 43% to 53%, I2 98.6%). Commercial pad use was more common among urban (PP 67%, 57% to 76%, I2 99.3%, n=38) than rural girls (PP 32%, 25% to 38%, I2 98.6%, n=56, pMenstruating girls experienced many restrictions, especially for religious activities (PP 0.77, 0.71 to 0.83, I2 99.1%, n=67). A quarter (PP 24%, 19% to 30%, I2 98.5%, n=64) reported missing school during periods. A lower prevalence of absenteeism was associated with higher commercial pad use in univariate (p=0.023) but not in multivariate analysis when adjusted for region (p=0.232, n=53). Approximately a third of girls changed their absorbents in school facilities (PP 37%, 29% to 46%, I2 97.8%, n=17). Half of the girls’ homes had a toilet (PP 51%, 36% to 67%, I2 99.4%, n=21). The quality of studies imposed limitations on analyses and the interpretation of results (mean score 3 on a scale of 0–7). Conclusions Strengthening of MHM programmes in India is needed. Education on awareness, access to hygienic absorbents and disposal of MHM items need to be addressed. Trial registration number CRD42015019197. PMID:26936906

  3. Puberty Health Status among Adolescent Girls: A Model- based Educational Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kheirollahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood and is one of the fastest stages of human development which is simultaneous to start of puberty. This study aimed to investigate the puberty health status among adolescent girls through a model- based educational program. Materials and Methods The current study was an interventional quasi-experimental research. It was conducted on 152 girls aged 13 to 15 years old on the city of Qom- Iran. To select the subjects, first an education zone was randomly selected. In that zone, two schools were randomly selected as the intervention and control groups (76 for interventional group and 76 for control group.After confirming the reliability and validity of a researcher-made questionnaire, it was used to collect the required data via self-reports. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results The mean age and menarche of the students were 13.59 ± 0.87 and 12.38 ± 0.99 years, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of knowledge and behavior in intervention and control groups after educational intervention, so that the mean scores of knowledge and behavior about puberty health in the intervention group were higher than the control group (P 0.05. Conclusion As the results showed, before the intervention the status of knowledge, attitude toward puberty health, and behavior about puberty health of the studied students was not favorable. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the need for educational interventions and the role of health professionals in this field.

  4. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mauno; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Lindberg, Nina; Siimes, Martti A; Aalberg, Veikko

    2012-06-08

    In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD): 30.6 (SD 12.2) vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5); p eating habits were less satisfied with their bodies than those describing normal eating habits (mean (SD): 33.0 (12.9) vs. 21.2 (10.2); p eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found.

  5. The Controlling Nutritional Status Score Is a Significant Independent Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, Shinkichi; Toyokawa, Gouji; Taguchi, Kenichi; Edagawa, Makoto; Shimamatsu, Shinichiro; Toyozawa, Ryo; Nosaki, Kaname; Seto, Takashi; Hirai, Fumihiko; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Shoji, Fumihiro; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Ichinose, Yukito

    2017-07-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating neoplasm; however, some patients exhibit a good response to chemotherapy or multidisciplinary therapy, including surgery and chemotherapy. It is therefore important to discover the factors that can be used to select patients who will benefit from such treatment. Although the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score has been used to predict the prognosis in other types of malignancy, its utility in patients with MPM is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of the CONUT in patients with MPM. The data of 83 patients, who were treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or multidisciplinary therapy, were analyzed in the present study. A cut-off CONUT score of 2 was used to classify all of the patients into low or high CONUT groups. Fifty-two of the 83 patients were classified into the low CONUT group. A high CONUT score was significantly correlated with chemotherapy alone (P = .011). The high CONUT group had significantly poorer overall survival (OS) (P clinical stage and the CONUT score were found to be independent predictive factors for the OS: clinical stage, I/II and III/IV; P = .001 and CONUT score, ≥ 3 and ≤ 2; P = .011, respectively. The clinical stage and the CONUT score were also independent predictive factors for DFS/PFS: clinical stage, I/II and III/IV; P = .006 and CONUT score, ≥ 3 and ≤ 2; P = .013, respectively. The CONUT score was an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in the patients with MPM. This score provides useful information for selecting patients who will benefit from the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pallister Killian syndrome: unusual significant postnatal overgrowth in a girl with otherwise typical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frković, Sanda Huljev; Durisević, Ivana Tonković; Trcić, Ruzica Lasan; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Gornik, Kristina Crkvenac; Muzinić, Dubravka; Letica, Ljiljana; Barić, Ivo; Begović, Davor

    2010-03-01

    Pallister Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by tetrasomy of the short arm of chromosome 12, revealed usually in mosaic distribution of an extra i (12) (p10) chromosome in fibroblasts. The syndrome presents with a recognizable pattern of findings including pigmentary skin changes, coarse face, high forehead, sparse anterior scalp hair, hypertelorism, seizures and progressive psychomotor developmental delay. It was first described independently by Pallister in 1977 and by Killian and Teschler-Nikola in 1981. We report a case of 21 month old girl with PKS and significant overgrowth. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using the GTG banding technique. The karyotype of cultured lymphocytes was normal. The karyotype from skin fibroblasts was established as mosaic tetrasomy of 12p 47,XX,+i (12) (p10)/46,XX. The origin of the extra marker chromosome was determinated by fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome 12 specific DNA probes confirming that supernumerary marker is chromosome i (12p) in 68% of cells. Despite the excessive postnatal growth we found low serum growth hormone levels and reduced response to pharmacological stimulation test. This is also the first report of a postnatal patient in our country.

  7. Ground Reaction Force Differences in the Countermovement Jump in Girls with Different Levels of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floría, Pablo; Harrison, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain the biomechanical differences between better and poorer performers of the vertical jump in a homogeneous group of children. Method: Twenty-four girls were divided into low-scoring (LOW; M [subscript age] = 6.3 ± 0.8 years) and high-scoring (HIGH; M [subscript age] = 6.6 ± 0.8 years) groups based on…

  8. Impact of low-weight severity and menstrual status on bone in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Nurgun; Becker, Kendra; Slattery, Meghan; Tulsiani, Shreya; Singhal, Vibha; Thomas, Jennifer J; Coniglio, Kathryn; Lee, Hang; Miller, Karen K; Eddy, Kamryn T; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2017-04-01

    Clinicians currently use different low-weight cut-offs both to diagnose anorexia nervosa (AN) and to determine AN severity in adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of existing cut-offs and severity criteria by determining which are most strongly associated with risk for low bone mineral density (BMD). Height adjusted BMD Z scores were calculated for 352 females: 262 with AN and 90 healthy controls (controls) (12-20.5 years), using data from the BMD in Childhood Study, for the lumbar spine, whole body less head, and total hip. For most cut-offs used to define low weight (5th or 10th BMI percentile, BMI of 17.5 or 18.5, and 85 or 90% of median BMI), AN had lower BMD Z scores than controls. AN at >85 or >90% expected body weight for height (EBW-Ht) did not differ in BMD Z scores from controls, but differed significantly from AN at ≤85 or ≤90% EBW-Ht. Among AN, any amenorrhea was associated with lower BMD. AN had lower BMD than controls across DSM-5 and The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) severity categories. The SAHM moderate severity classification was differentiated from the mildly malnourished classification by lower BMD at hip and spine sites. Amenorrhea and %EBW-Ht ≤ 85 or ≤ 90% are markers of severity of bone loss within AN. Among severity categories, BMI Z scores (SAHM) may have the greatest utility in assessing the degree of malnutrition in adolescent girls that corresponds to lower BMD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The meaning of running away for girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. The meaning of running away as it emerged from the girls' descriptions of their lives prior to leaving home was that of survival - both psychological and physical. The girls' stories centered on their evolving experiences of alienation, loneliness and detachment, and the failure of significant relationships at home and outside of home to provide them with the support they needed. These experiences laid the ground for the "final moments" before leaving, when a feeling of "no alternative," a hope for a better future, and various particular triggers led the girls to the decision to leave home. Participants' insights about the dynamics leading to running-away center on the meaning of family relationships, particularly those with the mother, as constituting the girl's psychological home. The girls seemed to perceive running away as an inevitability, rather than a choice, and even portrayed the running away as "living suicide." Yet, their stories clearly demonstrate their ability to cope and the possession of strengths and skills that enabled them to survive in extremely difficult home situations. The findings of this research highlight the importance of improving services for reaching out and supporting girls who are on the verge of running away from home. Such services should be tailored to the needs of girls who experience extreme but often silenced distress at home, and should facilitate alternative solutions to the girls' plight other than running away. An understanding of the dynamics leading to running away from the girls' perspective has the potential to improve the efficacy of services provided by contributing to the creation of a caring, empowering, understanding and trustful professional

  10. Official Basketball Rules for Girls and Women. July 1972 - July 1973. Reprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. Div. for Girls and Women's Sports.

    The official American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER) rules for girls and women's basketball, July 1972 - July 1973 are listed. Exact court measurements are given as are official scoring rules, timing procedures, duties of officials, definition of playing terms, violations and penalties, and officials' signals.…

  11. Longitudinal analyses of the steroid metabolome in obese PCOS girls with weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas; Kulle, Alexandra; Rothermel, Juliane; Knop-Schmenn, Caroline; Lass, Nina; Bosse, Christina; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2017-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are not fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to get functional insights into the regulation of steroid hormones in PCOS by steroid metabolomics. This is a longitudinal study of changes of steroid hormones in 40 obese girls aged 13-16 years (50% with PCOS) participating in a 1-year lifestyle intervention. Girls with and without PCOS were matched to age, BMI and change of weight status. We measured progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 17-hydroxyprogenolon, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostendione-sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone and estradiol by LC-MS/MS steroid profiling at baseline and one year later. At baseline, obese PCOS girls demonstrated significantly higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations compared to obese girls without PCOS, whereas the other steroid hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ significantly. Weight loss in obese PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations. Weight loss in obese non-PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations, whereas no significant changes of testosterone and androstenedione concentrations could be observed. Without weight loss, no significant changes of steroid hormones were measured except an increase of estradiol in obese PCOS girls without weight loss. The key steroid hormones in obese adolescents with PCOS are androstenedione and testosterone, whereas glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ between obese girls with and without PCOS. © 2017 The authors.

  12. Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C

    2010-02-02

    People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.

  13. Girl-Child Education in Nigeria: Issues and Implications on National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of girl-child education to the development of any nation cannot be overemphasised. There is the saying that “if we educate a boy, we educate one person, but if we educate a girl, we educate a family and a nation''. In many parts of the Africa, particularly in Nigeria, the girl-child face significant obstacles in ...

  14. Feasibility and validity of using WHO adolescent job aid algorithms by health workers for reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls in rural North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, Siddaiah; Nongkrynh, B; Anand, K; Pandav, C S

    2015-09-21

    High prevalence of reproductive morbidities is seen among adolescents in India. Health workers play an important role in providing health services in the community, including the adolescent reproductive health services. A study was done to assess the feasibility of training female health workers (FHWs) in the classification and management of selected adolescent girls' reproductive health problems according to modified WHO algorithms. The study was conducted between Jan-Sept 2011 in Northern India. Thirteen FHWs were trained regarding adolescent girls' reproductive health as per WHO Adolescent Job-Aid booklet. A pre and post-test assessment of the knowledge of the FHWs was carried out. All FHWs were given five modified WHO algorithms to classify and manage common reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls. All the FHWs applied the algorithms on at least ten adolescent girls at their respective sub-centres. Simultaneously, a medical doctor independently applied the same algorithms in all girls. Classification of the condition was followed by relevant management and advice provided in the algorithm. Focus group discussion with the FHWs was carried out to receive their feedback. After training the median score of the FHWs increased from 19.2 to 25.2 (p - 0.0071). Out of 144 girls examined by the FHWs 108 were classified as true positives and 30 as true negatives and agreement as measured by kappa was 0.7 (0.5-0.9). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 94.3% (88.2-97.4), 78.9% (63.6-88.9), 92.5% (86.0-96.2), and 83.3% (68.1-92.1) respectively. A consistent and significant difference between pre and post training knowledge scores of the FHWs were observed and hence it was possible to use the modified Job Aid algorithms with ease. Limitation of this study was the munber of FHWs trained was small. Issues such as time management during routine work, timing of training, overhead cost of training etc were not

  15. Increasing incidence of premature thelarche in the Central Region of Denmark - Challenges in differentiating girls less than 7 years of age with premature thelarche from girls with precocious puberty in real-life practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sømod, Mia Elbek; Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Kristensen, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    . Diagnoses were validated and the girls were categorized to the groups PP (n = 27) and PT (n = 164). Anthropometry, Tanner stages, ethnicity, bone age, and biochemistry, were recorded. Conventional variables for diagnosing PP were compared between the groups at time of referral to identify parameters...... predictive for the diagnosis. RESULTS: The referral rate of PT increased from 1998-2013. Girls with PT and PP differed with regards to age at referral, body mass index standard deviation scores (BMISDS), ethnicity, bone age advancement, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn...... was the variable which best discriminated PT from PP. Third, stimulated LH in 1-3 years old girls with PT is similar to stimulated LH in 5-7 years old girls with PP. Age, BMISDS, ethnicity, bone age, stimulated gonadotropins and LH/FSH and SHBG are all useful variables for differentiating PP from PT. However...

  16. Are Korean secondary school girls physically active during leisure time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minhaeng; Kwon, Wook-Dong; Jeon, Yong-Bae

    2010-03-01

    Our aims in this study were to identify the types of physical activity during leisure time and to determine if Korean secondary school girls participate in enough physical activity during leisure time to promote health. Of the 1,088 girls randomly selected by a multistaged cluster sampling technique, 705 girls completed questionnaires. Seventy-five percent of Korean secondary school girls spent time on individualized or noncompetitive activities, and 88.3% of them were classified into underactive and inactive levels with no gained health benefits during leisure time. No significant differences were observed in the physical activity levels between middle school girls and high school girls. The results of this study may be explained by the lack of perceived appropriateness for secondary school girls' participation in physical activity, which traditionally did not favor them participating in dynamic physical activities and sufficient physical activity level to gain health benefits.

  17. A girl with cutaneous hyperpigmentation, cafe au lait spots and ring chromosome 15 without significant deletion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, E.; Bartsch, O.; Czako, M.; Frensel, A.; Karteszi, J.; Kosztolanyi, G.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Ring chromosome 15 [r(15)] syndrome is characterised by specific facial features, cafe au lait spots, failure to thrive, mental retardation and typically with a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 15. We report a 2.5 year old girl showing normal growth and development, large

  18. Valproic Acid in Women and Girls of Childbearing Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Dorothy; Ramaswamy, Rachel; Kurlander, Jacob E; DeRiggi, Alana; Riba, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent literature on valproic acid (VPA) in women and girls of childbearing age and to emphasize new findings. Recent research confirms VPAs teratogenicity and risk of hormone disruption. VPA exposure in utero increases the risk for a variety of major congenital malformations (MCMs), reduced IQ and behavioral problems. In girls and women, VPA increases the risk of hormone abnormalities, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Despite guidelines recommending caution, VPA use continues to be prescribed to reproductive-aged women and girls. Despite significant and well-documented risk, adherence to guidelines in VPA use in reproductive-aged girls and women remains low.

  19. Junior High Girls' Attitudes toward the Rights and Roles of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertsgaard, Doris; Light, Harriet

    1984-01-01

    Administered Arnott's Autonomy for Women Inventory to determine the attitudes toward women of 445 junior high school girls. The girls were found to hold a moderate view toward women's rights and roles. Significant differences in attitudes were found according to critical family-related variables. Rural girls tended to be more conservative.…

  20. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  1. Relationship of body mass index and psychosocial factors on physical activity in underserved adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Lawman, Hannah G

    2010-09-01

    Previous research indicates that body mass index (BMI) and sex are important factors in understanding physical activity (PA) levels. The present study examined the influence of BMI on psychosocial variables (self-efficacy, social support) and PA in underserved (ethnic minority, low income) boys in comparison with girls. Participants (N = 669; 56% girls; 74% African American) were recruited from the "Active by Choice Today" trial. BMI ʐ score was calculated from objectively collected height and weight data, and PA was assessed with 7-day accelerometry estimates. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure self-efficacy and social support (family, peers) for PA. A 3-way interaction between BMI z score, sex, and family support on PA was shown such that family support was positively associated with PA in normal-weight but not overweight or obese boys, and was not associated with PA in girls. Self-efficacy had the largest effect size related to PA in comparison with the other psychosocial variables studied. Self-efficacy was found to be an important variable related to PA in underserved youth. Future studies should evaluate possible barriers to PA in girls, and overweight youth, to provide more effective family support strategies for underserved adolescents' PA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Longitudinal analyses of the steroid metabolome in obese PCOS girls with weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reinehr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The underlying mechanisms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS are not fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to get functional insights into the regulation of steroid hormones in PCOS by steroid metabolomics. Design: This is a longitudinal study of changes of steroid hormones in 40 obese girls aged 13–16 years (50% with PCOS participating in a 1-year lifestyle intervention. Girls with and without PCOS were matched to age, BMI and change of weight status. Methods: We measured progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 17-hydroxyprogenolon, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostendione-sulfate (DHEA-S, estrone and estradiol by LC–MS/MS steroid profiling at baseline and one year later. Results: At baseline, obese PCOS girls demonstrated significantly higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations compared to obese girls without PCOS, whereas the other steroid hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ significantly. Weight loss in obese PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations. Weight loss in obese non-PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations, whereas no significant changes of testosterone and androstenedione concentrations could be observed. Without weight loss, no significant changes of steroid hormones were measured except an increase of estradiol in obese PCOS girls without weight loss. Conclusions: The key steroid hormones in obese adolescents with PCOS are androstenedione and testosterone, whereas glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ between obese girls with and without PCOS.

  3. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  5. Knowledge and practices related to reproductive health amongst adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree S Gothankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess knowledge and practices related to menstruation and reproductive health amongst college going adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study done on 323 adolescent girls admitted in the year 2012 to professional colleges belonging to the health sciences faculty of a private university in Pune, India, using self-administered proforma. Results: Mean age of onset of menarche was 13.35 years. Many girls (86.65% had knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. For 68% of girls, mother was a source of menstrual information. Half of the girls reported some form of restriction in activities during menstruation due to religious reasons. 11% girls suffered from some form of reproductive tract infections (RTIs. Practices related to menstruation revealed that cloth piece is used for menstrual protection by 3% of girls. Soaked sanitary pads were disposed sanitarily by 96% of girls. Adolescent of medical faculty had significantly more knowledge than nursing faculty adolescents regarding emergency contraceptives (P < 0.05. Only four girls reported a history of sexual contact, of these, three were aware of emergency contraceptives, while one used them to prevent pregnancy. Conclusions: Adolescent girls received knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche from their mothers. Restriction in activity during menstruation due to religious reasons is practiced by many girls. Sanitary pad was used by almost all girls, and all disposed the same in a sanitary manner. More than half of the girls were aware about emergency contraceptives. Prevalence of RTI was found to be low and very few girls reported history of sexual exposure.

  6. Explicit Performance in Girls and Implicit Processing in Boys: A Simultaneous fNIRS–ERP Study on Second Language Syntactic Learning in Young Adolescents

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    Lisa Sugiura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning a second language (L2 proceeds with individual approaches to proficiency in the language. Individual differences including sex, as well as working memory (WM function appear to have strong effects on behavioral performance and cortical responses in L2 processing. Thus, by considering sex and WM capacity, we examined neural responses during L2 sentence processing as a function of L2 proficiency in young adolescents. In behavioral tests, girls significantly outperformed boys in L2 tests assessing proficiency and grammatical knowledge, and in a reading span test (RST assessing WM capacity. Girls, but not boys, showed significant correlations between L2 tests and RST scores. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and event-related potential (ERP simultaneously, we measured cortical responses while participants listened to syntactically correct and incorrect sentences. ERP data revealed a grammaticality effect only in boys in the early time window (100–300 ms, implicated in phrase structure processing. In fNIRS data, while boys had significantly increased activation in the left prefrontal region implicated in syntactic processing, girls had increased activation in the posterior language-related region involved in phonology, semantics, and sentence processing with proficiency. Presumably, boys implicitly focused on rule-based syntactic processing, whereas girls made full use of linguistic knowledge and WM function. The present results provide important fundamental data for learning and teaching in L2 education.

  7. Programming experience promotes higher STEM motivation among first-grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Moscatelli, Adriana; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-08-01

    The gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement is large and persistent. This gap is significantly larger in technological fields such as computer science and engineering than in math and science. Gender gaps begin early; young girls report less interest and self-efficacy in technology compared with boys in elementary school. In the current study (N=96), we assessed 6-year-old children's stereotypes about STEM fields and tested an intervention to develop girls' STEM motivation despite these stereotypes. First-grade children held stereotypes that boys were better than girls at robotics and programming but did not hold these stereotypes about math and science. Girls with stronger stereotypes about robotics and programming reported lower interest and self-efficacy in these domains. We experimentally tested whether positive experience with programming robots would lead to greater interest and self-efficacy among girls despite these stereotypes. Children were randomly assigned either to a treatment group that was given experience in programming a robot using a smartphone or to control groups (no activity or other activity). Girls given programming experience reported higher technology interest and self-efficacy compared with girls without this experience and did not exhibit a significant gender gap relative to boys' interest and self-efficacy. These findings show that children's views mirror current American cultural messages about who excels at computer science and engineering and show the benefit of providing young girls with chances to experience technological activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining Means of Reaching Adolescent Girls for Iron Supplementation in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

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    Afework Mulugeta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in adolescent girls from the developing world. One of the recommended interventions to improve iron status in adolescent girls is iron supplementation. Yet the provision of iron supplements to adolescent girls proved to be a challenging task for the health systems across the developing world. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine means of reaching adolescent girls for iron supplementation in Northern Ethiopia. Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional study consisting of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection and analysis was used in this study. Stratified multi-stage systematic random sampling technique was adopted and primary quantitative data were collected from 828 (578 school attending and 250 non school attending adolescent girls recruited from nine districts of Tigray. The primary quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. The qualitative data collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analyzed. Results: The mean (SD age of the girls was 16.7 (1.4 years. Four hundred forty seven (54%, 355 (42.9% and 26 (3.1% of the adolescent girls had low, medium and high diet diversity scores, respectively. More than half, 467 (56%, of the adolescent girls believed that adolescent girls were overloaded with household jobs everyday compared to boys from their respective communities. Key informants said that, there is no adolescent nutrition message promoted in the study area. Low community awareness, perceiving iron tablet as a contraceptive, religious and cultural influences, and lack of confidence in supplementation value of iron tablets, are some of the potential barriers mentioned by the key informant and focus group discussion participants. Schools (45%, health centers (27% and health posts (26% were the preferred public facilities for provision of

  9. Gender differences in primary and secondary education: Are girls really outperforming boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert; van Langen, Annemarie

    2013-06-01

    A moral panic has broken out in several countries after recent studies showed that girls were outperforming boys in education. Commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Education, the present study examines the position of boys and girls in Dutch primary education and in the first phase of secondary education over the past ten to fifteen years. On the basis of several national and international large-scale databases, the authors examined whether one can indeed speak of a gender gap, at the expense of boys. Three domains were investigated, namely cognitive competencies, non-cognitive competencies, and school career features. The results as expressed in effect sizes show that there are hardly any differences with regard to language and mathematics proficiency. However, the position of boys in terms of educational level and attitudes and behaviour is much more unfavourable than that of girls. Girls, on the other hand, score more unfavourably with regard to sector and subject choice. While the present situation in general does not differ very much from that of a decade ago, it is difficult to predict in what way the balances might shift in the years to come.

  10. Perceptions of sexual assertiveness among adolescent girls: initiation, refusal, and use of protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslander, Beth A; Perfect, Michelle M; Succop, Paul A; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2007-06-01

    We describe adolescent girls' perceptions of sexual assertiveness and examine the relationship of these perceptions with developmental and interpersonal variables. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants were recruited from a school-based health clinic and local colleges, and through snowballing to participate in a 6-month study examining microbicide acceptability. 106 sexually experienced girls (ages 14 through 21 years). Girls described their demographics, sexual history, and romantic relationships and completed the Sexual Assertiveness Scale for Women (SAS-W), which assesses perceptions of sexual assertiveness: Initiation of Sex, Refusal of Unwanted Sex, and Pregnancy-STD Prevention. Girls perceived themselves as asserting themselves between 50% and 75% of the time with their current or most recent partner. The Initiation subscale was not related to the other two subscales. In final models, girls with a prior pregnancy perceived themselves as initiating sex more than girls without a prior pregnancy. Having a greater number of lifetime partners was related to perceptions of less refusal, whereas greater number of partners, being sexually experienced longer, and engaging in more unprotected sex were related to perceptions of less implementation of preventive methods. None of the relationship variables were related to scores on any subscale. Most of these girls perceived themselves as sexually assertive. Given that sexual experience, not relationship factors, were related to perceptions of sexual assertiveness, the design of counseling messages should incorporate sexual experience. These messages should find effective ways to help girls both to communicate their sexual desires and to enhance their ability to protect themselves.

  11. Bladder control training in girls with lower urinary tract dysfunction

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    Amira Peco-Antić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of standard and biofeedback bladder control training (BCT on the resolution of dysfunctional elimination syndrome (primary outcome, and on the reduction of urinary tract infections (UTI and the use of medications such as antibacterial prophylaxis and/or anticholinergic/alpha-blockers (secondary outcome in girls older than aged least 5 years. Materials and Methods 72 girls, median age of 8 years (interquartile range, IQR 7-10 were subjected to standard BCT (cognitive, behavioural and constipation treatment and 12 one-hour sessions of animated biofeedback using interactive computer games within 8 weeks. Fifty patients were reevaluated after median 11 (IQR, 6-17 months. Effectiveness of BCT was determined by reduction of dysfunctional voiding score (DVS, daytime urinary incontinence (DUI, constipation, UTI, nocturnal enuresis (NE, post void residual (PVR, and improvements in bladder capacity and uroflow/EMG patterns. Results BCT resulted in significant normalization of DUI, NE, constipation, bladder capacity, uroflow/EMG, while decrease of PVR didn't reach statistical significance. In addition, the incidence of UTI, antibacterial prophylaxis and medical urotherapy significantly decreased. There were no significant differences in DVS, DUI, NE, bladder capacity and voiding pattern at the end of the BCT and at the time of reevaluation. The success on BCT was supported by parenteral perception of the treatment response in 63.9% and full response in additional 15.3% of the patients. Conclusion Combination of standard and biofeedback BCT improved dysfunctional elimination syndrome and decreased UTI with discontinuation of antibacterial prophylaxis and/or anticholinergic/alpha-blockers in the majority of the patients. Better training results are expected in patients with higher bladder wall thickness as well as in those with vesicoureteral reflux, while presence of nocturnal enuresis may be a negative predictor of the

  12. Nutritional status and effect of seaweed chocolate on anemic adolescent girls

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    A. Thahira Banu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the nutritional status, develop a product incorporating seaweed and assess its impact on anemic adolescent girls. Five hundred adolescent girls in the age group of 15–18 years were selected from a women's college at Kilakarai, Tamil Nadu, India as the target group to find the prevalence of anemia. Among the 500 subjects 100 with a hemoglobin level of 7–9 g/dL (moderate anemia were selected by purposive sampling technique for supplementation. Seaweed incorporated chocolate was formulated, standardized, tested for consumer acceptability and in vitro iron bioavailability and supplemented to the selected subjects. The result of the study indicates that seaweed chocolate developed obtained the highest score for overall acceptability, 56 mg of iron/100 g and 11.80 mg of bioavailable iron. The results were found to be promising as there was a significant increase in hemoglobin, TIBC, MCH, MCV, serum iron and serum ferritin levels in the selected subjects. Seaweeds are a less consumed natural resource but abundantly available in the coastal areas of India as they are rich source of nutrients and can be used as an effective therapeutic and nutrient adjunct.

  13. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP); however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP. Patient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0-8.9 years) with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI]) were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment. No statistical difference in BMI z -score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z -scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z -scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Physical Activity Programs on Self-Esteem and Body Mass Index of Overweight Adolescent Girls, based on Health Belief Model with School-Centered Approach

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    Leili Rabiei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity in adolescents leads to physical and mental complications. Exercise is one of the main components of weight control programs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of physical activity programs on self-esteem and Body Mass Index of overweight adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This study was a semi experimental study.The subjects were 140 second grade student girls from two high schools in 5th district of Isfahan. Data collection scales included: tape measure, carriage scale, questionnaire to collect background and personal information, designed questionnaire based on Health Belief Model, weekly physical self- reportedand adolescent weekly food record form, parent’s nutritional performance questionnaire, teachers’ attitude on adolescents’ nutrition questionnaire and Cooper Smith's Standard Self-esteem questionnaire. Education based program on Health Belief Model for improving nutritional status consistent with model structures during six sessions each 60-minute was conducted with emphasis on diet to control weight in overweight and at-risk adolescents. Questionnaires were compared immediately afterand two months after intervention. Results: Average score of model structures and self-esteem of students in both groups had no significant difference at baseline, but immediately after and 2 months after the intervention, the mean component scores were significantly higher in intervention group in comparison with the control group. There was a significant difference in component scores at different times in the experimental group. Significant difference in BMI scores was seen at different times in experimental group. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that school based approach of physical activity training leads to increase in knowledge, sensitivity, severity and perceived benefits and eventually increase in self- esteem and physical activity in students.

  15. The relationship of mentoring on middle school girls' science-related attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lynette M.

    This quantitative study examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who attended a science-focused mentoring program and those of middle school girls who attended a traditional mentoring program. Theories related to this study include social cognitive theory, cognitive development theory, and possible selves' theory. These theories emphasize social and learning experiences that may impact the science-related attitudes of middle school girls. The research questions examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who participate in a science-related mentoring program. The hypotheses suggested that there are significant differences that exist between the attitudes of middle school female participants in a science-related mentoring program and female participants in a traditional mentoring program. The quantitative data were collected through a survey entitled the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) which measures science-related attitudes. The population of interest for this study is 11-15 year old middle school girls of various racial and socio-economic backgrounds. The sample groups for the study were middle school girls participating in either a science-focused mentoring program or a traditional mentoring program. Results of the study indicated that no significant difference existed between the science-related attitudes of middle school girls in a science-related mentoring program and the attitudes of those in a traditional mentoring program. The practical implications for examining the concerns of the study would be further investigations to increase middle school girls' science-related attitudes.

  16. Because They Are Girls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    <正>"The emotional,sexual,and psychological stereotyping of females begins when the doctor says,‘It’s a girl,’"says Shirley Chisholm(Nasreen 2012),an American politician.Gender bias exists in the United States,but in China,it is more serious.When a fetus is determined as a girl,she is more likely to be aborted;when an infant is known as a girl,she is more likely to be abandoned;when a child is accepted as a girl,she is more

  17. Girl child and family in Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of the girl child at the family level in India. Analysis is based on a field study in Maharashtra state and other studies included in a government report on the "Girl Child and the Family." The family context strongly impacts child growth and development. Evidence indicates that a girl child faces discrimination and inequality. Every sixth female death is attributed to gender discrimination. Household tasks prevent girls' school enrollment. Children learn role expectations at home. Daughters are taught their duties and obligations as if they were a piece of property. 25% of the parents in the sample considered a girl's birth with indifference and unhappiness. In 11% of cases, girls were not immunized at all. Breast feeding was short. 31.8% of mothers and 25% of in-laws expected the girl's birth to be a boy. 98.2% of mothers did not rely on sex determination of the fetus. Almost 60% of households did not restrict smiling or crying among boys or girls. 70% restricted laughing loudly. 42.4% restricted only girls' laughing out loud. 17% restricted girls' smiling or crying. 46.5% restricted girls' movement to the house. 42% did not allow daughters to speak to the opposite sex. 17% restricted access to the market for daughters. Girls were encouraged to cook, stitch, and dance. 60% of girls preferred to spend time with girl friends. Boys had better access to movies. 57% of girls spent time on housework. 47% became gender aware from mass media. Most felt frightened at menstruation. 88% of girls thought that all should equally attain the same level of education. Girls received an equal share of food and health care. 87% of girls did not work for wages. Those who worked did not control their income.

  18. Predicting the onset of smoking in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, A; Blair, V

    1989-01-01

    The problem of the high prevalence of smoking among girls and young women is of great concern. In an attempt to identify the factors which influence girls and boys respectively to attempt smoking, the study examines social background, advertising and brand awareness, knowledge, teaching and personal beliefs in conjunction as predictors of smoking. In this study which involved the administration of identical pre- and post-test questionnaires to a sample of boys and girls aged 12 and 13 years, nine variables expressed by never-smokers at pre-test stage were assessed as predictors of immediate future smoking. The two tests were administered 4 months apart to 1125 boys and 1213 girls in northern England. The nine variables included were parental smoking, best friends' smoking, perceived positive values of smoking, perceived negative values of smoking, correct health knowledge, cigarette-brand awareness, having a favourite cigarette advertisement, having a cigarette-brand sponsored sport in four top favourites on television. One group received teaching about smoking between the pre- and post-tests and this was also included as a variable. For boys, no variable investigated had any consistently statistically significant correlation with the uptake of smoking. The most important predictor of smoking for boys, having a best friend who smoked, was significant on application of the chi 2 test (P 0.037), although it was non-significant when included singly in a logistic regression model (0.094); the discrepancy was probably due to the small number of best friends known to smoke. For girls, four variables were found to be significant predictors of smoking when included singly in a logistic regression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. A Girl Is No Girl Is a Girl_: Girls-Work after Queer Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Mart

    2013-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)

  20. Gender differences in adolescent dry eye disease: a health problem in girls

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    Masahiko Ayaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED in adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, case-control study and outpatients aged 10 to 19y were recruited from six eye clinics of various practices and locations in Japan, and 253 non-DED subjects and 70 DED patients were enrolled. Participants were examined for DED-related signs. Patients were also interviewed to ascertain the presence or absence of six common DED-related symptoms: dryness, irritation, pain, eye fatigue, blurring, and photophobia. Main outcome measures were differences in signs and symptoms of dry eye disease between boys and girls. RESULTS: Of the 323 adolescents recruited, 70 (21.7% were diagnosed with DED. Significant differences between the non-DED and DED groups were found for short tear break-up time (BUT; ≤5s; P=0.000 and superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK; staining score ≥3; P=0.000. Late adolescent girls reported fewer symptoms than late adolescent boys, although their DED-related signs were worse compared to other groups. The prevalence and severity of DED were similar in the Tokyo area compared with suburban and local areas but myopic errors were worse. CONCLUSION: We find that adolescents reported symptoms of DED similar to those found in adults, and the majority have short BUT-type DED. The prevalence and severity of DED in late adolescent girls is comparable with adults. Adolescents with DED are underserved and we believe that DED is a hidden but potentially serious health problem for this age group.

  1. Active learning in optics for girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, R.; Ashraf, I.

    2017-08-01

    Active learning in Optics (ALO) is a self-funded program under the umbrella of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU) to bring physical sciences to traditionally underserved Girls high schools and colleges in Pakistan. There is a significant gender disparity in physical Sciences in Pakistan. In Department of Physics at QAU, approximately 10 to 20% of total students were used to be females from past many decades, but now this percentage is increasing. To keep it up at same pace, we started ALO in January 2016 as a way to provide girls an enriching science experiences, in a very friendly atmosphere. We have organized many one-day activities, to support and encourage girls' students of government high schools and colleges to pursue careers in sciences. In this presentation we will describe our experience and lesson learned in these activities.

  2. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutek J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jiri Koutek, Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. Keywords: eating disorders, child, adolescent, self-harm, suicidal behavior

  3. Attitudes and practices of school-aged girls towards menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. The Feasibility of a Novel School Peer-Led Mentoring Model to Improve the Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Time of Adolescent Girls: The Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Michael B; Kerner, Charlotte; Taylor, Sarah L; Noonan, Robert J; Newson, Lisa; Kosteli, Maria-Christina; Curry, Whitney B; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2018-05-31

    Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous physical and psychological health benefits. Adolescents, specifically girls, are at risk of physical inactivity. To date, there is limited research on PA interventions involving peers, which could encourage more adolescent girls to engage in PA. The investigation aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel school three-tier peer-led mentoring model designed to improve PA levels and reduce sedentary time (ST) of adolescent girls. Two-hundred and forty-nine Year 9 adolescent girls (13⁻15 years old) from three UK secondary schools were invited to participate in a peer-led mentoring intervention (Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT) project). The peer-led mentoring model was delivered in all three schools. Two of the schools received an additional after-school PA component. PA and ST were assessed through wrist-worn accelerometry. Girls who received an exercise class after-school component significantly increased their whole day moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (3.2 min, p = 0.009, d = 0.33). Girls who received no after-school component significantly decreased their MVPA (3.5 min, p = 0.016, d = 0.36) and increased their ST (17.2 min, p = 0.006, d = 0.43). The G-PACT intervention demonstrated feasibility of recruitment and data collection procedures for adolescent girls. The peer-led mentoring model shows promise for impacting girls' MVPA levels when combined with an after-school club PA opportunity.

  5. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  6. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades.

  7. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls ha...

  8. Teaching the Third World Girl: "Girl Rising" as a Precarious Curriculum of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the recently released "Girl Rising" film and associated campaign to analyze how the guarantee that girls' education is panacea for local, national and global solutions is sedimented through affective logics. I view Girl Rising as a curriculum inclusive of the film, accompanying packaged lesson plans for educators,…

  9. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  10. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  11. Combatting anemia in adolescent girls: a report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, S

    1994-01-01

    In a study on anemia in adolescent girls living in slum areas, 105 girls, aged 10 to 18, participated in qualitative (focus group discussions; open ended, in depth interviews) and quantitative (structured survey and hemoglobin estimation) research activities before and after intervention. Perceptions of mothers were also surveyed. The qualitative methods were used on selected subsamples in order to represent all age and ethnic groups and geographic areas of the slum. Quantitative methods were used on all 105 girls. The prevalence of anemia was 98%. The patterns of responses were similar for the focus groups, interviews, and surveys. Mothers and their daughters believed the girls were healthy (" one who ate well, worked without tiring easily and did not fall sick often"). There was no major connection made between menstruation and health, or between present and future health. Most of the girls were unaware of the Gujarati term for anemia, pandurog, which is used in awareness campaigns. The girls described symptoms (weakness = kamshakti) associated with anemia and knew these could be remedied with green leafy vegetables, fruit, milk, meat, tonics from the doctor, and iron tablets (shakti ni goli). Based on these results, a puppet show, using local terms and events, was developed that covered the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of anemia. The term, pandurog, was introduced and reinforced. The girls were encouraged to have their blood tested and to take iron tablets. The hemoglobin levels of the girls were taken after the show and after an iron supplement program lasting three months. Compliance with the supplementation program was monitored biweekly. Group discussions with flash cards reinforced the information in the puppet show. Results from the last hemoglobin level showed a significant increase; however, the prevalence of anemia was 87%. About half of the girls consumed at least 60% of the tablets; one-fifth consumed 80%. Forgetfulness and fasting

  12. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ADOLESCENT GIRLS' RESILIENCE TO TEENAGE PREGNANCY IN BEGORO, GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyan, Sylvia Esther; Ahorlu, Collins; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S; Fayorsey, Clara K

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on how older adolescent girls access and utilize social capital to develop resilience against teenage pregnancy in Begoro, Ghana. A survey of 419 non-pregnant girls aged 15-19 years, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique, was conducted in 2012. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth interviews with ten girls purposively selected from the survey respondents. Parents, relatives, teachers and religious groups were found to be important sources of social capital for the non-pregnant girls in developing resilience against teenage pregnancy. In addition, resilient girls tended to rely on multiple sources of social capital. It is recommended that stakeholders and policymakers in Ghana ensure that these significant sources of social capital in adolescent girls' sexual experience are equipped with the right information to help girls decrease the risk of teenage pregnancy.

  13. Longitudinal Associations Between Sedentary Behavior of Adolescent Girls, Their Mothers, and Best Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Riso, Eva-Maria

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prospective relationship and changes in sedentary behavior between adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends over time. The results are based on 122 girls aged 11-12 years at baseline measurement, their mothers and best friends who completed ecological momentary assessment diary for the assessment of sedentary behavior. All measurements were taken at 3 time points separated by one year. We used structural equation modeling to examine associations among sedentary behavior of adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends. A linear growth model for adolescent girls' and their best friends' sedentary behavior fit the data well, revealing an overall significant increase in sedentary behavior across time. Initial levels of mothers' and best friends' sedentary behavior were positively related with sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. The changes of adolescent girls' and best friends' sedentary behavior across 3 years were positively related. Cross-lagged panel analysis demonstrated significant reciprocal effects between adolescent girls' and best friends' sedentary behavior. Mothers' sedentary behavior at baseline predicted daughters' sedentary behavior at 1-year follow-up and vice versa. From early to midadolescence, changes in adolescent girls' sedentary behavior were associated with changes in best friends' sedentary behavior. These findings suggest reciprocal associations between sedentary behavior of adolescent girls and their best friends.

  14. Let the Girls Learn! It is not Only about Math It's about Gender Social Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Nollenberger, Natalia; Rodríguez-Planas, Núria

    2017-01-01

    Using PISA test scores from 11,527 second-generation immigrants coming from 35 different countries of ancestry and living in 9 host countries, we find that the positive effects of country-of-ancestry gender social norms on girls' math test scores relative to those of boys: (1) expand to other subjects (namely reading and science); (2) are shaped by beliefs on women's political empowerment and economic opportunity; and (3) are driven by parents' influencing their children's (especially their g...

  15. Attitudes toward menstruation, menstrual-related symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girls: a rural school-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-06-21

    Folk culture surrounding menstrual-related matters has considerable implications for symptom expression and treatment-seeking behavior. A cross-sectional survey of 1,295 rural adolescent girls aged 13 to 19 years was conducted between February 4 and April 16, 2009 to examine these associations. With a higher score indicating a more positive attitude toward menstruation, the mean attitude score was 3.84 (SD ± 1.62) out of a maximum of six. No significant association was observed between the severity of menstrual symptoms and attitudes. Most (63.1%) of the participants identified themselves as having premenstrual symptoms, and 61.1% viewed premenstrual symptoms as a normal part of menstrual cycle. Participants with a higher severity of symptoms in the premenstrual (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and menstrual phase (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), were more likely to consult a physician for premenstrual symptoms, and having a divorced/separated parents was associated with a reduced odds of consulting a physician compared to those having parents that were married (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). The findings imply the need for education to help adolescent girls manage menstrual symptoms and increase awareness of the benefit of treating them. Given that menstrual-related information was widely available from mothers, family, and social culture are potentially important in shaping good menstrual attitudes.

  16. Girls feeling good at school: School gender environment, internalization and awareness of socio-cultural attitudes associations with self-esteem in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Victoria L; Haase, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    As society continues to advocate an unrealistically thin body shape, awareness and internalization of appearance and its consequent impact upon self-esteem has become increasingly of concern, particularly in adolescent girls. School gender environment may influence these factors, but remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to assess differences between two different school environments in appearance attitudes, social influences and associations with self-esteem. Two hundred and twelve girls (M = 13.8 years) attending either a single-sex or co-educational school completed measures on socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance, social support and self-esteem. Though marginal differences between school environments were found, significantly higher internalization was reported among girls at the co-educational school. School environment moderated relations between internalization and self-esteem such that girls in co-educational environments had poorer self-esteem stemming from greater internalization. Thus, in a single-sex school environment, protective factors may attenuate negative associations between socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance and self-esteem in adolescent girls. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Concerns Girls Have about Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Concerns Girls Have About Puberty Page Content Article Body Girls have pubertal concerns and worries, too, including: Breast Development Some girls ...

  18. Double trisomy (XXX+21 karyotype) in a six-year-old girl with down phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Mendez, Laura Daniela; Talero-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Velez-Van-Meerbeke, Alberto

    2018-03-01

    We describe a case of a six-year-old girl who presents multiple dysmorphic features characteristic of Down's syndrome. She has a significant general developmental delay, with a score that correspond to 32 months of developmental age. This delay is especially in language, with a very scant vocabulary. She communicates with some hand sign words or pointing, although her auditory responses in hearing test were normal. Two previous karyotype studies showed 47, XXX, +21 anomalies. This double trisomy is a rare condition described in isolated cases in the literature and none of these refers to the developmental aspects of these children (Balwan et al. 2008; Li et al. 2004; Park et al. 1995; Day et al. 1963).

  19. Menstrual Characteristics and Related Problems in 9-18 Year- Old Turkish School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü

    2018-03-14

    To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Girl child in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  1. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  2. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kural, MoolRaj; Noor, Naziya Nagori; Pandit, Deepa; Joshi, Tulika; Patil, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological condition with painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea is not yet clearly studied in central India. Objective: To study prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in young girls and to evaluate associated clinical markers of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data was collected among 310 girls (18–25 years) on age at menarche, presence and absence of dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea duration, pre-menstrual symptoms (PMS), family history, menses irregularities, menstrual history, severity grading using visual analogue scale (VAS) using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Dysmenorrhea was reported in 84.2% (261) girls and 15.8% (49) reported no dysmenorrhea. Using VAS, 34.2% of girls experienced severe pain, 36.6% moderate and 29.2% had mild pain. Bleeding duration was found to be significantly associated with dysmenorrhea (χ2 = 10.5; P dysmenorrhea (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7–3). Moreover, girls with the presence of clots had 2.07 times higher chance of having dysmenorrhea (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.04–4.1) (P dysmenorrhea, 90.9% experience the condition themselves (χ2 = 11.5; P dysmenorrhea had three times greater chance of having the same problem (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.5–5.8; P = 0.001). Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea is found to be highly prevalent among college going girls. Family history, bleeding duration and presence of clots were significant risk factors for dysmenorrhea. PMID:26288786

  3. The Feasibility of a Novel School Peer-Led Mentoring Model to Improve the Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Time of Adolescent Girls: The Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Owen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity (PA is associated with numerous physical and psychological health benefits. Adolescents, specifically girls, are at risk of physical inactivity. To date, there is limited research on PA interventions involving peers, which could encourage more adolescent girls to engage in PA. The investigation aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel school three-tier peer-led mentoring model designed to improve PA levels and reduce sedentary time (ST of adolescent girls. Two-hundred and forty-nine Year 9 adolescent girls (13–15 years old from three UK secondary schools were invited to participate in a peer-led mentoring intervention (Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT project. The peer-led mentoring model was delivered in all three schools. Two of the schools received an additional after-school PA component. PA and ST were assessed through wrist-worn accelerometry. Girls who received an exercise class after-school component significantly increased their whole day moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA (3.2 min, p = 0.009, d = 0.33. Girls who received no after-school component significantly decreased their MVPA (3.5 min, p = 0.016, d = 0.36 and increased their ST (17.2 min, p = 0.006, d = 0.43. The G-PACT intervention demonstrated feasibility of recruitment and data collection procedures for adolescent girls. The peer-led mentoring model shows promise for impacting girls’ MVPA levels when combined with an after-school club PA opportunity.

  4. All Adventurous Women Do: HPV, Narrative, and HBO's Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This study looks at media portrayals of sexual health through the popular HBO television show Girls. This rhetorical criticism of Girls delineates two emergent narrative themes. First, the show repeatedly discusses human papillomavirus (HPV) in terms of its severity, but it oscillates in terms of representing the degree of significance. Second, the show frames the source of infection as more important than other concerns related to HPV. Ultimately, this analysis demonstrates that Girls perpetuates a problematic narrative plot structure related to issues of HPV transmission; it also provides a largely scientifically accurate portrayal of HPV and promotes open and frank discussions of sexual health. It is argued that mediated narratives, such as Girls, might have the potential to transform social attitudes and actions and should thereby garner attention from health communication scholars and public health advocates.

  5. [Vulvovaginitis in young girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejek, Anita; Kellas-Sleczka, Sylwia; Kozak-Darmas, Iwona; Bilska, Anna; Zamłyński, Jacek; Horak, Stanisław; Nowak, Leszek

    2009-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in young girls. Factors which cause vulvovaginitis include, among other things, low level of sexual hormones (hypoestrogenism), the anatomical proximity of the rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. Usually vulvovaginitis in young girls is caused by non-specific factors. The aim of the study was to present the most frequent causes of vulvovaginitis in young girls.

  6. HIV-related sexual risk behavior among African American adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14-20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the "higher risk" group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the "lower risk" group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services.

  7. Forms of aggression, peer relationships, and relational victimization among Chinese adolescent girls and boys: roles of prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Yu, Chengfu; Zhen, Shuangju; Huang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls), we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls' relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents' peer rejection and promoting adolescents' peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  8. A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Yvonne; Fawkner, Samantha; Niven, Ailsa

    2018-12-01

    Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls' perspectives of how significant others' influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls' perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity.

  9. Effect of Comprehensive Health Promotion Program on Quality of Life, Weight, and Physical Activity among Iranian Overweight School-age Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Jafarzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and its trend in recent years has taken a worrying figure. Overweight in childhood is the most important cause of adulthood obesity. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect ofcomprehensive health program on quality of life, weight and physical activity in Iranian overweight school-age girls. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 80 overweight girls participated in a comprehensive health program for 12 weeks in 2014. The participants were randomly selected and were assigned to intervention (n=40, and control (n=40 groups. Quality of life, weight, and physical activity scores were measured in both groups before and after the program. The data were collected by using the general quality of life questionnaire Pediatric Health-Related Quality of Life (Ped- sQL4.0 in two forms (child and parent self-report, physical activity checklist, and a Digital Stadiometer. Then in the intervention group, comprehensive health program including three stages assessment, supportive planning and evaluation was administered for three months. Data were analyzed by the SPSS version 22.0 software. Results Theresults showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics, weight, physical activity, and quality of life, before intervention (P>0.05. However, statistically significant difference was found between the two groups regarding changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI, physical activity scores, and quality of life, before and after intervention (P

  10. Eating attitudes among adolescent girls in Tehran: A school-based study

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    Hasti Sanaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Eating attitude disorders may indicate an increased risk for eating disorders and their chronic health complications. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of eating attitude disorders and to identify the factors associated with them among female students in Tehran.  Methods: A total of 14–18-year-old high school girls (N=619 completed a standardized self-report Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Mental health problems were investigated by means of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorders-2.  Results: Based on EAT-26 scores, 153 (24.7% students had eating attitude disorders. There was no relationship between abnormal eating attitudes and both individual and socioeconomic factors (P>0.05. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that eating attitude disorders were significantly associated with depression [OR=1.8 (1.2-2.8, P=0.007], anxiety [OR=1.6 (1.1-2.4, P=0.04], and perception of body shape as overweight [OR=2.7 (1.7-4.3, P<0.001].  Conclusion: A relatively high rate of eating attitude disorders was found among adolescent school girls in Tehran. Related factors were body image and psychological issues including depression and anxiety. Preventive and screening programs in schools could identify students at risk and prevent development and complications of eating disorders.

  11. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted…

  12. Physical fitness and performance. Cardiorespiratory fitness in girls-change from middle to high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Karin A; Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rod K; Sirard, John R; Pate, Russell R

    2007-12-01

    To determine how factors are related to change in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) across time in middle school girls followed through high school. Adolescent girls (N = 274, 59% African American, baseline age = 13.6 +/- 0.6 yr) performed a submaximal fitness test (PWC170) in 8th, 9th, and 12th grades. Height, weight, sports participation, and physical activity were also measured. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) were determined by the number of blocks reported on the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR). Individual differences and developmental change in CRF were assessed simultaneously by calculating individual growth curves for each participant, using growth curve modeling. Both weight-relative and absolute CRF increased from 8th to 9th grade and decreased from 9th to 12th grade. On average, girls lost 0.16 kg.m.min.kg.yr in weight-relative PWC170 scores (P interactions between CRF, physical activity, race, BMI, and sports participation.

  13. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD share clinical features of impulsivity, poor self-regulation, and executive dysfunction, while ODD and BPD share features of anger and interpersonal turmoil. The study is based on annual, longitudinal data from the two oldest cohorts in the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 1233). We used piecewise latent growth curve models of ADHD and ODD scores from age 8–10 and 10–13 years to examine the prospective associations between dual trajectories of ADHD and ODD symptom severity and later BPD symptoms at age 14 in girls. To examine the specificity of these associations, we also included conduct disorder (CD) and depression symptom severity at age 14 as additional outcomes. We found that higher levels of ADHD and ODD scores at age 8 uniquely predicted BPD symptoms at age 14. Additionally, the rate of growth in ADHD scores from age 10–13 and the rate of growth in ODD scores from 8–10 uniquely predicted higher BPD symptoms at age 14. This study adds to the literature on the early development of BPD by providing the first longitudinal study to examine ADHD and ODD symptom trajectories as specific childhood precursors of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls. PMID:21671009

  14. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  15. Psychological impact of female genital mutilation among adolescent Egyptian girls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Shaaban, Mohamed M; Meky, Heba K; Amin Arafa, Mohamed E; Mohamed, Tamer Y; Gharib, Waleed F; Ahmed, Abeer B

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide, at least 200 million women and girls have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM). The medical and sexual consequences have been documented, but the psychological impact has not been studied to the same extent. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between FGM and psychiatric problems among adolescent girls. A total of 204 girls, aged 14-19 years, were included in a cross-sectional study conducted at Suez Canal University Hospitals. All participants completed an Arabic-validated, structured questionnaire covering nine symptom scales. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Main outcome measures were the prevalence of psychiatric problems among adolescent girls who had undergone FGM. Overall, 66.2% of girls had undergone FGM. The percentage in rural areas was 91.8%, compared with 43.0% in urban areas. There were no significant differences between the FGM and non-FGM groups as regards religion, educational and socioeconomic levels. FGM girls had a significantly higher level of psychological problems with regard to somatisation, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety and hostility compared with non-FGM girls (p < .0001). FGM is a traumatic experience that may leave a lasting psychological mark and a negative impact on the psychological status of affected girls.

  16. Comparison of Age of Thelarche between Obese and Normal Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunitasari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has become a major concern in recent years. The increasing childhood obesity prevalence may occur as the result of food consumption with high content of calories, fat, cholesterol and the lack of physical activity. Obesity in children will also affect their pubertal development. Puberty is a period in which maturation of the reproductive function is achieved.In girls, the initial sign of puberty is thelarche, defined as the appearance of breast bud underneath the areola.The onset of puberty depends on many factors, one of them is nutritional status especially obesity. This study was conducted to compare the age of thelarche between obese and normal girls. Methods: An analytical study using cross sectional method was conducted. This study was held in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, during the period of SeptemberOctober 2013. Data were obtained from 3 elementary schools, selected by multistage random sampling.The total subject was 46. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and chi-square test. Results: Thelarche occurred at age 9 years 4 months in the obese group compared to 11 years 2 months in the normal group. The analysis using Mann-Whitney test showed the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Based on age group, 42% obese girls attained thelarche between ages 89 years, while 63% girls in the normal group attained thelarche between ages 1112 years. The analysis using chi- square test showed that the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusions: Thelarche occurs earlier in obese girls compared to normal girls.

  17. Girls Behaving Badly? Race, Gender, and Subjective Evaluation in the Discipline of African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward W.; Perry, Brea L.

    2017-01-01

    School disciplinary processes are an important mechanism of inequality in education. Most prior research in this area focuses on the significantly higher rates of punishment among African American boys, but in this article, we turn our attention to the discipline of African American girls. Using advanced multilevel models and a longitudinal data…

  18. Improving Early Adolescent Girls' Motor Skill: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Natalie; Morgan, Philip J; Salmon, J O; Barnett, Lisa M

    2017-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) levels decline substantially during adolescence and are consistently lower in girls. Competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) may serve as a protective factor for the decline in PA typically observed in adolescent girls; yet, girls' mastery in FMS is low. Although interventions can improve FMS, there is a lack of interventions targeting girls, and very few are conducted in high schools. In addition, interventions are usually conducted by researchers, not teachers, and thus have little chance of being embedded into curricula. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention, delivered by teachers, in improving adolescent girls' FMS. Four all-girls Australian secondary schools were recruited and randomized into intervention or control groups. In total, 190 year 7 girls (103 control/87 intervention; mean age, 12.4 ± 0.3 yr) completed baseline and posttest measures at 12 wk. Six FMS (i.e., catch, throw, kick, jump, leap, and dodge) were measured using the Victorian FMS Assessment instrument. Mixed models with posttest skill (i.e., locomotor, object control, and total skill) as the outcome, adjusting for baseline skill, intervention and control status, and relevant covariates, as well as accounting for clustering at school and class level, were used to assess the intervention impact. There were significant intervention effects, and large effect sizes (Cohen d) noted in locomotor (P = 0.04, t = 5.15, d = 1.6), object control (P < 0.001, t = 11.06, d = 0.83), and total skill (P = 0.02, t = 7.22, d = 1.36). Teachers adequately trained in authentic assessment and student-centered instruction can significantly improve the FMS competency of early adolescent girls. Therefore, comprehensive teacher training should be viewed as an integral component of future school-based interventions.

  19. The Diagnostic Value of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Early Post Menarche Adolescent Girls with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaay, Pınar; Siklar, Zeynep; Buyukfirat, Sema; Berberoglu, Merih

    2018-02-17

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation, which affects 5%-10% of reproductive-age women. Diagnosis of adult patients with PCOS is made easily with clinical and laboratory methods and the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level are accepted as a good indicator. However, there is still no complete consensus on the diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents. Prospective cohort study, December 2013 to November 2014. The study was conducted on adolescent girls with oligomenorrhea, with at least 2 years since menarche. The study group consisted of adolescent girls with complete PCOS and incomplete PCOS. A control group was formed of healthy adolescent girls. Complete PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria, as the presence of all the following characteristics: oligomenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovarian morphology on ultrasound image. Incomplete PCOS was accepted as "oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovarian morphology," or "oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenism." All patients underwent a physical examination and the anthropometric assessments, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans were recorded. It was also noted whether or not the patient had an acne score. The Ferriman-Gallwey score was applied to evaluate hirsutism. The results of this study showed that no statistically significant difference was found between the PCOS and incomplete PCOS groups and the control group with respect to AMH levels. The use of adult-specific diagnostic methods in adolescence might result in an incomplete diagnosis and inadequate treatment plan. Although the serum AMH level clearly facilitates the diagnosis of PCOS, the use of the AMH level in adolescence in PCOS diagnosis is still controversial and further studies are needed. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Educating for the future: adolescent girls' health and education in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.

  1. "Sport Guts" in Japanese Girl Anime

    OpenAIRE

    Miho Tsukamoto

    2015-01-01

    "Sport Guts" in Japanese anime developed not only to strengthen mentality but also to challenge for objectives. This paper helps to understand the development of Japanese girl anime, and its philosophical concepts of Japanese amine. This paper focuses on girls' sport anime "Sport Guts,", which is the major philosophy of Japanese girl anime and centers on a girl who is enthusiastic about volleyball and makes an effort to compete in the World Series by focusing on girl anime b...

  2. Girls Leading Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  3. The Greening of Girls' Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Kathleen M.

    1973-01-01

    Examines the current nationwide drive to eliminate sexism in school sports. Discusses expenditures for boys' and girls' athletic programs, coaching salaries, facilities, and programs offered. A physician discusses the potentials for girls in competitive sports, and a girl who joined a high school all-male team is interviewed. (DN)

  4. Cross-gender Social Normative Effects for Violence in Middle School: Do Girls Carry a Social Multiplier Effect for At-risk Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Brown, H. Shelton; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2014-01-01

    A social multiplier effect is a social interaction in which the behavior of a person in a social network varies with the normative behavior of others in the network, also known as an endogenous interaction. Policies and intervention efforts can harness social multiplier effects because, in theory, interventions on a subset of individuals will have “spillover effects” on other individuals in the network. This study investigates potential social multiplier effects for violence in middle schools, and whether there is evidence for a social multiplier effect transmitted from girls to boys. Three years of longitudinal data (2003–2005) from Project Northland Chicago (PNC) were used to investigate this question, with a sample consisting of youth in Grades 6 through 8 in 61 Chicago Public Schools (N = 4233 at Grade 6, N = 3771 at Grade 7, and N = 3793 at Grade 8). The sample was 49.3% female, and primarily African American (41.9%) and Latino/a (28.7%), with smaller proportions of whites (12.9%), Asians (5.2%) and other ethnicities. Results from two sets of regression models estimating the effects of 20th (low), 50th (average), and 80th (high) percentile scores for girls and boys on levels of violence in each gender group revealed evidence for social multiplier effects. Specifically, boys and girls were both influenced by social multiplier effects within their own gender group, and boys were also affected by normative violence scores among girls, typically those of the best-behaved (20th percentile) girls. The finding that girls may have positive social influence on boys’ levels of violent behavior extends prior findings of beneficial social effects of girls on boys in the domains of education and risky driving. Further, this social normative effect presents a potential opportunity to improve school-based intervention efforts for reducing violence among youth by leveraging girls as carriers of a social multiplier effect for reduced violence in the middle school

  5. Cross-gender social normative effects for violence in middle school: do girls carry a social multiplier effect for at-risk boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Lisa M; Pasch, Keryn E; Brown, H Shelton; Perry, Cheryl L; Komro, Kelli A

    2014-09-01

    A social multiplier effect is a social interaction in which the behavior of a person in a social network varies with the normative behavior of others in the network, also known as an endogenous interaction. Policies and intervention efforts can harness social multiplier effects because, in theory, interventions on a subset of individuals will have "spillover effects" on other individuals in the network. This study investigates potential social multiplier effects for violence in middle schools, and whether there is evidence for a social multiplier effect transmitted from girls to boys. Three years of longitudinal data (2003-2005) from Project Northland Chicago were used to investigate this question, with a sample consisting of youth in Grades 6 through 8 in 61 Chicago Public Schools (N = 4,233 at Grade 6, N = 3,771 at Grade 7, and N = 3,793 at Grade 8). The sample was 49.3% female, and primarily African American (41.9%) and Latino/a (28.7%), with smaller proportions of whites (12.9%), Asians (5.2%) and other ethnicities. Results from two sets of regression models estimating the effects of 20th (low), 50th (average), and 80th (high) percentile scores for girls and boys on levels of violence in each gender group revealed evidence for social multiplier effects. Specifically, boys and girls were both influenced by social multiplier effects within their own gender group, and boys were also affected by normative violence scores among girls, typically those of the best-behaved (20th percentile) girls. The finding that girls may have positive social influence on boys' levels of violent behavior extends prior findings of beneficial social effects of girls on boys in the domains of education and risky driving. Further, this social normative effect presents a potential opportunity to improve school-based intervention efforts for reducing violence among youth by leveraging girls as carriers of a social multiplier effect for reduced violence in the middle school environmental

  6. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS OF BHOPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kakkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition, early intervention during adolescence (girls can prevent high morbidity and mortality of these future mothers. Objectives: To study prevalence & factors contributing to anaemia among adolescent school girls. Material and Methods: Area or region addressed – Iron deficiency anemia in adolescent girls. Present study was conducted among 317 adolescent (10-19Yrs government schoolgirls of Bhopal city from June2005-July2006. Three study groups were selected from three different girls’ school by random sampling method. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. Result & Conclusion: Overall prevalence was 58.4% among adolescent schoolgirls. Prevalence of anemia was dependent on the knowledge about prevention of anemia, literacy level, food habits, birth order & also frequency of Iron rich source viz. green leafy vegetable & non vegetarian diet. While there was no significant relation of anemia with duration of menstrual flow but there was significant (P<0.05 difference in number of anaemic cases with age at menarche i.e. with higher age at menarche; there was more chances of anemia. Level of anemia was higher (p<0.05 in early adolescent (10 -13 Years age group (81% as compared to middle (58.3% and late adolescent (17-19 years age group girls (48.7%.

  7. Gilmore Girls generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Nybro

    2018-01-01

    This article is a study of fans of the television series Gilmore Girls (2000–2007) in the context of the revival series Gilmore Girls: A Year in the Life (2016), when the series returned with a four-episode special on Netflix after being off the air for nine years. The series revolves around...

  8. Ramifications of Giftedness for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecky, Deirdre V.

    1995-01-01

    Gifted girls (n=30) who participated in psychotherapy tended to focus on either social relationships or achievement. Girls who focused on achievement tended to be the brightest and exhibited the cognitive styles of divergent thinking, integrative thinking, or perceptive thinking. These girls also tended to exhibit problems dealing with peers and…

  9. Problematic Peer Functioning in Girls with ADHD: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francien M Kok

    social impairment and social skills deficits, with large effect sizes, were found across all studies. Levels of pro-social behaviour varied across studies, but were mostly lower in girls with ADHD, with small to large effect sizes. Overall, social disability was significantly higher among girls with ADHD than among TD girls.Congruous evidence was found for peer functioning difficulties in the peer relationship domains of friendship, peer status, social skills/competence, and peer victimisation and bullying in girls with ADHD.

  10. Girls, identities and agency in adolescents' digital literacy practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Adampa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the ways girls use digital environments, like Word, PowerPoint and chatting programmes, for writing and communication purposes. By combining quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis and by adopting a critical discourse framework, we will explore the relationship between girls and new media, especially the ones related to digital writing, in terms of three interconnected variables. The first one is related to the role of the two most important socialisation institutions, home and school, at the present historical juncture, characterised by intense mobility and an expansion of traditional forms of literacy. The strategic choices of the girls' families and their schools' teaching practices contributed significantly to the formulation of their digital writing practices. The second variable is gender. Our data clearly show that a substantial number of girls were more inclined than their male peers to use word-processing and presentation software, performing, thus, the school discourses of 'diligent students'. The third key variable concerns the personality of the girls who filtered in their own unique ways their social experiences, overcame limitations, took initiatives and appropriated technologically-mediated writing media for personally meaningful ends that enhanced their school and/or entertainment Discourses.

  11. Common Menstrual Problems among Slum Adolescent Girls of Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganganahalli P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation, an important part of female reproductive cycle but menstrual dysfunction in adolescent girls may affect normal life of adolescent and young adult women.Objectives: To assess the percentage of common menstrual problems among adolescent girls from urban slums and to determine the correlation between common menstrual problems with nutritional status of these girls. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among adolescent girls residing in urban slum area under the field practice area of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Karad of Western Maharashtra, India during the month of November - December 2011. 237 adolescent girls,age between 12-19 years were interviewed and examined using pretested semistructured questionnaire. Data was collected by researchers with the help of Medical Officer and Medical Social Worker of Urban Health Training Center by personal interview and clinical examination method. Data was compiled and presented into frequency percentage distribution. Chisquare test was applied to determine the association between common menstrual problem swith body mass index and anemia. Results: Out of total 237 adolescent girls, 230 (97.04% had attained menarche of which, 147 girls(63.91% had regular and 83(36.08% had irregular menstrual cycle with mean age at menarche by recall method was 12.8 yrs. The percentage of common menstrual problems such as oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia,hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were 16.08%, 17.82%, 27.39%,59.56%, 49.13% and 46.52% respectively,however amenorrhea ( primary was seen in 3(0.01% girls. Prevalence of under nutrition and anemia was 40.86% and 60.43%. Health seeking behavior for common menstrual problem was seen in only 25.75% girls. Oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, hypomenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome were significantly associated with anemia; however BMI was significantly associated with dysmenorrhea

  12. Physical activity levels of normal-weight and overweight girls and boys during primary school recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola D; Fairclough, Stuart J; Richardson, David J

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to compare moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in normal-weight and overweight boys and girls during school recess. Four hundred twenty children, age 6 to 10 years, were randomly selected from 25 schools in England. Three hundred seventy-seven children completed the study. BMI was calculated from height and weight measurements, and heart rate reserve thresholds of 50% and 75% reflected children's engagement in MVPA and VPA, respectively. There was a significant main effect for sex and a significant interaction between BMI category and sex for the percent of recess time spent in MVPA and VPA. Normal-weight girls were the least active group, compared with overweight boys and girls who were equally active. Fifty-one boys and 24 girls of normal weight achieved the 40% threshold; of these, 30 boys and 10 girls exceeded 50% of recess time in MVPA. Eighteen overweight boys and 22 overweight girls exceeded the 40% threshold, whereas 8 boys and 8 girls exceeded the 50% threshold. Overweight boys were significantly less active than their normal-weight male counterparts; this difference did not hold true for girls. Even though nearly double the number of normal-weight children achieved the 40% of MVPA during recess compared with overweight children, physical activity promotion in school playgrounds needs to be targeted not only at overweight but at other health parameters, as 40 overweight children met the 40% MVPA target proposed for recess.

  13. Dysmenorrhea in a multiethnic population of adolescent Asian girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2010-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its impact, and the treatment-seeking behavior of adolescent Asian girls. A cross-sectional study with 1092 girls from 15 public secondary schools and 3 ethnic groups in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Overall, 74.5% of the girls who had reached menarche had dysmenorrhea; 51.7% of these girls reported that it affected their concentration in class; 50.2% that it restricted their social activities; 21.5% that it caused them to miss school; and 12.0% that it caused poor school performance. Ethnicity and form at school were significantly associated with the poor concentration, absenteeism, and restriction of social and recreational activities attributed to dysmenorrhea. Only 12.0% had consulted a physician, and 53.3% did nothing about their conditions. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence, impact, and management of dysmenorrhea. There is a need for culture-specific education regarding menstruation-related conditions in the school curriculum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Smart Girls, Black Girls, Mean Girls, and Bullies: At the Intersection of Identities and the Mediating Role of Young Girls' Social Network in Mathematical Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Maisie; Martin, Danny B.

    2014-01-01

    By taking an intersectional and emic view to studying a group of African American girls in a third-grade class, we attempted to capture the complexity of mathematics learning for these girls. Traditionally, children's social networks in school are framed as external to mathematics content learning. Our preliminary analyses of student interviews…

  15. NASA Science4Girls: Engaging Girls in STEM at Their Local Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B.; Smith, D.; Bleacher, L.; Hauck, K.; Soeffing, C.; NASA SMD EPO Community

    2014-07-01

    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach Forums coordinate the participation of SMD education and public outreach (EPO) programs in Women's History Month through the NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative. The initiative partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families. The initiative has expanded from the successful 2012 Astro4Girls pilot to engage girls in all four NASA science discipline areas, which broadens the impact of the pilot by enabling audiences to experience the full range of NASA science topics and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging underserved and underrepresented audiences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences.

  16. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...

  17. Sixty Girls, Three Nuns, One Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Carolyn Hope

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the experience of a nurse volunteer working with girls in India who had been trafficked and/or were children of mothers who were (are) prostitutes. The article describes how nuns who care, provide values and a safe home give the girls opportunities. The article illustrates how, with little recourse, three nuns care for 60 girls living in one home. The girls range in age from 4 to 18 years. The girls are motivated to live happily, work hard, study often, and play together. Lessons learned from the nurse volunteer who worked and lived with the girls are described. This article illustrates how nurses in retirement can still fulfill their passion of helping others. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nutritional Behaviors Pattern of High School Girls in North of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnam Arshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Healthy eating in adolescent girls has a crucial role in normal growth and reducing the incidence of chronic disease related to nutrition in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine high school girl's eating behaviors in north of Tehran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 722 female students who were selected randomly from public high schools in four districts of Tehran participated. Demographic variables and nutritional status were evaluated using systematic interviews with them by health professionals. Anthropometric parameters were also assessed.Results: Most girls (42.4% had a normal BMI. The mean (SD of daily consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products were 2 (1.1, 1.8 (1, 1.9 (1.07 servings, respectively. The mean (SD of weekly intake of red meat, poultry, fish, eggs and beans were 3.08 (2, 3.15 (2.9, 0.95 (0.9, 2.6 (2.9 and 2.2 (1.2 times, respectively. The mean (SD frequency of eating breakfast was 4.9 (2.6 times per week. 16.9% of girls never consumed fast foods. Girls who do not consume salty snacks and fast foods per week, had significantly normal BMI (p<0.05. Low-fat milk consumption, daily consumption breakfast and non consumption of fruits were significantly associated with social status (p<0.05. Do not eating breakfast had significant association with BMI (p<0.05.Conclusion: The consumption of major food groups in this study was lower than the recommended amounts. Further research is needed to determine enabling and reinforcing factors to healthy eating behaviors. Also, improvement attitudes and empowerment of adolescent girls to adopt healthy eating behaviors can be effective

  19. Bone marrow fat content in 70 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa: Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Mulkern, Robert V. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Feldman, Henry A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Clinical Research Center, Boston, MA (United States); O' Donnell, Jennifer M. [Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); DiVasta, Amy D. [Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Gordon, Catherine M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Adolescent and Transition Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE. Metaphyses were scored visually on the T1-W images for red marrow. Visual T1 score, T1 relaxometry values, MRS lipid indices and fat fractions were analyzed by regression on age, body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) as disease severity markers. MRS measures included unsaturated fat index, T2 water, unsaturated and saturated fat fractions. All red marrow measures declined significantly with age. T1-R values were associated negatively with BMI and BMD for girls ≤16 years (P=0.03 and P=0.002, respectively) and positively for those≥17 years (P=0.05 and P=0.003, respectively). MRS identified a strong inverse association between T2 water and saturated fat fraction from 60 ms TE data (r=-0.85, P<0.0001). There was no association between unsaturated fat index and BMI or BMD. The association between T1 and BMI and BMD among older girls suggests more marrow fat in those with severe anorexia nervosa. In contrast, the physiological association between marrow fat content and age remained dominant in younger patients. The strong association between T2 water and saturated fat may relate to the restricted mobility of water with increasing marrow fat. (orig.)

  20. Bone marrow fat content in 70 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa: Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Mulkern, Robert V.; Feldman, Henry A.; O'Donnell, Jennifer M.; DiVasta, Amy D.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE. Metaphyses were scored visually on the T1-W images for red marrow. Visual T1 score, T1 relaxometry values, MRS lipid indices and fat fractions were analyzed by regression on age, body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) as disease severity markers. MRS measures included unsaturated fat index, T2 water, unsaturated and saturated fat fractions. All red marrow measures declined significantly with age. T1-R values were associated negatively with BMI and BMD for girls ≤16 years (P=0.03 and P=0.002, respectively) and positively for those≥17 years (P=0.05 and P=0.003, respectively). MRS identified a strong inverse association between T2 water and saturated fat fraction from 60 ms TE data (r=-0.85, P<0.0001). There was no association between unsaturated fat index and BMI or BMD. The association between T1 and BMI and BMD among older girls suggests more marrow fat in those with severe anorexia nervosa. In contrast, the physiological association between marrow fat content and age remained dominant in younger patients. The strong association between T2 water and saturated fat may relate to the restricted mobility of water with increasing marrow fat. (orig.)

  1. Prognostic significance of Gleason score 7 (3+4 and Gleason score 7 (4+3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis and choice of treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ADCP directly depend on the numerous of predictive factors, among which the most important are summary histological tumor grade (Gleason score, which is the sum of the first and second dominant histological grade and clinical stage. According to recent research these factors include androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The importance of the first and second dominant histological grade becomes particularly important in ADCP Gleason score 7. Tumors with worse prognosis considered to be ADCP of higher Gleason score, the advanced clinical stage, androgen independent tumors and tumors that show a higher degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive significance of ADCP Gleason score 7 (3+4 and ADCP Gleason score 7 (4+3 in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. The study included 33 ADCP of Gleason score 7,26 (78.79% ADCP 7 (3+4 and 7 (21.21% ADCP 7 (4+3. All tumors are most often diagnosed with stage D2, when there are already distant metastases. ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 were diagnosed more often at this stage, among them there are more androgen independent tumors and they show a greater degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. All the results are in accordance with data from the literature suggesting that ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 have a worse prognosis than ADCP of Gleason score 7 (3 +4.

  2. Using of information–motivation–behavioral skills model on nutritional behaviors in controlling anemia among girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Peyman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem worldwide, which also is reported among Iranian adolescent girls. This problem results from the inadequate intake of dietary iron or low iron intake in diet. Regarding the application of health education models, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of educational program based on Information–Motivation–Behavioral skills (IMB model in relation to preventive nutritional behaviors against iron deficiency anemia. In this study, 120 participants were selected among Iranian high school girls. The participants were equally allocated to experimental and control groups. The educational intervention was performed as a four-hour workshop designed based on the IMB model constructs for the experimental group. The data were collected using a standard questionnaire based on the IMB constructs, measuring body mass index, and determining average heme iron consumption. The data were gathered before and 3 months after the intervention. The experimental group after the intervention showed a significant increase compared to the control group in the mean scores of IMB with regard to nutritional iron deficiency anemia. In the experimental group, the average daily intake of dietary heme iron increased by 0.10±0.52 mg. Regarding the positive effect of education in promoting iron-rich diets in high school girls, workshops based on the IMB model are suggested to be held in schools aiming at preventing iron deficiency anemia.

  3. A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE ABNORMAL MENSTRUAL PATTERNS AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN BAREILLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Sandhya, Kariwal Peeyush, Kumari Anita, Vyas Shaili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstrual cycle abnormalities have been considered a common occurrence during puberty. Numerous earlier studies have analyzed the various patterns seen in the epidemiological data regarding menstrual cycle of adolescent girls. But there is dearth of data from Rohilkhand region of central UP state. Aims: To find out the abnormal menstrual patterns among adolescent girls in Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study conducted by presenting a pre-designed and pre-tested self administered questionnaire, containing questions pertaining to menstrual practices and knowledge to 994 adolescent girls of urban schools in Bareilly city. Results: Mean age of menarche was 13.11±0.95 years. 6.07% girls in the study reported cycles of abnormal lengths. This subset also had significantly higher prevalence of irregularity. Presence of irregular menses beyond 3 gynaecological years diminished the possibility of their regularization in near future. Among the girls with excessive dysmenorrhea, nearly 1/3rd had associated menstrual disturbances also. Conclusion: Incidence of irregular menstrual cycle was 20.75% and it was significantly more in oligomennorheic cycles. Among normal menstrual cycles also, presence of IMC was significantly more in adolescents having mild oligomennorhea. 6.07% of girls reported abnormal cycle lengths. 77.70% reported dysmennorhea. Chances of menstrual cycles getting regularized after 5 years of menarchy are minimal. Adequate knowledge regarding abnormal variations in the menstrual cycle pattern during adolescence may permit implementation of strategies for preventing potential reproductive and other health morbidities in adulthood.

  4. Girl child: her rights and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S D

    1995-01-01

    This article points out the disparity between India's laws to protect female children and their actual living conditions. It is asserted that the role of women needs to be strengthened and that equal rights are executed to the advantage of children. Equality must come at the very beginning of life. Girl children need access to health, nutrition, education, and other basic services. In India, girls are guaranteed an equal right to education, but fewer girls are enrolled in primary school, and very few girls go on to secondary schools. There is no enforcement of compulsory laws, which particularly disadvantage girls from poor families. Girls marry below the legal minimum age. Early childbearing shortens women's life expectancy and adversely affects their health, nutrition, education, and employment opportunities. Prevention of early child marriage should be strictly enforced. Amniocentesis is performed in order to determine the sex of the child and abort female fetuses. The Juvenile Justice Act of 1986 includes special provisions for the protection, treatment, and rehabilitation of girls under 18 years old and of boys younger than 16. This act protects girls trapped in brothels for child prostitution and protects any person engaged in an immoral, drunken, or depraved life. Juvenile Welfare Boards address the problem of neglected girls and offer special protective homes and supervision by probation officers. The act needs to strengthen noninstitutional services, such as sponsorship, family assistance, foster care, and adoption. Girl children grow to womanhood. Effective social development in childhood reaps rewards in adulthood.

  5. Pragmatic, Randomized Controlled Trials of the Girls on the Go! Program to Improve Self-Esteem in Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirlea, Loredana; Truby, Helen; Haines, Terry P

    2016-03-01

    To test the effectiveness of an intervention delivered by health professionals outside the school environment to girls identified with issues such as poor body image, low self-esteem, low self-confidence, nonparticipation in sports, or being overweight or underweight. The study's design was a stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an intervention on self-esteem, impairment induced by eating disorders, self-efficacy, body satisfaction, and dieting behaviors. The study took place at the community health center located in a culturally diverse area of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Participants were 122 primary and secondary school girls between 10 and 16 years of age. Girls on the Go! is a 10-week program designed to improve self-esteem, body image, and confidence, using an empowerment model that involved interactive and experiential learning approaches. Weekly themes included body image and self-esteem, safety and assertiveness, a healthy mind, physical activity, healthy eating, trust and confidence, and connections. Measurements were made using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, clinical interview assessment, health self-efficacy (included mental health and physical health self-efficacy scales), body esteem scale, and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire for Children. A linear mixed model was used. The intervention led to a significant increase (p self-esteem and self-efficacy (mental and physical health self-efficacy subscales), for both primary and secondary school-aged participants and reduced dieting behaviors (secondary school participants). These gains were retained after 6 months of follow-up. This group-based, low-dose intervention, which, although targeting girls with a range of psychological issues and including both overweight and underweight participants, is a successful means of improving self-esteem among girls from diverse cultural backgrounds. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Association between perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectations and outcome evaluation and fruit and vegetables consumption in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramezankhani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately just a few number of children and adolescents use sufficient amounts of fruit and vegetables. This study aimed to investigate the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectations and outcome evaluation in adolescent girls in Shahrekord city.This is a descriptive analytic study conducted on 308 high school girls (first grade who were selected by cluster sampling method in Shahrekord, Iran in 2013-2014. A researcher made questionnaire was used to collect the needed data like demographic variables, substructures of perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectations and outcome evaluation. In order to investigate the fruit and vegetables consumption status, the standard questionnaire of FFQ was used. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software, using descriptive and analytic tests such as one way variance analysis, Pearson and Spearman correlation. The mean scores of fruit and vegetables consumption and vegetables consumption were reported as 1.45±0.68 and 1.47±0.95 respectively as well. There was a direct significant association between adolescents’ perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectations. A direct significant association was also observed between fruit consumption and both outcome evaluation and perceived self-efficacy Regarding the status of fruit and vegetables consumption and the mean scores of outcome evaluation, outcome expectations and perceived self-efficacy in adolescents which was low, and also the importance of promoting healthy diet in the critical period of adolescence, it seems necessary to use efficient patterns and theories of health education and promotion in which the roles of individuals, family and environment has been considered.

  7. Forms of Aggression, Peer Relationships, and Relational Victimization among Chinese Adolescent girls and boys: Roles of Prosocial Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls, we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  8. A prediction score for significant coronary artery disease in Chinese patients ≥50 years old referred for rheumatic valvular heart disease surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenjun; Pan, Jun; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Qiang; Cao, Hailong; Fan, Fudong; Luo, Xuan; Ge, Min; Wang, Dongjin

    2018-04-01

    Our goal was to establish a prediction score and protocol for the preoperative prediction of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we validated the model based on 490 patients without a history of myocardial infarction and who underwent preoperative screening coronary angiography. Significant CAD was defined as ≥50% narrowing of the diameter of the lumen of the left main coronary artery or ≥70% narrowing of the diameter of the lumen of the left anterior descending coronary artery, left circumflex artery or right coronary artery. Significant CAD was present in 9.8% of patients. Age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ischaemia evident on an electrocardiogram were independently associated with significant CAD and were entered into the multivariate model. According to the logistic regression predictive risk score, preoperative coronary angiography is recommended in (i) postmenopausal women between 50 and 59 years of age with ≥9.1% logistic regression predictive risk score; (ii) postmenopausal women who are ≥60 years old with a logistic regression predictive risk score ≥6.6% and (iii) men ≥50 years old whose logistic regression predictive risk score was ≥2.8%. Based on this predictive model, 246 (50.2%) preoperative coronary angiograms could be safely avoided. The negative predictive value of the model was 98.8% (246 of 249). This model was accurate for the preoperative prediction of significant CAD in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease. This model must be validated in larger cohorts and various populations.

  9. The Effect of Nutrition Education on Eating Disorders Attitude in Girls High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahiminia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adolescence is one of the important period in growth and evolution process, Also, eating disorders in adolescences, especially girls is one of the major problems in communities. Therefore, an effective education is of special priority for prevention of eating disorders. The current study was performed with the goal of assessment of the effect of nutrition education on eating disorders attitude in girls high school students. Methods: This non-experimental study with a single group pre- and post-test design, was performed using purposive sampling method on 97 students of the first year of high school, in 2015. Data collection tool was EAT-26 standardized questionnaire, which was completed by the participants using self-report method before and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: The mean score of abnormal eating attitude decreased from 1.7±0.04 (before education to 1.4±0.06 (after education. Also, there was a significant statistical difference between the results of before and after education (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that nutrition education has brought about desired changes in the attitude. However, the increase of nutrition awareness and attitude change can gradually lead to behavior change. Therefore, the current study can help the authorities to include a wider range of nutritional education in the curriculum of students in dorder to prevent eating disorder.

  10. Conduct disorder in girls: neighborhoods, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chien-Ni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the social context of girls with conduct disorder (CD, a question of increasing importance to clinicians and researchers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between three social context domains (neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors and CD in adolescent girls, additionally testing for race moderation effects. We predicted that disadvantaged neighborhoods, family characteristics such as parental marital status, and parenting behaviors such as negative discipline would characterize girls with CD. We also hypothesized that parenting behaviors would mediate the associations between neighborhood and family characteristics and CD. Methods We recruited 93 15–17 year-old girls from the community and used a structured psychiatric interview to assign participants to a CD group (n = 52 or a demographically matched group with no psychiatric disorder (n = 41. Each girl and parent also filled out questionnaires about neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors. Results Neighborhood quality was not associated with CD in girls. Some family characteristics (parental antisociality and parenting behaviors (levels of family activities and negative discipline were characteristic of girls with CD, but notll. There was no moderation by race. Our hypothesis that the association between family characteristics and CD would be mediated by parenting behaviors was not supported. Conclusion This study expanded upon previous research by investigating multiple social context domains in girls with CD and by selecting a comparison group who were not different in age, social class, or race. When these factors are thus controlled, CD in adolescent girls is not significantly associated with neighborhood, but is associated with some family characteristics and some types of parental behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships need to be further

  11. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls

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    Pilar Navarro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (−0.132, p < 0.05 with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  12. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework.

  13. Britney, Beyonce, and Me--Primary School Girls' Role Models and Constructions of the "Popular" Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which the gendered social construction of the "popular girl" infuses girls' ideas as to their role models: those representing who they would like to be when they "grow up". It will look at the ways in which the gendered characteristics that are seen to be of most value to girls (often embodied by "celebrities" such…

  14. Depressive status explains a significant amount of the variance in COPD assessment test (CAT) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Molina, Jesús; Quintano, José Antonio; Campuzano, Anna; Pérez, Joselín; Roncero, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    COPD assessment test (CAT) is a short, easy-to-complete health status tool that has been incorporated into the multidimensional assessment of COPD in order to guide therapy; therefore, it is important to understand the factors determining CAT scores. This is a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in respiratory medicine departments and primary care centers in Spain with the aim of identifying the factors determining CAT scores, focusing particularly on the cognitive status measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and levels of depression measured by the short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 684 COPD patients were analyzed; 84.1% were men, the mean age of patients was 68.7 years, and the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%) was 55.1%. Mean CAT score was 21.8. CAT scores correlated with the MMSE score (Pearson's coefficient r =-0.371) and the BDI ( r =0.620), both p CAT scores and explained 45% of the variability. However, a model including only MMSE and BDI scores explained up to 40% and BDI alone explained 38% of the CAT variance. CAT scores are associated with clinical variables of severity of COPD. However, cognitive status and, in particular, the level of depression explain a larger percentage of the variance in the CAT scores than the usual COPD clinical severity variables.

  15. It's Not Easy Being a Girl in a Man's World: The Daily Experience of Sexual Harassment for Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Spears Brown, Christia

    2007-01-01

    Girls experience sexual harassment every day in middle school. This harassment does not just affect a few girls- 90 percent of girls share this experience. More than half of all girls have been called a nasty or demeaning name or teased about their appearance by a male. Slightly fewer girls have been told a mean or embarrassing joke about their gender or sexuality. By high school, the harassment is more frequent and more extreme. By the end of high school, one-quarter of all girls have been t...

  16. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among young girls: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Braithwaite, Rock; Pearson, Natalie

    2014-05-01

    Pre-adolescent girls are an important target population for physical activity behaviour change as it may enhance tracking into the crucial period of adolescence. The quantification of intervention effectiveness for this age group of girls has not been previously reported. Studies published in English up to and including August 2013 were located from computerised (MedLine, PsychInfo, Science Direct, Web of Science, EPPI centre databases, and Cochrane Library database) and manual searches. Intervention studies aimed at promoting physical activity, which included pre-adolescent girls aged 5-11 years, and a non-physical activity control/comparison group were included. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted. The average treatment effect for pre-adolescent girls involved in physical activity interventions was significant but small (g=0.314, p<.001). Moderator analyses showed larger effects for interventions that catered for girls only and used educational and multicomponent strategies. Interventions to increase physical activity in pre-adolescent girls show small but significant effects, suggesting that behaviour change may be challenging, but results suggest some strategies that could be successful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbiological findings of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbulienė, Žana; Venclavičiūtė, Karolina; Ramašauskaite, Diana; Arlauskiene, Audrone; Bumbul, Elžbieta; Drąsutiene, Gražina

    2014-01-01

    To compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes. Prospective descriptive study. Outpatient clinic of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos during September 2011-December 2012. 115 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms and additionally 20 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Each girl had a vaginal smear carried out using a sterile swab from the introitus or lower third of the vagina. All samples were referred to the microbiology laboratory where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Positive microbiological findings were seen in all 115 (100%) symptomatic girls and in 12 (60%) control group girls (pvulvovaginitis and from 5 (25%) girls without vaginal inflammation (pvulvovaginitis. The main causative premenarchal vulvovaginitis agents are faecal in origin.

  18. Functional state of reproductive system in pubertal girls having autoimmune thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonova, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of the present work is to study the condition of reproductive system in pubertal girls with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and to study various clinical symptoms of AT in relation to peculiarities of natural course of the disease, age and absorbed thyroid dose. We performed complex clinical investigation of 225 girls from Belarus with AT aged 11-16. We revealed, that girls with AT irradiated at the age of 0-3 had significant changes in gonadotrophic hormones levels in blood serum in lutein phase at the age of 13-14 in comparison with control groups. In spite of the fact that mainly the meaning investigated hormones were in the range of age norm, at the age of 15-16 among girls being irradiated greater percent of increased meaning of factor LG/FSG is revealed. Girls with AT had symptoms of dysfunction in sensitivity of target organs (ovaries and uterus) receptors. At the age of 15-16 among girls with AT, exposed to radiation, direct dependencies are established between the level of absorbed thyroid doze and meaning of LG and prolactin

  19. The quality of girls' diets declines and tracks across middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birch Leann L

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food group intakes by US children are below recommendations and micronutrient inadequacies have been reported. There are few longitudinal data that focus on developmental changes in food and nutrient intake from early to middle childhood. We examined changes in nutrient and food group intakes over time and the tracking of intakes across middle childhood in a longitudinal sample of girls. Methods Three multiple-pass 24-hour diet recalls were conducted in a sample of 181 non-Hispanic White girls at ages 5, 7, and 9 years. Food and nutrient data were averaged across 3 days. Analyses of time effects were conducted using repeated measures analysis of variance and tracking of intakes was assessed via rank analysis. Results We found significant decreases in nutrient densities (intakes per 1000 kcal of vitamins C and D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc at age 9. Girls maintained their relative quartile positions for these micronutrients from ages 5–9. Analysis of food group data showed similar trends. At age 9, significantly fewer girls were meeting the recommendations for dairy, fruit and vegetable servings than at age 5 and girls also tended to remain in their respective quartiles over time, especially for fruit and dairy intakes. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of developing healthy eating practices during early childhood when caretakers have considerable control over children's food intake.

  20. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not be as accurate for girls with more complex problems. ... The following steps can help prevent UTIs in girls: Avoid giving your child bubble baths. Have your ...

  1. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  2. PRACTICES OF MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A DISTRICT OF UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Juyal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence in girls signifies the transition from girlhood to womanhood. Good menstrual hygiene is crucial for the health, education, and dignity of girls and women. This is an important sanitation issue which has long been in the closet and still there is a long standing need to openly discuss it. Aims: 1. To elicit the knowledge and source of information regarding menstruation among the adolescent girl students. 2. To find out the practices of menstrual hygiene among them. Settings and Design: Cross-Sectional study conducted in two randomly selected Inter colleges (one rural and one urban of district Dehradun of Uttarakhand state. Methods and Material: 453 girls studying in 9th to 12th grades were interviewed by using a prestructured and pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis used: percentages and Chi-square test Results: 64.5 % girls (71.1% Rural and 57% Urban were aware about menstruation prior to the attainment of menarche. Awareness among rural girls was significantly more as compared to urban girls. Friends were the first informant in about 31.8 % girls. But the correct reason and source of bleeding during menstruation was not known to most of the respondents. Overall 38.4 % adolescent girls (48.1% Rural and 27.6% Urban were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 30 % were using a new cloth/rag every time. Conclusions: There is a need to educate the girls about menstruation, its importance and hygiene maintenance; so as to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.

  3. PRACTICES OF MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A DISTRICT OF UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Juyal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence in girls signifies the transition from girlhood to womanhood. Good menstrual hygiene is crucial for the health, education, and dignity of girls and women. This is an important sanitation issue which has long been in the closet and still there is a long standing need to openly discuss it. Aims: 1. To elicit the knowledge and source of information regarding menstruation among the adolescent girl students. 2. To find out the practices of menstrual hygiene among them. Settings and Design: Cross-Sectional study conducted in two randomly selected Inter colleges (one rural and one urban of district Dehradun of Uttarakhand state. Methods and Material: 453 girls studying in 9th to 12th grades were interviewed by using a prestructured and pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis used: percentages and Chi-square test Results: 64.5 % girls (71.1% Rural and 57% Urban were aware about menstruation prior to the attainment of menarche. Awareness among rural girls was significantly more as compared to urban girls. Friends were the first informant in about 31.8 % girls. But the correct reason and source of bleeding during menstruation was not known to most of the respondents. Overall 38.4 % adolescent girls (48.1% Rural and 27.6% Urban were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 30 % were using a new cloth/rag every time. Conclusions: There is a need to educate the girls about menstruation, its importance and hygiene maintenance; so as to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.

  4. Empowering Palestinian girls through digital learning innovations in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Girls in particular face barriers to accessing quality education, leading to significant ... engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and digital skills can open new routes to ... locally relevant digital learning innovations, especially in the STEM fields.

  5. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  6. Clinical and angiographic predictors of haemodynamically significant angiographic lesions: development and validation of a risk score to predict positive fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Nishtha; Baber, Usman; Kezbor, Safwan; Sayseng, Sonny; Aquino, Melissa; Mehran, Roxana; Sweeny, Joseph; Barman, Nitin; Kini, Annapoorna; Sharma, Samin K

    2017-04-07

    Coronary revascularisation based upon physiological evaluation of lesions improves clinical outcomes. Angiographic or visual stenosis assessment alone is insufficient in predicting haemodynamic stenosis severity by fractional flow reserve (FFR) and therefore cannot be used to guide revascularisation, particularly in the lesion subset system formulated. Of 1,023 consecutive lesions (883 patients), 314 (31%) were haemodynamically significant. Characteristics associated with FFR ≤0.8 include male gender, higher SYNTAX score, lesions ≥20 mm, stenosis >50%, bifurcation, calcification, absence of tortuosity and smaller reference diameter. A user-friendly integer score was developed with the five variables demonstrating the strongest association. On prospective validation (in 279 distinct lesions), the increasing value of the score correlated well with increasing haemodynamic significance (C-statistic 0.85). We identified several clinical and angiographic characteristics and formulated a scoring system to guide the approach to intermediate lesions. This may translate into cost savings. Larger studies with prospective validation are required to confirm our results.

  7. School connectedness and daily smoking among boys and girls: the influence of parental smoking norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2005-01-01

    connectedness and smoking, although a modifying tendency was observed among girls. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking behaviour of Danish adolescents may be influenced by complicated interactions of varying sets of experienced smoking norms, and any research project or preventive programme focusing on the influence......BACKGROUND: The objective was to test whether an association between school connectedness and smoking exists among Danish school children, and if so, to examine whether parental smoking attitude and parental smoking behaviour influenced this association. METHODS: Data were collected by the Danish...... and smoking among both boys and girls. Parents' attitude to their children's smoking significantly modified this association among boys. Among girls the modifying effect was less marked. Neither among boys nor girls did parental smoking behaviour significantly modify the association between school...

  8. Substance use behavior among early-adolescent Asian American girls: the impact of psychological and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P

    2011-11-01

    Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs among early-adolescent Asian American girls. Between August 2007 and March 2008, 135 pairs of Asian American girls (mean age 13.21 years, SD=0.90) and their mothers (mean age 39.86 years, SD=6.99) were recruited from 19 states that had significant Asian populations. Girls and mothers each completed an online survey. Relative to girls who did not use substances, girls who did had higher levels of depressive symptoms, perceived peer substance use, and maternal substance use. Multiple logistic regression modeling revealed that they also had significantly lower levels of body satisfaction, problem-solving ability, parental monitoring, mother-daughter communication, family involvement, and family rules about substance use. Household composition, acculturation, and academic achievement were not associated with girls' substance use. These findings point to directions for substance abuse prevention programming among Asian American girls.

  9. Girls Talk Math - Engaging Girls Through Math Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Francesca; Morgan, Katrina

    2017-11-01

    ``Girls Talk Math: Engaging Girls through Math Media'' is a free two-week long summer day camp for high-school girls in the Triangle area of NC. This past June the camp had its second run thanks to renewed funding from the Mathematical Association of America Tensor Women and Mathematics Grant. The camp involved 35 local high-school students who identify as female. Campers complete challenging problem sets and research the life of a female scientist who worked on similar problems. They report their work in a blog post and record a podcast about the scientist they researched. The curriculum has been developed by Mathematics graduate students at UNC from an inquiry based learning perspective; problem sets topics include some theoretical mathematics, but also more applied physics-based material. Campers worked on fluid dynamics, special relativity, and quantum mechanics problem sets which included experiments. The camp has received positive feedback from the local community and the second run saw a large increase in the number of participants. The program is evaluated using pre and post surveys, which measure campers' confidence and interest in pursuing higher level courses in STEM. The results from the past two summers have been encouraging. Mathematical Association of America Tensor Women and Mathematics Grant.

  10. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use Among Minority Urban Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use and therefore a greater risk for HIV/STDs. Girls' sense of sexual control in their relationships was not directly associated with inconsistent condom use but was inversely related to verbal and emotional abuse. Interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STD risk for adolescent girls need to address patterns of dominance and control in adolescent relationships as well as multiple forms of partner violence. This suggests the need for multilevel intervention approaches that promote girls' agency and multiple ways to keep girls safe from perpetrators of partner abuse. PMID:18349344

  11. Triaging TIA/minor stroke patients using the ABCD2 score does not predict those with significant carotid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Isherwood, J; Eveson, D; Naylor, A R

    2012-05-01

    'Rapid Access' TIA Clinics use the ABCD(2) score to triage patients as it is not possible to see everyone with a suspected TIA TIA/minor stroke or 'carotid territory' TIA/minor stroke. Between 1.10.2008 and 31.04.2011, 2452 patients were referred to the Leicester Rapid Access TIA Service. After Stroke Physician review, 1273 (52%) were thought to have suffered a minor stroke/TIA. Of these, both FD/ED referrer and Specialist Stroke Consultant ABCD(2) scores and carotid Duplex ultrasound studies were available for 843 (66%). The yield for identifying a ≥50% stenosis or carotid occlusion was 109/843 (12.9%) in patients with 'any territory' TIA/minor stroke and 101/740 (13.6%) in those with a clinical diagnosis of 'carotid territory' TIA/minor stroke. There was no association between ABCD(2) score and the likelihood of encountering significant carotid disease and analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for FD/ED referrer and stroke specialist ABCD(2) scores showed no prediction of carotid stenosis (FD/ED: AUC 0.50 (95%CI 0.44-0.55, p = 0.9), Specialist: AUC 0.51 (95%CI 0.45-0.57, p = 0.78). The ABCD(2) score was unable to identify TIA/minor stroke patients with a higher prevalence of clinically important ipsilateral carotid disease. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of social desirability on adolescent girls' responses to an eating disorders prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, Linda; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J

    2004-03-01

    The current study examined whether a social desirability response bias is a source of measurement error in prevention research. Six hundred and seventy-seven female students in Grade 7 (n = 345) and Grade 8 (n = 332) were divided into either an intervention condition, in which participants watched a videotape promoting body acceptance and discouraging dieting and then discussed issues related to the video, or a control condition. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, postintervention, and at 1-month follow-up. Social desirability scores were correlated at a low but significant level with baseline body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic tendencies, intention to diet, and size discrepancy for intervention participants. Social desirability did not correlate significantly with change over time in the outcome measures. The findings suggested that changes in girls' self-reports related to a prevention program were relatively free of social desirability response bias. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 211-216, 2004.

  13. Sex hormone binding globulin, free estradiol index, and lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Wook Chae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG modulates the availability of biologically active free sex hormones. The regulatory role of SHBG might be important in the relationship between hormone levels and the modification of lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship of SHBG, free estradiol index (FEI, and lipid levels in these girls.MethodsOne hundred and nine girls less than 8 years of age with pubertal development were enrolled. FEI was calculated with SHBG and estradiol (E2. We analyzed SHBG between peak luteinizing hormone (LH≥5 (IU/L (group 1 and LH<5 (IU/L (group 2 through a gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test.ResultsBody mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (P=0.004. Serum SHBG levels did not differ and FEI was not higher in group 1 (P=0.122. Serum cholesterol, HDL, and LDL did not differ; however, triglyceride levels were higher in group 2 (P=0.023. SHBG was negatively correlated with bone age advancement, BMI, BMI SDS, and FEI, and was positively correlated with HDL. However, SHBG was not correlated with E2 or peak LH.ConclusionSerum SHBG itself might not be associated with precocious puberty in girls, but it might be related to BMI and lipid profiles. Further studies are needed to reveal the relationship between sex hormone and obesity in girls with precocious puberty.

  14. A group-randomized controlled trial for health promotion in Girl Scouts: healthier troops in a SNAP (Scouting Nutrition & Activity Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Behrens, Timothy K; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2010-02-19

    Girl Scouting may offer a viable channel for health promotion and obesity prevention programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention program delivered through Girl Scout Junior troops that was designed to foster healthful troop meeting environments and increase obesity prevention behaviors at home. Seven Girl Scout troops were randomized to intervention (n = 3, with 34 girls) or standard-care control (n = 4, with 42 girls) conditions. Girls ranged in age from 9 to 13 years (mean 10.5 years). Intervention troop leaders were trained to implement policies promoting physical activity (PA) and healthful eating opportunities at troop meetings, and to implement a curriculum promoting obesity-prevention behaviors at home. The primary outcome variable was child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Secondary outcomes included accelerometer-assessed PA levels in troop meetings, direct observations of snack offerings, time spent in physically active meeting content, and leader encouragement of PA and healthful eating. The intervention was delivered with good fidelity, and intervention troops provided greater opportunities for healthful eating and PA (x2 = 210.8, p environments in Girl Scout troop meetings appears feasible on a broader scale. Additional work is needed to bridge health promotion from such settings to other environments if lasting individual-level behavior change and obesity prevention remain targeted outcomes. NCT00949637.

  15. Educating the girl child in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of educating female children in India. There is ample evidence worldwide that improvements in girls' education benefit the status of the family and empower women. The World Declaration of Education for All was adopted in Jomtein, Thailand in 1990. It urged access to and improvement in the quality of education of girls and women to remove obstacles that hamper active participation. 1990 was the Year of Literacy and the Year of the Girl Child. Girls lag in education worldwide. The gender gap is widest in India in levels of literacy, school enrollment, school dropouts, and opportunities for vocational training. There is a need to educate the public, particularly mothers, about the value of girls. In rural and backward areas of India, there is fear of educating girls that is related to prevalent practices of exploitation and violence against women. Education and vocational training should be linked with anti-poverty programs. Adult literacy should be linked with girls' education. The National Policy on Education in 1986 targeted removal of sex stereotyping from school curricula and promoted diversified curricula and access of girls to vocational and professional training programs. The policy recommended integrated child care services and primary education. The national action plan for the 1990s focuses on protection, survival, and development of the girl child in India. Special schools for developing skills in nutrition, cooking, sewing, home economics, and child development should be set up in villages for girls 12-20 years old. The gap in girls' education is attributed to apathy and resistance of parents, unfavorable attitudes toward coeducation, poverty of parents, shortages of schools, and poor quality instruction. Girls' continuing education should be ensured by incentives, such as free books and clothes; time tables conducive to work; support systems; and work schemes.

  16. Social and Psychological Factors Related to Risk of Eating Disorders Among High School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfoukha, Marwa M; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Banihani, Manar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) has increased among adolescents in Arabic and Western countries. The purposes are to identify the risk of ED and psychosocial correlates of risk of ED among high school girls in Jordan. The researchers employed a cross-sectional, correlational design using 799 high school girls from governmental and private schools in the central region of Jordan. The results indicate that prevalence of the risk of ED was 12%. The risk of ED had significant and positive correlation with body shape dissatisfaction, self-esteem, psychological distress, and pressure from family, peers, and media ( p self-esteem, negative peer pressure, and being young were significant predictors of the risk of EDs. Risk of ED is highly prevalent among high school girls, and school nurses need to adopt a model of care addressing the risk factors while caring for high school girls.

  17. The psychological world of adolescence: a comparative evaluation between rural and urban girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoundiyal, Manju; Venkatesh, Renuka

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to get an insight into the psychological world of adolescence and to study the influence of locality and school-going activity on it. The study group comprised of 240 girls in the age group 12-18 years equally representing urban and rural areas. Using two psychological tests, namely Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire and Health-Related Quality of Life Inventory, the results revealed that two-third of them were in the problematic and borderline category as per SDQ and one-third as per PedsQL. Further, there was a definite linear relationship between the total problem score of both scales. This was irrespective of the locale and school-going activity. The results indicate the need for building psychological infrastructure into the social system to help adolescents girls grow to their potential.

  18. The association between glucocorticoid therapy and BMI z-score changes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpe, Marie-Louise Hyre; Rørvig, Sascha; Kok, Karin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Few studies have addressed the common issue of weight gain in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during early phases of treatment, and even fewer have used the appropriate measure for weight fluctuation in children, BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZs). The purpose of this study......) treatment but not in periods without GC. ΔBAZ was larger in boys compared to girls, and ΔBAZ was higher in patients who were under/normal weight at diagnosis, compared to patients who were overweight/obese (1.26 ± 1.29 vs. -0.04 ± 0.41; p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: BAZ increased significantly in children...

  19. Girls Getting to Secondary School Safely: Combating Gender-Based Violence in the Transportation Sector in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Laura

    2009-01-01

    While increasing girls' access to education is a global priority, there are numerous barriers that impede significant progress in achieving gender parity in schools. While enrollment of girl students is up in Tanzania, especially at the primary and secondary levels, AED has become concerned about the barriers girls face, including gender-based…

  20. Vitamin D intake and status in Irish elderly women and adolescent girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, D.; Collins, A.; O’Brien, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess vitamin D status during summer and winter in Irish girls and elderly women, and to estimate vitamin D intake in these two age-groups. Methods Ambulatory free-living, elderly Irish women (aged 70-76 years; n = 43) and girls (aged 11-13 years; n = 17) were recruited. Fasting serums we...... collected during August/ September 2002 and February/March 2003 and analysed for 25 (OH) D by HPLC. Results Mean daily intakes of vitamin D were 4.6 mu g and 2.1 mu g in elderly women and girls, respectively Serum 25 (OH) D was significantly lower (P......Aim To assess vitamin D status during summer and winter in Irish girls and elderly women, and to estimate vitamin D intake in these two age-groups. Methods Ambulatory free-living, elderly Irish women (aged 70-76 years; n = 43) and girls (aged 11-13 years; n = 17) were recruited. Fasting serums were...

  1. Subclinical vitamin D deficiency is increased in adolescent girls who wear concealing clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatun, Sukru; Islam, Omer; Cizmecioglu, Filiz; Kara, Bulent; Babaoglu, Kadir; Berk, Fatma; Gökalp, Ayse Sevim

    2005-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency continues to be a worldwide problem, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Girls (n = 89) aged 13 to 17 y were enrolled in the study. Study subjects were stratified into 3 groups: Group I included girls living in a suburban area; Group II girls lived in an urban area, and Group III girls lived in an urban area and wore concealing clothes for religious reasons. At the end of winter (in April) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were measured and dietary data were collected using questionnaires. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D concentration dress) the serum 25(OH)D concentrations (28.13 +/- 12.53 nmol/L) were significantly lower than in the other 2 groups, and within this group, 50% of girls were vitamin D deficient. The lumbar and femur neck BMD of girls with lower 25(OH)D levels did not differ from those with adequate vitamin D levels. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an important problem in Turkish adolescent girls, especially in those who follow a religious dress code; therefore, vitamin D supplementation appears to be necessary for adolescent girls.

  2. Pilot study of a mindfulness-based, multi-component, in-school group sleep intervention in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Byrne, Michelle L; Ivens, Clare; Waloszek, Joanna; Woods, Michael J; Dudgeon, Paul; Murray, Greg; Nicholas, Christian L; Trinder, John; Allen, Nicholas B

    2013-05-01

    Existing literature links poor sleep and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. This pilot study aimed to develop a practical method through which a program to improve sleep could reach adolescents in need and to examine the feasibility of a mindfulness-based, multi-component group sleep intervention using sleep and anxiety as outcome measures. Sixty-two grade 9 students (aged 13-15) at a girls' school were screened with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Ten participants with self-reported poor sleep were enrolled into a six-session program based on Bootzin & Stevens, with added stress/anxiety-specific components. Sessions covered key aspects of basic mindfulness concepts and practice, sleep hygiene, sleep scheduling, evening/daytime habits, stimulus control, skills for bedtime worries and healthy attitudes to sleep. Treatment changes were measured by pre-post scores on the PSQI, SCAS and 7-day actigraphy-measured sleep. The program demonstrated high acceptability, with a completion rate of 90%. Based on effect-size analysis, participants showed significant improvement on objective sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep efficiency and total sleep time; actigraphy data also showed significantly earlier bedtime, rise time and smaller day-to-day bedtime variation. Post-intervention global PSQI scores were significantly lower than that of pre-intervention, with significant improvement in subjective SOL, sleep quality and sleep-related daytime dysfunction. There were small improvements on some subscales of the SCAS, but change on its total score was minimal. A mindfulness-based, multi-component, in-school group sleep intervention following brief screening is feasible, and has the potential to improve sleep. Its impact on anxiety needs further investigation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Horse-Girl Assemblages: Towards a Post-Human Cartography of Girls' Desire in an Ex-Mining Valleys Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renold, Emma; Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The paper works with queer and feminist post-human materialist scholarship to understand the way young teen valleys' girls experienced ubiquitous feelings of fear, risk, vulnerability and violence. Longitudinal ethnographic research of girls (aged 12-15) living in an ex-mining semi-rural community suggests how girls are negotiating complex…

  4. Central precocious puberty in girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.; Malandry, F.; Perignon, F.; Brunelle, F.; Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls depends on its etiology and evolution, the latter based on the degree of accelerated bone maturation. The goal of this paper is to assess the diagnostic value of MR imaging in studying CPP in girls. Thirty-four girls with CPP were studied with MR imaging. Pituitary gland height (PGH) was measured on a sagittal midline image and compared with normal measurements. Correlations among clinical presentation, PGH, estradiol levels, and LH/FSH ratio were evaluated

  5. Girls' Workplace Destinations in a Changed Social Landscape: Girls and Their Mothers Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Changes in participation and achievement patterns mark a turning point for girls in schooling and place female empowerment squarely in the public domain. Using data from a longitudinal study of girls, this paper looks at female empowerment by exploring the relationship between the production of female subjectivity and the processes operating in…

  6. Letting girls speak out about science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dale; Leary, Rosemary

    The purpose of this study was to try to determine what influences girls to choose science. Forty girls were interviewed in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11 using a semistructured protocol. The interview focused on feelings about science, science careers, peer and parental support, and how science is taught. To determine whether their responses were based on gender, each girl was asked to respond to questions as if she were a boy. The girls were highly self-confident and positive about science. All of the girls took a strong equity position and asserted that women can and should do science. The girls liked learning science in an interactive social context rather than participating in activities that isolated them such as independent reading, writing, or note taking. Those who chose science careers were drawn to them because of strong affective experiences with a loved one and a desire to help. The interviews were analyzed through the framework of women's affective and psychological needs.Received: 15 July 1993; Revised: 23 May 1994;

  7. Elementary girls' science reading at home and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Danielle J.; Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Lottero-Perdue, Pamela; Kittleson, Julie

    2006-03-01

    Although reading is a critical part of science and science learning, it is no longer a part of many children's elementary science instruction. This is of concern because girls often develop strong identities as readers, but do not develop scientific identities with ease. In this study, we investigate girls' science reading to know (1) if science books were available to girls in homes and classrooms, (2) if girls were choosing to read them, and (3) what influences their choices. Forty-five third-grade girls, 29 of their families, and three of their teachers were interviewed to ascertain girls' preferences among various book genres, as well as to learn the ways in which families and teachers influence the choices girls make. We found that girls had access to science books at school, and teachers had strategies to encourage reading them. At home, parents encouraged reading, but were generally less directive than teachers as to what the girls read, and underestimated their daughters' science-related interests. The families studied rely largely on major bookstores as their primary source of books. Our findings suggest we need to understand better the way gender influences girls' engagement with science in a variety of contexts, particularly those in which girls exercise choice.

  8. The Relationship between Friendship Quality and Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J.; Daubman, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the role of friendship quality in adolescent boys' and girls' self-esteem. High school student surveys indicated that girls had significantly lower self-esteem than boys, and they rated their relationships as stronger, more interpersonally rewarding, and more stressful than boys. Boys rated their cross-gender best friendship as more…

  9. The Zhongshan Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Hang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the zero ischemia era of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), a new anatomic classification system (ACS) is needed to adjust to these new surgical techniques. We devised a novel and simple ACS, and compared it with the RENAL and PADUA scores to predict the risk of NSS outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 789 patients who underwent NSS with available imaging between January 2007 and July 2014. Demographic and clinical data were assessed. The Zhongshan (ZS) score consisted of three parameters. RENAL, PADUA, and ZS scores are divided into three groups, that is, high, moderate, and low scores. For operative time (OT), significant differences were seen between any two groups of ZS score and PADUA score (all P RENAL showed no significant difference between moderate and high complexity in OT, WIT, estimated blood loss, and increase in SCr. Compared with patients with a low score of ZS, those with a high or moderate score had 8.1-fold or 3.3-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL score, patients with a high or moderate score had 5.7-fold or 1.9-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL and PADUA scores. ZS score could be used to reflect the surgical complexity and predict the risk of surgical complications in patients undergoing NSS. PMID:25654399

  10. Anaemia in pregnant adolescent girls with malaria and practicing pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intiful, Freda Dzifa; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Asare, George Awuku; Asante, Matilda; Adjei, David Nana

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated. Two hundred and sixty five (265) pregnant adolescent girls were recruited from three hospitals in Accra. Haemoglobin levels, malaria infection and the practice of pica were assessed. Pearson's Chi squared tests were used to determine associations and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of being anaemic. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Anaemia prevalence was 76% with severity ranging from mild (47.8%) to severe (0.8%). About 27.5% were moderately anaemic. Pica was practiced in only 9.1% of the girls. Malaria infection was prevalent in 17.7% of the girls. The logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant girls with malaria infection were 3.56 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those without malaria. Also, those who practiced pica were 1.23 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those who did not practice pica. Anaemia is very prevalent in pregnant adolescent girls and is a public health problem. Drastic measures should be taken to reduce the high prevalence.

  11. Childhood obesity policy: implications for African American girls and a nursing ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Monique

    2013-01-01

    In the United States there is a prevalence of obesity among ethnic groups, especially African American girls. The author in this column examines through an ecological lens selected American federal, state, and city policies and program interventions aimed at reducing obesity. Specifically, the eating behavior of African American girls is discussed as a population subset for which significant gaps are present in current obesity policy and implementation. Policy recommendations should include parents as research has shown a significant relationship in the eating behaviors of African American girls and their parents. Opportunities for nurses in practice and research to test the effectiveness of family and community level policy and program initiatives that address the ecological perspectives of the adolescent environment are discussed.

  12. Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Reaching Stars Team

    2016-10-01

    This year, the University of Arizona is conducting its first two Leadership Workshops for Girl Scout adult leaders. These workshops are being supported by a five-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the University of Arizona, Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), the Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. These workshops are an outgrowth of Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders, a 14-year "Train the Trainer" program funded by NASA through the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) education and outreach team. We are continuing our long-term relationship with all Girl Scout Councils to engage girls and young women not only in science and math education, but also in the astronomical and technological concepts relating to NASA's scientific mission. Our training aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It's Your Planet-Love It! and introduces participants to some of the activities that are being developed by the Girl Scout Stars team for GSUSA's new space science badges for all Girl Scout levels being developed as a part of Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts.The workshops include hands-on activities in basic astronomy (night sky, stars, galaxies, optics, telescopes, etc.) as well as some more advanced concepts such as lookback time and the expansion of the Universe. Since the inception of our original Astronomy Camp in 2003, our team has grown to include nearly 280 adult leaders, staff, and volunteers from over 79 Councils in 43 states and the District of Columbia so they can, in turn, teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, and engineering. Our workshops model what astronomers do by engaging participants in the process of science inquiry, while equipping adults to host astronomy-related programs with

  13. Self-image and suicidal and violent behaviours of adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sitnik-Warchulska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background An increase in self-destructive and aggressive behaviours in adolescents has been observed in recent years. The present study focused on self-perception of adolescent girls who show different types of extreme destructive behaviours (suicidal or violent. The main aim of the study was to identify personality predictors of suicidal and violent behaviour in adolescent girls. Participants and procedure The study involved 163 female participants aged 13-17 years, including 44 suicide attempters (without extreme aggressive behaviour towards others, 46 girls using violence against others (without extreme self-destructive behaviour and 77 girls exhibiting no destructive behaviour. The following research methods were applied: the Adjective Checklist (ACL (versions “What am I like?” and “What would I like to be?”, and the Sentence Completion Test. Results The girls showing extreme destructive behaviour, particularly self-destructive behaviour, were found to have a more negative self-image, a lower level of consistency of the self-image, lower self-esteem and a higher level of inner conflict than the control group. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to determine predictors of extreme self-destructive or aggressive behaviours. Escalated inner conflicts within the attitude towards oneself appear to be the most important predictor of suicidal behaviour in adolescent girls, whereas self-perception based on strength seems to be the most significant predictor of violent behaviour in adolescent girls. Conclusions The research showed that destructive behaviour among adolescents is a multidimensional phenomenon. The statistical model presented in the study has been proved to have a high value. The results can help in successful prevention and therapy of destructive behaviours in adolescents.

  14. Why do girls persist in science? A qualitative study of the decision-making processes of pre-adolescent and adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Holly Mcdonnell

    2002-09-01

    Girls are often found to drop out of science in greater numbers and sooner than boys. Because previous research has focused on gender differences, rather than examining differences and similarities among girls, little is known about why some girls choose to pursue science, particularly the physical sciences, rather than drop it. Specifically, little is known about how and why girls make their decisions to persist or not in specific science careers and the courses leading up to them. Through the use of semi-structured, in-depth, qualitative, interviews conducted over the span of a year, this thesis explored the choice of classes and career decisions of twelve elementary through high school girls who participated in an engineering camp. The purpose was to gain an understanding of why these girls chose to persist or not in a science and engineering career over time. Age-related differences were found in the reasons the girls gave for wanting to take future classes. The elementary school girls believed that interest would be their only reason while the high school girls gave multiple reasons, including interest, utility, perceptions of ability, and who would be teaching the class. The implications of these findings for Eccles' model of academic choice are discussed. Overall, the girls in this study liked their science classes because they involved hands-on activities. By high school they showed a preference for and a greater knowledge of biology rather than physics. All of the girls were unsure about what kinds of science information they would need to know for future jobs. Half of the girls were considering biology-based careers, such as doctors and veterinarians, because they wanted to help and take care of people and animals. Only one girl was considering engineering, a physics-based career, and only because her parents required it. Despite believing that they were doing well in school in general, at least half of the girls believed they were doing poorly in math

  15. Girl child and gender bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhry, D P

    1995-01-01

    This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned.

  16. Radionuclide uroflowmetry and urethral caliper in girls with urinary tract disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrhac, L.; Mrhacova, L.; Cerny, J.; Marten, J.; Goj, P.; Hladik, M.

    1988-01-01

    In a group of 178 girls aged 4 to 15 years suffering from various inflammations of the urinary tract a clinical and laboratory examinations were made, calibration of the urethra and radionuclide uroflowmetry (UFM). The methods are described of calibration of the urethra and uroflowmetry. Presented are normal and pathological values of both examinations and the evaluation of the relationship between calibration values of the urethra and parameters of UFM. No correlation was found between the results of these examinations. In the group of girls with urinary tract infections impaired urodynamics were found in 26 to 34%. Higher incidence was not revealed of impaired urodynamics in more serious conditions, i.e. pyelonephritis. A bladder residue was significantly more frequent in impaired urodynamics. This was not the case in vesiculoureteral reflux. In girls with enuresis a significantly higher incidence of impaired urodynamics was observed. Calibration of the urethra and uroflowmetry are complementary examination methods which cannot replace each other. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs

  17. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  18. Adult height in girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist with or without growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Kyung Jung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThere is controversy surrounding the growth outcomes of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa in central precocious puberty (CPP. We analyzed height preservation after treatment with GnRHa with and without growth hormone (GH in girls with CPP.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of 82 girls with idiopathic CPP who had been treated with GnRHa at Severance Children's Hospital from 2004 to 2014. We assessed the changes in height standard deviation score (SDS for bone age (BA, and compared adult height (AH with midparental height (MPH and predicted adult height (PAH during treatment in groups received GnRHa alone (n=59 or GnRHa plus GH (n=23.ResultsIn the GnRHa alone group, the height SDS for BA was increased during treatment. AH (160.4±4.23 cm was significantly higher than the initial PAH (156.6±3.96 cm (P<0.001, and it was similar to the MPH (159.9±3.52 cm. In the GnRHa plus GH group, the height SDS for BA was also increased during treatment. AH (159.3±5.33 cm was also higher than the initial PAH (154.6±2.55 cm (P<0.001, which was similar to the MPH (158.1±3.31 cm. Height gain was slightly higher than that in the GnRHa alone group, however it statistically showed no significant correlation with GH treatment.ConclusionIn CPP girls treated with GnRHa, the height SDS for BA was increased, and the AH was higher than the initial PAH. Combined GH treatment showed a limited increase in height gain.

  19. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Julie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo

    2012-12-03

    Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls' participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=-0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=-0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the development of family-based interventions to improve

  20. Early-menarche as Determinant Factor for Metabolic-risks: An Epidemiology Perspectives among Adolescent Girls aged 13-15 years old in Jakarta-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Hariani

    2018-01-01

    A total of 194 adolescent girls were participated in this study. Early menarche was found in 22.68% of all subjects. There was no association between menarche status and daily macronutrients intake pattern and physical activity level score. Early menarche subjects had significantly higher BMI (p<0.001, CDC-percentile (p<0.001, WHO Z-score (p<0.001, and waist circumference values (p=0.02. Furthermore, early menarche subjects also had higher systolic blood pressure (p=0.035, total cholesterol level (p=0.028, LDL-cholesterol level (p=0.013, and triglyceride level (p=0.026. There was no association between menarche status and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, HDL-C level, lipid profile ratio. In conclusion, early menarche is an important determinant factor of metabolic risks, and balance between dietary intake and physical activity level should be prioritized among them.

  1. Attracting girls to physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  2. Ideologies of sexuality, menstruation and risk: girls' experiences of puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marni

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines girls' voiced experiences of menstruation, puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. The study was conducted in Moshi and Rombo Districts of Kilimanjaro, a predominantly Chagga region with historically strong support for girls' education. The major question explored was how the onset of menses and puberty may be impacting on girls' school participation, given societal implications of pubertal onset and potentially gender discriminatory school environments. The methodology included a comparative case study using in-depth interviews and participatory research with young women living in urban and rural Kilimanjaro. Along with important findings about how menstrual onset creates challenges for girls attending school emerged findings about the significant gaps in girls' knowledge about body changes, sexual health and HIV/AIDS. These findings underline the importance of identifying new girl-centred approaches to guidance on bodily development and HIV prevention.

  3. Effect of zinc and/or iron supplementations on ICF-level in prepubertal anaemic girls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, S.K.; Noure Eldin, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of iron and zinc supplementations separated or combined on levels of iron, zinc and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-) in prepuberal girls suffering from iron deficiency anaemia. Hematological and biochemical changes of thirty two anaemic prepubertal girls (mean age 10.5 ± 2.01 year) were compared with normal fifteen girls have the same age. The anaemic girls were divided into three groups according to treatment; groupA (iron, group B(zinc) and group C (iron+zinc)and received supplementations for 8 weeks. Significant decreases in erythrocytic counts (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit % (Hct%) and reticulocytes%(Rt%) were recorded in blood samples of the three groups before supplementations while non-significant differences were detected in the values of other blood indices. Significant decreases were detected in iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels while non-significant decrease in ferritin was detected in group (A). Erythropoietin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) showed significant increases in the same group. Total iron binding capacity, iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels showed significant decreases while there were significant increases in erythropoetin and ferritin in group (B). The results revealed that ferritin,iron, zinc and IGF-1 levels were significantly decreased while erythropoietin and TIBC were significantly increased in group (C). After treatment, group (B) showed sligh significant increases in the concentration of Hb, Hct% and Rt%. with non-significant increase in RBCs count but in group (C) the results revealed significant increases in RBCs count, Hb, Hct% and Rt%. Non- significant differences were detected in RBCs count, Hb and Hct% in group (A) while significant increase was detected in Rt% in the same group

  4. Cycling peak power in obese and lean 6- to 8-year-old girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Julien; Lazaar, Nordine; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Ratel, Sebastien; Duché, Pascale

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effect of the difference in percentage body fat (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) on cycling peak power (CPP) in 6- to 8-year-old obese and lean untrained girls and boys. Obese (35 girls, 35 boys) and lean (35 girls, 35 boys) children were measured for obesity, %BF, calculated from skinfold measurements. FFM was calculated as body mass (BM) minus body fat. A force-velocity test on a cycle ergometer was used to measure CPP. CPP was related to anthropometric variables using standard and allometric models. CPP in absolute terms was higher in obese children than in lean children irrespective of gender. BM-related CPP was significantly lower in obese children than in lean ones, whereas no effect of obesity appeared on FFM-related CPP. Velocity at CPP (Vopt) was significantly lower and force at CPP (Fopt) was significantly higher in girls than in boys. Muscle power production was unaffected by obesity in children. Low BM-related CPP could explain the difficulty of taking up physical activities that are body-mass related in obese children. Gender difference for Vopt and Fopt shows that girls and boys may have different maturation patterns affecting CPP.

  5. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in white and African-American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G; Pate, Russell R; Dowda, Marsha; Ward, Dianne S; Felton, Gwen; Saunders, Ruth

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate the relative utility of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in explaining intentions and physical activity behavior in white and African-American eighth-grade girls. One-thousand-thirty white and 1.114 African-American eighth-grade girls (mean age 13.6 +/- 0.7 years) from 31 middle schools in South Carolina completed a 3-day physical activity recall and a questionnaire assessing attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and intentions related to regular participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Among Whites, 17% of the variance in intentions was contributed by subjective norms and attitude, with intentions accounting for 8% of the variance in MVPA. The addition of perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy to the TRA significantly improved the prediction of intentions and MVPA accounting for 40% and 10% of the variance, respectively. Among African-Americans, subjective norms and attitude accounted for 13% of the variance in intentions, with intentions accounting for only 3% of the variance in MVPA. The addition of perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy to the TRA significantly improved the prediction of intentions and MVPA accounting for 28% and 5% of the variance, respectively. The results provided limited empirical support for the TPB among white adolescent girls; however, our findings suggest that the planned behavior framework has limited utility among African-American adolescent girls. The relatively weak link between intentions and MVPA observed in both population groups suggest that constructs external to the TPB may be more important mediators of physical activity behavior in adolescent girls.

  6. A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkner, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods: A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls’ perspectives of how significant others’ influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Results: Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. Conclusion: The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls’ perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity. PMID:29405881

  7. Counseling Girls for Equal Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that the unequal position of women in the labor force is a critical issue for guidance counselors. Counselors should encourage girls to try different areas and counteract stereotypes that both students and teachers have concerning education and careers for girls. (JAC)

  8. Prognostic significance of Glasgow prognostic score in patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ji-Feng; Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Qi-Xun

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score, is inversely related to prognosis in a variety of cancers; high levels of GPS is associated with poor prognosis. However, few studies regarding GPS in esophageal cancer (EC) are available. The aim of this study was to determine whether the GPS is useful for predicting cancer-specific survival (CSS) of patients for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The GPS was calculated on the basis of admission data as follows: Patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level (>10 mg/L) and hypoalbuminemia (L) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0, respectively. Our study showed that GPS was associated with tumor size, depth of invasion, and nodal metastasis (PGPS0, GPS1, and GPS2 were 60.8%, 34.7% and 10.7%, respectively (PGPS was a significant predictor of CSS. GPS1-2 had a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.399 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.805-3.190] for 1-year CSS (PGPS is associated with tumor progression. GPS can be considered as an independent prognostic factor in patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC.

  9. Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5% girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5% girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25% girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75% girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25% girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85% girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.

  10. Development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up in non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mauno; Marttunen, Mauri; Komulainen, Erkki; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Aalberg, Veikko; Lindberg, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese youths is high. The present study aimed to investigate the development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up among non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight. Furthermore, we separately analyzed the data for girls and boys. Altogether 86 8(th) grades (41 girls and 45 boys) with a relative weight of 26% or more above the median and 91 controls (43 girls and 48 boys) with normal weight participated the follow-up. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, Revised (OSIQ-R) was used to assess self-image at baseline and on follow-up. In the OSIQ-R, a low total raw score implies positive adjustment, while a high raw score implies poor adjustment and a negative self-image. The study design was doubly correlated (pairs and time), and a linear mixed model was used in the statistical analysis. In OSIQ-R total scores, a comparative improvement was observed in girls with normal weight. Among these girls, significant change scores compared to zero were seen in impulse control, social functioning, vocational attitudes, self-confidence, self-reliance, body image, sexuality, and ethical values. In girls with excess weight, none of the change scores compared to zero were statistically significant. When the girls with normal and excess weight were compared, the difference in change scores was largest in sexuality and vocational attitudes. Change scores compared to zero were significant in sexuality and idealism for boys with excess weight, and in impulse control, mental health, self-reliance, and sexuality for normal weight boys. When the boys with excess and normal weight were compared, no statistically significant differences emerged in change scores. In mid-adolescent girls, the influence of overweight and obesity on the development of self-image is substantial. Weight management programs directed at overweight adolescent girls should include psychological interventions aiming to diminish self-image distress

  11. Perceived Stress Predicts Lower Physical Activity in African-American Boys, but not Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlumphy, Kellye C; Shaver, Erika R; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa A; Hasson, Rebecca E

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional relationships of psychological stress, stress coping, and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Amer- ican-American (AA) boys and girls. A community-based sample of 139 AA adolescents (mean age 14.7 years; SD = 1.8 years; 64.7% girls; 30% obese) from Washtenaw County, Michigan was included in this analysis. Psychological stress was assessed using the Daily Stress Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Coping strategies were evaluated using the Schoolager's Coping Strategies questionnaire. Physical activity was measured objectively via accelerometry. Compared to boys, girls participated in approximately 13 fewer minutes of MVPA (p girls reported using a greater number of coping strategies (p = .01) at a greater frequency (p = .04) compared to boys. However, perceived stress significantly predicted lower levels of MVPA (p = .03) in boys only. There are important gender differences in how AA girls perceive, experience, and cope with stress compared to AA boys. Although AA girls reported higher levels of stress and employed more coping strategies, perceived stress was associated with physical inactivity in AA boys, but not girls. Additional research is warranted to better understand the influence of stress on the choice to be physically active in AA youth.

  12. The Efficacy of Internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on the Anxiety Disorders among Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Karbasi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents are found to be approximately between 8–12 and 5–10, respectively, and the long-lasting effects of such disorders can expose the sufferers to impairment and dysfunction in several areas of life the examples of which are poor educational performance, low self-esteem, and depression. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of internet-based, cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT in treating the anxiety disorders among adolescent females. Materials and Methods: The sample included thirty girls aged between 10 and 18 years suffering from a variety of anxiety disorders, under pharmaceutical therapy and referred to clinics of child and adolescent psychiatry specialists in Isfahan. The sample was selected through diagnostic interviews by psychiatrists based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision; afterward, they were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control groups. To evaluate the efficacy of an ICBT in reducing anxiety disorder symptoms, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders questionnaire was administered among the patients both before and 4 weeks after the treatment. Results: The covariance analysis results aimed to compare the anxiety disorder score variations between the two groups which demonstrate the fact that anxiety disorder scores in these two groups differ from one another (P < 0.001. Conclusions: This study is comprised of two Conclusions.the significant reduction in the mean of anxiety disorders scores in the experimental group compared to those in control group can be indicative of the efficacy of ICBT. In addition the significant reduction in the average of anxiety disorders symptoms' scores according to the type of anxiety disorders in the experimental group, compared to those in control group, can be indicative of the efficacy of ICBT.

  13. Blood pressure regulation and resting heart rate abnormalities in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachurzok-Buczynska, Agnieszka; Szydlowski, Leslaw; Gawlik, Aneta; Wilk, Krzysztof; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2011-12-01

    To assess the risk of cardiovascular disease on the basis of biochemical, echocardiographic, and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cross-sectional study. Academic and research institution. Thirty-four obese and nonobese girls with PCOS were evaluated and compared with body mass index-matched girls with regular menses. None. Androgens, gonadotropins, lipids, and fasting and oral glucose tolerance test-stimulated glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. Echocardiographic assessment and 24-hour BP monitoring were done. Compared with obese controls, obese girls with PCOS had significantly higher 24-hour mean BP, day mean BP, day diastolic BP, and diastolic BP nighttime dip (75.5 ± 4.5 mm Hg vs. 71.7 ± 3.7 mm Hg; 78.2 ± 5.0 mm Hg vs. 73.6 ± 4.0 mm Hg; 67.6 ± 4.9 mm Hg vs. 63.7 ± 3.7 mm Hg; and 20.2% ± 5.2% vs. 15.0% ± 6.6%, respectively). Obese girls with PCOS had significantly higher night heart rate than obese controls (60.4 ± 5.6 beats per minute vs. 61.7 ± 4.8 beats per minute). Left ventricle end-diastolic (4.6 ± 0.3 cm vs. 4.2 ± 0.2 cm) and end-systolic diameter (3.0 ± 0.3 cm vs. 2.7 ± 0.2 cm) were also significantly higher in nonobese girls with PCOS than in nonobese controls; however, all values were still within the accepted range of normal limits. Higher night heart rate in obese girls with PCOS and higher day BP but preserved diastolic nocturnal dip in nonobese girls with PCOS may be regarded as early cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Perceptual Study of Girls Education, Its Factors and Challenges in South Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2015-01-01

    Education is accepted as an important tool for human development in all dimensions of life, it is at same level of significance for boys and girls. Despite this recognition, girls are one of the most vulnerable groups, deprived of education by various socio-cultural, economical and political reasons. The present study is a perceptual study, which…

  15. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  16. Evaluation of irregular menses in perimenarcheal girls: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browner-Elhanan, Karen J; Epstein, Jonathan; Alderman, Elizabeth M

    2003-12-01

    Acyclic vaginal bleeding in girls within three years of menarche is most commonly attributed to an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Assuming this diagnosis may preclude the practitioner from performing more definitive studies and thereby diagnosing other, treatable causes of menstrual irregularities. A retrospective chart review of 178 girls presenting to an inner-city hospital-based adolescent clinic within three years of menarche was performed. Personal and family medical and menarcheal history was assessed, and findings on physical and laboratory examination performed were evaluated. Of the 178 girls still perimenarcheal at presentation, 47 were the focus of this study. Of these, 39 had no significant findings on physical examination, while 3 had signs of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) including obesity, hirsutism, and moderate acne with corresponding LH/FSH ratios>3, although pelvic ultrasound examination revealed normal ovaries. Four of the 39 patients with normal physical exams had LH/FSH testing done, and 1 of the 4 had an abnormal LH/FSH ratio, indicating possible FOH. Two of the 47 patients were pregnant. Other laboratory abnormalities included microcytic, hypochromic anemia in patients, and an elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in a patient later diagnosed with a rheumatologic disorder. Those perimenarcheal girls presenting with irregular menses and findings including obesity, acne, or pallor, were likely to have treatable causes of menstrual irregularities. In one of the four girls with a normal physical examination, hormonal testing indicated possible FOH, thus suggesting that hormonal evaluation of perimenarcheal girls with menstrual irregularities may be justified, as it may reveal previously unsuspected pathology.

  17. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in girls from rural and urban Egypt: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Muna S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to endocrine active compounds, including bisphenol A (BPA, remains poorly characterized in developing countries despite the fact that behavioral practices related to westernization have the potential to influence exposure. BPA is a high production volume chemical that has been associated with metabolic dysfunction as well as behavioral and developmental effects in people, including children. In this pilot study, we evaluate BPA exposure and assess likely pathways of exposure among girls from urban and rural Egypt. Methods We measured urinary concentrations of total (free plus conjugated species of BPA in spot samples in urban (N = 30 and rural (N = 30 Egyptian girls, and compared these concentrations to preexisting data from age-matched American girls (N = 47 from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. We also collected anthropometric and questionnaire data regarding food storage behaviors to assess potential routes of exposure. Results Urban and rural Egyptian girls exhibited similar concentrations of urinary total BPA, with median unadjusted values of 1.00 and 0.60 ng/mL, respectively. Concentrations of urinary BPA in this group of Egyptian girls (median unadjusted: 0.70 ng/mL were significantly lower compared to age-matched American girls (median unadjusted: 2.60 ng/mL according to NHANES 2009-2010 data. Reported storage of food in plastic containers was a significant predictor of increasing concentrations of urinary BPA. Conclusions Despite the relatively low urinary BPA concentrations within this Egyptian cohort, the significant association between food storage behaviors and increasing urinary BPA concentration highlights the need to understand food and consumer product patterns that may be closing the gap between urban and rural lifestyles.

  18. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in girls from rural and urban Egypt: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to endocrine active compounds, including bisphenol A (BPA), remains poorly characterized in developing countries despite the fact that behavioral practices related to westernization have the potential to influence exposure. BPA is a high production volume chemical that has been associated with metabolic dysfunction as well as behavioral and developmental effects in people, including children. In this pilot study, we evaluate BPA exposure and assess likely pathways of exposure among girls from urban and rural Egypt. Methods We measured urinary concentrations of total (free plus conjugated) species of BPA in spot samples in urban (N = 30) and rural (N = 30) Egyptian girls, and compared these concentrations to preexisting data from age-matched American girls (N = 47) from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We also collected anthropometric and questionnaire data regarding food storage behaviors to assess potential routes of exposure. Results Urban and rural Egyptian girls exhibited similar concentrations of urinary total BPA, with median unadjusted values of 1.00 and 0.60 ng/mL, respectively. Concentrations of urinary BPA in this group of Egyptian girls (median unadjusted: 0.70 ng/mL) were significantly lower compared to age-matched American girls (median unadjusted: 2.60 ng/mL) according to NHANES 2009-2010 data. Reported storage of food in plastic containers was a significant predictor of increasing concentrations of urinary BPA. Conclusions Despite the relatively low urinary BPA concentrations within this Egyptian cohort, the significant association between food storage behaviors and increasing urinary BPA concentration highlights the need to understand food and consumer product patterns that may be closing the gap between urban and rural lifestyles. PMID:22472083

  19. Cognitive, emotional and psychosocial functioning of girls treated with pharmacological puberty blockage for idiopathic central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Wojniusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central precocious puberty (CPP develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated with lower adult height and increased risk for development of psychological problems. Standard treatment of CPP is based on postponement of pubertal development by blockade of the HPG axis with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa leading to abolition of gonadal sex hormones synthesis. Whereas the hormonal and auxological effects of GnRHa are well researched, there is a lack of knowledge whether GnRHa treatment influences psychological functioning of treated children, despite the fact that prevention of psychological problems is used as one of the main reasons for treatment initiation. In the present study we seek to address this issue by exploring differences in cognitive function, behavior, emotional reactivity, and psychosocial problems between GnRHa treated CPP girls and age-matched controls.Fifteen girls with idiopathic CPP; median age 10.4 years, treated with slow-release GnRHa (triptorelin acetate – Decapeptyl SR ® 11.25 and 15 age-matched controls, were assessed with a comprehensive test battery consisting of paper and pencil tests, computerized tasks, behavioral paradigms, heart rate variability, and questionnaires filled in by the children’s parents. Both groups showed very similar scores with regard to cognitive performance, behavioral and psychosocial problems. Compared to controls, treated girls displayed significantly higher emotional reactivity (p = 0.016; Cohen’s d = 1.04 on one of the two emotional reactivity task conditions. Unexpectedly, the CPP group showed significantly lower resting heart rates than the controls (p = 0.004; Cohen’s d = 1.03; lower heart rate was associated with longer treatment duration (r = - 0.582, p = 0.037. The results suggest that GnRHa treated CPP girls do not differ in their cognitive or

  20. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Teitelman, Anne M; Bevilacqua, Amanda W; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-09-01

    Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk-reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk-reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Generalized programs and interventions may not have universal, transnational, and crosscultural

  1. Score de diversité alimentaire, un moyen pour une évaluation globale de l'alimentation chez l'adolescent [Score of food diversity, amethod for overall assessment of diet in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiâa KAROUNE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of Food Diversity Score (SDA has become the choice method for the overall evaluation of the diet. Objective. Definition and use of SDA for food assessment in adolescents. Material and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 327 teenagers (11-19 years in eastern Algeria. A food frequency questionnaire was used. SDA was calculated to assess adequacy of diet with the recommendations of the National Nutrition and Health Program (PNNS, France. Results. The SDA was 0 to 7. More it was high, more the diet was healthy. SDA 4.6 was found in both girls and boys (46.6% vs 53.3%, p = 0.21. Lean teenagers represented 6% against 25% of overweight or obesity. Fruits and vegetables consumption less than 3 times/day was noted in 69% of girls versus 53% of boys ( = 0.003. Over 31% of girls consumed less than one dairy product / day against 12% of boys (p = 0.0003. Sweeteners were consumed more than twice / day mainly by girls (73% vs 57%, p=0.002. Conclusion. Compared with PNNS benchmarks, adolescents feeding has many shortcomings. The low consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products, and high consumption of sweeteners can have adverse consequences on the development and corpulence of adolescents. This can have health problems in adulthood.

  2. Social and Environmental Factors Related to Boys' and Girls' Park-Based Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarro, Jason N; Floyd, Myron F; Smith, William R; Edwards, Michael B; Schultz, Courtney L; Baran, Perver; Moore, Robin A; Cosco, Nilda; Suau, Luis J

    2015-06-18

    Parks provide opportunities for physical activity for children. This study examined sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity because differences may indicate that a standard environmental intervention to increase activity among children may not equally benefit boys and girls. The System for Observation Play and Recreation in Communities was used to measure physical activity among 2,712 children and adolescents in 20 neighborhood parks in Durham, North Carolina, in 2007. Sedentary activity, walking, vigorous park activity, and energy expenditure were the primary outcome variables. Hierarchical logit regression models of physical activity were estimated separately for boys and girls. Type of activity area and presence of other active children were positively associated with boys' and girls' physical activity, and presence of a parent was negatively associated. A significant interaction involving number of recreation facilities in combination with formal activities was positively associated with girls' activity. A significant interaction involving formal park activity and young boys (aged 0-5 y) was negatively associated with park-based physical activity. Activity area and social correlates of park-based physical activity were similar for boys and girls; findings for formal park programming, age, and number of facilities were mixed. Results show that girls' physical activity was more strongly affected by social effects (eg, presence of other active children) whereas boys' physical activity was more strongly influenced by the availability of park facilities. These results can inform park planning and design. Additional studies are necessary to clarify sex differences in correlates of park-based physical activity.

  3. Girls' Attitudes Towards Science in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.

  4. MRI study of pituitary in girls with central precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhiqiu; Guo Qinglu; Feng Changzheng; Wei Beiyang; Liu Yongxi; Zhang Yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the shape, size and signal intensity of pituitary gland in girls aged 3-10 year old with central precocious puberty. Methods: MRI data of pituitary glands in 40 girls aged 3-10 years old with central precocious puberty were selected. The shape, height and the appearances of pituitary glands were measured and observed on sagittal T 1 WI. Results: Quantitative data about size, shape and single intensity changes of pituitary glands in central precocious puberty were obtained in two groups, including girls aged from 3-5 and 5-10. The convex pituitary gland were 85.0% in former group. The height of pituitary gland were 6.1±0.2mm (former group) and 6.4± 0.4mm (latter one) respectively. The width of pituitary stalk was 1.93±0.50mm. The posterior pituitary gland demonstrated high signal intensity in all cases. Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in central precocious puberty of girls aged from 3-10. The pituitary glands manifested physiologic hypertrophy with more convex in central precocious puberty girls than in normal ones. The changes on MRI could reflect the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. It is of important value and significance in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty. (authors)

  5. Django fun for Girls!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays there is a gender gap in the IT world. Django Girls is a non-profit organization and a community that empowers and helps women to organize free, one-day programming workshops by providing tools, resources and support. Through Django Girls, we want to show our motivation in the IT world, how much fun is to code, and the things they are able to create coding. How is CERN getting involved?

  6. Knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls in an urban slum, Bijapur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udgiri, Rekha; Angadi, M M; Patil, Shailaja; Sorganvi, Vijaya

    2010-08-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period in woman's life. The adolescent girls of today are the mothers of tomorrow in whose hand lie the future of her family, community and the nation. Because of the scarcity of information regarding the problems of adolescent girls, particularly in urban areas, the present study was undertaken to elicit information about the knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. With this objective, a community-based cross-sectional study was done in an urban field practice area of BLDEA's Shri BM Patil Medical College, Bijapur. The study subjects included all adolescent girls who had attained menarche. Data was collected by questionnaire method and analysed. Out of 342 adolescent girls 324 (94.74%) were literate. Only 63 (18.42%) had knowledge about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche and this association was found to be statistically significant. The main source of information about menstruation was mother ie, 195 (57.01%). Nearly 81.58% adolescent girls were lacking knowledge about menstruation prior to menarche, this reflects upon the standard of awareness in the society to such important event and it also leads to negative reaction to menarche.

  7. Internalization of the Sociocultural Ideal: Weight-Related Attitudes and Dieting Behaviors among Young Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…

  8. Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafotiou, Chrysanthe; Christaki, Eirini; van den Akker, Erica L T; Wester, Vincent L; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Pervanidou, Panagiota

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, a key mediator of the stress response, has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations as early as in childhood. Scalp hair cortisol has been proposed as a reliable index of long-term circulating cortisol. We aimed to investigate whether obese prepubertal girls have higher scalp hair cortisol than normal-weight controls and whether hair cortisol levels are correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations in these groups. In this cross-sectional study, 25 obese girls and 25 normal-weighted, age-matched girls were enrolled. Anthropometric evaluation, blood chemistry and salivary cortisol measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and areas under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were calculated. Hair cortisol determination was performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hair cortisol concentrations and salivary cortisol AUCs were higher in the obese than the normal-weight girls (p cortisol and BMI Z-score was found (rho = .327, p = .025), while hair cortisol correlated positively with salivary cortisol AUCg (rho = .3, p = .048). We conclude that obese prepubertal girls have higher hair and salivary cortisol concentrations than their age-matched lean counterparts. Hair cortisol assessment seems to be a sensitive method of evaluating systemic cortisol exposure, which is supported by our finding that hair cortisol is associated with salivary concentrations of the hormone. Lay Summary: Cortisol is the key hormone of the stress response. Childhood obesity has been associated with cortisol production dysregulation. Our findings suggest a positive association between obesity in prepubertal girls and elevated cortisol concentrations, measured in saliva and hair.

  9. Girls and Computer Technology: Barrier or Key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the disparity in numbers of girls and boys taking math, science, and computer classes in elementary and secondary schools, and examines steps being taken to better prepare girls, especially minority girls, for an increasingly technical society. A program in Michigan is described that involved a school and business partnership. (LRW)

  10. Darning, doylies and dancing: the work of the Leeds Association of Girls' Clubs (1904-1913).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen M F

    2011-01-01

    The Leeds Association of Girls' Clubs (LAGC) was set up by a group of women, including Hilda Hargrove, Dr Lucy Buckley and Mary and Margaret Harvey, to promote collaboration between the city's girls' clubs. The organisation epitomised women working in partnership whilst reflecting their differing philanthropic and political interests. However LAGC's collaborative approach resulted in liberal consensus which downplayed the significance of girls' working conditions. Throughout the decade LAGC's focus was its annual competitions. These featured utilitarian and decorative handicrafts (darning and doylies) enshrining both frugality and aspiration, alongside dance and drill which channelled girls' vigour. Nevertheless, LAGC's resilience resulted in an organisation which is still in existence.

  11. The Impact of Playworks on Boys' and Girls' Physical Activity during Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Martha; Beyler, Nicholas; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Fortson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based programs, such as Playworks, that guide students in organized activities during recess and make improvements to the recess play yard may lead to significant increases in physical activity--especially for girls. This study builds on past research by investigating the impact of Playworks separately for girls and boys.…

  12. Is the Bishop-score significant in predicting the success of labor induction in multiparous women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navve, D; Orenstein, N; Ribak, R; Daykan, Y; Shechter-Maor, G; Biron-Shental, T

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether the Bishop-score upon admission effects mode of delivery, maternal or neonatal outcomes of labor induction in multiparous women. A retrospective study including 600 multiparous women with a singleton pregnancy, 34 gestational weeks and above who underwent labor induction for maternal, fetal or combined indications. Induction was performed with one of three methods- oxytocin, a slow release vaginal prostaglandin E2 insert (10 mg dinoprostone) or a transcervical double balloon catheter. The women were divided into two groups-Bishop-score manual lysis, uterine revision, perineal tear grade 3-4, need for blood transfusions, relaparotomy, prolonged hospitalization) and neonatal outcomes (Apgar score, cord pH, hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit, prolonged hospitalization). Both groups had a high rate of vaginal deliveries-93.7% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of maternal or neonatal outcomes. Labor induction in multiparous women is safe and successful regardless of the initial Bishop-score. In multiparous women the Bishop-score is not a good predictor for the success of labor induction, nor is it a predictor for maternal of neonatal adverse outcomes and complications.

  13. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotions, motivation and self-regulation in boys' and girls' learning mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship of affective and motivational processes and self-regulation in mathematics in secondary school students. We were interested in finding out if these relationships differ between boys and girls. Second, we predicted the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies from emotional and motivational variables. A total of 397 students (145 boys and 252 girls attending the first year of grammar schools in Slovenia participated in the study. Emotions were measured with the three scales assessing students' positive and negative emotions during math classes, during learning math at home and during math tests. Students' goal orientations were measured by Achievement Goal Questionnaire Revised (AGQ-revised; Elliot & Murayama, 2008, self-efficacy by Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS; Midgley et al., 2000 and cognitive and metacognititve strategies by Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich et al., 1991. More significant correlations between emotional and motivational dimensions were found for girls than for boys. The opposite was true for the relationship between emotional dimensions and strategies. Further hierarchical regression analyses showed that emotions explained a greater amount of variance in using cognitive and metacognitive strategies in boys than in girls. In both genders, positive emotions during learning math at home and math test are the best predictors of (metacognitive strategy use. Among motivational variables, only performance goal orientation explained significant amount of variance in all strategies in girls over and above emotional variables. Implications of emotional and motivational dimensions for the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies in learning math are discussed, as well as implications for further research.

  15. Sarcoma Botryoides of Uterine Cervix in a 16-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsun Nahar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma botryoides of uterine cervix is a malignant neoplasm of cervix which accounts 0.2% of all the malignant tumours of the uterus and its peak incidence is between 14−18 years. Here we report a case of a 16-year-old newly married girl who presented with the complaint of vaginal bleeding for one and half months. Histopathology from cervical tissue revealed sarcoma botryoides grade 2, score 5. She was treated by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and surgery. She was alive for three years from diagnosis and died due to lung metastasis.

  16. The Effect of Puberty Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Function of Girl's Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrban Mehrabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study was examined effect of puberty education on knowledge, attitude and function in girl's student in Jiroft. Materials & Methods: this was a quasi experimental study and the target population was girl's student at grade 1 high school in jiroft city and 40 girls were selected and were educated in a 12 sessions. The content of the educational course including physical signs of puberty, physiologic change in menstrual period, nutrition, sleep and psychological changes. The subjects completed in pretest and posttest a researcher made questionnaire that measure knowledge, attitude and function. The data was analyzed using descriptive indexes, t- and F-tests. The significant level was considered in less than 0.05. Results: The results showed that the average difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge, attitude and function in both experimental and control groups was significant (p

  17. Selected eating behaviours of girls and boys attending sport-oriented classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeja, Nicola; Szczepańska, Elżbieta; Janion, Karolina; Szymkiewicz, Anna; Lenard, Biruta; Dudzik, Izabela; Kołdon, Anna

    Eating behaviours play a key role in lives of young people who stay physically active. They influence both their correct development and performance. Evaluation of selected eating behaviours of girls and boys attending sport-oriented classes and identification of differences between eating behaviours of studied groups. 460 students attending sport-oriented classes in Poland participated in the study. A questionnaire prepared by the author of the study was the research tool. The data was gathered in Microsoft Office Excel 2010 worksheet. Statistical analysis was made with the use of StatSoft, Inc. Statistica version 10.0. The questioned students most often had 4-5 meals a day- such an answer was given by 59.09% of the boys and 41.38% of the girls. 55.59% and 41.95% of them respectively had breakfast within 30 minutes from waking up and 41,96% of the girls and 39.51% of the boys had supper 2-3 hours before going to sleep. Whole meal bread and/or groats were most frequently consumed a few times a day as it was declared by 50.35% of the boys and 45.98% of the girls. The highest percentage of the respondents consumed vegetables at least once a day (31.61% of the girls and 31.47% of the boys). 44.83% of the girls and 40.9% of the boys declared eating fruit a few times a day. Studied eating behaviours of girls and boys in sport-oriented classes are largely wrong and require correction. The analysis of the gathered data indicated statistically significant differences between boys’ and girls’ eating behaviours, however, the boys’ habits were better.

  18. GeoGirls: A Geology and Geophysics Field Camp for Middle School Girls at Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, C.; Allstadt, K.; Melander, S.; Groskopf, A.; Driedger, C. L.; Westby, E.

    2015-12-01

    The August 2015 GeoGirls program was a project designed to inspire girls to gain an appreciation and enthusiasm for Earth sciences using Mount St. Helens as an outdoor volcanic laboratory. Occupations in the field of science and engineering tend to be held by more males than females. One way to address this is to introduce girls to possible opportunities within the geosciences and encourage them to learn more about the dynamic environment in which they live. In 2015, the GeoGirls program sought to accomplish this goal through organizing a five day-long field camp for twenty middle school-aged girls, along with four high school-aged mentors and two local teachers. This group explored Mount St. Helens guided by female scientists from the USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO), the Mount St. Helens Institute (MSHI), UNAVCO, Boise State, Georgia Tech, University of Washington and Oregon State University. To introduce participants to techniques used by volcanologists, the girls participated in hands-on experiments and research projects focusing on seismology, GPS, terrestrial lidar, photogrammetry, water and tephra. Participants also learned to collect samples, analyze data and use microscopes. Through this experience, participants acquired strategies for conducting research by developing hypotheses, making observations, thinking critically and sharing their findings with others. The success of the GeoGirls program was evaluated by participant and parent survey questionnaires, which allowed assessment of overall enthusiasm and interest in pursuing careers in the geosciences. The program was free to participants and was run jointly by MSHI and CVO and funded by NSF, the American Association of University Women, the Association for Women Geoscientists, the Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists and private donors. The program will run again in the summer of 2016.

  19. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudova I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova, Jana Kocourkova, Jiri Koutek Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. Keywords: eating disorders, early-onset anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorders, Asperger syndrome, diagnostics, therapy

  20. Eating attitudes and body image in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescent girls in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampei, Míriam A; Sigulem, Dirce M; Novo, Neil F; Juliano, Yara; Colugnati, Fernando A B

    2009-01-01

    Despite investigations into the rapid increase in eating disorders across diverse ethnic groups, conclusions concerning ethnicity and eating disorders are contradictory. The objective of the present study was to investigate eating attitudes in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescents in Brazil. The influence of body mass index (BMI), menarche and social-affective relationships on the development of eating disorders was also assessed. Questionnaires evaluating the incidence of eating disorders and the influence of social-affective relationships were applied to 544 Japanese-Brazilian and Caucasian adolescent girls: 10 to 11-year-old Japanese-Brazilian (n = 122) and Caucasian (n = 176) pre-menarcheal adolescents, and 16 to 17-year-old Japanese-Brazilian (n = 71) and Caucasian (n = 175) post-menarcheal adolescents. Caucasian girls obtained higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), showed greater body image dissatisfaction, dieted more often and had more diet models introduced by their mothers and peers than the Japanese-Brazilian girls. CONCLUSION The Caucasian adolescents overall appeared to be more sensitive to aesthetic and social pressures regarding body image than the Japanese adolescents. The high incidence of EAT-26 scores above 20 in the Caucasian pre-menarcheal group indicates that individual body image concerns are developing at an earlier age. Multiple logistic regression revealed several associations between mother-teen interactions and the development of abnormal eating attitudes.

  1. Readiness to accept Western standard of beauty and body satisfaction among Muslim girls with and without hijab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurović, Dušanka; Tiosavljević, Marija; Šabanović, Harisa

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine whether there is a difference in the readiness to accept Western standards of beauty in which thinness is an ideal of beauty and attractiveness, as well in body and appearance satisfaction between Muslim adolescent girls attending madrassa and dressing in accordance with tradition, that is to say wearing hijab, and Muslim adolescent girls who do not wear hijab and who follow contemporary Western-influenced fashion trends. Both of these groups were also compared to a non-Muslim group of adolescent girls. The sample consisted of 75 Muslim adolescent girls with hijab, 75 Muslim adolescent girls without hijab and 75 Orthodox adolescent girls. The following instruments were used: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3) and the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS). The highest level of body satisfaction (despite this group having the highest body weight in the sample) was evident among Muslim adolescent girls attending madrassa and wearing hijab. They also showed significantly less pressure to attain the Western thin-ideal standards of beauty than adolescent girls who accept Western way of dressing. Research results indicate a significant role of socio-cultural factors in one's attitude towards the body image, but also opens the question of the role of religion as a protective factor when it comes to the body and appearance attitude among Muslim women who wear hijab. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  3. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  4. The Meaning of Home for Runaway Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Muzicant, Amit

    2008-01-01

    This naturalistic qualitative study examines the concept of "home" for runaway girls. Through the "home story" of girls who run away from home, the authors hoped to understand the many facets of home, as well as broaden the existing knowledge-base about the phenomenon of adolescent runaway girls. Data consisted of in-depth interviews with 15 girls…

  5. Engaging Girls in STEM: How to Plan or Revamp Your EPO Resources or Activities to be More Effective for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Lora V.; Peterson, Karen A.; Sharma, Mangala; Smith, Denise

    2012-01-01

    This two-hour workshop, which was held as a follow-on to the plenary session "Engaging Girls in STEM: A Discussion of Foundational and Current Research on What Works," offered research-based insights, resources, and tips to help participants plan or revamp programs and resources aimed at encouraging girls in science. Led by Karen Peterson, PI for the National Girls Collaborative Project,1 the workshop included: a brief discussion about effective strategies recommended for encouraging girls in STEM; hands-on experience, where participants-availing of the expert's guidance-applied the recommended strategies to alter or tailor an existing or planned program/resource to be more girl-friendly; and a sharing out, where the participants reflected on the results of the hands-on exercise and developed action items to continue carrying out the girl-friendly best practices in science, technology, engineering, and math education and public outreach.

  6. Engaging Girls in STEM: How to Plan or Revamp Your EPO Resources or Activities to be More Effective for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Peterson, K. A.; Sharma, M.; Smith, D.

    2012-08-01

    This two-hour workshop, which was held as a follow-on to the plenary session "Engaging Girls in STEM: A Discussion of Foundational and Current Research on What Works," offered research-based insights, resources, and tips to help participants plan or revamp programs and resources aimed at encouraging girls in science. Led by Karen Peterson, PI for the National Girls Collaborative Project,1 the workshop included: a brief discussion about effective strategies recommended for encouraging girls in STEM; hands-on experience, where participants - availing of the expert's guidance - applied the recommended strategies to alter or tailor an existing or planned program/resource to be more girl-friendly; and a sharing out, where the participants reflected on the results of the hands-on exercise and developed action items to continue carrying out the girl-friendly best practices in science, technology, engineering, and math education and public outreach.

  7. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF MENSTRUATION RELATED PRACTICES IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS OF DISTRICT DEHRADUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Juyal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Menstrual hygiene is an issue that every girl and woman has to deal with in her life, but there is lack of awareness on the process of menstruation. The taboos surrounding this issue in the society prevent girls and women from articulating their menstrual needs. It is now becoming increasingly recognized that the social and cultural significance of menstruation interacts with the physiological process to produce culturally determined norms and practices. Settings and Design: Cross-Sectional conducted in two randomly selected Inter colleges (one rural and one urban of district Dehradun of Uttarakhand state.Methods and Material: 453 girls studying in 9th to 12th grades were interviewed by using a prestructured and pretested questionnaire regarding various aspects of menstruation process.Statistical analysis used: percentages and Chi-square testResults: Most of the girls faced one or the other kind of social and / or religious restriction during their menstrual periods. Maximum restriction was observed in going to the temple (87.4 % followed by prohibition in touching pickles (48.6 %. These restrictions were equally reported by the urban and rural girls.Conclusions: Girls should be made aware regarding physiological basis of menstruation and a change in beliefs and attitudes need to be attained to ensure optimal behaviour and thereby prompting of a healthy menstrual life styles and practices.

  8. Girl Scouts and Subject Matter Experts: What’s the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.

    2018-01-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable

  9. Construct validity of selected measures of physical activity beliefs and motives in fifth and sixth grade boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K; Saunders, Ruth P; McIver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    Scales used to measure selected social-cognitive beliefs and motives for physical activity were tested among boys and girls. Covariance modeling was applied to responses obtained from large multi-ethnic samples of students in the fifth and sixth grades. Theoretically and statistically sound models were developed, supporting the factorial validity of the scales in all groups. Multi-group longitudinal invariance was confirmed between boys and girls, overweight and normal weight students, and non-Hispanic black and white children. The construct validity of the scales was supported by hypothesized convergent and discriminant relationships within a measurement model that included correlations with physical activity (MET • min/day) measured by an accelerometer. Scores from the scales provide valid assessments of selected beliefs and motives that are putative mediators of change in physical activity among boys and girls, as they begin the understudied transition from the fifth grade into middle school, when physical activity naturally declines.

  10. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…

  11. How perfectionism and ineffectiveness influence growth of eating disorder risk in young adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D; Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-03-01

    While perfectionism is widely considered to influence risk for eating disorders, results of longitudinal studies are mixed. The goal of the current study was to investigate a more complex model of how baseline perfectionism (both high personal standards and self-critical evaluative concerns) might influence change in risk status for eating disorders in young adolescent girls, through its influence on ineffectiveness. The study was conducted with 926 girls (mean age of 13 years), and involved three waves of data (baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up). Latent growth curve modelling, incorporating the average rate at which risk changed over time, the intercept (initial status) of ineffectiveness, and baseline perfectionism, was used to explore longitudinal mediation. Personal standards was not supported as contributing to risk but results indicated that the higher mean scores on ineffectiveness over the three waves mediated the relationship between higher baseline self-critical evaluative concerns and both measures of eating disorder risk. The relationship between concern over mistakes and change in risk was small and negative. These results suggest the usefulness of interventions related to self-criticism and ineffectiveness for decreasing risk for developing an eating disorder in young adolescent girls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Written in Skin: SuicideGirls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Christiansen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicidegirls.com is a website which is both an online community, but also a softcore pin-up site, where the models feature extensive body modifications in the form of tattoos and piercings. The website promotes a democratic approach to the photo shoots, as the models remain in control, not the photographer. Marked by their body modifications, the Suicide Girls (as they call themselves, they actively attempt to subvert the typical pin-up conventions, by transgressing mainstream standards of beauty. In what seems remarkably similar to Judith Butler's account of subversive bodily acts, the pin-up shoots of the Suicide Girls mount a critique of a culture's view of the body as a natural entity. Cultural borders are crossed, as the bodies of the Suicide Girls embed ink into their bodies in the form of tattoos, and gender is played as a subversive game against the expectations of pin-up conventions. Acting as different and impure bodies, the Suicide Girls represent a threat to conventional conceptions of the body.

  13. Girls Helping Girls: Assessing the Influence of College Student Mentors in an Afterschool Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Stephanie; Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Current data suggest fewer females than males continue to be interested in engineering and that this gender gap is first evidenced during middle school years. One might expect that female engineering role models would encourage adolescent girls to pursue future careers in engineering and thereby increase the girls' interests in and attitudes…

  14. Body shape perception and dieting in preadolescent British Asian girls: links with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A J; Bhatti, R

    1995-03-01

    Body shape dissatisfaction and dieting have previously been reported in 9-year-old Caucasian girls. As British adolescents of Asian origin appear at least as vulnerable to eating disorders, the present study investigated these issues in preadolescent British Asian girls. Fifty-five Asian and 42 Caucasian 9-year-olds completed assessments of dietary restraint, body esteem, body satisfaction, and body figure preferences. The study revealed a high priority for thinness in both the Asian and Caucasian girls. Their desire for thinness was present even though the Asian girls had a significantly lower body weight than their Caucasian peers. Both groups of high restraint girls expressed body shape discontent and lower body esteem. In addition, an association was found in the Asian sample between reported dieting and the cultural orientation of their family. These results demonstrate the wide appeal of thinness, which in combination with intercultural and intrafamilial conflict, may strongly influence eating and contribute to the development of eating disorders.

  15. Tween Girls' Perception of Gender Roles and Gender Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Birgitte; Chan, Kara; Cappello, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The present study aims to examine girls' perception of gender roles and gender identities in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 16 girls aged 10 to 12 were asked to take pictures from the media that could illustrate “what girls or women should or should not be; and what...... girls or women should or should not do”. Qualitative interviews were conducted. Findings – Analysis of interviews and images captured found that tween girls' perceived gender roles for females were based on a mixture of traditional and contemporary role models. Girls in Hong Kong demonstrated...

  16. Factors associated with sexual and reproductive health stigma among adolescent girls in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Morhe, Emmanuel; Manu, Abubakar; Harris, Lisa H; Ela, Elizabeth; Loll, Dana; Kolenic, Giselle; Dozier, Jessica L; Challa, Sneha; Zochowski, Melissa K; Boakye, Andrew; Adanu, Richard; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2018-01-01

    Using our previously developed and tested Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) Stigma Scale, we investigated factors associated with perceived SRH stigma among adolescent girls in Ghana. We drew upon data from our survey study of 1,063 females 15-24yrs recruited from community- and clinic-based sites in two Ghanaian cities. Our Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale comprised 20 items and 3 sub-scales (Internalized, Enacted, Lay Attitudes) to measure stigma occurring with sexual activity, contraceptive use, pregnancy, abortion and family planning service use. We assessed relationships between a comprehensive set of demographic, health and social factors and SRH Stigma with multi-level multivariable linear regression models. In unadjusted bivariate analyses, compared to their counterparts, SRH stigma scores were higher among girls who were younger, Accra residents, Muslim, still in/dropped out of secondary school, unemployed, reporting excellent/very good health, not in a relationship, not sexually experienced, never received family planning services, never used contraception, but had been pregnant (all p-values <0.05). In multivariable models, higher SRH stigma scores were associated with history of pregnancy (β = 1.53, CI = 0.51,2.56) and excellent/very good self-rated health (β = 0.89, CI = 0.20,1.58), while lower stigma scores were associated with older age (β = -0.17, 95%CI = -0.24,-0.09), higher educational attainment (β = -1.22, CI = -1.82,-0.63), and sexual intercourse experience (β = -1.32, CI = -2.10,-0.55). Findings provide insight into factors contributing to SRH stigma among this young Ghanaian female sample. Further research disentangling the complex interrelationships between SRH stigma, health, and social context is needed to guide multi-level interventions to address SRH stigma and its causes and consequences for adolescents worldwide.

  17. Comparison of athropometrical measures among young female footballers and girls who are not involved in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to gain relevant knowledge about significant differences in some anthropometric measures among female footballers and girls who are not involved in any sport at all. The sample comprised 107 female subjects. They were divided into two groups - female footballers and girls who are not involved in any sport. The selected group of female footballers (54 average age, 16,3 years represents the girls from various clubs in Vojvodina and Serbia (representatives of Vojvodina and Western Serbia. The group of girls who are not involved in any sport (53 average age, 16, 9 years consists of students of secondary school 'Svetozar Miletic' in Novi Sad. The sample of variables comprised 12 anthropometrical measures that defined longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the skeleton, volume and body mass, and subcutaneous fat (in accordance with the International Biological Programme. Both multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA were performed in order to determine the significant differences at the multivariate and univariate level. Based on the results, it was concluded that 8 variables out of 12 applied variables, showed significant differences between the groups. The following variables did not show any differences: knee diameter, weight, maximum volume of the lower leg and calf skin fold, while the following variables showed statistical significance in favor of the girls who are not involved in any sport: height, foot length, pelvic width, shoulder width and maximum thigh circumference.

  18. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  19. Girls in Distress in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Yosepha

    The typical girl in distress in Israel comes from a Jewish family of oriental origin. Her distress is partially due to the strains of immigrating to Israel from, in most cases, North Africa. Authority models in distressed girls' families feature either the role of the father as the commanding familial authority figure; the mother as the dominant…

  20. Characteristics of violence among high-risk adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann; Sieving, Renee; Seppelt, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates increasing rates of involvement with violence among adolescent girls. The objective of this study was to describe the types and sources of violence experienced within social contexts of adolescent girls at high risk for pregnancy. Qualitative data for this analysis are drawn from intervention summary reports of 116 girls participating in Prime Time, a youth development intervention for adolescent girls. Descriptive content analysis techniques were used to identify types and sources of violence experienced by girls within their daily contexts. Types of violence included physical fighting, witnessing violence, physical abuse, gang-related violence, verbal fighting, verbal abuse, and sexual abuse. Sources of violence included family, peers and friends, romantic partners, community violence, and self-perpetrated violence. Many girls in this study experienced violence in multiple contexts. It is imperative that efforts to assess and prevent violence among adolescent girls include paying attention to the social contexts in which these adolescents live. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented.

  2. Impact of a health education program for secondary school Saudi girls about menstruation at Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetohy, Ebtisam M

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the impact and suitability of menstrual education program (MEP) for 1st and 2nd graders at a girls' secondary school in Riyadh city. The MEP was conducted on 5 classes, through one session and one assessment. The results revealed that the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of the intervention classes (1st and 2nd graders) were significantly higher than that of the control classes. Stepwise linear regression models show that the age of menarche and grade were the predictors of students' knowledge among the control group and explained 7.8% of the variation of the knowledge score. Knowledge was a predictor of students' attitude of both groups (control and intervention) (beta = 0.359, 0.300 respectively). Knowledge was also a predictor of students' menstrual practice among control group (beta = -2.12). Attitude was a predictor of students' menstrual practice for both groups (beta = 0.360, 0.252 respectively). The study recommended the replication of the same program among elementary, preparatory, and other secondary schools for improvement of students' menstrual knowledge, attitudes and practice.

  3. Bone mineral density of girls with idiopathic scoliosis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameri E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have suggested higher incidence of osteoporosis in patients with idiopathic scoliosis in comparison with the normal population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low bone mass among adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study performed in shafa Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2011-2012, we recruited fifty-seven 12- to-20-year old girls with idiopathic scoliosis and compared them with 100 age-matched healthy girls. The patients had no other diseases including neuromuscular disorders, congenital vertebral anomalies or a history of spinal surgery. Bone mineral densities (BMD of the hip and spine were evaluated and compared in all 157 participants using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Standard BMD (sBMD was also calculated at the lumbar spine. Results: Analysis of the data revealed that hip BMD was significantly (P=0.004 lower in patients with idiopathic scoliosis versus the controls. Moreover, BMD and sBMD of the Spine were also significantly lower in the patients (respectively, P=0.030 and P=0.030. Curve location had no effect on the values of hip BMD, spine BMD or spine sBMD (respectively, P=0.061 and P=0.274 and P=0.208.Finally, with more severe curves a lower bone mass was detected for sBMD and spine BMD (respectively, P=0.017 and P=0.016, but it was not significant for hip BMD (P=0.069.Conclusion: Adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis had lower bone mass compared with their healthy peers. The lower bone mass was correlated with the severity of the curve but not its location.

  4. "Oh, Those Loud Black Girls!": A Phenomenological Study of Black Girls Talking with an Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Jacqueline B.

    2012-01-01

    Current research suggests that it is imperative for researchers and educators to pay more attention to the needs of African American adolescent girls and how their race and gender affect schooling (Fordham, 1993; Morris, 2007). The purpose of this study was to highlight the lived experiences of two African American adolescent girls when they used…

  5. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  6. New risk markers may change the HeartScore risk classification significantly in one-fifth of the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Hansen, T W; Christensen, M K

    2008-01-01

    subjects with estimated risk below 5%. During the following 9.5 years the composite end point of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke (CEP) occurred in 204 subjects. CEP was predicted in all three groups by UACR (HRs: 2.1, 2.1 and 2.3 per 10-fold increase, all P...CRP in subjects with low-moderate risk and UACR and Nt-proBNP in subjects with known diabetes of cardiovascular disease changed HeartScore risk classification significantly in 19% of the population....

  7. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria — organizational and activational effects of testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sarah M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Veltman, Dick J.; Klink, Daniel T.; Bakker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of testosterone treatment, showed male-typical brain activity during a mental rotation task (MRT). Methods Girls with GD underwent fMRI while performing the MRT twice: when receiving medication to suppress their endogenous sex hormones before onset of testosterone treatment, and 10 months later during testosterone treatment. Two age-matched control groups participated twice as well. Results We included 21 girls with GD, 20 male controls and 21 female controls in our study. In the absence of any group differences in performance, control girls showed significantly increased activation in frontal brain areas compared with control boys (pFWE = 0.012). Girls with GD before testosterone treatment differed significantly in frontal brain activation from the control girls (pFWE = 0.034), suggesting a masculinization of brain structures associated with visuospatial cognitive functions. After 10 months of testosterone treatment, girls with GD, similar to the control boys, showed increases in brain activation in areas implicated in mental rotation. Limitations Since all girls with GD identified as gynephilic, their resemblance in spatial cognition with the control boys, who were also gynephilic, may have been related to their shared sexual orientation rather than their shared gender identity. We did not account for menstrual cycle phase or contraceptive use in our analyses. Conclusion Our findings suggest atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in natal girls with GD and provide new evidence for organizational and activational effects of testosterone on visuospatial cognitive functioning. PMID:27070350

  8. Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo-Rodriguez, Aida L.

    Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations

  9. Emotion recognition in girls with conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Christina; Gensthaler, Angelika; Romanos, Marcel; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Wolfgang; Taurines, Regina

    2014-01-01

    A deficit in emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie conduct problems. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic so far, most concentrated on male participants. The aim of the current study was to compare recognition of morphed emotional faces in girls with conduct problems (CP) with elevated or low callous-unemotional (CU+ vs. CU-) traits and a matched healthy developing control group (CG). Sixteen girls with CP-CU+, 16 girls with CP-CU- and 32 controls (mean age: 13.23 years, SD=2.33 years) were included. Video clips with morphed faces were presented in two runs to assess emotion recognition. Multivariate analysis of variance with the factors group and run was performed. Girls with CP-CU- needed more time than the CG to encode sad, fearful, and happy faces and they correctly identified sadness less often. Girls with CP-CU+ outperformed the other groups in the identification of fear. Learning effects throughout runs were the same for all groups except that girls with CP-CU- correctly identified fear less often in the second run compared to the first run. Results need to be replicated with comparable tasks, which might result in subgroup-specific therapeutic recommendations.

  10. Preparing Girls for Menstruation: Recommendations from Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Elissa; Rierdan, Jill

    1995-01-01

    Ninth-grade girls (n=157) rated their own experience of menarche and answered 4 open-ended questions. Responses suggested several ways that early preparation could be revised, and supported a conceptualization of menstrual education as a long-term, continuous process, beginning well before menarche and continuing long after. (JPS)

  11. ADHD in girls and boys – gender differences in co-existing symptoms and executive function measures

    OpenAIRE

    Skogli, Erik Winther; Teicher, Martin H; Andersen, Per Normann; Hovik, Kjell Tore; Øie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Background: ADHD is diagnosed and treated more often in males than in females. Research on gender differences suggests that girls may be consistently underidentified and underdiagnosed because of differences in the expression of the disorder among boys and girls. One aim of the present study was to assess in a clinical sample of medication naïve boys and girls with ADHD, whether there were significant gender x diagnosis interactions in co-existing symptom severity and executive function (EF) ...

  12. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  13. STEM development: A study of 6th--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaverlo, Carol Ann

    Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.

  14. The long-term impact of a math, science and technology program on grade school girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sandra Judd

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a math, science, and technology intervention program improved grade school girls' attitudes and stereotypes toward science and scientists, as well as participation levels in science-related activities, two years after their participating in the program. The intervention program evaluated was Operation SMART, developed by Girls Incorporated. Participants were recruited from the 6th and 7th grades from two public middle schools in Northern California. One hundred twenty-seven girls signed up for the survey and were assigned to either the SMART group (previous SMART participants) or Non-SMART group (no previous experience with SMART). The survey consisted of five parts: (1) a background information sheet, (2) the Modified Attitudes Toward Science Inventory, (3) the What Do You Do? survey, (4) the Draw-A-Scientist Test-Revised, and (5) a career interests and role models/influencer survey. Results indicated that there were no significant differences between the SMART and Non-SMART groups on any of the test measures. However, middle school attended did have a significant effect on the outcome variables. Girls from Middle School A reported more positive attitudes toward science, while girls from Middle School B reported higher participation levels in extracurricular science activities. Possible explanations for these findings suggest too much time had passed between treatment effect and time of measurement as well as the strong influence of teacher and school environment on girls' attitudes and stereotypes. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  15. Mean Girls, Homosociality and Football: An Education on Social and Power Dynamics between Girls and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between girls and women have typically been explored through the lexicon of "friendship" or, where there is a presence of sexual desire, "lesbian". This article suggests the complexity and impact of female (same-sex) sociality, and its relationship to heteronormativity and power dynamics between girls and women…

  16. Linkage between company scores and stock returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Celik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on company scores conducted at firm-level, generally concluded that there exists a positive relation between company scores and stock returns. Motivated by these studies, this study examines the relationship between company scores (Corporate Governance Score, Economic Score, Environmental Score, and Social Score and stock returns, both at portfolio-level analysis and firm-level cross-sectional regressions. In portfolio-level analysis, stocks are sorted based on each company scores and quintile portfolio are formed with different levels of company scores. Then, existence and significance of raw returns and risk-adjusted returns difference between portfolios with the extreme company scores (portfolio 10 and portfolio 1 is tested. In addition, firm-level cross-sectional regression is performed to examine the significance of company scores effects with control variables. While portfolio-level analysis results indicate that there is no significant relation between company scores and stock returns; firm-level analysis indicates that economic, environmental, and social scores have effect on stock returns, however, significance and direction of these effects change, depending on the included control variables in the cross-sectional regression.

  17. THE BULLYING PHENOMENON: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The bullying phenomenon is characterized by aggression always unequal power and involves violence. This study aimed to identify the types of bullying (physical, verbal, psychological, material, virtual or sexual more prevalent in this population and compare bullying among adolescent males and females. We used a questionnaire prepared by the researcher. Participants were 309 students, 142 males and 167 females, from 6th to 8th grade from two schools, one state and one municipal. These results show 27% of participants were involved in episodes of bullying and that the most prevalent type of bullying was verbal, being appointed for 92% of girls and 84% boys; followed by psychological, indicated by 70% of girls and 53% boys. Physical bullying, had 46% of female and 44% male reports, the material was mentioned by 27% of girls and 16% boys. On sexual bullying type was greatest difference between the sexes, suffered by 38% of girls and 16% boys. Only 13% of girls and 12% boys, mentioned suffer the virtual bullying. Corroborating research area, in this study the highest percentage of victims were female and different from the literature girls reported being verbally abused more for boys than for girls.

  18. Frequency of foot deformity in preschool girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In order to determine the moment of creation of postural disorders, regardless of the causes of this problem, it is necessary to examine the moment of entry of children into a new environment, ie. in kindergarten or school. There is a weak evidence about the age period when foot deformity occurs, and the type of these deformities. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the occurrence of foot deformities and age characteristics of girls. Methods. The research was conducted in preschools 'Radosno detinjstvo' in the region of Novi Sad, using the method of random selection, on the sample of 272 girls, 4-7 years of age, classified into four strata according to the year of birth. To determine the foot deformities measurement technique using computerized digitized pedografy (CDP was applied. Results. In preschool population girls pes transversoplanus and calcanei valga deformities occurred in a very high percentage (over 90%. Disturbed longitudinal instep ie flat feet also appeared in a high percentage, but we noted the improvement of this deformity according to increasing age. Namely, there was a statistically significant correlation between the age and this deformity. As a child grows older, the deformity is lower. Conclusion. This study confirmed that the formation of foot arches probably does not end at the age of 3-4 years but lasts until school age.

  19. "The Girl Is Brought up Knowing She's Nothing": Listening to Voices of Tanzanian Women and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagues, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Despite positive changes made in Tanzania to promote gender equality, discrimination toward women and girls still exists, especially in some remote areas. Often such inequality exists within family, schools, and the community, leading to a devaluing of girls that results in normalization of their exploitation. The author discusses findings from…

  20. Comparison of self-reported emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents from Greece and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapi, Aikaterini; Veltsista, Alexandra; Sovio, Ulla; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2007-08-01

    To compare self-reported emotional and behavioural problems among Greek and Finnish adolescents. Youth Self-Report scores were analysed for 3373 Greek adolescents aged 18 years and 7039 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years from the general population in both countries. The impact of country, gender, place of residence, socioeconomic status (SES) and family stability on the scores was evaluated. Only country and gender yielded small to medium effect on the scores. Greek boys scored significantly higher than Finns on 10 of the 11 YSR syndromes, particularly on the anxious/depressed scale. Greek girls scored significantly lower than Finnish girls on the somatic complaints and delinquent behaviour scales. In general, girls scored higher than boys on both internalising and externalising problems. The gender by country interaction revealed that Finnish girls reported more externalising problems. The main differences marked in this comparison were the higher level of anxiety and depression in Greeks than Finns and the higher level of externalising problems in Finnish girls than boys. Cultural standards could play an important role in explaining these differences. Overall, it seems that only a small number of differences exist between a northern and southern European region.

  1. Bone marrow fat content in 70 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa: Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, Kirsten; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Mulkern, Robert V; Feldman, Henry A; O'Donnell, Jennifer M; DiVasta, Amy D; Gordon, Catherine M

    2017-07-01

    Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE. Metaphyses were scored visually on the T1-W images for red marrow. Visual T1 score, T1 relaxometry values, MRS lipid indices and fat fractions were analyzed by regression on age, body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) as disease severity markers. MRS measures included unsaturated fat index, T2 water, unsaturated and saturated fat fractions. All red marrow measures declined significantly with age. T1-R values were associated negatively with BMI and BMD for girls ≤16 years (P=0.03 and P=0.002, respectively) and positively for those≥17 years (P=0.05 and P=0.003, respectively). MRS identified a strong inverse association between T2 water and saturated fat fraction from 60 ms TE data (r=-0.85, Panorexia nervosa. In contrast, the physiological association between marrow fat content and age remained dominant in younger patients. The strong association between T2 water and saturated fat may relate to the restricted mobility of water with increasing marrow fat.

  2. Assessing the reach and effectiveness of mHealth: evidence from a reproductive health program for adolescent girls in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokicki, Slawa; Fink, Günther

    2017-12-20

    While mobile health (mHealth) programs are increasingly used to provide health information and deliver interventions, little is known regarding the relative reach and effectiveness of these programs across sociodemographic characteristics. We use data from a recent trial of a text-messaging intervention on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) to assess the degree to which mHealth programs reach target adolescent subpopulations who may be at higher risk of poor SRH outcomes. The study was conducted among girls aged 14-24 in 22 secondary schools in Accra, Ghana. The mHealth intervention was an interactive mobile phone quiz in which participants could win phone credit for texting correct answers to SRH questions. We use detailed data on individuals' level of engagement with the program, SRH knowledge scores, and self-reported pregnancy collected as part of the original trial to assess the extent to which engagement and program impact vary across parental education, sexual experience, SRH knowledge deficit, and parental support. Eighty-one percent of participants engaged with the mHealth program, with no evidence that the program disproportionally reached better-off groups. The program was effective at increasing knowledge of SRH across all strata. Higher levels of engagement were associated with higher knowledge scores up to year later. There was no significant impact of the program on self-reported pregnancy within subgroups. mHealth programs for adolescents have the potential to engage and increase SRH knowledge of adolescent girls across sociodemographic strata, including those who may be at higher risk of poor SRH outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02031575 . Registered 07 Jan 2014.

  3. Cultural stereotypes as gatekeepers: increasing girls' interest in computer science and engineering by diversifying stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Master, Allison; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Despite having made significant inroads into many traditionally male-dominated fields (e.g., biology, chemistry), women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering. We propose that students' stereotypes about the culture of these fields-including the kind of people, the work involved, and the values of the field-steer girls away from choosing to enter them. Computer science and engineering are stereotyped in modern American culture as male-oriented fields that involve social isolation, an intense focus on machinery, and inborn brilliance. These stereotypes are compatible with qualities that are typically more valued in men than women in American culture. As a result, when computer science and engineering stereotypes are salient, girls report less interest in these fields than their male peers. However, altering these stereotypes-by broadening the representation of the people who do this work, the work itself, and the environments in which it occurs-significantly increases girls' sense of belonging and interest in the field. Academic stereotypes thus serve as gatekeepers, driving girls away from certain fields and constraining their learning opportunities and career aspirations.

  4. Conference Offers Girls Opportunity to Expand Career Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offers Girls Opportunity to Expand Career Horizons For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Feb. 11, 1997 -- Expanding Your Horizons, a conference for girls grades 6 - 9 and Employed Women, Girls Incorporated of Metro Denver, King Soopers, McDonalds, the TCI Adult Program and the

  5. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  6. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okely Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an

  7. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka J; Finn, Tara; Callister, Robin

    2010-10-28

    Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the field. Australian New Zealand Clinical

  8. Assessing working memory in children with ADHD: Minor administration and scoring changes may improve digit span backward's construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Erica L; Kofler, Michael J; Soto, Elia F; Schaefer, Hillary S; Sarver, Dustin E

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric ADHD is associated with impairments in working memory, but these deficits often go undetected when using clinic-based tests such as digit span backward. The current study pilot-tested minor administration/scoring modifications to improve digit span backward's construct and predictive validities in a well-characterized sample of children with ADHD. WISC-IV digit span was modified to administer all trials (i.e., ignore discontinue rule) and count digits rather than trials correct. Traditional and modified scores were compared to a battery of criterion working memory (construct validity) and academic achievement tests (predictive validity) for 34 children with ADHD ages 8-13 (M=10.41; 11 girls). Traditional digit span backward scores failed to predict working memory or KTEA-2 achievement (allns). Alternate administration/scoring of digit span backward significantly improved its associations with working memory reordering (r=.58), working memory dual-processing (r=.53), working memory updating (r=.28), and KTEA-2 achievement (r=.49). Consistent with prior work, these findings urge caution when interpreting digit span performance. Minor test modifications may address test validity concerns, and should be considered in future test revisions. Digit span backward becomes a valid measure of working memory at exactly the point that testing is traditionally discontinued. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early metformin therapy (age 8-12 years) in girls with precocious pubarche to reduce hirsutism, androgen excess, and oligomenorrhea in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Díaz, Marta; Marcos, Maria Victoria; de Zegher, Francis

    2011-08-01

    Girls with a combined history of low(-normal) birth weight (LBW) and precocious pubarche (PP) are at high risk to develop polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of the study was to compare the capacity of early vs. late metformin treatment to prevent adolescent PCOS. This was a randomized, open-label study over 7 yr. The study was conducted at a university hospital. Thirty-eight LBW-PP girls were followed up from the mean age 8 until age 15 yr. Early metformin (study yr 1-4; age 8-12 yr) vs. late metformin (yr 6; age 13-14 yr). Measures included height; weight; hirsutism score; menstrual cycle; endocrine-metabolic screening (fasting; follicular phase); C-reactive protein; body composition (absorptiometry); abdominal fat partitioning (magnetic resonance imaging); ovarian morphology (ultrasound); PCOS (National Institutes of Health and Androgen Excess Society definitions) after yr 7 (all girls thus untreated for at least 1 yr). None of the girls dropped out of the study. At age 15 yr, early-metformin girls were taller (4 cm), were in a less proinflammatory state, and had less central fat due to reductions in visceral and hepatic fat. Hirsutism, androgen excess, oligomenorrhea, and PCOS were between 2- and 8-fold more prevalent in late- than early-treated girls. Abdominal adiposity was the first variable to diverge (at age 8-10 yr) between girls without vs. with PCOS at age 15 yr. In LBW-PP girls, early metformin therapy was found to prevent or delay the development of hirsutism, androgen excess, oligomenorrhea, and PCOS more effectively than late metformin. The time window of late childhood and early puberty may be more critical for the development, and thus for the prevention, of adolescent PCOS than the first years beyond menarche.

  10. [Effect of Smartphone Apps Applying BodyThink Program on Obesity in Adolescent Girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Min Kyung; Ha, Ju Young

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of smartphone apps applying BodyThink program on BMI, percentage of body fat, skeletal muscle rate, body image, and self-esteem of adolescent girls. Sixty-eight high school girls with a BMI of over 25kg/m² were recruited to participate in this study. Girls from four schools were divided into two groups: the experimental group, which used the smartphone apps applying BodyThink program, and the control group, which used smartphone apps and small group counseling. The experimental group received the BodyThink program 6 times, scheduled once a week, with each session lasting 40~50 minutes. Test measures were completed before and after the 6 week intervention period for all participants. Collected data was analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk test, descriptive statistics, χ² test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test with the SPSS/WIN 18.0 program. The girls in the experimental group significantly improved their results in BMI(Z=-1.67, p=.042), percentage of body fat (Z=-3.01, p=.001), skeletal muscle rate (t=-3.50, peffective alternative methods to improve the body composition and self-esteem of obese adolescent girls.

  11. Effect Of Socio- Economic Status On The Efficacy Of Nutrition Education In Promoting The Nutritional Knowledge, Attitude And Practice In First-Grade Guidance School Girls In Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslimi Taleghani M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence (10-19 years is one of the most challenging periods in human development. A second period of rapid growth occurs during the teen years. Not much information is available on the effect of the socio-economic status on the outcome of nutrition education in teenage girls. Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of socio- economic status on the efficacy of nutrition education in promoting the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice in first-grade guidance school girls in Tehran. Material & Methods: A total of 300 students were selected from 11 guidance schools by simple sampling and divided into three groups: 1- guide-book, 2- group discussion, 3- control. The knowledge and attitude data were collected using pre-test and post-test questionnaires and the personal-socioeconomic data were collected using general questionnaires. The students in group 1 were given the guide-book and required to study it at home, while group 2 students were told to discuss among themselves the contents of the guide-book. The control group was given nothing to study or to do. Results: Nutrition education did not have a significant effect on the increase in the attitude score in the students whose grade-point average and their mother’s education level were high. (p= 0.13, p=0.29. Only mother’s education level independently from the type of education was associated with the difference of knowledge score means (p =0.07.There was interaction between nutritional education and monthly pocket- money with regard to the increase in the knowledge score (p =0.03. Conclusion: Overall, exception of monthly pocket money, the effect of education on the nutritional knowledge and attitude was independent from other variables. Only mother’s education associate with the difference of knowledge score means.

  12. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  13. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kesim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies evaluating the relationship between oral health status and obesity have provided conflicting data. Therefore, there is a great need to investigate and clarify the possible connection in a comprehensive sample. Aims: To assess the relationship of obesity and oral health status among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years-old. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data were obtained from 4,534 children and adolescents (2,018 boys and 2,516 girls. Questionnaires were sent home prior to examination; afterwards, anthropometric and dental data were collected from participants. Community Periodontal Index (CPI and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition (DMFT, and deciduous dentition (dmft index were used to measure oral health status. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and body fat percentage were analyzed. Results: For DMFT scores, healthy (score=0 girls and boys had significantly higher BMI and WC values than unhealthy (score>1 girls and boys (p<0.05. Healthy girls had higher fat percentage values than unhealthy girls (p<0.05. In terms of CPI scores, healthy boys had lower BMI and WC values than unhealthy boys (p<0.05. According to multiple binary logistic regression results for model 1, BMI predicted DMFT scores in both genders but CPI scores only in boys. No beverage consumption predicted DMFT scores in boys, while milk consumption predicted DMFT scores in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores in boys. For model 2, WC predicted DMFT scores in both genders and CPI scores only in boys. Milk consumption predicted DMFT scores only in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores for both gender (p<0.05. According to DMFT, there were significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups (normal weight, overweight and obese at the age of 7 (girls only, 9, 10, and 16 (boys only years and overall (only girls (p<0.05. According to CPI

  14. Girls and science education in Mauritius: a study of science class practices and their effects on girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugah, Jayantee; Watts, Mike

    2013-11-01

    Background: The population of Mauritius consists of 52% females and scientific literacy is seen to be of vital importance for all young people if they are to be sufficiently equipped to meet the challenges of a fast changing world. Previous research shows, however, that science is not popular among girls. This paper explores one of many reasons why few girls opt for science subjects after compulsory schooling. Purpose: This study investigated the approaches to teaching in four science classrooms in Mauritius, with particular emphases on the preferences of girls as they learn science. Sample: A total of 20 student interviews and 16 teacher interviews were conducted in four schools in Mauritius. The four mixed-faith schools comprised two all-girl schools (one state, one fee-paying), and two mixed-sex schools (one state, one fee-paying), within urban, suburban and rural situations. Design and method: 80 non-participant lessons were observed, of which 60 were science lessons while the remaining 20 non-science lessons were in economics, accounts and commerce. Group interviews with five pupils in each of the four schools were conducted and 16 individual interviews with teachers in the four schools gave an insight into the pedagogic approaches used for the teaching and learning of science. Results: Transmissive approaches to teaching, giving little opportunity for collaborative or activity-based learning, were found to be the most important factors in alienating the girls from science. Conclusions: There need to be radical changes in approaches to teaching to retain young girls' interest in the sciences.

  15. Overview of the Girls' Education Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan; Leal, Angela; Saher, Najat Yamouri; Robles, Ana Maria; Mendoza, Johanna

    In 1996, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Girls' Education Activity (GEA). GEA's goal has been to assist host country governments and private sector and nongovernmental entities in formulating, institutionalizing, and implementing country initiatives for girls' education. These initiatives have been designed…

  16. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  17. The Relationship of Physical Fitness, Self-Beliefs, and Social Support to the Academic Performance of Middle School Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sudhish; Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy; Martin, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of physical and psychosocial variables on math and reading achievement test scores. Between 1 and 5 months prior to taking annual standardized reading and math tests, a sample of (N = 1,211) sixth through eight graders (53.7% girls; 57.2% White) self-reported levels of physical activity, academic self-beliefs, general…

  18. Altered perineal microbiome is associated with vulvovaginitis and urinary tract infection in preadolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Sherertz, Robert; Russell, Gregory; Krane, L Spencer; Hodges, Steve J

    2014-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis has a known association with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in girls. We hypothesize that vulvovaginitis is a major contributor to UTIs in prepubertal girls by increasing periurethral colonization with uropathogens. Periurethral swabs and urine specimens were obtained from a total of 101 girls (58 with vulvovaginitis and 43 without vulvovaginitis). Specimens were cultured for bacterial growth. The dominant organism in the periurethral swabs and urine cultures was recorded and antibiotic sensitivity profiles were compared. Periurethral swabs from children with vulvovaginitis were associated with a statistically significant increase in uropathogenic bacteria (79% Enterococcus species or Escherichia coli) as the dominant culture compared with swabs from girls without vaginitis (18%) (p vulvovaginitis, 52% of the urine cultures were positive for UTIs, and the dominant organism in the urine cultures matched the species and antibiotic sensitivity profile of the corresponding periurethral swab. Only 11% of the urine cultures from girls without vulvovaginitis were positive for UTIs. Vulvovaginitis may cause UTIs by altering the perineal biome such that there is increased colonization of uropathogens.

  19. A Saturday of science for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2013-01-01

    On Saturday 16 November, the University of Geneva's Faculty of Science welcomed 388 girls aged between 11 and 14 to take part in “Élargis tes horizons” (“Expand your horizons”). This initiative aims to encourage more girls to pursue a career in science.   The idea is to use fun, interactive workshops to pique their interest while they are at an age where they are starting to think about their future. They see, by example, that women can and already do work in science. All the workshops were led by women representing several different scientific disciplines. CERN participated along with EPFL, UNIGE and seven other organisations, with 23 workshops on offer in total. The girls had the opportunity, for example, to programme a robot, analyse DNA and design and print a 3D object. The 23 CERN women physicists who took part ran an information kiosk and three workshops, where the girls were invited to build a particle accelerator in a salad bo...

  20. Testing the theory of reasoned action in explaining sexual behavior among African American young teen girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doswell, Willa M; Braxter, Betty J; Cha, Eunseok; Kim, Kevin H

    2011-12-01

    This study tested the Theory of Reasoned Action to examine the prediction of early sexual behavior among African American young teen girls. Baseline data from a longitudinal randomized clinical trial were used. Between 2001 and 2005, 198 middle-school girls aged 11 to 14 years were recruited. As girls aged, they held more permissive attitudes toward engaging in early sexual behavior and had a higher intention to engage in early sexual behavior. Intention was a significant predictor to explain sexual behavior among the girls. There is a need to develop strategies that promote intention related to delay and prevention of early sexual behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gendered Peer Involvement in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Effects of Prenatal Androgens, Gendered Activities, and Gender Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M; Bryk, Kristina; McHale, Susan

    2018-05-01

    A key question in understanding gender development concerns the origins of sex segregation. Children's tendencies to interact with same-sex others have been hypothesized to result from gender identity and cognitions, behavioral compatibility, and personal characteristics. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to time spent with boys and girls, and how that gendered peer involvement was related to sex-typed activities and gender identity and cognitions. We studied 54 girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure: 40 girls with classical CAH (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical CAH (NC-CAH) exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Home interviews and questionnaires provided assessments of gendered activity interests and participation, gender identity, and gender cognitions. Daily phone calls over 7 days assessed time spent in gendered activities and with peers. Girls with both C-CAH and NC-CAH interacted more with girls than with boys, with no significant group differences. The groups did not differ significantly in gender identity or gender cognitions, but girls with C-CAH spent more time in male-typed activities and less time in female-typed activities than did girls with NC-CAH. Time spent with girls reflected direct effects of gender identity/cognitions and gender-typed activities, and an indirect effect of prenatal androgens (CAH type) through gender-typed activities. Our results extend findings that prenatal androgens differentially affect gendered characteristics and that gendered peer interactions reflect combined effects of behavioral compatibility and feelings and cognitions about gender. The study also shows the value of natural experiments for testing hypotheses about gender development.

  2. Exposure of adolescent girls to cigar images in women's magazines, 1992-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feit, M N

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the exposure of adolescent girls to cigar images in women's magazines from 1992 to 1998. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 5 women's magazines with the highest readership of adolescent girls. RESULTS: We found a significant upward trend in cigar images portrayed in women's magazines and a significant increase in the portrayal of women cigar smokers over the period observed. Cigar images were less likely than cigarette images to promote tobacco or nontobacco products. Among advertisements, nearly all those that featured cigars promoted nontobacco products; advertisements featuring cigarettes overwhelmingly promoted tobacco products. CONCLUSIONS: Between 1992 and 1998, adolescent readers of women's magazines were increasingly exposed to images of cigars. PMID:11211640

  3. Being Boys, Being Girls: learning masculinities and femininities

    OpenAIRE

    Paechter, Carrie F.

    2007-01-01

    What is it like being a boy or a girl?\\ud How do boys and girls learn to be men and women?\\ud How do families, schools and children’s peer groups influence the ways in which children think of themselves as male and female?\\ud Being Boys, Being Girls explores how boys and girls learn what it is to be male and female. Drawing on a wide range of studies from around the world, the book examines how masculinities and femininities are developed and understood by children and young people in familie...

  4. A study on consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perceived body image is an important potential predictor of nutritional status. Body image misconception during adolescence is unexplored field in Indian girls. Objectives: To study the consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image. Materials and Methods: This multistage observational study was conducted on 586 adolescent girls of age 10-19 years in Lucknow district (151 from rural, 150 from slum, and 286 from urban area of Uttar Pradesh, India. Information on desired and actual body size was collected with the help of predesigned questionnaire. Results: 20.5% of studied girls show aspiration to become thin, who already perceived their body image as too thin. 73.4% adolescent girls were satisfied with their body image, while 26.6% were dissatisfied. The dissatisfaction was higher among girls of urban (30.2% and slum (40.0% areas in comparison to rural (22.5% area. Percentage of satisfied girls was less in the 13-15 years (69.9% age groups in comparison to 10-12 years (76.5% and 16-19 years (76.4%. Among girls satisfied with their body image, 32.8% girls were found underweight, and 38.4% were stunted. Underweight girls (42.1% and stunted girls (64.9% were higher in number within satisfied girls of slum area. Among all of these adolescent girls, 32.8% of girls had overestimated their weight, while only 4.9% of girls had underestimated their weight. Conclusions: This study concludes that desire to become thin is higher in adolescent girls, even in those who already perceived their body image as too thin.

  5. But I like PE: factors associated with enjoyment of physical education class in middle school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ward, Dianne S; Conway, Terry L; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R

    2008-03-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teachers' support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls.

  6. The Effects of "Girls in Science Day" on Middle School Girls' Attitudes and Interests in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Carmen S.

    Because of the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields, many organizations are hosting days to promote middle school girls' interest in science. The purpose of this dissertation examines one of these days, and is three-fold: Number one, to determine if the event "Girls in Science Day [GIS]" affected the interests and attitudes of the middle school girls who attend. Number two, to examine how GIS affected their interests and attitudes in science, and number three, to examine if there is a long time impact on the girls who attend GIS in middle school by interviewing them when they are older and determine if attending GIS made lasting impressions on their lives. It utilizes a mixed-methods approach by using a quantitative Likert-type scale to determine the first purpose mentioned, pre- and post- attendance interviews to examine purpose two, and longitudinal interviews of past participants to determine purpose three. These methods are then combined using meta-inference and results and implications are examined. Future research is then recommended to improve the status of women in science careers.

  7. Empowering Girls of Color through Authentic Science Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.; Levy, Ian P.; Emdin, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The underrepresentation of girls and students of color in STEM fields, particularly in science, is an ongoing issue that is very well documented. There is a limited amount of research that provides insight on experiences of girls, especially girls of color, who have been exposed to authentic science experiences. This article interrogates the…

  8. NASA Astrophysics EPO Resources For Engaging Girls in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Mendoza, D.; Smith, D.; Hasan, H.

    2011-09-01

    A new collaboration among the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO community is to engage girls in science who do not self-select as being interested in science, through the library setting. The collaboration seeks to (i) improve how girls view themselves as someone who knows about, uses, and sometimes contributes to science, and (ii) increase the capacity of EPO practitioners and librarians (both school and public) to engage girls in science. As part of this collaboration, we are collating the research on audience needs and best practices, and SMD EPO resources, activities and projects that focus on or can be recast toward engaging girls in science. This ASP article highlights several available resources and individual projects, such as: (i) Afterschool Universe, an out-of-school hands-on astronomy curriculum targeted at middle school students and an approved Great Science for Girls curriculum; (ii) Big Explosions and Strong Gravity, a Girl Scout patch-earning event for middle school aged girls to learn astronomy through hands-on activities and interaction with actual astronomers; and (iii) the JWST-NIRCAM Train the Trainer workshops and activities for Girl Scouts of USA leaders; etc. The NASA Astrophysics EPO community welcomes the broader EPO community to discuss with us how best to engage non-science-attentive girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), and to explore further collaborations on this theme.

  9. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry diagnostic discordance between Z-scores and T-scores in young adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, John J

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for postmenopausal osteoporosis using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-scores have been widely accepted. The validity of these criteria for other populations, including premenopausal women and young men, has not been established. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recommends using DXA Z-scores, not T-scores, for diagnosis in premenopausal women and men aged 20-49 yr, though studies supporting this position have not been published. We examined diagnostic agreement between DXA-generated T-scores and Z-scores in a cohort of men and women aged 20-49 yr, using 1994 World Health Organization and 2005 ISCD DXA criteria. Four thousand two hundred and seventy-five unique subjects were available for analysis. The agreement between DXA T-scores and Z-scores was moderate (Cohen\\'s kappa: 0.53-0.75). The use of Z-scores resulted in significantly fewer (McNemar\\'s p<0.001) subjects diagnosed with "osteopenia," "low bone mass for age," or "osteoporosis." Thirty-nine percent of Hologic (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA) subjects and 30% of Lunar (GE Lunar, GE Madison, WI) subjects diagnosed with "osteoporosis" by T-score were reclassified as either "normal" or "osteopenia" when their Z-score was used. Substitution of DXA Z-scores for T-scores results in significant diagnostic disagreement and significantly fewer persons being diagnosed with low bone mineral density.

  10. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  11. USAID Adolescent Girl Strategy Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    USAID's commitment to empowering adolescent girls to reach their full potential is reflected in the Agency's larger efforts to achieve gender equality and women's empowerment. The Agency holds decades of experience leading advances for greater gender equality and empowerment that benefit adolescent girls; however, these activities have not been…

  12. The effect of community-based health education intervention on management of menstrual hygiene among rural Indian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, A R; Deshmukh, P R; Garg, B S

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of a community-based health education intervention on awareness and behaviour change of rural adolescent girls regarding their management of menstrual hygiene. A participatory-action study was undertaken in Primary Health Centres in 23 villages in Anji, in the Wardha district of Maharashtra state. Study subjects were unmarried rural adolescent girls (12-19 years). We conducted a needs assessment for health messages with this target audience, using a triangulated research design of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus group discussions) methods. Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) guidelines were used to develop a pre-tested, handmade flip book containing needs-based key messages about the management of menstrual hygiene. The messages were delivered at monthly meetings of village-based groups of adolescent girls, called Kishori Panchayat. After 3 years, the effect of the messages was assessed using a combination of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (trend analysis) methods. After 3 years, significantly more adolescent girls (55%) were aware of menstruation before its initiation compared with baseline (35%). The practice of using ready-made pads increased significantly from 5% to 25% and reuse of cloth declined from 85% to 57%. The trend analysis showed that adolescent girls perceived a positive change in their behaviour and level of awareness. The present community health education intervention strategy could bring significant changes in the awareness and behaviour of rural adolescent girls regarding management of their menstrual hygiene.

  13. Inter-segment foot motion in girls using a three-dimensional multi-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woo Young; Lee, Dong Yeon; Jung, Hae Woon; Lee, Doo Jae; Yoo, Won Joon; Choi, In Ho

    2018-05-06

    Several multi-segment foot models (MFMs) have been introduced for in vivo analyses of dynamic foot kinematics. However, the normal gait patterns of healthy children and adolescents remain uncharacterized. We sought to determine normal foot kinematics according to age in clinically normal female children and adolescents using a Foot 3D model. Fifty-eight girls (age 7-17 years) with normal function and without radiographic abnormalities were tested. Three representative strides from five separate trials were analyzed. Kinematic data of foot segment motion were tracked and evaluated using an MFM with a 15-marker set (Foot 3D model). As controls, 50 symptom-free female adults (20-35 years old) were analyzed. In the hindfoot kinematic analysis, plantar flexion motion in the pre-swing phase was significantly greater in girls aged 11 years or older than in girls aged foot progression angle showed mildly increased internal rotation in the loading response phase and the swing phase in girls aged foot motion in girls aged 11 years or older showed low-arch kinematic characteristics, whereas those in girls aged 11 years or older were more similar to the patterns in young adult women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Study on Consciousness of Adolescent Girls About Their Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Swati; Agarwal, GG; Singh, JV; Kant, Surya; Singh, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Perceived body image is an important potential predictor of nutritional status. Body image misconception during adolescence is unexplored field in Indian girls. Objectives: To study the consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image. Materials and Methods: This multistage observational study was conducted on 586 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years in Lucknow district (151 from rural, 150 from slum, and 286 from urban area) of Uttar Pradesh, India. Information on desired and actual body size was collected with the help of predesigned questionnaire. Results: 20.5% of studied girls show aspiration to become thin, who already perceived their body image as too thin. 73.4% adolescent girls were satisfied with their body image, while 26.6% were dissatisfied. The dissatisfaction was higher among girls of urban (30.2%) and slum (40.0%) areas in comparison to rural (22.5%) area. Percentage of satisfied girls was less in the 13–15 years (69.9%) age groups in comparison to 10–12 years (76.5%) and 16–19 years (76.4%). Among girls satisfied with their body image, 32.8% girls were found underweight, and 38.4% were stunted. Underweight girls (42.1%) and stunted girls (64.9%) were higher in number within satisfied girls of slum area. Among all of these adolescent girls, 32.8% of girls had overestimated their weight, while only 4.9% of girls had underestimated their weight. Conclusions: This study concludes that desire to become thin is higher in adolescent girls, even in those who already perceived their body image as too thin. PMID:22090673

  15. Cluster randomized evaluation of Adolescent Girls Empowerment Programme (AGEP: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Hewett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents in less developed countries such as Zambia often face multi-faceted challenges for achieving successful transitions through adolescence to early adulthood. The literature has noted the need to introduce interventions during this period, particularly for adolescent girls, with the perspective that such investments have significant economic, social and health returns to society. The Adolescent Girls Empowerment Programme (AGEP was an intervention designed as a catalyst for change for adolescent girls through themselves, to their family and community. Methods/design AGEP was a multi-sectoral intervention targeting over 10,000 vulnerable adolescent girls ages 10–19 in rural and urban areas, in four of the ten provinces of Zambia. At the core of AGEP were mentor-led, weekly girls’ group meetings of 20 to 30 adolescent girls participating over two years. Three curricula ― sexual and reproductive health and lifeskills, financial literacy, and nutrition ― guided the meetings. An engaging and participatory pedagogical approach was used. Two additional program components, a health voucher and a bank account, were offered to some girls to provide direct mechanisms to improve access to health and financial services. Embedded within AGEP was a rigorous multi-arm randomised cluster trial with randomization to different combinations of programme arms. The study was powered to assess the impact across a set of key longer-term outcomes, including early marriage and first birth, contraceptive use, educational attainment and acquisition of HIV and HSV-2. Baseline behavioural surveys and biological specimen collection were initiated in 2013. Impact was evaluated immediately after the program ended in 2015 and will be evaluated again after two additional years of follow-up in 2017. The primary analysis is intent-to-treat. Qualitative data are being collected in 2013, 2015 and 2017 to inform the programme implementation and the

  16. The Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Relation to Age, Body Mass Index, and Physical Activity Among High School Girls in Daniel Susa, Iran 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayatinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension is the most common public health problem that its prevalence increases along with the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents. It also has a direct relationship with cardiovascular diseases in adults. Objectives This study was performed to determine the prevalence of hypertension among high school girls in Susa, Iran and its relation to age, body mass index, and physical activity. Patients and Methods In this cross sectional study, 400 female students aged 15 - 19 years were selected using multistage cluster random sampling method. Their height, weight, and blood pressure (blood pressure was measured twice while in sitting position were measured by standard methods. The international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ was used to score their physical activity. The individual questionnaire was completed by essential question toward hypertension. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 22 using descriptive indexes and the Chi-square and Pearson tests while P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension is 5% and 40.3% in the high school girls, respectively. The frequency of age ranges between 14 and 18 years, with the highest frequency belonged to the age of 16 years. Also, there was a significant relationship between age and increase in blood pressure (P = 0.022. Direct significant linear relationship and difference were reported between hypertension and exercise (P = 0.025, as well as body mass index (P = 0.036. Conclusions The results showed a high prevalence of hypertension in girls with little difference with regard to ethnic groups, indicating that the use of training programs to adjust and modify lifestyle attitudes not only is effective in reducing hypertension, but also can prevent the adolescents’ susceptibility to the diseases that cause disability, increased living costs and weakened family ties.

  17. Adolescent girls, the menstrual cycle, and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Hillard, Paula J; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2003-05-01

    In adolescent girls, amenorrhea is sometimes viewed as a variant of normal; in fact, however, during the first gynecologic year, the 95th percentile for cycle length is 90 days. Although early menstrual cycles are frequently anovulatory and may be somewhat irregular, girls with menses coming less frequently than every 90 days may have significant pathology associated with hypoestrogenism. Hypoestrogenism is a known risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Causes of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea include the relatively common conditions of hyperandrogenism, eating disorders, and exercise-induced amenorrhea, as well as uncommon conditions such as pituitary tumor, gonadal dysgenesis, and premature ovarian failure. Even functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea has been linked to reduced bone density. Attention to menstrual irregularity and the earlier diagnosis of conditions causing it may lead to interventions that will benefit life-long bone health.

  18. "The Barking Girl": A Case Report of Psychogenic Cough in a Child with a Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakati, Praveen Kumar; Naskar, Subrata; Khanna, Anisha

    2017-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl presented with 2-month history of continuous coughing; despite detailed evaluation, no organic cause was found. Considering the provisional diagnosis of a psychogenic cough, she was advised for psychiatry consultation. After a psychological assessment, she was found to have comorbid anxiety (Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders score- 25) along with punitive parenting and sibling rivalry issues. She was initially treated with parental psychoeducation, play therapy, and behavior therapy. Since she did not show expected progress with the treatment, low-dose escitalopram was started along with the ongoing therapy, considering her anxiety. There was a significant improvement in her symptoms in 1-month follow-up. She maintained improvement during further follow-ups. This case illustrates the need to identify and treat comorbid psychiatric issues in the management of a psychogenic cough.

  19. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  20. Distributed pubertal growth in girls after acute leukemia: a relative growth hormone insufficiency with late presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of growth and development after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in childhood has previously been limited to the prepubertal period. This study describes pubertal growth, final height and the spontaneous secretion of GH in girls treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation with 24 GY. Ten girls, treated earlier for ALL, experienced the menarche at a mean age of 12.2 years. This is significantly earlier than the mean for Swedish girls. Prepubertal growth was near normal after the end of therapy for leukaemia. Mean final height was -1.7 SD, which is 1.5 SD less than at onset and 1.0 SD less than 1 year after the end of treatment. Thirteen other girls had a blunted spontaneous secretion of GH, several years after treatment for ALL; there was no increase in GH secretion during puberty. These results suggest that girls who have been treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation, have a relative GH insufficiency. This insufficiency becomes obvious only when girls cannot respond to the increased need for GH during the pubertal spurt.

  1. Distributed pubertal growth in girls after acute leukemia: a relative growth hormone insufficiency with late presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moell, C.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of growth and development after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in childhood has previously been limited to the prepubertal period. This study describes pubertal growth, final height and the spontaneous secretion of GH in girls treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation with 24 GY. Ten girls, treated earlier for ALL, experienced the menarche at a mean age of 12.2 years. This is significantly earlier than the mean for Swedish girls. Prepubertal growth was near normal after the end of therapy for leukaemia. Mean final height was -1.7 SD, which is 1.5 SD less than at onset and 1.0 SD less than 1 year after the end of treatment. Thirteen other girls had a blunted spontaneous secretion of GH, several years after treatment for ALL; there was no increase in GH secretion during puberty. These results suggest that girls who have been treated for ALL, including CNS irradiation, have a relative GH insufficiency. This insufficiency becomes obvious only when girls cannot respond to the increased need for GH during the pubertal spurt. (author)

  2. Adolescent girls define menstruation: a multiethnic exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orringer, Kelly; Gahagan, Sheila

    2010-09-01

    Incomplete understanding of menstruation may place girls at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancy. Prior research suggests that European American and African American girls incompletely understand menstruation, yet little is known about menstrual knowledge in other ethnic groups. Using audiotaped focus group and individual interviews with 73 African American, Mexican American, Arab American, and European American girls, we assessed girls' menstrual understanding. Responses included reproduction, growing up, cleansing, messages about femininity, and not knowing. We found ethnic differences in the prominence of these themes. We learned that social and cultural factors play an important role in transmission of menstrual knowledge.

  3. Delay and refusal of human papillomavirus vaccine for girls, national immunization survey-teen, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Stokley, Shannon; Fisher, Allison; Markowitz, Lauri; Smith, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine's effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed.

  4. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field.

  5. Exploring Girls' Science Affinities Through an Informal Science Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brandy; Zvoch, Keith

    2017-10-01

    This study examines science interests, efficacy, attitudes, and identity—referred to as affinities, in the context of an informal science outreach program for girls. A mixed methods design was used to explore girls' science affinities before, during, and after participation in a cohort-based summer science camp. Multivariate analysis of survey data revealed that girls' science affinities varied as a function of the joint relationship between family background and number of years in the program, with girls from more affluent families predicted to increase affinities over time and girls from lower income families to experience initial gains in affinities that diminish over time. Qualitative examination of girls' perspectives on gender and science efficacy, attitudes toward science, and elements of science identities revealed a complex interplay of gendered stereotypes of science and girls' personal desires to prove themselves knowledgeable and competent scientists. Implications for the best practice in fostering science engagement and identities in middle school-aged girls are discussed.

  6. Science for Girls: Successful Classroom Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Susan Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    "Science for Girls: Successful Classroom Strategies" looks at how girls learn, beginning with the time they are born through both the informal and formal education process. In the author's current role as professor of science education, Dr. Goetz has surveyed hundreds of female elementary education majors in their junior and senior year of…

  7. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout and NIRCam Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, L. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N.

    2013-04-01

    In 2003, the University of Arizona's (UA) NIRCam EPO team (NASA James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Camera) and the Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona began a long-term collaboration to bring STEM and astronomy activities and concepts to adult Girl Scout volunteers and staff and, in turn, their councils and girls, i.e., to train the trainers. Nationally, our goal is to reach adult volunteers and staff in all 112 councils. To date, this program has reached nearly 240 adults from 78 councils in 41 states, DC, Guam, and Japan, bringing together adult volunteers and staff, UA graduate students, and NIRCam scientists and educators to experience Arizona's dark skies.

  8. Urinary bisphenol A levels in Turkish girls with premature thelarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, E; Asci, A; Erkekoglu, P; Balcı, A; Bircan, I; Koçer-Gumusel, B

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing concern over the timing of pubertal breast development and its possible association with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is abundantly used to harden plastics. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between premature thelarche (PT) and BPA by comparing the urinary BPA levels of PT girls with those of healthy subjects. Twenty-five newly diagnosed nonobese PT subjects (aged 4-8 years) who were admitted to the Pediatric Endocrinology Department at Akdeniz University were recruited. The control group composed of 25 age-matched girls without PT and other endocrine disorders. Urinary BPA levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. The median urinary concentrations of BPA were found to be significantly higher in the PT group compared to the healthy control group (3.2 vs. 1.62 μg/g creatinine, p < 0.05). We observed a weak positive correlation between uterus volume and urinary BPA levels. There was a weak correlation between estradiol and urinary BPA levels ( r = 0.166; p = 0.37); and luteinizing hormone and urinary BPA levels ( r = 0.291; p = 0.08) of PT girls. Our results suggest that exposure to BPA might be one of the underlying factors of early breast development in prepubertal girls and EDCs may be considered as one of the etiological factors in the development of PT.

  9. Adolescent girls' communication with "mothers" about topical microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder, Punita K; Ramos, Stephanie; Short, Mary B; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2006-12-01

    Topical microbicides, a female-initiated method to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pregnancy, will only be effective if found acceptable. Mothers may have an influence on acceptability and use among adolescent girls. The current study examined the communication between girls and mothers to understand the potential predictors and nature of conversations regarding surrogate microbicide products. Sexually experienced girls, 14 to 21 years, were recruited for a 6-month study examining microbicide acceptability. During face-to-face interviews, qualitative data were collected regarding communication between girls and mothers. Two independent raters coded the responses, which were organized into themes. Themes were interpreted according to the conceptual understanding of mother-daughter communication. Fifty percent of the 171 girls with codable responses had a conversation with their mother. Higher levels of indirect parental monitoring were related to being more likely to have a conversation. Concrete events related to the study (i.e. receiving phone call from the researcher, having an appointment, or seeing the product) or inquiries by mothers appeared to promote conversation. Barriers to conversation included the private nature of the information and relationship issues between the mother and daughter. Conversations often addressed issues related to girls' participation in the study, although some conversations included global issues related to sexuality. Girls may talk to their mothers about new products for STI prevention, and such conversations may provide opportunities to promote use.

  10. Exploring Temporal Patterns of Stress in Adolescent Girls with Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björling, Elin A; Singh, Narayan

    2017-02-01

    As part of a larger study on perceived stress and headaches in 2009, momentary perceived stress, head pain levels and stress-related symptom data were collected. This paper explores a temporal analysis of the patterns of stress, as well as an analysis of momentary and retrospective stress-related symptoms compared by level of headache activity. Adolescent girls (N = 31) ages 14-18 were randomly cued by electronic diaries 7 times per day over a 21-day period responding to momentary questions about level of head pain, perceived stress and stress-related symptoms. Multivariate general linear modelling was used to determine significant differences among headache groups in relation to temporal patterns of stress. Significant headache group differences were found on retrospective and momentary stress-related symptom measures. A total of 2841 diary responses captured stress levels, head pain and related symptoms. The chronic headache (CH) group reported the highest levels of hourly and daily stress, followed by the moderate headache (MH) and low headache (LH) groups. Patterns of stress for the three headache groups were statistically distinct, illustrating increased stress in girls with more frequent head pain. This evidence suggests that because of increased stress, girls with recurrent head pain are likely a vulnerable population who may benefit from stress-reducing interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Huic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862, 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers, with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers. In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling

  12. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia-The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven

    2017-01-01

    Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime ( n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys-cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with

  13. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven

    2017-01-01

    Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with

  14. Amount of newspaper coverage of high school athletics for boys and girls on sports page and newspaper circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul M; Whisenant, Warren A

    2002-02-01

    This study analyzed the amount of coverage for high school athletics in 43 newspapers with small circulation by devoting 40% of their interscholastic athletics coverage to girls in athletics, printed significantly more articles about girls' athletics than did the newspapers with medium (33%) or large (32%) circulation. Therefore, the smaller the newspaper circulation, the more equitable the coverage of athletics for girls and boys. This finding was consistent with some prior work but not all.

  15. Sparking connections: An exploration of adolescent girls' relationships with science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kathryn A.

    Despite progress in narrowing the gender gap, fewer women than men pursue science careers. Adolescence is a critical age when girls' science interest is sparked or smothered. Prior research provides data on who drops out of the "science pipeline" and when, but few studies examine why and how girls disconnect from science. This thesis is an in-depth exploratory study of adolescent girls' relationships with science based on a series of interviews with four middle-class Caucasian girls---two from public schools, two homeschooled. The girls' stones about their experiences with, feelings about, and perspectives on science, the science process, and their science learning environments are examined with a theoretical and analytic approach grounded in relational psychology. The potential link between girls' voices and their involvement in science is investigated. Results indicate that girls' relationships with science are multitiered. Science is engaging and familiar in the sense that girls are curious about the world, enjoy learning about scientific phenomena, and informally use science in their everyday fives. However, the girls in this study differentiated between the science they do and the field of science, which they view as a mostly male endeavor (often despite real life experiences to the contrary) that uses rather rigid methods to investigate questions of limited scope and interest. In essence, how these girls defined science defined their relationship with science: those with narrow conceptions of science felt distant from it. Adolescent girls' decreased involvement in science activities may be a relational act---a move away from a patriarchical process, pedagogy, and institution that does not resonate with their experiences, questions, and learning styles. Girls often feel like outsiders to science; they resist considering science careers when they have concerns that implicitly or explicitly, doing so would involve sacrificing their knowledge, creativity, or

  16. Blunted day-night changes in luteinizing hormone pulse frequency in girls with obesity: the potential role of hyperandrogenemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jessicah S; Beller, Jennifer P; Burt Solorzano, Christine; Patrie, James T; Chang, R Jeffrey; Marshall, John C; McCartney, Christopher R

    2014-08-01

    Puberty is marked by sleep-associated changes in LH pulse frequency and amplitude. Early pubertal girls with obesity exhibit blunted day-to-night changes in LH secretion; whether this occurs in late pubertal obese girls is unknown. The objective of the study was to test two hypotheses: 1) blunted day-to-night changes in LH secretion occur in both early and late pubertal obese girls, and 2) such alterations are specifically associated with hyperandrogenemia. This was a cross-sectional analysis. The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Twenty-seven early pubertal, premenarcheal girls (12 of whom were obese) and 63 late pubertal (postmenarcheal) girls (27 of whom were obese) participated in the study. Blood samples were taken every 10 minutes from 7:00 pm to 7:00 am. Change in LH pulse frequency [LH interpulse interval (IPI)] from daytime hours (7:00 pm-11:00 pm, while awake) to nighttime hours (11:00 pm to 7:00 am, while generally asleep). Both nonobese and obese postmenarcheal girls demonstrated significant day-to-night decreases in LH pulse frequency (IPI increases of 33% and 16%, respectively), but day-to-night changes were blunted in obese girls (P = .004, obese vs nonobese). Day-to-night LH pulse frequency decreased significantly in postmenarcheal obese subjects with normal T concentrations (26% IPI increase) but not in those with hyperandrogenemia. Similar differences were evident for LH pulse amplitude. Nonobese and obese early pubertal girls exhibited nonsignificant differences in day-night LH pulse frequency (day to night IPI increase of 26% vs decrease of 1%, respectively). Day-to-night changes in LH pulse secretion are blunted in postmenarcheal obese adolescent girls. This phenomenon may in part reflect hyperandrogenemia.

  17. Poor micronutrient intake and status is a public health problem among adolescent Mozambican girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkalo, Liisa; Freese, Riitta; Alfthan, Georg; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies can damage the health of adolescent girls and their offspring. There is a lack of population-based data on the micronutrient status of adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study to examine the biochemical status, prevalence of deficiency, dietary intake, and food sources of selected micronutrients among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique. Separate groups of study participants were recruited in 2 seasons in 2010. The participants were girls between 14 and 19 years of age (n = 551) from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts. Micronutrient status indicators were analyzed from blood and urine samples. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were also carried out. The overall prevalence with 95% confidence interval (calculated using sampling weights) among nonpregnant girls was 42.4% (37.2%-47.8%; n = 466) for anemia, 27.4% (23.1%-32.2%; n = 427) for low serum ferritin, 32.7% (27.7%-38.1%; n = 423) for low serum zinc, 14.7% (11.2%-19.0%; n = 426) for low plasma retinol, and 4.1% (2.9%-5.8%; n = 448) for low serum folate. The selenium status was considered sufficient. Mild to moderate iodine deficiency was found in the rural districts, whereas the iodine status of urban girls was adequate. Significantly lower serum folate concentrations were found in the urban area compared to the rural districts. The seasonal differences in vitamin A intake were significant. The intakes of micronutrients from animal source foods were small. In summary, adolescent Mozambican girls are at risk of several micronutrient deficiencies. This raises concern especially because adolescent motherhood is common in the region. Actions need to be taken to prevent and control micronutrient deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  19. Turner Syndrome in Girls Presenting with Coarctation of the Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhauser, Aaron; South, Sarah T; Meyers, Lindsay; Bleyl, Steven B; Botto, Lorenzo D

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the frequency of Turner syndrome in a population-based, statewide cohort of girls with coarctation of the aorta. The Utah Birth Defects Network was used to ascertain a cohort of girls between 1997 and 2011 with coarctation of the aorta. Livebirths with isolated coarctation of the aorta or transverse arch hypoplasia were included and patients with complex congenital heart disease not usually seen in Turner syndrome were excluded. Of 244 girls with coarctation of the aorta, 77 patients were excluded, leaving a cohort of 167 girls; 86 patients (51%) had chromosomal studies and 21 (12.6%) were diagnosed with Turner syndrome. All patients were diagnosed within the first 4 months of life and 5 (24%) were diagnosed prenatally. Fifteen patients (71%) had Turner syndrome-related findings in addition to coarctation of the aorta. Girls with mosaicism were less likely to have Turner syndrome-associated findings (3/6 mosaic girls compared with 12/17 girls with non-mosaic 45,X). Twelve girls (57%) diagnosed with Turner syndrome also had a bicommissural aortic valve. At least 12.6% of girls born with coarctation of the aorta have karyotype-confirmed Turner syndrome. Such a high frequency, combined with the clinical benefits of an early diagnosis, supports genetic screening for Turner syndrome in girls presenting with coarctation of the aorta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Socioeconomic development and girl child survival in rural North India: solution or problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anand; Dwivedi, Purva; Gupta, Vivek; Byass, Peter; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Ng, Nawi

    2013-05-01

    Socioeconomic development has been considered as a solution to the problem of sex differentials at birth and under-five mortality. This paper analyses longitudinal data from the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in north India to check its veracity. A cohort of children born between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011 at Ballabgarh HDSS were followed till death, emigration, 3 years of age or end of the study. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by caste, parental combined years of schooling and wealth index and divided into low, mid and high strata for each of them. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) was reported as the number of girls per 1000 boys. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves were drawn and a Cox Proportional HR of girls over boys was estimated. A total of 12 517 native born children (25 797 child years) were enrolled of which 710 died (death rate of 56.7/1000-live births and 27.5/1000 child-years. Socioeconomically advantaged children had significantly lower death rates. The SRB (10-16% lower) and neonatal death rate were consistently adverse for girls in the advantaged groups by all the three indicators of SES. The first month survival rates were better for girls in the lower SES categories (significant only in caste (HR 0.58; 0.37 to 0.91). High SES categories consistently showed adverse survival rates for girls (HR of 1.22 to 1.59). Better socioeconomic situation worsened the sex differentials, especially at birth. Therefore, specific interventions targeting gender issues are required, at least as a short-term measure.

  1. Citizen Science: Opportunities for Girls' Development of Science Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brien, Sinead Carroll

    Many students in the United States, particularly girls, have lost interest in science by the time they reach high school and do not pursue higher degrees or careers in science. Several science education researchers have found that the ways in which youth see themselves and position themselves in relation to science can influence whether they pursue science studies and careers. I suggest that participation in a citizen science program, which I define as a program in which girls interact with professional scientists and collect data that contributes to scientific research, could contribute to changing girls' perceptions of science and scientists, and promote their science identity work. I refer to science identity as self-recognition and recognition by others that one thinks scientifically and does scientific work. I examined a case study to document and analyze the relationship between girls' participation in a summer citizen science project and their development of science identity. I observed six girls between the ages of 16 and 18 during the Milkweed and Monarch Project, taking field notes on focal girls' interactions with other youth, adults, and the scientist, conducted highly-structured interviews both pre-and post- girls' program participation, and interviewed the project scientist and educator. I qualitatively analyzed field notes and interview responses for themes in girls' discussion of what it meant to think scientifically, roles they took on, and how they recognized themselves as thinking scientifically. I found that girls who saw themselves as thinking scientifically during the program seemed to demonstrate shifts in their science identity. The aspects of the citizen science program that seemed to most influence shifts in these girls' science identities were 1) the framing of the project work as "real science, 2) that it involved ecological field work, and 3) that it created a culture that valued data and scientific work. However, some of the girls only

  2. Case report: manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with an unaccompanied refugee minor girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Unterhitzenberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is uncertainty whether young traumatized refugees should be treated with culturally adapted psychotherapy or with an evidence-based western approach. As yet, empirical studies on culturally adapted treatments for unaccompanied young refugees in industrialized host countries are not available. Studies do, however, suggest that trauma-focused treatment is promising for this group. Objective: We describe the treatment of an unaccompanied refugee minor girl with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD who underwent manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006. Methods: A 17-year-old girl from East Africa, who came to Germany without a caregiver, was treated for PTSD resulting from several traumatic experiences and losses in her home country and while fleeing. She lived in a group home for adolescents. Baseline, post, and follow-up data are reported. Results: The girl participated in 12 sessions of manualized TF-CBT. Her caregiver from the youth services received another 12 sessions in line with the treatment manual. Symptoms decreased in a clinically significant manner; at the end of the treatment, the girl was deemed to have recovered from PTSD. Treatment success remained stable over 6 months. Conclusions: Manualized TF-CBT is feasible for young refugees without significant cultural adaptations. It can, however, be seen as culturally sensitive.

  3. Case report: manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with an unaccompanied refugee minor girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhitzenberger, Johanna; Rosner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    There is uncertainty whether young traumatized refugees should be treated with culturally adapted psychotherapy or with an evidence-based western approach. As yet, empirical studies on culturally adapted treatments for unaccompanied young refugees in industrialized host countries are not available. Studies do, however, suggest that trauma-focused treatment is promising for this group. We describe the treatment of an unaccompanied refugee minor girl with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who underwent manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006). A 17-year-old girl from East Africa, who came to Germany without a caregiver, was treated for PTSD resulting from several traumatic experiences and losses in her home country and while fleeing. She lived in a group home for adolescents. Baseline, post, and follow-up data are reported. The girl participated in 12 sessions of manualized TF-CBT. Her caregiver from the youth services received another 12 sessions in line with the treatment manual. Symptoms decreased in a clinically significant manner; at the end of the treatment, the girl was deemed to have recovered from PTSD. Treatment success remained stable over 6 months. Manualized TF-CBT is feasible for young refugees without significant cultural adaptations. It can, however, be seen as culturally sensitive.

  4. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Association between Pubertal Timing and Delinquency in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Early pubertal timing places girls at elevated risk for a breadth of negative outcomes, including involvement in delinquent behavior. While previous developmental research has emphasized the unique social challenges faced by early maturing girls, this relation is complicated by genetic influences for both delinquent behavior and pubertal timing, which are seldom controlled for in existing research. The current study uses genetically informed data on 924 female-female twin and sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to (1) disentangle biological versus environmental mechanisms for the effects of early pubertal timing and (2) test for gene-environment interactions. Results indicate that early pubertal timing influences girls’ delinquency through a complex interplay between biological risk and environmental experiences. Genes related to earlier age at menarche and higher perceived development significantly predict increased involvement in both non-violent and violent delinquency. Moreover, after accounting for this genetic association between pubertal timing and delinquency, the impact of non-shared environmental influences on delinquency are significantly moderated by pubertal timing, such that the non-shared environment is most important among early maturing girls. This interaction effect is particularly evident for non-violent delinquency. Overall, results suggest early maturing girls are vulnerable to an interaction between genetic and environmental risks for delinquent behavior. PMID:21668078

  5. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlGelban, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

  6. Fitness callanetics in physical education of girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.E. Kolomiytseva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study callanetics as modern direction in girl students’ physical education. Material: in the research 1st year girl students of age 16-17 years (n=35 participated. The girls were trained in Callanetics sport circle twice a week in free time. Every training lasted 60 minutes. The program was designed for 72 hours and contained: theoretical part, practical part, control part, tasks for independent work and eating recommendations. Results: motives for girl students’ practicing callanetics were found. We registered positive changes in anthropometric indicators, power abilities and flexibility. After two months’ training body mass of girl students reduced. We showed need in changing physical culture trainings’ forms and methods in universities. It is offered to actively use static-dynamic exercises. Conclusions: when fulfilling callanetics exercises one should strictly follow a number of methodic techniques, which will increase trainings’ effectiveness and make them health related.

  7. Schooling of girls in pre-partition Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, K

    1997-01-01

    This study examines female school enrollment during 1920-47 in the Punjab, India, prepartition. Data were obtained from reports, such as the Progress of Education in the Punjab. This period includes an active social reform movement. Punjabi Hindu men changed their attitudes toward purdah and seclusion and the education of women. Educated wives were in demand. Educational institutions were initially religiously affiliated. Schools for girls were set up by British missionaries and American Presbyterians in the late 1800s. The most active missionary societies were the Zenana Bible and Medical Mission and its precursor, the Indian Female Normal School and Instruction Society. Education was expanded by private organizations. The 1916-17 Report on Education in the Punjab indicates substantial public support for girls' education. The demand for education was strongest initially in urban areas. Government secondary schools for girls were set up in each district of the Punjab by 1931-32. By 1936-37 there was one girl school for every 46.3 sq. miles. Throughout the 1930s and 1940s the government established high or middle schools in smaller towns. Almost all large cities had colleges for women. Demand for girls' education rose at the same time as constraints neutralized the attitude changes. Constraints included a lack of trained women teachers, shortages of resources, poor infrastructural facilities, irrelevant curricula, and prejudice against women becoming teachers. Two measures encouraged the advancement of education. The growth of middle and high schools did not keep pace with the growth of primary schools. Female enrollments increased from 62,571 to 237,446 during 1921-45. Primary and middle coeducational school enrollment of girls declined during the 1940s. Muslim and Sikh enrollments increased. High-caste Hindu enrollments declined, but still represented half of all girls in colleges and universities.

  8. Turtle Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  9. A study of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piush Kanodia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Anemia is a global health problem. About 40% of the world's population suffers from anemia and adolescence is one of the most vulnerable age group. Hence the objective of the study was to determine prevalence and distribution of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal.Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a Government School of Dharan over a period of one year. There were total 433 participants, whose clinical and demographic profile were recorded and analyzed. Hemoglobin estimation was done by using cyanmethaemoglobin method and anemia was defined as per WHO cut-off.Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was found to be 51.3%. Prevalence was significantly more in pre-menarche age and undernourished girls (p<0.05. However factors like diet (vegetarian/non-vegetarian, worm infestation and parental education did not have a significant impact on occurrence of anemia.Conclusion: Anemia is the major health problem among adolescent girls in eastern part Nepal with high prevalence rate and nutrition is one of the leading causative factors for anemia.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:19-22.

  10. Supporting Girls' Motivation in Science: A Study of Peer- and Self-Assessment in a Girls-Only Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nadine; Winterbottom, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how the use of self- and peer-assessment within a girls-only biology class can support students' motivation. The study took place over 22 weeks in a rural comprehensive school, and the participants were girls between 15 and 16 years of age. Data included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, notes from lesson observations…

  11. Representin' in cyberspace: sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in Black American adolescent girls' home pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Carla E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of media in the lives of girls, sexuality researchers have largely overlooked how Black American adolescent girls engage with media to construct sexual self-definitions and explore their emerging sexuality. This study investigated sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in internet home pages constructed by Black girls aged 14-17 years residing in southern states in the USA. Although some girls in the sample constructed sexual self-representations that mirrored sexual scripts portrayed in the media, hip hop, and youth cyberculture, others resisted stereotypical representations of Black female sexuality. This paper discusses the dominant sexual scripts that emerged from in-depth analysis of 27 home pages constructed by girls residing in Georgia. The focus is on 'Freaks', 'Virgins', 'Down-Ass Chicks/Bitches', 'Pimpettes', and Resisters. Findings suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to sexuality education may fail to address key contextual issues of relevance to girls and young women. Innovative sexuality and media education strategies that respond to the significance of media in the lives of Black American girls and young women are needed.

  12. Boys and girls "doing science" and "doing gender"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervoni, Cleti

    The gender gap in achievement in science continues to plague science educators (AAAS, 2001). Strategies to close this gap have defined the problem in terms of girls' lack of interest or their inability to survive in science classrooms. Recent feminist scholarship has re-centered this problem of gender inequity not on girls, but on the nature of science and how it is taught in schools (Birke, 1986; Parker, 1997). Lesley Parker (1997) argues that it is schools that need to change and recommends a gender-inclusive science curriculum for schools. My dissertation argues for a new framework and research agenda for understanding the relationship between gender and science in schools. My study examines the gender dynamics of how unequal gender relations are negotiated, resisted and sustained in the context of a second grade science classroom. In examining the gender dynamics between the boys and the girls in a science classroom, I found that the boys positioned the girls as their assistants, as incompetent in science, as weak in contrast to the boys, and in need of the boys' help and protection. These discourses functioned to create and sustain unequal gender relations in the classroom. The girls responded in paradoxical ways to the boys' positioning of them. They resisted the boys by: (a) ignoring them; (b) using a domestic discourse to negotiate/gain more power; (c) appropriating teacher authority; or (d) using sexuality to embarrass and silence the boys. The girls also deferred to the boys as experts in science. In these ways, the girls themselves contributed to maintaining unequal gender relations in the classroom. I found that the classroom context is a site of struggle for both boys and girls as they seek to secure a place in the social hierarchy of the classroom. For the boys, masculinity is strong and powerful yet fragile and vulnerable. The girls struggle in holding multiple images of femininity. Examining gender dynamics through positioning and negotiation for

  13. The Effect of Menstrual Health Education Conducted with Peer Education Method to Adolescent Girls in 6-8 Classes on Information and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Golbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Research was conducted as a experimental study in order to determine the effect of menstrual health education conducted with peer education to adolescent girls in 6-8 classes on information and behaviors. Method: The study was made in Primary School of Regional Girl Boarding. Working group consisted of 202 students responded completely pre-test and post-test from 214 female students studying in this school in 2008-2009 academic year. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Menstruation and Menstrual Health Information Form. The forms were implemented to all students before the start of peer education program. Then, a total of 24 students including two students from each class were chosen as a peer educator with simple random sampling method. Peer educators were given information about menstruation and menstrual health for 2 hours per week and a total of 6 hours during 3 weeks in line with the educational booklet. Peer educator were asked to share acquired this information with classmates in various environments. Forms used at the beginning of students were applied to students again 4 weeks after completion of peer education program. Results: The average score of the students' knowledge of menstruation and menstrual health increased significantly (p <0.05 after the peer education program. Also, a statistically significant increase has occurred in the behaviors of students’ washing their hands before the toilet during menstruation, lustrating from front to back with toilet paper, bathing in the form of shower during menstruation, using cotton underwear, changing frequently pads used and taking away the pads used by wrapping (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be considered that the method of peer education is an effective method to increase knowledge of adolescent girls about menstruation and menstrual health and develop health behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 191-198

  14. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  15. Technology and Sexuality--What's the Connection? Addressing Youth Sexualities in Efforts to Increase Girls' Participation in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To date, girls and women are significantly underrepresented in computer science and technology. Concerns about this underrepresentation have sparked a wealth of educational efforts to promote girls' participation in computing, but these programs have demonstrated limited impact on reversing current trends. This paper argues that this is, in part,…

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clinical significance and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2003-10-01

    The clinical significance and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) differs according to different groups of patients. ASB requires antibiotic treatment in pregnant women, children aged 5-6 years and prior to invasive genitourinary procedures. However, there is a consensus that ASB in the elderly, healthy school girls and young women, diabetic women and patients with indwelling catheters or intermittent catheterization has no clinical significance and antibiotic prescription is not indicated.

  17. Entrepreneurial training for girls empowerment in Lesotho: A process evaluation of a model programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mary O'Neill; Kuriansky, Judy; Lytle, Megan; Vistman, Bozhena; Mosisili, 'Mathato S; Hlothoane, Lieketso; Matlanyane, Mapeo; Mokobori, Thabang; Mosuhli, Silas; Pebane, Jane

    2013-12-01

    A Girls Empowerment Programme held in 2010 in Lesotho, Sub-Saharan Africa, focused on HIV/AIDS risk reduction and prevention, life skills and entrepreneurial training (income-generating activities). Entrepreneurial training was a crucial part of equipping the camp attendees with basic skills to help them develop sustainable livelihoods. Such skills and financial independence are essential to enable rural girls to complete their secondary schooling (in a fee-based educational system) and to pursue a career, as well as to further help them be less susceptible to transactional sex and its significant risks. The results of a brief process evaluation with some nested supporting data showed considerable improvement in the girls' knowledge about income-generating activities. In addition, almost half of the camp attendees participated in further entrepreneurial training and about half of these girls went on to develop small businesses. Replication of this model of camp training is recommended and being explored in other African countries.

  18. Tactile sensitivity of blind and visually impaired children and adolescents. The significance of swimming exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Rostkowska, Elżbieta; Maśnik, Elżbieta

    2001-01-01

    The im of the study is to compare the tactile sensitivity threshold (TST) of the blind children who practice swimming and those who do not practice any sports with the TST of healthy people of similar age. TST was measured on the pad of he index finger of the dominant hand using an aesthesiometer. Lower TST was found in blind girls compared to healthy girls as well as lower TST in blind girls who practice swimming compared to the blind girls who do not practice ane sports. A significant lower...

  19. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype Among Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ellen A; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children, and in accordance with our developmental intergroup theoretical framework, were related to children's cognitive development and media exposure. Study 2 (N = 155) replicated the previous findings using more ecologically valid and realistic images of girls and further explored individual differences in the endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. Additional results indicated that the belief that girls should be appearance focused predicted their endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Exploring the causes of change in adolescent girls' sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a changing trend in adolescent girls' sexual and reproductive behaviour in Ghana. However, contemporary perspectives on adolescent girls' sexual behaviours are largely missing hence this study. Thematic analysis of data collected through in-depth interviews with adolescent girls and community members as well ...

  1. Culture Counts: Examining the Effectiveness of a Culturally Focused Empowerment Program for At-Risk Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Candice N.

    Traditionally, many of the problems experienced by Black girls were overshadowed by the ongoing crises facing Black Males. Although important, the focus on Blackness and masculinity often implicitly leaves young Black girls on the sidelines and fails to recognize their unique obstacles. Fortunately, there has been a new surge of social concern revolving around the plight of Black girls in the school system. New estimates report that Black girls are facing an educational crisis in regards to disproportionate discipline practices and academics (Morris, 2012). To date, there has been very limited research in regards to school-based interventions that have been designed to help Black girls explore both their cultural and gender identity. This is problematic because Black girls are constantly confronted with deeply embedded stereotypes that reinforce racial and gender biases both in and outside the classroom (Morris, 2007). A key protective factor of combating negative messages and racial adversity is developing a positive racial identity (Case & Robinson, 2003). To address this problem, a mixed-methods study was conducted to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of implementing an 8-week cultural empowerment program based on the Sisters of Nia curriculum. Qualitative results indicated a significant improvement in the participants' racial identity and self-concept. In addition, single-subject data has found the Sisters of Nia curriculum to have a positive impact on verbal aggression, which was evidenced by a significant reduction in behavior for all four single-subject participants'. These findings serve as further support to incorporate culturally-based interventions at the school level.

  2. Vulnerable girls and dangerous boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske

    2017-01-01

    , and young people’s experiences of confinement. Drawing on Foucauldian power analytics and post-structuralist feminist theory on subjectivity, the study finds that the disciplining practices are gendered to promote working-class masculinity for boys and normative femininity and (hetero)sexuality for girls......, with minorizing effects on some boys and girls. The study provides unique insights from a gender-integrated context for confined young people and supplements scholarship on the gendered logics that underpin interventions operating within the penal–social work nexus....

  3. An investigation of young girls' responses to sexualized images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Byrne, Susan M; Biagioni, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the sexualization of girls has increased and become more explicit in recent years. However, most of the research conducted to date has focused on sexualization in adults. To address this research gap, this study explored how young Australian girls respond to and describe sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers. Results from 42 girls aged 6-11 years revealed that sexualization was a perceptually salient attribute, with participants readily classifying sexualized girls as a subgroup. Participants also made distinct trait attributions based on the differences between sexualized and non-sexualized girls. The results suggest that young girls respond differently to sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers and are beginning to develop stereotypes based on these depictions. As such, the implementation of media literacy programs in adolescence may be too late and efforts may be required to address this issue among younger children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Linguistic camouflage in girls with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish-Morris, Julia; Liberman, Mark Y; Cieri, Christopher; Herrington, John D; Yerys, Benjamin E; Bateman, Leila; Donaher, Joseph; Ferguson, Emily; Pandey, Juhi; Schultz, Robert T

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more frequently in boys than girls, even when girls are equally symptomatic. Cutting-edge behavioral imaging has detected "camouflaging" in girls with ASD, wherein social behaviors appear superficially typical, complicating diagnosis. The present study explores a new kind of camouflage based on language differences. Pauses during conversation can be filled with words like UM or UH, but research suggests that these two words are pragmatically distinct (e.g., UM is used to signal longer pauses, and may correlate with greater social communicative sophistication than UH). Large-scale research suggests that women and younger people produce higher rates of UM during conversational pauses than do men and older people, who produce relatively more UH. Although it has been argued that children and adolescents with ASD use UM less often than typical peers, prior research has not included sufficient numbers of girls to examine whether sex explains this effect. Here, we explore UM vs. UH in school-aged boys and girls with ASD, and ask whether filled pauses relate to dimensional measures of autism symptom severity. Sixty-five verbal school-aged participants with ASD (49 boys, 16 girls, IQ estimates in the average range) participated, along with a small comparison group of typically developing children (8 boys, 9 girls). Speech samples from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule were orthographically transcribed and time-aligned, with filled pauses marked. Parents completed the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Girls used UH less often than boys across both diagnostic groups. UH suppression resulted in higher UM ratios for girls than boys, and overall filled pause rates were higher for typical children than for children with ASD. Higher UM ratios correlated with better socialization in boys with ASD, but this effect was driven by increased use of UH by boys with greater symptoms. Pragmatic

  5. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuddu, K

    1993-01-01

    In Africa, the education of girls has varied with the history and development of countries. For instance, botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have higher enrollment of girls than boys, and in Nigeria the dropout rate for boys is higher than for girls. In Mozambique, girl's education is dependent on matrilineal or patrilineal family structure, urban or rural location, or religious preference. These and many other factors interfere with girl's access, survival, performance, and achievement in school. Strategies generally involve 1) improving access and increasing enrollment, 2) increasing survival in the school system, and 3) improving the quality of the learning environment. Most African countries are involved with the first strategy, but problems remain in selecting the appropriate age to begin school, retaining students and teachers, lowering absenteeism, providing adequate and appropriate teaching materials for students, and other factors that discourage female attendance. Solutions have involved establishing book banks and cardboard box libraries as a supplement to classroom learning. Gender stereotypes in curriculum materials are being introduced which show females in a positive and prominent way. In Zambia, an in-service training program aims to develop positive teacher attitudes toward girls, toward their work, and toward pupil's work. Program efforts in Kenya are attempting to educate parents about the importance of keeping their daughters in school, and about issues related to population, health, education, and a healthy environment. Traditional practices such as female circumcision, childhood marriages, early pregnancy, and nutritional taboos are discouraged. There are 43 district coordinators who conduct seminars and workshops to spread information to communities and households. Other countries are engaged in village meetings and workshops to persuade parents to examine their own interpersonal interaction with their daughters and the impact on their

  6. ShopGirls Shine in Eco-Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Shante

    2011-01-01

    The ShopGirls of Granite Falls (WA) High School are the first-ever all-female team to successfully design, build, and race a prototype diesel car in the Shell Eco-marathon. The team took first place in the diesel fuel-efficiency category with a vehicle that achieved 470 miles per gallon! The idea for the ShopGirls came when Vervia Gabriel, career…

  7. Adolescent Girls' Perceived Barriers to Participation in Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John J. M.; Allison, Kenneth R.; Goldenberg, Ellie R.; Fein, Allan J.; Yoshida, Karen K.; Boutilier, Marie A.

    2006-01-01

    Research shows a decline in physical activity levels during adolescence, particularly among girls. This study explored perceived barriers to participation in moderate and vigorous physical activity among adolescent girls who live in a large ethnoracially and socioeconomically diverse city. A total of 73 adolescent girls in Toronto participated in…

  8. Towards Enhancing Girl Child Education in Nigeria: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined issues bothering on girl child access to education and determined factors militating against girl child access to education in Nigeria. It also examined the benefits of girl child education and its multiplier effect and intergenerational benefits. It is recommended that parents, guardians and the general ...

  9. Eating behaviour, body image, and self-esteem of adolescent girls in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Kah Leng; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Samah, Bahaman Abu

    2008-06-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken with 489 secondary school girls, ages 15-17 years, to examine disordered eating behaviours of adolescent girls in Malaysia and to estimate associations with body weight, body-size discrepancy, and self-esteem. Dietary restraint, binge eating, body image, and self-esteem were assessed using the Restrained Eating scale of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, the Binge Scale Questionnaire, the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Pearson correlations estimated associations between variables. There were 3.1% underweight, 9.8% at risk of being overweight, and 8.6% overweight girls. A total of 87.3% were dissatisfied with their own body size. Dietary restraint and binge eating were reported by 36.0% and 35.4%, respectively. Body Mass Index (r = .34, p self-esteem (r = -.20, p < .001) was significantly associated only with binge eating.

  10. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  11. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. ALFaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  12. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  13. "Spice Girls,""Nice Girls,""Girlies," and "Tomboys": Gender Discourses, Girls' Cultures and Femininities in the Primary Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary gendered power relations are complex, highlighting female British elementary students who assumed varied positions in relation to traditional femininities, though they all occasionally bolstered boys' power at the expense of their own. Students viewed girls as harder working, more mature, and more socially skilled, yet…

  14. Pornography consumption among adolescent girls in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to describe patterns of pornography consumption, investigate differences between consumers and non-consumers of pornography regarding sexual experiences, health and lifestyle and determine associations between pornography consumption and sexual experiences, health and lifestyle among adolescent girls. The hypotheses were that adolescent girls categorised as pornography consumers would report sexual experiences to a greater extent, and a riskier lifestyle and poorer health, compared with non-consumers. A classroom survey was conducted among 16-year-old girls (N = 393). One-third (30%) consumed pornography. In this group, almost half (43%) had fantasies about trying to copy sexual acts seen in pornography and 39% had tried to copy sexual activities seen in pornography. A higher proportion of pornography-consuming girls reported sexual experiences compared with peers. A third (30%) reported experience of anal sex compared with 15% among non-consuming peers (p = 0.001). Furthermore, peer-relationship problems (17% vs 9%; p = 0.015), use of alcohol (85% vs 69%; p = 0.001) and daily smoking (27% vs 14%; p = 0.002) were reported to a greater extent than in non-consuming peers. Pornography consumption, use of alcohol and daily smoking were associated with experience of casual sex. Pornography-consuming girls reported sexual experiences and a risky lifestyle to a greater extent compared with non-consuming girls. This indicates that pornography consumption may influence sexualisation and lifestyle. This is important to acknowledge when designing and implementing sexual health programmes for adolescents.

  15. Protective effect of multimicronutrient supplementation against anemia among children, women, and adolescent girls in lower-income areas of Chiclayo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Romaña, Daniel; Verona, Sara; Vivanco, Oscar Aquino; Gross, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]) implemented a campaign to promote weekly multimicronutrient supplementation among women and adolescent girls of childbearing age and children under 5 years of age. To assess the impact of the campaign on the growth of children and on anemia among children and among women and adolescent girls of childbearing age. Weekly multimicronutrient supplementation was provided for 8 weeks. Weights, heights, and hemoglobin concentrations were assessed at the beginning and end of the campaign. Although supplementation did not significantly increase the hemoglobin concentrations of children (p = .80) or women and adolescent girls (p = .65) in the intervention group, the hemoglobin concentrations of the comparison groups were significantly lower after 8 weeks (p = .001 for children and p = .03 for women and adolescent girls). Furthermore, the percentage of anemic children in the comparison group increased significantly (p <.001), and the final value was significantly higher than that for the intervention group (p = .004). There were no significant effects of weekly multimicronutrient supplementation on the growth of children, but the study was too short to reliably determine any effects on growth.

  16. Girls' Education: The Power of Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…

  17. Association of insulin-like growth factor-1 and IGF binding protein-3 with 25-hydroxy vitamin D in pre-pubertal and adolescent Indian girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Ramank K; Garg, M K; Gupta, Sushil; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Gupta, Nandita; Narang, Archna; Shukla, Manoj; Arora, Preeti; Singh, Annie; Chadha, Aditi; Mithal, Ambrish

    2018-03-28

    There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in India. Molecular mechanisms suggest a strong relationship between vitamin D and growth factors. However, there is a paucity of literature with regard to a relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and vitamin D particularly in subjects with VDD. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between growth factors and serum vitamin D-parathormone (PTH) status in school girls and study the impact of vitamin D supplementation on growth factors in pre-pubertal girls with VDD. Our study subjects were apparently healthy school girls aged 6-18 years. The baseline height, weight, body mass index (BMI), pubertal status, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), PTH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were assessed in 847 girls aged 6-18 years and in 190 pre-pubertal girls with VDD following supplementation. The mean age, BMI and serum 25OHD of girls were 11.5±3.2 years, 18.7±4.8 kg/m2 and 9.9±5.6 ng/mL, respectively. VDD was observed in 94.6% of girls. Unadjusted serum IGF-1 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were significantly higher in girls with severe VDD as compared to girls with mild-to-moderate VDD. However, these differences disappeared when adjusted for age, height or sexual maturation. The serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels increased significantly post supplementation with vitamin D. There were no differences in serum IGF-1 levels and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio among VDD categories when adjusted for age, height and sexual maturation in girls. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 levels in VDD pre-pubertal girls.

  18. The relationship between flat feet and cavus foot with body mass index in girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajirezaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between flat feet and cavus foot with body mass index in girl students. Methods: The study population consisted of the Mazandaran University students that their number was 260 (130 girl college students and 130 girl students of non-physical education formed. Sampling of participants over the two days. Height and weight of the subjects were measured, then they were placed on a mirror box and were taken the photographs of the Plantar foot. for picture Plantar foot was used of the mirror box (pedescope. data analyzed by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: The results of Pearson correlation coefficient test in physical education subjects showed there was no relationship the between BMI and flat feet (0.306. Also, the relationship between BMI and cavus foot was significant and direct (0.330. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient test in physical education subjects showed that the relationship between BMI and flat feet was significant (0.457. Also, there was no relationship between BMI and cavus foot (-0.026. The results in non-physical education subjects showed the relationship between BMI and flat feet was significant, but was in the opposite direction (-0.493. Also, the relationship between BMI and cavus foot was significant and direct (0.424. The results of Spearman correlation test showed that the relationship and flat feet was significant but was in the opposite direction (-0.648. Also, the relationship between BMI and cavus foot was significant (0.413. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems to there was no relationship between flat feet and cavus foot with body mass index in girl students.

  19. An evaluation of a body image intervention in adolescent girls delivered in single-sex versus co-educational classroom settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Candice J; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A

    2017-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction is now recognized as having considerable negative impact on social, psychological, and physical health, particularly in adolescent girls. Consequently, we have developed a six-session co-educational body image intervention (Happy Being Me Co-educational) designed to reduce body dissatisfaction and its risk factors in Grade 7 girls. In addition to evaluating the program's efficacy, we aimed to identify whether girls would benefit equally when it was delivered as a universal intervention to a whole class including both boys and girls (co-educational delivery), or delivered as a selective intervention to girls only (single-sex delivery). Participants were 200 Grade 7 girls from five schools in Melbourne, Australia. Schools were randomly allocated to receive the intervention in single-sex classes (n=74), co-educational classes (n=73), or participate as a no-intervention control (n=53). Girls completed self-report assessments of body dissatisfaction, psychological (internalization of the thin ideal, appearance comparison, and self-esteem) and peer environment (weight-related teasing and appearance conversations) risk factors for body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint, at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Significant improvements in body dissatisfaction and psychological risk factors were observed in the intervention group at post-intervention and these were maintained at follow-up for psychological risk factors. Importantly, no significant differences between universal and selective delivery were observed, suggesting that the intervention is appropriate for dissemination in both modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  1. The Diagnostic Value of Pelvic Ultrasound in Girls with Central Precocious Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Joo, Eun Young; Lee, Ji-Eun; Jun, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test is the gold standard for differentiating central precocious puberty (CPP) from exaggerated thelarche (ET). Because of this test's limitations, previous studies have clarified the clinical and laboratory factors that predict CPP. The present study investigated the early diagnostic significance of pelvic ultrasound in girls with CPP. The GnRH stimulation test and pelvic ultrasound were performed between March 2007 and February 2015 in 192 girls (aged values in pelvic ultrasound for differentiating between CPP and ET. Pelvic ultrasound should be combined with clinical and laboratory tests to maximize its diagnostic value for CPP.

  2. Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Yehenew

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is the reflection of cumulative pre-adolescent exposure of girls to either adverse environment such as food insecurity or affluent living conditions. Food insecurity could result in inadequate nutrient intake and stress, both of which are hypothesized to have opposing effects on the timing of menarche through divergent pathways. It is not known whether food insecure girls have delayed menarche or early menarche compared with their food secure peers. In this study we test the competing hypothesis of the relationship between food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods We report on 900 girls who were investigated in the first two rounds of the five year longitudinal survey. The semi-parametric frailty model was fitted to determine the effect of adolescent food insecurity on time to menarche after adjusting for socio-demographic and economic variables. Results Food insecure girls have menarche one year later than their food secure peer (median age of 15 years vs 14 years. The hazard of menarche showed a significant decline (P = 0.019 as severity of food insecurity level increased, the hazard ratio (HR for mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity were 0.936 and 0.496, respectively compared to food secure girls. Stunted girls had menarche nearly one year later than their non-stunted peers (HR = 0.551, P Conclusion Food insecurity is associated with delay of age at menarche by one year among girls in the study area. Stunted girls had menarche one year later than their non-stunted peers. Age at menarche reflects the development of girls including the timing of sexual maturation, nutritional status and trajectory of growth during the pre-pubertal periods. The findings reflect the consequence of chronic food insecurity on the development and well-being of girls in the study area.

  3. Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

  4. The role of Circle women in curbing violence against women and girls in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Owusu-Ansah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the role Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians (the Circle have played in the struggle to end or reduce the rate at which violence against women and girls occurs in West Africa by highlighting the contributions of older Circle women, especially the initiator of the Circle, Mercy Amba Oduyoye. The initiator of the Circle and other older Circle women have left a remarkable legacy that needs to continue by the current and future generations of the Circle. The background information examines the leadership and mentorship of Mercy Amba Oduyoye and the impact she has made in the lives of African women. The essay then looks at the types of violence that women face in West Africa with the specific contributions of Circle women in the struggle to end violence against women and girls. It then argues that Circle women have played very significant roles both in setting the pace and giving the platform for women activities to minimise gender-based violence against women and girls. Circle women have written and presented papers that have addressed many challenges including HIV and/or AIDS, Girl Child trafficking, Marriage of Minors, and almost all kinds of violence against women and girls. Currently, religious violence threatens the fabric of African nations causing insecurity and panic, women and girls being the most vulnerable. The challenge to the present and future Circle members is to contribute in significant ways towards religious harmony in Africa and beyond. The Circle acknowledges the leadership role of women and encourages them to spearhead the liberation of women as well as empower them to be able to aspire to get to the top or become independent. No one understands what someone else feels better than the person experiencing the ordeal. Women can better understand what they go through and also have the passion to strive towards liberation.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In this article, the

  5. Heterosexual Men's Ratings of Sexual Attractiveness of Adolescent Girls: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Lowe, Rob; Petrova, Hristina

    2015-11-01

    Following an identical procedure to the one we previously reported (O'Donnell, Lowe, Brotherton, & Bennett, 2014), we examined ratings of sexual attraction to photographs of (the same) adolescent girls (Tanner stages 3-4) labelled as either 14-15 years or 16-17 years old, women, and men. Ratings were made by Bulgarian heterosexual men by pressing buttons on a response box which recorded the ratings made and the time in milliseconds taken to respond. Despite the age of sexual consent in Bulgaria being 14 years, the pattern of findings did not differ from those found in the UK, where the age of consent is 16 years. That is, mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the girls labelled as younger were lower than those of the (same) girls labelled as older, and those of the women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when younger girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. These associations were reversed in response to the photographs of women. We take these findings to indicate an inhibitory effect arising from generalized sexual norms relating to the inappropriateness of sexual attraction to young girls; the greater the attraction, the higher the inhibition. This second replication of our initial findings suggests a robust effect that may be of benefit in exploration of pedophile or sex offender groups.

  6. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Gelban, Khalid S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. RESULTS: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSION: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. PMID:19584586

  7. The impact of single-gender classrooms on science achievement of middle school gifted girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulkins, David S.

    Studies indicate a gap in science achievement and positive attitudes towards science between gifted male and female students with females performing less than the males. This study investigated the impact of a single-gender classroom environment as opposed to a mixed-gender classroom, on motivation, locus of control, self-concept, and science achievement of middle school gifted girls. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Review of Personal Effectiveness with Locus of Control (ROPELOC), Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), and Stanford Achievement Test 10th Edition, were used to measure the dependent variables respectively. The independent-measure t test was used to compare the differences between girls in a single-gender classroom with the ones in a mixed-gender classroom. A significant difference in the external locus of control resulted for girls in the single gender classroom. However, there were no significant differences found in science achievement, motivation, and the attitudes toward science between the two groups. The implication is that a single-gender learning environment and the use of differentiated teaching strategies can help lessen the negative effects of societal stereotypes in today's classrooms. These, along with being cognizant of the differences in learning styles of girls and their male counterparts, will result in a greater level of success for gifted females in the area of science education.

  8. The Effect of Corrective Exercises on Flexibility and Strength in Postural Scoliosis of Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboube Karbalaaie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of corrective exercises on flexibility and strength in Postural Scoliosis of adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: This quasi experimental research was applied as a clinical trial and had done on 40 girls with postural scoliosis those were selected by convenient sampling and assigned to control (n=20 and experimental (n=20 group by simple randomized method. The experimental group received corrective exercises for 30 days and the control group was given no intervention. Flexibility and strength was measured before and after 30 days in all subjects. Data were analyzed by use of Paired T and Independent T tests. Results: There was statistically significant difference in Flexibility and Strength of experimental group between before and after intervention (P<0/001, but There was no significant difference between groups after intervention (P=0.6. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that corrective exercises can lead to improvement of flexibility and strength in scoliosis girls.

  9. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Hirotaka; Munesue, Toshio; Ishitobi, Makoto; Asano, Mizuki; Omori, Masao; Sato, Makoto; Tomoda, Akemi; Wada, Yuji

    2012-08-13

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl's social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs.

  10. Girl adoption in China-A less-known side of son preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuyu; Ebenstein, Avraham; Edlund, Lena; Li, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    In 1987, 4 per cent of girls were adopted within China. Why? Unlike infanticide, abandonment rids parents of daughters while preserving the supply of potential brides. In fact, an erstwhile tradition common in Fujian and Jiangxi provinces had parents of sons adopting an infant girl to serve as a future daughter-in-law and household help. Analysing a nationally representative 1992 survey of children, we found that: (1) girl adoptions were concentrated in the above-mentioned provinces; (2) girls were predominantly adopted by families with sons; (3) adopted girls faced substantial disadvantage as measured by school attendance at ages 8-13. In the 1990s, as the sex ratio at birth climbed, were girls aborted rather than abandoned? Observing that in the 2000 census too many girls appear in families with older sons, we estimated that at least 1/25 girls were abandoned in the 1990s, a proportion that in Fujian and Jiangxi may have peaked at 1/10 in 1994.

  11. 77 FR 61468 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Balthus: Cats and Girls”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8057] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Balthus: Cats and Girls'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations... and Girls,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  12. Promoting resilience among Sesotho-speaking adolescent girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers are a crucial part of young people's social ecologies. Considering that black South African adolescent girls remain the most marginalised group in South Africa, the purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study has been to explore if and how teachers champion resilience among black adolescent girls living ...

  13. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  14. Girls Negotiating Sexuality and Violence in the Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2018-01-01

    Girls' vulnerability to sexual violence and harassment is a recurrent theme in much of the literature on schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. Within this research, girls are often framed as passive victims of violence. By drawing on a case study, this paper focuses on 12 to 13-year-old South African school girls as they mediate and participate in…

  15. Sex of Sexual Partners and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among U.S. Girls and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; McCauley, Heather L; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Haneuse, Sebastien; Gordon, Allegra R; Potter, Jennifer; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-03-01

    Girls and women are at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer from male and female sexual partners throughout the life course. However, no study has assessed how sex of sexual partners, a dimension of sexual orientation, may relate to HPV vaccination among girls and women. In 2014, data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth were used to conduct logistic regression analyses estimating the relationship between sex of lifetime and past-year sexual partners and HPV vaccine awareness and initiation among U.S. girls and women aged 15-25 years (N=3,253). Among U.S. girls and women aged 15-25 years, the prevalence of HPV vaccine awareness and HPV vaccine initiation was 84.4% and 28.5%, respectively. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, participants with only female past-year sexual partners had significantly lower odds of initiating HPV vaccination relative to those with only male past-year sexual partners (OR=0.16, 95% CI=0.05, 0.55). Similarly, respondents with no lifetime (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.46, 0.92) or past-year (OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.50, 0.94) sexual partners had significantly lower adjusted odds of HPV vaccine initiation compared with those with only male sexual partners. No difference was apparent in the odds of initiating HPV vaccination between participants with male and female sexual partners and those with only male sexual partners. Medical and public health professionals should ensure that girls and women with only female or no sexual partners are included in HPV vaccine education and promotion efforts. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The macrophage activation marker sCD163 combined with markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) score predicts clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, T D; McGrail, R; Møller, H J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive identification of significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis is needed in hepatology practice. AIM: To investigate whether the combination of sCD163 as a hepatic inflammation marker and the fibrosis markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score (ELF) can...... predict portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We measured sCD163 and the ELF components (hyaluronic acid, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and procollagen-III aminopeptide) in two separate cohorts of cirrhosis patients that underwent hepatic vein catheterisation. To test...... the predictive accuracy we developed a CD163-fibrosis portal hypertension score in an estimation cohort (n = 80) and validated the score in an independent cohort (n = 80). A HVPG ≥10 mmHg was considered clinically significant. RESULTS: Both sCD163 and the ELF components increased in a stepwise manner...

  17. Improving dietary intake to prevent anemia in adolescent girls through community kitchens in a periurban population of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H M; Uribe, T G; Bartolini, R M; Fukumoto, M N; López, T T; Zavaleta, N M; Bentley, M E

    2000-02-01

    Peru has high rates of iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence is 35% in nonpregnant women of fertile age and 24.7% in adolescent girls in slums of periurban Lima. The major cause of anemia is low intake of dietary iron. A community-based, randomized behavioral and dietary intervention trial was conducted to improve dietary iron intake and iron bioavailability of adolescent girls living in periurban areas of Lima, Peru. Results show that there was a change in knowledge about anemia and improved dietary iron intake in the 71 girls who completed the study compared with the 66 girls in the control group. Although the 9-mo. intervention was not sufficient to improve hemoglobin levels significantly, there appeared to be a protective effect in maintaining the iron status of girls in comparison with the control group.

  18. Alterations in neuromuscular function in girls with generalized joint hypermobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Sandfeld, Jesper; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Johansen, Katrine Lyders; Hendriksen, Peter; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2016-10-03

    Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal joint pain. We investigated neuromuscular performance and muscle activation strategy. Girls with GJH and non-GJH (NGJH) performed isometric knee flexions (90°,110°,130°), and extensions (90°) at 20 % Maximum Voluntary Contraction, and explosive isometric knee flexions while sitting. EMG was recorded from knee flexor and extensor muscles. Early rate of torque development was 53 % faster for GJH. Reduced hamstring muscle activation in girls with GJH was found while knee extensor and calf muscle activation did not differ between groups. Flexion-extension and medial-lateral co-activation ratio during flexions were higher for girls with GJH than NGJH girls. Girls with GJH had higher capacity to rapidly generate force than NGJH girls which may reflect motor adaptation to compensate for hypermobility. Higher medial muscle activation indicated higher levels of medial knee joint compression in girls with GJH. Increased flexion-extension co-activation ratios in GJH were explained by decreased agonist drive to the hamstrings.

  19. NASA’s Universe of Learning: Girls STEAM Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Emma; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Smith, Denise A.; Ryer, Holly; Slivinski, Carolyn; Kenney, Jessica; Arcand, Kimberly K.; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Girls STEAM Ahead with NASA Team

    2017-10-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate’s Universe of Learning (UoL) program enables scientists and engineers to more effectively engage with learners of all ages. The Girls STEAM Ahead with NASA education program within UoL, expands upon the former program, NASA Science4Girls and Their Families, in celebration of National Women’s History Month. The initiative partners the NASA’s Universe of Learning science education program resources with public libraries to provide NASA-themed activities for girls and their families, including hands-on activities for engaging girls, complementary exhibits, and professional development for library partner staff. The science-institute-embedded partners in NASA’s UoL are uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. The thematic topics related to NASA Astrophysics enable audiences to experience the full range of NASA scientific and technical disciplines and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging underserved and underrepresented audiences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations (e.g. National Girls Collaborative Project or NGCP), and remote engagement of audiences. This presentation will provide an overview of the program progress related to engaging girls and their families in NASA-based science programming.

  20. Pre-school children with suspected autism spectrum disorders: do girls and boys have the same profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gunilla Westman; Gillberg, Christopher; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    The male to female ratio is raised in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have suggested that girls with ASD have more problems with communication than boys, but boys show more repetitive behaviours than girls. In this study, 20 girls, 1.8-3.9 years of age were matched for chronological and developmental age with 20 boys with suspected ASD. All the children were recruited after population screening and referral by Child Health Care Services to a specialised neuropsychiatry clinic, where they underwent comprehensive neuropsychiatric assessments. Comparisons were made with regard to diagnosis, developmental profiles and global disability. No significant gender differences were found. There were strong correlations between results obtained in different developmental areas. The results suggest that either (1) previous studies finding clear gender differences may have overrated discrepancies between girls and boys in ASD, or that (2) there may be girls, who will not be identified in the early years with our current screening instruments. More research with a much larger population representative study samples is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross cultural comparison of JTCI inventory of temperament and character scores of 11-13 year olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukanac Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares characteristics of Serbian and American children on the dimensions of temperament and character on the Junior TCI (JTCI for assessment of 9 to 13 year olds - based on Robert Cloninger’s Psychobiological model of temperament and character. Given the lack of assessment tools for this age group, the goal of the present study was to test the factor structure and main psychometric characteristics of the JTCI in order to determine the applicability of this questionnaire on Serbian children. The sample consisted of 222 boys and girls from the normal population, ages 11 to 13 and who attended grades 6 to 8. The results showed significant differences between Serbian and American sample. Namely, Serbian children had higher scores on the Novelty seeking and Harm Avoidance and lower scores on Reward Dependence and Persistency. As to the Character Dimensions, Serbian children had lower scores on Reward dependence and persistency, and significantly lower on Self-directedness and Cooperativeness. Scores on the Self-transcendence were higher among the Serbian children. The differences on Character dimensions between children from different cultures suppose to be primarily a result of the socialization process. They reflect a lower level of maturity, cooperation and probably compensatory reliance on the religion. Although it is a temperament dimension, being prone to negative emotions (higher scores on Danger avoidance may also be a result of a situational sensitivity. This result could be interpreted as a reflection of the negative effects that the general socio cultural milieu had on the children who grew up during the social crisis and transitional periods of our society. The result did not confirm a seven factor personality structure of children in this age group. It is likely that at the age of 11 to 13, dimensions of character and temperament did not yet clearly differentiate. Finally, poor reliability of the JTCI scales imposes

  2. Two-year outcomes of a randomized, family-based substance use prevention trial for Asian American adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P

    2013-09-01

    Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program's efficacy on decreasing girls' substance use and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. A total of 108 Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls' relationships with their mothers while increasing girls' resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared with the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sust