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Sample records for gingival shade guide

  1. Color Parameters of the Chromascop Shade Guide

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    William J. O'Brien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are: (1 determine the color of the twenty shades in the Ivoclar’s Chromascop shade guide, (2 determine the color representation of the shade guide described as coverage error (CE, and (3 compare this shade guide with the Vita Classical and Bioform shade guides. The spectral data was collected using Beckman model DU reflectance spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE chromaticity coordinates were calculated using CIE illuminant C and 1931 observer data, then converted to CIE L*a*b* and Munsell notation. Each shade was spectrophotometrically compared to the published colors of 335 human teeth. The minimum CIE L*a*b* color difference was calculated for each tooth and the average of these color differences was defined as the CE. The measured colors of the Chromascop guide had a CIE L* range of 79.67 to 65.61, an a* range of -0.71 to 3.85, and a b* range of 14.58 to 27.69. The average CE of the Chromascop shade guide was 3.38. The Chromascop shade guide has similar colors and a CE compared with the Bioform and Vita Classical shade guides, but with some shades of higher red and yellow components.

  2. Shade determination using camouflaged visual shade guides and an electronic spectrophotometer.

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    Kvalheim, S F; Øilo, M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare a camouflaged visual shade guide to a spectrophotometer designed for restorative dentistry. Two operators performed analyses of 66 subjects. One central upper incisor was measured four times by each operator; twice with a camouflaged visual shade guide and twice with a spectrophotometer Both methods had acceptable repeatability rates, but the electronic shade determination showed higher repeatability. In general, the electronically determined shades were darker than the visually determined shades. The use of a camouflaged visual shade guide seems to be an adequate method to reduce operator bias.

  3. Composite shade guides and color matching.

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    Paolone, Gaetano; Orsini, Giovanna; Manauta, Jordi; Devoto, Walter; Putignano, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Finding reliable systems that can help the clinician match the color of direct composite restorations is often an issue. After reviewing several composite shade guides available on the market and outlining their main characteristics and limits (unrealistic specimen thickness, not made with the same material the clinician will use, only a few allow to overlap enamel tabs on dentin ones), the authors evaluated the reliability of a system designed to produce self-made standardized "tooth-shaped" shade guide specimens. Small changes in composite enamel thickness may determine huge differences in esthetic outcomes. In conclusion, the results showed that all the specimens demonstrated comparable enamel thickness in all the examined areas (cervical, middle, incisal).

  4. Shade guide optimization--a novel shade arrangement principle for both ceramic and composite shade guides when identifying composite test objects.

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    Østervemb, Niels; Jørgensen, Jette Nedergaard; Hørsted-Bindslev, Preben

    2011-02-01

    The most widely used shade guide for composite materials is made of ceramic and arranged according to a non-proven method. There is a need for a composite shade guide using a scientifically based arrangement principle. To compare the shade tab arrangement of the Vitapan Classical shade guide and an individually made composite shade guide using both the originally proposed arrangement principle and arranged according to ΔE2000 values with hue group division. An individual composite shade guide made from Filtek Supreme XT body colors was compared to the Vitapan Classical shade guide. Twenty-five students matched color samples made from Filtek Supreme XT body colors using the two shade guides arranged after the two proposed principles--four shade guides in total. Age, sequence, gender, time, and number of correct matches were recorded. The proposed visually optimal composite shade guide was both fastest and had the highest number of correct matches. Gender was significantly associated with time used for color sampling but not regarding the number of correct shade matches. A composite shade guide is superior compared to the ceramic Vitapan Classical guide when using composite test objects. A rearrangement of the shade guide according to hue, subdivided according to ΔE2000, significantly reduces the time needed to take a color sample and increases the number of correct shade matches. Total color difference in relation to the lightest tab with hue group division is recommended as a possible and universally applicable mode of tab arrangement in dental color standards. Moreover, a shade guide made of the composite materials itself is to be preferred as both a faster and more accurate method of determining color. © 2011, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2011, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Consistency in color parameters of a commonly used shade guide.

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    Tashkandi, Esam

    2010-01-01

    The use of shade guides to assess the color of natural teeth subjectively remains one of the most common means for dental shade assessment. Any variation in the color parameters of the different shade guides may lead to significant clinical implications. Particularly, since the communication between the clinic and the dental laboratory is based on using the shade guide designation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency of the L∗a∗b∗ color parameters of a sample of a commonly used shade guide. The color parameters of a total of 100 VITAPAN Classical Vacuum shade guide (VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany(were measured using a X-Rite ColorEye 7000A Spectrophotometer (Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA). Each shade guide consists of 16 tabs with different designations. Each shade tab was measured five times and the average values were calculated. The ΔE between the average L∗a∗b∗ value for each shade tab and the average of the 100 shade tabs of the same designation was calculated. Using the Student t-test analysis, no significant differences were found among the measured sample. There is a high consistency level in terms of color parameters of the measured VITAPAN Classical Vacuum shade guide sample tested.

  6. Reliability of conventional shade guides in teeth color determination.

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    Todorović, Ana; Todorović, Aleksandar; Gostović, Aleksandra Spadijer; Lazić, Vojkan; Milicić, Biljana; Djurisić, Slobodan

    2013-10-01

    Color matching in prosthodontic therapy is a very important task because it influences the esthetic value of dental restorations. Visual shade matching represents the most frequently applied method in clinical practice. Instrumental measurements provide objective and quantified data in color assessment of natural teeth and restorations. In instrumental shade analysis, the goal is to achieve the smallest deltaE value possible, indicating the most accurate shade match. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of commercially available ceramic shade guides. VITA Easyshade spectrophotometer (VITA, Germany) was used for instrumental color determination. Utilizing this device, color samples of ten VITA Classical and ten VITA 3D - Master shade guides were analyzed. Each color sample from all shade guides was measured three times and the basic parameters of color quality were examined: deltaL, deltaC, deltaH, deltaE, deltaElc. Based on these parameters spectrophotometer marks the shade matching as good, fair or adjust. After performing 1,248 measurements of ceramic color samples, frequency of evaluations adjust, fair and good were statistically significantly different between VITA Classical and VITA 3D Master shade guides (p = 0.002). There were 27.1% cases scored as adjust, 66.3% as fair and 6.7% as good. In VITA 3D - Master shade guides 30.9% cases were evaluated as adjust, 66.4% as fair and 2.7% cases as good. Color samples from different shade guides, produced by the same manufacturer, show variability in basic color parameters, which once again proves the lack of precision and nonuniformity of the conventional method.

  7. Comparison of accuracies of an intraoral spectrophotometer and conventional visual method for shade matching using two shade guide systems.

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    Parameswaran, Vidhya; Anilkumar, S; Lylajam, S; Rajesh, C; Narayan, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the shade matching abilities of an intraoral spectrophotometer and the conventional visual method using two shade guides. The results of previous investigations between color perceived by human observers and color assessed by instruments have been inconclusive. The objectives were to determine accuracies and interrater agreement of both methods and effectiveness of two shade guides with either method. In the visual method, 10 examiners with normal color vision matched target control shade tabs taken from the two shade guides (VITAPAN Classical™ and VITAPAN 3D Master™) with other full sets of the respective shade guides. Each tab was matched 3 times to determine repeatability of visual examiners. The spectrophotometric shade matching was performed by two independent examiners using an intraoral spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade™) with five repetitions for each tab. Results revealed that visual method had greater accuracy than the spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer; however, exhibited significantly better interrater agreement as compared to the visual method. While VITAPAN Classical shade guide was more accurate with the spectrophotometer, VITAPAN 3D Master shade guide proved better with visual method. This in vitro study clearly delineates the advantages and limitations of both methods. There were significant differences between the methods with the visual method producing more accurate results than the spectrophotometric method. The spectrophotometer showed far better interrater agreement scores irrespective of the shade guide used. Even though visual shade matching is subjective, it is not inferior and should not be underrated. Judicious combination of both techniques is imperative to attain a successful and esthetic outcome.

  8. The effect of various disinfectants on dental shade guides.

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    Huang, Peterson Y; Masri, Radi; Romberg, Elaine; Driscoll, Carl F

    2014-09-01

    Dental shade guides are used to evaluate tooth color before prosthodontic procedures and are subjected to disinfection after use. The effect of disinfection on shade guides has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of disinfectants on the color of shade tabs. Changes in the color (ΔE) of VITA Classical Shade Guide tabs were measured with a VITA Easyshade spectrophotometer in the CIELAB system and calculated after being subjected to Cavicide, Asepticare TB, Sporicidin, and distilled water (control) over a simulated period of 2 years. Statistical analysis was accomplished by a 2-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test (α=.05). A significant difference was noted in the degree of shade tab color change, depending on the type of disinfectant used (F=153.2, PCavicide (ΔE=1.198). The average total CIELAB color difference for 50% human perceptibility is approximately 1 unit (under standardized laboratory conditions). In the oral cavity, however, an average change of 3.7 ΔE units could still allow teeth to be perceived as having the same color. Therefore, although the results are statistically significant, they may not be clinically important. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An in vitro study to evaluate the difference in shade between commercially available shade guides and glazed porcelain

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    P Manimaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smile is one of the most important interactive communication skills of a person. A smile is the key factor for an aesthetic appearance. Hence aesthetics is one of the motivating factor for the patients to seek dental care. Correction of unaesthetic appearance gives a positive effect to the self esteem of the patient. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the difference in the shade between the commercially available shade guides namely Vita Classical And Ivoclar Chromascop and the fired porcelain samples fabricated using Vita Zahnfabrik VMK 95 and Ivoclar Classic Materials respectively. Objectives: The objective of this study was to obtain a matching brand of material that has a particular shade tab among the brands used. Conclusion: To conclude, Ivoclar material matched the chromascop shade guide better than the vita material matched the vita classic shade guide.

  10. An in vitro study to evaluate the difference in shade between commercially available shade guides and glazed porcelain.

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    Manimaran, P; Sadan, D Sai

    2016-10-01

    Smile is one of the most important interactive communication skills of a person. A smile is the key factor for an aesthetic appearance. Hence aesthetics is one of the motivating factor for the patients to seek dental care. Correction of unaesthetic appearance gives a positive effect to the self esteem of the patient. The aim of this study was to compare the difference in the shade between the commercially available shade guides namely Vita Classical And Ivoclar Chromascop and the fired porcelain samples fabricated using Vita Zahnfabrik VMK 95 and Ivoclar Classic Materials respectively. The objective of this study was to obtain a matching brand of material that has a particular shade tab among the brands used. To conclude, Ivoclar material matched the chromascop shade guide better than the vita material matched the vita classic shade guide.

  11. The Influence of Dental Shade Guides and Experience on the Accuracy of Shade Matching.

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    Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Ghanbarzadeh, Jalil; Amirinejad, Sahar; Alavi, Samin; Rajatihaghi, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    There is limited and inconsistent information on some factors affecting visual shade selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of shade guide type and professional experience on shade-matching results. Thirty Dental students (DS), 30 General dentists (GDs) and 30 Dental specialists (S) participated in this study. The participants were asked to match six target tabs using two dental shade guides: Vitapan Classical (VC) and Vitapan 3D-Master (3D). An intraoral spectrophotometer was used for color measurement of target tabs and selected tabs. The color difference (ΔE) values between the target tab and selected tab were calculated. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired f-test (α = 0.05). Results of the first five best matches for each target tab were expressed as ΔE1 to ΔE5. Differences in the mean values of ΔE1 to ΔE5 between VC and 3D were compared using descriptive statistics. There were no significant differences among the three participating groups in ΔE values when the 3D was used (p = 0.389). However, significant differences were found with VC (p Contemp Dent Pract 2016;17(1):22-26. Source of support: This study was supported by a grant (No. 920903) from the Vice Chancellor for Research of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The results presented here are based on undergraduate thesis (No. 2686) submitted to Mashhad School of Dentistry and Dental Research Center. None.

  12. Color stability of shade guides after autoclave sterilization.

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    Schmeling, Max; Sartori, Neimar; Monteiro, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 120 autoclave sterilization cycles on the color stability of two commercial shade guides (Vita Classical and Vita System 3D-Master). The specimens were evaluated by spectrophotometer before and after the sterilization cycles. The color was described using the three-dimensional CIELab system. The statistical analysis was performed in three chromaticity coordinates, before and after sterilization cycles, using the paired samples t test. All specimens became darker after autoclave sterilization cycles. However, specimens of Vita Classical became redder, while those of the Vita System 3D-Master became more yellow. Repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization caused statistically significant changes in the color coordinates of the two shade guides. However, these differences are considered clinically acceptable.

  13. Evaluation of an optimized shade guide made from porcelain powder mixtures.

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    Wang, Peng; Wei, Jiaqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Yining

    2014-12-01

    Color errors associated with current shade guides and problems with color selection and duplication are still challenging for restorative dentists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an optimized shade guide for visual shade duplication. Color distributions (L*, a*, and b*) of the maxillary left central incisors of 236 participants, whose ages ranged from 20 to 60, were measured with a spectrophotometer. Based on this color map, an optimized shade guide was designed with 14 shade tabs evenly distributed within the given color range of the natural incisors. The shade tabs were fabricated with porcelain powder mixtures and conventional laboratory procedures. A comparison of shade duplication by using the optimized and Vitapan Classical shade guides was conducted. Thirty Chinese participants were involved, and the colors of the left maxillary incisors were selected by using 2 shade guides. Metal ceramic crowns were fabricated according to the results of the shade selection. The colors of the shade tabs, natural teeth, and the ceramic crowns were measured with a spectrophotometer. The color differences among the natural teeth, the shade tabs, and the corresponding metal ceramic crowns were calculated and analyzed (α=.017). Significant differences were found in both phases of shade determination and shade duplication (P<.017). The total number of color errors with the optimized shade guide was 3.5, which was significantly less than that of Vitapan, 5.1 (P<.001). The optimized shade guide system improved performance not only in the color selection phase but also in the color of the fabricated crowns. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a standard shade guide for color change after disinfection.

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    Pohjola, Randall M; Hackman, Steven T; Browning, William D

    2007-09-01

    To determine if surface disinfectants cause a change in the shade perception of a standard Classic Vitapan shade guide. Consistency in shade selection for dental restorations involves many factors, and one of the most important is the shade tabs used in the selection process. Ten shade tabs each of shades B2, D2, C1, and A3.5 were selected from the Classic Vitapan shade guide (Vident). All tabs were measured with the EasyShade shade device (Vident) at baseline. Three tabs of each shade were set aside as controls. The other 7 tabs of each shade were treated with the surface disinfectant Cavicide (Metrex Research) for 480 cycles to simulate a year's usage. After each 480 cycles, all the tabs were again measured with the EasyShade. This process was repeated to simulate 2 and 3 years of use. The data were analyzed to calculate the delta E 2000 for any change. A statistically significant increase was observed in the value (L*) and chroma (C*) after 2 and 3 years of simulated treatments. These changes were not perceptible to the clinician. The authors suggest that 1 standard shade guide be set aside to compare against those in clinical use to determine when they should be replaced.

  15. Evaluation of Dental Shade Guide Variability Using Cross-Polarized Photography.

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    Gurrea, Jon; Gurrea, Marta; Bruguera, August; Sampaio, Camila S; Janal, Malvin; Bonfante, Estevam; Coelho, Paulo G; Hirata, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated color variability in the A hue between the VITA Classical (VITA Zahnfabrik) shade guide and four other VITA-coded ceramic shade guides using a Canon EOS 60D camera and software (Photoshop CC, Adobe). A total of 125 photographs were taken, 5 per shade tab for each of 5 shades (A1 to A4) from the following shade guides: VITA Classical (control), IPS e.max Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent), IPS d.SIGN (Ivoclar Vivadent), Initial ZI (GC), and Creation CC (Creation Willi Geller). Photos were processed with Adobe Photoshop CC to allow standardized evaluation of hue, chroma, and value between shade tabs. None of the VITA-coded shade tabs fully matched the VITA Classical shade tab for hue, chroma, or value. The VITA-coded shade guides evaluated herein showed an overall unmatched shade in all tabs when compared with the control, suggesting that shade selection should be made using the guide produced by the manufacturer of the ceramic intended for the final restoration.

  16. Reliability and accuracy of four dental shade-matching devices.

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    Kim-Pusateri, Seungyee; Brewer, Jane D; Davis, Elaine L; Wee, Alvin G

    2009-03-01

    There are several electronic shade-matching instruments available for clinical use, but the reliability and accuracy of these instruments have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of 4 dental shade-matching instruments in a standardized environment. Four shade-matching devices were tested: SpectroShade, ShadeVision, VITA Easyshade, and ShadeScan. Color measurements were made of 3 commercial shade guides (Vitapan Classical, Vitapan 3D-Master, and Chromascop). Shade tabs were placed in the middle of a gingival matrix (Shofu GUMY) with shade tabs of the same nominal shade from additional shade guides placed on both sides. Measurements were made of the central region of the shade tab positioned inside a black box. For the reliability assessment, each shade tab from each of the 3 shade guide types was measured 10 times. For the accuracy assessment, each shade tab from 10 guides of each of the 3 types evaluated was measured once. Differences in reliability and accuracy were evaluated using the Standard Normal z test (2 sided) (alpha=.05) with Bonferroni correction. Reliability of devices was as follows: ShadeVision, 99.0%; SpectroShade, 96.9%; VITA Easyshade, 96.4%; and ShadeScan, 87.4%. A significant difference in reliability was found between ShadeVision and ShadeScan (P=.008). All other comparisons showed similar reliability. Accuracy of devices was as follows: VITA Easyshade, 92.6%; ShadeVision, 84.8%; SpectroShade, 80.2%; and ShadeScan, 66.8%. Significant differences in accuracy were found between all device pairs (Preliability (over 96%), indicating predictable shade values from repeated measurements. However, there was more variability in accuracy among devices (67-93%), and differences in accuracy were seen with most device comparisons.

  17. Gingivitis

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    ... the teeth. This can include the gums, the periodontal ligaments, and the tooth sockets. Gingivitis is due to the long-term effects of plaque deposits on your teeth. Plaque is a sticky material made of bacteria, mucus, and food debris that builds up on ...

  18. Dental Shade Guide Variability for Hues B, C, and D Using Cross-Polarized Photography.

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    Sampaio, Camila S; Gurrea, Jon; Gurrea, Marta; Bruguera, August; Atria, Pablo J; Janal, Malvin; Bonfante, Estevam A; Coelho, Paulo G; Hirata, Ronaldo

    2018-04-20

    This study evaluated the color variability of hues B, C, and D between the VITA Classical shade guide (Vita Zahnfabrik) and four other VITA-coded ceramic shade guides using a digital camera (Canon EOS 60D) and computer software (Adobe Photoshop CC). A cross-polarizing filter was used to standardize external light sources influencing color match. A total of 275 pictures were taken, 5 per shade tab, for 11 shades (B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, C4, D2, D3, and D4), from the following shade guides: VITA Classical (control); IPS e.max Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent); IPS d.SIGN (Ivoclar Vivadent); Initial ZI (GC); and Creation CC (Creation Willi Geller). Pictures were evaluated using Adobe Photoshop CC for standardization of hue, chroma, and value between shade tabs. The VITA-coded shade guides evaluated here showed an overall unmatched shade in all their tabs when compared to the control, suggesting that shade selection should be made with the corresponding manufacturer guide of the ceramic intended for the final restoration.

  19. [Research on the designing method of a special shade guide for tooth whitening].

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    Xu, Yingxin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate a method of designing an accurate and scientific shade guide, especially used for judging the effect of tooth whitening, by analyzing the colorimetric values of discolored teeth statistically. One hundred thirty-six pictures of patients who had been receiving the Beyond cold light whitening treatment from February 2009 to July 2014 were analyzed, including 25 tetracycline teeth, 61 mottled-enamel teeth, and 50 yellow teeth. The colorimetric values of discolored teeth were measured. The L* values of shade tabs were calculated by hierarchical clustering of those of discolored teeth. The a* and b* values of shade tabs were the mean of those observed for discolored teeth. Accordingly, different shade guides were designed for each type of discolored teeth, and the effects were evaluated. A statistically significant difference in colorimetric values was found among the three types of discolored teeth. Compared with the Vitapan Classical shade guide, the shade guides designed through the present method were more scientific and accurate in judging the effect of tooth whitening. Moreover, the arrangement of shade tabs was more logical, and the color difference between shade tabs and discolored teeth was smaller. The proposed designing method is theoretically feasible, although its clinical effect has yet to be proven.

  20. Assessment of color parameters of composite resin shade guides using digital imaging versus colorimeter.

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    Yamanel, Kivanc; Caglar, Alper; Özcan, Mutlu; Gulsah, Kamran; Bagis, Bora

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the color parameters of resin composite shade guides determined using a colorimeter and digital imaging method. Four composite shade guides, namely: two nanohybrid (Grandio [Voco GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany]; Premise [KerrHawe SA, Bioggio, Switzerland]) and two hybrid (Charisma [Heraeus Kulzer, GmbH & Co. KG, Hanau, Germany]; Filtek Z250 [3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany]) were evaluated. Ten shade tabs were selected (A1, A2, A3, A3,5, A4, B1, B2, B3, C2, C3) from each shade guide. CIE Lab values were obtained using digital imaging and a colorimeter (ShadeEye NCC Dental Chroma Meter, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test. Overall, the mean ΔE values from different composite pairs demonstrated statistically significant differences when evaluated with the colorimeter (p 6.8). For all shade pairs evaluated, the most significant shade mismatches were obtained between Grandio-Filtek Z250 (p = 0.021) and Filtek Z250-Premise (p = 0.01) regarding ΔE mean values, whereas the best shade match was between Grandio-Charisma (p = 0.255) regardless of the measurement method. The best color match (mean ΔE values) was recorded for A1, A2, and A3 shade pairs in both methods. When proper object-camera distance, digital camera settings, and suitable illumination conditions are provided, digital imaging method could be used in the assessment of color parameters. Interchanging use of shade guides from different composite systems should be avoided during color selection. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  1. Application of a digital technique in evaluating the reliability of shade guides.

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    Cal, E; Sonugelen, M; Guneri, P; Kesercioglu, A; Kose, T

    2004-05-01

    There appears to be a need for a reliable method for quantification of tooth colour and analysis of shade. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to show the applicability of graphic software in colour analysis and secondly to investigate the reliability of commercial shade guides produced by the same manufacturer, using this digital technique. After confirming the reliability and reproducibility of the digital method by using self-assessed coloured images, three shade guides of the same manufacturer were photographed in daylight and in studio environments with a digital camera and saved in tagged image file format (TIFF) format. Colour analysis of each photograph was performed using the Adobe Photoshop 4.0 graphic program. Luminosity, and red, green, blue (L and RGB) values of each shade tab of each shade guide were measured and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using the repeated measure Anova test. The L and RGB values of the images taken in daylight differed significantly from those of the images taken in studio environment (P < 0.05). In both environments, the luminosity and red values of the shade tabs were significantly different from each other (P < 0.05). It was concluded that, when the environmental conditions were kept constant, the Adobe Photoshop 4.0 colour analysis program could be used to analyse the colour of images. On the other hand, the results revealed that the accuracy of shade tabs widely being used in colour matching should be readdressed.

  2. Development of digital shade guides for color assessment using a digital camera with ring flashes.

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    Tung, Oi-Hong; Lai, Yu-Lin; Ho, Yi-Ching; Chou, I-Chiang; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2011-02-01

    Digital photographs taken with cameras and ring flashes are commonly used for dental documentation. We hypothesized that different illuminants and camera's white balance setups shall influence color rendering of digital images and affect the effectiveness of color matching using digital images. Fifteen ceramic disks of different shades were fabricated and photographed with a digital camera in both automatic white balance (AWB) and custom white balance (CWB) under either light-emitting diode (LED) or electronic ring flash. The Commission Internationale d'Éclairage L*a*b* parameters of the captured images were derived from Photoshop software and served as digital shade guides. We found significantly high correlation coefficients (r² > 0.96) between the respective spectrophotometer standards and those shade guides generated in CWB setups. Moreover, the accuracy of color matching of another set of ceramic disks using digital shade guides, which was verified by ten operators, improved from 67% in AWB to 93% in CWB under LED illuminants. Probably, because of the inconsistent performance of the flashlight and specular reflection, the digital images captured under electronic ring flash in both white balance setups revealed less reliable and relative low-matching ability. In conclusion, the reliability of color matching with digital images is much influenced by the illuminants and camera's white balance setups, while digital shade guides derived under LED illuminants with CWB demonstrate applicable potential in the fields of color assessments.

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of guided tissue regeneration and connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum in the management of gingival recession

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    Jovičić Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Gingival recession progression in clinical practice as an ethiological factor of periodontal diseases, and symptoms of the disease have caused the development of various surgical procedures and techniques of the reconstruction of periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to verify efficacy of surgical procedures that include connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum and guided tissue regeneration for the treatment of gingival recession. Methods. The study included 20 teet with gingival recession, Müller class II and III. Ten teeth with gingival recession were treated with resorptive membrane and coronary guided surgical flap (GTR group. On the contralateral side 10 teeth with gingival recession were treated with connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum in combination with coronary guided surgical flap (TVT group. We measured the degree of epithelial attachment (DEA, width of subgingival curettage (WGC and vertical deepness of recession (VDR. For statistical significance we used Student's ttest. Results. The study revealed statistical significance in reducing VDR by both used treatments. Root deepness in GTR and TVT group was 63.5%, and 90%, respectively. With both surgical techniques we achieved coronary dislocation of the epithelial attachment, larger zone of gingival curettage, and better oral hygiene. Conclusion. Current surgical techniques are effective in the regeneration of deep periodontal spaces and the treatment of gingival recession. Significantly better results were achieved with the used coronary guided surgical flap than with guided tissue regeneration.

  4. Using a colorimeter to develop an intrinsic silicone shade guide for facial prostheses.

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    Over, L M; Andres, C J; Moore, B K; Goodacre, C J; Muñoz, C A

    1998-12-01

    To determine if using CIE L*a*b* color measurements of white facial skin could be correlated to those of silicone shade samples that visually matched the skin. Secondly, to see if a correlation in color measurements could be achieved between the silicone shade samples and duplicated silicone samples made using a shade-guide color formula. A color booth was designed according to ASTM specifications, and painted using a Munsell Value 8 gray. A Minolta colorimeter was used to make facial skin measurements on 15 white adults. The skin color was duplicated using custom-shaded silicone samples. A 7-step wedge silicone shade guide was then fabricated, representing the commonly encountered thicknesses when fabricating facial prostheses. The silicone samples were then measured with the Minolta colorimeter. The readings were compared with the previous L*a*b* readings from the corresponding patient's skin measurements, and the relative color difference was then calculated. Silicone samples were fabricated and analyzed for three of the patients to determine if duplication of the visually matched silicone specimen was possible using the silicone color formula, and if the duplicates were visually and colorimetrically equivalent to each other. The color difference Delta E and chromaticity was calculated, and the data were analyzed using a coefficient-of-variation formula expressed by percent. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was performed to determine if a correlation existed between the skin and the silicone samples at the p 0), but only the 1-mm and 4-mm b* readings were very strong. Patient and silicone L*a*b* measurement results showed very little change in the a* axis, while the L* and b* measurements showed more change in their numbers, with changes in depth for all patient silicone samples. Delta E numbers indicated the lowest Delta E at the 1-mm depth and the highest Delta E at the 10-mm depth. All duplicated samples matched their original silicone samples

  5. Assessment of Color Changes in Vita 3D-Master Shade Guide after Sterilization and Disinfection

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    Hossein Dashti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:Dental shade guides are commonly used for color determination and should be disinfected and sterilized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color change of Vita 3D Master shade tabs after disinfection and sterilization. Material and methods:Overall, 98 samples (shade tabs were randomly selected from 14 new, unused Vita 3D sets, including the following shades: 2M1, 3L1.5, 3M1, 3M2, 3M3, 3R1.5 and 4M1. In each set, values of 2, 3 and 4, chroma of 1, 2 and 3 and hue were selected for the comparison of different shades. All tabs were measured using the Vita Easyshade device at baseline. The first group was disinfected with Deconex and the second group was sterilized by autoclaving in a simulated annual application. All the tabs were measured again using the same device. This process was repeated to simulate 2 and 3 years of usage. Statistical analysis was conducted by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent t-test and paired sample t-test. Results:In the disinfected group, we observed significant differences in value and chroma in all periods (p˂0.001. However, hue showed no significant difference after the first year of simulated treatment (p=0.527, though it was significantly different in the second and third simulations (p˂0.001. In the sterilized group, all variables showed a significant difference for each year (p˂0.05. Considering total color difference (ΔE, there was a significant difference between the two groups in the first, second and third simulated years; ΔE increased in the sterilized group more than in the disinfected samples (p˂0.001.  Conclusions:  The color change of shade tabs was significant both after disinfection by a chemical solution and by sterilization through autoclaving. However, although disinfectants may not have a clinically important effect, sterilization should be considered as an interfering factor during color-matching procedure.

  6. Translucency and color match with a shade guide of esthetic brackets with the aid of a spectroradiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Bin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Since the color of esthetic brackets should match that of teeth, the aims of this study were to determine the color and translucency of esthetic brackets by means of the clinically relevant use of a spectroradiometer, and to compare the color of brackets with that of a commercial shade guide. The color of central and tie-wing regions of four plastic and four ceramic brackets was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* color scale over white and black backgrounds. Brackets were classified into five groups based on their composition. The color of Vitapan Classical Shade Guide tabs was also measured. Translucency parameter (TP) and contrast ratio (CR) were calculated to determine translucency. Color differences between brackets and the shade guide tabs were 10.4 - 34.5 ∆E*ab units. TP and CR values for the central region were 16.4 - 27.7 and 0.38 - 0.58, whereas for the tie-wings they were 24.0 - 39.9 and 0.25 - 0.45, respectively. The color coordinates, TP and CR values were significantly influenced by bracket composition and brand (p brackets investigated herein showed unacceptable color differences (∆E*ab > 5.5) compared with the shade guide tabs. Differences in the translucency of brackets by brand were within the visually perceptible range (∆CR > 0.07). Therefore, brackets showing the best matching performance for each case should be selected considering esthetic and functional demands.

  7. Influence of surface layer removal of shade guide tabs on the measured color by spectrophotometer and spectroradiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Cheol; Yu, Bin; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-12-01

    To determine the changes in color parameters of Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide tabs by a spectrophotometer (SP) or a spectroradiometer (SR), and by the removal of the surface layer of the tabs that was performed to make a flat measuring surface for the SP color measurement. Color of the shade tabs was measured before and after removing the surface layer of the tabs using SP and SR. Correlations between the color parameters between the original (OR) and the surface layer removed (RM) tabs and between the SP and the SR measurements were determined (alpha=0.05). Based on SP, the lightness, chroma, CIE a* and b* values measured after the surface layer removal were higher than those of the original tabs except a few cases. Based on SR, the chroma and CIE a* and b* values measured after surface layer removal were higher than those of the original tabs except a few cases; however, in case of the lightness, the changes varied by the shade designation. Type of instrument influenced the changes in color parameters based on paired t-test (pspectrophotometer or a spectroradiometer, measurement protocols should be specified because color difference by the surface layer removal and the instrument was high.

  8. The linear shade guide design of Vita 3D-master performs as well as the original design of the Vita 3D-master.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcodel, N; Rammelsberg, P; Jakstat, H; Moldovan, O; Schwarz, S; Hassel, A J

    2010-11-01

    Visual tooth colour assessment by use of the Vita 3D-Master(®) (3D; Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) is well documented. To improve handling, a new linear arrangement of the shade tabs has been introduced (LG; Linearguide 3D-Master(®) ). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the linear design has an effect on shade matching. Fifty-six students underwent identical, theoretical and practical training, by use of an Internet learning module [Toothguide Training Software(®) (TT)] and a standardised training programme [Toothguide Training Box(®) (TTB)]. Each student then matched 30 randomly chosen shade tabs presented in an intra-oral setting by a standardised device [Toothguide Check Box(®) (TCB)]; 15 matches were made using the 3D and 15 using the LG shade guide system, under a daylight lamp (840 matches for each guide). It was recorded to what extent the presented and selected shade tabs, or the lightness group of the tabs, matched, also the needed time for colour matching. The results showed that 35% of perfect matches were observed for the 3D and 32% for the LG. The lightness group was correct in 59% of cases for 3D and 56% for LG. Mean time needed for matching of tabs and lightness group was no different between groups (no significant difference for any assessment). Within the limitations of the study design, the colour assessment with regard to performance and time needed in shade matching was not different with the LG or the 3D. Therefore, the user should choose which shade tab arrangement is more applicable. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Reconstruction of a Severely Atrophied Alveolar Ridge by Computer-Aided Gingival Simulation and 3D-Printed Surgical Guide: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Lee, Mi-Ran; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Lee, Ui-Lyong

    Dental implants positioned in severely atrophied anterior maxillae require esthetic or functional compromises. This case report describes the rehabilitation of a severely atrophied alveolar ridge with a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) surgical guide. A 50-year-old woman had a severely atrophied anterior maxilla with unfavorably positioned dental implants. Functional and esthetic prosthodontic restoration was difficult to achieve. An anterior segmental osteotomy was planned to reposition the dental implants. A 3D surgical guide was designed for precise relocation of the segment. The surgical guide firmly grasped the impression copings of the dental implants, minimizing surgical errors. Three-dimensional gingival simulation was used preoperatively to estimate the appropriate position of the gingiva. Rigid fixation to the surrounding bone allowed immobilization of the implant-bone segment. Satisfactory esthetic and functional outcomes were attained 6 months after surgery. Finally, a severely atrophied alveolar ridge with unfavorably positioned dental implants was recovered with minimal esthetic and functional deterioration using gingival simulation and a 3D CAD/CAM surgical guide.

  10. Gingival Enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cover the crowns of the teeth causing periodontal (gum) disease (due to difficulty in keeping the teeth clean) ... localized and/or generalized gingival enlargement such as pregnancy, hormonal imbalances, and leukemia. To the right is ...

  11. Esthetics and shade communication: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegenbarth, Ernst A

    2006-01-01

    Accurate shade analysis and communication represent one of the biggest challenges in restorative and esthetic dentistry today, especially in light of the rapidly increasing array of ceramic materials available. Traditional methods of shade analysis have relied upon the use of conventional shade guides or, more recently, digital shade measurement. In this article, the author examines the advantages and disadvantages of traditional shade analysis; reviews principles for optimizing the evaluation process, including information regarding the scientific basis of general color science, optics, and aspects of material science; and proposes a six-step approach to shade analysis in which less emphasis is placed on shade guide samples in favor of natural internal structures and surface properties and their replication in different dentin, enamel, transparent, and colored translucent, as well as fluorescent and opalescent, ceramics.

  12. Clinical comparison of guided tissue regeneration, with collagen membrane and bone graft, versus connective tissue graft in the treatment of gingival recessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghighati F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Increasing patient demands for esthetic, put the root coverage procedures in particular attention. Periodontal regeneration with GTR based root coverage methods is the most common treatment used. The purpose of this study was to compare guided tissue regeneration (GTR with collagen membrane and a bone graft, with sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG, in treatment of gingival recession. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, eleven healthy patients with no systemic diseases who had miller’s class I or II recession defects (gingival recession  2mm were treated with SCTG or GTR using a collagen membrane and a bone graft. Clinical measurements were obtained at baseline and 6 months after surgery. These clinical measurements included recession depth (RD, recession width (RW, probing depth (PD, and clinical attachment level (CAL. Data were analyzed using independent t test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Both treatment methods resulted in a statistically significant reduction of recession depth (SCTG=2.3mm, GTR=2.1mm; P<0.0001. CAL gain after 6 months was also improved in both groups (SCG= 2.5mm, GTR=2.1mm, compared to baseline (P<0.0001. No statistical differences were observed in RD, RW, CAL between test and control groups. Root coverage was similar in both methods (SCTG= 74.2%, GTR= 62.6%, P=0.87. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the two techniques are clinically comparable. Therefore the use of collagen membrane and a bovine derived xenograft may alleviate the need for connective tissue graft.

  13. Shade variance in ceramic restoration and shade tab: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannaikadu Somasundaram Prabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In clinical practice aesthetics for any restoration needs to consider the parameters of surface form, translucency and colour.To achieve ideal aesthetics the colour replication process for dental porcelain is the most important step which comprises of a shade selection phase followed by shade duplication. Materials and Methods: The ceramic brands Vita VMK95 (classic and Ivoclar classic V were used for comparison with Vita classic shade tab guide shades A2 and B2. The samples were made of specific shape, size, and were of the recommended dimensions from investing self-cure acrylic strips to casted NiCr specimens Objective. The objective of this study was to quantify the results in CIE AE units system for the colour differences between the Vita shade guide colours and two commercial porcelains for metal ceramic crowns. Results: The results indicated that the porcelains do not match the shade guides to which they are compared and shade variations exist between different lots of porcelain from the same and different manufacturer. Conclusion: Problems identified that porcelains do not match the shade guides to which they are compared and shade variations exist between different lots of porcelain from the same and different manufacturer

  14. Insect Pests of Shade Trees and Shrubs: A Guide for Commercial Nurserymen and Arborists. Publication E-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuder, Donald L.

    This guide presents information on controlling insect pests of ornamental trees and shrubs. It is organized for easy reference by nurserymen, arborists, and others desirous of controlling insect damage. General information given includes notes on spraying and sprayers, insecticides, general purpose sprays, phytotoxicity, and health precautions.…

  15. Effects of a shade-matching light and background color on reliability in tooth shade selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Vahidi, Farhad; Janal, Malvin N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a shade-matching light (Rite-Lite-2, AdDent) and different viewing backgrounds on reliability in a test of shade tab matching. Four members of the Prosthodontic faculty matched 10 shade tabs selected for a range of shades against the shade guide. All raters were tested for color blindness and were calibrated prior to the study. Matching took place under four combinations of conditions: with operatory light or the shade-matching light, and using either a pink or a blue background. Reliability was quantified with the kappa statistic, separately for agreement of value, hue, and chroma for each shade tab. In general, raters showed fair to moderate levels of agreement when judging the value of the shade tabs, but could not agree on the hue and chroma of the stimuli. The pink background led to higher levels of agreement than the blue background, and the shade-matching light improved agreement when used in conjunction with the pink but not the blue background. Moderate levels of agreement were found in matching shade tab value. Agreement was generally better when using the pink rather than the blue background, regardless of light source. The use of the shade-matching light tended to amplify the advantage of the pink background.

  16. A Spectrophotometric Color Evaluation of Natural Teeth and Gingival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Hosseini, Mandana; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    positions of each tooth (incisal 1/3, body1/3, cervical 1/3 and gingival) were assessed using a spectrophotometer (SpectroShadeTM, Micro Dental, Seria No. HDL3214, MHT, S.p.A, Italy) in CIELab coordinates. Descriptive statistics of Spss17.0 was used to analyze the distribution of color coordinates. Pearson...... correlation was used to test the relationship between the coordinates and age. Independent t test was used to test the difference between gender groups. Results: All the color coordinates for teeth and gingival were in right-left symmetric distribution by the central incisors and the distribution was in same...... mode at each tooth. The body part of the central incisor had the highest L value and the cervical part of the canine had the highest a, b value. No statistical difference was found among positions regarding the gingival color. Statistical correlation was found between the gingival color...

  17. Shade selection performed by novice dental professionals and colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, E; Matela, A-M; Haag, P; Kononen, M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test inter-observer variability in shade selection for porcelain restorations, using three different shade guides: Vita Lumin Vacuum, Vita 3D-Master and Procera. Nineteen young dental professionals acted as observers. The results were also compared with those of a digital colorimeter (Shade Eye Ex; Shofu, Japan). Regarding repeatability, no significant differences were found between the three shade guides, although repeatability was relatively low (33-43%). Agreement with the colorimetric results was also low (8-34%). In conclusion, shade selection shows moderate to great inter-observer variation. In teaching and standardizing the shade selection procedure, a digital colorimeter may be a useful educational tool.

  18. Gingival tissue transcriptomes in experimental gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Daniel; Ramberg, Per; Demmer, Ryan T.; Kebschull, Moritz; Dahlén, Gunnar; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We investigated the sequential gene expression in the gingiva during the induction and resolution of experimental gingivitis. Methods Twenty periodontally and systemically healthy non-smoking volunteers participated in a 3-week experimental gingivitis protocol, followed by debridement and 2-week regular plaque control. We recorded clinical indices and harvested gingival tissue samples from 4 interproximal palatal sites in half of the participants at baseline, Day 7, 14 and 21 (‘induction phase’), and at day 21, 25, 30 and 35 in the other half (‘resolution phase’). RNA was extracted, amplified, reversed transcribed, amplified, labeled and hybridized with Affymetrix Human Genome U133Plus2.0 microarrays. Paired t-tests compared gene expression changes between consecutive time points. Gene ontology analyses summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Results The median gingival index was 0 at baseline, 2 at Day 21 and 1 at Day 35. Differential gene regulation peaked during the third week of induction and the first four days of resolution. Leukocyte transmigration, cell adhesion and antigen processing/presentation were the top differentially regulated pathways. Conclusions Transcriptomic studies enhance our understanding of the pathobiology of the reversible inflammatory gingival lesion and provide a detailed account of the dynamic tissue responses during induction and resolution of experimental gingivitis. PMID:21501207

  19. Ethnicity and perception of dental shade esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Muhammad Omar; Naseem, Mustafa; Elcock, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether or not people from different ethnic backgrounds have different attitudes towards dental esthetics and chose different dental appearances in terms of tooth shade, and to determine whether the dental professional's choice and the individual's own choice have any relationship with what the individual ideally perceives as esthetically pleasing. For this cross-sectional analytical study, 120 volunteer students from the University of Sheffield (excepting dental students) from various ethnic backgrounds, of different ages, of both genders, and with varying degree/educational levels were recruited from the campus. The volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 9 adapted attitudinal statements regarding positive or negative dental esthetic perceptions in terms of tooth shade, with responses on a 5-point Likert scale from "Entirely agree" to "Entirely disagree". Scores for all attitudinal statements were summed up to give an attitudinal score. The participants' ideal, perceived, and actual (self-assessed and investigatorassessed) tooth shade was also determined using a shade guide and a facial mirror. No association between ethnicity and attitudinal score was found. However, statistically significant associations were found between the participants' degree/educational level (P=0.004, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=-4.18 to -0.82) and their ideal tooth shade value (P=0.038, 95% CI=-3.53 to -0.11). There were strong correlations between self-assessed and professionally assessed tooth shade value in all ethnic groups, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) being ρ>0.6. Regarding ideally desired and perceived tooth shade value, weak correlations were found in all ethnic groups (Spearman's rho being ρethnicity and attitude towards dental esthetics with regard to tooth shade, both ethnicity and dental esthetics are very diverse terms with multiple dimensions, each of which needs further investigation with regard to their mutual

  20. Relationship between natural tooth shade and skin colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, M; Mousavinejad, N; Adli, A R; Harati, M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of skin colour and tooth shade. One hundred and twenty six individuals aging between 18 to 25 years participated in this study. Colour of the maxillary central incisors was examined by VITA easy shade. Tooth shades were assigned to four ordinal values. Nivea Beauty Protect Foundation shade sample was used as a guide to assess facial skin colour Shin colours were also assigned to four ordinal values. Spearman test revealed that there was a significant relationship between tooth shade and skin colour Total co-relation factor was 51.6% (p men (p <0 .01). The highest tooth shade prevalence belonged to the second group and the highest skin colour prevalence was also in the second skin colour group.

  1. Gingival Recessions and Biomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten Godtfredsen

    Gingival recessions and biomechanics “Tissue is the issue, but bone sets the tone.“ A tooth outside the cortical plate can result in loss of bone and development of a gingival recession. The presentation aims to show biomechanical considerations in relation to movement of teeth with gingival...... by moving the root back in the alveolus. The tooth movement is accompanied by bone gain and thus increase the success rate for soft tissue augmentation. The choice of biomechanical system influences the treatment outcome. If a standard straight wire appliance is used, a biomechanical dilemma can arise...

  2. [Precision and accuracy of a dental spectrophotometer in gingival color measurement of maxillary anterior gingival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Tan, Jian-guo; Chen, Li; Wang, Fang-ping; Tan, Yao; Zhou, Jian-feng

    2012-08-18

    To explore a gingival shade matching method and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of a dental spectrophotometer modified to be used in gingival color measurement. Crystaleye, a dental spectrophotometer (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) with a custom shading cover was tested. For precision assessment, two experienced experimenters measured anterior maxillary incisors five times for each tooth. A total of 20 healthy gingival sites (attached gingiva, free gingiva and medial gingival papilla in anterior maxillary region) were measured,the Commission Internationale de I' Eclairage (CIE) color parameters (CIE L*a*b*) of which were analyzed using the supporting software. For accuracy assessment, a rectangular area of approximately 3 mm×3 mm was chosen in the attached gingival portion for spectral analysis. PR715 (SpectraScan;Photo Research Inc.,California, USA), a spectroradiometer, was utilized as standard control. Average color differences (ΔE) between the values from PR715 and Crystaleye were calculated. In precision assessment,ΔL* between the values in all the test sites and average values were from(0.28±0.16)to(0.78±0.57), with Δa*and Δb* from(0.28±0.15)to (0.87±0.65),from(0.19±0.09)to( 0.58±0.78), respectively. Average ΔE between values in all test sites and average values were from (0.62 ± 0.17) to (1.25 ± 0.98) CIELAB units, with a total average ΔE(0.90 ± 0.18). In accuracy assessment, ΔL* with control device were from(0.58±0.50)to(2.22±1.89),with Δa*and Δb* from(1.03±0.67)to(2.99±1.32),from(0.68±0.78)to(1.26±0.83), respectively. Average ΔE with the control device were from (2.44±0.82) to (3.51±1.03) CIELAB units, with a total average ΔE (2.96 ± 1.08). With appropriate modification, Crystaleye, the spectrophotometer, has demonstrated relative minor color variations that can be useful in gingival color measurement.

  3. Gingival Cyst of Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Aman

    2011-01-01

    Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.

  4. Solar shading how to integrate solar shading in sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Dolmans, Dick; Dutoo, Gonzague; Hall, Anders; Seppänen, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Solar Shading Guidebook gives a solid background on the physics of solar radiation and its behaviour in window with solar shading systems. Major focus of the Guidebook is on the effect of solar shading in the use of energy for cooling, heating and lighting. The book gives also practical guidance for selection, installation and operation of solar shading as well as future trends in integration of HVAC-systems with solar control.

  5. Tints, Shades and Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a classroom art project inspired by the work of Robert Frost, one of the most acclaimed and beloved American poets of all time. Using tints and shades in a composition, this project demonstrates how quality literature may be incorporated into elementary art lessons in a very useful way, making art an important complement to…

  6. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitkumar B Pandav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma, also known as inflammatory pseudotumor is a tumor-like lesion that manifests primarily in the lungs. But it may occur in various other anatomic locations like orbit, head and neck, liver and rarely in the oral cavity. We here report an exceedingly rare case of gingival plasma cell granuloma in a 58 year old woman who presented with upper gingival polypoidal growth. The histopathological examination revealed a mass composed of proliferation of benign spindle mesenchymal cells in a loose myxoid and fibrocollagenous stroma along with dense infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells predominantly containing plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma.

  7. Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Rath

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a case report of a 14-year-old female patient with idiopathic gingival fibromatosis in the maxillary region with radiographic feature of congenitally missing maxillary permanent left lateral incisor, maxillary left and right permanent canine, mandibular right second premolar, all third molars along with overretained primary maxillary left lateral incisor and primary mandibular second molar. The treatment rendered in this patient comprised of surgical excision of the hyperplasia under general anesthesia.

  8. Gingival crevicular fluid proteomes in health, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A H S; Veith, P D; McGregor, N R; Adams, G G; Chen, D; Reynolds, E C; Ngo, L H; Darby, I B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the proteome composition of gingival crevicular fluid obtained from healthy periodontium, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis affected sites. Owing to its site-specific nature, gingival crevicular fluid is ideal for studying biological processes that occur during periodontal health and disease progression. However, few studies have been conducted into the gingival crevicular fluid proteome due to the small volumes obtained. Fifteen males were chosen for each of three different groups, healthy periodontium, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. They were categorized based on clinical measurements including probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque index, radiographic bone level, modified gingival index and smoking status. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from each patient, pooled into healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis groups and their proteome analyzed by gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred and twenty-one proteins in total were identified, and two-thirds of these were identified in all three conditions. Forty-two proteins were considered to have changed in abundance. Of note, cystatin B and cystatin S decreased in abundance from health to gingivitis and further in chronic periodontitis. Complement proteins demonstrated an increase from health to gingivitis followed by a decrease in chronic periodontitis. Immunoglobulins, keratin proteins, fibronectin, lactotransferrin precursor, 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta, neutrophil defensin 3 and alpha-actinin exhibited fluctuations in levels. The gingival crevicular fluid proteome in each clinical condition was different and its analysis may assist us in understanding periodontal pathogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Lian Sun; Li-Hong Lei; Li-Li Chen; Zhong-Sheng Yu; Jian-Wei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling th...

  10. Gingivitis ulceronecrosante aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de la Teja-Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La gingivitis ulcerativa necrosante, conocida por sus siglas en inglés como GUN (anteriormente se le conocía como enfermedad de Vincent o “boca de trinchera” por afectar a soldados en guerra, es una enfermedad poco frecuente.1-6 Se caracteriza por ser una infección aguda y dolorosa en la que las encías sangran, hay necrosis de las papilas interdentales y ataque al estado general.

  11. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Walvekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity. The most common sites for the development are lateral surface of tongue and floor of mouth; the least common sites are soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can mimic a multitude of oral lesions and enlargements, especially those of inflammatory origin. In addition, predisposing and presenting factors are different from those of other OSCCs. Careful examination as well as routine biopsy are crucial for accurate diagnosis.

  12. PowerShades. Transparent photovoltaics and solar shading. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzel, E. (PhotoSolar ApS, Taastrup (Denmark)); Univ. of Neuchatel, Institute of Microtechnology, Neuchatel (CH)); Savcor Denmark A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)); Chem-Tec Plating A/S, Uldum (Denmark)); Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark))

    2008-06-15

    This report marks the end of the PSO funded R and D project PowerShades. The objective of the project has been to establish knowledge about the manufacturing of PowerShade transparent photovoltaics and to demonstrate the viability of PowerShade, both as a product and when considered a building element. It has not been the objective to demonstrate a full-scale manufacturing of PowerShade, but to establish the knowledge that enables industrial manufacturing. The overall objective of the project has been achieved, and the large majority of the milestones defined have been met to full extent. It has been shown that PowerShade photovoltaic cells with an electrical efficiency of 5% can be reached, and it is expected that future work will lead to even better efficiency. Also, it has been demonstrated by full size side by side comparison that PowerShade transparent photovoltaics may replace exterior solar shading devices without compromise to the thermal properties of the building. The project has identified a number of work areas that must be addressed before an industrial manufacturing can be established. The efficiency of the photovoltaic generator must be increased and the stability of the entire product documented. Also, some of the identified processing steps must be scaled in capacity before manufacturing can be considered. (author)

  13. OpenGL 4 shading language cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, David

    2013-01-01

    OpenGL Shading Language 4 Cookbook is a hands-on guide that gets straight to the point - actually creating graphics, instead of just theoretical learning. Each recipe is specifically tailored to satisfy your appetite for producing real-time 3-D graphics using the latest GLSL specification.This book is for OpenGL programmers looking to use the modern features of GLSL 4 to create real-time, three-dimensional graphics. Familiarity with OpenGL programming, along with the typical 3D coordinate systems, projections, and transformations is assumed. It can also be useful for experienced GLSL programme

  14. Satisfaction of Dental Students, Faculty, and Patients with Tooth Shade-Matching Using a Spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Erin; Metz, Michael J; Harris, Bryan T; Metz, Cynthia J; Chou, Jang-Ching; Morton, Dean; Lin, Wei-Shao

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate dental students' clinical shade-matching outcomes (from subjective use of shade guide) with an objective electronic shade-matching tool (spectrophotometer); to assess patients', students', and supervising faculty members' satisfaction with the clinical shade-matching outcomes; and to assess clinicians' support for use of the spectrophotometer to improve esthetic outcomes. A total of 103 volunteer groups, each consisting of patient, dental student, and supervising faculty member at the University of Louisville, were recruited to participate in the study in 2015. Using the spectrophotometer, clinical shade-matching outcome (ΔE clinical ) and laboratory shade-matching outcome (ΔE laboratory ) were calculated. Two five-point survey items were used to assess the groups' satisfaction with the clinical shade-matching outcome and support for an objective electronic shade-matching tool in the student clinic. The results showed that both ΔE clinical (6.5±2.4) and ΔE laboratory (4.3±2.0) were outside the clinical acceptability threshold ΔE values of 2.7, when visual shade-matching method (subjective usage of shade guide) was used to fabricate definitive restorations. Characteristics of the patients, dental students, supervising faculty members, and restorations had minimal to no effect on the ΔE clinical The patients, dental students, and supervising faculty members generally had positive opinions about the clinical shade-matching outcome, despite the increased ΔE clinical observed. Overall, clinical shade-matching outcomes in this school need further improvement, but the patients' positive opinions may indicate the need to revisit the acceptability threshold ΔE value of 2.7 in the academic setting.

  15. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  16. Effect of Gingivitis on Azithromycin Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nidhi; Lai, Pin-Chuang; Walters, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Macrolide antibiotics yield high concentrations in inflamed tissue, suggesting that their levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) could be increased at gingivitis sites. However, the increased volume of GCF associated with gingivitis could potentially dilute macrolides. To determine whether these assumptions are correct, the bioavailability of systemically-administered azithromycin was compared in GCF from healthy and gingivitis sites. Materials and methods Experimental gingivitis was induced in one maxillary posterior sextant in nine healthy subjects. Contralateral healthy sextants served as controls. Subjects ingested 500 mg of azithromycin followed by a 250 mg dose 24 hours later. Four hours after the second dose, plaque was removed from experimental sites. GCF was collected from 8 surfaces in both the experimental and control sextants and pooled separately. GCF samples were subsequently collected on the 2nd, 3rd, 8th and 15th days and azithromycin content was determined by agar diffusion bioassay. Results On days 2 and 3, the pooled GCF volume at experimental sites was significantly higher than at control sites (P gingivitis sites and healthy sites, suggesting that the processes that regulate GCF azithromycin concentration can compensate for local inflammatory changes. PMID:22220766

  17. IL-34 Expression in Gingival Fibroblasts, Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Gingival Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Kreidly, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    IL-34 is a protein associated with bone degenerative diseases but the role in periodontal disease is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of IL-34 in primary human gingival fibroblasts (GF) and investigate if the expression is regulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α). We also investigated if IL-34 is detectible in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis sites. Furthermore, we e...

  18. Determining the energy performance of manually controlled solar shades: A stochastic model based co-simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Driving factor for adjustment of manually controlled solar shades was determined. • A stochastic model for manual solar shades was constructed using Markov method. • Co-simulation with Energyplus was carried out in BCVTB. • External shading even manually controlled should be used prior to LOW-E windows. • Previous studies on manual solar shades may overestimate energy savings. - Abstract: Solar shading devices play a significant role in reducing building energy consumption and maintaining a comfortable indoor condition. In this paper, a typical office building with internal roller shades in hot summer and cold winter zone was selected to determine the driving factor of control behavior of manual solar shades. Solar radiation was determined as the major factor in driving solar shading adjustment based on field measurements and logit analysis and then a stochastic model for manually adjusted solar shades was constructed by using Markov method. This model was used in BCVTB for further co-simulation with Energyplus to determine the impact of the control behavior of solar shades on energy performance. The results show that manually adjusted solar shades, whatever located inside or outside, have a relatively high energy saving performance than clear-pane windows while only external shades perform better than regularly used LOW-E windows. Simulation also indicates that using an ideal assumption of solar shade adjustment as most studies do in building simulation may lead to an overestimation of energy saving by about 16–30%. There is a need to improve occupants’ actions on shades to more effectively respond to outdoor conditions in order to lower energy consumption, and this improvement can be easily achieved by using simple strategies as a guide to control manual solar shades

  19. Efficient Methods for Fast Shading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANYUK, A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available On devices without battery consuming and specialized hardware for rendering, it is important to improve the speed and quality so that these methods are suitable for real-time rendering. Furthermore such algorithms are needed on the coming multicore architectures. We show how the methods by Gouraud and Phong, the commonly most used methods for shading, can be improved and made faster for both software rendering as well as simple low energy consuming hardware implementations. Moreover, this paper summarizes the authors' achievements in increasing shading speed and performance and a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function is simplified for faster computing and hardware implementation.

  20. A rare clinical presentation of sarcoidosis; gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Aygül; Köksal, Nurhan; Aydın, Davut; Aslan, Kerim; Gören, Fikret; Karagöz, Filiz

    2013-10-01

    Gingivitis due to sarcoidosis is a relatively rare condition. Gingivitis or isolated gingival involvement may be the first sign of systemic sarcoidosis. We report the case of a 37 year-old woman with isolated gingivitis due to sarcoidosis confirmed by biopsy. Following treatment with a systemic corticosteroid (prednisolone 40 mg/day), all clinical and radiologic findings were completely improved. In cases of chronic and intractable gingivitis, systemic sarcoidosis should be suspected. It should be confirmed with a biopsy, and the patient should be referred to a chest disease clinic to exclude other organ involvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic infectious susceptibilty. Methods Vaginal samples were collected from 180 women (mean age 29.4 years, SD ± 6.8, range: 18 to 46), and at least six months after delivery, and assessed by semi-quantitative DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization assay (74 bacterial species). BV was defined by Gram stain (Nugent criteria). Gingivitis was defined as bleeding on probing at ≥ 20% of tooth sites. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 (normal vaginal microflora) was found in 83 women (46.1%), and a score of > 7 (BV) in 49 women (27.2%). Gingivitis was diagnosed in 114 women (63.3%). Women with a diagnosis of BV were more likely to have gingivitis (p = 0.01). Independent of gingival conditions, vaginal bacterial counts were higher (p gingivitis had higher counts of Prevotella bivia (p 1.0 × 104 cells) and a diagnosis of gingivitis was 3.9 for P. bivia (95% CI 1.5–5.7, p gingivitis in comparison to women with BV but not gingivitis. P. bivia and P. disiens may be of specific significance in a relationship between vaginal and gingival infections. PMID:19161595

  2. Nonsurgical Management of Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Sam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is frequently associated with three particular drugs: phenytoin, cyclosporin, and nifedipine. As gingival enlargement develops, it affects the normal oral hygiene practice and may interfere with masticatory functions. The awareness in the medical community about this possible side effect of nifedipine is less when compared to the effects of phenytoin and cyclosporin. The frequency of gingival enlargement associated with chronic nifedipine therapy remains controversial. Within the group of patients that develop this unwanted effect, there appears to be variability in the extent and severity of the gingival changes. Although gingival inflammation is considered a primary requisite in their development, few cases with minimal or no plaque induced gingival inflammation have also been reported. A case report of gingival overgrowth induced by nifedipine in a patient with good oral hygiene and its nonsurgical management with drug substitution is discussed in this case report.

  3. Multiple gingival pregnancy tumors with rapid growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lian Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy gingivitis is an acute form of gingivitis that affects pregnant women, with a prevalence of 30%, possibly ranging up to 100%. Sometimes, pregnancy gingivitis shows a tendency toward a localized hyperplasia called gingival pyogenic granuloma. Pregnancy tumor is a benign gingival hyperplasia with the gingiva as the most commonly involved site, but rarely it involves almost the entire gingiva. A 22-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of gingival swelling that had lasted for 2 days. The lesions progressed rapidly and extensively, and almost all the gingiva was involved a week later. Generalized erythema, edema, hyperplasia, a hemorrhagic tendency, and several typical hemangiomatous masses were noted. Pregnancy was denied by the patient at the first and second visits, but was confirmed 2 weeks after the primary visit. The patient was given oral hygiene instructions. She recovered well, and the mass gradually regressed and had disappeared completely at the end of 12 weeks of pregnancy, without recurrence. The gingival lesions were finally diagnosed as multiple gingival pregnancy tumors. The patient delivered a healthy infant. An extensive and rapid growth of gingival pregnancy tumors during the early first month of pregnancy is a rare occurrence that is not familiar to dentists, gynecologists, and obstetricians. Those practitioners engaged in oral medicine and periodontology, primary care obstetrics, and gynecology should be aware of such gingival lesions to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  4. Advances in Gingival Augmentation Techniques - A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiral Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the current practice of periodontics, clinicians are faced with the challenge of not only addressing biological and functional problems present in the periodontium but also providing therapy that results in acceptable aesthetics. The presence of mucogingival problems and gingival recession around anterior, highly visible teeth exemplifies a situation in which a treatment modality that addresses both biological and aesthetic demands is required from the therapist. A variety of soft tissue augmentation procedures directed at root coverage have been documented in the literature utilizing autogenous or allogenic soft tissue grafting or guided tissue regeneration (GTR. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of newer materials in gingival augmentation procedures.

  5. Ultrastructural evaluation of gingival connective tissue in hereditary gingival fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pêgo, Sabina Pena B; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Santos, Luis Antônio N; Coletta, Ricardo D; de Aquino, Sibele Nascimento; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio

    2016-07-01

    To describe the ultrastructural features of hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) in affected family members and compare microscopic findings with normal gingival (NG) tissue. Gingival tissue samples from nine patients with HGF from five unrelated families were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Nine NG tissue samples were used for comparison. Areas containing collagen fibrils forming loops and folds were observed in both groups, whereas oxytalan fibers were frequently identified in the HGF group. The diameter of collagen fibrils and the interfibrillar space among them were more uniform in the NG group than in the HGF group. Fibroblasts were the most common cells found in both the HGF and NG groups and exhibited enlarged, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria with well-preserved crests, conspicuous nucleoli, and euchromatic chromatin. Other cells, such as mast cells, plasma cells, and macrophages, were also observed. HGF tissues had ultrastructural characteristics that were very similar to those of NG tissues. Oxytalan fibers were observed more frequently in the HGF samples than in the NG samples. Other studies of HGF in patients from different families should be performed to better understand the pathogenesis of this hereditary condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gingival Retraction Methods: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Sadia; Adnan, Samira; Khan, Farhan Raza

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to assess the gingival retraction methods in terms of the amount of gingival retraction achieved and changes observed in various clinical parameters: gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), and attachment loss (AL). Data sources included three major databases, PubMed, CINAHL plus (Ebsco), and Cochrane, along with hand search. Search was made using the key terms in different permutations of gingival retraction* AND displacement method* OR technique* OR agents OR material* OR medicament*. The initial search results yielded 145 articles which were narrowed down to 10 articles using a strict eligibility criteria of including clinical trials or experimental studies on gingival retraction methods with the amount of tooth structure gained and assessment of clinical parameters as the outcomes conducted on human permanent teeth only. Gingival retraction was measured in 6/10 studies whereas the clinical parameters were assessed in 5/10 studies. The total number of teeth assessed in the 10 included studies was 400. The most common method used for gingival retraction was chemomechanical. The results were heterogeneous with regards to the outcome variables. No method seemed to be significantly superior to the other in terms of gingival retraction achieved. Clinical parameters were not significantly affected by the gingival retraction method. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Comparison of shade matching by visual observation and an intraoral dental colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Wang, Y N

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the applicability of two shade-matching approaches: Vintage Halo shade guide (visual method) and Shofu ShadeEye NCC colorimeter (instrumental method). Twenty participants' maxillary left central incisors were evaluated. Corresponding metal ceramic crowns were fabricated with each shade-matching approach. The colour distributions (L*, a* and b*) of the middle third region of each tooth and corresponding metal ceramic crowns were spectrophotometrically assessed. The colour difference (DeltaE) and colour distributions (DeltaL*, Deltaa* and Deltab*) between the tooth and the corresponding crowns were calculated. We found that the colour differences of both groups fell within the clinical unacceptable range (DeltaE > 2.75). Regarding DeltaE and the three colour distributions, no significant difference was found, expect for a* (P colorimeter nor the visual approach. However, the colorimeter can achieve better results within easy matching cases.

  8. Shading Ratio Impact on Photovoltaic Modules and Correlation with Shading Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Gutiérrez Galeano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of a simplified approach to model and analyze the performance of partially shaded photovoltaic modules using the shading ratio. This approach integrates the characteristics of shaded area and shadow opacity into the photovoltaic cell model. The studied methodology is intended to improve the description of shaded photovoltaic systems by specifying an experimental procedure to quantify the shadow impact. Furthermore, with the help of image processing, the analysis of the shading ratio provides a set of rules useful for predicting the current–voltage behavior and the maximum power points of shaded photovoltaic modules. This correlation of the shading ratio and shading patterns can contribute to the supervision of actual photovoltaic installations. The experimental results validate the proposed approach in monocrystalline and polycrystalline technologies of solar panels.

  9. External shading devices for energy efficient building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdan, M. S.; Ahmad, S. S.; Hussin, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    External shading devices on a building façade is an important passive design strategy as they reduce solar radiation. Although studies have proven the benefits of external shading devices, many are designed solely for aesthetic purposes without fully considering its high potential to reduce solar radiation and glare. Furthermore, explorations into shading devices by the design team are mostly left too late in the design development phases. Hence, the paper looks into the effectiveness of external shading devices on a building towards more energy efficient building. The study aims to analyse the effects of various configurations of external shading devices towards the energy consumption of a case study building based on computer simulations. This study uses Building Information Modelling (BIM) through Autodesk Revit software as simulation tool. The constant variables for the simulation are the orientation of the building, types of glazing used by the building and the internal loads of the building. Whereas, the manipulated variable is the types of shading device used. The data were sorted according to the categories and translated into a chart. Analysis of the findings indicate that shading devices with different configurations show significant results in the energy consumption and the best configuration is the egg-crate shading devices. The study recommends that the consideration for shading device as a passive design strategy needs to be developed at the early stage of the building design.

  10. Subgingival Microbiome of Gingivitis in Chinese Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke; Ouyang, Xiang Ying; Chu, Yi; Zhang, Qian

    To analyse the microbiome composition of health and gingivitis in Chinese undergraduates with high-throughput sequencing. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed with the MiSeq system to compare subgingival bacterial communities from 54 subjects with gingivitis and 12 periodontally healthy controls. A total of 1,967,372 sequences representing 14 phyla, 104 genera, and 96 species were detected. Analysis of similarities (Anosim) test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed significantly different community profiles between the health control and the subjects with gingivitis. Alpha-diversity metrics were significantly higher in the subgingival plaque of the subjects with gingivitis compared with that of the healthy control. Overall, the relative abundance of 35 genera and 46 species were significantly different between the two groups, among them 28 genera and 45 species showed higher relative abundance in the subjects with gingivitis, whereas seven genera and one species showed a higher relative abundance in the healthy control. The genera Porphyromonas, Treponema, and Tannerella showed higher relative abundance in the subjects with gingivitis, while the genera Capnocytophaga showed higher proportions in health controls. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas endodontalis had higher relative abundance in gingivitis. Among them, Porphyromonas gingivalis was most abundant. Our results revealed significantly different microbial community composition and structures of subgingival plaque between subjects with gingivitis and healthy controls. Subjects with gingivitis showed greater taxonomic diversity compared with periodontally healthy subjects. The proportion of Porphyromonas, especially Porphyromonas gingivalis, may be associated with gingivitis subjects aged between 18 and 21 years old in China. Adults with gingivitis in this age group may have a higher risk of developing periodontitis.

  11. Proteus syndrome: association with gingival hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendorf, T M; Hanslo, B

    1995-09-01

    A 9-year old Black boy with gigantism of the hands and feet, and recurrent gingival hyperplasia, diagnosed as Proteus syndrome is presented. The oral manifestations of this syndrome are described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of gingival hyperplasia associated with Proteus syndrome.

  12. Quantification of Shading Tolerability for Photovoltaic Modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziar, H.; Asaei, Behzad; Farhangi, Shahrokh; Isabella, O.; Korevaar, M.A.N.; Zeman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite several decades of research in the field of photovoltaic (PV) systems, shading tolerance has still not been properly addressed. PV modules are influenced by shading concerning many factors, such as number and configuration of cells in the module, electrical and thermal characteristics of

  13. Colour parameters and shade correspondence of CAD-CAM ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Pecho, Oscar E; Ghinea, Razvan; Cardona, Juan C; Pérez, María M

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate colour differences between (1) CAD-CAM ceramic systems considering shades A1, A2 and A3 and the corresponding nominal shade of VC (Vita Classical shade guide) and (2) shades A1-A2, A2-A3 and A1, A2 and A3 within the same ceramic system. Samples of shades A1, A2 and A3 were fabricated (n=5) from CAD-CAM ceramic blocks (IPS e.max(®) CAD LT and HT, IPS Empress(®) CAD LT and HT, Paradigm™ C, and VITABLOCS(®) Mark II) and polished to 1.0±0.01mm in thickness. Spectral reflectance and colour coordinates were measured using a spectroradiometer inside a viewing booth using the CIE D65 illuminant and the d/0° geometry. Spectral reflectance curves were compared using VAF coefficient and were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U test (α=0.05). Colour coordinates were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test with Bonferroni correction (α=0.001). All colour differences (ΔEab(*) and ΔE00) were analyzed through comparisons with the PT - perceptibility and AT - acceptability thresholds for dental ceramics. ΔE between ceramic systems and its corresponding shade ranged from 6.32 to 13.42 (ΔEab(*)) and 4.48 to 9.30 (ΔE00). ΔE between shades A1-A2, A2-A3 and A1, A2 and A3 ranged, respectively, 1.93-4.82, 1.22-5.59 and 3.63-8.84 (ΔEab(*)); 1.54-3.87, 1.03-3.90 and 2.95-6.51 (ΔE00). Considering the corresponding nominal shade from VC, none of the ceramic systems showed colour differences below the AT. In addition, some ceramic systems showed colour differences below AT (shades A1-A2 and A2-A3) and below PT (shades A2-A3). Careful adjustments should be made to the final shade of CAD-CAM ceramic restorations to reach a clinically acceptable shade match. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of three computer-aided shade matching instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kun; Sun, Xiang; Wang, Fu; Wang, Hui; Chen, Ji-hua

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and reliability of three computer-aided shade matching instruments (Shadepilot, VITA Easyshade, and ShadeEye NCC) using both in vitro and in vivo models. The in vitro model included the measurement of five VITA Classical shade guides. The in vivo model utilized three instruments to measure the central region of the labial surface of maxillary right central incisors of 85 people. The accuracy and reliability of the three instruments in these two evaluating models were calculated. Significant differences were observed in the accuracy of instruments both in vitro and in vivo. No significant differences were found in the reliability of instruments between and within the in vitro and the in vivo groups. VITA Easyshade was significantly different in accuracy between in vitro and in vivo models, while no significant difference was found for the other two instruments. Shadepilot was the only instrument tested in the present study that showed high accuracy and reliability both in vitro and in vivo. Significant differences were observed in the L*a*b* values of the 85 natural teeth measured using three instruments in the in vivo assessment. The pair-agreement rates of shade matching among the three instruments ranged from 37.7% to 48.2%, and the incidence of identical shade results shared by all three instruments was 25.9%. As different L*a*b* values and shade matching results were reported for the same tooth, a combination of the evaluated shade matching instruments and visual shade confirmation is recommended for clinical use.

  15. Esthetic evaluation of dental and gingival asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Liliana; Pinho, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which smile asymmetries were less esthetic, dental or gingival. Laypeople (297), generalists (223), prosthodontists (50) and orthodontists (49), evaluated the esthetics of digitally-modified images taken from the same frontal intra-oral photograph, using the same lips, simulating upper maxillary midline shift, occlusal plane inclination, asymmetric incisal edge and asymmetric gingival migration. The images were later paired into 3 groups. The only ones considered esthetic were the asymmetric incisal edge of the 0.5 mm shorter upper central incisor and the asymmetric gingival migration (2 mm) of the upper central incisor. In the paired images, upper maxillary midline shift vs. occlusal plane inclination, the former was rated less esthetic, while in the asymmetric incisal edge vs. asymmetric gingival migration pair, the latter was considered to be less esthetic. Laypeople and generalists consider smiles more attractive. The only images considered esthetic were the asymmetric incisal edge of the central incisor shorter by 0.5 mm and the 2 mm asymmetric gingival migration of the upper central incisor. In the horizontal plane (maxillary midline shift vs. occlusal plane cant), the dental asymmetries were considered less esthetic than the gingival asymmetries. However, in the vertical plane (asymmetric incisal edge vs. asymmetric gingival migration) the opposite was recorded. Copyright © 2015 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  17. Melanin: A scavenger in gingival inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nilima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the major direct or indirect targets of ultraviolet exposure of skin is the melanocyte or the melanin -forming cell. Epidermal melanocytes act as a trap for free radicals. Based on the protective role of melanocytes in medical literature, the role of melanin pigmentation in gingiva needs to be elucidated. Periodontal pathogens and their products demonstrate the ability to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species. Hence purpose of this study was to unravel the protective role of melanin (if any against the gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects; 20 in each group were selected. The selection of subjects regarding gingival pigmentation was based on Dummett′s scoring criteria 0, 3. A complete medical, dental history and an informed consent were obtained from the patients. After evaluation of clinical parameters the GCF was collected using microcapillary pipettes at the selected sites. IL-1β levels were quantitated using ELISA. Results: In non-pigmented healthy and gingivitis groups, there was a positive correlation between plaque index, gingival index and bleeding index versus IL-1β level: indicating an increase in the biochemical mediator of inflammation corresponding to an increase in the clinical parameters of inflammation. Also a positive correlation was found between the gingival index and bleeding index versus the IL-1β levels in the pigmented healthy group. The pigmented gingivitis groups showed a negative correlation between the plaque index, gingival index and bleeding index. Conclusions: The clinical markers of inflammation such as gingival index, bleeding index was of low numerical value in pigmented group than in the non-pigmented group, supposedly due to the protective action of melanin. The negative correlation of clinical markers of inflammation to the IL-1β levels in the pigmented gingivitis group could possibly be attributed to the protective role of melanins.

  18. Bacterial Community Development in Experimental Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, James O.; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J.; Wade, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1–V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344 267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP) scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new therapeutic approaches

  19. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Kistler

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp, and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new

  20. Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be associated with some systemic diseases such as respiratory disease, diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke and rheumatoid arthritis. ... 12 months. If you have risk factors that increase your chance of developing periodontitis — such as having ...

  1. Oral gingival metastasis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Aswath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity is a rare target for metastasis with an incidence of 1% among all oral cancers. In 24% of such cases, oral metastasis is the first indication of an undiagnosed primary. Metastatic oral malignancies have been reported in the mandible, tongue, and gingiva. Although gingival metastasis has been reported from lung, prostate, rectal carcinoma in men and carcinoma of breast, adrenal glands, and genitalia in females, gingival metastasis from carcinoma of the penis has not been reported. Herein, a case of metastatic gingival carcinoma that developed after extraction of teeth from primary carcinoma of the penis is presented. An extensive literature search revealed no such similar case reports.

  2. Treatment of Desquamative Gingivitis with Free Gingival Graft: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Vatankhah

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recalcitrant gingival erythematous lichen planus lesions comprise a considerable therapeutic problem. This case of chronic desquamative gingivitis in a 25-year-old woman with erosive oral lichen planus was treated with topical and systemic corticosteroid administration, followed by placement of a free gingival graft on right upper quadrant. Although recurrence of the lesions was observed following both treatment modalities, free gingival graft despite being an aggressive therapy, proved more effective and with fewer side effects compared with topical or systemic steroid therapy, and seems to be a promising treatment modality with the benefit of more stable results, among others.

  3. Effects of shading and covering material application for delaying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To delay the harvest of Sultani Cekirdeksiz grape variety and to reduce pre and post-harvest botrytis bunch rot severity, shading and covering material application were tested in 2009 to 2010 growing periods. In this study, grape vines were shaded with shading materials which had three different shading densities (35, 55, ...

  4. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  5. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  6. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  7. Lake Bathymetric DEM Shaded Relief Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geo-referenced, shaded relief image of lake bathymetry classified at 5-foot depth intervals. This dataset has a cell resolution of 5 meters (occasionally 10m) as...

  8. An unusual clinical presentation of gingival melanoacanthoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. K. Kennedy Babu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival melanoacanthoma is a rare, benign pigmented lesion characterized clinically by sudden onset and rapid growth of a macular brown black lesion and histologically by acanthosis of superficial epithelium and proliferation of dendritic melanocytes. This article reports a previously undescribed case of pigmented unilateral diffuse gingival enlargement, which on histopathological examination proved to be melanoacanthoma. Intraoral examination revealed pigmented unilateral diffuse gingival enlargement in relation to second and third quadrants buccally, palatally/lingually. Based on these clinical findings, gingivectomy was performed and the excised tissue was sent for biopsy. Microscopic examination revealed acanthotic and parakeratotic surface epithelium with dendritic melanocytes distributed in basal and suprabasal layers of the epithelium. 1 year follow-up recall revealed no recurrence of lesion at the surgical sites. Our patient exhibits an unusual clinical presentation of melanoacanthoma of gingiva. Pigmented gingival overgrowth of recent origin and without any etiologic factors warrants histopathologic examination.

  9. Gingival condition of patient with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikah Sabrina Alyani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased drastically in most developed countries. Many studies showed that obesity associated with oral diseases, especially periodontal disease. A recent study showed the relation between WC and periodontal disease counted by gingival index (GI. However, studies regarding the mechanism of the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease are still quite a few, whereas many studies conducted suggested that obesity was a medical problem. The study was aimed to know and assess the gingival condition of obese people who visited the Dental Polyclinic of Hasan Sadikin Hospital. The type of this study was descriptive with the survey technique. A total of 54 people consisted of 35 female and 19 male patients with the age range of 20-49 years old, and not using any dental prosthesis or orthodontic appliance. This study was using a questionnaire and clinical examination to assess the condition of the gingival using the Löe and Silness Gingival index (GI. Examination of obesity conducted by measuring the waist circumference with criteria from WHO. The average value of the gingival index was 1.22. Meanwhile, the average value of the waist circumference (WC was 95.89 cm and 107.74 cm consecutively for female and male. The majority of obese patients suffered moderate gingivitis.

  10. Evaluation of accuracy of shade selection using two spectrophotometer systems: Vita Easyshade and Degudent Shadepilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Mohammad Hassan; Ghoraishian, Seyed Ahmad; Mohaghegh, Mina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of shade matching using two spectrophotometric devices. Thirteen patients who require a full coverage restoration for one of their maxillary central incisors were selected while the adjacent central incisor was intact. 3 same frameworks were constructed for each tooth using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technology. Shade matching was performed using Vita Easyshade spectrophotometer, Shadepilot spectrophotometer, and Vitapan classical shade guide for the first, second, and third crown subsequently. After application, firing, and glazing of the porcelain, the color was evaluated and scored by five inspectors. Both spectrophotometric systems showed significantly better results than visual method ( P spectrophotometers ( P Spectrophotometers are a good substitute for visual color selection methods.

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum and platelet rich plasma in the management of gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Gingival recession progression in clinical practaice has influenced the development of various surgical procedures and techniques for solving esthetic imperfections and subjective difficulties coused by gingival recession. The aim of this study was to verify efficacy of surgical procedures and to compare both of surgical procedures through the keratinized tissue width. Methods. The study included 20 teeth with gingival recesion, Müller class I and II. Ten teeth with gingival recession were treated with connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum in combination with coronary guided surgical flap (CTG group. On the contralateral side 10 teeth with gingival recession were treated with the same surgical procedures but in combination with platelet-rich plasma (CTGPRP group. We measured the keratinized tissue width. For statistical significance we used the Student's t-test. Results. The study reveled a statistical significance in reducing vertical deepress of recession by both used treatments. Root deepness in CTG and CTG-PRP group was 90% and 93.5%, respectively. With both surgical techniques we achieved larger zone of keratinized gingiva but with a wide zone of keratinized tissue in CTG - the PRP group. Conclusion. The concept regeneration technique with PRP and with the stimulating influence of platele activated growth factors results in the regeneration of deep periodontal tissue as an important prerequisite for the successful treatment of gingival recession.

  12. Shade Trees Spatial Distribution and Its Effect on Grains and Beverage Quality of Shaded Coffee Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José da Silva Neto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading coffee trees has gained importance, especially among smallholders, as an option to improve the products’ quality, therefore acquiring place at the specialty coffee market, where consumers are willing to give bonus for quality. This work aims to evaluate the influence of shade trees’ spatial distribution among coffee trees’ agronomic characteristics, yield, and beans and cup quality of shaded coffee trees. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks with six repetitions and four treatments: coffee trees on shade trees planting rows, distant one meter from the trunk; coffee trees on shade trees planting row, distant six meters from the trunk; and coffee plants between the rows of shade trees, parallel to the previous treatments. The parameters analyzed were plant height, canopy diameter, plagiotropic branches’ length, yield, coffee fruits’ phenological stage, ripe cherries’ Brix degree, percentage of black, unripe, and insect damaged beans, bean size, and beverage quality. Shade trees quickened coffee fruits’ phenological stage of coffee trees nearest to them. This point also showed the best beverage quality, except for overripe fruits. The remaining parameters evaluated were not affected by shade trees’ spatial distribution.

  13. Segmentation of images for gingival growth measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Il; Wilson, Joseph N.

    1992-12-01

    The ability to measure gingival volume growth from dental casts would provide a valuable resource for periodontists. This problem is attractive from a computer vision standpoint due to the complexities of data acquisition, segmentation of gingival and tooth surfaces and boundaries, and extraction of features (such as tooth axes) to help solve the correspondence problem for multiple casts. In this paper, a structured light 3-D range finder is used to collect raw data. The most complicated subtask is that of detecting discontinuities such as the gingival margin. Discontinuity detection is hindered both by cast anomalies (such as bubbles and holes generated during the process of dental impression) and by the subtle nature of the discontinuities themselves. First, we discuss an approach to segmenting a dental cast into tooth and gingival units using depth and orientation discontinuities. The visible cast surface is reconstructed by obtaining the minimum of a parameterized functional. The first derivative of the energy functional (which corresponds to the Euler-Lagrange equation) is solved using the multigrid methods. both orientation and depth discontinuities are detected by adding a discrete discontinuity functional to the energy functional. The principal axes and boundaries of the teeth provide the information necessary to determine the region to be measured in estimating gingival growth. Finally, voxels corresponding to growth regions are counted to measure the target volume.

  14. Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis: Case Report and Its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant P. Jaju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis is a rare condition. We present a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis with its multidisciplinary approach of management. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features have been described in detail.

  15. Diagnostic considerations concerning a case of an unusual gingivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Haring, I.S.; Witjes, M.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    A young woman presented a severe gingivitis that wouldn't respond to antibiotics prescribed by her general practitioner. Thorough clinical examination showed atypical gingival inflammation. In such unusual cases a careful anamnesis is essential in determining appropriate continued diagnostic

  16. Response of chronic gingivitis to hygiene therapy and experimental gingivitis. Clinical, microbiological and metabonomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Goyal, C Ram; Khambe, Deepa; Cannon, Michael; Miner, Melanie; Gurich, Nataliya; Circello, Ben; Huggins, Tom; Barker, Matthew L; Furnish, Carrie; Conde, Erinn; Hoke, Phyllis; Haught, Chris; Xie, Sancai; White, Donald J

    2015-10-01

    To compare the clinical, microbiological and metabonomic profiles of subjects with high and low levels of chronic gingival bleeding during a controlled oral hygiene regimen intervention including sequential phases of rigorous therapeutic oral hygiene followed by experimental gingivitis (EG). Two cohorts of qualified study subjects with differences in gingival bleeding on probing levels at their baseline clinical examination were entered into the study. These two cohorts were followed through three separate study phases including a 1-week baseline phase, a 2-week phase of rigorous oral hygiene including dental prophylaxis, and a 3-week EG phase of no oral hygiene to encourage relapse of gingivitis. The 58 subjects were assessed during each phase of the study for clinical presentation of gingivitis and concurrently had plaque sampled for real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) microbiological characterization and salivary lavage samples for 'systems biology' metabonomics assessment by 1H-NMR. Subjects presenting with different levels of gingival bleeding on probing when they entered the study responded differently to rigorous oral hygiene and EG. Specifically, the high bleeding cohort responded sluggishly to rigorous oral hygiene and exhibited markedly greater relapse to gingivitis during EG. RTPCR analysis showed changes in bacterial populations that were associated with study phases, particularly the increases in putative periodontal pathogens during EG. However, the microbiological profiles of high- and low-susceptibility gingival bleeding patients were largely similar. Metabonomic analysis likewise revealed significant changes in metabolite composition during study phases associated with differences in plaque toxicity, especially the short chain carboxylic acids propionate and n-butyrate, which tracked clinical changes in gingivitis severity. Systems analysis of metabonomic changes suggested differences between cohorts, although analysis to date has not

  17. Prevalence of gingivitis among school attendees in Qazvin, Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: In present study the frequency of gingivitis was found to be higher. According to the high prevalence of gingivitis the most prevalent areas of plaque and gingivitis identified in this study should be taken in consideration during oral hygiene instructions, which should be given to children, parents, and teachers ...

  18. Diverse modalities of gingival replacement: A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep N Vinnakota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival replacement is often a component of comprehensive prosthodontics. Gingival prostheses may be fixed or removable. It can be made from acrylics, composite resins, silicones or porcelain-based materials.This paper describes different clinical situations in which three types of gingival prostheses, removable acrylic veneer with melanin pigmentation, fixed ceramic veneer and flexible nylon based veneer, were used effectively.

  19. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...

  20. Minimisation of Power loss from partially shaded solar cell arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maine, Tony; Bell, John [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). Built Environment Engineering; Martin, Stewart [University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA (Australia). School of Electrical and Information Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In conventional wiring schemes the output from a partially shaded solar cell array drops rapidly to that of the fully shaded array even when only a small fraction is shaded. In this paper circuit simulation has been used to show that by dynamically reconfiguring the array, the power losses due to shading can be significantly reduced. Reconfiguration is achieved by using switching microcircuits with on-chip photo detectors to determine which parts of the array are in shade. The currents from the shaded and unshaded sections of the array are separated and then connected in parallel to a maximum power point tracker. It is shown that by using this reconfiguration that the power output from a partially shaded array can be increased by at least 100% compared with that from a conventional series connected array over a range of shading conditions. (orig.)

  1. USGS Hill Shade Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Hill Shade (or Shaded Relief) is a tile cache base map created from the National Elevation Dataset (NED), a seamless dataset of best available raster elevation...

  2. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Modelling of Solar Shading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Liu, Mingzhe; Heiselberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    The use of solar shading in future low energy office buildings is essential for minimizing energy consumption for building services, while maintaining thermal conditions. Implementing solar shading technologies in energy calculations and thermal building simulation programs is essential in order...... to demonstrate the effect of adaptive solar shading. In order to document the benefits of the shading technology, the description of the shading device in the thermal building simulation software must be described at a reasonably accurate level, related to the specific solar shading device. This research...... presents different approaches for modeling solar shading devices, demonstrating the level of accuracy in relation to measurement conducted in a full-scale façade test facility at Aalborg University. The research bridges the gap between increased complexity of solar shading technologies and the use...

  3. Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røseth Karlsen, Line; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated.......Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated....

  4. Plants' responses to drought and shade environments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전병기

    Among them, drought is widely known as the main factor that limits plants' growth, productivity and development (Reddy et al., 2004; Shao et al., 2008; Li et al., 2009). Recently, drought occured frequently all over the globe due to climate changes (Khaine and Woo, 2015). Light and shade are very important environements ...

  5. Gingival recession: a cross-sectional clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutoudi, P; Koidis, P T; Konstantinidis, A

    1997-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, risk and potentially causative factors of gingival recession were examined and their relationship to apical migration of the gingival margin evaluated. Thirty eight patients (18-60 years), displaying one or more sites with gingival recession but without any significant periodontal disease participated. A total of 28 parameters were evaluated in both 'test' teeth (50 teeth with gingival recession) and 'control' teeth (50 contralateral teeth). The results revealed that gingival margin recession was associated with both high inflammatory and plaque scores, with decreased widths of keratinized and attached gingiva and with the subjects' toothbrush bristle hardness.

  6. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  7. Sangramiento gingival y flora bacteriana en la gingivitis y la periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriam Baldemira Rodríguez

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 30 sitios o áreas periodontales que presentaban gingivitis y 30 con periodontitis, con el objetivo de determinar la relación existente entre el sangramiento gingival y la flora microbiana presente en la gingivitis y la periodontitis. Los pacientes seleccionados no presentaban antecedentes de enfermedad general y no habían recibido medicación antimicrobiana ni tratamiento periodontal en los útimos 6 meses; en el caso de las mujeres, no podían estar embarazadas. En los dientes seleccionados se procedió a tomar la muestra cumpliendo con los requisitos establecidos; luego se examinó inmediatamente en el microscopio de campo oscuro. Los resultados obtenidos indican que no hubo relación entre los morfotipos microbianos y los diferentes valores del índice de sangramiento gingival.Thirty periodontal sites presenting with gingivitis and 30 with periodontitis were studied with the aim of determining the relation between gingival bleeding and microflora present in gingivitis and periodontitis. Patients selected for the study did not present with a history of systemic diseases and received neither antimicrobial medication nor periodontal treatment during the last 6 months, in the case of women it was required that they were not pregnant. The sample was taken in the teeth chosen in compliance with the requirements established; then the sample was immediately examined in the dark field microscope. Results obtained suggest that there was no relationship between microbial morphological types and the different values of the gingival bleeding index.

  8. Influence of Shading on Cooling Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabczak, Sławomir; Bukowska, Maria; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Nowak, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The article presents an analysis of the building cooling load taking into account the variability of the factors affecting the size of the heat gains. In order to minimize the demand for cooling, the effect of shading elements installed on the outside on the windows and its effect on size of the cooling capacity of air conditioning system for the building has been estimated. Multivariate building cooling load calculations to determine the size of the reduction in cooling demand has derived. Determination of heat gain from the sun is laborious, but gives a result which reflects the influence of the surface transparent partitions, devices used as sunscreen and its location on the building envelope in relation to the world, as well as to the internal heat gains has great attention in obtained calculation. In this study, included in the balance sheet of solar heat gains are defined in three different shading of windows. Calculating the total demand cooling is made for variants assuming 0% shading baffles transparent, 50% shading baffles transparent external shutters at an angle of 45 °, 100% shading baffles transparent hours 12 from the N and E and from 12 from the S and W of the outer slat blinds. The calculation of the average hourly cooling load was taken into account the option assuming the hypothetical possibility of default by up to 10% of the time assumed the cooling season temperatures in the rooms. To reduce the consumption of electricity energy in the cooling system of the smallest variant identified the need for the power supply for the operation of the cooling system. Also assessed the financial benefits of the temporary default of comfort.

  9. Prevention of gingivitis: Oral hygiene and dentifrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    At the basis of Oral Health lies daily oral hygiene self-care with the result, if correctly performed, of plaque and gingivitis reduction. Epidemiological studies indicate that the level of oral hygiene in the general population has increased over the last decades. However, there still appears to be

  10. Chronic desquamative gingivitis as part of mucocutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other less common mucocutaneous disorders affecting the oral mucosa (lupus erythromatosus, linear IgA, plasma cell gingivitis, chronic ulcerative stomatitis and psoriasis) are also described. Correct identification of these conditions entails taking a careful history and performing a thorough intra-oral examination. Presence ...

  11. Association between gingivitis and anterior gingival enlargement in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Pinto, Tatiana Militz Perrone; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE), periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. Results The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01) and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03) were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. Conclusion Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment. PMID:25162567

  12. A randomized 12-week clinical comparison of an oscillating-rotating toothbrush to a new sonic brush in the reduction of gingivitis and plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, M; Grender, J M; Conde, E; Ccahuana-Vasquez, Renzo Alberto; Goyal, C R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a marketed oscillating-rotating (O-R) power toothbrush (Oral-B Triumph with SmartGuide and FlossAction brush head, D34/EB25) to a new sonic toothbrush (Sonicare FlexCare Platinum) in the reduction of gingivitis and plaque over a 12-week test period. This was a single center, randomized, open label, examiner-blind, two-treatment, parallel group study. Subjects who met the entrance criteria were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to either the O-R or sonic treatment group. Subjects brushed with their assigned toothbrush and a marketed fluoride dentifrice for two minutes twice daily at home for 12 weeks. Gingivitis and plaque were evaluated at Baseline, Week 6, and Week 12. Gingivitis was assessed using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and plaque was assessed using the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Data were analyzed using an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with Baseline as the covariate. In total, 130 subjects (65 per group) were randomized to treatment and 127 subjects completed the study. Both brushes produced statistically significant (p gingivitis and plaque measures relative to Baseline. At Week 12, the O-R brush demonstrated significantly greater reductions than the sonic brush in whole mouth gingivitis measures (p = 0.007). Additionally, the O-R brush presented significantly fewer bleeding sites (p gingivitis, 19.8% for number of bleeding sites, and 12.2% for whole mouth plaque. There were no adverse events reported or observed for either brush. The oscillating-rotating toothbrush demonstrated statistically significantly greater reductions in whole mouth plaque at Weeks 6 and 12, as well as significantly greater gingivitis reductions over the long-term (12 weeks), compared to the new sonic toothbrush.

  13. Treatment of chronic desquamative gingivitis using tissue-engineered human cultured gingival epithelial sheets: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kazuhiro; Momose, Manabu; Murata, Masashi; Saito, Yoshinori; lnoie, Masukazu; Shinohara, Chikara; Wolff, Larry F; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2004-04-01

    Human cultured gingival epithelial sheets were used as an autologous grafting material for regenerating gingival tissue in the maxillary left and mandibular right quadrants of a patient with chronic desquamative gingivitis. Six months post-surgery in both treated areas, there were gains in keratinized gingiva and no signs of gingival inflammation compared to presurgery. In the maxillary left quadrant, preoperative histopathologic findings revealed the epithelium was separated from the connective tissue and inflammatory cells were extensive. After grafting with the gingival epithelial sheets, inflammatory cells were decreased and separation between epithelium and connective tissue was not observed. The human cultured gingival epithelial sheets fabricated using tissue engineering technology showed significant promise for gingival augmentation in periodontal therapy.

  14. Initial Development of Four Forest Species in Different Shading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Evaluated the initial development through destructive and non-destructive sampling, forest species Adenanthera pavonina, Cassia fistula, Parkia pendula and Hymenolobium petraeum, propagated by seeds at different levels of shading screens black poliefinas (0, 50 and 65% , in the region of Sinop, MT. There were no significant interactions between time and level of shading to any variable. Changes in fresh and dry weight at all levels of shading occurred from 30 DAT. The highest rates of growth were observed in 50% shading to A. pavonina, P. pendula and H. petraeum and 65% shading for C. fistula.Keywords: seedling, growth, physiology, climatic conditions.

  15. Uniform versus asymmetric shading mediates crown recession in conifers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Schoonmaker

    Full Text Available In this study we explore the impact of asymmetrical vs. uniform crown shading on the mortality and growth of upper and lower branches within tree crowns, for two conifer species: shade intolerant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta and shade tolerant white spruce (Picea glauca. We also explore xylem hydraulics, foliar nutrition, and carbohydrate status as drivers for growth and expansion of the lower and upper branches in various types of shading. This study was conducted over a two-year period across 10 regenerating forest sites dominated by lodgepole pine and white spruce, in the lower foothills of Alberta, Canada. Trees were assigned to one of four shading treatments: (1, complete uniform shading of the entire tree, (2 light asymmetric shading where the lower 1/4-1/3 of the tree crown was shaded, (3 heavy asymmetric shading as in (2 except with greater light reduction and (4 control in which no artificial shading occurred and most of the entire crown was exposed to full light. Asymmetrical shading of only the lower crown had a larger negative impact on the bud expansion and growth than did uniform shading, and the effect was stronger in pine relative to spruce. In addition, lower branches in pine also had lower carbon reserves, and reduced xylem-area specific conductivity compared to spruce. For both species, but particularly the pine, the needles of lower branches tended to store less C than upper branches in the asymmetric shade, which could suggest a movement of reserves away from the lower branches. The implications of these findings correspond with the inherent shade tolerance and self-pruning behavior of these conifers and supports a carbon based mechanism for branch mortality--mediated by an asymmetry in light exposure of the crown.

  16. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  17. ATOMLLL: atoms with shading and highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, N.L.; y.

    1979-01-01

    The ATOMS program, written at Bell Telephone Laboratory, is capable of determining the visible portions of a scene consisting of interpenetrating spheres and cylinders, put together to represent space-filling or ball-and-stick molecular models. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory version contains enhancements to add shading and highlights, and to render the spheres on film as ellipses, so they will appear round when projected in various wide-screen formats. The visible parts of each sphere or cylinder are shaded by a minicomputer controlling the film recorder, thus releasing the main computer from transferring the millions of intensity values for each frame. The minicomputer is microprogrammed with an efficient algorithm for the intensities, which uses the color look-up tables in the film recorder to store the reflectance as a function of angle of incidence. 8 references

  18. Primary prevention of periodontitis: managing gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Iain L C; Van der Weijden, Fridus; Doerfer, Christof; Herrera, David; Shapira, Lior; Polak, David; Madianos, Phoebus; Louropoulou, Anna; Machtei, Eli; Donos, Nikos; Greenwell, Henry; Van Winkelhoff, Ari J; Eren Kuru, Bahar; Arweiler, Nicole; Teughels, Wim; Aimetti, Mario; Molina, Ana; Montero, Eduardo; Graziani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Periodontitis is a ubiquitous and irreversible inflammatory condition and represents a significant public health burden. Severe periodontitis affects over 11% of adults, is a major cause of tooth loss impacting negatively upon speech, nutrition, quality of life and self-esteem, and has systemic inflammatory consequences. Periodontitis is preventable and treatment leads to reduced rates of tooth loss and improved quality of life. However, successful treatment necessitates behaviour change in patients to address lifestyle risk factors (e.g. smoking) and, most importantly, to attain and sustain high standards of daily plaque removal, lifelong. While mechanical plaque removal remains the bedrock of successful periodontal disease management, in high-risk patients it appears that the critical threshold for plaque accumulation to trigger periodontitis is low, and such patients may benefit from adjunctive agents for primary prevention of periodontitis. The aims of this working group were to systematically review the evidence for primary prevention of periodontitis by preventing gingivitis via four approaches: 1) the efficacy of mechanical self-administered plaque control regimes; 2) the efficacy of self-administered inter-dental mechanical plaque control; 3) the efficacy of adjunctive chemical plaque control; and 4) anti-inflammatory (sole or adjunctive) approaches. Two meta-reviews (mechanical plaque removal) and two traditional systematic reviews (chemical plaque control/anti-inflammatory agents) formed the basis of this consensus. Data support the belief that professionally administered plaque control significantly improves gingival inflammation and lowers plaque scores, with some evidence that reinforcement of oral hygiene provides further benefit. Re-chargeable power toothbrushes provide small but statistically significant additional reductions in gingival inflammation and plaque levels. Flossing cannot be recommended other than for sites of gingival and periodontal

  19. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.; Martin, Tobias; Grosset, A. V Pascal; Brownlee, Carson; Hollt, Thomas; Brown, Benjamin P.; Smith, Sean T.; Hansen, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Nabeeh A; Haralur, Satheesh B; AlMaqbol, Mohammad; AlMufarrij, Ali Jubran; Al Dera, Ahmed Ali; Al-Qarni, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype.

  2. Familial gingival fibromatosis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare condition that can occur as an isolated disease or as part of a syndrome or chromosomal abnormality. In severe cases, the gingival enlargement may cover the crowns of teeth and cause severe functional and aesthetic concerns. Here, we present a case of an 8-year-old girl with severe enlargement of gums in maxilla and mandible. Both deciduous and permanent teeth were not erupted in the oral cavity at all. Mutation in the Son-of-Sevenless (SOS-1 gene has been associated with the disease. The diagnosis was made based on clinical examination and family history. Surgical removal of the hyperplastic tissue was performed under general anesthesia.

  3. Gingival pigmentation beneath a metallic crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Hirayasu, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclosed that the essential cause of gingival discoloration following the placement of a metallic crown, was marked deposition of melanin pigment. Deposition of melanin pigment was observed in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and in fibroblasts, macrophages and among intercellular ground substance of the proprial layer. Brown or dark brown colored granules were observed in the deep portion of the proprial layer. Some metallic elements as silver and sulfur were detected. It was presumed that these materials were dental metals accidentally implanted in gingival tissues during the therapeutic procedure. The deposition of melanin pigment closely corresponded with mucosal tissue where these materials were present in the deep portion of the proprial layer. These findings suggested that these materials influenced the physiological metabolism of melanin and induced its pathological deposition in the proprial tissue. (author)

  4. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, B Shiva; T, Ramadevi; S, Neetha M; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar; Saritha, G; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2013-01-01

    It is quite common to note chronic inflammatory Gingival overgrowths during and/or post orthodontic treatment. Sometimes the overgrowths may even potentially complicate and/or interrupt orthodontic treatment. With the introduction of soft tissue lasers these problems can now be addressed more easily. Amongst many LASERS now available in Dentistry DIODE LASERS seem to be most ideal for orthodontic soft tissue applications. As newer treatments herald into minimally invasive techniques, DIODE LA...

  5. Gingival condition of patient with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Atikah Sabrina Alyani; Sri Wendari; Dede Hadidjah

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased drastically in most developed countries. Many studies showed that obesity associated with oral diseases, especially periodontal disease. A recent study showed the relation between WC and periodontal disease counted by gingival index (GI). However, studies regarding the mechanism of the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease are still quite a few, whereas many studies conducted suggested that obesity was a medical problem. The study was aim...

  6. Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of ′black gums′ are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  7. Salivary biomarkers associated with gingivitis and response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syndergaard, Ben; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Kryscio, Richard J; Xi, Jing; Ding, Xiuhua; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Miller, Craig S

    2014-08-01

    Salivary biomarkers are potentially important for determining the presence, risk, and progression of periodontal disease. However, clinical translation of biomarker technology from lab to chairside requires studies that identify biomarkers associated with the transitional phase between health and periodontal disease (i.e., gingivitis). Eighty participants (40 with gingivitis, 40 healthy) provided saliva at baseline and 7 to 30 days later. An additional sample was collected from gingivitis participants 10 to 30 days after dental prophylaxis. Clinical parameters of gingival disease were recorded at baseline and the final visit. Salivary concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured. Clinical features of health and gingivitis were stable at both baseline visits. Participants with gingivitis demonstrated significantly higher bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) (P ≤0.002) and a significant drop in BOP, PI, and GI post-treatment (P ≤0.001). Concentrations of MIP-1α and PGE2 were significantly higher (2.8 times) in the gingivitis group than the healthy group (P ≤0.02). After dental prophylaxis, mean biomarker concentrations did not decrease significantly from baseline in the gingivitis group, although concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-8 approached healthy levels, whereas MIP-1α and PGE2 concentrations remained significantly higher than in the healthy group (P ≤0.04). Odds ratio analyses showed that PGE2 concentrations, alone and in combination with MIP-1α, readily discriminated gingivitis from health. Salivary PGE2 and MIP-1α discriminate gingivitis from health, and patients with gingivitis who return to clinical health continue to produce inflammatory mediators for weeks after dental prophylaxis.

  8. Isolated gingival overgrowths: A review of case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians are often intrigued by the varied manifestations of the gingival tissue. Gingival overgrowth is a common clinical finding and most of them represent a reactive hyperplasia as a direct result of plaque-related inflammatory gingival disease. These types of growth generally respond to good plaque control, removal of the causative irritants, and conservative tissue management. This case series highlights three different cases of localized gingival overgrowth and its management with emphasis on the importance of patient awareness and motivation.

  9. Gingivitis and salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guaré, Renata Oliveira; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Duarte, Danilo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A total of 82 children with spastic CP were included in this cross-sectional study. Oral motor performance and gingival conditions were evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was collected using cotton swabs, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. Spearman's coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Strong correlation (r > 0.7) was determined among salivary osmolality, salivary flow rate, visible plaque, dental calculus, and the occurrence of gingivitis. The area under the ROC to predict the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96; P gingivitis was 22.5%, whereas for the group presenting osmolality >84.5 mOsm/kgH 2 O, the proportion of children with gingivitis was 77.5%. Salivary osmolality above 84.5 increased the likelihood of gingivitis fivefold, whereas each additional 0.1 mL of salivary flow reduced the likelihood of gingivitis by 97%. Gingivitis occurs more frequently in children with CP showing increased values of salivary osmolality. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Clinical study on the effect of anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste in control of gingivitis and dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Tao, Dan-Ying; Chen, Jian-Fen

    2016-08-01

    To observe the effect of anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste in control of gingivitis and plaque. The study was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-controlled clinical trail with a total of 100 subjects who were divided into two groups, experimental group and control group. The subjects in experimental group used anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste to brush twice daily for 3 minutes, and the subjects in control group used none anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste. The examiner recorded GI, PI and BOP index of all subjects at the baseline, 6-weeks and 12-weeks. SPSS21.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. Twelve weeks later, there were significant differences in GI and BOP between the two groups. Yet no significant difference was found in PI. Anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste is effective in control of gingivitis.

  11. Impact of Manually Controlled Solar Shades on Indoor Visual Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daylight plays a significant role in sustainable building design. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the impact of manual solar shades on indoor visual comfort. A developed stochastic model for manual solar shades was modeled in Building Controls Virtual Test Bed, which was coupled with EnergyPlus for co-simulation. Movable solar shades were compared with two unshaded windows. Results show that movable solar shades have more than half of the working hours with a comfortable illuminance level, which is about twice higher than low-e windows, with a less significant daylight illuminance fluctuation. For glare protection, movable solar shades increase comfortable visual conditions by about 20% compared to low-e windows. Moreover, the intolerable glare perception could be reduced by more than 20% for movable solar shades.

  12. STUDIES OF SHADING LEVELS AND NUTRITION SOURCES ON GROWTH, YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Purwanto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth and biochemical content of medicinal crops are influenced by agroecosystems characteristics . The objective of this research was to determine the optimum shading level and type of fertilizer as sources of nutrition on the growth, yield, and andrographolide content of sambiloto. The experiment used Split Plot Design with basic design of Randomized Complete Block Design arranged with two treatment factors, with three replications. The first factor as the main plot was shading levels, namely without shading, 25% shading, 50% shading, and 75% shading. The second factor as the sub plot was sources of nutrition reprented by type of fertilizer, namely NPK fertilizer, cow stable fertilizer, and compost fertilizer. The result of research indicated that shading level and the kind of nutrition influenced some growth and yield variables such as number of leaves, number of branches, plant height, plant dry weight and simplisia weight, and andrographolide content. Interaction of shading level at 25% and straw compost fertilizer performed best in growth characteristics, while the highest andrographolide content resulted from the treatment combination of 50% shading level and straw compost fertilizer.

  13. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour. H. Hara growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox A.D.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of surface shading were measured on above- and below-ground biomass and fruit production of Vallisneria natans (Lour. H. Hara plants grown from seed in replicated microcosm experiments, based on a control (no shading and four treatments (25%, 50%, 75% and 90% shading. Above- and below-ground biomass was significantly reduced at treatments above 50% shading and first pistillate and staminate florescence dates were significantly delayed above 75% and 50% shading, respectively. Ratios of mature to unripe fruits produced (both in number or dry weight did not differ between shading treatments, but dry weight fruit production was significantly reduced at 90% shading. We conclude that above 50% surface shading, V. natans plants suffer reductions in accumulated biomass and investment in sexual reproduction. We contend that recent expansions in the extent of the native floating water chestnut Trapa spp. at seasonally inundated wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain could, by shading, have contributed to the reduction in annual biomass and seed production of V. natans, contributing to declines in distribution and abundance.

  14. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  15. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  16. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  17. Cellular composition of long-standing gingivitis and periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorbert-Mros, S; Larsson, L; Berglundh, T

    2015-08-01

    Insufficient information on the cellular composition of long-standing gingivitis lesions without signs of attachment loss makes an understanding of differences in cellular composition between "destructive" and "nondestructive" periodontal lesions difficult. The aim of the current study was to analyze differences in cell characteristics between lesions representing long-standing gingivitis and severe periodontitis. Two groups of patients were recruited. One group consisted of 36 patients, 33-67 years of age, with severe generalized periodontitis (periodontitis group). The second group consisted of 28 patients, 41-70 years of age, with overt signs of gingival inflammation but no attachment loss (gingivitis group). From each patient a gingival biopsy was obtained from one selected diseased site and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. Periodontitis lesions were twice as large and contained significantly larger proportions, numbers and densities of cells positive for CD138 (plasma cells) and CD68 (macrophages) than did gingivitis lesions. The proportion of B cells that expressed the additional CD5 marker (B-1a cells) was significantly larger in periodontitis lesions than in gingivitis lesions. The densities of T cells and B cells did not differ between periodontitis lesions and gingivitis lesions. T cells were not the dominating cell type in gingivitis lesions, as B cells together with their subset plasma cells comprised a larger number and proportion than T cells. Periodontitis lesions at teeth with advanced attachment and bone loss exhibit quantitative and qualitative differences in relation to gingivitis lesions at teeth with no attachment and bone loss. It is suggested that the large number and high density of plasma cells are the hallmarks of advanced periodontitis lesions and the most conspicuous difference in relation to long-standing gingivitis lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fifty shades of exploitation: Fan labor and Fifty Shades of Grey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This exploration of the debates that have taken place in fandom over the ethics of pulling fan fiction and publishing it as original work draws on the notion of the fannish gift economy, which postulates that gifts such as fan fiction and fan art have value in the fannish community because they are designed to create and cement its social structure. Tension exists between fans who subscribe to the notion of a fannish gift economy and those who exploit fandom by using it to sell their pulled-to-publish works. An examination of E. L. James's 2012 Fifty Shades trilogy (comprising the books Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker, and Fifty Shades Freed, which began as Twilight fan fiction, in addition to Twilight fan art sold through sites such as Redbubble and Etsy, demonstrates a tension between the two modes of fan expression: sale of artworks appears to be an acceptable practice in fandom, but the commercial sale of fan fic, even when marketed as original fiction, is widely contested.

  19. Kekambuhan gingivitis hiperplasi setelah gingivektomi (Recurrent of hyperplastic gingivitis after gingivectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Ruhadi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The inflammatory enlargement is clinically called hyperthropic gingivitis or gingival hyperplasia and generally related to local or systemic factors. They could be edematous or fibrous. The former is treated by scaling, but the latter that could not be treated by scaling only has to be removed by gingivectomy. There are some cases of gingivectomy resulting in recurrences. The writer wanted to find out the cause of the recurrences. The types of research were clinical and laboratories observational studies. The criteria of sample were: male or female patient who came to periodontal clinic of Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. They were diagnosed gingivitis hyperplasia; had no systemic diseases; did not wear the orthodontic appliances, prosthesis, and crown and bridge; do not smoke. The indicated teeth to be observed were the labial side of maxillary front teeth. The teeth had score hyperplastic index (HI = 2 at the 2nd weeks after scaling. There were 7 samples taken selectively. The results of the studies were based on the comparison of 1 hyperplasia index (HI; 2 the number and percentage of monosite and leucocytes from white blood impedance coutl (WIC and white blood optical coutl (WOC; 3 plaque Index; and 4 gingival index. The result of gingivectomy was reevaluated on the 30th, 45th, 60th, 90th day. The research concluded that the number of monosite was normal, but the dental plaque still accumulated and eventually caused the recurrences of the inflammation.

  20. Treatment of gingival recession with collagen membrane and DFDBA: a histometric study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pimentel Rosetti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we evaluated the findings related to the use of resorbable collagen membranes in humans along with DFDBA (demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft. The aim of this subsequent study was to histometrically evaluate in dogs, the healing response of gingival recessions treated with collagen membrane + DFDBA (Guided Tissue Regeneration, GTR compared to a coronally positioned flap (CPF. Two types of treatment were randomly carried out in a split-mouth study. Group 1 was considered as test (GTR: collagen membrane + DFDBA, whereas Group 2 stood for the control (only CPF. The dogs were given chemical bacterial plaque control with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate during a 90-day repair period. Afterwards, the animals were killed to obtain biopsies and histometric evaluation of the process of cementum and bone formation, epithelial migration and gingival level. A statistically significant difference was found between groups with a larger extension of neoformed cementum (GTR = 32.72%; CPF = 18.82%; p = 0.0004, new bone (GTR = 23.20%; CPF = 09.90%; p = 0.0401 and with a smaller area of residual gingival recession in the test group (GTR = 50.69%; CPF = 59.73%; p = 0.0055 compared to the control group. The only item assessed that showed no statistical difference was epithelial proliferation on the root surface, with means of 15.14% for the GTR group and 20.34% for the CPF group (p = 0.0890. Within the limits of this study we concluded that the treatment of gingival recession defects with GTR, associating collagen membrane with DFDBA, showed better outcomes in terms of a larger extension of neoformed cementum and bone, as well as in terms of a smaller proportion of residual recessions.

  1. Does any relationship exist between self reported gingival bleeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Data from this survey revealed an established relationship between gingival bleeding, perceived dental and gingival health, tooth brushing force, professional instruction on tooth brushing, perception of the condition of teeth in relation to daily tooth brushing, worry about the color of gingiva, and satisfaction with ...

  2. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal failure: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is used in the management of both hypertension and angina. Amlodipine induced side effects are headache, dizziness, edema, flushing, palpitations, and rarely gingival hyperplasia. The exact reason of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia is not known.

  3. Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis in an immunocompromised young adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jessie; Kent, Paul; Lennon, Joshua M; Logan, Latania K

    2015-01-01

    Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis is an acute onset disease characterised by ulceration, necrosis, pain and bleeding in gingival surfaces. It is predominantly seen in severely malnourished children and young adults with advanced HIV infection. We present a unique presentation in a young adult with high-grade osteogenic sarcoma. PMID:26376700

  4. Experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum: immunohistochemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Leene, W.; Palmer-Bouva, C. C.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.

    1993-01-01

    The histoimmunological response of 8 individuals was studied longitudinally in relation to the development of experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum. At day 0 as well as at day 14 of experimental gingivitis the mean periodontal pocket bleeding index (PPBI) was higher during

  5. Relationship between oral hygiene and gingival condition of Malaysian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arif Mohd Marsin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary etiologic agent of gingival disease was dental plaque which also involving the oral hygiene. The oral hygiene can be affected by individuals knowledge, attitude, practice, environment, and others. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between oral hygiene and gingival condition of Malaysian students. The type of this study was cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on a total of 66 Malaysian students. The data were collected by using an examination form and clinical examination using the Loe & Sillness gingival index followed by the Loe & Sillness plaque index. The results showed that 100% of students have gingivitis with the gingival index average of 1.25 and the plaque index average of 1.85. The relationship of gingival and plaque index was analyzed by using Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient test, and the score was 0.623. It is concluded that the oral hygiene status of Malaysian students was in the fair category, and all Malaysian students had a moderate gingivitis. Also, there was a relationship between the oral hygiene status and gingival condition of Malaysian students.

  6. Plasma Cell Gingivitis Associated With Inflammatory Chelitis: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasma cell gingivitis (PGC) is a rare disease of gingival tissues which is difficult to treat. It has a higher rate of reoccurrence and needs a detailed and careful analysis of etiology. Further, its association with chelitis is rare, only few cases have been reported and the condition with this presentation poses a ...

  7. Gingivitis, Psychological Factors and Quality of Life in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Priscila de Lima; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Amato, Juliana Neide; Montes, Ana Bheatriz Marangoni; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between gingivitis, emotional status and quality of life in children. Sixty-four Brazilian students (11 to 12 years old) were examined for clinical and self-reported gingivitis. The participants were divided into two groups: those with gingivitis (n = 21) and controls (n = 43). Quality of life, anxiety and depression were measured using self-administered questionnaires. Saliva was collected 30 min after waking and at bedtime to measure the diurnal decline in salivary cortisol. The results were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. There were significantly more female participants in the control group. Approximately 90% of the children with gingivitis had good oral hygiene and 10.5% had satisfactory oral hygiene. There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety and depression in both clinical groups. Anxiety was negatively correlated with quality of life in the control group. Depression was negatively correlated with quality of life and cortisol concentrations in the group with gingivitis, and with quality of life in the control group. Children with gingivitis were more likely to be older and males. Older children are more likely to experience gingival bleeding. The presence of gingivitis in children may be associated with worse psychological well-being, possibly compromising the quality of life.

  8. Gingival Tissue Color Related With Facial Skin and Acrylic Resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to determine the predominant gingival tissue colour in this environment; to assess the association of gingival tissue colour with gender and facial skin colour. Four hundred and thirty subjects that attended the Dental Centre, University College Hospital, Ibadan, who consented to participate in the ...

  9. Gingival Recession in a Child‑Patient; Easily Missed Etiologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with age-appropriate complement of teeth except for a missing tooth 42. ... frenal attachment is more important in gingival recession in the child‑patient. A healthy child‑ ... spared rules out a possible role of brushing-induced gingival abrasion.

  10. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Caroline daSilva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009 was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%, followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%, gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%, and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%. Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence.

  11. Three-dimensional topography of the gingival line of young adult maxillary teeth: curve averaging using reverse-engineering methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Seok; Chang, Mi-Sook; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to establish three-dimensional average curves of the gingival line of maxillary teeth using reconstructed virtual models to utilize as guides for dental implant restorations. Virtual models from 100 full-mouth dental stone cast sets were prepared with a three-dimensional scanner and special reconstruction software. Marginal gingival lines were defined by transforming the boundary points to the NURBS (nonuniform rational B-spline) curve. Using an iterative closest point algorithm, the sample models were aligned and the gingival curves were isolated. Each curve was tessellated by 200 points using a uniform interval. The 200 tessellated points of each sample model were averaged according to the index of each model. In a pilot experiment, regression and fitting analysis of one obtained average curve was performed to depict it as mathematical formulae. The three-dimensional average curves of six maxillary anterior teeth, two maxillary right premolars, and a maxillary right first molar were obtained, and their dimensions were measured. Average curves of the gingival lines of young people were investigated. It is proposed that dentists apply these data to implant platforms or abutment designs to achieve ideal esthetics. The curves obtained in the present study may be incorporated as a basis for implant component design to improve the biologic nature and related esthetics of restorations.

  12. Clinical efficacy of turmeric use in gingivitis: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyell, Karissa A; Mappus, Jennifer L; Gandhi, Mona A

    2016-11-01

    Gingivitis affects an estimated 80% of the population, and is characterized as the world's most predominant inflammatory periodontal disease. Without intervention, gingivitis can advance to alveolar bone loss. Therefore, the primary goal in patients suffering with gingivitis is to control plaque buildup and soft tissue inflammation. Current guidelines consider chlorhexidine as the gold standard in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. However, negative side effects of chlorhexidine, including oral mucosal erosion, discoloration of teeth, and bitter taste, provide an opportunity for alternative medications. Turmeric, a commonly used herb, possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. By virtue of these properties, multiple controlled trials have been performed to investigate the efficacy of turmeric in gingivitis. The aim of this comprehensive review is to summarize and evaluate the evidence on the efficacy of turmeric as compared to chlorhexidine in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. PubMed, MedLine (Web of Science), and EBSCO (academic search complete) were utilized as primary literature search tools. The following search strategy was used: ((turmeric OR curcumin OR curcuma) AND (gingivitis OR "gum inflammation")). Five reviewed studies show that both turmeric and chlorhexidine significantly decrease plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI), and can therefore be used in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. Both chlorhexidine and turmeric can be used as an adjunct to mechanical means in preventing and treating gingivitis. However, trials longer than 21 days with a greater number of patients are necessary to further evaluate the comparison between turmeric and chlorhexidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults.

  14. Gingival Pigmentation Affected by Smoking among Different Age Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomotaka; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Hanioka, Takashi; Naito, Toru

    2017-08-04

    The presence of any age-related differences in gingival pigmentation associated with smoking, particularly in a young population, remains to be fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related differences in smoking gingival pigmentation. Gingival pigmentation was analyzed using the gingival melanosis record (GMR) and Hedin's classification with frontal oral photographs taken at 16 dental offices in Japan. Participants were categorized into 10-year age groups, and their baseline photographs were compared. In addition, to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation, subjects were divided into a former smoker group (stopped smoking) and current smoker group. A total of 259 patients 19 to 79 years of age were analyzed. People in their 30s showed the most widespread gingival pigmentation. In addition, subjects in their 20s showed a weak effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation. These findings suggested that the gingival pigmentation induced by smoking was more remarkable in young people than in middle-aged people. This information may be useful for anti-smoking education, especially among young populations with a high affinity for smoking.

  15. The effectiveness of dentifrices without and with sodium lauryl sulfate on plaque, gingivitis and gingival abrasion : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sälzer, S.; Rosema, N.A.M.; Martin, E.C.J.; Slot, D.E.; Timmer, C.J.; Dörfer, C.E.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) to a dentifrice with SLS in young adults aged 18–34 years on gingivitis. Material and methods One hundred twenty participants (non-dental students) with a moderate gingival inflammation

  16. Solar Shading System Based on Daylight Directing Glass Lamellas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Santos, Inês; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    The overheating problems in office buildings must be solved with efficient solar shadings in order to reduce the energy demand for cooling and ventilation. At the same time the solar shading should not reduce the daylight level in the building on overcast days because it would result in a lower...

  17. Shade tree selection and management practices by farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a traditional practice of forest management in coffee producing communities in Ethiopian moist Afromontane forests to increase coffee production. The practice involves removal of big canopy trees with excessive shade and selectively retaining specific tree species as preferred shade trees. This study was initiated ...

  18. Influence of shading on container-grown flowering dogwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare root dogwoods can be successfully grown when transplanted into a container production system. Shade treatments regardless of color or density did have an effect on the plant growth of Cherokee Brave™ and Cherokee Princess dogwood. Plants grown under 50% black and 50% white shade had more heigh...

  19. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200

  20. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging

  1. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, southern Mexico and parts of Cuba and Jamaica are all seen in this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The dominant feature of the northern part of Central America is the Sierra Madre Range, spreading east from Mexico between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of the Yucatan Peninsula. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatun and the Isthmus of Panama. A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.High-quality satellite imagery of Central America has, until now, been difficult to obtain due to persistent cloud cover in this region of the world. The ability of SRTM to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements has allowed the generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. This map was used to generate the image.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.For an annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 9 mB jpeg)Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect

  2. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet

  3. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  4. Foreign body gingivitis: An iatrogenic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, T.D.; Wysocki, G.P. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1990-06-01

    Gingival biopsy specimens from eight patients exhibiting a localized, erythematous, or mixed erythematous/leukoplakic gingivitis that was refractory to conventional periodontal therapy were examined histologically and by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Histologic examination revealed variable numbers of small, usually subtle, sometimes equivocal, and occasionally obvious foci of granulomatous inflammation. Special stains for fungi and acid-fast bacilli were consistently negative. In all cases, the granulomatous foci contained particles of foreign material that were often inconspicuous and easily overlooked during routine histologic examination. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of these foreign particles disclosed Ca, Al, Si, Ti, and P in most lesions. However, other elements such as Zr, V, Ag, and Ni were found only in specific biopsy specimens. By comparing the elemental analyses, clinical features, and history of the lesions, strong evidence for an iatrogenic source of the foreign material was found in one case, and good evidence in five cases. In the remaining two patients, the source of the foreign particles remains unresolved.

  5. A study on gingival component of smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Chakroborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esthetic enhancement of smile requires prior quantification of gingival component of smile. Hence, a study has been designed on randomly selected volunteers′ and posed frontal smiling photographs were taken and analyzed through computer-aided ImageJ software. Aim: To determine the role of gingival component in designing a smile. Settings and Design: Present observational study includes one frontal photograph from each of 212 subjects who were attending the Department of Periodontics (examined during the study period and then divided into three age groups (18-30, 31-40, and 41-50 years. Materials and Methods: Standardized frontal photographs with posed smile from 212 volunteers irrespective of age and sex were taken and the images were analyzed in computer by using ImageJ software. Statistical analysis used: Mean and standard deviation of intercommissural width (ICW, interlabial gap (ILG, and smile index (SI during posed smiling were calculated for different sex. Comparison between male and female group were done by Mann-Whitney U test, and P-values were calculated for ICW, ILG, and SI. Spearman′s rank correlation coefficients (rho were calculated for SI and different components of central zone of smile. Results: Male group as compared to female group exhibited greater ICW and ILG, and there was existence of fair to good correlation between lip dynamics and different factors of smile. Conclusion: Present study indicates that different factors of central zone of smile havefair to good correlation with lip dynamics assessed by SI.

  6. Foreign body gingivitis: An iatrogenic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, T.D.; Wysocki, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gingival biopsy specimens from eight patients exhibiting a localized, erythematous, or mixed erythematous/leukoplakic gingivitis that was refractory to conventional periodontal therapy were examined histologically and by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Histologic examination revealed variable numbers of small, usually subtle, sometimes equivocal, and occasionally obvious foci of granulomatous inflammation. Special stains for fungi and acid-fast bacilli were consistently negative. In all cases, the granulomatous foci contained particles of foreign material that were often inconspicuous and easily overlooked during routine histologic examination. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of these foreign particles disclosed Ca, Al, Si, Ti, and P in most lesions. However, other elements such as Zr, V, Ag, and Ni were found only in specific biopsy specimens. By comparing the elemental analyses, clinical features, and history of the lesions, strong evidence for an iatrogenic source of the foreign material was found in one case, and good evidence in five cases. In the remaining two patients, the source of the foreign particles remains unresolved

  7. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area. The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water. The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of

  8. Discrete Line Congruences for Shading and Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Two-parameter families of straight lines (line congruences) are implicitly present in graphics and geometry processing in several important ways including lighting and shape analysis. In this paper we make them accessible to optimization and geometric computing, by introducing a general discrete version of congruences based on piecewise-linear correspondences between triangle meshes. Our applications of congruences are based on the extraction of a so-called torsion-free support structure, which is a procedure analogous to remeshing a surface along its principal curvature lines. A particular application of such structures are freeform shading and lighting systems for architecture. We combine interactive design of such systems with global optimization in order to satisfy geometric constraints. In this way we explore a new area where architecture can greatly benefit from graphics.

  9. Accurate simulation of neutrons in less than one minute Pt. 1: Acceptance diagram shading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, Phillip M.; Andersen, Ken H.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for modelling neutron guides based on an extension of acceptance diagram methods: neutron acceptance diagram shading (NADS), using a computer graphical approach. It has a similar black-box, modular strategy to Monte-Carlo simulations, but often outperforms Monte-Carlo by orders of magnitude in terms of calculation speed without sacrificing significant detail. NADS is expected to increase the productivity in the design stage of neutron instrument development, and facilitate the widespread application of advanced, modern artificial-intelligence-based optimisation algorithms for the design of neutron instrumentation.

  10. An hourly based performance comparison of an integrated micro-structural perforated shading screen with standard shading systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; McNeil, Andrew; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    This article evaluates the performance of an integrated micro structural perforated shading screen (MSPSS). Such a system maintains a visual connection with the outdoors while imitating the shading functionality of a venetian blind. Building energy consumption is strongly influenced by the solar...... gains and heat transfer through the transparent parts of the fenestration systems. MSPSS is angular-dependent shading device that provides an effective strategy in the control of daylight, solar gains and overheating through windows. The study focuses on using direct experimental methods to determine bi......-directional transmittance properties of shading systems that are not included as standard shading options in readily available building performance simulation tools. The impact on the indoor environment, particularly temperature and daylight were investigated and compared to three other static complex fenestration systems...

  11. Surgical management of generalized gingival enlargement - a case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.U.; Nazir, A.; Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore; Kiran, S.; Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore

    2014-01-01

    Generalized gingival enlargement is characterized by massive and exuberant gingival overgrowth that poses social, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems for the patient. Therefore, it requires meticulous management. Objective: To describe the surgical management of generalized gingival enlargement by electrosurgical excision of patients presenting to a tertiary care centre. Study Design: Case series. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, de'Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore, from January 2010 to December 2012. A total of sixteen patients were operated by using electrosurgical approach under general anaesthesia for surgical excision of generalized gingival enlargement. Results: All of the sixteen patients, 11 males and 5 females, showed excellent healing postoperatively without any recurrent gingival overgrowth. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, the current study presents the largest case series of generalized gingival enlargement. Most of these cases were with massive disease due to lack of information of the study population about their disease, delay in referral by the general dental practitioners, painless and innocent nature of the problem. Early referral of such patients to tertiary care centers can prevent the patients from social and psychological embarrassment. Conclusion: Electrosurgical excision is an excellent surgical technique for management of generalized gingival enlargement. Moreover, cross comparative studies are required to establish some diagnostic and therapeutic standards for such patients. (author)

  12. THERAPEUTIC DIFFICULTIES IN ACHIEVEMENT OF OPTIMAL ROOT COVERAGE AND AESTHETIC IN CLASS III GINGIVAL RECESSION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Popova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The width of the attached gingiva is defined as a distance between the depth of the gingival sulcus or gingival/periodontal pocket to the mucogingival junction. Authors suggest that a minimal amount of attached gingiva is necessary to ensure the gingival health. When the buccal bone plate and gingival tissues are thin and the position of the tooth is too vestibular gingival margin often displaces apically, and gingival recession develops. In the presence of gingival recession and reduced vestibular depth oral hygiene procedures are embarrassed.The definition of class III gingival recession is marginal lack of tissue extended to/or beyond the mucogingival junction with bone and soft tissue loss interdentally or malpositioning of the tooth.Prognosis for class III and IV gingival recession is that only partial coverage can be expected after root coverage procedures - FGG (free gingival graft or connective tissue graft (CTG. Adjunctive surgical techniques would be helpful to achieve better aesthetic outcomes.

  13. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Pinon Canyon region, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Erosional features are prominent in this view of southern Colorado taken by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area covers about 20,000 square kilometers and is located about 50 kilometers south of Pueblo, Colorado. The prominent mountains near the left edge of the image are the Spanish Peaks, remnants of a 20 million year old volcano. Rising 2,100 meters (7,000 ft) above the plains to the east, these igneous rock formations with intrusions of eroded sedimentary rock historically served as guiding landmarks for travelers on the Mountain Branch of the Santa Fe Trail.Near the center of the image is the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, a training area for soldiers of the U.S. Army from nearby Fort Carson. The site supports a diverse ecosystem with large numbers of big and small game, fisheries, non-game wildlife, forest, range land and mineral resources. It is bounded on the east by the dramatic topography of the Purgatoire River Canyon, a 100 meter (328 foot) deep scenic red canyon with flowing streams, sandstone formations, and exposed geologic processes.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. Southern slopes appear bright and northern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  14. Cyclosporine a inhibits apoptosis of rat gingival epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Su; Liu, Peihong; Li, Yanwu; Hou, Lin; Chen, Li; Qin, Chunlin

    2014-08-01

    The use of cyclosporine A (CsA) induces hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in a site-specific response manner, but the molecular mechanism via which the lesion occurs is unclear. The present research aims to investigate the site-specific effect of CsA on the apoptosis of gingival epithelium associated with gingival hyperplasia. Forty Wistar rats were divided into CsA-treated and non-treated groups. Paraffin-embedded sections of mandibular first molars were selected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry analyses of bcl-2 and caspase-3, and the staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The area of the whole gingival epithelium and the length of rete pegs were measured, and the number of bcl-2- and caspase-3-positive cells in the longest rete peg were counted. The analysis of variance for factorial designs and Fisher least significant difference test for post hoc analysis were used to determine the significance levels. In CsA-treated rats, bcl-2 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas caspase-3 expression was downregulated, along with a reduced number of TUNEL-positive cells. The site-specific distribution of bcl-2 was consistent with the site-specific hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in CsA-treated rats. CsA inhibited gingival epithelial apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and common pathway. The antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the site-specific hyperplasia of gingival epithelium induced by CsA. There were mechanistic differences in the regulation of apoptosis for cells in the attached gingival epithelium, free gingival epithelium, and junctional epithelium.

  15. Clinical Characteristics of Abutment Teeth with Gingival Discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Ljubisa; Dakovic, Dragana; Postic, Srdjan; Lazic, Zoran; Bacevic, Miljana; Vucevic, Dragana

    2017-04-06

    The grey-bluish discoloration of gingiva (known as "amalgam tattoo") does not appear only in the presence of amalgam restorations. It may also be seen in cases of teeth restored with cast dowels and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations. The aim of this article was to determine the clinical characteristics of abutment teeth with gingival discoloration. This research was conducted on 25 patients referred for cast dowel and PFM restorations. These restorations were manufactured from Ni-Cr alloys. Ninety days after cementing the fixed prosthodontic restorations, the abutment teeth (n = 61) were divided into a group with gingival discoloration (GD) (n = 25) and without gingival discoloration (NGD) (n = 36). The control group (CG) comprised the contralateral teeth (n = 61). Plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depth were assessed before fabrication and also 90 days after cementation of the PFM restorations. The gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depths of the abutment teeth that had GD were statistically higher before restoration, in comparison with the abutment teeth in the NGD and control groups. Ninety days after cementation, the abutment teeth with GD had significantly lower gingival indexes and probing depths, compared to the abutment teeth in the NGD group. Both abutment teeth groups (GD and NGD) had significantly higher values of clinical attachment levels when compared to the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in plaque index values between the study groups. The results of this study indicated that impairment of periodontal status of abutment teeth seemed to be related to the presence of gingival discolorations. Therefore, fabrication of fixed prosthodontic restorations requires careful planning and abutment teeth preparation to minimize the occurrence of gingival discolorations. With careful preparation of abutment teeth for cast dowels and crown restorations it may be

  16. Effect of Sleep and Salivary Glucose on Gingivitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaderi, H; Tavares, M; Hartman, M; Goodson, J M

    2016-11-01

    It has been shown that inadequate sleep has deleterious effects on health by suppressing immunity and promoting inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sleep and salivary glucose levels on the development of gingivitis in a prospective longitudinal study of Kuwaiti children. Data were collected from 10-y-old children ( N = 6,316) in 2012 and again in 2014. Children were approximately equally distributed from 138 elementary schools representing the 6 governorates of Kuwait. Calibrated examiners conducted oral examination, self-reported sleep evaluation interviews, anthropomorphic measurements, and unstimulated whole saliva sample collection. Salivary glucose levels were measured by a florescent glucose oxidase method; values of salivary glucose ≥1.13 mg/dL were defined as high glucose levels. A multilevel random intercept and slope analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between sleep duration and gingivitis on 3 levels: within schools, among children, and over time. The outcome was the progression of the extent of gingival inflammation in children over time. The main independent variables were the number of daily sleep hours and salivary glucose levels. Other explanatory variables and confounders assessed were governorate, dental caries and restorations, and obesity by waist circumference (adjusted for snacking and sex). Gingivitis increased over time in children who had shorter sleep duration ( P 1.13 mg/dL predicted gingivitis ( P gingivitis ( P gingivitis and obesity. The level of gingivitis was different among the 6 governorates of Kuwait. Additionally, there was a strong clustering effect of the observations within schools and among children across time. Longitudinal analysis of 6,316 Kuwaiti children revealed that shorter sleep duration and higher salivary glucose levels were both associated with increased gingival inflammation.

  17. Microcirculation alterations in experimentally induced gingivitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Masato; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Maeda, Shingo; Iimura, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to morphologically examine the gingival microvascular network using a microvascular resin cast (MRC) technique, and to investigate how inflammatory disease functionally affects gingival microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). We used four beagle dogs with healthy periodontal tissue as experimental animals. To cause periodontal inflammation, dental floss was placed around the cervical neck portions of the right premolars. The unmanipulated left premolars served as controls, and received plaque control every 7 days. After 90 days, gingivitis was induced in the experimental side, while the control side maintained healthy gingiva. To perform morphological examinations, we used an MRC method involving the injection of low-viscosity synthetic resin into the blood vessels, leading to peripheral soft-tissue dissolution and permitting observation of the bone, teeth, and vascular cast. Gingival blood flow was estimated using an LDF meter. The control gingival vasculature showed hairpin-loop-like networks along the tooth surface. The blood vessels had diameters of 20-40 μm and were regularly arranged around the cervical portion. On the other hand, the vasculature in the experimental group was twisted and gathered into spiral forms, with blood vessels that had uneven surfaces and smaller diameters of 8-10 μm. LDF revealed reduced gingival blood flow in the group with experimentally induced gingivitis compared to controls. The actual measurements of gingival blood flow by LDF were in agreement with the alterations that would be expected based on the gingivitis-induced morphological alterations observed with the MRC technique.

  18. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Joshipura, Vaibhavi

    2012-01-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental oc...

  19. Management of excessive gingival display: Lip repositioning technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Sthapak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lips form the frame of a smile and define the esthetic zone. Excessive gingival display during smile is often referred to as "gummy smile". A successful management of excessive gingival display with lip repositioning procedure has shown excellent results. The procedure involves removing a strip of partial thickness mucosa from maxillary vestibule, then suturing it back to the lip mucosa at the level of mucogingival junction. This technique results in restricted muscle pull and a narrow vestibule, thereby reducing the gingival display. In this case gummy smile was treated by modification of Rubinstein and Kostianovsky′s surgical lip repositioning technique which resulted in a harmonious smile.

  20. Gingival enlargement unveiling sarcoidosis: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeeha Abbas Kadiwala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is classified as an acquired systemic granulomatous disease. Because of the fact that sarcoidosis affects multiple tissues and organs, it is characterized by many potential signs and symptoms, as well as by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in the organs involved. Although oral sarcoidosis is relatively rare, it may however, present in the oral cavity. This report presents a rare case of sarcoidosis with the initial presenting symptom as severe generalized gingival enlargement. The gingival enlargement was treated by gingivectomy. After histopathological examination of gingival biopsy and certain special investigations, a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made.

  1. A comparison of cord gingival displacement with the gingitage technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupac, R G; Neacy, K

    1981-11-01

    Fifteen young adult dogs were divided into three groups representing 0, 7- and 21-day healing periods. Randomly selected cuspid teeth were used to compare cord gingival displacement and gingitage techniques for subgingival tooth preparation and impression making. Clinical and histologic measurements were used as a basis for comparison. Results indicate that (1) the experimental teeth were clinically healthy at the beginning of the experiment, (2) clinical health of the gingival tissues was controlled throughout the course of the experiment, and (3) within this experimental setting, there was no significant difference between the cord gingival displacement technique and the gingitage technique.

  2. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.; Forrest, J.

    2012-05-01

    This document describes a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations, as would be experienced by typical residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. This type of shading test is particularly useful to evaluate the impact of different power conversion setups, including microinverters, DC power optimizers and string inverters, on overall system performance. The performance results are weighted based on annual estimates of shade to predict annual performance improvement. A trial run of the test procedure was conducted with a side by side comparison of a string inverter with a microinverter, both operating on identical 8kW solar arrays. Considering three different shade weighting conditions, the microinverter was found to increase production by 3.7% under light shading, 7.8% under moderate shading, and 12.3% under heavy shading, relative to the reference string inverter case. Detail is provided in this document to allow duplication of the test method at different test installations and for different power electronics devices.

  3. Improved grazing activity of dairy heifers in shaded tropical grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Tavares de Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Trees in the production systems can effectively reduce hot weather-induced stress in the Brazilian Midwest. High temperatures cause changes in animals daily routine, and trees into pastures can promote benefits. The aim of this research was to evaluate the behavior of dairy heifers in silvopastoral systems in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A herd of 24 crossbreed heifers (3/4 and 7/8 Holstein/Zebu, 350kg average weight, was evaluated over three seasons. Piatã grass was managed under three shade levels: full-sun, moderate-shade, and intensive-shade provided by 10 to 12m high Eucalyptus trees. Behavior data were collected every 15 minutes from 8:30h to 16h. Shade availability significantly impacted heifer behavior, mainly affecting grazing frequency and time during the hottest hours. Grazing behavior was affected by shade levels during the different seasons. Heifers showed preferred grazing times. Heifers in the intensive-shade system visited shady areas during the hottest hours throughout the seasons. Heifers in the full sun-system avoided grazing during the warmer times, ceasing feeding activities. Our results from the Brazilian Midwest showed that shade availability causes breed heifers to change their daily routine.

  4. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: A diagnostic impediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Rani Koduganti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent 3% of cancers in men and 2% of cancers in women. More than 90% of oral cancer occurs in people older than 45 years Lesions of gingiva account for approximately 10% of the oral squamous cell carcinomas and may present clinically as an area of ulceration, exophytic mass, or red/white speckled patches. The proximity to the underlying periosteum may invite early bone invasion. Carcinoma of gingiva constitutes an extremely important group of neoplasms as the lesion frequently mimics the reactive and inflammatory conditions affecting the periodontium, delaying the diagnosis and making the prognosis of the patient poorer. A rare case of gingival squamous cell carcinoma has been reported here, in a 40 Year old male patient. Careful recording of the case history and results of clinical examination, radiographic, and laboratory investigations, along with a critical review of similar conditions led to the diagnosis, and treatment was initiated.

  5. Generalised Leukaemic Gingival Enlargement: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechery Reenesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myeloblastic leukaemia is a malignant bone marrow neoplasm of myeloid precursors of white blood cells. Due to its high morbidity rate, early diagnosis and appropriate medical therapy is essential. Methods: The article highlights normal blood alterations like anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis and advanced diagnostic aids like flow cytometry, special staining as a diagnostic modality as well as for prognostic information in acute leukaemia, particularly as a tool for assigning lineage and facilitating further pathologic classification which may be helpful in influencing treatment strategies.Results: On clinical examination the case presented with features of inflammatory gingival enlargement with presence of local deposits and calculus. Routine blood examination anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis with haemoglobin 5.6 gm% and total leukocyte count of 1,12,000 / cu mm suggestive of leukaemia. Myeloperoxidase and leukocyte nonspecific esterase (NSE special stain were used which showed presence of myeloblasts in the peripheral smear suggestive of acute myelocytic leukaemia. Flow cytometry were done which further helped in interpretation of these cells which showed to be strongly positive for CD45, CD13, CD14, and anti HLADR and moderately positive for CD4, CD34 and Anti MPO confirming to be case of AML-M4 with 57.73% gating.Conclusions: Fact that gingival alterations are sometimes the first manifestations of the disease implies that dental professionals must be sufficiently familiarized with the clinical manifestations of systemic diseases. The timely referral by the general dentist for a suspicious lesion provided an early diagnosis and early intervention reducing the patient morbidity.

  6. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Australia is the world's smallest, flattest, and (after Antarctica) driest continent, but at 7.7 million square kilometers (3.0 million square miles) it is also the sixth largest country. Its low average elevation (300 meters, or less than 1000 feet) is caused by its position near the center of a tectonic plate, where there are no volcanic or other geologic forces of the type that raise the topography of other continents. In fact Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity at all - the last eruption took place 1400 years ago at Mt. Gambier. The Australian continent is also one of the oldest land masses, with some of its erosion-exposed bedrock age dated at more than 3 billion years. More than one-fifth of the land area is desert, with more than two-thirds being classified as arid or semi-arid and unsuitable for settlement. The coldest regions are in the highlands and tablelands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps at the southeastern corner of the continent, location of Australia's highest point, Mt. Kosciusko (2228 meters, or 7310 feet.) Prominent features of Australia include the Lake Eyre basin, the darker green region visible in the center-right. At 16 meters (52 feet) below sea level this depression is one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world, covering more than 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles). The mountain range near the east coast is called the Great Dividing Range, forming a watershed between east and west flowing rivers. Erosion has created deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls in this range where rivers tumble over escarpments on their way to the sea. The crescent shaped uniform green region in the south, just left of center, is the Nullarbor Plain, a low-lying limestone plateau which is so flat that the Trans-Australian Railway runs through it in a straight line for more than 483 kilometers (300 miles). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of

  7. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM

  8. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D

  9. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Keywords: Amlodipine, gingival hyperplasia, chronic renal failure. African Health ... for the treatment of hypertension and angina. Pharmacokinetic ... patient appealed to the dentist at first. ... Am Heart J. 1989 Nov; 118(5 Pt 2):. 1100-1103. 2.

  10. Gingival mask: A case report on enhancing smiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashritha Shenava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal attachment loss in the maxillary anterior region can often lead to esthetic and functional clinical problems including disproportional and elongated clinical crowns and visible interdental embrasures. Gingival replacement prosthesis has historically been used to replace lost tissue. A gingival mask is an easily constructed and practical device to optimize the esthetic and functional outcome in these special situations while permitting cleansibility of the prosthesis and supporting tissues. This is a case report of a young female patient treated using silicon gingival veneer with a 2-year follow-up. The silicon gingival mask has enabled the patient to regain her lost smile and face people with newly found confidence also enhancing the esthetic appearance. Virtually, no problem was encountered during the 2 years of usage of the veneer and the patient continues to use it comfortably.

  11. study of oral and gingival microbial flora in institutionalized mentally

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    from the mouth and gingiva of 138 institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari to culture in specific media to ... Key words: Oral and gingival microbial flora, Mental retardation, D%, Sari ... staphylococcus aureus and, in case of negative.

  12. Gingival and Periodontal Diseases in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Singh Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are among the most frequent diseases affecting children and adolescents. These include gingivitis, localized or generalized aggressive periodontitis (a.k.a., early onset periodontitis and periodontal diseases associated with systemic disorders. The effects of periodontal diseases observed in adults have earlier inception in life period. Gingival diseases in a child may progress to jeopardize the periodontium in adulthood. Therefore, periodontal diseases must be prevented and diagnosed early in the life. This paper reviews the most common periodontal diseases affecting children: chronic gingivitis (or dental plaque-induced gingival diseases and aggressive periodontitis. In addition, systemic diseases that affect the periodontium in young children and necrotizing periodontal diseases are addressed. The prevalence, diagnostic characteristics, microbiology, host- related factors, and therapeutic management of each of these disease entities are discussed.

  13. A six-week clinical evaluation of the plaque and gingivitis efficacy of an oscillating-rotating power toothbrush with a novel brush head utilizing angled CrissCross bristles versus a sonic toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Grender, Julie M; Conde, Erinn; Goyal, C Ram; Qaqish, J

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of an oscillating-rotating power toothbrush with a novel brush head incorporating angled CrissCross bristles (Oral-B Triumph with SmartGuide with Oral-B CrossAction brush head) versus a sonic toothbrush (Sonicare DiamondClean) for plaque and gingivitis reduction over a six-week period. This was a single-center, randomized, examiner-blind, two-treatment, parallel group study involving 65 subjects per group. Subjects presenting with mild-to-moderate gingivitis at Baseline were randomly assigned to either the oscillating-rotating brush or the sonic brush. They were instructed to use their assigned toothbrush and a standard fluoride dentifrice for two minutes twice daily at home for six weeks. Gingivitis and plaque were assessed at Baseline and Week 6 using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Data were analyzed using an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), with baseline as the covariate. Subjects also completed a consumer perception questionnaire to evaluate their brushing experience. One-hundred and thirty subjects were enrolled in the study and randomized to treatment. Sixty-four subjects per group completed the trial. Both brushes produced statistically significant reductions in gingivitis and plaque measures at Week 6 relative to Baseline (p gingivitis and plaque measures compared to the sonic toothbrush. The benefits for the oscillating-rotating brush over the sonic brush were 32.6% for gingivitis, 35.4% for gingival bleeding, 32% for number of bleeding sites, 22% for whole mouth plaque, 24.2% for gingival margin plaque, and 33.3% for approximal plaque (p gingival margin plaque, where p = 0.018). Analysis of the consumer perception questionnaire results showed subjects using the oscillating-rotating brush rated it higher for overall use experience and key attributes related to cleaning, gentleness, and brush head shape/size versus subjects in the sonic brush group

  14. Gingival and Periodontal Diseases in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Singh Chauhan; Rashmi Singh Chauhan; Nihal Devkar; Akshay Vibhute; Shobha More

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are among the most frequent diseases affecting children and adolescents. These include gingivitis, localized or generalized aggressive periodontitis (a.k.a., early onset periodontitis) and periodontal diseases associated with systemic disorders. The effects of periodontal diseases observed in adults have earlier inception in life period. Gingival diseases in a child may progress to jeopardize the periodontium in adulthood. Therefore, periodontal diseases must be prevented...

  15. Experimental gingivitis, bacteremia and systemic biomarkers: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, D F; Zhang, P; Benakanakere, M; Singleton, J; Biesbrock, A; Nonnenmacher, C; He, T

    2015-12-01

    Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory markers are associated with periodontal and systemic diseases and may be linking mechanisms between these conditions. We hypothesized that in the development of gingival inflammation, systemic markers of inflammation and bacteremia would increase. To study the effect of bacteremia on systemic inflammatory markers, we recruited 80 subjects to participate in an experimental gingivitis study. Subjects were stratified based on gender, smoking and the number of bleeding sites and then randomized to one of two groups: control group (n = 40) or experimental gingivitis group (n = 40). Subjects in the control group conducted an oral hygiene regimen: brushing twice daily with a regular sodium fluoride cavity protection dentifrice and a standard manual toothbrush, flossing twice daily, and mouth rinsing with an anti-cavity fluoride rinse once daily. The experimental group stopped brushing and flossing, and used only the fluoride anti-cavity mouth rinse for 21 d. Seventy-nine of 80 subjects were evaluable. One subject in the control group was excluded from the results due to antibiotic use during the study. Our data showed the experimental gingivitis group exhibited a significant (p gingival inflammatory indices relative to baseline and the control group but a decrease in bacteremia and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels vs. baseline. Bacteremia was negatively correlated with gingival inflammatory indices and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the experimental gingivitis group, thus negating our hypothesis. We conclude that there are marked differences in systemic cytokine levels over the course of short-term experimentally induced gingivitis and further conclude that a long-term periodontitis study must be considered to address mechanisms whereby oral diseases may affect systemic diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Risk factors for gingivitis in a group of Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapinotto, Fabiana Amaral; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Corrêa, Fernanda Oliveira Bello; Masotti, Alexandre Severo

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gingivitis in children and adolescents are scarce and the results are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and extension of gingivitis and associated factors in Brazilian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional data from 1,211 schoolchildren 8 to 12 years old from Southern Brazil in 20 public and private schools were analyzed. Socioeconomic, demographic, and oral hygiene habits were assessed by questionnaires answered by parents and children. Buccal examination assessed presence of plaque, crowding, and gingivitis. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression [prevalence ratio (PR); 95% confidence interval (CI)]. Prevalence of visible plaque was 89.7% (95% CI 88.0-91.3) and gingival bleeding on probing was 78.4% (95% CI 76.1-81.0). The mean and median numbers of sites with gingival bleeding were 3.10 and 2 (SD ± 3.22), respectively. In multivariate adjusted analysis, the presence of a greater number of sites with plaque was significantly associated with gingivitis (PR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07-1.47) and its extension (PR 1.96; 95% CI 1.53-2.51). Lighter-skinned black children had a lower probability of having severe gingivitis (PR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48-0.98) compared with white children. This association was observed after adjusting for other variables. Gingivitis was associated with higher number of sites with plaque and with skin color, reflecting the influence of biological and demographic factors on this oral condition. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. Gingival Fibromatosis with Chronic Periodontitis – A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sanadi Rizwan M

    2009-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is frequently an isolatedcondition of little consequence apart from a cosmeticproblem and occasional associations with uncommonsyndromes. This case report of a 38 year old femalepatient describes the gingival enlargement associatedwith chronic periodontitis. The enlargement extendedbeyond the middle thirds of the clinical crowns of theteeth. It was associated with generalized mobility,pocket formation and bone loss. The patient alsocomplained of bleeding gums and difficu...

  18. Properly placed shade trees reduce summertime electricity bills in Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffery H. Donovan; David R. Butry

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that shade trees can reduce home cooling costs is hardly surprising. Anybody who has sat under a tree on a warm summer day understands the shade benefit of trees. However, quantifying the effect a shade tree has on home energy use and carbon footprint, and identifying the optimal location for a shade tree, is less straightforward. Past studies that have...

  19. Treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation by open spray cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkız Uyar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although gingival hyperpigmentation is not a medical problem, people who have moderate or severe gingival pigmentation, particularly patients having a gummy smile, frequently request cosmetic treatment. For gingival depigmentation, different treatment modalities have been reported such as surgical treatment, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with gingival melanin pigmentation were included in the study. We applied liquid nitrogen to the hyperpigmented area for 5-10 seconds using open spray technique with a cryogun. Clinical observations for intensity of pigmentation were recorded at baseline and 3 months after the treatment. Clinical parameters, such as bleeding, swelling, redness, and healing, were evaluated immediately after the cryotherapy and 24 hours, and 1 week after the treatment. We used a numeric pain scale to evaluate the pain level. Results: Three months after the treatment, the mean gingival melanin pigmentation score decreased from 41.62±16.58 to 19.28±11.85. The difference between pretreatment and posttreatment mean scores was found to be statistically significant.Discussion: Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation can be performed safely by open spray cryotherapy in dermatology clinics.

  20. Smoking influences on the thickness of marginal gingival epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Cristina Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking patients show reduction of inflammatory clinical signs that might be associated with local vasoconstriction and an increased gingival epithelial thickness. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the thickness of the marginal gingival oral epithelium in smokers and non-smokers, with clinically healthy gingivae or with gingivitis. Twenty biopsies were obtained from four different groups. Group I: non-smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group II: non-smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. Group III: smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group IV: smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. These biopsies were histologically processed, serially sectioned at 5 mm, stained with H. E., and examined by image analysis software (KS400, which was used to perform the morphometric evaluation and the quantification of the major epithelial thickness, the epithelial base thickness and the external and internal epithelial perimeters. Differences between the four groups were analyzed using ANOVA test and Tukey's test. The criteria for statistical significance were accepted at the probability level p < 0.05. A greater epithelial thickness was observed in smokers independent of the gingival health situation.

  1. DIFFERENTIAL HISTOMORPHOMETRIC CHANGES IN NORMAL AND INFLAMED GINGIVAL EPITHELIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaskovic Stankovic Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: In recent decades, many factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet as well as high alcohol intake were marked as risk factors that can lead to increased incidence of malignant alterations, gingivitis, periodontal disease and other oral epithelium pathological changes. Having in mind that in the group of non-malignant and non-dental oral pathology gingivitis and periodontal disease are the most common oral mucosa alterations aim of our research was to investigate histomorphometric characteristics of healthy and altered oral and gingival epithelium. Material and methods: Tissue samples of 24 oral and gingival mucosa specimens were collected. Samples were fixed in 10% buffered paraformaldehyde, routinely processed and embedded in paraffin blocks. From each block sections 5 micrometer thin were made and standard H/E staining as well as immunocytochemical detection of Ki-67 proliferation marker and CD79a lymphocyte marker were performed. Measurements and image analysis was performed with Image Pro Plus software (Media Cybernetics, USA and Axiovision (Ziess, USA. Results: We showed that inflamed gingival epithelium is increasing its thickness in proportion to the severity of adjacent inflammation. Furthermore, mitotic index is rising (up to 132% in the same manner as well as basal lamina length (up to 70% when normal and inflamed gingiva is compared. Architecture of epithelial ridges is changed from straightforward to mesh-like. Conclusion: Assessment of the free gingival epithelium thickness is directly related to the severity of the inflammation process i

  2. Risk factors associated with open gingival embrasures after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sang Su; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Chung, Chooryung J; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the incidence of and contributing factors to open gingival embrasures between the central incisors after orthodontic treatment. One hundred posttreatment patients (29 men and 71 women; mean age, 24.7 years) were divided retrospectively into occurrence and nonoccurrence groups based on intraoral photographs. Based on the severity, the occurrence group was further divided into mild, moderate, and severe groups. Parameters from periapical radiographs, superimposed lateral cephalograms, and study models were compared between the occurrence and the nonoccurrence groups by using independent t-tests and were also analyzed on the basis of severity via analysis of variance. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the contributing factors to open gingival embrasures. The incidence of open gingival embrasures between the central incisors was 22% and 36% in the maxilla and the mandible, respectively. Lingual movement of the incisors, distance from the contact point to the alveolar crest after treatment, antero-posterior overlap of the two central incisors before treatment in the maxilla, and distance from the contact point to the alveolar crest after treatment in the mandible were significantly associated with the occurrence of open gingival embrasures ( P open gingival embrasures following orthodontic tooth movement is high. Therefore, attention should be paid to the contributing factors to prevent or reduce the occurrence of open gingival embrasures.

  3. Microbiota-based Signature of Gingivitis Treatments: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi; Li, Zhen; He, Tao; Bo, Cunpei; Chang, Jinlan; Li, Lin; He, Yanyan; Liu, Jiquan; Charbonneau, Duane; Li, Rui; Xu, Jian

    2016-04-20

    Plaque-induced gingivitis can be alleviated by various treatment regimens. To probe the impacts of various anti-gingivitis treatments on plaque microflora, here a double blinded, randomized controlled trial of 91 adults with moderate gingivitis was designed with two anti-gingivitis regimens: the brush-alone treatment and the brush-plus-rinse treatment. In the later group, more reduction in both Plaque Index (TMQHI) and Gingival Index (mean MGI) at Day 3, Day 11 and Day 27 was evident, and more dramatic changes were found between baseline and other time points for both supragingival plaque microbiota structure and salivary metabonomic profiles. A comparison of plaque microbiota changes was also performed between these two treatments and a third dataset where 50 subjects received regimen of dental scaling. Only Actinobaculum, TM7 and Leptotrichia were consistently reduced by all the three treatments, whereas the different microbial signatures of the three treatments during gingivitis relieve indicate distinct mechanisms of action. Our study suggests that microbiota based signatures can serve as a valuable approach for understanding and potentially comparing the modes of action for clinical treatments and oral-care products in the future.

  4. Chronic gingivitis: the prevalence of periodontopathogens and therapy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, M; Kesic, L; Lekovic, V; Apostolovic, M; Mihailovic, D; Kostadinovic, L; Milasin, J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of gingival inflammation and the prevalence of periodontopathogenic microorganisms in adolescents with chronic gingivitis, as well as to compare the effectiveness of two approaches in gingivitis treatment-basic therapy alone and basic therapy + adjunctive low-level laser therapy (LLLT). After periodontal evaluation, the content of gingival pockets of 140 adolescents with gingivitis was analyzed by multiplex PCR for the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythensis and P. intermedia. Subsequent to bacteria detection, the examinees were divided into two groups with homogenous clinical and microbiological characteristics. Group A was subjected to basic gingivitis therapy, and group B underwent basic therapy along with adjunctive LLLT. A statistically significant difference between the values of plaque-index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) before and after therapy was confirmed in both groups (pgingivitis should be regarded as a sign for dentists to foster more effective oral health programs. LLLT appears to be beneficial as adjuvant to basic therapy.

  5. Oral health education and therapy reduces gingivitis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Maria L; Geurs, Nicolaas C; Bain, Jennifer L; Kaur, Maninder; Vassilopoulos, Philip J; Cliver, Suzanne P; Hauth, John C; Reddy, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    Pregnant women demonstrate increases in gingivitis despite similar plaque levels to non-pregnant counterparts. To evaluate an intensive protocol aimed at reducing gingivitis in pregnant women and provide pilot data for large-scale randomized controlled trials investigating oral hygiene measures to reduce pregnancy gingivitis and alter maternity outcomes. One hundred and twenty participants between 16 and 24 weeks gestation with Gingival Index (GI) scores ≥2 at ≥50% of tooth sites were enrolled. Plaque index (PI), gingival inflammation (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were recorded at baseline and 8 weeks. Dental prophylaxis was performed at baseline and oral hygiene instructions at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded at parturition. Mixed-model analysis of variance was used to compare clinical measurements at baseline and 8 weeks. Statistically significant reductions in PI, GI, PD, and CAL occurred over the study period. Mean whole mouth PI and GI scores decreased approximately 50% and the percentage of sites with PI and GI ≥2 decreased from 40% to 17% and 53% to 21.8%, respectively. Mean decreases in whole mouth PD and CAL of 0.45 and 0.24 mm, respectively, were seen. Intensive oral hygiene regimen decreased gingivitis in pregnant patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Predictive modeling of gingivitis severity and susceptibility via oral microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi; Li, Rui; Zeng, Xiaowei; He, Tao; Zhao, Helen; Chang, Alice; Bo, Cunpei; Chen, Jie; Yang, Fang; Knight, Rob; Liu, Jiquan; Davis, Catherine; Xu, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Predictive modeling of human disease based on the microbiota holds great potential yet remains challenging. Here, 50 adults underwent controlled transitions from naturally occurring gingivitis, to healthy gingivae (baseline), and to experimental gingivitis (EG). In diseased plaque microbiota, 27 bacterial genera changed in relative abundance and functional genes including 33 flagellar biosynthesis-related groups were enriched. Plaque microbiota structure exhibited a continuous gradient along the first principal component, reflecting transition from healthy to diseased states, which correlated with Mazza Gingival Index. We identified two host types with distinct gingivitis sensitivity. Our proposed microbial indices of gingivitis classified host types with 74% reliability, and, when tested on another 41-member cohort, distinguished healthy from diseased individuals with 95% accuracy. Furthermore, the state of the microbiota in naturally occurring gingivitis predicted the microbiota state and severity of subsequent EG (but not the state of the microbiota during the healthy baseline period). Because the effect of disease is greater than interpersonal variation in plaque, in contrast to the gut, plaque microbiota may provide advantages in predictive modeling of oral diseases.

  7. Comparative assessment of gingival thickness in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Bharamappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is a known fact that clinical appearance of gingiva directly correlates with the inflammatory status of the periodontium. It has been observed that the gingival thickness (GT appears to differ in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva. Thickness of gingiva seems to be of significance and an issue of concern in aesthetic and functional outcome of the periodontal, restorative and orthodontic therapy. So far in the periodontal literature, the gingival width has been discussed to a great extent. GT also plays an equally important role, but it has been given limited importance when compared to gingival width. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to comparatively assess the GT in pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva by transgingival probing. Materials and Methods: The study included 240 sites in 10 patients each of pigmented and nonpigmented gingiva. The GT was assessed mid-buccally in the attached gingiva, half way between mucogingival junction and free gingival groove and at the base of the interdental papilla. The gingival bleeding index and plaque index were also recorded. The data were statistically analysed using paired t-test and Z-test. Results and Conclusion: Gingival bleeding index and plaque index were similar between both the groups. Both midbuccal and interdental areas were thicker in pigmented gingiva when compared to nonpigmented gingiva.

  8. Shade response of a full size TESSERA module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slooff, Lenneke H.; Carr, Anna J.; de Groot, Koen; Jansen, Mark J.; Okel, Lars; Jonkman, Rudi; Bakker, Jan; de Gier, Bart; Harthoorn, Adriaan

    2017-08-01

    A full size TESSERA shade tolerant module has been made and was tested under various shadow conditions. The results show that the dedicated electrical interconnection of cells result in an almost linear response under shading. Furthermore, the voltage at maximum power point is almost independent of the shadow. This decreases the demand on the voltage range of the inverter. The increased shadow linearity results in a calculated increase in annual yield of about 4% for a typical Dutch house.

  9. On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Baghzouz, Yahia

    2008-01-01

    clarifies the mechanism of partial PV shading on a number of PV cells connected in series and/or parallel with and without bypass diodes. The analysis is presented in simple terms and can be useful to someone who wishes to determine the impact of some shading geometry on a PV system. The analysis...... is illustrated by measurements on a commercial 70 W panel, and a 14.4 kW PV array....

  10. Analysis of the internal shading in a photovoltaic greenhouse tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Marucci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing interest in energy production from renewable energy sources has led to photovoltaic elements being placed on greenhouse coverings. The shading of crops by these elements can, however, cause problems regarding the normal course of agricultural activity. All studies thus far on the application of photovoltaic (PV panels as a greenhouse covering material have focused on flat roof structures. Tunnel greenhouses, due to their curved shape, do not lend themselves easily to accommodating PV panels on even part of the cover. In this study, we analysed the shading variation inside a tunnel greenhouse that was produced by applying flexible and transparent PV panels in a checkerboard arrangement. The transparent flexible PV panels are manufactured using monocrystalline silicon cells, with an efficiency of 18%, incorporated into polymers with high resistance. The PV panel dimensions are 1.116×0.165 m. The simulation software Autodesk® Autocad2010® was used for this study. The variation and distribution of the shading percentage of PV panels were analysed in relation to the surface area affected by the photovoltaic roof, the total area of the greenhouse and the section of the greenhouse. In particular, we studied the variations in the percentage of shading and the size of the shaded area on the twenty-first day of each month of the year. The results show some regularity in the shading percentage, mainly due to the curvilinear shape of the section of the greenhouse. From mid-March to mid- September, the shading in the middle of the day is almost always inside the greenhouse. In the other months of the year, it is partly inside and partly outside the tunnel greenhouse. With the photovoltaic arrangement adopted, the percentage of shading during the year never exceeds 40%.

  11. Smoking and gingivitis: focus on inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide and basic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, B; Özmeric, N; Elgün, S; Barış, E

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease pathogenesis has been associated with smoking. Gingivitis is a mild and reversible form of periodontal disease and it tends to progress to periodontitis only in susceptible individuals. In the present study, we aimed to examine the impact of smoking on host responses in gingivitis and to evaluate and compare the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in gingival tissue and NO and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) levels in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with gingivitis and healthy individuals. Forty-one participants were assigned to the gingivitis-smoker (n = 13), gingivitis (n = 13), healthy-smoker (n = 7) and healthy groups (n = 8). Clinical indices were recorded; gingival biopsy and gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained from papillary regions. iNOS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The immunoreactive cells were semiquantitatively assessed. For the quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in gingival crevicular fluid, the NO assay kit was used. The amount of bFGF in gingival crevicular fluid was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The gingivitis-smoker group demonstrated a stronger iNOS expression than the non-smoker gingivitis group. iNOS expression intensity was lower in the non-smoker healthy group compared to that in healthy-smokers. No significant gingival crevicular fluid NO and bFGF level changes were observed between groups. Among patients with gingivitis, a positive correlation was detected between gingival crevicular fluid NO and bFGF levels (r = 0.806, p = 0.001). Our data suggest that smoking has significant effects on iNOS expression but not on gingival crevicular fluid NO or bFGF levels in healthy and patients with gingivitis. However, our results suggest that bFGF might be involved in the regulation of NO production via iNOS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Microbiological profile and calprotectin expression in naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Roberto; Guarnelli, Maria Elena; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the microbiological profile and the calprotectin expression in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in spontaneous and experimentally induced gingival inflammation. Thirty-seven periodontally healthy subjects were evaluated in real life conditions (N-O gingivitis) as well as after 21 days of experimental gingivitis trial (E-I gingivitis). During the experimental gingivitis trial, in one maxillary quadrant (test quadrant), gingival inflammation was induced by oral hygiene abstention, while in the contralateral (control) quadrant, oral hygiene was routinely continued. The results of the study showed that (1) the microbiological profile of quadrants where gingival inflammation was experimentally induced (i.e., E-I test quadrants) differed significantly from that of either quadrants where gingival inflammation was controlled by proper plaque control (i.e., E-I control quadrants) or quadrants with N-O gingivitis, and (2) GCF calprotectin was significantly higher at E-I test quadrants compared to either E-I control quadrants or quadrants with N-O gingivitis. A positive intrasubject correlation was found between GCF concentration of calprotectin at sites presenting N-O and E-I gingivitis. N-O and E-I gingivitis showed a different microbiological profile of the subgingival environment. GCF calprotectin is a reliable marker of gingival inflammation, and its concentration in N-O gingivitis is correlated with its expression in E-I gingivitis. The modality of plaque accumulation seems to affect the subgingival microbiological profile associated with a gingivitis condition. Calprotectin levels in GCF may be regarded as a promising marker of the individual susceptibility to develop gingival inflammation in response to experimentally induced plaque accumulation.

  13. A Technique Using Calibrated Photography and Photoshop for Accurate Shade Analysis and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Edward A; Figueira, Johan; Goldstein, Ronald E

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews the critical aspects of controlling the shade-taking environment and discusses various modalities introduced throughout the years to acquire and communicate shade information. Demonstrating a highly calibrated digital photographic technique for capturing shade information, this article shows how to use Photoshop® to standardize images and extract color information from the tooth and shade tab for use by a ceramist for an accurate shade-matching restoration.

  14. Changes in Gingival Crevicular Fluid Inflammatory Mediator Levels during the Induction and Resolution of Experimental Gingivitis in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, Steven; Barros, Silvana; Mendoza, L; Mauriello, S; Preisser, J; Moss, K; de Jager, Marko; Aspiras, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Aim The goal of this study is to characterize the changes in 33 biomarkers within the gingival crevicular fluid during the 3-week induction and 4-week resolution of stent-induced, biofilm overgrowth mediated, experimental gingivitis in humans. Methods Experimental gingivitis was induced in 25 subjects for 21 days followed by treatment with a sonic powered toothbrush for 28 days. Clinical indices and gingival crevicular fluids were collected weekly during induction and biweekly during resolution. Samples were analyzed using a bead-based multiplexing analysis for the simultaneous measurements of 33 biomarkers within each sample including cytokines, matrix-metalloproteinases and adipokines. Prostaglandin-E2 was measured by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbant assay. Statistical testing using general linear models with structured covariance matrices were performed to compare stent to contralateral (non-stent) changes in clinical signs and in biomarker levels over time. Results Gingivitis induction was associated with a significant 2.6-fold increase in interleukin 1-beta, a 3.1 fold increase in interleukin 1-alpha, and a significant decrease in multiple chemokines as well as matrixmetalloproteinases −1, −3 and 13. All changes in clinical signs and mediators rebounded to baseline in response to treatmentin the resolution phase. Conclusions Stent-induced gingivitis is associated with marked, but reversible increases in interleukins 1-alpha and 1-beta with suppression of multiple chemokines as well as selected matrixmetalloproteinases. PMID:20447255

  15. Ecosystem Service of Shade Trees on Nutrient Cycling and Productivity of Coffee Agro-ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Evizal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shade trees are significant in certification scheme of sustainable coffee production. They play an importance role on ecosystem functioning. This research is aimed to study ecosystem service of shade trees in some coffee agro-ecosystems particularly on nutrient cycling and land productivity. Four agro-ecosys tems of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora, namely sun coffee (without shade trees, coffee shaded by Michelia champaca, coffee shaded by Gliricidia sepium, and coffee shaded by Erythrina indica are evaluated during 2007—2008. Smallholder coffee plantation in Sumberjaya Subdistrict, West Lampung, which managed under local standard were employed using Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. The result showed that litter fall dynamic from shade trees and from coffee trees was influenced by rainfall. Shade trees decreased weed biomass while increased litter fall production. In dry season, shade trees decreased litter fall from coffee shaded by M. champaca. G. sepium and E. indica shaded coffee showed higher yield than sun coffee and M. champaca shaded coffee. Except for M. champaca shaded coffee, yield had positive correlation (r = 0.99 with litter fall production and had negative correlation (r = —0.82 with weed biomass production. Biomass production (litter fall + weed of sun coffee and shaded coffee was not significantly different. Litter fall of shade trees had significance on nutrient cycle mainly to balance the lost of nitrogen in coffee bean harvesting.Key Words: Coffea canephora, Michelia champaca, Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina indica, litter production, nutrient cycle, coffee yield.

  16. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect

  17. Las notas al pie en la traducción de Fifty Shades (Footnotes in the Translation of Fifty Shades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinia Valverde Jara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el recurso de las notas a pie de página insertas en la traducción independiente de literatura comercial en versión digital, de la trilogía Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker y Fifty Shades Freed, de E. L. James. Se examina el grado de influencia de esos elementos extratextuales, y se concluye que todos ellos, organizados en un complejo proceso de traducción, en especial los del contexto de llegada, condicionan la estrategia traductológica. Abstract This study examines the use of footnotes as a translation strategy in the independent translation of commercial literature in digital format, based on the trilogy written by E. L. James, Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker and Fifty Shades Freed. The analysis measures the influence of these extratextual elements within the complex translation process, specifically those of the target language context, and it is concluded that they condition the translation strategies used.

  18. In Vivo and in Vitro Evaluations of Repeatability and Accuracy of VITA Easyshade® Advance 4.0 Dental Shade-Matching Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Illeš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the intra-device repeatability and accuracy of dental shade-matching device (VITA Easyshade® Advance 4.0 using both in vitro and in vivo models. Materials and methods: For the repeatability assessment, the in vivo model utilized shade-matching device to measure the central region of the labial surface of right maxillary central incisors of 10 people twice. The following tooth colors were measured: B1, A1, A2, A3, C1 and C3. The in vitro model included the same six Vitapan Classical tabs. Two measurements were made of the central region of each shade tab. For the accuracy assessment, each shade tab from 3 Vitapan Classical shade guides was measured once. CIE L*a*b* values were determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were used to analyze the in vitro and in vivo intra-device repeatability of the shade-matching device. The difference between in vitro and in vivo models was analyzed. Accuracy of the device tested was calculated. Results: The mean color differences for in vivo and in vitro models were 3.51 and 1.25 E units, respectively. The device repeatability ICCs for in vivo measurements ranged from 0.858 to 0.971 and for in vitro from 0.992 to 0.994. Accuracy of the device tested was 93.75%. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the experiment, VITA Easyshade®Advance 4.0 dental shade-matching device enabled reliable and accurate measurement. It can be a valuable tool for the determination of tooth colours.

  19. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of

  20. Comparative evaluation of a bioabsorbable collagen membrane and connective tissue graft in the treatment of localized gingival recession: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Mysore Babu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession (GR can result in root sensitivity, esthetic concern to the patient, and predilection to root caries. The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate (1 the effect of guided tissue regeneration (GTR procedure using a bioabsorbable collagen membrane, in comparison to autogenous subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG for root coverage in localized gingival recession defects; and (2 the change in width of keratinized gingiva following these two procedures. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 cases, showing at least two localized Miller′s Class I or Class II gingival recession, participated in this study. In a split mouth design, the pairs of defects were randomly assigned for treatment with either SCTG (SCTG Group or GTR-based collagen membrane (GTRC Group. Both the grafts were covered with coronally advanced flap. Recession depth (RD, recession width (RW, width of keratinized gingiva (KG, probing depth (PD, relative attachment level (RAL, plaque index (PI, and gingival index (GI were recorded at baseline, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Six months following root coverage procedures, the mean root coverage was found to be 84.84% ± 16.81% and 84.0% ± 15.19% in SCTG Group and GTRC Group, respectively. The mean keratinized gingival width increase was 1.50 ± 0.70 mm and 2.30 ± 0.67 mm in the SCTG and GTRC group, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: It may be concluded that resorbable collagen membrane can be a reliable alternative to autogenous connective tissue graft in the treatment of gingival recession.

  1. Ovate pontics: Phoenixing the gingival contour

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    Medha Vivek Bhuskute

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's busy world, most patients do not have time for long, drawn-out dental treatment. The time span between extraction and healing after loss of tooth in the anterior esthetic zone can be esthetically and psychologically devastating on the part of the patient. Especially, when a maxillary anterior tooth must be extracted and replaced, immediate tooth replacement with an ovate pontic on a provisional bridge is a good alternative. Ovate pontic helps in preservation of the interdental papilla, which in turn preserves the natural gingival contour that would have otherwise been lost after extraction. An immediate tooth replacement using ovate pontic not only eliminates the psychologically disturbing partially edentulous phase but also results in a much more esthetically pleasing replacement of tooth that is both hygienic and natural in appearance. Another added advantage of the use of ovate pontic is that it rules out the dissatisfaction resulting from an unesthetic ridge lap pontic placed directly over edentulous ridge. Just like the long-lived bird “Phoenix,” arising out of its own ashes, the ovate pontic creates an illusion that the pontic is emerging from the gingiva, even after tooth loss. This case report discusses how an integrated approach of fabricating heat cure provisional bridge with ovate pontics before extractions, benefitted a young patient in whom fractured anterior teeth were proposed for extraction.

  2. Retracción gingival e hiperestesia dentinal: Causas y prevención Gingival recession and dentine hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sotres Vázquez

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación en 230 pacientes que acudieron a los Servicios de Prótesis y Periodoncia de la Clínica Estomatológica "Hermanos Gómez" durante el año 2002. Se les evaluó la presencia de retracción gingival, sus causas y la relación existente con la hiperestesia dentinal. Se determinó que el 17,3 % de los dientes examinados presentaron algún grado de retracción gingival. Las causas más frecuentes fueron ausencia de dientes antagonistas e inserciones frénicas anormales. Existió una estrecha relación entre la hiperestesia dentinal y la retracción gingival. No existieron diferencias significativas de retracción gingival según el sexo, pero sí con la edad, pues aumentó significativamente según aumentó la edad.A research study was performed on 230 patients who went to the Denture and Periodontics Service at "Hermanos Gómez" dental clinic in the year 2002. They were evaluated as to presence of gingival recession, its causes and its relation with dentine hypersensitity. It was determined that 17,3% of examined teeth presented with some level of gingival recession frequently caused by lack of opposite teeth and abnormal frenal insertions. Gingival recession did not show significant differences by sex but it did by age since it markedly increased with the age.

  3. Effects of shading on morphology, physiology and grain yield of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huawei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In a field experiment, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Yangmai 158 (YM 158, shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (YM 11, shading-sensitive) were subjected to shading between jointing and maturity. Three shading treatments were applied, i.e. 92% (S1), 85% (S2) and 77% (S3) of full...... the shading treatments applied, leaf area index, length of the peduncle internode, area of the upper leaves and content of pigments increased, which favoured efficient light capture. Shading modified light quality in the canopy as indicated by increases of diffuse- and blue light fractions and a reduction...... the flag leaf, as in most cases Pn of the third and the penultimate leaves were found to increase under shading treatments. Shading increased the redistribution of dry matter from vegetative organs into grains. The responses of the morphological and physiological traits to shading are discussed in relation...

  4. Simplified Method for Modeling the Impact of Arbitrary Partial Shading Conditions on PV Array Performance: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris

    2015-09-15

    It is often difficult to model the effects of partial shading conditions on PV array performance, as shade losses are nonlinear and depend heavily on a system's particular configuration. This work describes and implements a simple method for modeling shade loss: a database of shade impact results (loss percentages), generated using a validated, detailed simulation tool and encompassing a wide variety of shading scenarios. The database is intended to predict shading losses in crystalline silicon PV arrays and is accessed using basic inputs generally available in any PV simulation tool. Performance predictions using the database are within 1-2% of measured data for several partially shaded PV systems, and within 1% of those predicted by the full, detailed simulation tool on an annual basis. The shade loss database shows potential to considerably improve performance prediction for partially shaded PV systems.

  5. Enlargement gingival treatment on teeth 11 and 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Ghoni Tjiptoningsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement in the interdental papillae, thickened, rounded gingival contour and discomfort became major issues that must be treated in order to be optimal appearance and function. Gingival enlargement that experienced fibrosis would not disappear with only plaque control, but required surgery that is gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. The 24-year-old woman came to the periodonsia clinic with complaints maxillary anterior gingiva swelled at teeth 11-21 with plaque index 52%. The depth of the tooth pocket 11: labial (mesial: 4, medial: 1, distal: 3. Palatal (mesial: 3, medial: 2, distal 1. The depth of the tooth pocket 21 is labial (mesial: 4, medial: 1, distal: 1, palatal (mesial: 3, medial: 1, distal 1. Gingivectomy treatment and gingivoplasty were performed with the aim of eliminating pockets and restore physiologic gingival contour which can help prevent the recurrence of the disease periodontal. In performing surgical gingivectomy and gingivoplasty, which must be considered is to minimize the disposal of gingival tissue to maintain the aesthetic, adequate access to the bone defect in order to make good corrections, and the minimization of bleeding and discomfort after surgery.

  6. Gingival fibroma versus verrucous leukoplakia – A clinical dilemma!!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival overgrowths found in the oral cavity are mostly due to reactive hyperplasia and rarely depict neoplastic nature. It is a challenge for the clinician to give final diagnoses of gingival overgrowth. Gingiva is a common site for various benign and malignant lesions. Oral cavity is an ideal niche for the manifestation of various precancerous and cancerous lesions. Fibrous growths present in the oral cavity include a varying group of reactive, precancerous, and cancerous conditions. This report describes a case of a 55-year-old male who clinically presented with a localized fibromatous gingival overgrowth in relation to lower left mandibular canine-premolar region that was diagnosed as a gingival fibroma associated with leukoplakia. On histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as a case of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Many a times, clinicians face dilemma while diagnosing an overgrowth as it is difficult to differentiate clinically. Hence, a thorough clinical knowledge and a pathologist's opinion become mandatory to give final diagnosis to such gingival overgrowths.

  7. The effectiveness of propolis on gingivitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Walter A; Paulino, Niraldo; Nör, Jacques E; Moreira, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a propolis rinse on induced gingivitis by using the co-twin study design. Twenty-one twin pairs (n=42) were enrolled in a gingivitis study with oral hygiene promotion (14 days) and gingivitis induction (21 days). During the gingivitis induction phase, one member of the twin pair was randomly assigned to a 2% typified propolis rinse, and the other was assigned a color-matched 0.05% sodium fluoride plus 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride rinse (positive control). Patients rinsed twice daily with 20 mL for 30 seconds for 21 days. Gingivitis was measured on days -14 (baseline), 0 (after hygiene phase), and 21 (after no-hygiene phase) by using the Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) and by standard digital imaging of the gum tissues (G-parameter). The 38 persons who completed the study (age 13-22 years) were well balanced according to PBS at baseline and G-parameter after the initial hygiene phase. After 21 days without oral hygiene, the propolis rinse and positive control rinse groups did not differ significantly for average PBS measurements or G-parameter. Use of a 2% typified propolis rinse was equivalent to a positive control rinse during a 21-day no-hygiene period.

  8. White-spot Lesions and Gingivitis Microbiotas in Orthodontic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, A.C.R.; Sonis, A.L.; Lif Holgerson, P.; Starr, J.R.; Nunez, Y.; Kressirer, C.A.; Paster, B.J.; Johansson, I.

    2012-01-01

    White-spot lesions (WSL) associated with orthodontic appliances are a cosmetic problem and increase risk for cavities. We characterized the microbiota of WSL, accounting for confounding due to gingivitis. Participants were 60 children with fixed appliances, aged between 10 and 19 yrs, half with WSL. Plaque samples were assayed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray (HOMIM) and by PCR. Mean gingival index was positively associated with WSL (p = 0.018). Taxa associated with WSL by microarray included Granulicatella elegans (p = 0.01), Veillonellaceae sp. HOT 155 (p gingivitis by microarray included: Gemella sanguinis (p = 0.002), Actinomyces sp. HOT 448 (p = 0.003), Prevotella cluster IV (p = 0.021), and Streptococcus sp. HOT 071/070 (p = 0.023); and levels of S. mutans (p = 0.02) and Bifidobacteriaceae (p = 0.012) by qPCR. Species’ associations with WSL were minimally changed with adjustment for gingivitis level. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis yielded good discrimination between children with and those without WSL. Granulicatella, Veillonellaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, in addition to S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, were associated with the presence of WSL in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment. Many taxa showed a stronger association with gingivitis than with WSL. PMID:22837552

  9. Endotoxemia and the host systemic response during experimental gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaidi, Vivian Y.; Kowolik, Michael J.; Eckert, George J.; Galli, Dominique M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess endotoxemia episodes and subsequent changes in serum inflammatory biomarkers using the experimental gingivitis model Materials and Methods Data from 50 healthy black and white adult males and females were compared for serum concentrations of endotoxin, and serum biomarkers [neutrophil oxidative activity, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen] at baseline, at 3 weeks of experimental gingivitis, and after 2 weeks of recovery. Means were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Results Endotoxemia was reported in 56% of the serum samples at three weeks of induced gingivitis. At two weeks of recovery, endotoxin levels decreased to levels similar to those reported at baseline. Neutrophil oxidative activity increased significantly following three weeks of gingivitis versus baseline (pgingivitis was associated with endotoxemia and hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils, but not with changes in systemic levels of cytokines and acute phase proteins. This may be attributed to the mild nature and the short duration of the induced gingivitis. PMID:21320151

  10. Defective Wound-healing in Aging Gingival Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, M; Oyarzun, A; Smith, P C

    2014-07-01

    Aging may negatively affect gingival wound-healing. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The present study examined the cellular responses associated with gingival wound-healing in aging. Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts were obtained from healthy young and aged donors for the analysis of cell proliferation, cell invasion, myofibroblastic differentiation, and collagen gel remodeling. Serum from young and old rats was used to stimulate cell migration. Gingival repair was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, with a p value of .05. Fibroblasts from aged donors showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation, migration, Rac activation, and collagen remodeling when compared with young fibroblasts. Serum from young rats induced higher cell migration when compared with serum from old rats. After TGF-beta1 stimulation, both young and old fibroblasts demonstrated increased levels of alpha-SMA. However, alpha-SMA was incorporated into actin stress fibers in young but not in old fibroblasts. After 7 days of repair, a significant delay in gingival wound-healing was observed in old rats. The present study suggests that cell migration, myofibroblastic differentiation, collagen gel remodeling, and proliferation are decreased in aged fibroblasts. In addition, altered cell migration in wound-healing may be attributable not only to cellular defects but also to changes in serum factors associated with the senescence process. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  11. Level of Salivary Uric Acid in Gingivitis and Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan Rizal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is common chronic adult condition. Antioxidants are present in the body fluid as protection against free radical. Uric acid is one of antioxidants that can be found in saliva. Moreover, the relationship among the antioxidant enzymes activities and clinical periodontal status were investigated. Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe uric acid level activities in the saliva of gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Methods: Six patients with gingivitis and six patients with periodontitis in Dental Hospital Trisakti University were included in the study. Clinical condition of each subject, the plaque index, and probing depth were determined. The salivary uric acid level was measured using the Folin-Wu method. Result: Salivary uric acid levels in the periodontitis patients with a mean ± SD  7.40 ± 0.31  (p = 0.004 were found to be higher compared to the gingivitis patients (mean ± SD = 6.84 ± 0.19. In addition, there were no significant differences in salivary uric acid levels between gender (p = 0.641. Conclusion: Uric acid levels in periodontitis patients were found to be higher than in gingivitis patients. Moreover, uric acid has more role on periodontitis than in gingivitis as an antioxidant agent.

  12. Evaluation of Co-Q10 anti-gingivitis effect on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of Co-Q10 has been found to be responsible for periodontal destruction; therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-gingivitis effect of Co-Q10 on plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects with plaque induced gingivitis were enrolled in a split mouth randomized controlled trial. For each subject, scaling was randomly performed for any two quadrants, followed by the topical application of Co-Q10 randomly in a previously scaled and as an unscaled quadrant for a period of 28 days. Four treatment options were planned: option A: scaling only; option B: Co-Q10 along with scaling; option C: Co-Q10. Results: Marked reduction in gingival, bleeding, and plaque scores were recorded at the sites where C0-Q10 was applied. Mean±S.D of aforementioned periodontal parameters at 28th day showed significant reduction for option A, B, and C when compared with baseline. Conclusion: Promising results were obtained after the solitary application of Co-Q10 as well as when it was used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing for treatment of plaque induced gingivitis.

  13. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  14. Management of gingival hyperpigmentation by semiconductor diode laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeti Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival hyperpigmentation is caused by excessive deposition of melanin in the basal and suprabasal cell layers of the epithelium. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign, cosmetic concerns are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. Various depigmentation techniques have been employed, such as scalpel surgery, gingivectomy, gingivectomy with free gingival autografting, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, chemical agents such as 90% phenol and 95% alcohol, abrasion with diamond burs, Nd:YAG laser, semiconductor diode laser, and CO 2 laser. The present case report describes simple and effective depigmentation technique using semiconductor diode laser surgery - for gingival depigmentation, which have produced good results with patient satisfaction.

  15. Plasma cell gingivitis associated with cheilitis: A diagnostic dilemma!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presanthila Janam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare condition characterized by diffuse and massive infiltration of plasma cells into the sub-epithelial connective tissue. Clinically, it appears as a diffuse reddening and edematous swelling of the gingiva with a sharp demarcation along the mucogingival border. Though considered as a hypersensitive reaction to an allergen, the etiology of this bizarre condition is still not properly understood. Here, we present an interesting case of plasma cell gingivitis associated with an enlarged and fissured upper lip, which is quite a rarity. The condition was diagnosed based on clinical and histopathologic findings and treated by gingivectomy. The associated cheilitis has dramatically reduced after treatment of the gingival lesion.

  16. SPECT/CT in gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, R.; Hadzhiyska, V.; Petrov, T.

    2015-01-01

    Gingival squamous cell carcinoma have a relatively poor prognosis and large differential diagnosis (periodontitis, osteomyelitis, etc.), therefore, it is usually diagnosed at a late stage. Hematogenous dissemination occurs in only about 10% of cases, including lung (66%), bone (22%), liver (10%), skin, bone marrow and mediastinum. Bone metastases are very rare compared to other malignancies, most commonly affect the axial skeleton (spine, pelvis, ribs and lumbar spine). In our case, we presented a patient with gingival squamous cell carcinoma and bone metastasis in the forearm detected with Whole Body Bone Scintigraphy (WBS), combined with Single Photon Emission Tomography /Computed Tomography (SPECT /CT). The obtained data suggest that the single use of WBS was not informative enough for making the final diagnosis, but the result of combined functional-morphological approach was the most pathognomonic. Thus, with single study can be obtained a complex information, which leads to a fast therapeutic decision. Key words: SPECT/CT. GINGiVAL. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

  17. INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF AÇAÍ PLANTS UNDER SHADE GRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEANDRO CANDIDO DAPONT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the effect of different levels of shading on açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. plants development, an experiment was conducted at the nursery of Floresta, Rio Branco, AC. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications of 25 plants, set as full sunlight and 18%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 80% shading. The evaluation occurred 125 days after transplantation and the variables were stem diameter, root length, length of the aerial part, total length, dry matter of root, dry matter of aerial part, and total dry matter. With exception of root length, there was significant difference between treatments for all variables. The production of açai plants should be performed using 40% shading.

  18. Why Shade Coffee Does Not Guarantee Biodiversity Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Tejeda-Cruz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, various strategies have emerged to address critical habitat losses through agricultural expansion. The promotion of shade-grown, premium-priced coffee has been highlighted as one alternative. Our research, based on interviews with farmers in Chiapas, disputes some of the assumptions made by shade coffee campaigners. Results revealed a predisposition to converting forest to shade coffee production due to the socioeconomic challenges farmers face and the potential for increasing incomes. To ensure that their well-being is improved at the same time as reducing environmental impacts, there is clearly a need to provide more detailed information on who is responsible for enforcing certification criteria and how this should take place.

  19. Effect of concomitant administration of nifedipine and tacrolimus on the development of gingival overgrowth in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yi Chen

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Gingival overgrowth could be induced either by nifedipine or by tacrolimus, although the extent of gingival overgrowth induced by tacrolimus would be less than that by nifedipine. However, a concomitant administration of nifedipine and tacrolimus did not aggravate the induced gingival overgrowth.

  20. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis significantly increases hospital charges in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Elangovan, Satheesh; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh P; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and impact of gingivitis and periodontitis in patients having heart valve surgical procedures. Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004-2010 was used. All patients who had heart valve surgical procedures were selected. Prevalence of gingivitis/periodontitis was examined in these patients. Impact of gingivitis/periodontitis on hospital charges, length of stay, and infectious complications was examined. 596,190 patients had heart valve surgical procedures. Gingivitis/periodontitis was present in 0.2 percent. Outcomes included: median hospital charges ($175,418 with gingivitis/ periodontitis versus $149,353 without gingivitis/periodontitis) and median length of stay (14 days with gingivitis/periodontitis versus 8 days without gingivitis/periodontitis). After adjusting for the effects of patient- and hospital-level confounding factors, hospital charges and length of stay were significantly higher (p gingivitis/periodontitis compared to their counterparts. Further, patients with gingivitis/periodontitis had significantly higher odds for having bacterial infections (OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.33-4.98, p gingivitis/periodontitis. Presence of gingivitis and periodontitis is associated with higher risk for bacterial infections and significant hospital resource utilization.

  1. The impacts of gingivitis and calculus on Thai children's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisdapong, Sudaduang; Prasertsom, Piyada; Rattanarangsima, Khanit; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2012-09-01

    To assess associations of socio-demographic, behavioural and the extent of gingivitis and calculus with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in nationally representative samples of 12- and 15-year-old Thai children. In the Thailand National Oral Health Survey, 1,063 twelve-year olds and 811 fifteen-year olds were clinically examined and interviewed for OHRQoL using the Child-OIDP and OIDP indices, respectively, and completed a behavioural questionnaire. We assessed associations of condition-specific impacts (CS-impacts) with gingivitis and calculus, adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Gingivitis and calculus were highly prevalent: 79.3% in 12-year and 81.5% in 15-year olds. CS-impacts relating to calculus and/or gingivitis were reported by 26.0% of 12-year and 29.6% of 15-year olds. Except for calculus without gingivitis, calculus and/or gingivitis in any form was significantly related to any level of CS-impacts. At a moderate or higher level of CS-impacts, there were significant relationships with extensive calculus and/or gingivitis in 12-year olds and for extensive gingivitis and gingivitis without calculus in 15-year olds. Gingivitis was generally associated with any level of CS-impacts attributed to calculus and/or gingivitis. CS-impacts were related more to gingivitis than to calculus. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis relationship hypothesis: A neuroimmunobiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiquita Prahasanti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic injuries to the oral mucosa in fixed orthodontic patients are common, especially in the first week of bracket placement, and occasionally lead to the development of aphthous stomatitis or ulcers. Nevertheless, these lesions are selflimiting. Purpose: The objective of this study is to reveal the connection between chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis which is still unclear. Case: A patient with a persistent lesion for more than six months. Case Management: RAS was treated with scaling procedure, the gingival inflammation was healed. However, in this case report, despite the appropriate management procedures had been done, the lesion still worsen and became more painful. Moreover, the symptoms did not heal for more than two weeks. Actually, they had been undergone orthodontic treatment more than six months and rarely suffered from aphthous stomatitis. Coincidentally, at that time they also suffered from chronic gingivitis. It was interesting that after scaling procedures, the ulcer subsides in two days. Conclusion: Recently, the neuroimmunobiological researches which involved neurotransmitters and cytokines on cell-nerve signaling, and heat shock proteins in gingivitis and stomatitis are in progress. Nevertheless, they were done separately, thus do not explain the interrelationship. This proposed new concept which based on an integrated neuroimmunobiological approach could explain the benefit of periodontal treatment, especially scaling procedures, for avoiding prolonged painful episodes and unnecessary medications in aphthous stomatitis. However, for widely acceptance of the chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis relationship, further clinical and laboratory study should be done. Regarding to the relatively fast healing after scaling procedures in this case report; it was concluded that the connection between chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis is possible.

  3. Microbiota and Metatranscriptome Changes Accompanying the Onset of Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over half of adults experience gingivitis, a mild yet treatable form of periodontal disease caused by the overgrowth of oral microbes. Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to a more severe and irreversible disease, most commonly chronic periodontitis. While periodontal diseases are associated with a shift in the oral microbiota composition, it remains unclear how this shift impacts microbiota function early in disease progression. Here, we analyzed the transition from health to gingivitis through both 16S v4-v5 rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing of subgingival plaque samples from individuals undergoing an experimental gingivitis treatment. Beta-diversity analysis of 16S rRNA reveals that samples cluster based on disease severity and patient but not by oral hygiene status. Significant shifts in the abundance of several genera occurred during disease transition, suggesting a dysbiosis due to development of gingivitis. Comparing taxonomic abundance with transcriptomic activity revealed concordance of bacterial diversity composition between the two quantification assays in samples originating from both healthy and diseased teeth. Metatranscriptome sequencing analysis indicates that during the early stages of transition to gingivitis, a number of virulence-related transcripts were significantly differentially expressed in individual and across pooled patient samples. Upregulated genes include those involved in proteolytic and nucleolytic processes, while expression levels of those involved in surface structure assembly and other general virulence functions leading to colonization or adaptation within the host are more dynamic. These findings help characterize the transition from health to periodontal disease and identify genes associated with early disease. PMID:29666288

  4. Binding, uptake, and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, P.J.; Schuster, G.S.; Lubas, S.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of nicotine on fibroblasts have reported an altered morphology and attachment of fibroblasts to substrates and disturbances in protein synthesis and secretion. This altered functional and attachment response may be associated with changes in the cell membrane resulting from binding of the nicotine, or to disturbances in cell metabolism as a result of high intracellular levels of nicotine. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to (1) determine whether gingival fibroblasts bound nicotine and if any binding observed was specific or non-specific in nature; (2) determine whether gingival fibroblasts internalized nicotine, and if so, at what rate; (3) determine whether gingival fibroblasts also released nicotine back into the extracellular environment; and (4) if gingival fibroblasts release nicotine intact or as a metabolite. Cultures of gingival fibroblasts were prepared from gingival connective tissue biopsies. Binding was evaluated at 4 degree C using a mixture of 3 H-nicotine and unlabeled nicotine. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between 3 H-nicotine bound in the presence and absence of unlabeled nicotine. The cells bound 1.44 (+/- 0.42) pmols/10(6) cells in the presence of unlabeled nicotine and 1.66 (+/- 0.55) pmols/10(6) cells in the absence of unlabeled nicotine. The difference was not significant. Uptake of nicotine was measured at 37 degree C after treating cells with 3 H-nicotine for time periods up to 4 hours. Uptake in pmols/10(6) cells was 4.90 (+/- 0.34) at 15 minutes, 8.30 (+/- 0.75) at 30 minutes, 12.28 (+/- 2.62) at 1 hour and 26.31 (+/- 1.15) at 4 hours

  5. Microbiota and Metatranscriptome Changes Accompanying the Onset of Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Nowicki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over half of adults experience gingivitis, a mild yet treatable form of periodontal disease caused by the overgrowth of oral microbes. Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to a more severe and irreversible disease, most commonly chronic periodontitis. While periodontal diseases are associated with a shift in the oral microbiota composition, it remains unclear how this shift impacts microbiota function early in disease progression. Here, we analyzed the transition from health to gingivitis through both 16S v4-v5 rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing of subgingival plaque samples from individuals undergoing an experimental gingivitis treatment. Beta-diversity analysis of 16S rRNA reveals that samples cluster based on disease severity and patient but not by oral hygiene status. Significant shifts in the abundance of several genera occurred during disease transition, suggesting a dysbiosis due to development of gingivitis. Comparing taxonomic abundance with transcriptomic activity revealed concordance of bacterial diversity composition between the two quantification assays in samples originating from both healthy and diseased teeth. Metatranscriptome sequencing analysis indicates that during the early stages of transition to gingivitis, a number of virulence-related transcripts were significantly differentially expressed in individual and across pooled patient samples. Upregulated genes include those involved in proteolytic and nucleolytic processes, while expression levels of those involved in surface structure assembly and other general virulence functions leading to colonization or adaptation within the host are more dynamic. These findings help characterize the transition from health to periodontal disease and identify genes associated with early disease.

  6. Optimising building net energy demand with dynamic BIPV shading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayathissa, P.; Luzzatto, M.; Schmidli, J.; Hofer, J.; Nagy, Z.; Schlueter, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Coupled analysis of PV generation and building energy using adaptive BIPV shading. •20–80% net energy saving compared to an equivalent static system. •The system can in some cases compensate for the entire heating/cooling/lighting load. •High resolution radiation simulation including impacts of module self shading. -- Abstract: The utilisation of a dynamic photovoltaic system for adaptive shading can improve building energy performance by controlling solar heat gains and natural lighting, while simultaneously generating electricity on site. This paper firstly presents an integrated simulation framework to couple photovoltaic electricity generation to building energy savings through adaptive shading. A high-resolution radiance and photovoltaic model calculates the photovoltaic electricity yield while taking into account partial shading between modules. The remaining solar irradiation that penetrates the window is used in a resistance-capacitance building thermal model. A simulation of all possible dynamic configurations is conducted for each hourly time step, of which the most energy efficient configuration is chosen. We then utilise this framework to determine the optimal orientation of the photovoltaic panels to maximise the electricity generation while minimising the building’s heating, lighting and cooling demand. An existing adaptive photovoltaic facade was used as a case study for evaluation. Our results report a 20–80% net energy saving compared to an equivalent static photovoltaic shading system depending on the efficiency of the heating and cooling system. In some cases the Adaptive Solar Facade can almost compensate for the entire energy demand of the office space behind it. The control of photovoltaic production on the facade, simultaneously with the building energy demand, opens up new methods of building management as the facade can control both the production and consumption of electricity.

  7. Shading Performance on Terraced House Facades in Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmad Sanusi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates shading performance on house facades of selected three terraced houses in Putrajaya, Malaysia as the case studies. Terraced house type is selected for the case study because it is the most popular house type built in this country to house an increase of the urban population. Its total number built in urban area increases from 27% of the total dwellings in 1980 to 40% in 1990, and to slightly more than 60 per cent in 2000. The Case Study A, B, and C are atypical style of terraced house facade designs built in Putrajaya. These postmodern designs exhibit a range of complex geometric elements blending of colonial and traditional elements with colorful styles on the house facade. In this study, the time at which the sun path perpendicular to the house facade will be used to gain the results of shading performances when the house facades have their maximum exposure to the direct sunlight. The house facade was divided into two main parts which are opaque and glazing surface elements. The amount of shading area on the opaque and glazing surface was simulated using the SunTool program. In conclusion, the Case Study C had the highest average percentage of the shading area, which is 64.43%, followed by the Case Study A 60.41% and Case Study B 56.29%. These results showed that the facade designs had excellent horizontal shading elements with roof overhangs for high angle sunlight but they had weak vertical shading elements due to a lack of considerations of louvered elements to block low angle sunlight.

  8. Becoming less tolerant with age: sugar maple, shade, and ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Kerrie M; Lusk, Christopher H; Reich, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Although shade tolerance is often assumed to be a fixed trait, recent work suggests ontogenetic changes in the light requirements of tree species. We determined the influence of gas exchange, biomass distribution, and self-shading on ontogenetic variation in the instantaneous aboveground carbon balance of Acer saccharum. We quantified the aboveground biomass distributions of 18 juveniles varying in height and growing in low light in a temperate forest understory in Minnesota, USA. Gas exchange rates of leaf and stem tissues were measured, and the crown architecture of each individual was quantified. The YPLANT program was used to estimate the self-shaded fraction of each crown and to model net leaf-level carbon gain. Leaf respiration and photosynthesis per gram of leaf tissue increased with plant size. In contrast, stem respiration rates per gram of stem tissue declined, reflecting a shift in the distribution of stem diameter sizes from smaller (with higher respiration) to larger diameter classes. However, these trends were outweighed by ontogenetic increases in self-shading (which reduces the net photosynthesis realized) and stem mass fraction (which increases the proportion of purely respiratory tissue) in terms of influence on net carbon exchange. As a result, net carbon gain per gram of aboveground plant tissue declined with increasing plant size, and the instantaneous aboveground light compensation point increased. When estimates of root respiration were included to model whole-plant carbon gain and light compensation points, relationships with plant size were even more pronounced. Our findings show how an interplay of gas exchange, self-shading, and biomass distribution shapes ontogenetic changes in shade tolerance.

  9. Iterative CT shading correction with no prior information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengwei; Sun, Xiaonan; Hu, Hongjie; Mao, Tingyu; Zhao, Wei; Sheng, Ke; Cheung, Alice A.; Niu, Tianye

    2015-11-01

    Shading artifacts in CT images are caused by scatter contamination, beam-hardening effect and other non-ideal imaging conditions. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel and general correction framework to eliminate low-frequency shading artifacts in CT images (e.g. cone-beam CT, low-kVp CT) without relying on prior information. The method is based on the general knowledge of the relatively uniform CT number distribution in one tissue component. The CT image is first segmented to construct a template image where each structure is filled with the same CT number of a specific tissue type. Then, by subtracting the ideal template from the CT image, the residual image from various error sources are generated. Since forward projection is an integration process, non-continuous shading artifacts in the image become continuous signals in a line integral. Thus, the residual image is forward projected and its line integral is low-pass filtered in order to estimate the error that causes shading artifacts. A compensation map is reconstructed from the filtered line integral error using a standard FDK algorithm and added back to the original image for shading correction. As the segmented image does not accurately depict a shaded CT image, the proposed scheme is iterated until the variation of the residual image is minimized. The proposed method is evaluated using cone-beam CT images of a Catphan©600 phantom and a pelvis patient, and low-kVp CT angiography images for carotid artery assessment. Compared with the CT image without correction, the proposed method reduces the overall CT number error from over 200 HU to be less than 30 HU and increases the spatial uniformity by a factor of 1.5. Low-contrast object is faithfully retained after the proposed correction. An effective iterative algorithm for shading correction in CT imaging is proposed that is only assisted by general anatomical information without relying on prior knowledge. The proposed method is thus practical

  10. Gingival recession is likely associated with tongue piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    A convenience sample of 60 subjects (27 male; 33 female) with tongue piercings (case group) and 120 subjects (43 male; 77 female) without tongue piercings (control group), ranging in age from 13 to 28 years, were identified from a mix of races living in a geographic area of low socioeconomic status in Brazil. Subjects were recruited from school groups and university centers between January 2008 and March 2009. For each case, 2 controls were selected on a consecutive basis from the same school according to criteria that included age, gender, smoking, and previous orthodontic treatment. Exclusion criteria included individuals with systemic diseases that might compromise the immune system, as well as antibiotics within 3 months or other medications that could affect the gingival tissues. The key study factor was the use or nonuse of tongue piercings (jewelry). The analysis compared periodontal parameters, such as the occurrence, location, and severity of gingival recession, in subjects with and without tongue jewelry. Gingival recession in the anterior lingual mandibular region was assessed as the primary outcome measure. The study sample was divided according to the presence or absence of gingival recession as well as the severity (1-2, 3, and ≥ 4 mm) of gingival recession. The average age of subjects was similar in the case and control groups (18.9 versus 17.7 years, respectively). Fractures of the anterior teeth were present significantly more frequently in cases than controls (26.7% versus 11.7%, respectively; P piercings (OR = 11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.02-24.09, P <.001). The severity of recession in this region was also significantly higher (calculated using an ordinal scale) in cases than in controls (P < .001). The final multivariate logistic regression model for occurrence of gingival recession included the variables tongue jewelry (yes/no), age, male gender, and the presence of bleeding on probing in the anterior region. Subjects with tongue

  11. Desquamative gingivitis: what's behind it? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Simran R; Parwani, Rajkumar N

    2014-01-01

    Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a clinical term used to describe red, painful, glazed, friable gingiva. It may be a manifestation of a mucocutaneous condition, such as lichen planus or other vesiculobulous disorders. Dentists must be aware of this rare clinical entity in order to distinguish DG from the far more common plaque-induced gingivitis. This case is unique in that it involves oral lichen planus and chronic DG, which may be secondary to plaque or a manifestation of the oral lichen planus. Intraoral examination and biopsy reports revealed features of chronic DG and oral reticular lichen planus.

  12. Microbiota and Metatranscriptome Changes Accompanying the Onset of Gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Emily M; Shroff, Raghav; Singleton, Jacqueline A; Renaud, Diane E; Wallace, Debra; Drury, Julie; Zirnheld, Jolene; Colleti, Brock; Ellington, Andrew D; Lamont, Richard J; Scott, David A; Whiteley, Marvin

    2018-04-17

    Over half of adults experience gingivitis, a mild yet treatable form of periodontal disease caused by the overgrowth of oral microbes. Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to a more severe and irreversible disease, most commonly chronic periodontitis. While periodontal diseases are associated with a shift in the oral microbiota composition, it remains unclear how this shift impacts microbiota function early in disease progression. Here, we analyzed the transition from health to gingivitis through both 16S v4-v5 rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing of subgingival plaque samples from individuals undergoing an experimental gingivitis treatment. Beta-diversity analysis of 16S rRNA reveals that samples cluster based on disease severity and patient but not by oral hygiene status. Significant shifts in the abundance of several genera occurred during disease transition, suggesting a dysbiosis due to development of gingivitis. Comparing taxonomic abundance with transcriptomic activity revealed concordance of bacterial diversity composition between the two quantification assays in samples originating from both healthy and diseased teeth. Metatranscriptome sequencing analysis indicates that during the early stages of transition to gingivitis, a number of virulence-related transcripts were significantly differentially expressed in individual and across pooled patient samples. Upregulated genes include those involved in proteolytic and nucleolytic processes, while expression levels of those involved in surface structure assembly and other general virulence functions leading to colonization or adaptation within the host are more dynamic. These findings help characterize the transition from health to periodontal disease and identify genes associated with early disease. IMPORTANCE Although more than 50% of adults have some form of periodontal disease, there remains a significant gap in our understanding of its underlying cause. We initiated this study in order to

  13. Heat stress in cows at pasture and benefit of shade in a temperate climate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veissier, Isabelle; Van laer, Eva; Palme, Rupert; Moons, Christel P. H.; Ampe, Bart; Sonck, Bart; Andanson, Stéphane; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2017-11-01

    Under temperate climates, cattle are often at pasture in summer and are not necessarily provided with shade. We aimed at evaluating in a temperate region (Belgium) to what extent cattle may suffer from heat stress (measured through body temperature, respiration rate and panting score, cortisol or its metabolites in milk, and feces on hot days) and at assessing the potential benefits of shade. During the summer of 2012, 20 cows were kept on pasture without access to shade. During the summer of 2011, ten cows had access to shade (young trees with shade cloth hung between them), whereas ten cows had no access. Climatic conditions were quantified by the Heat Load Index (HLI). In animals without access to shade respiration rates, panting scores, rectal temperatures, and milk cortisol concentrations increased as HLI increased in both 2011 and 2012. Fecal cortisol metabolites varied with HLI in 2011 only. When cattle had access to shade, their use of shade increased as the HLI increased. This effect was more pronounced during the last part of the summer, possibly due to better acquaintance with the shade construction. In this case, shade use increased to 65% at the highest HLI (79). Shade tempered the effects on respiration, rectal temperature, and fecal cortisol metabolites. Milk cortisol was not influenced by HLI for cows using shade for > 10% of the day. Therefore, even in temperate areas, cattle may suffer from heat when they are at pasture in summer and providing shade can reduce such stress.

  14. Physiological reactions in goat breeds maintained under shade, sun and partially shaded areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Dias Medeiros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Medeiros L.F.D., Rodrigues V.C., Vieira D.H., Souza S.L.G. de, Neto O.C., Figueiredo N. de, Pinto C.F.D., Miranda A.L. & Violento C.B. [Physiological reactions in goat breeds maintained under shade, sun and partially shaded areas.] Reações fisiológicas de cabras em diferentes ambientes e coeficiente de tolerância ao calor em cabritos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:286-296, 2015. Departamento de Reprodução e Avaliação Animal, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23851-970, Brasil. E-mail: diasmedeiros@yahoo.com.br The experiment was carried out to measure the effects of thermal stress on the rectal temperature (RT and respiratory frequency (RF, in animals of Boer and Saanen breeds, under the conditions of hot and humid climate of city of Rio de Janeiro, Baixada Fluminense, South East Region of Brazil; also the heat tolerance coefficient (HTC of Amakiri e Funcho was applied on pure and crossbreeds kids. The goats were divided into three groups, each group consisting of four females from each breed group. Each group was subjected to different surroundings, constituted by three experimental treatment: treatment A, with a sun protected enclosed area; treatment B, a sun exposed area without covering; and treatment C, area with a 50% covered section and a 50% sun exposed area, which permitted free circulation of the goats. A Balanced Latin Square was used. The RT and RF of the goats, in the afternoon periods (l5h00, were higher, than in the morning periods (09h00. The animals kept in the sun presented much higher results, especially in the afternoon periods, than the animals in the other two confinement areas. There were no differences in the RT and RF of the groups maintained in the shade or in partially covered area. There were differences in the RT and RF measurements between the two breeds, in the morning periods and in the afternoon periods

  15. Assessing the Cooling Benefits of Tree Shade by an Outdoor Urban Physical Scale Model at Tempe, AZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunshan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban green infrastructure, especially shade trees, offers benefits to the urban residential environment by mitigating direct incoming solar radiation on building facades, particularly in hot settings. Understanding the impact of different tree locations and arrangements around residential properties has the potential to maximize cooling and can ultimately guide urban planners, designers, and homeowners on how to create the most sustainable urban environment. This research measures the cooling effect of tree shade on building facades through an outdoor urban physical scale model. The physical scale model is a simulated neighborhood consisting of an array of concrete cubes to represent houses with identical artificial trees. We tested and compared 10 different tree densities, locations, and arrangement scenarios in the physical scale model. The experimental results show that a single tree located at the southeast of the building can provide up to 2.3 °C hourly cooling benefits to east facade of the building. A two-tree cluster arrangement provides more cooling benefits (up to 6.6 °C hourly cooling benefits to the central facade when trees are located near the south and southeast sides of the building. The research results confirm the cooling benefits of tree shade and the importance of wisely designing tree locations and arrangements in the built environment.

  16. Plasticity in seedling morphology, biomass allocation and physiology among ten temperate tree species in response to shade is related to shade tolerance and not leaf habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, D J; Modrzyński, J; Chmielarz, P; Tjoelker, M G

    2017-03-01

    Mechanisms of shade tolerance in tree seedlings, and thus growth in shade, may differ by leaf habit and vary with ontogeny following seed germination. To examine early responses of seedlings to shade in relation to morphological, physiological and biomass allocation traits, we compared seedlings of 10 temperate species, varying in their leaf habit (broadleaved versus needle-leaved) and observed tolerance to shade, when growing in two contrasting light treatments - open (about 20% of full sunlight) and shade (about 5% of full sunlight). We analyzed biomass allocation and its response to shade using allometric relationships. We also measured leaf gas exchange rates and leaf N in the two light treatments. Compared to the open treatment, shading significantly increased traits typically associated with high relative growth rate (RGR) - leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), and allocation of biomass into leaves, and reduced seedling mass and allocation to roots, and net assimilation rate (NAR). Interestingly, RGR was not affected by light treatment, likely because of morphological and physiological adjustments in shaded plants that offset reductions of in situ net assimilation of carbon in shade. Leaf area-based rates of light-saturated leaf gas exchange differed among species groups, but not between light treatments, as leaf N concentration increased in concert with increased SLA in shade. We found little evidence to support the hypothesis of a increased plasticity of broadleaved species compared to needle-leaved conifers in response to shade. However, an expectation of higher plasticity in shade-intolerant species than in shade-tolerant ones, and in leaf and plant morphology than in biomass allocation was supported across species of contrasting leaf habit. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Meng, F; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    Effects of surface shading were measured on above- and below-ground biomass and fruit production of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara plants grown from seed in replicated microcosm experiments, based on a control (no shading) and four treatments (25%, 50%, 75% and 90% shading). Above- and below-...... spp. at seasonally inundated wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain could, by shading, have contributed to the reduction in annual biomass and seed production of V. natans, contributing to declines in distribution and abundance....

  18. Reliability of shade selection using an intraoral spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Siegbert; Yajima, Nao-Daniel; Wolkewitz, Martin; Strub, Jorge R

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of human tooth shade selection using a digital spectrophotometer. Variability among examiners and illumination conditions were tested for possible influence on measurement reproducibility. Fifteen intact anterior teeth of 15 subjects were evaluated for their shade using a digital spectrophotometer (Crystaleye, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) by two examiners under the same light conditions representing a dental laboratory situation. Each examiner performed the measurement ten times on the labial surface of each tooth containing three evaluation sides (cervical, body, incisal). Commission International on Illumination color space values for L* (lightness), a* (red/green), and b* (yellow/blue) were obtained from each evaluated side. Examiner 2 repeated the measurements of the same subjects under different light conditions (i.e., a dental unit with a chairside lamp). To describe measurement precision, the mean color difference from the mean metric was used. The computed confidence interval (CI) value 5.228 (4.6598-5.8615) reflected (represented) the validity of the measurements. Least square mean analysis of the values obtained by examiners 1 and 2 or under different illumination conditions revealed no statistically significant differences (CI = 95%). Within the limits of the present study, the accuracy and reproducibility of dental shade selection using the tested spectrophotometer with respect to examiner and illumination conditions reflected the reliability of this device. This study suggests that the tested spectrophotometer can be recommended for the clinical application of shade selection.

  19. Adaptive heating, ventilation and solar shading for dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alders, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Calculation of various strategies for the heating of, and the prevention of overheating in, a Dutch standard dwelling that includes (automated) adaptive ventilation systems and solar shading to maintain indoor temperatures at acceptably comfortable temperatures informs this analysis of the costs,

  20. Evaluating Accuracy of the Sunnova Pro Platform Shade Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-01-11

    Sunnova's new solar energy design platform, Sunnova Pro, automatically generates a 3D model of a building and surrounding shading objects. The product is designed to automate the process of engineering a system, sizing batteries and preparing sales proposals.

  1. Shades of African values and interests in Nigeria's international ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shades of African values and interests in Nigeria's international relations: investigating the gains and the costs, 1960 – 2014. ... of policies that ensure that the country recovers all she lost in her years of naivety in I.R. The study adopted the historical methodology which emphasizes critical analyses and interpretation of facts.

  2. The use of shaded fuelbreaks in landscape fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Agee; Bernie Bahro; Mark A. Finney; Philip N. Omi; David B. Sapsis; Carl N. Skinner; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; C. Phillip Weatherspoon

    2000-01-01

    Shaded fuelbreaks and larger landscape fuel treatments, such as prescribed fire, are receiving renewed interest as forest protection strategies in the western United States. The effectiveness of fuelbreaks remains a subject of debate because of differing fuelbreak objectives, prescriptions for creation and maintenance, and their placement in landscapes with differing...

  3. Bird communities in sun and shade coffee farms in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Smith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion to meet rising crop demand is one of the greatest threats to terrestrial biodiversity. Coffee, one of the most valuable trade items in tropical countries, can provide both economic livelihood and wildlife habitat. Previous work, conducted primarily on Neotropical coffee farms, indicates that birds are generally more abundant and diverse in farms with a canopy of shade trees, though regional variation exists. To date, few studies have examined birds on coffee farms in Africa, which contains 20% of the world’s coffee acreage. We studied differences in the bird communities between sun and shade monoculture coffee in central Kenya, and we examined effects of vegetation on bird abundance and diversity. Sun coffee had higher species richness and abundances of all major guilds (omnivores, insectivores, and granivores, and showed low community similarity to shade. Unlike findings from the Neotropics, canopy cover appeared to have a negative influence on all guilds, while understory volume of weeds increased bird abundance and species richness with a similar magnitude as canopy cover. These differences highlight the need for further studies in the general East Africa region with a wider variety of shade coffee systems.

  4. Epidemiology of gingivitis in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funieru, C; Klinger, A; Băicuș, C; Funieru, E; Dumitriu, H T; Dumitriu, A

    2017-04-01

    Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral disease in children, being strongly associated to social gradients. Many studies have reported different results concerning the extent and intra-oral distribution of gingivitis in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic parameters and socio-related risk factors of gingivitis in the 10-17-year-old Bucharest schoolchildren population and to analyze its intra-oral distribution. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1595 schoolchildren, social condition being assigned using a simple questionnaire. Classes of students were used as clusters in a single-stage cluster sampling method. An intra-oral exam was performed for all the children included in this study. Silness and Löe scores, prevalence and the extent of gingivitis were calculated. The gingival scores showed a mild inflammation and the prevalence of gingivitis was 91%. Boys had a higher gingival (0.19 vs. 0.18; p gingival conditions (p Gingivitis was more severe on the upper teeth, with the maximum score being reached at the right upper lateral incisor (0.63 on distal surface). Gingival condition in Bucharest schoolchildren population was associated to social gradients. School dental services are also another factor that seems to be related with gingivitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Drug-induced gingival enlargement: Series of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Manzur-Villalobos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gingival enlargement (GA is a benign condition of the oral cavity that is characterized by the excessive growth of the gingiva in mass and volume. This lesion is not only caused by hereditary factors or poor oral hygiene, but also by the intake of medications, including antihypertensive, anticonvulsant and immunosuppressive drugs. Objective: To sensitize the prevention or early care in patients with pathologies that merit the use of antihypertensive and anticonvulsants in conjunction with the dentist, to treat or avoid the drug-induced gingival enlargement (DIGE. Materials and methods: A series of clinical cases of patients with gingival enlargement by various drugs are reported, including Phenytoin, Amlodipine and Nifedipine. Periodontal and gingivectomy hygienic phase measures were applied to obtain better effects. Results: Satisfactory results were obtained with a considerable decrease in DIGE. Conclusions: The integral management is important in conjunction with the treating physician to follow up the drug that can be generating gingival enlargement. It is necessary to employ an initial approach with strategies of periodontal hygiene, and in severe cases and, as last resort, the periodontal surgery with gingivectomy and gingivoplasty.

  6. Association between maternal gingivitis, low birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between maternal gingivitis and pregnancy outcome, including low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery. This prospective study was conducted among 300 randomly selected pregnant women aged 20-34 years attending the antenatal clinic, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ...

  7. Soft tissue engineering with micronized-gingival connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Sawako; Sumita, Yoshinori; Ohba, Seigo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Asahina, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    The free gingival graft (FGG) and connective tissue graft (CTG) are currently considered to be the gold standards for keratinized gingival tissue reconstruction and augmentation. However, these procedures have some disadvantages in harvesting large grafts, such as donor-site morbidity as well as insufficient gingival width and thickness at the recipient site post-treatment. To solve these problems, we focused on an alternative strategy using micronized tissue transplantation (micro-graft). In this study, we first investigated whether transplantation of micronized gingival connective tissues (MGCTs) promotes skin wound healing. MGCTs (≤100 µm) were obtained by mincing a small piece (8 mm 3 ) of porcine keratinized gingiva using the RIGENERA system. The MGCTs were then transplanted to a full skin defect (5 mm in diameter) on the dorsal surface of immunodeficient mice after seeding to an atelocollagen matrix. Transplantations of atelocollagen matrixes with and without micronized dermis were employed as experimental controls. The results indicated that MGCTs markedly promote the vascularization and epithelialization of the defect area 14 days after transplantation compared to the experimental controls. After 21 days, complete wound closure with low contraction was obtained only in the MGCT grafts. Tracking analysis of transplanted MGCTs revealed that some mesenchymal cells derived from MGCTs can survive during healing and may function to assist in wound healing. We propose here that micro-grafting with MGCTs represents an alternative strategy for keratinized tissue reconstruction that is characterized by low morbidity and ready availability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. No association between gingival labial recession and facial type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazurova, K.; Renkema, A.M.; Navratilova, Z.; Katsaros, C.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if facial type is a predictor of the development of gingival recession. METHODS: A cohort of 179 orthodontic patients (76 males, 101 females; age before treatment T S = 12.4 years, SD = 0.8) were followed until 5 years post-treatment (T 5 = 20.7 years, SD = 1.2). The presence

  9. Gingival hyperplasia induced by diphenylhydantoin in a gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, D; Oosterhuis, J

    1979-11-01

    An adult male lowland gorilla had been treated with diphenylhydantoin for 6 months following several acute convulsive episodes. The gorilla remained clinically normal during that period. Then, for no apparent reason, it refused its usual diet. Physical examination revealed acute inflammatory gingival hyperplasia. Full mouth gingivectomy and antibiotic and analgesic therapy resolved the oral inflammation and the anorexia.

  10. Esthetic Management of Gingival Lesions in Anterior Maxilla: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of soft tissue pathologic process that affects the ... During the pregnancy, it appeared and after that, it does not .... Periodontal plastic surgery associated with treatment for the removal of gingival overgrowth. J Periodontol 2006;77:922‑8. 10. Rahpeyma A, Khajehahmadi S. Modified VIP‑CT flap in late maxillary.

  11. Effect of phenytoin and age on gingival fibroblast enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of cytokine balance is stated to exert greater influence on gingival overgrowth compared to the direct effect of the drug on the regulation of extracellular matrix metabolism. The current study evaluated the effect of phenytoin on the regulation of collagen, lysyl oxidase and elastin in gingival fibroblasts.Normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs were obtained from 4 healthy children and 4 adults. Samples were cultured with phenytoin. MTT test was used to evaluate the proliferation and ELISA was performed to determine the level of IL1β and PGE2 production by HGFs. Total RNA of gingival fibroblasts was extracted and RT-PCR was performed on samples. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the data with an alpha error level less than 0.05.There was a significant difference in the expression of elastin between the controls and treated samples in both adult and pediatric groups and also in the lysyl oxidase expression of adult controls and treated adults. No significant difference was found between collagen expression in adults.The significant difference in elastin and lysyl oxidase expression between adult and pediatric samples indicates the significant effect of age on their production.

  12. Efektifitas Propolis Toothpaste sebagai Initial Therapy pada Mild Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kasuma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Karakteristik gingivitis ringan adalah terjadinya perubahan warna gusi, edema ringan, tidak ada pendarahan dan tanpa ada rasa nyeri. Jika pasien tidak mendapatkan perawatan yang tepat, gingivitis dapat berubah menjadi periodontitis yang menyebabkan kerusakan jaringan tulang rahang alveolar, menyebabkan kerusakan jaringan lebih lanjut secara lokal dan sistemik melalui pembuluh darah. Pemilihan terapi yang tepat sangat penting untuk mengurangi prevalensi dari penyakit ini. Selain proses scaling dan kontrol plak, penggunaan pasta gigi propolis dapat digunakan sebagai terapi awal. Komposisi pasta gigi yang mengandung propolis memiliki efek anti-inflamasi yang bermanfaat sebagai salah satu terapi awal untuk mengobati gingivitis ringan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen. Indeks gingiva dari 15 pasien diukur sebelum dan sesudah penggunaan pasta gigi propolis. Analisis data dilakukan dengan cara univariat untuk menggambarkan masing-masing variabel dengan Kolmogorov-Smirnof Test. Perbedaan indeks gingiva antara sebelum dan sesudah menyikat gigi dengan pasta gigi yang mengandung propolis dianalisis dengan uji T berpasangan. Pasta gigi yang mengandung propolis ini terbukti efektif dalam terapi awal gingivitis ringan dengan rata-rata pengurangan skor indeks gingiva sebelum dan sesudah adalah 0,40 ± 0,04. Terdepat perbedaan yang signifikan (p <0,05 antara rata-rata penurunan nilai gingiva indeks sebelum dan setelah penggunaan pasta gigi yang mengandung propolis.

  13. Prevention of gingival trauma : Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderdos, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissues for life is important. Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings can damage the soft oral tissues. This thesis investigates the safety of manual toothbrushes, interdental brushes and rubber bristles interdental cleaners by analysing the gingival abrasion

  14. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Responses to Experimentally Induced Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Shaneen J.; Seymour, Gregory J.; Ford, Pauline J.

    2013-01-01

    This study profiled the local and systemic inflammatory responses to experimentally induced gingivitis. Eight females participated in a 21-day experimental gingivitis model followed by a 14-day resolution phase. Bleeding on probing and plaque index scores were assessed before, during, and after resolution of gingival inflammation, and samples of saliva, GCF, and plasma were collected. Samples were assessed for biomarkers of inflammation using the BioPlex platform and ELISA. There were no significant changes in GCF levels of cytokines during the experimental phase; however, individual variability in cytokine profiles was noted. During resolution, mean GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased and were significantly lower than baseline levels (P = 0.003, P = 0.025, and P = 0.007, resp.). Furthermore, changes in GCF levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α during resolution correlated with changes in plaque index scores (r = 0.88, P = 0.004; r = 0.72, P = 0.042; r = 0.79, P = 0.019, resp.). Plasma levels of sICAM-1 increased significantly during the experimental phase (P = 0.002) and remained elevated and significantly higher than baseline levels during resolution (P gingivitis adds to the systemic inflammatory burden of an individual. PMID:24227893

  15. Radioautographic DNA synthesis study on mice Mus musculus gingival epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1984-01-01

    The DNA-synthetizing cells frequency in the gingival epithelium basal layer of the first lower molar region in young and adult mice were studied. The 3H-thymidine and radioautography were used. The labeled cells frequency was determined by calculating their proportions. The data were statiscally analysed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome: Case series of rare syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by profound overgrowth of hair and gums, as well as other variable features. Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by a large increase in the gingival dimension which extends above the dental crowns, covering them partially or completely. They were found to have a genetic origin, may also occur in isolation or be part of a syndrome, or acquired origin, due to specific drugs administered systemically. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with continuing excessive growth of terminal hair without androgenic stimulation. It has informally been called werewolf syndrome because the appearance is similar to that of a werewolf. Various syndromes have been associated with these features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, cardiomegaly, or osteochondrodysplasia. As so far very few cases have been reported in literature, we are reporting a series of three cases with management of the same. The excess gingival tissues, in these cases, were removed by conventional gingivectomy under general anesthesia. The postoperative result was uneventful and the patient's appearance improved significantly. Good esthetic result was achieved to allow patient to practice oral hygiene measures. Though this is not a serious condition clinically, psychosocial trauma cannot be neglected owing to the cosmetic disfigurement it produces.

  17. Unilateral Bimaxillary Idiopathic Fibrous Gingival Hyperplasia with Alveolar Bone Loss- Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Sathawane

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargements are of many types and vary according to the etiologic factors and pathologic processes that produce them. Though there are many classifications of gingival enlargement, the most practical one is as follows: 1 Inflammatory gingival enlargement 2 Fibrous gingival hyperplasia 3 Combination of inflammatory and fibrous hyperplasia. Gingival hyperplasia is a heterogeneous group of disorder, which appears clinically as diffuse, firm, and massive enlargement of the gingiva covering most of the crown of the teeth. Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition of undetermined etiology, although some cases have definite hereditary basis. A case of unilateral idiopathic fibrous gingival hyperplasia on left side of both the jaws with severe bone resorption is presented.

  18. A review of factors influencing the incidence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombelli, L; Farina, R

    2013-06-01

    An individual variation in the gingival inflammatory response to the dental biofilm has been demonstrated. This variability can be observed between individuals with neither quantitative nor qualitative differences in plaque accumulation. The reported significant differences in gingival inflammatory response under quantitatively and/or qualitatively almost identical bacterial challenge suggest that the gingival response to plaque accumulation may be an individual trait, possibly genetic in origin. The most recent classification of periodontal diseases acknowledges that the clinical expression of plaque-induced gingival inflammation can be substantially modified by systemic factors, either inherent to the host or related to environmental influences. The aim of the present literature review is to describe (i) the factors influencing the development of plaque-induced gingivitis as well as (ii) those metabolic, environmental and systemic factors which have a direct impact on the etiopathogenetic pathway of plaque-induced gingivitis, thus altering the nature or course of the gingival inflammatory response to dental biofilm.

  19. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Joshipura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  20. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshipura, Vaibhavi

    2012-04-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  1. Improvement of Shade Resilience in Photovoltaic Modules Using Buck Converters in a Smart Module Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golroodbari, S. Mirbagheri; Waal, Arjen. de; Sark, Wilfried van

    2018-01-01

    Partial shading has a nonlinear effect on the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules. Different methods of optimizing energy harvesting under partial shading conditions have been suggested to mitigate this issue. In this paper, a smart PV module architecture is proposed for improvement of shade

  2. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    ¿ Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found

  3. Convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency contributes to the shade tolerance of palms (Arecaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ren Yi; Zhang, Jiao Lin; Cavaleri, Molly A.; Sterck, Frank; Strijk, J.S.; Cao, Kun Fang

    2015-01-01

    Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn),

  4. When growing tall is not an option : contrasting shade avoidance responses in two wild Geranium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommers, C.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants can deal with shade in different ways. Sun-adapted species express a set of growth traits to reach for light; the so-called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). However, shade-tolerant species from the forest understory are not able to outgrow surrounding trees and adopt a tolerance strategy

  5. A novel two-step method for screening shade tolerant mutant plants via dwarfism

    Science.gov (United States)

    When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance. Here, we describe a two-step procedure for isolating shade tolerant mutants of ...

  6. Relationship between xerostomia and gingival condition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, S; Ekuni, D; Tomofuji, T; Azuma, T; Kataoka, K; Yamane, M; Iwasaki, Y; Morita, M

    2015-02-01

    Xerostomia is a subjective symptom of dryness in the mouth. Although a correlation between xerostomia and oral conditions in the elderly has been reported, there are few such studies in the young adults. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of xerostomia with the gingival condition in university students. A total of 2077 students (1202 male subjects and 875 female subjects), 18-24 years of age, were examined. The disease activity and severity of the gingival condition were assessed as the percentage of teeth with bleeding on probing (%BOP) and the presence of teeth with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm, respectively. Additional information on xerostomia, oral health behaviors, coffee/tea intake and nasal congestion was collected via a questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test pathways from xerostomia to the gingival condition. One-hundred and eighty-three (8.8%) students responded that their mouths frequently or always felt dry. Xerostomia was related to %BOP and dental plaque formation, but was not related to the presence of probing pocket depth ≥ 4 mm. In the structural model, xerostomia was related to dental plaque formation (p Xerostomia was associated with coffee/tea intake (p Xerostomia was indirectly related to gingival disease activity through the accumulation of dental plaque. Nasal congestion and coffee/tea intake also affected xerostomia. These findings suggest that xerostomia should be considered in screening for gingivitis risk in young adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, Anton; Slizen, Veronica; Boström, Elisabeth A; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay; Kats, Anna; Sugars, Rachael V; Gustafsson, Anders; Buhlin, Kåre

    2017-10-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P) was compared to chlorhexidine (CHX) in order to determine potential cytotoxic and immune-modulatory effects on human gingival fibroblasts. Cytotoxic effects of PHMG-P and CHX on human gingival fibroblasts were assessed using cell viability assay at various time points and concentrations. The effects of PHMG-P and CHX on the secretion of prostaglandin (PG) E 2 , interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 by non-stimulated or IL-1β stimulated fibroblasts were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PHMG-P concentration 0.00009% led to the total loss of fibroblast viability within 24 h, whereas inhibition of fibroblast viability by CHX occurred at significantly higher concentrations of 0.0009% (p PHMG-P led to loss of fibroblast viability after 5 min, whilst cells exposed to 0.005% CHX survived 30 min of treatment (p PHMG-P or CHX at concentrations of 0.000045 or 0.0.00009% resulted in significantly decreased PGE 2 , IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-1 levels. PHMG-P or CHX alone did not affect the baseline secretion of PGE 2 , IL-6, IL-8 or MMP-1 by gingival fibroblasts. Cytotoxic effects on gingival fibroblasts were triggered by both PHMG-P and CHX at concentrations below those used in clinical practice. The tested antiseptics did not cause inflammation and reduced IL-1β-induced secretion of inflammatory mediators and collagenase by gingival fibroblasts, which suggests anti-inflammatory properties.

  8. Human Memory B Cells in Healthy Gingiva, Gingivitis, and Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanonda, Rangsini; Champaiboon, Chantrakorn; Subbalekha, Keskanya; Sa-Ard-Iam, Noppadol; Rattanathammatada, Warattaya; Thawanaphong, Saranya; Rerkyen, Pimprapa; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Nagano, Keiji; Lang, Niklaus P; Pichyangkul, Sathit

    2016-08-01

    The presence of inflammatory infiltrates with B cells, specifically plasma cells, is the hallmark of periodontitis lesions. The composition of these infiltrates in various stages of homeostasis and disease development is not well documented. Human tissue biopsies from sites with gingival health (n = 29), gingivitis (n = 8), and periodontitis (n = 21) as well as gingival tissue after treated periodontitis (n = 6) were obtained and analyzed for their composition of B cell subsets. Ag specificity, Ig secretion, and expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and granzyme B were performed. Although most of the B cell subsets in healthy gingiva and gingivitis tissues were CD19(+)CD27(+)CD38(-) memory B cells, the major B cell component in periodontitis was CD19(+)CD27(+)CD38(+)CD138(+)HLA-DR(low) plasma cells, not plasmablasts. Plasma cell aggregates were observed at the base of the periodontal pocket and scattered throughout the gingiva, especially apically toward the advancing front of the lesion. High expression of CXCL12, a proliferation-inducing ligand, B cell-activating factor, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-21 molecules involved in local B cell responses was detected in both gingivitis and periodontitis tissues. Periodontitis tissue plasma cells mainly secreted IgG specific to periodontal pathogens and also expressed receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, a bone resorption cytokine. Memory B cells resided in the connective tissue subjacent to the junctional epithelium in healthy gingiva. This suggested a role of memory B cells in maintaining periodontal homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide affects human gingival fibroblast cytoskeletal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Contreras-Marmolejo, Luis Arturo; Román-Alvárez, Patricia; Barajas-Torres, Carolina

    2008-04-01

    The cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure that plays a key role in maintaining cell morphology and function. This study investigates the effect of bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a strong inflammatory agent, on the dynamics and organization of actin, tubulin, vimentin, and vinculin proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). A time-dependent study showed a noticeable change in actin architecture after 1.5 h of incubation with LPS (1 microg/ml) with the formation of orthogonal fibers and further accumulation of actin filament at the cell periphery by 24 h. When 0.01-10 microg/ml of LPS was added to human gingival fibroblast cultures, cells acquired a round, flat shape and gradually developed cytoplasmic ruffling. Lipopolysaccharides extracted from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans periodontopathogenic bacteria promoted alterations in F-actin stress fibres of human gingival cells. Normally, human gingival cells have F-actin fibres that are organized in linear distribution throughout the cells, extending along the cell's length. LPS-treated cells exhibited changes in cytoskeletal protein organization, and F-actin was reorganized by the formation of bundles underneath and parallel to the cell membrane. We also found the reorganization of the vimentin network into vimentin bundling after 1.5 h of treatment. HGF cells exhibited diffuse and granular gamma-tubulin stain. There was no change in LPS-treated HGF. However, vinculin plaques distributed in the cell body diminished after LPS treatment. We conclude that the dynamic and structured organization of cytoskeletal filaments and actin assembly in human gingival fibroblasts is altered by LPS treatment and is accompanied by a decrease in F-actin pools.

  10. Longitudinal quantification of the gingival crevicular fluid proteome during progression from gingivitis to periodontitis in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ian J; Jones, Andrew W; Creese, Andrew J; Staunton, Ruth; Atwal, Jujhar; Chapple, Iain L C; Harris, Stephen; Grant, Melissa M

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is widespread in dogs. This study evaluated site-specific changes in the canine gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) proteome during longitudinal progression from very mild gingivitis to mild periodontitis. Periodontitis diagnosis in dogs requires general anaesthesia with associated risks and costs; our ultimate aim was to develop a periodontitis diagnostic for application in conscious dogs. The objective of this work was to identify potential biomarkers of periodontal disease progression in dogs. Gingival crevicular fluid was sampled from a total of 10 teeth in eight dogs at three different stages of health/disease and samples prepared for quantitative mass spectrometry (data available via ProteomeXchange; identifier PXD003337). A univariate mixed model analysis determined significantly altered proteins between health states and six were evaluated by ELISA. Four hundred and six proteins were identified with 84 present in all samples. The prevalence of 40 proteins was found to be significantly changed in periodontitis relative to gingivitis. ELISA measurements confirmed that haptoglobin was significantly increased. This study demonstrates for the first time that proteins detected by mass spectrometry have potential to identify novel biomarkers for canine periodontal disease. Further work is required to validate additional biomarkers for a periodontitis diagnostic. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Periodontology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid β-glucuronidase levels in health, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanara, P P; Shereef, Mohammed; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, K S; Arun Kumar, M S; Mohamed, Shabeer

    2015-08-01

    Current methods available for periodontal disease diagnosis are seriously deficient in terms of accuracy, in the ability to predict ongoing or future disease activity and indeed in determining whether previously diseased sites are in an arrested phase or still active. One area that is receiving a great deal of attention is the biochemical investigation of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). β-glucuronidase (βG) is one of the enzymes found in GCF that is involved in degradation of the ground substance and fibrillar components of host connective tissue. GCF βG activity might be a good indicator or predictor of periodontal disease activity. This study was conducted to estimate and compare the GCF βG levels in patients with healthy periodontium, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. Subjects were classified into three groups of 20 patients each; healthy individuals, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. After recording the plaque index, gingival index and probing pocket depth, 1 μL GCF was collected by placing a calibrated microcapillary pipette extracrevicularly and transferred to sterile plastic vials containing 350 μL of normal saline with 1% bovine serum albumin. Analysis of βG was done by spectrophotometry. βG levels in GCF were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group (mean value - 2.04743), followed by chronic gingivitis group (mean - 1.11510) and healthy group (0.53643). Increased βG levels were observed in patients with increased periodontal destruction, hence GCF βG levels can be used as biochemical marker for periodontal disease activity.

  12. Typology of building shading elements on Jalan Sudirman corridor in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, G.; Aldy, P.

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, temperature in Pekanbaru was between 22.60°C and 34.6°C with humidity 79.14 percent. This condition has increase the concern of energy utilization to building comfort. Buildings have the biggest energy consuming due to the use of air conditioner in Pekanbaru. One effort to reduced energy is shading devices application. Application of air conditioner need huge energy, replaced natural circulation with architecture elements to reduced building thermal. This research study about system and building shading devices types that influence building thermal in Pekanbaru so that knowing characteristics and elements form. This study aims to determine and identify of systems and building elements types in Pekanbaru, which the element forms to conquer in climate condition. Qualitative method with rationalistic-paradigm has used to identify typology of building shading devices on Jalan Sudirman corridor. The research orientation on typology theory, thermal theory, and building shading device to identification of building shading device types on Jalan Sudirman corridor. Based on the survey result, there are 2 type of building shading devices on Jalan Sudirman Pekanbaru which is based on forms and quantity of shading. The types are building shading devices based on shading quantity and building shading devices based on shading forms.

  13. Building Applications, Opportunities and Challenges of Active Shading Systems: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joud Al Dakheel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Active shading systems in buildings have emerged as a high performing shading solution that selectively and optimally controls daylight and heat gains. Active shading systems are increasingly used in buildings, due to their ability to mainly improve the building environment, reduce energy consumption and in some cases generate energy. They may be categorized into three classes: smart glazing, kinetic shading and integrated renewable energy shading. This paper reviews the current status of the different types in terms of design principle and working mechanism of the systems, performance, control strategies and building applications. Challenges, limitations and future opportunities of the systems are then discussed. The review highlights that despite its high initial cost, the electrochromic (EC glazing is the most applied smart glazing due to the extensive use of glass in buildings under all climatic conditions. In terms of external shadings, the rotating shading type is the predominantly used one in buildings due to its low initial cost. Algae façades and folding shading systems are still emerging types, with high initial and maintenance costs and requiring specialist installers. The algae façade systems and PV integrated shading systems are a promising solution due to their dual benefits of providing shading and generating electricity. Active shading systems were found to save 12 to 50% of the building cooling electricity consumption.

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene polymorphism in renal transplant patients with gingival overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzik, A; Kurzawski, M; Lener, A; Kozak, M; Banach, J; Drozdzik, M

    2010-02-01

    Gingival enlargement frequently occurs in transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs. It was hypothesized that gingival enlargement associated with cyclosporine use results from reduced degradation of extracellular matrix in the gingiva. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is involved in biodegradation of the extracellular matrix, and its inhibition may contribute to an abnormal accumulation of fibronectin and proteoglycans, which are MMP-3 substrates. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an association exists between MMP-3 genotypes and gingival enlargement in kidney transplant patients medicated with cyclosporine A. Sixty-four unrelated kidney transplant patients suffering from gingival overgrowth, as well as 111 control transplant patients without gingival overgrowth, were enrolled in the study. Gingival overgrowth was assessed 6 mo after transplantation. During the post-transplant period all patients were given cyclosporine A as a principal immunosuppressive agent. MMP-3 polymorphism was determined using a PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. In kidney transplant patients suffering from gingival overgrowth the mean gingival overgrowth score was 1.35 +/- 0.57, whereas in control subjects the mean gingival overgrowth score was 0.0. The distribution of MMP-3-1178A/dupA alleles among all kidney transplant patients, as well as in the two study subgroups, did not differ significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the MMP-3-1171A/A genotype (28.1% for gingival overgrowth vs. 26.1% for controls) and of the MMP-3-1171dupA/dupA genotype (32.8% for gingival overgrowth vs. 22.5% for controls) was similar for both study groups. The risk of gingival overgrowth was lowest among patients carrying the MMP-3-1171A/dupA genotype (odds ratio 0.52), but this did not differ markedly from the other genotypes. No association between MMP-3 gene polymorphism and gingival overgrowth was revealed in kidney transplant patients

  15. Analysis of changes in gingival contour from three-dimensional co-ordinate data in subjects with drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, J M; Ellis, J S; Jovanovski, V; Corson, M; Lynch, E; Seymour, R A

    2005-10-01

    This aim of this study was to develop and assess a technique that could be used to assess accurately the gingival volume changes seen in drug-induced gingival overgrowth by the analysis of data obtained from an entire gingival surface by means of three-dimensional imaging. Stone dental models of patients before and after gingivectomy procedures were digitized with a laser scanner and then regenerated as computer models constructed from the acquired three-dimensional co-ordinate data. A comparison of superposed "before" and "after" surfaces was undertaken to assess and accurately quantify changes in gingival contour. The mean vertical tissue reduction varied from 1.58 to 2.56 mm in the four study subjects and individual differences are shown. The maximum thickness of removed buccal gingival overgrowth was found to range between 1.20 and 3.40 mm. The volume of tissue removed from each inter-dental papilla ranged from 4.2 to 46.1 mm3 and the mean volume of the papilla removed from each subject+/-SD values was 24.8+/-13.1 mm3. This method will measure changes in gingival tissues to within 60 microm in one plane, making it ideal for the assessment of longitudinal changes in gingival contour as seen in the development of gingival overgrowth, its recurrence after surgery or the changes in volume brought about by surgery.

  16. The impact of translucent fabric shades and control strategies on energy savings and visual quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankanapon, Pimonmart

    Translucent fabric shades provide opportunities for building occupants to control sunlight penetration for heat reduction, thermal comfort, and visual quality. Regulating shades affects building energy and can potentially reduce the size of mechanical cooling systems. Shades are not normally included in energy model studies during the design process, even though shades potential impact energy use. This is because the occupants normally leave shades closed a large fraction of the time, but models are generally performed with no shades. Automatic shade control is now available, so it is necessary to understand the impact of shades on visual quality and their energy saving potential in order to optimize their overall performance. There are very limited studies that have address shades and their integrated performance on energy consumption and visual quality. Most of these do not reflected modern shade types and their application. The goals of this study are: First, to determine the impact of shades on total, heating, cooling and lighting energy savings with different design and operation parameters. Second, to study and develop different automatic shade control strategies to promote and optimize energy savings and visual quality. A simulation-based approach using EnergyPlus in a parametric study provide better understanding energy savings under different shade conditions. The parametric runs addressed various building parameters such as geometry, orientation, site climate, glazing/shade properties, and shade control strategies with integrated lighting control. The impact of shades was determined for total building and space heating, cooling and lighting energy savings. The effect of shades on visual quality was studied using EnergyPlus, AGI32 and DAYSIM for several indices such as daylight glare index (DGI), work plane illuminance, luminance ratios and view. Different shade control strategies and integrated lighting control were considered with two translucent fabric

  17. A novel two-step method for screening shade tolerant mutant plants via dwarfism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance. Here we describe a two-step procedure for isolating shade tolerant mutants of perennial ryegrass by first screening for dominant dwarf mutants, and then screening dwarf plants for shade tolerance. The two-step screening process to isolate shade tolerant mutants can be done efficiently with limited space at early seedling stages, which enables quick and efficient isolation of shade tolerant mutants, and thus facilitates development of shade tolerant new cultivars of turfgrasses. Using the method, we isolated 136 dwarf mutants from 300,000 mutagenized seeds, with 65 being shade tolerant (0.022%. When screened directly for shade tolerance, we recovered only four mutants from a population of 150,000 (0.003% mutagenized seeds. One shade tolerant mutant, shadow-1, was characterized in detail. In addition to dwarfism, shadow-1 and its sexual progeny displayed high degrees of tolerance to both natural and artificial shade. We showed that endogenous gibberellin (GA content in shadow-1 was higher than wild-type controls, and shadow-1 was also partially GA insensitive. Our novel, simple and effective two-step screening method should be applicable to breeding shade tolerant cultivars of turfgrasses, ground covers, and other economically important crop plants that can be used under canopies of existing vegetation to increase productivity per unit area of land.

  18. Topographical Hill Shading Map Production Based Tianditu (map World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Zha, Z.; Tang, D.; Yang, J.

    2018-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the terrain service is an important channel for users on the platform. With the development of TIANDITU, topographical hill shading map production for providing and updating global terrain map on line becomes necessary for the characters of strong intuition, three-dimensional sense and aesthetic effect. As such, the terrain service of TIANDITU focuses on displaying the different scales of topographical data globally. And this paper mainly aims to research the method of topographical hill shading map production globally using DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data between the displaying scales about 1 : 140,000,000 to 1 : 4,000,000, corresponded the display level from 2 to 7 on TIANDITU website.

  19. Quality and Quantity Evaluations of Shade Grown Forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. P. Ladyman; M. S. Kerley; R. L. Kallenbach; H. E. Garrett; J. W. Van Sambeek; N. E. Navarrete-Tindall

    2003-01-01

    Seven legumes were grown during the summer-fall of 2000, at the Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center (39? 01 ' N, 92? 46' W) near New Franklin, MO. The forages were grown in 7.5L white pots placed on light-colored gravel either under full sunlight, 45% sunlight, or 20% sunlight created by a shade cloth over a rectangular frame. Drip irrigation was...

  20. Sun and Shade leaves, SIF, and Photosynthetic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. A.; Badgley, G.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in retrieval of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) have opened up new possibilities for remote sensing of canopy physiology and structure. To date most of the emphasis has been placed on SIF as an indicator of stress and photosynthetic capacity. However, it is clear that canopy structure can also have an influence. To this point, simulations of SIF in land surface models tend to under predict observed variation in SIF. Also, large, systematic differences in SIF from different canopy types seem to correlate well with the photosynthetic capacity of these canopies. SIF emissions from pampered crops can be several-fold that from evergreen, needle-leaf forests. Yet, these may have similar vegetation indices and absorb a similar fraction of incident PAR. SIF photons produced in a conifer canopy do have a lower probability of escaping its dense, clumped foliage. However, this does not explain the correlated differences in photosynthetic rate and SIF. It is useful, in this regard, to consider the separate contributions of sun and shade leaves to the SIF emitted by a canopy. Sun leaves tend to be displayed to intercept the direct solar beam, and these highly illuminated leaves are often visible from above the canopy. Sun leaves produce more SIF and a large fraction of it escapes. Therefore, the intensity of SIF may be a sensitive indicator of the partitioning of absorbed PAR to sun and shade leaves. Many models account tor the different photosynthetic capacity of sun and shade leaves in calculating canopy responses. However, the fraction of leaves in each category is usually parameterized by an assumed leaf angle distribution (e.g. spherical). In reality, the sun/shade fraction can vary over a wide range, and it has been difficult to measure. SIF and possibly near-IR reflectance of canopies can be used to specify this key parameter with obvious importance to understanding photosynthetic rate.

  1. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1, RANTES and macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels in gingival crevicular fluid of metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Ali; Eren, Gülnihal; Çetinkalp, Şevki; Akçay, Yasemin Delen; Emingil, Gülnur; Atilla, Gül

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis. Twenty metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis (MSG), 20 MetS patients with clinically healthy periodontium (MSH), 20 systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and 20 subjects who were both systemically and periodontally healthy were included. Periodontal and systemical parameters were recorded. GCF MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. MSG and MSH groups had elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, waist circumference and fasting glucose values in comparison to gingivitis and healthy groups (Pgingivitis groups when compared to those of the MSH and healthy groups (Pgingivitis group had higher MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels compared to the healthy group (P=0.011, P=0.0001, P=0.011 respectively). The RANTES level of MSG group was significantly higher than those of the gingivitis group (P=0.01), but MCP-1 and MIF levels were similar in the MSG and gingivitis groups (P>0.05). Elevated levels of GCF RANTES in MetS patients with gingivitis might associate with the presence of increased gingival inflammation by MetS. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with MetS and adipose tissue-derived RANTES might lead to altered GCF RANTES levels in the presence of gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Production of tropical forage grasses under different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the forage production of three tropical forage grasses under different shading levels. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, University Unit of Aquidauana (UEMS/UUA, in a soil classified as Ultisol sandy loam texture. The treatments consisted of three grasses species combinations (B. brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisck and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, submitted to four shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 75%, arranged in a completely randomized blocks design in a factorial 3 x 4, with eight replications. After harvest, the plants were separated into shoot and roots for determination of shoot fresh mass (SFM, shoot dry mass (SDM and roots dry mass production. After analysis of variance, the qualitative factor was subjected to comparison of averages by Tukey’s test, and the quantitative factor to analysis of polynomial regression, being interactions appropriately unfolded. It was verified that B. decumbens, by its linearly increasing production of forage and less decrease of root formation, is the most recommended for shading conditions compared to grasses Tanzania and Marandu.

  3. Gingival Necrosis Caused by an Ill-Fitting Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja VUČIĆEVIĆ BORAS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of an 80-year-old male who was referred to the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia due to gingival ulcer which was present for eight days. Clinical examination has revealed exposed bone on the toothless alveolar ridge in the lower molar region on the right side of 0.8 cm in diameter. Otherwise, the patient was taking doxazosin due to urinary problems and ipatropium bromide due to respiratory problems. The patient wore a 6-year-old partial lower denture. He was initially treated with periodontal bandage (Resopack, HagenWerken, Germany for the first three days and was instructed not to wear the denture; however, no benefit could be seen. Therefore, we added a local corticosteroid (betamethasone and an oral antiseptic (chlorhexidine digluconate applied three times a day. After 3 weeks the lesion healed. A list of possible causative factors regarding gingival ulcers is included.

  4. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-10-01

    Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pink esthetics in periodontics - Gingival depigmentation: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthiie Thangavelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection, and courtesy, and reveals self-confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of "black gums" are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line. Thus, perio-esthetic treatment modalities strive to achieve a harmonious inter-relationship of the pink with white, which is imperative of all treatment procedures. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case series, scraping, electrosurgery, and diode laser have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective, and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction.

  6. A Rare Case Report of Amlodipine-Induced Gingival Enlargement and Review of Its Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. It is an unwanted side effect of certain systemic drugs given for nondental treatment. It is being reported with three main groups of drugs like calcium channel blockers (CCBs, immunosuppressants, and anticonvulsants. Among calcium channel blockers, nifedipine causes gingival hyperplasia in about 10% of patients, whereas the incidence of amlodipine-, a third generation calcium channel blocker, induced gingival hyperplasia is very limited. There are very few reports of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement at a dose of 5 mg. We report a case of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement in a 45-year-old hypertensive patient taking amlodipine at a dose of 5 mg.

  7. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in the orthodontic patient. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez-Pulido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: About 0.1% of the population suffers from necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, a disease of rapid progression and acute manifestation, which may progress to necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and eventually to bone sequestration and loss of gingival tissue. Case report: A 21-year-old female patient undergoing orthodontic treatment for six months, diagnosed with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis due to acute pain in the gingival tissue, spontaneous bleeding, halitosis and abundant plaque. The treatment was conservative and effective, obtaining total remission of the lesion after seven days and three months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: Today there are no epidemiological or clinical reports that support the relationship of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and orthodontic treatment. Prevention is critical to the success of the treatment, which is why the dentist should recognize the clinical features of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis to raise awareness of its risks in the orthodontic patient.

  8. Treatment of Gingival Hyperpigmentation by Diode Laser for Esthetical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. El Shenawy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gingival hyperpigmentation is a common esthetical concern in patients with gummy smile or excessive gingival display. Laser ablation has been recognized recently as the most effective, pleasant and reliable technique. It has the advantage of easy handling, short treatment time, hemostasis, decontamination, and sterilization effect. AIM: In the present study we wanted to explore the efficacy of a 980 nm wavelength diode laser in gingival depigmentation clinically by using both VAS and digital imaging method as means of assessment. METHODS: Diode laser ablation was done for 15 patients who requested cosmetic therapy for melanin pigmented gums. The laser beam delivered by fiberoptic with a diameter of 320 µm, the diode laser system has 980 nm wave lengths and 3 W irradiation powers, in a continuous contact mode in all cases, the entire surface of each pigmented maxillary and mandibular gingiva that required treatment was irradiated in a single session. Clinical examination and digital image analysis were done and the patients were followed up for 3 successive months. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant change in prevalence of bleeding after treatment, as none of the cases showed any signs of bleeding 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after ablation. No statistically significant change was observed in the prevalence of swelling after treatment The VAS evaluation demonstrated that only 4 patients complained of mild pain immediately after the procedure. No pain was perceived from the patients in the rest of the follow up period. There was no statistically significant change in prevalence of pain immediately after treatment compared to pain during treatment. There was a decrease in cases with mild pain after 1 week, 1 month as well as 3 months compared to pain during treatment and immediately after treatment. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, the use of diode laser was shown to be a safe and effective treatment

  9. Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis: Microbial and Immunologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides strains isolated from ANUG patients, chronic periodontitis patients, non-oral abscesses and healthy gingival sulci...34 Odd ii 4n....00p IdaOdifir 0’ block flumber) Periodontal Disease Spirochetes Microbiology Fusobacteria immunology Bacteroides 20. AN3T7RAC~r C4.tft...and serological etudies with ’We 7. nucleatum isolates from patients with ANUG, chronic periodontitis , Juvenile periodontitis , and adults and children

  10. Simplificando el tratamiento quirúrgico de la sonrisa gingival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chacón Martínez

    Full Text Available La sonrisa es una de las expresiones más comunes del ser humano como muestra de satisfacción, alegría o felicidad. Algunas personas al sonreír muestran la encía por encima de la base de los dientes, lo que ocasiona un aspecto antiestético. Esta situación repercute negativamente en el individuo, ya que altera la espontaneidad de la expresión facial. En el origen de la sonrisa gingival intervienen factores dentales, esqueléticos y de tejidos blandos. Proponemos una variante quirúrgica innovadora para corregir la sonrisa gingival en pacientes con alteraciones de los tejidos blandos. Se intervinieron quirúrgicamente 15 mujeres de entre 17 y 38 años de edad. En 7 de ellas se practicó rinoplastia además de corrección de la sonrisa gingival. Las 8 restantes se sometieron exclusivamente a corrección de la sonrisa gingival. Las 15 pacientes intervenidas mejoraron su apariencia y autoestima. No hubo complicaciones o problemas relacionados con la herida quirúrgica. Los resultados han sido permanentes a medio y largo plazo. La sonrisa de las pacientes es normal, mejoró su expresión y se conservaron la sensibilidad y la función muscular. La técnica propuesta es sencilla y de fácil reproducción; el tiempo quirúrgico estimado es de una hora y la operación es de tipo ambulatoria. Suele ser bien tolerada por los pacientes y no altera sus actividades cotidianas.

  11. Effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations: in vitro study of color masking ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seon-Hee; Kim, Seok-Gyu

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations. Three different types of disk-shaped zirconia coping specimens (Lava, Cercon, Zirkonzahn: ø10 mm × 0.4 mm) were fabricated and veneered with IPS e.max Press Ceram (shade A2), for total thicknesses of 1 and 1.5 mm. A total of sixty zirconia restoration specimens were divided into six groups based on their coping types and thicknesses. The abutment specimens (ø10 mm × 7 mm) were prepared with gold alloy, base metal (nickel-chromium) alloy, and four different shades (A1, A2, A3, A4) of composite resins. The average L*, a*, b* values of the zirconia specimens on the six abutment specimens were measured with a dental colorimeter, and the statistical significance in the effects of three variables was analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance (α=.05).The average shade difference (ΔE) values of the zirconia specimens between the A2 composite resin abutment and other abutments were also evaluated. The effects of zirconia specimen thickness (Pabutment shade (Pabutments was higher (close to the acceptability threshold of 5.5 ΔE) than th ose between the A2 composite resin and other abutments. This in-vitro study demonstrated that abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type affected the resulting shade of zirconia restorations.

  12. Cytotoxicity of four denture adhesives on human gingival fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Chung, Shin-Hye; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Ju, Sung-Won; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of four denture adhesives on human gingival fibroblast cells. Immortalized human gingival fibroblasts were cultured with one of four different denture adhesives, Polident, Protefix, Staydent or Denfix-A, which was placed in insert dishes (10% w/v concentration) for 48 h. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and flow cytometric apoptosis assay were used to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis rates. The fibroblasts were also examined under a scanning electron microscope. The MTT assay showed that all denture adhesives resulted in a significantly lower cell viability compared to the control cells propagated in normal culture medium (p 0.05). Staydent showed the highest apoptosis rate. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cells of the Staydent group underwent cytoplasmic membrane shrinkage, with cell free areas containing residual fragments of the membrane of dead cells. The four denture adhesives evaluated in this study imparted cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblast cells. Staydent showed the highest toxicity.

  13. Gingival profiles in a select Asian cohort: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan Zhen; Ong, Marianne M A; Yeo, Alvin B-K

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the facial gingival profiles of teeth with a healthy periodontium in an Asian population. A total of 51 patients with a healthy periodontium were examined. Gingival thickness (GT) and gingival width (GW) were assessed at the maxillary and mandibular incisors to the first molars. GT was measured by transgingival probing (GT-TGP), and probe visibility through the marginal gingiva (GT-TRAN) was assessed. Results between groups (anterior and posterior, tooth types) were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and t-test. The mean age was 30.3±11.4 years, with 27 females and 24 males. The mean GT-TGP was 1.39±52 mm, while the mean GW was 4.59±1.34 mm. Considerable intra-individual and interindividual variation in GT (TGP and TRAN) was noted. GT increased from the anterior to posterior, and was thinnest at the mandibular centrals to the first premolars and maxillary canines. GT-TGP and GW were influenced by tooth type, plaque, recession, and TRAN, but not age, sex, or ethnicity. GW were recorded lowest at the mandibular canines and all premolars. Thin gingiva was recorded at 63.8%-92% (GT-TGPTGP and GT-TRAN. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Aetiology and severity of gingival recession in an adult population sample in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods : The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The majority (79.4% of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1 st and 2 nd molars (35.3% and the mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars (28.7% were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05, malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001, horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001 and brushing once daily (P < 0.001 appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.

  15. Plasma cell gingivitis - A rare case related to Colocasia (arbi leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Bali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell gingivitis is an uncommon inflammatory condition of uncertain etiology often flavoured chewing gum, spices, foods, candies, or dentifrices. The diagnosis of plasma cell gingivitis is based on comprehensive history taking, clinical examination, and appropriate diagnostic tests. Here we are presenting a rare case of plasma cell gingivitis caused by consumption of colocasia (arbi leaves. Colocasia is a kind of vegetable, very commonly consumed in the regions of North India.

  16. Plasma cell gingivitis - A rare case related to Colocasia (arbi) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Deepika; Gill, Sanjeet; Bali, Amit

    2012-09-01

    Plasma cell gingivitis is an uncommon inflammatory condition of uncertain etiology often flavoured chewing gum, spices, foods, candies, or dentifrices. The diagnosis of plasma cell gingivitis is based on comprehensive history taking, clinical examination, and appropriate diagnostic tests. Here we are presenting a rare case of plasma cell gingivitis caused by consumption of colocasia (arbi) leaves. Colocasia is a kind of vegetable, very commonly consumed in the regions of North India.

  17. Gingival depigmentation: A split mouth comparative study between scalpel and cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh P Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival hyperpigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Although it is not a medical problem, many people complain of dark gums as unesthetic. Gingival depigmentation is a periodontal plastic surgical procedure, whereby the hyperpigmentation is removed or reduced by various techniques. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as scalpel, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, lasers, etc., this article compares the management of three cases with scalpel and cryosurgery and also highlights the relevance of cryosurgery.

  18. Interleukin-22 (IL-22) Gingival Gene Expression and GCF Concentration in Periodontal Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Amini Behbahani A; Sattari M; Mofid R; Ganji A

    2014-01-01

    IL-22 is a cytokine that is assumed to improve anti-microbial defense of epidermal and epithelial cells and the cells of gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. With respect to absence of enough relevant articles in this regard the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between IL-22 gene expression in gingival tissues as well as its concentration in GCF and periodontal diseases. Gingival samples obtained from 60 patients of three different groups (healthy, gingivitis and chronic...

  19. Role of riparian shade on the fish assemblage of a reservoir littoral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, C. D.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the effects of shade on reservoir fish assemblages is lacking, with most investigations focused on streams. Unlike many streams, the canopy in a reservoir shades only a narrow fringe of water adjacent to the shoreline, and may not have the influential effect on the aquatic environment reported in streams. We compared fish assemblages between shaded and unshaded sites in a shallow reservoir. Overall species richness (gamma diversity) was higher in shaded sites, and fish assemblage composition differed between shaded and unshaded sites. Average light intensity was 66 % lower in shaded sites, and differences in average temperature and dissolved oxygen were small. Unlike streams where shade can have large effects on water physicochemistry, in reservoirs shade-related differences in fish assemblages seemed to be linked principally to differences in light intensity. Diversity in light intensity in shaded and unshaded sites in reservoirs can create various mosaics of light-based habitats that enable diversity of species assemblages. Managing to promote the habitat diversity provided by shade may require coping with the artificial nature of reservoir riparian zones and water level fluctuations.

  20. Using Google Earth to Assess Shade for Sun Protection in Urban Recreation Spaces: Methods and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, R; Wilson, N; Signal, L; Barr, M; Mackay, C; Reeder, A; Thomson, G

    2018-05-16

    Shade in public spaces can lower the risk of and sun burning and skin cancer. However, existing methods of auditing shade require travel between sites, and sunny weather conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of free computer software-Google Earth-for assessing shade in urban open spaces. A shade projection method was developed that uses Google Earth street view and aerial images to estimate shade at solar noon on the summer solstice, irrespective of the date of image capture. Three researchers used the method to separately estimate shade cover over pre-defined activity areas in a sample of 45 New Zealand urban open spaces, including 24 playgrounds, 12 beaches and 9 outdoor pools. Outcome measures included method accuracy (assessed by comparison with a subsample of field observations of 10 of the settings) and inter-rater reliability. Of the 164 activity areas identified in the 45 settings, most (83%) had no shade cover. The method identified most activity areas in playgrounds (85%) and beaches (93%) and was accurate for assessing shade over these areas (predictive values of 100%). Only 8% of activity areas at outdoor pools were identified, due to a lack of street view images. Reliability for shade cover estimates was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). Google Earth appears to be a reasonably accurate and reliable and shade audit tool for playgrounds and beaches. The findings are relevant for programmes focused on supporting the development of healthy urban open spaces.

  1. Evaluation of different shades to improve dairy cattle well-being in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, Perla E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    Two tree shades (TS1 and TS2) and an artificial shade structure (AS) were evaluated using black globe temperatures (BGTs) to assess their effectiveness in reducing heat load. The artificial structure consisted of a black woven polypropylene cloth providing 80% shade, mounted on 2.5-m-high eucalyptus posts. The work was carried out at Rafaela Experimental Station, Argentina, during the summer (January and February) 1994. BGTs and floor temperatures were measured in concrete floor holding pens with and without artifical shade. The results showed no difference between TS1, TS2 and AS, their average BGTs being 30.2 (SD 0.58), 29.0 (SD 0.70) and 30.2 (SD 0.74)°C, respectively. BGTs under all three shades were significantly lower (Pcows were recorded twice a week. Rectal temperatures were significantly higher for non-shaded cows (Ptree and artificial shades produced similar effects, (2) shading the holding pen with an 80% shading cloth was effective in reducing heat load and floor temperatures, and (3) access to shade in our pasture-based system improved animal well-being.

  2. Hyperthermia and massage are effect for the gingivitis improvement; Onnetsu to massaji ga shinikuen kaizen ni koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    It was confirmed that Kao and research group of Nosaka professor of Iwate Medical Univ. faculty of dentistry that hyperthermia and massage at the 40 degrees C for the gingival activate the gingival lymph duct function and that it improves the gingivitis was effective. By causing the microcirculation disorder of the gingival, the research of the vascularisation is main until now for the gingivitis. Present research demonstrated that the recovery of the lymph duct function was effective for the gingivitis improvement for the first time in the world. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Jong; Lee, Byun-Woo; Kang, Je Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Jang, Soo Won; Kim, Kwang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field would facilitate climate-aware management of ginseng production. Weather data were measured under the shade and outside the shade at two fields located in Gochang-gun and Jeongeup-si, Korea, in 2011 and 2012 seasons to assess temperature and humidity conditions under the shade. An empirical approach was developed and validated for the estimation of leaf wetness duration (LWD) using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. Air temperature and relative humidity were similar between under the shade and outside the shade. For example, temperature conditions favorable for ginseng growth, e.g., between 8°C and 27°C, occurred slightly less frequently in hours during night times under the shade (91%) than outside (92%). Humidity conditions favorable for development of a foliar disease, e.g., relative humidity > 70%, occurred slightly more frequently under the shade (84%) than outside (82%). Effectiveness of correction schemes to an empirical LWD model differed by rainfall conditions for the estimation of LWD under the shade using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. During dew eligible days, a correction scheme to an empirical LWD model was slightly effective (10%) in reducing estimation errors under the shade. However, another correction approach during rainfall eligible days reduced errors of LWD estimation by 17%. Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development.

  4. Esthetic impact of gingival plastic surgery from the dentistry students’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Erdem; Tan, Enes; Keklik, Hakan; Demirtag, Zulfikar; Celebi, Ahmet Arif; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the this study was to evaluate the perception of smile esthetics and alterations in cases of gingival plastic surgery for correction of a gummy smile, by means of alterations in smile photograph among dentistry degree students. Materials and Methods: A frontal smile photograph of a 40-year-old woman having normal occlusion was used with diverse compositions of gingival exposure level and crown length of maxillary teeth. The eight photographs were evaluated by 216 dentistry students in five class groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th classes). Results: The results revealed that almost all of the class’ students perceived differences between images, additionally, the highest percentage of students that answered “no difference” was 12% at 1st class’ students. 1st and 2nd class’ students most liked photograph which is 2.5 mm gingival display and 3rd class students liked two different photographs which are 2.5 mm gingival display and 2 mm gingival display whereas 4th class students preferred two different photographs which are 1.5 mm gingival display and 1 mm gingival display, 5th class students preferred photograph which is 1.5 mm gingival display as the most. Conclusion: Esthetic perception of smile improve as a student passes to higher study classes in terms of gingival exposure. The harmonious display of gingiva exhibits an important effect in the smile esthetics rather than reduced or excessive display. PMID:27403061

  5. [Gingival health and esthetics--another aspect of objectives of orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Dongqing; Xu, Hui; Bai, Ding

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary orthodontic care should be a team approach to achieve health and esthetics of soft and hard tissue. It should be given enough attention that periodontal health provides the foundation for tooth movement, and that distinct esthetic results can be achieved by subtle changes in tooth alignment and gingival contours. Orthodontic treatment planning should include evaluation of gingival health and esthetics to anticipate the need for interdisciplinary approaches. Studies on the effect of orthodontic treatment on gingiva can provides basis for maintaining gingival health and esthetic. This article will focus primarily on the gingival health and esthetic care in orthodontic treatment.

  6. Progressive periodontal disease has a simultaneous incremental elevation of gingival crevicular fluid and serum CRP levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A R; Manjunath, R G Shiva; Kathariya, Rahul

    2010-11-01

    Increased C-reactive protein levels have been found in all active inflammations, including periodontitis. This study aims to assess the C-reactive protein levels in periodontal disease progression. Forty-five patients were divided into the following three groups (n=15) based on gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level: healthy (group I), gingivitis (group II), and chronic periodontitis (group III). Gingival crevicular fluid and serum samples were quantified for C-reactive protein using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean C-reactive protein concentration in gingival crevicular fluid and serum was found to be highest in group III (1233.33ng/mL for gingival crevicular fluid, 5483.33ng/mL for serum), and least in group I (60 ng/mL and 413 ng/mL for gingival crevicular fluid and serum, respectively) The mean C-reactive protein concentration in group II (453.33ng/mL for gingival crevicular fluid and 3565.33 ng/mL for serum) was found to be intermediate. C-reactive protein levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum increased proportionately with the severity of periodontal disease. They correlated positively with clinical parameters, including gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level. Thus, it can be considered as a periodontal inflammatory biomarker and deserves further consideration. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Coverage of Gingival Fenestration Using Modified Pouch and Tunnel Technique: A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Pendor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fenestration defects are a rare phenomenon. Gingival fenestration means the exposure of the tooth due to loss of the overlying bone and gingiva. Though treatment of mucosal fenestration occurring in association with chronic periapical inflammation has been reported previously, the occurrence and treatment of gingival fenestration have not been documented in great detail. This report describes the occurrence of a gingival fenestration that developed secondarily to a gutka chewing habit. Treatment of the fenestration along with coverage of an adjacent recession defect in a single-step procedure using a pouch and tunnel technique is described.

  8. Chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement associated with orthodontic therapy--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Tanya; Bhat, K Mahalinga; Bhat, G Subraya; Varghese, Jothi M

    2013-02-01

    Gingival enlargement, also synonymous with the terms gingival hyperplasia or hypertrophy, is defined as an abnormal overgrowth of gingival tissues. A case of a 19-year-old male presenting with maxillary and mandibular chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement associated with prolonged orthodontic therapy is reported here. Surgical therapy was carried out to provide a good aesthetic outcome. No recurrence was reported at the end of 1 year. The importance of patient motivation and compliance during and after therapy as a critical factor in the success of treatment has also been highlighted through this case report.

  9. Assesment of gingival microcirculation in anterior teeth using laser Doppler flowmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canjau, Silvana; Miron, Mariana I.; Todea, Carmen D.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Evaluating the health status of the gingival tissue represents an important objective in the daily practice. Inflammation changes the microcirculatory and micromorphological dynamics of human gingiva. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microcirculation in subjects with moderate gingivitis and healthy gingiva by using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Material and Methods: Recordings of the gingival microcirculation (GM) were taken from 20 healthy gingival sites and from 20 sites with moderate gingivitis. The gingival blood flows in the gingivitis group before treatment was significantly different from those in the healthy gingiva group. Signals were recorded with the aid of a laser Doppler MoorLab instrument VMS-LDF2 probe VP3 10 mm S/N 2482. Three consecutive determinations of the GM were registered for each site, as follows: before the initial therapy, at 24 hours after the initial therapy and then, 7 days after the initial therapy. The data were processed using the statistical analysis software SPSS v16.0.1. Results: The results of this preliminary study showed statistically significant differences among the GM values recorded before and after the initial therapy. Conclusions: LDF could be a useful, noninvasive, sensitive, reproducible, and harmless method for measuring gingival blood flow (gingival microcirculation) in humans.

  10. Prevention and treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis and gingival recession in patients with non-removable dental prosthesis designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Михайлович Петрушанко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schemes of prevention and treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis and gingival recession in patients with non-removable dental prosthesis designs. It is proved their clinical effectiveness and evaluation criteria of developed gum recession land. After application of preventive and therapeutic complexes, which observed in patients, improve the hygienic condition of the mouth, confirming the feasibility of their application.Methods. It is included 153 patients with various defects of individual teeth and dentition, including 85 women (55.6% and 68 men (44.4% aged from 25 to 55 years. The control group consisted of 35 healthy individuals of the same age without metallic inclusions in the mouth.Results. In analyzing the evaluation index hygienic condition of the oral cavity in patients 25-34 years of gingivitis against the backdrop of orthopedic treatment non-removable denture constructions the indices Green-Vermillion and Silness-Loe following data were obtained: patients of the main group before treatment, the rate Green Vermillion index was an average of 1,70 ± 0,07 points to 1,75 ± 0,08 points, indicating a satisfactory level of oral hygiene. After application of preventive and therapeutic complexes improve the hygienic condition of the oral cavity, which marked the studied index indicators hygiene.Analyzing the data should be noted that positive changes of hygienic condition of the oral cavity were observed throughout the study period in all age groups of patients in both subgroups of observation and comparison.Conclusions. We offer health care systems for the prevention and treatment of gum recession and chronic catarrhal gingivitis in patients after dental prosthetics of non-replaceable constructs allowed to suspend pathological processes in the gums and improve oral hygiene

  11. Reversal of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by UV-mediated apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchhart, Casey; Joy, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Gingival overgrowth (GO) is an undesirable result of certain drugs like Cyclosporine A (CsA). Histopathology of GO shows hyperplasia of gingival epithelium, expansion of connective tissue with increased collagen, or a combination. Factors such as age, gender, oral hygiene, duration, and dosage also influence onset and severity of GO. One of the mechanisms behind uncontrolled cell proliferation in drug-induced GO is inhibition of apoptotic pathways, with a consequent effect on normal cell turnover. Our objective was to determine if UV photo-treatment would activate apoptosis in the gingival fibroblast component. Human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) were exposed to 200ng/ml or 400ng/ml CsA and maintained for 3, 6, and 9 days, followed by UV radiation for 2, 5, or 10min (N=6). Naïve (no CsA or UV), negative (UV, no CsA), and positive controls (CsA, no UV) were designated. Prior to UV treatment, growth media was replaced with 1M PBS to prevent absorption of UV radiation by serum proteins, and cells were incubated in growth media for 24h post-UV before processing for TUNEL assay, cell proliferation assays, or immunofluorescence. Data showed a temporal increase in proliferation of HGF-1 cells under the influence of CsA. The 200ng/ml dose was more effective in causing over-proliferation. UV treatment for 10min resulted in significant reduction in cell numbers, as evidenced by counts and proliferation assays. Our study is a first step to further evaluate UV-mediated apoptosis as a mechanism to control certain forms of GO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of shading on dry matter partitioning and yield of field-grown sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, F.J.; Soriano, A.; Fereres, E.

    1992-01-01

    Crop simulation models require quantitative descriptions of the effects of irradiance on dry matter partition and yield. The objective of this work was to quantify the effects of reduced radiation intensity during different phenological stages on the growth, dry matter partitioning and grain numbers of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.). A field experiment was carried out in 1990 with 50 per cent shading treatments. The earliest treatment began at crop emergence while the latest ended at first anthesis. Shading had little effect on plant leaf area growth but reduced biomass and yield. The dry matter: radiation quotient and specific leaf area increased with shading. Grain number per head was decreased by shading, with the greatest effect occurring when shading was applied prior to anthesis. All shading treatments increased dry matter partitioning to stems, decreased assimilate partitioning to the heads and had no effect on the partitioning to leaves. (author)

  13. Effects of shading time on quality of matcha and matcha cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of shading time on the quality of Matcha and the Matcha cake.It showed that shading could help the systhesis of nitrogen compounds such as amino acids,caffeine chlorophyll and protein,but couldn′t favor accumulation of tea polyphenol and polysaccharides.The more shading time was,the more chlorophyll content would be,and the more green of Matcha color would be.After Matcha cake was baked,the green color reduced.The colors of Macha cake are greener with longer shading time.Thus,the length of Shading time has obvious effect on the green tea and the tea cake quality,We can adjust the Matcha cake taste,flavor and color by adding Matcha from different shading time.

  14. Frequency of Gingival Display During Smiling and Comparison of Biometric Measurements in Subjects with and without Gingival Display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, F.; Abbas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of gingival display during smiling and to compare biometric measurements in subjects with and without gingival display. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics, Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ibad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from October 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 275 subjects (121 men and 154 women) were included in this study. The age of the participants ranged between 21 and 65 years. Measurements were carried out using digital caliper. For each participants, the gingival display was judged as either visible or not. The amounts of horizontal and vertical overlap of anterior teeth were measured using a digital caliper. Gender differences in these parameters and the relationship between subjects showing gingival display when smiling and the two intraoral dental biometric measurements were determined. Statistical analyses of data were performed using SPSS version 17.0 software. The mean scores for gender were calculated and a Student's t-test was used to identify significant differences between both groups. Significant level was set to 0.05. Results: A relatively small percentage of the subjects (37.8%) displayed gingiva when smiling. More women significantly displayed gingiva when smiling than men, with a 2:1 female: male ratio. Women had significantly (p=0.001) more horizontal overlap (3.34 +- 1.45 mm) than men (2.90 +- 1.44 mm), although no significant gender difference were found in vertical overlap. Subjects with gingival display had significantly (p < 0.05) more horizontal (3.49 +- 1.36 mm) and vertical (3.26 +- 1.47 mm) overlap of anterior teeth compared to those who did not display gingiva when smiling. Conclusion: Significantly more women displayed gingiva in smiling. Women had significantly more horizontal overlap than men. No gender differences were recorded between vertical overlap. Subjects who displayed

  15. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  16. Experimental and Simulation for the Effect of Partial Shading on Solar Panel Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Talib Hahsim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Partial shading is one of the problems that affects the power production and the efficiency of photovoltaic module. A series of experimental work have been done of partial shading of monocrystalline PV module; 50W, Isc: 3.1A, Voc: 22V with 36 cells in series is achieved. Non-linear power output responses of the module are observed by applying various cases of partial shading (vertical and horizontal shading of solar cells in the module. Shading a single cell (corner cell has the greatest impact on output energy. Horizontal shading or vertical shading reduced the power from 41W to 18W at constant solar radiation 1000W/m2 and steady state condition. Vertical blocking a column of cells (9 cells in a module reduces the power from 41W to 18W (53% power reduction; while, blocking one or two cell in the row reduces the power from 41 W to 18W (53% power reduction. Shading three or four cells in the same row reduces the power from 41W to 1W or 0.006W (94% power reduction. A complete Matlab / Simulink model are achieved to simulate the effect of partial shading on power output of module. It is found that shading a single cell reduces the power from 50 W to 25 W (50% using Matlab/Simulink model. Comparisons have been made between the I-V and P-V characteristic curves from the simulation with the practical (experimental curves. The results showed that the percentage of error between the Simulink results and the corresponding experimental measurement are 22% without shading effect and, 32% with partial shading.

  17. Effects of shade on growth, production and quality of coffee (Coffea arabica) in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bote, A.D.; Struik, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The research work was conducted to evaluate the effect of shade on growth and production of coffee plants. To achieve this, growth and productivity of coffee plants growing under shade trees were compared with those of coffee plants growing under direct sun light. Different physiological, environmental and quality parameters were assessed for both treatments. Shade trees protected coffee plants against adverse environmental stresses such as high soil temperatures and low relative humidity. Sh...

  18. Experimental study of the effect of fully shading on the Solar PV module performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-chaderchi, Monadhil; Sopain, K.; Alghoul, M. A.; Salameh, T.

    2017-11-01

    Experimental tests were performed to study the effects of shading for different string inside the photovoltaic (PV) panels, power equipped with different number of diodes from the same manufacturer as of solar panel. The IV curve for all cases were recorded to see how the bypass diodes will reduce the effects of shading .The case for 3 by pass diode show the best performance of solar PV module under shading phenomena.

  19. VALIDATING the Accuracy of Sighten's Automated Shading Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-05-04

    Solar companies - including installers, financiers, and distributors - leverage Sighten software to deliver accurate shading calculations and solar proposals. Sighten recently partnered with Google Project Sunroof to provide automated remote shading analysis directly within the Sighten platform. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in partnership with Sighten, independently verified the accuracy of Sighten's remote-shading solar access values (SAVs) on an annual basis for locations in Los Angeles, California, and Denver, Colorado.

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of Langerhans cells in chronic gingivitis using anti-CD1a antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Jaitley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Langerhans cells (LCs are dendritic cells (DCs which belong to the group of antigen presenting cells (APCs. Their function is to recognize the antigen, capture it, and present it to the T lymphocytes; thus initiating an early immune response. The antigen presenting functional LCs may play an important part in initiation and development of gingivitis. The aim of this study was to analyze the density, intraepithelial distribution, and morphology of LCs in gingival epithelium among different age groups with chronic gingivitis and to compare it with that of normal gingiva. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to study LCs in normal gingival epithelium (n = 10 and gingival epithelium in chronic gingivitis (n = 30 using anti-CD1a antibody. Mann Whitney U test was performed to compare the density of LCs in normal gingiva with chronic gingivitis. The distribution of LCs in various layers of the epithelium within the three age groups was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The density of LCs in chronic gingivitis was significantly higher then that of normal gingiva. Comparing different age groups, the younger individuals had more number of LCs which were located in the superficial layers of gingival epithelium. In chronic gingivitis, higher number of LCs were located in deeper layers when compared with that of normal gingiva. Three morphological types of CD1a positive LCs were observed in normal gingiva, out of which the density of LCs with branched dendritic processes was highest in normal gingiva. Conclusion: The LCs showed variable number, location, and morphology which indicated their adaptation for function in chronic gingivitis.

  1. Expression pattern of adhesion molecules in junctional epithelium differs from that in other gingival epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, S; Yaegashi, T; Oikawa, Y; Fujiwara, H; Mikami, T; Takeda, Y; Satoh, M

    2006-08-01

    The gingival epithelium is the physiologically important interface between the bacterially colonized gingival sulcus and periodontal soft and mineralized connective tissues, requiring protection from exposure to bacteria and their products. However, of the three epithelia comprising the gingival epithelium, the junctional epithelium has much wider intercellular spaces than the sulcular epithelium and oral gingival epithelium. Hence, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cell adhesion structure in the junctional epithelium compared with the other two epithelia. Gingival epithelia excised at therapeutic flap surgery from patients with periodontitis were examined for expression of adhesion molecules by immunofluorescence. In the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but not in the junctional epithelium, desmoglein 1 and 2 in cell-cell contact sites were more abundant in the upper than the suprabasal layers. E-cadherin, the main transmembranous molecule of adherens junctions, was present in spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but was scarce in the junctional epithelium. In contrast, desmoglein 3 and P-cadherin were present in all layers of the junctional epithelium as well as the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium. Connexin 43 was clearly localized to spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium, sulcular epithelium and parts of the junctional epithelium. Claudin-1 and occludin were expressed in the cell membranes of a few superficial layers of the oral gingival epithelium. These findings indicated that the junctional epithelium contains only a few desmosomes, composed of only desmoglein 3; adherens junctions are probably absent because of defective E-cadherin. Thus, the anchoring junctions connecting junctional epithelium cells are lax, causing widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, the oral gingival epithelium, which has a few tight junctions, functions as a barrier.

  2. The impact of a school based oral hygiene instruction program on the gingival health of middle school children in Riyadh: Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessa Alwayli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the impact of a school-based oral hygiene instructions program on the gingival health of children in randomly selected middle schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred and fourteen children were selected from nine schools that were randomly determined from Riyadh City public schools. After obtaining the parents′ consent, the criteria-guided enrolment of study participants yielded 457 children in the control group and 457 students in the experimental group. The intervention design was 90 days experimental period with an intermediate follow-up visit at 45 days. A calibrated examiner (HW measured the plaque index (PI and the gingival index (GI. The indices were measured at day 1, day 45 and day 90 in both the control and the experimental groups. Results were analyzed with Wilcoxon sign rank test for each index, site, and by sessions for each group to determine if the scores had increased, decreased, or remained the same between intervals. Results: Plaque and gingival scores in the control group showed a steady improvement throughout the experimental period when compared with the baseline scores. Scores in the experimental group were significantly improved at each session between baseline and session 2 (45 days and session 3 (90days respectively. Conclusions: The continued reduction of GI and PI scores at the end of the intervention observed in this pilot study suggest that a school-based oral hygiene measures program can significantly improve oral health among school children in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Shading effect on generative characters of upland red rice of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhidin; Syam’un, E.; Kaimuddin; Musa, Y.; Sadimantara, G. R.; Usman; Leomo, S.; Rakian, T. C.

    2018-05-01

    Upland red rice (Oryza sativa) contains anthocyanin, a phenolic compounds that can act as antioxidants and functional food for human dietary. The content of functional food on upland red rice is influenced by shading condition, but the production is also influenced by environmental condition, especially the availability of light. The study aims is to assess and analyze the effect of shade on the growth and production of upland red rice. The research was conducted using the quantitative method to obtain the optimal shading condition that can increase the rice anthocyanin content and relatively high production. The research was arranged in split plot design, with shade as main plot and the different of cultivar as sub plot with three replications. The shading treatment consist of 4 levels as follows: n1=shade level 75%. The cultivar tested were (v1) = Labandiri, (v2) = Jangkobembe, (v3) = Ranggohitam, and (v4) = Paedara. The rice planted in between teak wood trees with different age and level of canopy. The research reveals that shades had an effect in decreasing plant production (the higher level of shade, the higher the decrease level of production), but the shades can improve the quality of red rice through the increase of anthocyanin content.

  4. Daylighting performance evaluation of a bottom-up motorized roller shade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapsis, K.; Athienitis, A.K.; Zmeureanu, R.G. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Tzempelikos, A. [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents an experimental and simulation study for quantifying the daylighting performance of bottom-up roller shades installed in office spaces. The bottom-up shade is a motorized roller shade that opens from top to bottom operating in the opposite direction of a conventional roller shade, so as to cover the bottom part of the window, while allowing daylight to enter from the top part of the window, reaching deeper into the room. A daylighting simulation model, validated with full-scale experiments, was developed in order to establish correlations between the shade position, outdoor illuminance and work plane illuminance for different outdoor conditions. Then, a shading control algorithm was developed for application in any location and orientation. The validated model was employed for a sensitivity analysis of the impact of shade optical properties and control on the potential energy savings due to the use of daylighting. The results showed that Daylight Autonomy for the bottom-up shade is 8-58% higher compared to a conventional roller shade, with a difference of 46% further away from the facade, where the use of electric lighting is needed most of the time. The potential reduction in energy consumption for lighting is 21-41%. (author)

  5. Partial Shade Evaluation of Distributed Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Meydbrav, J.; Donovan, M.

    2012-06-01

    Site survey data for several residential installations are provided, showing the extent and frequency of shade throughout the year. This background information is used to design a representative shading test that is conducted on two side-by-side 8-kW photovoltaic (PV) installations. One system is equipped with a standard string inverter, while the other is equipped with microinverters on each solar panel. Partial shade is applied to both systems in a comprehensive range of shading conditions, simulating one of three shade extents. Under light shading conditions, the microinverter system produced the equivalent of 4% annual performance improvement, relative to the string inverter system. Under moderate shading conditions, the microinverter system outperformed the string inverter system by 8%, and under heavy shading the microinverter increased relative performance by 12%. In all three cases, the percentage of performance loss that is recovered by the use of distributed power electronics is 40%-50%. Additionally, it was found that certain shading conditions can lead to additional losses in string inverters due to peak-power tracking errors and voltage limitations.

  6. Keadaan Oral Hygiene Dan Gingivitis Serta Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhinya Pada Anak SD Muhammadiyah 28 Kecamatan Medan Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Syafri

    2008-01-01

    Gingivitis merupakan penyakit periodontal stadium awal berupa peradangan pada gingiva, termasuk penyakit paling umum yang sering ditemukan pada jaringan mulut. Gingivitis yang ringan umumnya tidak segera mendapatkan perhatian karena tidak menimbulkan rasa sakit atau gangguan fungsi, akan tetapi jika keadaan ini dibiarkan, gingivitis dapat menjadi bentuk yang destruktif. Prevalensi gingivitis dapat berkurang dengan bertambah baiknya status oral hygiene, pasok flour yang memadai, diet yang baik...

  7. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; He, Tao; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cun-Pei; Li, Zhen; Chang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Ji-Quan; Charbonneau, Duane; Xu, Jian; Li, Rui; Ling, Jun-Qi

    2016-09-29

    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Cetylpyridinium chloride conferred gingival benefits, as progression of gingival inflammation resulting from a lack of dental hygiene was significantly slower in the mouth rinse group than in the water group due to inhibition of 17 gingivitis-enriched bacterial genera. Tracking of plaque α and β diversity revealed that CPC treatment prevents acquisition of new taxa that would otherwise accumulate but maintains the original biodiversity of healthy plaques. Furthermore, CPC rinses reduced the size, local connectivity and microbiota-wide connectivity of the bacterial correlation network, particularly for nodes representing gingivitis-enriched taxa. The findings of this study provide mechanistic insights into the impact of oral rinses on the progression and maturation of dental plaque in the natural human population.

  8. Influence of age and immunization on development of gingivitis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekic, P; Klausen, B; Friis-Hasché, E

    1989-01-01

    To study the effect of age and antigenic priming on the development of gingivitis, 33 healthy rats were placed in contact with Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Bacteroides gingivalis. On days 0, 3, 7, and 14 after inoculation, the gingival condition...

  9. Assessment of periostin levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid of patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, U; Keles, Z P; Avci, B; Guler, S; Cetinkaya, B O; Keles, G C

    2015-12-01

    Periostin, a secreted adhesion molecule essential for periodontal tissue integrity, is highly expressed in the periodontal ligament and plays a critical role in tooth and bone development. The purpose of this study was to investigate periostin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid and serum of patients with periodontal disease and compare them with those of healthy individuals. Eighty individuals (41 males and 39 females; age range: 25-48 years) were enrolled in the study. Individuals were divided into three groups following clinical and radiographic examinations: the periodontal-healthy group (n = 20), gingivitis group (n = 30) and chronic periodontitis group (n = 30). Gingival crevicular fluid and serum samples were collected and periostin levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total amount and concentration of periostin decreased in gingival crevicular fluid with the progression and severity of the disease from healthy controls to gingivitis and to chronic periodontitis groups and differed significantly (p 0.05). Periostin in gingival crevicular fluid negatively correlated with the gingival index in the periodontal disease groups, whereas it is inversely correlated with the clinical attachment level only in the periodontitis group (p periodontal disease, and negatively correlated with the clinical parameters. Within the limits of the study, the periostin level in gingival crevicular fluid can be considered a reliable marker in the evaluation of periodontal disease susceptibility and activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The gingival condition of oral contraceptives users at desa Hegarmanah, Kecamatan Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miduk Sibuea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The change of hormonal condition is a systemic condition that affected the periodontium condition. Oral contraceptives is one of the systemic risk that can change hormonal condition. The purpose of the research was to evaluate gingival condition of oral contraceptives users and to find the difference of gingival condition between users and non users of oral contraceptives at Desa Hegarmanah, Kecamatan Jatinangor. The research method was descriptive analytic with purposive sampling, consist of 69 users and 30 non users of oral contraceptives. The gingival condition was scored by using Loe and Sillnes gingival index. The research showed that the average of gingival index in oral contraceptives users was 1.913 and non users was 1.707. The statistic analysis was U Mann Whitney non parametric test and the α was 5% showed that there was a significant difference of gingival condition between users and non users of oral contraceptives. The conclusion of the research was the gingival condition of oral contraceptives users was different with non users at Desa Hegarmanah Kecamatan Jatinangor but clinically was the same, that is in moderate gingivitis category.

  11. Effectiveness of feeding large kibbles with mechanical cleaning properties in cats with gingivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, HE; Theyse, LFH; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Dijkshoorn, NA; Logan, EI; Picovet, P

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of feeding large kibbles with mechanical cleaning properties in cats with gingivitis periodontal disease is the most common acquired oral disease in cats. it starts with plaque accumulation and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of

  12. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

  13. Effects of triclosan on host response and microbial biomarkers during experimental gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancer, Brooke A; Kott, Diana; Sugai, James V; Panagakos, Fotinos S; Braun, Thomas M; Teles, Ricardo P; Giannobile, William V; Kinney, Janet S

    2016-05-01

    This exploratory randomized, controlled clinical trial sought to evaluate anti-inflammatory and -microbial effects of triclosan during experimental gingivitis as assessed by host response biomarkers and biofilm microbial pathogens. Thirty participants were randomized to triclosan or control dentifrice groups who ceased homecare for 21 days in an experimental gingivitis (EG) protocol. Plaque and gingival indices and saliva, plaque, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were assessed/collected at days 0, 14, 21 and 35. Levels and proportions of 40 bacterial species from plaque samples were determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Ten biomarkers associated with inflammation, matrix degradation, and host protection were measured from GCF and saliva and analysed using a multiplex array. Participants were stratified as "high" or "low" responders based on gingival index and GCF biomarkers and bacterial biofilm were combined to generate receiver operating characteristic curves and predict gingivitis susceptibility. No differences in mean PI and GI values were observed between groups and non-significant trends of reduction of host response biomarkers with triclosan treatment. Triclosan significantly reduced levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis during induction of gingivitis. Triclosan reduced microbial levels during gingivitis development (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01799226). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Candida spp. and gingivitis in children with nephrotic syndrome or type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Pyrżak, Beata; Dąbkowska, Maria; Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata; Miszkurka, Grażyna; Rogozińska, Izabela; Swoboda-Kopeć, Ewa; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Kalińska, Angelika; Piróg, Anna; Mizerska-Wasiak, Małgorzata; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2015-05-08

    Diabetes and Nephrotic syndrome (NS) promote plaque-related gingivitis and yeast-like fungal infections. The study assesses the impact of Candida spp. and general disease- or treatment-related factors on plaque-related gingivitis severity in children and adolescents with Nephrotic syndrome /diabetes. Body mass index (BMI), BMI standard deviation score, and oral cavity (Plaque Index--PLI, Gingival Index--GI, mucosa status, presence and Candida enzymatic activity) were assessed in 96 patients (32 with NS: 30- immunosuppressive treatment, 35--type 1 diabetes, and 29 generally healthy), aged; 3-18 years. Laboratory included cholesterol and triglyceride measurements; in diabetic subjects- glycated haemoglobin, in NS: total protein, albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, haematocrit, white cell count, urinary protein excretion. Medical records supplied information on disease duration and treatment. A statistical analysis was performed; Kendall Tau coefficient, chi-square test, t-test, and multiple regression analysis ( P Gingivitis occurred more frequently in patients with NS/diabetes. Gingivitis severity was correlated with PLI, age, and yeast enzyme activity in NS--to with immunosuppressive treatment with >1 drug, drug doses, treatment duration, lipid disorders, and BMI; in diabetes, with blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin >8%. Poor hygiene control is the main cause of gingivitis. Gingivitis severity is most likely related to age, lipid disorders and increase in body mass. Candida spp., in uncompensated diabetes and in those using immunosuppressive treatment, might intensify plaque-related gingivitis.

  15. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis--A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboodi, Guy M; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B; Crosara, Karla T B; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L; Glogauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active.

  16. Expression of antimicrobial peptides and interleukin-8 during early stages of inflammation: An experimental gingivitis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommisch, H; Staufenbiel, I; Schulze, K; Stiesch, M; Winkel, A; Fimmers, R; Dommisch, J; Jepsen, S; Miosge, N; Adam, K; Eberhard, J

    2015-12-01

    In the oral cavity, the epithelial surface is constantly exposed to a number of different microorganisms that are organized in a well-structured biofilm. The aim of this study was to monitor gingival expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in an early gingivitis model. Experimental gingivitis was allowed to develop in healthy volunteers (n = 17). Bleeding on probing (BOP%) and gingival crevicular fluid volume (GCF) were assessed at baseline and day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Expression of AMPs (human beta-defensin-2, hBD-2; CC-chemokine ligand 20, CCL20; psoriasin, pso/S100A7) and IL-8 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in gingival biopsies. In addition, hBD-2 and IL-8 protein expression was monitored in GCF using the ELISA technology. Experimental gingivitis gradually developed with an increase in BOP scores and GCF volume over time. In GCF, elevated concentrations of hBD-2 and IL-8 were monitored at day 1, 5 and 7 (p ≤ 0.0002). Immunohistochemical analysis of gingival sections demonstrated increased staining for hBD-2 at day 3, whereas the CCL20, pso/S100A7, and IL-8 expression was increased at later time points (p gingival inflammation. Differential temporal expression for AMPs may ensure a constant antimicrobial activity against changes in the bacterial composition of the growing dental biofilm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Assessment of relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Lalani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.

  18. Antigen-presenting properties of gingival fibroblasts in chronic adult periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, A.; Snijders, A.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.; Kapsenberg, M. L.; Kievits, F.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is characterized by dense infiltrations of T lymphocytes in the connective tissue, which consists mainly of gingival fibroblasts. It is becoming increasingly clear that T lymphocytes and gingival fibroblasts are capable of influencing each other. For example, the T cell

  19. Gingival enlargement in orthodontic patients: Effect of treatment duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alice Souza; Alves, Luana Severo; Zenkner, Júlio Eduardo do Amaral; Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Maltz, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of the duration of fixed orthodontic treatment on gingival enlargement (GE) in adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 260 subjects (ages, 10-30 years) divided into 4 groups: patients with no fixed orthodontic appliances (G0) and patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 1 year (G1), 2 years (G2), or 3 years (G3). Participants completed a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner and included the plaque index, the gingival index, and the Seymour index. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between group and GE. We observed increasing means of plaque, gingivitis, and GE in G0, G1, and G2. No significant differences were observed between G2 and G3. Adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had a 20 to 28-fold increased risk for GE than did those without orthodontic appliances (G1, rate ratio [RR] = 20.2, 95% CI = 9.0-45.3; G2, RR = 27.0, 95% CI = 12.1-60.3; G3 = 28.1; 95% CI = 12.6-62.5). The duration of orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the occurrence of GE. Oral hygiene instructions and motivational activities should target adolescents and young adults undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma masquerading as an aphthous ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Prathypaty Santha; Kumar, Gudi Pavan; Bai, Yendluri Durga; Reddy, Eragam Yella Reddy Balaji Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC) is an uncommon condition of the oral cavity. It is seldom associated with classic risk factors of oral cancer and shows a predilection for females. It's close clinical resemblances to various lesions of the oral cavity may make it go unnoticed. This may lead to diagnosis at advanced stages and coupled with the proximity to underlying alveolar bone may result in subsequent morbidity and mortality. A case of GSCC camouflaged as an aphthous ulcer in a middle aged woman is presented. The article highlights the importance of early diagnosis resulting in conservative treatment approaches. PMID:24174737

  1. Efectividad de un programa educativo en mujeres adolescentes con gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Albuja, María José; Pablo Jaramillo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Se efectuó una intervención educativa en 30 mujeres adolescentes de 14 a 16 años de edad, que padecían gingivitis y fueron atendidas en el Centro de Salud de la Parroquia de Conocoto, en Quito, Ecuador, de julio a octubre del 2016, a fin de evaluar la efectividad de un programa educativo sobre la enfermedad en féminas de este grupo etario. Para ello se aplicaron una encuesta, un indicador de salud bucal y el índice de higiene bucal simplificado, antes y después de la intervención. Luego de re...

  2. Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis Rehabilitation: A Case Report with Two-Year Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Jayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargements are quite common and may be either inflammatory, noninflammatory, or a combination of both. Gingival hyperplasia is a bizarre condition causing esthetic, functional, psychological, and masticatory disturbances of the oral cavity. Causes of gingival enlargement can be due to plaque accumulation, due to poor oral hygiene, inadequate nutrition, or systemic hormonal stimulation (Bakaeen and Scully, 1998. It can occur as an isolated disease or as part of a syndrome or chromosomal abnormality. A progressive fibrous enlargement of the gingiva is a facet of idiopathic fibrous hyperplasia of the gingiva (Carranza and Hogan, 2002; Gorlin et al., 1976. It is described variously as fibromatosis gingivae, gingivostomatitis, hereditary gingival fibromatosis, idiopathic fibromatosis, familial elephantiasis, and diffuse fibroma. We present a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis with its multidisciplinary approach of management.

  3. The effectiveness of dentifrices without and with sodium lauryl sulfate on plaque, gingivitis and gingival abrasion--a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sälzer, S; Rosema, N A M; Martin, E C J; Slot, D E; Timmer, C J; Dörfer, C E; van der Weijden, G A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) to a dentifrice with SLS in young adults aged 18-34 years on gingivitis. One hundred twenty participants (non-dental students) with a moderate gingival inflammation (bleeding on probing at 40-70 % of test sites) were included in this randomized controlled double blind clinical trial. According to randomization, participants had to brush their teeth either with dentifrice without SLS or with SLS for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was bleeding on marginal probing (BOMP). The secondary outcomes were plaque scores and gingival abrasion scores (GA) as well as a visual analogue scale (VAS) score at exit survey. Baseline and end differences were analysed by univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test, between group differences by independent t test and within groups by paired sample t test. BOMP improved within groups from on average 0.80 at baseline to 0.60 in the group without SLS and to 0.56 in the group with SLS. No statistical difference for BOMP, plaque and gingival abrasion was found between both groups. VAS scores for taste, freshness and foaming effect were significantly in favour of the SLS-containing dentifrice. The test dentifrice without SLS was as effective as a regular SLS dentifrice on gingival bleeding scores and plaque scores. There was no significant difference in the incidence of gingival abrasion. In patients diagnosed with gingivitis, a dentifrice without SLS seems to be equally effective compared to a dentifrice with SLS and did not demonstrate any significant difference in gingival abrasion. In patient with recurrent aphthous ulcers, the absence of SLS may even be beneficial. However, participants indicate that they appreciate the foaming effect of a dentifrice with SLS more.

  4. Evaluation of Cellular Shades in the PNNL Lab Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Joseph M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Merzouk, Massine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report examines the energy performance of cellular shade window coverings in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The 1500-square-foot homes were identical in construction and baseline performance, which allowed any difference in energy and thermal performance between the baseline home and the experimental home to be attributed to the retrofit technology installed in the experimental home. To assess the performance of high efficiency window attachments in a residential retrofit application, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2015 -2016 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. Hunter Douglas Duette® Architella® Trielle™ opaque honeycomb “cellular” shades were installed over double-pane clear-glass, aluminum-frame primary windows in the experimental home and were compared to identical primary windows with no window coverings and with standard typical white vinyl horizontal blind window coverings in the baseline home.

  5. Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University (India)

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the simulation and hardware implementation of maximum power point (MPP) tracking of a partially shaded solar photovoltaic (PV) array using a variant of Particle Swarm Optimization known as Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO). Under partially shaded conditions, the photovoltaic (PV) array characteristics get more complex with multiple maxima in the power-voltage characteristic. The paper presents an algorithmic technique to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array using an APPSO. The APPSO algorithm has also been validated in the current work. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This result in lower cost and higher accuracy of 97.7% compared to earlier obtained accuracy of 96.41% using Particle Swarm Optimization. The proposed tracking technique has been mapped onto a MSP430FG4618 microcontroller for tracking and control purposes. The whole system based on the proposed has been realized on a standard two stage power electronic system configuration. (author)

  6. Effects of shading on relative competitive advantage of three species of Sphagnum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Z. Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (1 Sphagnum is an important genus of bryophytes holding 10–15 % of the terrestrial carbon stock. With climate change a drier surface may increase the abundance of vascular plants on peatlands, so shading of Sphagnum may increase. Here we describe growth cabinet experiments to reveal the effects of shading on interactions among mixtures of three species: S. capillifolium, S. palustre (hummock species, and S. fallax (a hollow species. We measured the six traits: growth in length, growth as increase in dry mass, side-shoot production, nitrogen and carbon proportion of the capitulum dry mass, and C:N ratio in the capitulum. (2 Shading had no effect on biomass production or side-shoot production but increased height increment in all three species. It also increased the C and N proportions of total dry mass but decreased C:N ratio in the capitula. (3 Neighbours of a different species reduced biomass and side-shoot production in the two hummock species but had no effect on the hollow species. (4 All three species showed interaction between shading and neighbour in two or more plant traits. S. fallax showed competitive advantage over S. palustre in no-shading treatments and over S. capillifolium in moderate shading treatments. In addition, under deep shading, S. fallax showed a competitive advantage over both hummock species. A clear competitive hierarchy S. fallax>S. capillifolium>S. palustre emerged which was consistent with the hierarchy of side-shoot production. (5 The results suggest that all the species appear to tolerate deep shade (for a few months at least. In a shaded environment, especially under deeply shaded conditions, S. fallax retains its dominance in hollow habitats (if water availability is guaranteed by virtue of its advantage in side-shoot production. (6 If shading increases then the abundance of different Sphagnum species is likely to change.

  7. Graphene oxide improves the biocompatibility of collagen membranes in an in vitro model of human primary gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Patrizia; Zara, Susi; De Colli, Marianna; Radunovic, Milena; Lazović, Vladimir; Ettorre, Valeria; Di Crescenzo, Antonello; Piattelli, Adriano; Cataldi, Amelia; Fontana, Antonella

    2017-09-13

    Commercial collagen membranes are used in oral surgical procedures as scaffolds for bone deposition in guided bone regeneration. Here, we have enriched them with graphene oxide (GO) via a simple non-covalent functionalization, exploiting the capacity of oxygenated carbon functional moieties of GO to interact through hydrogen bonding with collagen. In the present paper, the GO-coated membranes have been characterized in terms of stability, nano-roughness, biocompatibility and induction of inflammatory response in human primary gingival fibroblast cells. The obtained coated membranes are demonstrated not to leak GO in the bulk solution, and to change some features of the membrane, such as stiffness and adhesion between the membrane and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip. Moreover, the presence of GO increases the roughness and the total surface exposed to the cells, as demonstrated by AFM analyses. The obtained material is biocompatible, and does not induce inflammation in the tested cells.

  8. Clinical and bacteriological study of the effect of Nd:YAG laser in gingivitis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colojoara, Carmen; Mavrantoni, Androniki; Miron, Mariana I.

    2000-06-01

    The relationship between dental plaque and gingivitis was verified. Nonspecific gingivitis is an inflammatory process, frequently caused by enzymes and toxins liberate by bacteria form dental plaque. Loose plaque has come under a great deal of investigation because of its role in attachment loss. The current methods used in the treatment of non specific gingivitis encompass the use of antibiotics and conventional surgical techniques. Treating gingivitis with laser energy may further reduce the gingival inflammation and decrease the wound healing time. The lack of correlation between the quantity of dental plaque and the intensity of gingivitis determined us to study the effect of Nd:YAG pulsed laser in reduction of gingival inflammation and wound healing. The aim of this work is to evaluate clinically the anti- inflammatory and wound healing effect of pulsed Nd:YAG laser and to compare the appearance and the levels of the bacteria in the supergingival and subgingival plaque in adolescents with tooth crowding after Nd:YAG laser. The experimental procedure consisted of a clinical and bacteriological study which was undertaken in 20 patients presenting moderate gingivitis. A group of 10 patients was the subject of a bacteriological study and the other group of 10 was used for clinical and histological examination. For each group the clinical criteria of evaluation were: the gingival index, papillary bleeding index, spontaneous aches. Each patient was tested before and after laser exposure or conventional therapy for bacteriological analyses. The results prove that early gingivitis exposure to laser registers a decrease of bacterial colony number and absence of loss of attachment as compared to the application of the conventional treatment. Clinical study has shown that the combination of scaling and root planning with laser therapy is enough to provide improvement in clinical indices and reduction in the number of bacterial colonies.

  9. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05 and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001. Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05 and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05 in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites.

  10. Effect of shade on photosynthetic pigments in the tropical root crops: yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, M.; Onwueme, I.C.

    1998-01-01

    Plants of yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato were raised under shade or in full sunlight and the effect of shade on leaf chlorophyll and carotenoids was examined to determine and compare the relative shade tolerance and adaptability of the var ious species. All five species of root crops adapted to shade. The chlorophyll concentration was higher, while the chlorophyll a:b ratio, carotenoids per unit chlorophyll and the weight per unit area of leaf were lower in the shade than in the sun in yam, tannia, taro, cassava and sweet potato. All species had larger leaves and more chlorophyll per leaf in the shade. The extent of the changes, however, differed between species. The aroids (taro and tannia) appeared to be shade-tolerant species as their chlorophyll a:b ratios changed less than those of the other species in the shade, suggesting that their light-harvesting systems may be normally adapted to shade conditions. Taro and tannia also adapted to shade by a greater proportional increase in leaf size, a smaller reduction in leaf weight per unit area and a greater proportional increase in chlorophyll and carotenoids per leaf than the other species. Yam compensated for shade by having a large proportional increase in leaf size and appeared to be moderately tolerant of shade. Sweet potato and cassava appeared to be the least tolerant of shade of the major tropical root crops. (author)

  11. Prognostic Indicators of Gingival Recession in Nigeria: Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adedigba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Literature is replete with studies on gingival recession, the apical shift of the gingival margin from the cemento-enamel junction. Chronic periodontitis and frequent toothbrushing are among its aetiological factors. Many of these were however prevalence studies. The current study was therefore aimed at separating prognostic indicators from determinants of the number of recessions. METHOD: 650 consecutive adult patients visiting a Nigerian teaching hospital were examined using a checklist including plaque, calculus, Miller’s class of recession and other parameters.. A total of 408 recession sites were identified. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients with recession was 42.3 years; mean number of recession was 4.74 Incisors had the highest number of recessions (35.7%. While a factor such as age was related both to the number and prognosis of recession sites, abrasion and plaque were only related to prognosis. Again, some of the factors previously significantly related to prognosis on univariate analysis like calculus and smoking, lost their significance on regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The three strongest predictors of prognosis (Miller’s class of recession were age, plaque and abrasion. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 187-194

  12. Retractions of the gingival margins evaluated by holographic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Manole, Marius; de Sabata, Aldo; Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Stratul, Stefan; Dudea, Diana; Dughir, Ciprian; Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2015-05-01

    The periodontal disease is one of the most common pathological states of the teeth and gums system. The issue is that its evaluation is a subjective one, i.e. it is based on the skills of the dental medical doctor. As for any clinical condition, a quantitative evaluation and monitoring in time of the retraction of the gingival margins is desired. This phenomenon was evaluated in this study with a holographic method by using a He-Ne laser with a power of 13 mW. The holographic system we have utilized - adapted for dentistry applications - is described. Several patients were considered in a comparative study of their state of health - regarding their oral cavity. The impressions of the maxillary dental arch were taken from a patient during his/her first visit and after a period of six months. The hologram of the first model was superposed on the model cast after the second visit. The retractions of the gingival margins could be thus evaluated three-dimensionally in every point of interest. An evaluation of the retraction has thus been made. Conclusions can thus be drawn for the clinical evaluation of the health of the teeth and gums system of each patient.

  13. Effect of posterior crown margin placement on gingival health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitemeier, Bernd; Hänsel, Kristina; Walter, Michael H; Kastner, Christian; Toutenburg, Helge

    2002-02-01

    The clinical impact of posterior crown margin placement on gingival health has not been thoroughly quantified. This study evaluated the effect of posterior crown margin placement with multivariate analysis. Ten general dentists reviewed 240 patients with 480 metal-ceramic crowns in a prospective clinical trial. The alloy was randomly selected from 2 high gold, 1 low gold, and 1 palladium alloy. Variables were the alloy used, oral hygiene index score before treatment, location of crown margins at baseline, and plaque index and sulcus bleeding index scores recorded for restored and control teeth after 1 year. The effect of crown margin placement on sulcular bleeding and plaque accumulation was analyzed with regression models (Prisk of bleeding at intrasulcular posterior crown margins was approximately twice that at supragingival margins. Poor oral hygiene before treatment and plaque also were associated with sulcular bleeding. Facial sites exhibited a lower probability of sulcular bleeding than lingual surfaces. Type of alloy did not influence sulcular bleeding. In this study, placement of crown margins was one of several parameters that affected gingival health.

  14. Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, P; Kharbanda, Op; Duggal, R; Singh, N; Parkash, H

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate alkaline phosphatase activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement in humans. Postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Ten female patients requiring all first premolar extractions were selected and treated with standard edgewise mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 100 g sentalloy springs. Maxillary canine on one side acted as experimental site while the contralateral canine acted as control. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from mesial and distal of canines before initiation of canine retraction (baseline), immediately after initiation of retraction, and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day and the alkaline phosphatase activity was estimated. The results show significant (p < 0.05) changes in alkaline phosphatase activity on the 7th, 14th and 21st day on both mesial and distal aspects of the compared experimental and control sides. The peak in enzyme activity occurred on the 14th day of initiation of retraction followed by a significant fall in activity especially on the mesial aspect. The study showed that alkaline phosphatase activity could be successfully estimated in the GCF using calorimetric estimation assay kits. The enzyme activity showed variation according to the amount of tooth movement.

  15. Gingival wound healing: an essential response disturbed by aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P C; Cáceres, M; Martínez, C; Oyarzún, A; Martínez, J

    2015-03-01

    Gingival wound healing comprises a series of sequential responses that allow the closure of breaches in the masticatory mucosa. This process is of critical importance to prevent the invasion of microbes or other agents into tissues, avoiding the establishment of a chronic infection. Wound healing may also play an important role during cell and tissue reaction to long-term injury, as it may occur during inflammatory responses and cancer. Recent experimental data have shown that gingival wound healing is severely affected by the aging process. These defects may alter distinct phases of the wound-healing process, including epithelial migration, granulation tissue formation, and tissue remodeling. The cellular and molecular defects that may explain these deficiencies include several biological responses such as an increased inflammatory response, altered integrin signaling, reduced growth factor activity, decreased cell proliferation, diminished angiogenesis, reduced collagen synthesis, augmented collagen remodeling, and deterioration of the proliferative and differentiation potential of stem cells. In this review, we explore the cellular and molecular basis of these defects and their possible clinical implications. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  16. Effect of shade on various parameters of Friesian cows in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    levels and solar radiation on the production of lactating dairy cows, is well .... period. Cortisol concentration (nmol /l ). No shade. SEa. Significance. Shade. 1984/85. 1985/86. 26.91 -+ .... Florida differ from local conditions, being subtropical with higher maximum .... A gradual rise in rectal temperature was, however, evident at.

  17. Segmentation-based retrospective shading correction in fluorescence microscopy E. coli images for quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Fei; Chang, Chunqi; Liu, Wenqing; Xu, Weichao; Hung, Yeung S.

    2009-10-01

    Due to the inherent imperfections in the imaging process, fluorescence microscopy images often suffer from spurious intensity variations, which is usually referred to as intensity inhomogeneity, intensity non uniformity, shading or bias field. In this paper, a retrospective shading correction method for fluorescence microscopy Escherichia coli (E. Coli) images is proposed based on segmentation result. Segmentation and shading correction are coupled together, so we iteratively correct the shading effects based on segmentation result and refine the segmentation by segmenting the image after shading correction. A fluorescence microscopy E. Coli image can be segmented (based on its intensity value) into two classes: the background and the cells, where the intensity variation within each class is close to zero if there is no shading. Therefore, we make use of this characteristics to correct the shading in each iteration. Shading is mathematically modeled as a multiplicative component and an additive noise component. The additive component is removed by a denoising process, and the multiplicative component is estimated using a fast algorithm to minimize the intra-class intensity variation. We tested our method on synthetic images and real fluorescence E.coli images. It works well not only for visual inspection, but also for numerical evaluation. Our proposed method should be useful for further quantitative analysis especially for protein expression value comparison.

  18. Effects of shading on starch pasting characteristics of indica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Rice is an important staple crop throughout the world, but environmental stress like low-light conditions can negatively impact crop yield and quality. Using pot experiments and field experiments, we studied the effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity and starch content with six rice varieties for three years, using the Rapid Visco Analyser to measure starch pasting viscosity. Shading at different growth stages and in different rice varieties all affected the starch pasting characteristics of rice. The effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity at middle and later growth stages were greater than those at earlier stages. Shading enhanced breakdown but reduced hold viscosity and setback at tillering-elongation stage. Most pasting parameters changed significantly with shading after elongation stage. Furthermore, the responses of different varieties to shading differed markedly. The change scope of starch pasting viscosity in Dexiang 4103 was rather small after heading, while that in IIyou 498 and Gangyou 906 was small before heading. We observed clear tendencies in peak viscosity, breakdown, and pasting temperature of the five rice varieties with shading in 2010 and 2011. Correlation analysis indicated that the rice amylose content was negatively correlated with breakdown, but was positively correlated with setback. Based on our results, IIyou 498, Gangyou 906, and Dexiang 4103 had higher shade endurance, making these varieties most suitable for high-quality rice cultivation in low-light regions.

  19. Effects of shading on starch pasting characteristics of indica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Deng, Fei; Ren, Wan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Rice is an important staple crop throughout the world, but environmental stress like low-light conditions can negatively impact crop yield and quality. Using pot experiments and field experiments, we studied the effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity and starch content with six rice varieties for three years, using the Rapid Visco Analyser to measure starch pasting viscosity. Shading at different growth stages and in different rice varieties all affected the starch pasting characteristics of rice. The effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity at middle and later growth stages were greater than those at earlier stages. Shading enhanced breakdown but reduced hold viscosity and setback at tillering-elongation stage. Most pasting parameters changed significantly with shading after elongation stage. Furthermore, the responses of different varieties to shading differed markedly. The change scope of starch pasting viscosity in Dexiang 4103 was rather small after heading, while that in IIyou 498 and Gangyou 906 was small before heading. We observed clear tendencies in peak viscosity, breakdown, and pasting temperature of the five rice varieties with shading in 2010 and 2011. Correlation analysis indicated that the rice amylose content was negatively correlated with breakdown, but was positively correlated with setback. Based on our results, IIyou 498, Gangyou 906, and Dexiang 4103 had higher shade endurance, making these varieties most suitable for high-quality rice cultivation in low-light regions.

  20. Growth characteristics and nutrient content of some herbaceous species under shade and fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoura, Z.; Kyriazopoulos, A. P.; Parissi, Z. M.

    2009-07-01

    Herbage production and nutrient content are affected by light interception and soil fertility. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of artificial shade and fertilization on herbage production, growth characteristics, and nutrient content of the grass species Dactylis glomerata and Festuca ovina, and the legume species Trifolium subterraneum and Medicago lupulina. Each plant species was placed under three shading treatments of 90% (heavy shade), 50% (moderate shade) and 0% (control). Fertilization (225 kg ha{sup -}1 N, 450 kg ha{sup -}1 P, and 225 kg ha{sup -}1 K) was applied to half of the pots of every species and shading treatment. Reduced light intensity (90% shading) significantly lowered herbage production from 18% for F. ovina to 48% for D. glomerata and decreased the root:shoot (R/S) ratio of all species but the moderate reduction of light intensity (50%) did not affect R/S ratio and herbage production of the grasses and M. lupulina, while it resulted in an increase of the production of T. subterraneum by 10.5%. Reduced light intensity increased by 25% on average, the crude protein concentration of the grass species while moderate shading did not affect the crude protein concentration of T. subterraneum. Fertilization increased herbage production from 16% for F. ovina to 59% for D. glomerata and ameliorated its nutrient content. Among the tested species, D. glomerata and T. subterraneum demonstrated the highest shade tolerance and could be incorporated into silvopastoral systems of the Mediterranean region. (Author)

  1. Shade factors for 149 taxa of in-leaf urban trees in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Qingfu Xiao; Natalie S. van Doorn; Nels Johnson; Shannon Albers; Paula J. Peper

    2018-01-01

    Shade factors, defined as the percentage of sky covered by foliage and branches within the perimeter of individual tree crowns, have been used to model the effects of trees on air pollutant uptake, building energy use and rainfall interception. For the past 30 years the primary source of shade factors was a database containing values from 47 species. In most...

  2. Non-linear effects of drought under shade: reconciling physiological and ecological models in plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, M.; Gomez-Aparicio, L.; Quero, J.L.; Valladares, F.

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of shade and drought on plant performance and the implications for species interactions are highly debated in plant ecology. Empirical evidence for positive and negative effects of shade on the performance of plants under dry conditions supports two contrasting theoretical

  3. Effects of shade on growth, production and quality of coffee (Coffea arabica) in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, A.D.; Struik, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The research work was conducted to evaluate the effect of shade on growth and production of coffee plants. To achieve this, growth and productivity of coffee plants growing under shade trees were compared with those of coffee plants growing under direct sun light. Different physiological,

  4. Growth and production of new superior rice varieties in the shade intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alridiwirsah; Harahap, E. M.; Akoeb, E. N.; Hanum, H.

    2018-02-01

    Shade intensity is one of the most important requirements for plant growth, affecting growth, development, survival, and crop productivity. This study aims to evaluate the growth and productiom of New Superior Rice Varieties In The shade Intensity. This study was conducted in Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian, Pagar Merbau, Deli Serdang, North Sumatra. The research used completely randomized design with twofactors. The shade intensity (N) were 25%, 50% and no shade intensity as a control. Whereas new superior rice varieties were V1: Inpara 2, V2: Suluttan Unsrat 2, V3: Inpari Mugibat, V4: Inpari Sidenuk, V5: Mekongga, V6: Ciherang, V7:Inpari 10, V8: Inpari 3, V9: Inpari 4, V10: Inpari 30, dan V11: Cibogo. The result indicated that new superior rice varietiesshowedsignificant effectonthe growth and productionvariablesuch as leaf area, where Inpari Sidenuk variety was the highest among the varieties. Total chorophyll, the highest was found on Inpari variety. Number of tillers and plant height where the highest was found on Ciherang variety. The shade intensity showed significant effect on leaf area, where 25% shade intensity was the highest. Total chlorophyll, the highest was found on 50% shade intensity, number of tillers, the highest was found on no shade intensity.

  5. Development and Performance Evaluation of a Rain Shade for a low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aderoju Tomiwa

    for a low scale agricultural produce, The rain shade consists of a geared D. C motor, 12V battery, ... rain shade was embarked on in this research work. ... (9) Face width, b. +. 5mm (10). Determination of weight acting on the Extension. Arm: The measured weight of the polyester fabric equals 14.7N, while the combined ...

  6. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations. 780.506 Section 780.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION....506 Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations. The exemption provided by section 13(a...

  7. The effect of shade on chlorophyll and anthocyanin content of upland red rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhidin; Syam'un, E.; Kaimuddin; Musa, Y.; Sadimantara, G. R.; Usman; Leomo, S.; Rakian, T. C.

    2018-02-01

    Upland red rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food and contains anthocyanin, which can act as antioxidants, plays an important role both for the plant itself and for human health. Levels of antioxidants in rice can be affected by the availability of light. The results showed that the difference of shade, cultivar, and interaction both significantly affect the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll. The results also showed that shade could increase chlorophyll in all cultivars tested. The highest levels of chlorophyll a were present in the moderate shade level (n2), then decreased at the shelter level (n3) and increased again at high levels (n4). While on chlorophyll content b, it appears that shade increased chlorophyll b in all cultivars tested and this increase was linear to the increase of shade. The shade treatment may increase the anthocyanin content and the increase depending on the type of cultivar. Increased levels of anthocyanin highest due to shade occurred on Jangkobembe cultivar. The original level of anthocyanin on Jangkobembe cultivar averaged 0.096 mg g-1 increased to 2.487 mg g-1 or increased 26 fold. It is concluded that the shade had a significant effect on the chlorophyll and anthocyanin content.

  8. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Meng, F; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    , but dry weight fruit production was significantly reduced at 90% shading. We conclude that above 50% surface shading, V. natans plants suffer reductions in accumulated biomass and investment in sexual reproduction. We contend that recent expansions in the extent of the native floating water chestnut Trapa...

  9. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780.505 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  10. The production of Physalis spp. seedlings grown under different-colored shade nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandes da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of seedlings of Physalis L. species under different-colored shade nets. Four shade nets individually stained white, blue, red and black, all with 50% shading, were used in this study, and an additional  treatment (control was used in which seedlings were grown in full sun. The study examined four species of Physalis, namely, P. peruviana, P. pubescens, P. minima and P. ixocarpa. The experiment followed a randomized block design with three blocks and 25 seeds per plot. The species were sown in styrofoam trays. Germination was monitored daily to calculate the Emergency Velocity Index (EVI and stabilize the overall percentage of emergence. Height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area index and dry mass of seedlings were assessed at 50 days after sowing. The study found that these species react differently to changes in the light spectrum. Seedlings of P. peruviana should be grown under a white or red shade net; of P. pubescens under a white or black shade net; of P. minima under a white, red or black shade net; and of P. ixocarpa under a white shade net. For all species, 50% shade should be used.

  11. Effect of ceramic thickness and cement shade on the final shade after bonding using the 3D master system: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Javier; Gómez-Polo, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    The final color of a ceramic restoration is influenced by both the ceramic thickness and the cement shade. This study aims to evaluate the color stability according to the 3D Master System of e.max ceramic discs after bonding with different shades of luting agents. A total of 120 e.max.Press 2M1 HT ceramic discs (60 discs of 1-mm thick and 60 discs of 0.5 mm thick) and three different values of Variolink Veneer cement were used (-3, 0, +3) for the cementation process. An Easyshade compact device was used to measure color shade tabs, according to the 3D Master System, on the discs both before and after the cementation protocols. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out with the spss v.21. After bonding with the different luting agents, only 30% remained as 2M1: specifically, 22% of the thinner discs and 37.3% of the thicker discs. In general, the effect of bonding increased the value and the chroma of the shade to a significant extent. Regression analyses revealed that the most significant predictor for all color parameters was cement shade, the thinner disc group bonded with -3 cement being the most unstable subgroup. According to the 3D Master System, the shade of the luting agent was the main predictor of the final color. However, the final color seems to be somewhat unpredictable, at least according to the modulating factors evaluated in the present study.

  12. The effects of providing portable shade at pasture on dairy cow behavior and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, S; Bergeron, R; Lachance, S; Vasseur, E

    2015-09-01

    Access to pasture has advantages for cows such as reduced lameness and improved udder health, but also may expose cows to stressors such as extreme heat. The objective of this study was to understand how portable shade affected physiological and behavioral responses of pastured dairy cows in a Canadian summer. Over 8wk, a total of 24 lactating Holstein cows were separated into 2 treatments, one with access to shade and a control without access to shade. The cows were pastured in groups of 4, with 3 field sections per treatment. Instantaneous scan sampling of behaviors (drinking, lying, grazing, other) performed in the shade or not were recorded every 5min for 3h/d during the hottest part of the day (peak hours: 1130-1530h) 3d/wk. Ambient temperature, humidity, and vaginal temperature were recorded at 10-min intervals. Daily milk production was also recorded. Differences between treatments by week were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed model with group as random effect and treatment as fixed effect. Cows with shade access were observed at the water trough up to 6.42 times less and lying down up to 1.75 times more. Cows with shade access grazed up to 1.5 times more but only when the temperature-humidity index was above their comfort threshold (≥72) during the hottest part of the day (wk 2). Cows sought shade when it was made available, but spent less than half of their time observed (%) in the shade (40.8±4.67) with the exception of wk 2 when most of the time was spent under the shade (74.3±4.77). Daily lying time was highest during peak hours for cows with shade access. However, no overall difference in total lying time between the 2 treatments was observed. No differences were found in vaginal temperature or milk production between treatments with the exception of wk 1 for daily milk production, which was higher for cows in the control treatment. In conclusion, cows sought shade when it was provided at pasture, whereas cows without access to shade

  13. Prevalence of gingivitis and perception of gingival colour among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupeoluwa Omotunde Soroye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of gingivitis and perception of gingival colour among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary health institution in Lagos State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A single-point assessment was conducted using a self-reported questionnaire completed by participants. Information such as patients′ age, gestational age, educational status, occupation, and perception of gingival colours was obtained. Furthermore, the participants were examined by trained dentists to determine their gingival colours and the presence and severity of gingival inflammation. The data obtained were processed, and descriptive and comparative analyses were done using Epi info version 3.5.1 (2008. Statistical significance was established at P values <0.05. Results: Four hundred and forty-five pregnant women aged between 18 years and 43 years [mean age: 30.3 (±4.61 years] participated in the study. Gestational age was between 4 weeks and 41 weeks with a mean of 23.49 (±9.53 weeks. The prevalence of gingivitis was 85.2%. Two hundred and thirty (51.7% participants described their gingival colour as pink, 127 (28.5% as red, 51 (11.5% as black, 3 (0.7% as white, 2 (0.4% as brown, and 32 (7.2% could not determine the colour of their gingivae. Two hundred and ten (47.2% participants knew that pink was the normal colour of a healthy gingiva. From objective clinical examinations by dentists, 344 (77.3% patients had pink gingivae, 85 (19.1% had pigmented gingivae, and only 16 (3.6% had red gingivae. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of gingivitis during pregnancy is well-established and that observation is corroborated by this study. Since a change in gingival colour may be an early indication of gingival inflammation, early detection and prompt treatment could prevent further periodontal deterioration. Hence, there is the need to incorporate and intensify oral health education during antenatal care so that pregnant women are

  14. World in Mercator Projection, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of the world was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) This image was created from that data set and shows the world between 60 degrees south and 60 degrees north latitude, covering 80% of the Earth's land mass. The image is in the Mercator Projection commonly used for maps of the world.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM

  15. Shaded Relief with Color as Height, California Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The diversity of landforms that make up the state of California is evident in this new rendition of the 3-D topography of the state. The Central Valley, flanked on the east by the Sierra Nevada, dominates the scene with San Francisco and Monterey Bays clearly visible at left center. Other features of interest include Lake Tahoe at the edge to the right of San Francisco, Mono Lake below Lake Tahoe, and the Salton Sea at the lower right. The prominent sideways 'V' in the southern part of the state is the intersection of the Garlock and San Andreas Faults - to the east is the Mojave Desert. Offshore are the Channel Islands and to the right of them lies the city of Los Angeles.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science

  16. Alpine Fault, New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Alpine fault runs parallel to, and just inland of, much of the west coast of New Zealand's South Island. This view was created from the near-global digital elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and is almost 500 kilometers (just over 300 miles) wide. Northwest is toward the top. The fault is extremely distinct in the topographic pattern, nearly slicing this scene in half lengthwise. In a regional context, the Alpine fault is part of a system of faults that connects a west dipping subduction zone to the northeast with an east dipping subduction zone to the southwest, both of which occur along the juncture of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates. Thus, the fault itself constitutes the major surface manifestation of the plate boundary here. Offsets of streams and ridges evident in the field, and in this view of SRTM data, indicate right-lateral fault motion. But convergence also occurs across the fault, and this causes the continued uplift of the Southern Alps, New Zealand's largest mountain range, along the southeast side of the fault. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast (image top to bottom) direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  17. Shaded Relief with Color as Height, St. Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois rivers are shown in this view of the St. Louis area from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The Mississippi flows from the upper left of the image and first meets the Illinois, flowing southward from the top right. It then joins the Missouri, flowing from the west across the center of the picture. The rivers themselves appear black here, and one can clearly see the green-colored floodplains in which they are contained. These floodplains are at particular risk during times of flooding. The Mississippi forms the state boundary between Illinois (to the right) and Missouri (to the left), with the city of St. Louis located on the Mississippi just below the point where it meets the Missouri. This location at the hub of the major American waterways helped establish St. Louis' reputation as the 'Gateway to the West.'Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping

  18. Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, Shaded Relief with Height as Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Shenandoah National Park lies astride part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which form the southeastern range of the greater Appalachian Mountains in Virginia. The park is well framed by this one-degree of latitude (38-39 north) by one-degree of longitude (78-79 west) cell of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and it appears here as the most prominent ridge trending diagonally across the scene. Skyline Drive, a 169-kilometer (105-mile) road that winds along the crest of the mountains through the length the park, provides vistas of the surrounding landscape. The Shenandoah River flows through the valley to the west, with Massanutten Mountain standing between the river's north and south forks. Unusually pronounced meanders of both river forks are very evident near the top center of this scene. Massanutten Mountain itself is an unusually distinctive landform also, consisting of highly elongated looping folds of sedimentary rock. The rolling Piedmont country lies to the southeast of the park, with Charlottesville located at the bottom center of the scene.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to bluish-white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  19. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Lava plateaus in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    All of the major landforms relate to volcanism and/or erosion in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission scene of Patagonia, near La Esperanza, Argentina. The two prominent plateaus once formed a continuous surface that extended over much of this region. Younger volcanoes have grown through and atop the plateau, and one just south of this scene has sent a long, narrow flow down a stream channel (lower left). The topographic pattern shows that streams dominate the erosion processes in this arid environment even though wind is known to move substantial amounts of sediment here.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.Size: 62.4 by 88.8 kilometers

  20. Mts. Agung and Batur, Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows the major volcanic group of Bali, one 13,000 islands comprising the nation of Indonesia. The conical mountain to the left is Gunung Agung, at 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) the highest point on Bali and an object of great significance in Balinese religion and culture. Agung underwent a major eruption in 1963 after more than 100 years of dormancy, resulting in the loss of over 1,000 lives.In the center is the complex structure of Batur volcano, showing a caldera (volcanic crater) left over from a massive catastrophic eruption about 30,000 years ago. Judging from the total volume of the outer crater and the volcano, that once lay above it, approximately 140 cubic kilometers(33.4 cubic miles) of material must have been produced by this eruption, making it one of the largest known volcanic events on Earth. Batur is still active and has erupted at least 22 times since the 1800's.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National

  1. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Near Zapala, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Topographic data provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission can provide many clues to geologic history and processes. This view of an area southwest of Zapala, Argentina, shows a wide diversity of geologic features. The highest peaks (left) appear to be massive (un-layered)crystalline rocks, perhaps granites. To their right (eastward) are tilted and eroded layered rocks, perhaps old lava flows, forming prominent ridges. Farther east and south, more subtle and curvilinear ridges show that the rock layers have not only been tilted but also folded. At the upper right, plateaus that cap the underlying geologic complexities are more recent lava flows - younger than the folding, but older than the current erosional pattern. Landforms in the southeast (lower right) and south-central areas appear partially wind sculpted.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National

  2. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Las Bayas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The interplay of volcanism, stream erosion and landslides is evident in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission view of the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains, southeast of San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Older lava flows emanating from the Andes once covered much of this area. Younger, local volcanoes (seen here as small peaks) then covered parts of the area with fresh, erosion resistant flows (seen here as very smooth surfaces). Subsequent erosion has created fine patterns on the older surfaces (bottom of the image) and bolder, irregular patterns through and around the younger surfaces (upper center and right center). Meanwhile, where a large stream immediately borders the resistant plateau (center of the image), lateral erosion has undercut the resistant plateau causing slivers of it to fall into the stream channel. This scene well illustrate show topographic data alone can reveal some aspects of recent geologic history.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and

  3. Agreement between digital image analysis and clinical spectrophotometer in CIEL*C*h° coordinate differences and total color difference (ΔE) measurements of dental ceramic shade tabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ra'fat I

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this in vitro study were: 1) to test the agreement among color coordinate differences and total color difference (ΔL*, ΔC*, Δh°, and ΔE) measurements obtained by digital image analysis (DIA) and spectrophotometer, and 2) to test the reliability of each method for obtaining color differences. A digital camera was used to record standardized images of each of the 15 shade tabs from the IPS e.max shade guide placed edge-to-edge in a phantom head with a reference shade tab. The images were analyzed using image-editing software (Adobe Photoshop) to obtain the color differences between the middle area of each test shade tab and the corresponding area of the reference tab. The color differences for the same shade tab areas were also measured using a spectrophotometer. To assess the reliability, measurements for the 15 shade tabs were repeated twice using the two methods. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and the Dahlberg index were used to calculate agreement and reliability. The total agreement of the two methods for measuring ΔL*, ΔC*, Δh°, and ΔE, according to the ICC, exceeded 0.82. The Dahlberg indices for ΔL* and ΔE were 2.18 and 2.98, respectively. For the reliability calculation, the ICCs for the DIA and the spectrophotometer ΔE were 0.91 and 0.94, respectively. High agreement was obtained between the DIA and spectrophotometer results for the ΔL*, ΔC*, Δh°, and ΔE measurements. Further, the reliability of the measurements for the spectrophotometer was slightly higher than the reliability of all measurements in the DIA.

  4. Optimization of partially shaded PV array using a modified P&O MPPT algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz YOUCEF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic (PV array generated power is directly affected by temperature, solar irradiation, shading, and array configuration. In practice, PV arrays could be partially shaded by could, buildings, trees and other utilities. In this case, multiple maximums appear in the P-V curve, a global maximum and one or several local maximums. The “perturb and observe“ (P&O maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm cannot differentiate between a global and a local maximum and it is therefore ineffective when partial shading occurs. First, this paper presents an original mathematical model of the P-V curve of a partially shaded PV array, that was used to perform a simulation study in order to show the P&O algorithm inability to track the global MPP of a PV array solar system under partial shading for low shading irradiation levels, then an adaptation sub algorithm is proposed to be added to the P&O algorithm in order to give it the ability to track the global MPP. This sub algorithm moves the operating point imposed by the partial shading configuration to a point in the vicinity of the global MPP in order to be easily tracked by the P&O algorithm. In the simulation, a PV array with a hundred modules has been considered by using a light, a medium then a severe shading configuration. The results obtained indicate that the proposed modified P&O algorithm is able to track the global MPP for the considered shading configurations and for any shading irradiation level.

  5. Photosynthetic responses to understory shade and elevated carbon dioxide concentration in 4 northern hardwood tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefcik, L.T.; Zak, D.R.; Ellsworth, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    Stimulation of photosynthesis in response to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) varies among tree species and species groups. In this study, seedling responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations and solar irradiance over 2 growing seasons were investigated for shade tolerant Acer saccharum Marsh.; Fagus grandifolia J.F. Ehrh; and shade-intolerant Prunus serotina. Seedlings were exposed to a combination of elevated and ambient concentrations of CO 2 and understory shade in open-top chambers placed in a forest understory. It was observed that the elevated CO 2 treatment increased mean light-saturated net photosynthetic rates by 63 per cent in the shade-tolerant species and 67 per cent in the shade-intolerant species. When measured at the elevated CO 2 , long-term enhancement of photosynthesis was 10 per cent lower than the instantaneous enhancement observed in ambient-CO 2 -grown plants. As the growth irradiance increased, proportional enhancement due to elevated CO 2 decreased from 97 per cent for plants grown in deep shade to 47 per cent for plants grown in moderate shade. Results indicated that in nitrogen (N) limited northern temperate forests, trees grown in deep shade may display greater photosynthetic gains from a CO 2 enriched atmosphere than trees growing in more moderate shade, due to greater down-regulation. It was concluded that if elevated CO 2 levels promote the survival of shade-intolerant species in dim understory light, the future composition and dynamics of successional forest communities may be altered. 70 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Shading decreases the abundance of the herbivorous California horn snail, Cerithidea californica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorda, Julio; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the intertidal zone in estuaries of California, USA and Baja California, Mexico is covered with vascular vegetation. Shading by these vascular plants influences abiotic and biotic processes that shape benthic community assemblages. We present data on the effects of shading on the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica. This species is important because it is the most common benthic macrofaunal species in these systems and acts as an obligate intermediate host of several species of rematode parasites that infect several other species. Using observational and experimental studies, we found a negative effect of shade on the distribution and abundance of the California horn snail. We hypothesized that shading reduces the abundance of the epipelic diatoms that the snails feeds on, causing snails to leave haded areas. We observed a negative relationship between vascular plant cover, sub-canopy light levels, and snail density in Mugu Lagoon. Then we experimentally manipulated light regimes, by clipping vegetation and adding shade structures, and found higher snail densities at higher light levels. In Goleta Slough, we isolated the effect of shade from vegetation by documenting a negative relationship between the shade created by two bridges and diatom and snail densities. We also found that snails moved the greatest distances over shaded channel banks compared to unshaded channel banks. Further, we documented the effect of water depth and channel bank orientation on shading in this system. An additional effect of shading is the reduction of temperature, providing an alternative explanation for some of our results. These results broaden our knowledge of how variation in the light environment influences the ecology of estuarine ecosystems.

  7. Nociones actuales sobre la flora microbiana del surco gingival Current notions on the microbial flora of the gingival sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Peña Ruiz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad periodontal es un problema de salud bucal a escala mundial. Con el transcurso del tiempo, el conocimiento de la gingivitis ha sufrido grandes cambios, y es hoy en día una de las enfermedades de mayor frecuencia entre los pacientes que asisten a los servicios estomatológicos. Se realiza este estudio con el objetivo de profundizar en la relación entre los microorganismos de la placa dental y la etiología de la periodontitis. La placa dental es una comunidad microbiana compleja; como consecuencia de las interacciones entre las especies, se produce un nicho ecológico que favorece el crecimiento y la supervivencia de especies proteolíticas anaerobias estrictas, así como condiciones apropiadas para el desarrollo de periodontitis.Periodontal disease is an oral health problem worldwide. In the course of time, knowledge about gingivitis has greatly changed, and today, this is one of the most frequent diseases affecting the patients going to the dentistry service. This study was aimed at delving into the relationship between the dental plaque microorganisms and the periodontitis etiology. The dental plaque constitutes a complex microbial community; the interactions among the host species give rise to an ecological niche that favors growth and survival of strictly anaerobic proteolytic species as well as to adequate conditions for the onset of periodontitis.

  8. Gingival abscess due to an unusual nail-biting habit: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Denise; Pinto, Daniela; Araujo, Rebecca; Rego, Rodrigo Otavio; Moreira-Neto, Jose

    2010-03-01

    Nail-biting is one of the most frequent deleterious oral habits in children. It can result in systemic diseases or oral traumatic lesion. This report describes a case of gingival abscess in a child due to a fingernail-biting habit. A 5-year, 6-month-old female presented gingival swelling and fistula in the primary maxillary left central and right lateral incisors as an unusual sequelae to the periodontal tissues from fingernail-biting. A periodontal curette was used to remove the fragments and to curette the area. After the curettage, an exudate of blood and pus was drained. Then the area was irrigated with 0.12% chlorhexidine solution; applying finger pressure controlled the secretion. After one week, the patient returned with gingival swelling present in the same teeth. The same curettage procedure was performed. It was suggested that the deleterious habit was related to emotional tension and anxiety behaviors and the patient was referred for psychological treatment. When the patient returned one month later, she was still biting her fingernails, but she had stopped placing fragments into the gingival crevice. No more gingival inflammation or swelling was observed. his paper presents an unusual case report of a gingival abscess due to a fingernail-biting habit in a child, probably related to an emotional condition. The fingernail-biting habit can induce a periodontal traumatic injury yielding a more serious complication such as a gingival abscess.

  9. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  10. Gingival enlargment treatment on 11 and 21 teeth: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Ghoni Tjiptoningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of gingival enlargement in the interdental papillae is thickening of gingival contour, rounde and uncomfort feeling, that must be needed immediate in order to be optimal appearance and functionale. Fibrosis gingival enlargement  wont be healed  with plaque control only, but must be require a surgery treatment such as gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. A 24-year-old woman  came into periodontia clinic complaining a hard swelling at anterior maxillary gingiva at 11-21. Plaque index 52%. Gingival pocket depth at tooth 11 is labial (mesial: 4, medial:1, distal:3. Palatal (mesial:3, medial:2, distal:1 and Tooth 21 is labial (mesial:4, medial:1, distal:1, palatal (mesial:3, medial:1, distal:1. Treatment planning done by gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. The aim of the treatment is to eliminating the gingival pocket and physiologic gingival recontouring that can be help to prevent the recurrence of the disease. We must be considered in gingivectomy and gingivoplasty surgery is to minimize disposal the gingival to maintain the aesthetic, adequate access to the bone defect in order to good correction, minimized the bleeding and discomfort after surgery.

  11. Severe Gingival Enlargement with Coexisting Erosive Lichen Planus in Severe Chronic Periodontitis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaque induced gingival enlargement is most commonly seen and when encountered simultaneously with erosive lichen planus poses a challenge to the treating dentist. Prognosis of one condition may influence the prognosis of another condition. The presented case highlights the significance of proper diagnosis and the management of simultaneously occurring gingival lesions. A 49-year-old hypertensive female presented with painful enlarged bleeding and suppurating gums with burning sensation on eating food along with long-term usage of antihypertensive drug amlodipine known for its gingival enlargement effect. All these multiple factors led to diagnostic dilemma. Effective management of the gingival enlargement was done by using electrocautery to rehabilitate the functions and esthetics of the patient. Gingival condition was also complicated by the presence of coexisting lichen planus which was predominantly erosive for which topical corticosteroid, antifungal, and antimicrobial agents were prescribed. Eight-month follow-up did not show recurrence of gingival enlargement. Electrocautery is an effective tool for the gingivectomy in severe inflammatory type of gingival enlargement because of rapid postoperative hemostasis. For the management of erosive lichen planus, long-term use of topical corticosteroids is an effective approach. Maintenance of oral hygiene and regular follow-ups are essential for these conditions.

  12. Impact of smoking on experimental gingivitis. A clinical, microbiological and immunological prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo, D C; Gimenes, J H; Taiete, T; Casarin, R C V; Feres, M; Sallum, E A; Casati, M Z; Kantovitz, K R; Nociti, F H

    2016-12-01

    The present study assessed the effect of smoking on clinical, microbiological and immunological parameters in an experimental gingivitis model. Twenty-four healthy dental students were divided into two groups: smokers (n = 10); and nonsmokers (n = 14). Stents were used to prevent biofilm removal during brushing. Visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were determined 5- on day -7 (running phase), baseline, 21 d (experimental gingivitis) and 28 d (resolution phase). Supragingival biofilm and gingival crevicular fluid were collected and assayed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and a multiplex analysis, respectively. Intragroup comparison was performed by Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests, whereas the Mann-Whitney U-test was applied for intergroup analyses. Cessation of oral hygiene resulted in a significant increase in VPI, GBI and gingival crevicular fluid volume in both groups, which returned to baseline levels 7 d after oral hygiene was resumed. Smokers presented lower GBI than did nonsmokers (p gingival inflammation after supragingival biofilm accumulation, but smokers had less bleeding, higher proportions of periodontal pathogens and distinct host-response patterns during the course of experimental gingivitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Dental flossing as a diagnostic method for proximal gingivitis: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellmann, Alessandra Pascotini; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin

    2016-05-20

    This study evaluated the clinical diagnosis of proximal gingivitis by comparing two methods: dental flossing and the gingival bleeding index (GBI). One hundred subjects (aged at least 18 years, with 15% of positive proximal sites for GBI, without proximal attachment loss) were randomized into five evaluation protocols. Each protocol consisted of two assessments with a 10-minute interval between them: first GBI/second floss, first floss/second GBI, first GBI/second GBI, first tooth floss/second floss, and first gum floss-second floss. The dental floss was slid against the tooth surface (TF) and the gingival tissue (GF). The evaluated proximal sites should present teeth with established point of contact and probing depth ≤ 3mm. One trained and calibrated examiner performed all the assessments. The mean percentages of agreement and disagreement were calculated for the sites with gingival bleeding in both evaluation methods (GBI and flossing). The primary outcome was the percentage of disagreement between the assessments in the different protocols. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, McNemar, chi-square and Tukey's post hoc tests, with a 5% significance level. When gingivitis was absent in the first assessment (negative GBI), bleeding was detected in the second assessment by TF and GF in 41.7% (p gingivitis in the second assessment (negative GBI), TF and GF detected bleeding in the first assessment in 38.9% (p = 0.004) and 58.3% (p gingivitis than GBI.

  14. Efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous extracts) on dental plaque and gingivitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ritesh; Nekkanti, Sridhar; Kumar, Nikesh G; Kapuria, Ketan; Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous) in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis among children. The study was a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, with a total of 60 school children (n = 30 in each group; triphala and chlorhexidine groups). Plaque and gingival indices were used to evaluate baseline and follow-up plaque and gingivitis. A total of 57 children completed the study. Both chlorhexidine and triphala groups showed significantly lower mean gingival and plaque index scores at follow up than baseline (P gingival index between the two groups (P = 0.826). The percentage change in the mean plaque index was significantly higher in the chlorhexidine group compared to the triphala group (P = 0.048). The effectiveness of triphala in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was comparable to chlorhexidine, and can be used for short-term purposes without potential side-effects. It is a cost-effective alternative in reducing plaque and gingivitis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Gingival response in orthodontic patients: Comparative study between self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folco, Alejandra A; Benítez-Rogé, Sandra C; Iglesias, Marina; Calabrese, Diana; Pelizardi, Cristina; Rosa, Alcira; Brusca, Marisa I; Hecht, Pedro; Mateu, María E

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic brackets contribute to the accumulation of bacterial plaque on tooth surfaces because they hinder oral hygiene. In contrast to conventional brackets, self-ligating brackets do not require additional parts to support the arches, thus improving dental hygiene. The aim of this study was to compare the gingival response in orthodontic patients wearing self-ligating or conventional brackets. A sample of 22 patients aged 16 to 30 years was divided into two groups: Group A, treated with selfligating brackets (Damon system) and Group B, treated with conventional brackets (Roth technique). The following were assessed during the treatment: Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Probing Depth (PD), and sub-gingival samples were taken from teeth 14/24 for microbiological observation. No statistically significant difference was found between Groups A and B; p>0.05 (sign-ranked) or between PI, GI and PD at the different times (Friedman's Analysis of Variance), even though the indices were found to increase at 14 days, particularly for self-ligating brackets. The quantity and quality of microorganisms present were compatible with health on days 0, 28 and 56. As from day 14 there is a predominance of microbiota compatible with gingivitis in both groups. In the samples studied, orthodontic treatment increases bacterial plaque and inflammatory gingival response, but gingival-periodontal health can be maintained with adequate basic therapy. Self-ligating and conventional brackets produced similar gingival response.

  16. Gingival immunologic defense index: a new indicator for evaluating dental plaque infection risk in allergic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Pradopo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a possible relationship between dental plaque and children allergic diseases. According to literatures, gingivitis suffered mostly by allergic children than control. Case reports also revealed that dental plaque control therapy was able to reduce, even eliminate rhinosinusitis and asthmatic symptoms without additional medications. However, the exact method for confirming the gingivitis-related allergy is still uncertain. Allergic diseases have multifactorial etiologies and dental plaque had been proposed as a new trigger of allergic symptoms. Nevertheless, since not every child with gingivitis suffered from allergy or vice versa, this uncertain phenomenon may lead to patients or other clinician disbelief. The objective of the present study was to propose a new method, which involving the Gingival immunologic defense index (GIDI to evaluate the susceptibility to allergic diseases. GIDI is an index that had been developed earlier for evaluating gingival immunologic defense with respect to immunoglobulin A (IgA levels. This index based on the simple count of the inflamed gingival surfaces of a child plus the measurement of salivary IgA content. It provides clinicians with important information about the immunologic defense potential of each subject. Interestingly, most allergic children also had inherited IgA deficiency, thus this concept is likely. Based on literatures, GIDI could be a potential index for evaluating the risk of allergic diseases through gingival health assessment. However, prior investigation to the value of Indonesian GIDI index which related to allergy should be conducted.

  17. Performance of a daylight-redirecting glass-shading system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    to the original system. The visual comfort was evaluated by glare analysis and the redirected daylight did not cause an additional discomfort glare. The higher utilization of daylight can save 20% of the lighting energy. The thermal insulation of the fenestration was maintained, with slightly increased solar......This paper evaluates the daylighting performance of a prototype external dynamic shading and daylight-redirecting system, and the main focus is on the performance simulation. The demonstration project was carried out on a building with an open-plan office. Part of the original façade was replaced...... with the prototype façade. This layout allowed the use of the same orientation and surroundings for both façades. The working plane illuminance was measured over several months and the measurements were accompanied with annual daylight simulations. The prototype system improved the daylighting conditions compared...

  18. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value. Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height

  19. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This shaded relief image of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth.Most of the peninsula is visible here, along with the island of Cozumel off the east coast. The Yucatan is a plateau composed mostly of limestone and is an area of very low relief with elevations varying by less than a few hundred meters (about 500 feet.) In this computer-enhanced image the topography has been greatly exaggerated to highlight a semicircular trough, the darker green arcing line at the upper left corner of the peninsula. This trough is only about 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) deep and is about 5 km. wide (3 miles), so subtle that if you walked across it you probably would not notice it, and is a surface expression of the crater's outer boundary. Scientists believe the impact, which was centered just off the coast in the Caribbean, altered the subsurface rocks such that the overlying limestone sediments, which formed later and erode very easily, would preferentially erode on the vicinity of the crater rim. This formed the trough as well as numerous sinkholes (called cenotes) which are visible as small circular depressions.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwestern slopes appear bright and southeastern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 1.5 m

  20. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UMA ESCALA EM SILICONA PARA TONS DE PELE HUMANA DEVELOPMENT OF A SILICONE SCALE FOR SHADES OF HUMAN SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Claro NEVES

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor desenvolveu em silicona uma escala de tonalidades de pele humana. Foram confeccionados vinte e sete corpos-de-prova em silicona acética (Silastic 732 RTV, pigmentados com óxidos de ferro e dióxido de titânio. A quantidade de silicona acética manteve-se constante (dois gramas em todos os corpos-de-prova, e os pigmentos foram misturados a ela em várias proporções até a obtenção de vinte e sete diferentes tonalidades. Através da comparação da cor dos corpos-de-prova com a cor da pele de quarenta e um indivíduos, foram selecionados os cinco corpos-de-prova com as tonalidades que mais se igualavam à cor da pele dos pacientes, compondo, assim, um guia de tonalidades. Com a metodologia empregada, foi possível desenvolver uma escala de tonalidades de pele que poderá facilitar a definição do tom da pele do paciente quando da confecção de próteses faciais em silicona, permitindo economia de tempo e de material no momento da seleção da cor.The author developed a scale in silicone of shades of human skin. Twenty-seven samples were produced in acetic silicone (Silastic 732 RTV, pigmented with iron oxides and titanium dioxide. The amount of acetic silicone was kept constant (two grams in all of the samples, and the pigments were mixed to it in varying proportions, until twenty-seven different shades were obtained. By comparing the color of the samples with the skin color of forty-one individuals, five samples were selected of the shades that best matched a patient's color of skin to form a shade guide. With the methodology employed, it was possible to develop a shade guide that will facilitate a definition of a patient's skin color in producing facial prostheses in silicone, to afford economy in time and in material at time for selecting the color.

  1. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Color Stability of Two Different At-Home Bleaching Systems on Teeth of Different Shades: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, Betül; Celik, Esra Uzer

    2017-09-01

    This randomized controlled clinical trial compared the bleaching efficacy of two different at-home bleaching systems on teeth of different shades and their color stability after a 6-month follow-up. Ninety-two patients (777 teeth) were randomly divided into three groups: (a) negative control, (b) patients treated with a custom-made tray containing 10% carbamide peroxide (10% CP/PF) (Opalescence PF), and (c) patients treated with a pre-loaded tray containing 6% hydrogen peroxide (6% HP/Go) (Opalescence Go). Teeth in all groups were divided into three sub-groups according to the VITA Classic Shade Guide: light (A1-C1), medium dark (C2-B3), and dark (A3.5-C4). Bleaching systems were performed in accordance with manufacturers' instructions for 14 days. The color values were measured at the baseline, 10 days and 14 days of bleaching, 2 weeks, and 6 months after bleaching. Three-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). Irrespective of original shade, both bleaching groups showed significantly higher ΔE* values than the control groups, and the ΔE* values were significantly higher in the 10% CP/PF groups than those in the 6% HP/Go groups (p bleaching systems, the dark teeth showed higher ΔE* values than the light teeth (p bleaching agents produced a bleaching effect, but 10% CP/PF was more effective. A pre-loaded tray system may be used for dental bleaching, but it is still less effective than conventional a 10% carbamide peroxide system, irrespective of the initial shade. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:325-338, 2017). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The method of diagnosis and classification of the gingival line defects of the teeth hard tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Bulbuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For solving the problem of diagnosis and treatment of hard tissue defects the significant role belongs to the choice of tactics for dental treatment of hard tissue defects located in the gingival line of any tooth. This work aims to study the problems of diagnosis and classification of gingival line defects of the teeth hard tissues. That will contribute to the objectification of differentiated diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the dental treatment of various clinical variants of these defects localization. The objective of the study – is to develop the anatomical-functional classification for differentiated estimation of hard tissue defects in the gingival part, as the basis for the application of differential diagnostic-therapeutic approaches to the dental treatment of hard tissue defects disposed in the gingival part of any tooth. Materials and methods of investigation: There was conducted the examination of 48 patients with hard tissue defects located in the gingival part of any tooth. To assess the magnitude of gingival line destruction the periodontal probe and X-ray examination were used. Results. The result of the performed research the classification of the gingival line defects of the hard tissues was offered using exponent power. The value of this indicator is equal to an integer number expressed in millimeters of distance from the epithelial attachment to the cavity’s bottom of defect. Conclusions. The proposed classification fills an obvious gap in academic representations about hard tissue defects located in the gingival part of any tooth. Also it offers the prospects of consensus on differentiated diagnostic-therapeutic approaches in different clinical variants of location.  This classification builds methodological “bridge of continuity” between therapeutic and prosthetic dentistry in the field of treatment of the gingival line defects of dental hard tissues.

  3. Profundidad del surco gingival en dientes primarios restaurados con coronas de acero cromo

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    Rubén Muñoz Delgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el ajuste marginal y la profundidad del surco gingival en dientes primarios restaurados con coronas de acero cromo. Métodos: Se midió la profundidad del surco gingival de 114 dientes primarios restaurados con coronas de acero cromo en 67 niños, ambos sexos, de 3 a 6 años de edad de la clínica de Estomatología Pediátrica de la UATx, México. La población en estudio fue dividida en tres grupos: a experimental (n=30, b control (n=8, y c control negativo (n=29. Previo consentimiento informado se tomaron los índices de placa (LöeSilness 1967 e índice gingival en seis superficies; se midió el surco gingival con sonda periodontal y las coronas de acero cromo fueron evaluadas clínica y radiográficamente según su ajuste marginal y longitud cervical. Resultados: Los índices de placa y gingival no mostraron diferencias significativas para los grupos experimental y control negativo. El 34% de las coronas mostraron buen ajuste marginal, 33% un mal ajuste, 10.5% cortas, 7.9% largas y el 14% otro tipo de mal ajuste. La profundidad del surco gingival fue estadísticamente significativa para el primer y segundo molar inferior derechos y en los caninos inferiores (p >0.05; la superficie disto-vestibular presentó la mayor profundidad del surco gingival (2.34 mm, siendo estadísticamente significativa (p>0.05. Conclusiones: La profundidad del surco gingival fue mayor en los dientes rehabilitados con coronas de acero cromo mal ajustadas y sobre contorneadas (largas. La presencia de placa bacteriana y gingivitis estuvo relacionada con las coronas de acero cromo mal ajustadas.

  4. Assessment of the influence of gender and skin color on the preference of tooth shade in Saudi population

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    Nawaf Labban

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Gender and skin color influences the perception of teeth shades among general population. Therefore, lighter tooth shades (BL1, BL2 for lighter skin color and comparatively darker tooth shades (BL4, B1, A1 for darker skin individuals should be prescribed as these are perceived as natural among Saudi population.

  5. ALTERNATIVE APIARIES SHADING ALTERNATIVAS DE SOMBREAMENTO PARA APIÁRIOS

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    Ricardo Costa Rodrigues de Camargo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Beehives shading can be a strategy to minimize the heat stress suffered by bees in tropical regions such as the Northeastern Brazil. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different beehives shading conditions on the development and quality of honey produced in Apis mellifera colonies. The experiment was carried out in an apiary owned by the Embrapa Meio-Norte, in Castelo do Piauí, Piauí State, Brazil. Bee colonies were placed under the shade provided by straw, polypropylene screen (80% shading, and trees, and under direct solar radiation, in a completely randomized design, with six replications. Data concerning beehives weight and breeding and feeding areas were analyzed by using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Honey samples collected from beehives were submitted to chemical analyses, in order to determine hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, acidity, and diastase activities. It was observed that the artificial covers did not provide significant beneficial effects on the colonies development. Thermoregulation was impaired

  6. Exodoncia atraumática e implante post exodoncia sin colgajo combinado con injerto gingival libre

    OpenAIRE

    García Linares, Sixto; Yon Guerrero, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Presentamos un caso donde se describe la técnica de exodoncia atraumática, colocación de un implante post exodoncia y cierre por primera intención mediante un injerto gingival libre. El uso de implantes post exodoncia necesita varias condiciones para poder realizarse, entre ellas: paredes óseas conservadas, hueso alveolar más allá del ápice mayor a 4 mm. , margen gingival conservado, ausencia de fístula, etc. El injerto gingival libre permite una cicatrización por primera intención n...

  7. Cleavage of host cytokeratin-6 by lysine-specific gingipain induces gingival inflammation in periodontitis patients.

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    Salunya Tancharoen

    Full Text Available Lysine-specific gingipain (Kgp is a virulence factor secreted from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, a major etiological bacterium of periodontal disease. Keratin intermediate filaments maintain the structural integrity of gingival epithelial cells, but are targeted by Kgp to produce a novel cytokeratin 6 fragment (K6F. We investigated the release of K6F and its induction of cytokine secretion.K6F present in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontal disease patients and in gingipain-treated rat gingival epithelial cell culture supernatants was measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer-based rapid quantitative peptide analysis using BLOTCHIP. K6F in gingival tissues was immunostained, and cytokeratin 6 protein was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry. Activation of MAPK in gingival epithelial cells was evaluated by immunoblotting. ELISA was used to measure K6F and the cytokines release induced by K6F. Human gingival fibroblast migration was assessed using a Matrigel invasion chamber assay.We identified K6F, corresponding to the C-terminus region of human cytokeratin 6 (amino acids 359-378, in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontal disease patients and in the supernatant from gingival epithelial cells cultured with Kgp. K6F antigen was distributed from the basal to the spinous epithelial layers in gingivae from periodontal disease patients. Cytokeratin 6 on gingival epithelial cells was degraded by Kgp, but not by Arg-gingipain, P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide or Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide. K6F, but not a scrambled K6F peptide, induced human gingival fibroblast migration and secretion of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. These effects of K6F were mediated by activation of p38 MAPK and Jun N-terminal kinase, but not p42/44 MAPK or p-Akt.Kgp degrades gingival epithelial cell cytokeratin 6 to K6F that, on

  8. Investigation of relationship between tumor necrosis factor α in gingival and periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingjie; Yang Xia; Hou Guihua; Wang Weiyue; Wang Haodan; Jia Hongying; Li Yantao

    1999-01-01

    42 periodontitis patients and 15 health controls are selected to determine the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in inflamed gingival and the normal gingival by RIA. The elations between TNF-α and clinical parameters are analysed. The results show that the level of TNF-α in inflamed gingival is higher than that in the controls (P<0.01). The relationship between TNF-α and clinical parameters indicate that the level of TNF-α positively correlate to the degree of periodontitis and group damage. It indicates TNF-α may be one of the mechanism in the pathogenesis of periodontitis disease

  9. Antihypertensive treatment with telmisartan in a cat with amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia

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    Lien Desmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Systemic arterial hypertension is commonly reported in middle-aged-to-older cats. Amlodipine is recommended as the initial antihypertensive drug in cats. In this case report, gingival hyperplasia secondary to the use of amlodipine in a cat is described. Benazepril as a monotherapy was unsuccessful in reducing blood pressure in this cat. After replacement of benazepril by telmisartan, gingival hyperplasia disappeared and blood pressure was well controlled. Relevance and novel information This case report describes the first reported case of reversible gingival hyperplasia as a result of the treatment with amlodipine. It also contains the first published data on the effect of telmisartan in a hypertensive cat.

  10. Improved pathologic teeth migration following gingivectomy in a case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Keisuke; Sato, Shuichi; Asano, Yukhiro; Akutagawa, Hideyasu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    A case is reported of a 20-year-old woman with generalized severe gingival overgrowth covering almost all of the teeth with diastemata, diagnosed as idiopathic gingival fibromatosis. After initial therapy, the patient underwent surgery consisting of a full-mouth internal beveled gingivectomy. Postoperatively, the maxillary anterior teeth spontaneously moved to almost optimal positions. Removing the cause by gingivectomy can lead to spontaneous correction of the pathologic tooth migration. With supportive periodontal treatment, the patient showed no recurrence of gingival enlargement or repositioning of the teeth at the 5-year follow-up.

  11. Periodontal Plastic Microsurgery in the Treatment of Deep Gingival Recession after Orthodontic Movement

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    Sérgio Kahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession is a condition that affects a large portion of the young and adult population and negatively affects the aesthetic aspects of the smile. Many factors are related to its development, including orthodontic movement beyond the osseous limits. Many treatment options have been proposed to cover the exposed root surface. The aim of this article was to describe three cases where a subepithelial connective tissue graft was performed, using a microsurgical technique, in the treatment of deep gingival recession after orthodontic treatment. This technique resulted in successful root coverage and keratinized tissue gain, improving the gingival esthetic pattern.

  12. Gingival leiomyomatous hamartoma of the maxilla: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Vandana; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Al-Thobaiti, Yasser

    2016-05-09

    Hamartoma is a tumour-like malformation appearing as a focal overgrowth of normal cells. Leiomyomatous hamartomas (LHs) are rare in the oral cavity and commonly seen in the Japanese and less than 40 cases have been reported in the Japanese and English literature. The clinical differential diagnoses are irritational (traumatic) fibroma and congenital epulis. It has to be differentiated histopathologically from its neoplastic counterparts and mesenchymomas. Hence, we report such a case of LHs, which presented as a sessile gingival growth occurring in the midline in a 15-year-old girl. The final diagnosis was based on the histopathological appearance which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of various markers. A review of the literature of previous cases was also carried out. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV of Flaviviridae family. The clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock and death. Here, we report a case of 20-year-old male patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presenting with acute gingival bleeding with a history of fever, weakness, backache, retro orbital pain and ecchymosis over his right arm. The hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and positive dengue non-structural protein-1 antigen and also positive immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies for DENV. Patient was diagnosed as a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever and was immediately referred for appropriate management. This case report emphasizes the importance of taking correct and thorough medical history.

  14. Evaluation of a hydrophilic gingival dental sealant in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    A liquid solution, gingival sealant containing polymers that form a barrier film upon application was evaluated in dogs. It is a non-toxic, low viscosity, hydrophilic barrier sealant that dries in approximately 10 to 15-seconds after subgingival application. It was designed as a preventative to be applied immediately following a professional oral hygiene procedure in order to block plaque and calculus formation in the sulcus and aid in the prevention of periodontal disease in companion animals. Additionally, the polymer was designed to promote an aerobic environment in the sulcus by oxygen and water transport through engineered pores within the polymer. A 30-day split-mouth, blinded study in two groups of 15 beagle dogs was used. Plaque was significantly (p periodontal disease in dogs.

  15. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens

    2009-03-01

    Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found in forests under different climatic control. Here, adult leaf and metamer traits were measured for 39 tree species from a tropical moist semi-evergreen forest (1580 mm rain yr(-1)) and 41 species from a dry deciduous forest (1160 mm yr(-1)) in Bolivia. Twenty-six functional traits were measured and related to species regeneration light requirements.Adult leaf traits were clearly associated with shade tolerance. Different, rather than stronger, shade adaptations were found for moist compared with dry forest species. Shade adaptations exclusively found in the evergreen moist forest were related to tough and persistent leaves, and shade adaptations in the dry deciduous forest were related to high light interception and water use.These results suggest that, for forests differing in rainfall seasonality, there is a shift in the relative importance of functional leaf traits and performance trade-offs that control light partitioning. In the moist evergreen forest leaf traits underlying the growth-survival trade-off are important, whereas in the seasonally deciduous forest leaf traits underlying the growth trade-off between low and high light might become important.

  16. Improvement of Shade Resilience in Photovoltaic Modules Using Buck Converters in a Smart Module Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zahra Mirbagheri Golroodbari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial shading has a nonlinear effect on the performance of photovoltaic (PV modules. Different methods of optimizing energy harvesting under partial shading conditions have been suggested to mitigate this issue. In this paper, a smart PV module architecture is proposed for improvement of shade resilience in a PV module consisting of 60 silicon solar cells, which compensates the current drops caused by partial shading. The architecture consists of groups of series-connected solar cells in parallel to a DC-DC buck converter. The number of cell groups is optimized with respect to cell and converter specifications using a least-squares support vector machine method. A generic model is developed to simulate the behavior of the smart architecture under different shading patterns, using high time resolution irradiance data. In this research the shading patterns are a combination of random and pole shadows. To investigate the shade resilience, results for the smart architecture are compared with an ideal module, and also ordinary series and parallel connected architectures. Although the annual yield for the smart architecture is 79.5% of the yield of an ideal module, we show that the smart architecture outperforms a standard series connected module by 47%, and a parallel architecture by 13.4%.

  17. Characterization of cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassogne, Laurence; Graefe, Sophie; Asare, Richard; Van Asten, Piet; Läderach, Peter; Vaast, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Reduced climatic suitability due to climate change in cocoa growing regions of Ghana is expected in the coming decades. This threatens farmers’ livelihood and the cocoa sector. Climate change adaptation requires an improved understanding of existing cocoa production systems and farmers’ coping strategies. This study characterized current cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient within the cocoa belt of Ghana. The objectives were to 1) compare existing production and income diversification between dry, mid and wet climatic regions, and 2) identify shade trees in cocoa agroforestry systems and their distribution along the climatic gradient. Our results showed that current mean cocoa yield level of 288kg ha-1yr-1 in the dry region was significantly lower than in the mid and wet regions with mean yields of 712 and 849 kg ha-1 yr-1, respectively. In the dry region, farmers diversified their income sources with non-cocoa crops and off-farm activities while farmers at the mid and wet regions mainly depended on cocoa (over 80% of annual income). Two shade systems classified as medium and low shade cocoa agroforestry systems were identified across the studied regions. The medium shade system was more abundant in the dry region and associated to adaptation to marginal climatic conditions. The low shade system showed significantly higher yield in the wet region but no difference was observed between the mid and dry regions. This study highlights the need for optimum shade level recommendation to be climatic region specific. PMID:29659629

  18. Interior shadings for office indoor visual comfort in humid climate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinapradipta, Asri; Sudarma, Erwin; Defiana, Ima; Erwindi, Collinthia

    2018-03-01

    As part of the fenestration system, the interior shadings have also a role to control the indoor environment to maintain indoor visual comfort. As the occupants have personal access to control these, their control behavior then, might enhance or even worsen indoor comfort performance. The controlling behavior might not only influence indoor comfort performance but can also indicate the success or failure of interior shading as a control device element. This paper is intended to report control behavior patterns, as represented by the variety of the slats’ openings of two types of interior shading i.e. Venetian and Vertical blinds and to analyze these on the concurrent impacts to indoor office building’s indoor illuminance and luminance distribution. The purpose of this research is to figure out the shading control patterns as well as to examine the effectiveness of these two types of interior shadings to control indoor visual environment. This study is a quantitative research using experimentation on the slats’ opening of two types of shadings at two identical office rooms. The research results suggested that both types of blinds seem unsuitable for gaining proper illumination values at work planes in humid tropics area. However, these shadings demonstrate good performance for luminance distribution except for that of the closed Venetian blinds.

  19. Morphophysiological Behavior and Cambial Activity in Seedlings of Two Amazonian Tree Species under Shade

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    Monyck Jeane dos Santos Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in light intensity can lead to important anatomical and morphophysiological changes in plants. Aiming to increase knowledge about the Amazonian tree species, this study examines the influence of shade on the cambial activity and development of Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke and Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby seedlings. Seedlings of the two species were grown in a nursery under four shade intensities (treatments: full sun, low, moderate, and high shade (resp., 0%, 23%, 67%, and 73% of shade, or 2000, 1540, 660, and 540 µmol·m−2·s−1 obtained with polyethylene screens. We measured plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration (E, photosynthesis (A, and cambial activity (CA (xylem, cambium, and phloem. Also, we calculated the Dickson Quality Index (DQI. The highest values of biomass production, gs,  E, A, and DQI, were found under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba. In both species high shade intensity reduced CA. We concluded that the CA and the physiological and morphological attributes work together, explaining the radial growth and increasing seedlings quality, which optimized efficient seedling production under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba.

  20. An appraisal of the classic forest succession paradigm with the shade tolerance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienard, Jean; Florescu, Ionut; Strigul, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the classic theory of forest succession that relates shade tolerance and species replacement and assess its validity to understand patch-mosaic patterns of forested ecosystems of the USA. We introduce a macroscopic parameter called the "shade tolerance index" and compare it to the classic continuum index in southern Wisconsin forests. We exemplify shade tolerance driven succession in White Pine-Eastern Hemlock forests using computer simulations and analyzing approximated chronosequence data from the USDA FIA forest inventory. We describe this parameter across the last 50 years in the ecoregions of mainland USA, and demonstrate that it does not correlate with the usual macroscopic characteristics of stand age, biomass, basal area, and biodiversity measures. We characterize the dynamics of shade tolerance index using transition matrices and delimit geographical areas based on the relevance of shade tolerance to explain forest succession. We conclude that shade tolerance driven succession is linked to climatic variables and can be considered as a primary driving factor of forest dynamics mostly in central-north and northeastern areas in the USA. Overall, the shade tolerance index constitutes a new quantitative approach that can be used to understand and predict succession of forested ecosystems and biogeographic patterns.

  1. An appraisal of the classic forest succession paradigm with the shade tolerance index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lienard

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the classic theory of forest succession that relates shade tolerance and species replacement and assess its validity to understand patch-mosaic patterns of forested ecosystems of the USA. We introduce a macroscopic parameter called the "shade tolerance index" and compare it to the classic continuum index in southern Wisconsin forests. We exemplify shade tolerance driven succession in White Pine-Eastern Hemlock forests using computer simulations and analyzing approximated chronosequence data from the USDA FIA forest inventory. We describe this parameter across the last 50 years in the ecoregions of mainland USA, and demonstrate that it does not correlate with the usual macroscopic characteristics of stand age, biomass, basal area, and biodiversity measures. We characterize the dynamics of shade tolerance index using transition matrices and delimit geographical areas based on the relevance of shade tolerance to explain forest succession. We conclude that shade tolerance driven succession is linked to climatic variables and can be considered as a primary driving factor of forest dynamics mostly in central-north and northeastern areas in the USA. Overall, the shade tolerance index constitutes a new quantitative approach that can be used to understand and predict succession of forested ecosystems and biogeographic patterns.

  2. Initial growth of Bauhinia variegata trees under different colored shade nets and light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bachin Mazzini-Guedes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata and B. variegata var. candida, commonly known as orchid trees, are small sized trees widely used for urban forestry and landscaping. Adult plants grow under full sun; in Brazil, however, seedlings are generally cultivated in commercial nurseries under natural half-shading. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different colored shade nets and light conditions on the initial growth of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida. The influence of six light conditions (red net with 50% shading; blue net with 50% shading; black net with 70% shading; black net with 50% shading; black net with 30% shading; and full sun on the initial growth of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida were evaluated along 160 days, and growth relationships were calculated. Seedlings showed more efficiency on the use of photoassimilated compounds when grown under full sun. Such condition is the most appropriate for seedling production of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida, contradicting what has been performed in practice.

  3. Response of Artemisia annua L. to shade and manure fertilizer application in lowland altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, H. H.; Widyastuti, Y.; Samanhudi; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia is a plant producing artemisinin substance which is the main compound in the treatment of malaria. Artemisia comes from China, usually grows wild in native habitats in the plains with an altitude of 1,000-1,500 meters above the sea level. Artemisia development efforts in Indonesia hampered by limited land with the required altitude due to their competition with vegetable crops. Based on this reason, this research is conducted to observe the growth of artemisia planted in lowland with the help of shade and manure. This study aims to determine the level of shade and best manure on the growth of Artemisia. Research conducted at the Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture UNS Jumantono using nested design with two factors, shade as main factor and manure fertilizer as sub factor. The data analysis used F test with confidence level of 5%, if significant, then continued with DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test). The results showed the treatment of shade gave no difference in growth within 50% shade, 75% shade as well as without shade treatment. Goat manure fertilizer gave the highest result and able to increase plant height, number of branches, flower weight and root volume.

  4. Growth and bromatological characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria ruziziensis under shading and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Moscat Faria

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the productive and qualitative characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria ruziziensis subjected to three levels of artificial shading (0, 36 and 54% and four nitrogen (N doses (0; 50; 100 and 150 mg dm-3 soil, using completely randomized design with a factorial scheme 2 x 3 x 4, with three replications. The dry matter production (DMP, the number of tillers per pot, root weight and crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF contents were evaluated. Both grasses responded quadractly to N, but B. ruziziensis presented greater production under the two highest N doses. The tillers density increased with N dose and was reduced under shading. The root weight increased with N dose, linearly in the full sun and quadractly in the shade. The shading and N showed a positive influence on CP contents. For NDF content, was observed reduction with increase of N dose. The NDF content of B. decumbens increased with shading levels; for B. ruziziensis, the greatest value was observed under intermediate shading level. The N fertilization is an important strategy to improve DMP, tillers density and CP content, for both grasses. However, intense shading should be avoided, as it reduces tillering and root weight, which may threat pasture persistence.

  5. Effect of Shading on Physiological, Biochemical and Behaviour Changes in Crossbred Calves Under Hot Climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teama, F.E.I.; Gad, A.E.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance and the effect of shading and non-shading house on physiological changes, body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), total antioxidant and thyroid hormones in crossbred calves under hot conditions. Thirty six growing crossbred calves (Friesian x Baladi) aged 8-10 months were divided into two groups (each 18 calves); the first group was maintained in shaded house and the second in house without shade (climatic house). The period of study was 79 days during hot conditions. Performance variables (BW, ADG) were measured and the blood samples were collected to assess some biochemical parameters including antioxidants such as total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT), total protein, thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and immunoglobulin factor (IgG). Respiration rates and behaviour parameters (feeding, drinking, standing, lying and agonistic) were also measured during the study. The data indicated that the shaded calves had higher ADG (P<0.05) and final BW than non-shaded ones. Also, a significant improvement in total protein levels and globulins were recorded in shaded house calves as compared to non-shaded ones. The same result was obtained for T3 level whereas non-significant changes were observed for T4 level as well as the level of IgG at different times. The present data indicated that using shaded house will decrease the effect of heat stress on calves which will increase the animal performance through improving BW and ADG as well as some biochemical parameters in addition to T3 hormonal level.

  6. Influence of resin cement shade on the color and translucency of ceramic veneers

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERNANDES, Daiana Kelly Lopes; ARRAIS, Cesar Augusto Galvão; de LIMA, Erick; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; RODRIGUES, José Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3) layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP), and chroma of low (LT) and high (HT) translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. Material and Methods One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick) under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE) of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B) and white (W) background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C* ab=(a*2+b*2)½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Conclusions Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable. PMID:27556211

  7. Influence of resin cement shade on the color and translucency of ceramic veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Kelly Lopes HERNANDES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3 layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP, and chroma of low (LT and high (HT translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. Material and Methods One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B and white (W background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C*ab=(a*2+b*2½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Conclusions Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable.

  8. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  9. Influence of resin cement shade on the color and translucency of ceramic veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Daiana Kelly Lopes; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão; Lima, Erick de; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Rodrigues, José Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3) layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP), and chroma of low (LT) and high (HT) translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick) under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE) of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B) and white (W) background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C*ab=(a*2+b*2)½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable.

  10. Heat loads of transparent construction elements and sun shading systems; Waermelasten transparenter Bauteile und Sonnenschutzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H; Binder, B; Vonbank, R

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a test system installed at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) in Duebendorf, Switzerland, for the investigation of heat gain by glazing elements often used in modern architecture and the efficiency of shading elements. The two climatically controlled test cells for the measurement of the thermal characteristics of facade elements and shading systems are described and the results of measurements made using various types of glazing and shading systems - including external and internal lamellas, blinds and extendible fabric sunshades - are presented. The results are analysed and interpreted in a comprehensive appendix.

  11. Partial Shading Detection in Solar System Using Single Short Pulse of Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartczak Mateusz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A single photovoltaic panel under uniform illumination has only one global maximum power point, but the same panel in irregularly illuminated conditions can have more maxima on its power-voltage curve. The irregularly illuminated conditions in most cases are results of partial shading. In the work a single short pulse of load is used to extract information about partial shading. This information can be useful and can help to make some improvements in existing MPPT algorithms. In the paper the intrinsic capacitance of a photovoltaic system is used to retrieve occurrence of partial shading.

  12. Integrated control of sun shades, daylight and artificial light; Integreret regulering af solafskaermning, dagslys og kunstlys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Christoffersen, J.; Soerensen, Henrik; Jessen, G.

    2011-07-01

    The project established a basis of calculation and a practical basis for optimum choice of solar shading and integrated control strategies for both new buildings and for office, commercial and institutional buildings to be renovated with new calculation models for controlling solar shading integrated in the BSim program. A complete and applicable model for optimum, integrated solar shading control was established, focusing on thermal and visual comfort criteria towards energy consumption for heating, cooling and lighting. A prototype was tested in the daylight laboratory at Danish Building Research Institute-Aalborg University and at University of Southern Denmark. (LN)

  13. Potential Nitrification and Nitrogen Mineral of Soil in Coffee Agroforestry System with Various Shading Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto .

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of shading trees in coffee farms has been well understood to establish suitable condition for the growth of coffee trees, on the other hand their role in nitrogen cycle in coffee farming is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of various legume shading trees on the concentration of soil mineral N (N-NH4 + and N-NO3-, potential nitrification and to study the controlling factors of nitrification under field conditions. This field explorative research was carried out in Sumberjaya, West Lampung. Twelve observation plots covered four land use systems (LUS, i.e. 1 Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiasepium as shade trees; 2 Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaas shade trees and Arachis pintoias cover crops; 3Coffee agroforestry with Paraserianthes falcataria as shade trees; and 4 Mixed/multistrata coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaand other fruit crops as shade trees. Measurements of soil mineral-N concentration were carried out every three weeks for three months. Results showed that shade tree species in coffee agroforestry significantly affected concentrations of soil NH4 +, NO3- and potential nitrification. Mixed coffee agroforestry had the highest NH4+/N-mineral ratio (7.16% and the lowest potential nitrification (0.13 mg NO2-kg-1 hour -1 compared to other coffee agroforestry systems using single species of leguminous shade trees. Ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral increased 0.8—21% while potential nitrification decreased 55—79% in mixed coffee agroforestry compared to coffee agroforestry with Gliricidia or P. falcatariaas shade trees. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcatariaas shade trees had potential nitrification 53% lower and ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral concentration 20% higher than that with Gliricidia. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcataria as shade trees also had organic C content 17% higher, total N 40% higher, available P 112% higher than that with Gliricidia. The presence of A. pintoiin

  14. The prevalence and risk factors of gingivitis in a population of 6-year-old children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gingivitis is a reversible inflammation of gingival tissue. The prevalence of gingivitis is different in various communities. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gingivitis among 6-year-old (± 3 months children of Rayen, Kerman, Iran. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 279 children (129 boys and 150 girls from all Rayen’s nursery schools and primary schools were selected. Data collected through clinical examination with the consent of parents and teachers. Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI was measured by using light and dental probe pressure. RESULTS: The prevalence of gingivitis was 37.8. There was statistically significant association between gender and gingivitis. Mouth breathing and toothbrush frequency were factors associated with gingivitis. CONCLUSION: This study showed relatively similar prevalence of gingivitis compared to other studies. The prevalence of gingivitis was more in boys than girls. Health educators and parents should have a more active role in children’s oral health education.

  15. Gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts differ in their inflammatory response to viable Porphyromonas gingivalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, N; Laine, M L; de Vries, T J; Everts, V; van Winkelhoff, A J

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen strongly associated with destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues in human periodontitis. Gingival fibroblasts (GF) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) are functionally different cell types in the periodontium that can

  16. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended.

  17. Evaluation of gingival crevicular fluid transforming growth factor-β1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-11

    Sep 11, 2015 ... Clinical parameters, including plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing ... growth factor-β1 level after treatment of intrabony periodontal .... The clinical assessment were done at 6 sites of the tooth, vestibulary ...

  18. Strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of wegener's granulomatosis: report of a case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare multi-system disease characterized by the classic triad of necrotizing granulomas affecting the upper and lower respiratory tracts, disseminated vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Oral lesions as a presenting feature are only encountered in 2% of these cases. Hyperplastic gingival lesions or strawberry gingivitis, is a characteristic sign of Wegener's granulomatosis. The latter consists of reddish-purple exophytic gingival swellings with petechial haemorrhages thus resembling strawberries. Recognition of this feature is of utmost importance for timely diagnosis and definitive management of this potentially fatal disease. A case of strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of Wegener's granulomatosis affecting a 50-year-old Malay male is reported here. The differential diagnosis of red lesions that may present in the gingiva is discussed. PMID:21813375

  19. Gingival metastasis from the lung through a needle and a pin: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentati, D.; Chraiet, N.; Kochbati, L.; Maalej, M.

    2007-01-01

    Gingival metastases are very rare. We report the case of a 47 year-old man presenting with a gingival metastasis from a non small cell lung carcinoma. According to the literature, the most probable way of spread of such metastasis is hematogenous. Local implantation of cancer cells, present in patient's expectoration, in a fragile gingival may be an other pathway of lung cancer metastasizing in this region as we will try to describe in this case report. Cytological and/or histological investigation is needed to assess the malignant and the metastatic character of these gingival lesions. A rapid regression is observed after a flash of external beam radiation; nevertheless metastasis prognosis depends on the primary tumour progress. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of resorbable membrane in treatment of human gingival isolated buccal recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Narang

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Resorbable membrane is a versatile treatment modality for coverage of isolated buccal gingival recession. Although membrane exposure occurred in four patients, it did not interfere with post operative healing.

  1. Can chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily ameliorate cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hwa Gau

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that chlorhexidine mouthwash used twice daily may reduce the severity of CsA-induced gingival overgrowth. Further research is warranted to determine the optimal dose and treatment regimen.

  2. Expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is the major cause of adult tooth loss and is commonly characterized by a chronic inflammation caused by infection by oral bacteria. Members of Toll-like receptor (TLR family recognize conserved microbial structures, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and activate signaling pathways that result in immune responses against microbial infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the mRNA expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Gingival tissue samples were collected from patients with chronic periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy controls. Total RNA was extracted and RT-PCR was done for TLR-2 and TLR-4. The results showed that TLR-2 was significantly increased in gingivitis compared to TLR-4 expression and decreased in chronic periodontitis.

  3. Leptin and Pro-Inflammatory Stimuli Synergistically Upregulate MMP-1 and MMP-3 Secretion in Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C Williams

    Full Text Available Gingival fibroblast-mediated extracellular matrix remodelling is implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, yet the stimuli that regulate this response are not fully understood. The immunoregulatory adipokine leptin is detectable in the gingiva, human gingival fibroblasts express functional leptin receptor mRNA and leptin is known to regulate extracellular matrix remodelling responses in cardiac fibroblasts. We therefore hypothesised that leptin would enhance matrix metalloproteinase secretion in human gingival fibroblasts.We used in vitro cell culture to investigate leptin signalling and the effect of leptin on mRNA and protein expression in human gingival fibroblasts. We confirmed human gingival fibroblasts expressed cell surface leptin receptor, found leptin increased matrix metalloproteinase-1, -3, -8 and -14 expression in human gingival fibroblasts compared to unstimulated cells, and observed that leptin stimulation activated MAPK, STAT1/3 and Akt signalling in human gingival fibroblasts. Furthermore, leptin synergised with IL-1 or the TLR2 agonist pam2CSK4 to markedly enhance matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 production by human gingival fibroblasts. Signalling pathway inhibition demonstrated ERK was required for leptin-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in human gingival fibroblasts; whilst ERK, JNK, p38 and STAT3 were required for leptin+IL-1- and leptin+pam2CSK4-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression. A genome-wide expression array and gene ontology analysis confirmed genes differentially expressed in leptin+IL-1-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (compared to unstimulated cells were enriched for extracellular matrix organisation and disassembly, and revealed that matrix metalloproteinase-8 and -12 were also synergistically upregulated by leptin+IL-1 in human gingival fibroblasts.We conclude that leptin selectively enhances the expression and secretion of certain matrix metalloproteinases in human gingival

  4. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Corral de Piedra, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Volcanism and erosion are prominently seen in this view of the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains taken by Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area is southeast of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina. Eroded peaks up to 2,210-meter-high (7,260-foot) are seen on the west (left), but much of the scene consists of lava plateaus that slope gently eastward. These lava flows were most likely derived from volcanic sources in the high mountains. However, younger and more localized volcanic activity is evident in the topographic data as a cone surrounding oval-shaped flow near the center of the scene.The plateaus are extensively eroded by the Rio Limay (bottom of the image) and the Rio Collon Cura and its tributaries (upper half). The larger stream channels have reached a stable level and are now cutting broad valleys. Few terraces between the levels of the high plateaus and lower valleys (bottom center and upper right of the volcanic cone) indicate that stream erosion had once temporarily reached a higher stable level before eroding down to its current level. In general, depositional surfaces like lava flows are progressively younger with increasing elevation, while erosional surfaces are progressively younger with decreasing elevation.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red and magenta to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging

  5. New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    with the offset in the subduction zone pattern, vertical offsets (about 7 millimeters per year) are likewise consistent with the uplift of the Southern Alps. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 33.5 to 48 degrees South latitude, 165 to 180 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, cylindrical projection Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  6. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The circular feature at the center-left of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent 'big' impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular 'rim' materials. It resembles a 'cookie cutter' in that its appearance 'cuts' the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was

  7. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earths solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (image size: 184k JPEG)A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by computing

  8. Cuttlefish see shape from shading, fine-tuning coloration in response to pictorial depth cues and directional illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, D; Johnsen, Sonke

    2016-03-16

    Humans use shading as a cue to three-dimensional form by combining low-level information about light intensity with high-level knowledge about objects and the environment. Here, we examine how cuttlefish Sepia officinalis respond to light and shadow to shade the white square (WS) feature in their body pattern. Cuttlefish display the WS in the presence of pebble-like objects, and they can shade it to render the appearance of surface curvature to a human observer, which might benefit camouflage. Here we test how they colour the WS on visual backgrounds containing two-dimensional circular stimuli, some of which were shaded to suggest surface curvature, whereas others were uniformly coloured or divided into dark and light semicircles. WS shading, measured by lateral asymmetry, was greatest when the animal rested on a background of shaded circles and three-dimensional hemispheres, and less on plain white circles or black/white semicircles. In addition, shading was enhanced when light fell from the lighter side of the shaded stimulus, as expected for real convex surfaces. Thus, the cuttlefish acts as if it perceives surface curvature from shading, and takes account of the direction of illumination. However, the direction of WS shading is insensitive to the directions of background shading and illumination; instead the cuttlefish tend to turn to face the light source. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Preliminary characterization of the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with and without gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial communities inhabiting human mouth are associated with oral health and disease. Previous studies have indicated the general prevalence of adult gingivitis in China to be high. The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with or without gingivitis, by defining the microbial phylogenetic diversity and community-structure using highly paralleled pyrosequencing. Methods Six non-smoking Chinese, three with and three without gingivitis (age range 21-39 years, 4 females and 2 males were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. Gingival parameters of inflammation and bleeding on probing were characterized by a clinician using the Mazza Gingival Index (MGI. Plaque (sampled separately from four different oral sites and salivary samples were obtained from each subject. Sequences and relative abundance of the bacterial 16 S rDNA PCR-amplicons were determined via pyrosequencing that produced 400 bp-long reads. The sequence data were analyzed via a computational pipeline customized for human oral microbiome analyses. Furthermore, the relative abundances of selected microbial groups were validated using quantitative PCR. Results The oral microbiomes from gingivitis and healthy subjects could be distinguished based on the distinct community structures of plaque microbiomes, but not the salivary microbiomes. Contributions of community members to community structure divergence were statistically accessed at the phylum, genus and species-like levels. Eight predominant taxa were found associated with gingivitis: TM7, Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Lautropia, and Haemophilus. Furthermore, 98 species-level OTUs were identified to be gingivitis-associated, which provided microbial features of gingivitis at a species resolution. Finally, for the two selected genera Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, Real-Time PCR based quantification of relative bacterial

  10. Preliminary characterization of the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with and without gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Microbial communities inhabiting human mouth are associated with oral health and disease. Previous studies have indicated the general prevalence of adult gingivitis in China to be high. The aim of this study was to characterize in depth the oral microbiota of Chinese adults with or without gingivitis, by defining the microbial phylogenetic diversity and community-structure using highly paralleled pyrosequencing. Methods Six non-smoking Chinese, three with and three without gingivitis (age range 21-39 years, 4 females and 2 males) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study. Gingival parameters of inflammation and bleeding on probing were characterized by a clinician using the Mazza Gingival Index (MGI). Plaque (sampled separately from four different oral sites) and salivary samples were obtained from each subject. Sequences and relative abundance of the bacterial 16 S rDNA PCR-amplicons were determined via pyrosequencing that produced 400 bp-long reads. The sequence data were analyzed via a computational pipeline customized for human oral microbiome analyses. Furthermore, the relative abundances of selected microbial groups were validated using quantitative PCR. Results The oral microbiomes from gingivitis and healthy subjects could be distinguished based on the distinct community structures of plaque microbiomes, but not the salivary microbiomes. Contributions of community members to community structure divergence were statistically accessed at the phylum, genus and species-like levels. Eight predominant taxa were found associated with gingivitis: TM7, Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Lautropia, and Haemophilus. Furthermore, 98 species-level OTUs were identified to be gingivitis-associated, which provided microbial features of gingivitis at a species resolution. Finally, for the two selected genera Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, Real-Time PCR based quantification of relative bacterial abundance validated the

  11. Gingival zenith and its role in redefining esthetics: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Pawar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to quantify some clinical parameters useful as esthetic guidelines when gingival contour is modified and to compare the left and right sides of six maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts mounted on an articulator according to the axis orbital plane were photographed from 35 young adults. The angle formed between the gingival line and maxillary midline (GLA and the distance between the gingival zenith of the lateral incisor and the gingival line were measured (LID using a flexible protractor and digital vernier caliper, respectively. The asymmetry was evaluated using a paired t test for the left vs right measurements of GLA and LID. The descriptive statistics for GLA and LID were calculated. Results: The GLA measurements of the left side (86.7΀΁4.2΀ were significantly greater than those of the right side (84.6΀΁5.4΀, and the mean absolute symmetry for GLA was 1.7΀΁4.4΀. The mean LID measurement was 0.92΁0.11. Conclusions: The gingival zenith of the canine is apical to the gingival zenith of the incisors (GLA <90΀ and the gingival zenith of the lateral incisor is below or on (17% the gingival line when head is oriented on the axis orbital plane. A directional asymmetry was shown with the right side higher than the left side. Along with the other parameters related to dental esthetics, these clinical parameters may serve as esthetic guidelines and may enable us to obtain a more predictable outcome.

  12. Gingival recession following apical surgery in the esthetic zone: a clinical study with 70 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Salvi, Giovanni E; Janner, Simone

    2009-01-01

    ; pre-treatment pocket probing depth (PPD) (P PPD PPD > or = 2.5 mm; and type of incision (P ... incision, papilla-base incision or papilla-saving incision. The visual assessment using pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up photographs did not demonstrate significant changes in gingival level or papillary height after apical surgery. In conclusion, gingival biotype, pre-treatment PPD, and type of incision...

  13. Association of gingivitis with child oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazoni, Fernanda; Zanatta, Fabricio B; Tuchtenhagen, Simone; da Rosa, Guilherme N; Del Fabro, Joana P; Ardenghi, Thiago M

    2014-11-01

    Child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) has been increasingly assessed. However, the full relationship between gingivitis and COHRQoL has been assessed by only a small number of studies. This study aims to assess the association between gingival bleeding and how a child perceives its OHRQoL. This cross-sectional study used multistage random sampling to enroll 1,134 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a southern city in Brazil. Participants were examined for gingival bleeding according to the community periodontal index criteria, a full-mouth clinical examination of six sites per tooth. COHRQoL was assessed by the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for 11- to 14-Year-Old Children (CPQ11-14), and data on socioeconomic status were collected. Multilevel Poisson regression models fitted the association of gingivitis with overall and domain-specific CPQ11-14 scores. In general, children with bleeding in ≥15% of sites had higher total CPQ11-14 scores and domain-specific scores than their counterparts. This association persisted after adjustment for other potential confounders. The presence and extent of gingival bleeding was associated mainly with emotional limitation domains of the CPQ11-14; those with extended levels of gingivitis had a 1.20 times higher mean score than those with low-level/no gingival bleeding (rate ratio = 1.20; 95% confidence interval = 1.10 to 1.31). The present results indicate that the presence of extensive levels of gingivitis might be negatively associated with how children perceive their oral health and their daily life.

  14. Biological effect of low-dose application beta-radiation on the gingival mucosa of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolitov, Yu.A.; Kovtun, N.N.; Timofeev, L.V.

    1999-01-01

    Biological effect of low-dose application beta-radiation on the gingival mucosa of dogs is studied. Obtained data illustrate the interactions between tissues in local exposure of live tissue to beta-radiation and determine the threshold total dose as 400 sGy. Higher doses lead to secondary changes in the gingival mucosa after which the tissue barrier does not recover [ru

  15. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating-rotating power brush users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosema, N A M; Adam, R; Grender, J M; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, S C; Van der Weijden, G A

    2014-11-01

    To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating-rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Shaded relief, color as height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  17. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park. Its fertile slopes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in June. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to blue and white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  18. Prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and associated factors in Koranic boarding schools in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, M; Cisse, D; Faye, A; Niang, P; Seck, I; Faye, D; Lo, C M M

    2012-06-01

    Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is the most common clinical syndrome preceding noma. It is found in developing countries and in malnourished children and especially in deprived groups such as children at Koranic boarding schools. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and factors associated with its occurrence in a boarding school population. This was a cross-sectional study of children in Koranic boarding schools in the city of Touba, Senegal. A multistage sampling strategy was used and 8 out of 17 schools were selected. The variables collected were gender, age, oral hygiene habits, duration of residence, presence of ulcerative gingivitis and plaque, and gingival bleeding index. A logistic regression analysis with R software using the manual procedure down was used to identify factors associated with the dependent variables. There were 501 participants and boys made up 92% of the study group. The mean age was 9.3 (sd 4.0) years. The mean of duration residence was 3.4 (sd 1.5) years. The prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis was 37% and 81% of children did not use a toothbrush or a chewing-stick. The length of residence, school size, hygiene habits and plaque and bleeding indices were significantly associated with necrotizing gingivitis after adjustment for other variables. It is necessary to develop oral hygiene programs, to establish policies to manage the oral health of children and to improve health and nutrition at Koranic boarding-schools.

  19. Laser Doppler flowmetry evaluation of gingival recovery response after laser treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen; Cânjǎu, Silvana; Dodenciu, Dorin; Miron, Mariana I.; Tudor, Anca; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed in order to evaluate in vivo the applicability of Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) in recording the gingival blood flow and to assess the changes of gingival blood flow following gingival reshaping performed with Er:YAG and 980 nm diode lasers. The LDF evaluation was performed on 20 anterior teeth, which underwent reshaping of gingiva, corresponding to 5 female patients (4 anterior teeth/patient), aged between 20 and 35. One part of the mouth was treated with Er:YAG laser (LP, VLP modes, 140 - 250 mJ, 10 - 20 Hz, using cylindrical sapphire tips) and other part with 980 nm diode laser (CW, 4 W, contact mode and saline solution cooling). The gingival blood flow was monitored using a MoorLab laser Doppler equipment (Moor Instruments Ltd., Axminster, UK) with a straight optical probe, MP3b, 10 mm. The data were processed using statistical analysis software SPSS v16.0.1. The investigation showed an evident decrease in perfusion for both areas in comparison with the baseline values 24 hours after treatment. The microvascular blood flow increased significantly after 7 days in both areas but mostly in diode area (pdiode area remained at a high level after 14 days. Both lasers proved efficiency in the surgical treatment of gingival tissue. Moreover, Laser Doppler Flowmetry is adequate for recording changes in gingival blood flow following periodontal surgery.

  20. Management of gingival recession associated with orthodontic treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Tarun Kumar; Phogat, Megha; Sharma, Tarun; Prasad, Narayana; Singh, Shailendra

    2014-07-01

    Many patients undergo orthodontic treatment for aesthetic improvement. It is well established that the patients who undergo orthodontic treatment have a high susceptibility to present plaque accumulation on their teeth because of the presence of brackets, wires and/or other orthodontic elements on the teeth surfaces with which the oral hygiene procedures might be more difficult. The orthodontic treatment is a double-action procedure regarding the periodontal tissues which may be very meaningful in increasing the periodontal health status and may be a harmful procedure which can be followed by several types of periodontal complications. There is a strong correlation between the severity and extent of gingival recessions and the orthodontic treatment suggesting that orthodontic tooth movement may lead to gingival recession. The principal objective in the treatment of gingival recession is to cover the exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics and to reduce hypersensitivity. Different soft tissue grafting procedures have been proposed in the treatment of gingival recessions. Subepithelial connective tissue graft is a reliable method for treatment of gingival recession. The purpose of this case report was to illustrate the relationship between orthodontic therapy and gingival recession and to describe the management of this case.

  1. Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis associated with progressive hearing loss: A nonfamilial variant of Jones syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagavad Gita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by gingival tissue overgrowth of a firm and fibrotic nature. The growth is slow and progressive and is drug-induced, idiopathic, or hereditary in etiology. It occurs isolated or frequently as a component of various syndromes. Our patient presented with the complaint of gingival enlargement associated with progressive deafness, characteristic of Jones syndrome. This case report is important and unique since it is the first known one to have a Jones syndrome-like presentation without a family history. A male patient aged 14 years reported with the chief complaint of swelling of gums and progressive hearing loss in both ears for the past one year. There was no family history or history of drug intake. Enlargement was generalized, fibrotic and bulbous, involving the free and attached gingiva, extending up to the middle 1/3 rd of the crown. Investigations such as pure tone audiogram, impedance audiometry, and Tone decay test concluded that there was severe right and moderate left sensorineural hearing loss. The case was diagnosed to be idiopathic, generalized gingival fibromatosis with progressive hearing loss. The gingival overgrowth was managed by gingivectomy and periodic review. The patient was advised to use high occlusion computer generated hearing aids for his deafness as it was not treatable by medicines or surgery. This unique case report once again emphasizes the heterogeneity of gingival fibromatosis, which can present in an atypical manner.

  2. Clinical effects of probiotics containing Bacillus species on gingivitis: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaya, B; Laleman, I; Keceli, S; Ozcelik, O; Cenk Haytac, M; Teughels, W

    2017-06-01

    Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria are the most frequently used probiotics in oral health research. However, although probiotic effects have been suggested for other genera, such as bacilli, no trials are available to describe the effect of bacilli probiotics on gingivitis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a bacilli-containing toothpaste, a mouthrinse and a toothbrush cleaner versus a placebo in patients with generalized gingivitis. In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, nonsmoking, systemically healthy patients with generalized gingivitis were included. They used a placebo or an experimental probiotic Bacillus subtilis-, Bacillus megaterium- and Bacillus pumulus-containing toothpaste, mouthrinse and toothbrush cleaner for 8 wk. Primary outcome measures of interest were plaque and gingivitis index, and the secondary outcome measures were pocket probing depth and bleeding on probing. Twenty male and 20 female patients were randomized over the two groups. All participants could be included in the final analysis. Although plaque and gingivitis indices were significantly reduced after 8 wk, no intergroup differences could be found at any time point. Also, for the secondary outcome measure, intragroup but no intergroup differences could be detected. No harm or unintended effects were reported by the patients after using the study products. This study did not show any statistically significant differences between a placebo and a bacilli-containing toothpaste, mouthrinse and toothbrush cleaner on gingivitis parameters. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Penanganan Gingivitis dengan Metoda "Toothpick Brushing" (Laporan kasus pada wanita pengguna kontrasepsi oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armasastra Bahar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gingivitis sebagai salah satu kelainan jaringan penyangga gigi telah diketahui disebabkan karena kebersihan mulut yang tidak baik dan berkaitan dengan kebiasaan dan cara menyikat gigi yang tidak memadai. Di samping itu telah banyak pula laporan yang mengatakan bahwa terjadinya gingivitis juga berhubungan dengan peningkatan hormon kelamin steroid darah seperti pada kehamilan, menstruasi dan pada pengguna kontrasepsi hormonal.Dalam pemeriksaan yang dilakukan pada beberapa wanita pengguna kontrasepsi oral di Puskesmas Serpong ditemukan kelainan gingivitis.Pada penderita tersebut dilakukan pemeriksaan intraoral dan Occult Blood Test untuk memperkuat pemeriksaan apakah keadaan gingivitisnya memerlukan terapi lebih lanjut. Setelah dilakukan penambalan gigi yang merupakan keluhan utama penderita datang ke BKIA, dilakukan usaha untuk menanggulangi gingivitis yang ada berupa penerangan tentang faktor-faktor yang menjadi penyebab gingivitis dan instruksi cara menyikat gigi dengan metoda "Toothpick brushing". Evaluasi yang dilakukan pada minggu II dan III, memperlihatkan hasil yang baik, nilai PI, PBI dan OBT menurun dibandingkan dengan nilai awal yang telah dilakukan.Pada kunjungan pada minggu III dilakukan pembersihan karang gigi. Menyikat gigi dengan metoda "Toothpick brushing" memperlihatkan hasil yang baik dalam memperbaiki kelainan gingivitis.

  4. Influence of artificial accelerated aging on the color stability and opacity of composites of different shades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, F M; Da Fonseca Roberti Garcia, L; Silva Sousa, A B; Cruvinel, D R; De Carvalho Panzeri Pires-De-Souza, F

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of artificial accelerated aging on the color stability and opacity of composites of different shades. Four composites for direct use (Heliomolar, 4 Seasons, Tetric EvoCeram; QuiXfil) and one for indirect use (SR Adoro) in two shades were used: light (A2) and dark (C3 for direct, and D4 for indirect composite). QuiXfil was obtained in Universal shade. A Teflon matrix (12 X 2 mm) was used to obtain 54 specimens (N=6), which were submitted to color and opacity analysis (Spectrophotometer PCB 6807, Byk Gardner) before and after artificial accelerated aging for 384 hours. After the statistical analysis (2-way ANOVA - Bonferroni - PArtificial accelerated aging interfered in the optical properties assessed; however, the alterations seemed to be more related to the composites composition than to their shade.

  5. Differences between the human eye and the spectrophotometer in the shade matching of tooth colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Polo, Cristina; Gómez-Polo, Miguel; Celemin-Viñuela, Alicia; Martínez Vázquez De Parga, Juan Antonio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the agreement between instrumental and visual colour matching. Shade selection with the 3DMaster Toothguide (Vita-Zahnfabrik) was performed for 1361 maxillary central incisors and compared with the shade obtained with the EasyShade Compact (Vita-Zahnfabrik) spectrophotometer. We observed a greater correlation between the objective method and the subjective one in the colour dimension of lightness (Kappa 0.6587), followed by hue (Kappa 0.4337) and finally chroma (Kappa 0.3578). The colour dimension in which the greatest agreement is seen between the operator and the spectrophotometer is value or lightness. This study reveals differences between the measurement of colour via spectrophotometry and the visual shade selection method. According to our results, there is better agreement in the value or lightness colour dimension, which is the most important one in the choice of tooth colour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Jong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development.

  7. Effect of shade on various parameters of Friesian cows in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Behavioural pattern , dairy cows, heat stress, shade. * Author to whom ... The negative effect of high temperatures, solar radiation, relative humidity and ..... Cattle do nct exhibit true sleep as in humans, except for very short periods.

  8. Multiple Solutions for Reconfiguration to Address Partial Shading Losses in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikesh; Pareek, Smita; Chaturvedi, Nitin; Dahiya, Ratna

    2018-03-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems are steadily rising and considered as the best alternatives to meet the rising demand of energy. In developing countries like India, SPV’s contribution being a clean energy is the most favourable. However, experiences have shown that produced power of these systems is usually affected due to day, night, seasonal variations, insolation, partial shading conditions etc. Among these parameters, partial shading causes a huge reduction in output power of PV systems. This results in lack of confidence for this technology among users. Thus, it is important and a major challenge in PV systems to minimize the effect of partial shading on their energy production. The work in this paper aims to propose solutions for reconfiguration of solar photovoltaic arrays in order to reduce partial shading losses and thus to enhance power generation.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Maximum Power Point Tracking Controllers under Partial Shaded Conditions in a Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramaprabha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mismatching effects due to partial shaded conditions are the major drawbacks existing in today’s photovoltaic (PV systems. These mismatch effects are greatly reduced in distributed PV system architecture where each panel is effectively decoupled from its neighboring panel. To obtain the optimal operation of the PV panels, maximum power point tracking (MPPT techniques are used. In partial shaded conditions, detecting the maximum operating point is difficult as the characteristic curves are complex with multiple peaks. In this paper, a neural network control technique is employed for MPPT. Detailed analyses were carried out on MPPT controllers in centralized and distributed architecture under partial shaded environments. The efficiency of the MPPT controllers and the effectiveness of the proposed control technique under partial shaded environments was examined using MATLAB software. The results were validated through experimentation.

  10. Duration and intensity of shade differentially affects mycorrhizal growth- and phosphorus uptake responses of Medicago truncatula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvalinková, T.; Püschel, David; Janoušková, Martina; Gryndler, M.; Jansa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, FEB 13 (2015), s. 1-11 ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis * light intensity * shading duration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.495, year: 2015

  11. Shade tree diversity enhances coffee production and quality in agroforestry systems in the Western Ghats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesper, Maike; Kueffer, Christoph; Krishnan, Smitha; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2017-01-01

    Intensification of multispecies coffee agroforests reduces shade tree diversity with implications for tropical biodiversity. We investigated how tree biodiversity and its effects on coffee production and quality changes along a gradient of intensification (from diverse multispecies to Grevillea

  12. [Effects of shading on two Sphagnum species growth and their interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Ze; Bu, Zhao-Jun; Zheng, Xing-Xing; Li, Shan-Lin; Zeng, Jing; Zhao, Gao-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Taking Sphagnum palustre and S. fallax as test materials, this paper studied their growth and interactions under shading. In monoculture, shading promoted the height growth of S. palustre markedly, but had no effect on the growth of S. fallax and the biomass and branching of S. palustre. In mixed culture, S. fallax suppressed the increase of biomass and branching of S. palustre, while S. palustre had no effects on S. fallax. With the increase of shading stress, the competition of neighbour on S. fallax intensified. When the stress increased further, neighbor effect on S. fallax tended to be positive. However, the effect of neighbour on S. palustre was always competitive and did not change with the increase of shading stress.

  13. Daylight Adaptive Shading Using Parametric Camshaft Mechanism for SOHO in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjarifudin Firza Utama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes SOHO (Small Office Home Office which can adjust to the need of visual comfort for the users through natural daylighting and also can be adapted to standard requirements of 14 creative industry workspace in Jakartas. The method of the research is by simulating the SOHO unit with variation of shading opening angles in order to adapt to each unit. Analysis done to every shading opening angle to get the appropriate daylight intensity level which support the work activities in every unit for the whole day. In order for the shading to be able to adapt to the changing daylight condition, previously developed parametric camshaft mechanism was used. The study found that the visual comfort for SOHO with creative industries workers in Jakarta can be achieve by varying the shading opening angles between 15-75°.

  14. Is shade for horses a comfort resource or a minimum requirement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, K E

    2017-09-01

    Shade or shelter as protection from extremes of weather is required for horses at agricultural research and teaching facilities and is recommended or required by many states, professional organizations, and industry groups. The focus of this paper is the recent research on the responses of horses to hot, sunny weather, which has begun to provide scientific evidence that characterizes how and when shade is used and any benefits shade confers on horses. These behavioral and physiological findings support provision of shade as a resource for thermal comfort and the expression of normal behavior that should be included as a standard of best care practices for healthy adult horses living in the environmental conditions reviewed, rather than an absolute minimum care requirement. Additional research is required for horses living under other environmental conditions, for very young or old horses, horses in very poor body condition, or those with compromised health to determine if their responses to hot, sunny weather differ from those presented here.

  15. Photosynthetic light response of the C4 grasses Brachiaria brizantha and B. humidicola under shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias-Filho Moacyr Bernardino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Forage grasses in tropical pastures can be subjected to considerable diurnal and seasonal reductions in available light. To evaluate the physiological behavior of the tropical forage grasses Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and B. humidicola to low light, the photosynthetic light response and chlorophyll contents of these species were compared for plants grown outdoors, on natural soil, in pots, in full sunlight and those shaded to 30 % of full sunlight, over a 30-day period. Both species showed the ability to adjust their photosynthetic behavior in response to shade. Photosynthetic capacity and light compensation point were lower for shade plants of both species, while apparent quantum yield was unaffected by the light regime. Dark respiration and chlorophyll a:b ratio were significantly reduced by shading only in B. humidicola. B. humidicola could be relatively more adapted to succeed, at least temporarily, in light-limited environments.

  16. Effect of shade on various parameters of Friesian cows in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a shade structure on the feed intake, water intake, milk production and milk composition of Dutch-type ... balance of an animal but does not affect air temperature or .... temperature above this temperature limits reproductive.

  17. Effects of shade and drought stress on soybean hormones and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... hormone concentrations, main-stem and branch yield response to the combination of shade and drought were studied ... yield primarily by reducing branch growth and branch seed yield per ..... deficit soybean. Yield decrease ...

  18. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  19. Impact of shading on daylight quality. Simulations with radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.C.

    2001-07-01

    The impact of six exterior shading devices on daylight quality and on the potential for daylight utilisation in a standard, south-oriented office room was investigated through computer simulations with Radiance. The daylight quality was evaluated by considering four performance indicators: the absolute work plane illuminance, the illuminance uniformity on the work plane, the absolute luminance in the visual field and the luminance ratios between the work plane, VDT screen and surrounding surfaces. The results indicate that the overhang, white awning and horizontal venetian blind generated work plane illuminance levels that are more suitable for offices where traditional tasks are carried out. However, these devices did not prevent high luminance values at the window. On the other hand, the grey specular screen produced unacceptably low work plane illuminance, poor illuminance uniformity and unacceptably low luminance levels which resulted in unsuitable luminance ratios between the VDT screen, work plane and surroundings. The 45 deg venetian blind, white screen and blue awning provided work plane illuminance levels suitable for offices where a combination of paper and computer work is carried out. They also provided acceptable illuminance uniformity on the work plane, suitable luminance ratios between the work plane, VDT screen and surroundings and they significantly reduced the luminance of the window. However, the blue awning had a poorer performance in December than in June and the white screen resulted in high luminance values at the window, which indicates that the best device among the ones studied was the 45 deg venetian blind.

  20. Response of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) to artificial shading during the reproductive stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peñaloza H, Enrique; Díaz S, Jorge

    1997-01-01

    Lentil production in southern Chile is subject to significant seasonal fluctuations in solar radiation received during the reproductive stage, with an average variation ranging from 300 to 650 g cal cm -2 day -1 . to quantify the effect of reducing incident light on crop performance, artifical shading experiments were conducted with 80% light reduction during different periods spanning the reprodcutive stage, as well as various degrees of shading (0, 20, 35, 50 and 80%) throughout. shading was achieved by using a black polypropylene net placed at 0.8 m above soil surface. The experiments were carried out during the 1991/92, 1992/93 and 1993/94 cropping seasons at the Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, INIA (38°41' S, 72°25' W). The effect of 80% shading on seed yield was dependent upon the period at which the treatment was imposed. Seed yield reduction was higher when shading occurred during the growth stages R--R5, accounting 35, 48 and 59% yield losses for the 1991/92, 1992/93 and 1993/94 seasons, respectively. No significant diffreences were detected between R1-R3 and R5-R8 periods, with seed yield losses averaging 39 (1991/92), 10 (1992/93) and 25% (1993/94). Variations in seed yield due to shading were explained mainly by a reduction of total pods m -2 and an increase in empty (flat) pods (R3-R5), and a reduction on the average seed weight (R5-R8). As expected, the higher losses occurred on treatments exposed to two (R1-R5, R3-R8) or three (R1-R8) periods of shading. Grain yield under different degrees of shading was significantly reduced, with responses fitted to the functions Y = 2.020-32.5s + 0.18s 2 (1992/93) and Y = 2.172-25.6s-0.04s 2 (1993/94). Reduction on seed yield was associated to a decrease in to