WorldWideScience

Sample records for ginger zingiber officinale

  1. Chemopreventive efficacy of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosco) is widely used in foods as a spice all around the world. It has been reported to have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We investigated the effect of ginger in ethionine induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1 and 2 served as ...

  2. ( Allium sativum Linn), ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  3. In vitro propagation of Ethiopian ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is the second most widely cultivated spice in Ethiopia, next to chilies. Recently, there has been huge demand for clean planting material of improved ginger cultivars, though it is difficult to meet the demand of planting materials using the conventional propagation techniques due to ...

  4. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  5. Comparative studies of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) and black pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of two spices namely ginger (Zingiber officinale) and black pepper (Piper guinenses) were prepared in 0.4, 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6% concentrations. Soymilk and kunuzaki, were treated, respectively with the different concentrations and stored at ambient temperature for 5 days. The microbial load and identification were ...

  6. Anticoagulant activity of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicines with anticoagulant therapeutic claims could serve as veritable sources of new oral anticoagulant drugs with possible wider safety margins than the currently available ones. Objectives: This work was aimed at evaluating a Ginger Rhizome Methanolic Extract in vivo in rats for its potential ...

  7. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) induces apoptosis in Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Mohsen; Delavari, Mahdi; Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohre; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hooshyar, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted protozoan diseases in the worldwide. Metronidazole is the choice drug for trichomoniasis treatment, however, metronidazole resistant Trichomonas vaginalis ( T.vaginalis ) has been reported. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and Zingiber officinale (Ginger ) is widely used ingredient in the traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of the ginger ethanol extract on the growth of T.vaginalis trophozoites in vitro. In this experimental study, 970 women who were attend in Kashan health centers were examined for T. vaginalis . Of them, 23 samples were infected with T.vaginalis . Three T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in a TYI-S-33 medium. The effect of ginger ethanol extracts and its toxicity in different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml) on mouse macrophages were measured in triplicate exam by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of ginger on apoptosis induction was determined by Flow cytometry. The IC 50 of ginger and metronidazole were 93.8 and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. 12, 24 and 48 hr after adding different concentrations of extract on mouse macrophages, fatality rates in maximum dose (800 µg/ml) were 0.19, 0.26 and 0.31 respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the apoptosis rate following treatment with different concentrations of the extract after 48 hr were 17, 28.5, 42.1, 58.8, 76.3 and 100% respectively, while in the control group was 2.9%. Ginger ethanol extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis . It is recommended that due to the known teratogenic effect of metronidazole, ginger can be considered as an alternative drug for metronidazole.

  8. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction...... approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most...... constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500...

  9. Effect of Tragacanth as Binding Agents to Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roxb.) Lozenges

    OpenAIRE

    Taurina, Wintari; Syukri, Yandi; Triastuti, Asih

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roxb.) is a traditional plants usually used to relieve pain, rheumatism, and neutralize poison. The aim of this study was to get the optimum concentration of tragacanth as a binding agent in ginger lozenges formulation. The components from ginger were extracted using percolation with ethanol 70% and then evaporated using rotary evaporator. Lozenges were made in three formulas ; formula 1 (5%), 2 (7,5%), 3 (10%) of tragacanth using wet granulation method. Granules a...

  10. Survival of Salmonella during Drying of Fresh Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) and Storage of Ground Ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Dana R; Sun, Lingxiang; Larkin, Emily L; Chirtel, Stuart J; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-11-01

    The survival of Salmonella on fresh ginger root (Zingiber officinale) during drying was examined using both a laboratory oven at 51 and 60°C with two different fan settings and a small commercially available food dehydrator. The survival of Salmonella in ground ginger stored at 25 and 37°C at 33% (low) and 97% (high) relative humidity (RH) was also examined. To inoculate ginger, a four-serovar cocktail of Salmonella was collected by harvesting agar lawn cells. For drying experiments, ginger slices (1 ± 0.5 mm thickness) were surface inoculated at a starting level of approximately 9 log CFU/g. Higher temperature (60°C) coupled with a slow fan speed (nonstringent condition) to promote a slower reduction in the water activity (aw) of the ginger resulted in a 3- to 4-log reduction in Salmonella populations in the first 4 to 6 h with an additional 2- to 3-log reduction by 24 h. Higher temperature with a higher fan speed (stringent condition) resulted in significantly less destruction of Salmonella throughout the 24-h period (P ginger. During storage at 97% RH, the maximum aw values were 0.85 at 25°C and 0.87 at 37°C; Salmonella was no longer detected after 25 and 5 days of storage, respectively, under these conditions. At 33% RH, the aw stabilized to approximately 0.35 at 25°C and 0.31 at 37°C. Salmonella levels remained relatively constant throughout the 365-day and 170-day storage periods for the respective temperatures. These results indicate a relationship between temperature and aw and the survival of Salmonella during both drying and storage of ginger.

  11. Anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (Ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selima Sultana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperlipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor contributing to atterosclerosis in diabetes mellitus. Zingiber officinale (ginger widely consumed as spice is known for its hypoglycemic and hypochlosteremic actions. The present study was undertaken to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic action of ginger juice in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wister rats, 130-150 g wt, fed on standard diet and water ad libitum were divided into 4 groups (n=6 in each group: group I non-diabetic control, group II non-diabetic treated; group III diabetic control and group IV diabetic treated. Diabetes was induced by Inj. alloxan 150 mg Kg–1 b.w., i.p. (group III & IV on Day 2. Rats having blood glucose level of >7 mmol/l on day 5 (72 hrs after alloxan Inj. were considered diabetic and selected for experimentation. Both non-diabetic and diabetic treated groups (Gr II & IV received Zingiber officinale (ginger juice (4 ml Kg–1 b.w., p.o. for 10 days (day 2-day 11 through Ryles tube. On Day 12, animals were sacrificed under light ether anaesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and serum separated for estimation of lipids. Zingiber officinale (ginger juice significantly (p<0.01 decreased alloxan induced hyperglycemia (group IV, but had no effect on blood glucose level in normal rats (group II; significantly (p<0.001 reduced alloxan induced hyperlipidemia, but produced no significant lipid lowering effects in normal rats (group II. The results suggest a significant anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The findings may be clinically significant and exploited. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(2: 55-58

  12. Aqueous Extract Composition of Spent Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Amarum) from Essential Oil Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, G. J.; Mentari, G. P.; Khasanah, L. U.; Utami, R.

    2018-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale var Amarum) is widely used as raw material for essential oil production in Indonesia and contain high functional compounds. After producing essential oil, distillation leave less valuable spent ginger. This research was conducted to determine the bioactive compounds remained in aqueous extract of the spent ginger. The extracts were produced at various combination of temperature (55, 75, 95°C) and duration (15, 30, 45 minutes). The extract composition was observed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry analysis. The temperature and time of maceration extraction affected the content of compounds in spent ginger aqueous extracts. The extracts contained four largest components of α-curcumene, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene. The aqueous extracts from spent ginger contained the compounds which may contribute to distinctive flavor of ginger and also bioactive function.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation and temperature on ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) sprout and weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirikulvadhana, Suda; Prompubesara, Chavangsakdhi.

    1979-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) preservation was conducted by irradiated ginger at 0 (control), 4, 6 and 10 Krad and then stored at 20(+-1) deg C and room temperature (32+-3 deg C) with 75% relative humidity. The results of the experiment are as follows: after 1 month storage at 32 deg C both irradiated and non-irradiated ginger weight losses were 15-18% and water contents decreased from 88.67 to 81.82%. Only non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1 cm. in length by average at this time. Weight loss after three month storage of irradiated 0, 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger increased to 36.37, 32.67, 34.95 and 35.95% respectively, and the water contents decreased to 69.33, 72.00, 73.33 and 70.66% respectively. No sprout also, was found in 4-10 Krad ginger. The weight loss of non-irradiated ginger stored at 20 deg C for 6 months was lower than those irradiated ginger, i.e. only 21.07 for 0 Krad but 26.55, 28.07 and 34.30% for 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger respectively. In addition, water contents were found to be highest in non-irradiated ginger (76.00%) but lowest in irradiated ginger, at 10 Krad (66,66%). However, non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1.5 cm but no sprout was found in irradiated ginger. In conclusion, radiation only 4 Krad inhibited ginger sprout and did not decrease ginger weight (P<.01). Furthermore, cool temperature at 20 deg C delayed ginger sprout up to 4 months and decreased ginger weight loss

  14. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on the Volatile Flavor Compounds from Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, K.M.; Seo, H.Y.; Gyawali, Rajendra; Shim, S.L.; Yang, S.H.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on volatile components of Korean dried ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was studied and compared with non-irradiated sample. Volatile compounds from non- and irradiated samples were extracted using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). A total of 83 and 71 compounds were identified and quantified from non-and irradiated dried ginger at dose of 10 kGy. Identified components were hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones and miscellaneous compounds

  15. Redox properties of ginger extracts: Perspectives of use of Zingiber officinale Rosc. as antidiabetic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Račková, Lucia; Cupáková, Máriá; Tažký, Anton; Mičová, Júlia; Kolek, Emil; Košt'álová, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In traditional medicine, several medicinal plants or their extracts have been used to treat diabetes. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, known commonly as ginger, is consumed worldwide in cookeries as a spice and flavouring agent. It has been used as the spice and medicine for thousands of years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of oxidative damage to pancreatic β cells. The free radical scavenging activities and composition of the isolated n-hexane and ethanolic extracts were confronted with their protective, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in INS-1E β cells. Unlike the n-hexane extract (exerting, paradoxically, stronger antiradical capacity), both low cytotoxicity and remarkable protective effects on β cell viability, followed by lowering oxidative stress markers were found for the ethanolic extract Zingiber officinale Rosc. The present study is the first pilot study to assess the protective potential of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of cytotoxic conditions imposed by diabetes in β cells.

  16. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding: a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, Farzaneh; Khajehei, Marjan; Alavinia, Mohammad; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of herbal plants have been reported to treat various gynecological problems of women. This study was set out to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in high school girls. Ninety-two young women who experienced HMB and met the inclusion criteria were recruited in this study. Participants were evaluated for six consecutive menstrual cycles. During 3 assessment cycles, their HMB was confirmed by Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart. They were then randomly allocated to two study groups to receive either ginger or placebo capsules. The participants filled in the same chart during three intervention cycles. The level of menstrual blood loss dramatically declined during the three intervention cycles in ginger-receiving group. The decrease of blood loss in ginger-receiving group was significantly more remarkable than that of participants receiving placebo (pginger may be considered as an effective therapeutic option for HMB. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Tenderness, pH and Water Activity (Aw of Spices Dried Meat on Various Concentrate of Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe and Different Soaking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhadiyah Afrila

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of current research were to find out the concentrate of Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and different soaking time of to tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw, microbial count and sensory evaluation of spices dried meat. The result showed that higher the ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe concentrate and longer the soaking time, it would give more tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw to spices dried meat with 15% ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract and 20 minutes length of soaking time. Key Words : Dendeng, ginger, soaking time, tenderness, pH and Aw

  18. Food Value of Two Varieties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Commonly Consumed in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Olubunmi B.; Akomolafe, Seun F.; Akinyemi, Funmilayo T.

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well-known and widely used herb, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health-promoting properties. The proximate, mineral, antinutrient, amino acid, and phytochemical components of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated. Amino acid composition was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results obtained in percentages in the two varieties of ginger (white and yellow types) were crude fibre (21.90, 8.30), fat (17.11, 9.89), carbohydrate (39.70, 58.21), crude protein (12.05, 11.65), ash (4.95, 7.45) and moisture (3.95, 4.63) contents respectively. Elemental analysis revealed that potassium (0.98 ppm and 1.38 ppm) is the most abundant, while copper (0.01 ppm) is the least. Phytochemical screening indicated that they are both rich in saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannin and glycosides. Also, the antinutrient constituents of white ginger were lower than yellow ginger, although the levels of the antinutrient constituents in the two varieties are saved for consumption. The essential amino acids in the two varieties were almost the same, with Leu being the most abundant in both. The two ginger varieties were adequate only in Leu, Phe + Try, and valine based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Overall, the findings indicate that the two varieties of ginger are good sources of nutrients, mineral elements, amino acid, and phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements. PMID:24967255

  19. Influence Of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Supplementation Against GAMMA Rays Induced Immunosuppression In Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.; Kassab, F.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression in male albino rats was investigated in the present study. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; control group (receiving no treatment), ginger group where the rats received ginger orally at a dose of 15 g/rat/day for 120 consecutive days, gamma radiation group which subjected to a single 6 Gy whole body gamma radiation and gamma radiation plus ginger group where each rat after taking daily 15 g of ginger for 120 consecutive days was subjected to 6 Gy whole body irradiation. Complete blood pictures and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) were estimated and spleen tissue was also examined histologically. The data obtained revealed that exposure to 6 Gy of gamma radiation caused significant decrease in the body weight, spleen weight, IgG, IgM, erythroide and leucoid elements and produced histological damage in spleen tissue. On the other hand, ginger as a protective agent, caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by irradiation especially immunoglobulins leading to the conclusion that ginger supplementation for 120 days caused modulation of the humoral immune response in irradiated rats. In conclusion, these findings indicated that ginger has the regulatory effect against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression.

  20. In vitro propagation of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) through direct organogenesis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seran, Thayamini H

    2013-12-15

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a perennial herb. It belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and commercially cultivated in most tropical regions of the world. The underground rhizomes are the planting materials in a conventional propagation of ginger however it has a low multiplication rate. It is known that there are possible methods are available for rapid vegetative propagation of ginger through direct organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis under in vitro conditions but it is necessary to find the best protocol for in vitro multiplication of ginger. Limited studies on the tissue culture technology of ginger are available in Sri Lanka. However, significant efforts have been made in the procedure for in vitro micropropagation in the other ginger growing countries. The available literature with respect to in vitro plant regeneration has been perused and this review mainly focused on the in vitro propagation via direct organogenesis from rhizome buds or shoot tips of ginger often used as explants. This review article may be an appropriate and effective guidance for establishing in vitro cultures and subsequent production of in vitro plantlets in clonal propagation of ginger.

  1. Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ke, Weixin; Bao, Rui; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, metabolic syndromes (MetSs), including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, have become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Accumulating data have suggested that traditional herbs might be able to provide a wide range of remedies in prevention and treatment of MetSs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been documented to ameliorate hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These beneficial effects are mediated by transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity and related complications in MetS and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. This review provides guidance for further applications of ginger for personalized nutrition and medicine. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Cahyono, B.; Satriadi, H.; Munfarida, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is a rich spices country, both as a cooking spice and medicine. One of the most abundant commodities is red ginger, where it still less in application. On the other hand, the level of pollution is higher, so antioxidants are needed to protect the body cells from the bad effects of free radicals. The body can not naturally produce antioxidants as needed, so we need to consume foods with high antioxidant content. The purpose of this study is to know the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in red ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks. Research design with complete randomized design (RAL) with factorial pattern 3 x 3, as the first factor is red ginger extract and water ratio (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3) and second factor is the type of sugar used (cane sugar, palm sugar and mixed sugar). The results of this study indicate that red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 give higher antioxidant. The highest antioxidant obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 and using mixed sugar. That antioxidants value is 88.56%, it is not significant decreased compared to the antioxidant of pure ginger extract that is 91.46%. For higher phenol total content obtained on syrup that uses palm sugar. The highest phenol total content obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 1 and using palm sugar. That total phenol content value is 6299 ppm.

  3. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St. Michael, Barbados (West Indies). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The main pungent principles of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were quantified and qualified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. This procedure was used to evaluate the pungency profile of fresh, solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes. In this investigation, the total oleoresin extracted was in the ratio [20: 1: 2] for [fresh ginger: solar dried: solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes] with respect to the [6]-gingerol content. This simple isocratic HPLC method can be used to investigate the pungency profile of the extracted oleoresin from the ginger rhizomes. (author)

  4. Levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale) cultivated in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagesho, Yohannes; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common condiment for various foods and beverages and widely used worldwide as a spice. Its extracts are used extensively in the food, beverage, and confectionary industries in the production of products such as marmalade, pickles, chutney, ginger beer, ginger wine, liquors, biscuits, and other bakery products. In Ethiopia, it is among the important spices used in every kitchen to flavor stew, tea, bread and local alcoholic drinks. It is also chiefly used medicinally for indigestion, stomachache, malaria, fevers, common cold, and motion sickness. The literature survey revealed that there is no study conducted on the determination of metals in ginger cultivated in Ethiopia. Hence it is worthwhile to determine the levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger cultivated in Ethiopia. The levels of essential (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) and non-essential (Cd and Pb) metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivated in four different regions of Ethiopia and the soil where it was grown were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 0.5 g of oven dried ginger and soil samples were digested using 3 mL of HNO3 and 1 mL of HClO4 at 210°C for 3 h and a mixture of 6 mL aqua-regia and 1.5 mL H2O2 at 270°C for 3 h, respectively. The mean metal concentration (μg/g dry weight basis) ranged in the ginger and soil samples, respectively, were: Ca (2000-2540, 1770-3580), Mg (2700-4090, 1460-2440), Fe (41.8-89.0, 21700-46900), Zn (38.5-55.2, 255-412), Cu (1.1-4.8, 3.80-33.9), Co (2.0-7.6, 48.5-159), Cr (6.0-10.8, 110-163), Mn (184-401, 1760-6470), Ni (5.6-8.4, 14.1-79.3) and Cd (0.38-0.97, 0.24-1.1). The toxic metal Pb was not detected in both the ginger and soil samples. There was good correlation between some metals in ginger and soil samples while poor correlation between other metals (Fe, Ni, Cu). This study revealed that Ethiopian gingers are good source of essential metals and free from toxic

  5. Environment friendly route of iron oxide nanoparticles from Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Hui, Yau; Yi Peng, Teoh; Wei Wen, Liu; Zhong Xian, Ooi; Peck Loo, Kiew

    2016-11-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction between the Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extracts and ferric chloride solution at 50°C for 2 h in mild stirring condition. The synthesized powder forms of nanoparticles were further characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry. UV-Vis analysis shows the absorption peak of iron oxide nanoparticles is appeared at 370 nm. The calculation of crystallite size from the XRD showed that the average particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles was 68.43 nm. Therefore, this eco-friendly technique is low cost and large scale nanoparticles synthesis to fulfill the demand of various applications.

  6. Two new monoterpenoid glycosides from the fresh rhizome of Tongling White Ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Tan, Su-Bei; Wang, Ya; Chang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Two new monoterpenoid glycosides, trans-1,8-cineole-3,6-dihydroxy-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and 5,9-dihydroxy borneol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with four known monoterpenoid glycosides (3-6), were isolated from the water-soluble constituents of the fresh rhizome of Tongling White Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Their structures were decisively elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In vitro tests for antimicrobial activity showed that compounds 1 and 3 possess significant activity against two Gram-positive organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  7. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  8. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on glycemic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad

    2015-06-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the functional foods which contains biological compounds including gingerol, shogaol, paradol and zingerone. Ginger has been proposed to have anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, hypolipidemic and analgesic properties. Here, we report the effect of ginger supplementation on glycemic indices in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 20-60 -year-old patients with type 2 diabetes who did not receive insulin. Participants in the intervention and control groups were received 3 g of powdered ginger or placebo (lactose) (in capsules) daily for 3 months. Glycemic indices, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum paraoxonase, dietary intake and physical activity were measured at the beginning and end of the study, and after 12 h fasting. Comparison of the indices after 3 months showed that the differences between the ginger and placebo groups were statistically significant as follows: serum glucose (-19.41 ± 18.83 vs. 1.63 ± 4.28 mg/dL, p ginger improved glycemic indices, TAC and PON-1 activity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance the resistance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to rhizome rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5 g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, relative to the untreated control, with...

  10. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  11. Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P < 0.05) increased in ginger extract treated rat groups. In addition, histological studies showed lesser renal changes in lead plus ginger extract treated rat groups than that of lead alone treated rat groups. These results indicate that ginger extract alleviated lead toxic effects by enhancing the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase.

  12. Effect of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) on Sodium Arsenite- Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenite is a major environmental chemical and a known reproductive toxicant via the depression of spermatogenesis and androgenesis in males. The possibility of sodium arsenite reproductive toxicity been caused by autooxidation was investigated in this study taking advantage of the anti-oxidant properties of ginger and ...

  13. Improving pork burgers quality using Zingiber officinale Roscoe powder (ginger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Simone; Paci, Gisella; Fratini, Filippo; Torracca, Beatrice; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Preziuso, Giovanna

    2017-07-01

    Pork burgers were evaluated for physical-chemical characteristics, fatty acids profile, lipid oxidation, antioxidant capacity, microbiological growth and sensory evaluation during storage time of seven days at 4°C as function of three formulations as only meat (control, B) and meat added with ginger powder at the percentage of 1 and 2% (BG1 and BG2). BG1 and BG2 were less redness than control ones with incremented yellow hue. These modifications in color parameters did not modify sensory characteristics of burgers. PUFA were incremented (both PUFAω3 and PUFAω6) by the addition of ginger. Furthermore, BG1 and BG2 burgers showed to be less sensitive to lipid oxidation and to possess an increase in antioxidant capacity. Microbial growth evaluation of total aerobic count and Pseudomonas spp. showed that ginger powder delayed in time the bacterial contamination. Results highlighted that the presence of ginger led to an enhanced shelf life and health characteristics of burgers (increasing peroxidisability, ratio hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic and ratio ω3/ω6; reducing atherogenicity and thrombogenicity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on histology, blood profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study using ninety-nine day old Marshal Broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of ginger root meal on the histology, blood profile and internal organ characteristics of broilers. The birds were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments replicated three times in a completely Randomized Design.

  15. ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on intestinal, caeca microbial loads and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study using ninety-nine day old Marshal Broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of ginger root meal on growth, carcass and microbial population of broiler birds. The birds were randomly assigned to three treatments replicated three times in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each treatment consisted ...

  16. IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF MICRORHIZOMES IN GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to highlight an effective protocol for in vitro production of ginger microrhizomes. Microrhizomes were induced at the base of the in vitro derived shoots upon transfer to MS medium containing various concentrations of (30, 60 and 90 g/L, BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine (3, 6 and 9 mg/L and grown under varying photoperiodism in addition to the MS medium supplemented with 9 mg/L BAP and 60-90 g/L sucrose under 16-h photoperiod within 10 weeks of cultivation were the best conditions for microrhizomes induction. Ginger microrhizomes formation in vitro was found to be controlled by many factors, including the concentrations of BAP and sucrose as well as photoperiodism during culturing period.

  17. Producing armyworm (spodoptera sp.) Bioinsecticide based on cysteine protease of red ginger (zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, N. T.; Nur, D. F.; Utami, T. S.; Sahlan, M.; Wijanarko, A.; Hermansyah, H.

    2018-03-01

    Armyworm (Spodoptera sp.) is highly polyphagous defoliator on various horticulture and grain plants. Various chemical insecticides have been created to control it. There is a need to create an eco-friendly and specific insecticide which only affect armyworm’s nervous system. This research investigates cysteine-protease’s enzyme activity of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) which is called zingibain. Its catalytic site matches with residue site in armyworm’s body so it can be used as bioinsecticide raw material which meets the criterias above. Fresh red ginger rhizomes were washed and extracted. The juice was then deposited in low temperature and centrifuged to get rid of its starch content. It was filtrated to remove large contaminants and poured into Potassium Phospate buffer. The liquid was then centrifuged again for 30 minutes before collecting the supernatant. Fresh leaves were then dipped into crude ginger protease extract and fed to fourth instar-armyworms. Leaves dipped into non-diluted extract were barely eaten by armyworm while the 50% and 25% dilution was half eaten and most eaten. The crude red ginger extract was not strong enough to kill them although the research showed its enzymatic activity reaches up to 169 PU. It still needs improvement to be produced as commercial bioinsecticide.

  18. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Essential Oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Helal, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was irradiated at doses of 0,5, 10 and 15 kGy. The irradiated as well as non-irradiated oil were tested for their antibacterial activity against one strain of food poisoning bacteria (Bacillus cereus), one strain of the indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli), two strains of human pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), one strain of food spoilage bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and one strain of plant pathogenic bacteria(Pseudomonas citri). In addition, the studied oils were tested for their antifungal activities against five strains of plant pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporium, Trichoderma viride and Alternaria alternata) to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial activity of the tested oil. The obtained results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation. While, Trichoderma viride appeared to be the most resistant fungus with non-irradiated and irradiated ginger essential oil treatments. The ginger essential oil irradiated at dose of 10 kGy appeared to be the best one for inhibition the growth of most tested bacteria and fungi under investigation. Also, changes in chemical constituents of ginger essential oil as affected by gamma radiation were investigated by Gas Chromatography

  19. Herbal dryer: drying of ginger (zingiber officinale) using tray dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Alexander; Ashari, M.; Ridha, M.

    2018-02-01

    Drying is widely used as a method to preserve food because of its convenience and affordability. Drying of ginger using tray dryer were carried out at various drying conditions, such as air-drying flow, air-drying temperature, and sample dimensions, to achieve the highest drying rate. Samples with various dimensions were placed in the tray dryer and dried using various air-drying flow and temperatures. The weights of samples were observed every 3 minutes interval. Drying was stopped after three times of constant weighing. Data of drying was collected to make the drying curves. Drying curves show that the highest drying rate is achieved using highest air flow and temperature.

  20. Development of SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers as a complementary tool for identification of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) from crude drugs and multicomponent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Preeti; Warude, Dnyaneshwar; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2008-05-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (common or culinary ginger) is an official drug in Ayurvedic, Indian herbal, Chinese, Japanese, African and British Pharmacopoeias. The objective of the present study was to develop DNA-based markers that can be applied for the identification and differentiation of the commercially important plant Z. officinale Roscoe from the closely related species Zingiber zerumbet (pinecone, bitter or 'shampoo' ginger) and Zingiber cassumunar [cassumunar or plai (Thai) ginger]. The rhizomes of the other two Zingiber species used in the present study are morphologically similar to that of Z. officinale Roscoe and can be used as its adulterants or contaminants. Various methods, including macroscopy, microscopy and chemoprofiling, have been reported for the quality control of crude ginger and its products. These methods are reported to have limitations in distinguishing Z. officinale from closely related species. Hence, newer complementary methods for correct identification of ginger are useful. In the present study, RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) analysis was used to identify putative species-specific amplicons for Z. officinale. These were further cloned and sequenced to develop SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers. The developed SCAR markers were tested in several non-Zingiber species commonly used in ginger-containing formulations. One of the markers, P3, was found to be specific for Z. officinale and was successfully applied for detection of Z. officinale from Trikatu, a multicomponent formulation.

  1. Generation of autotetraploid plant of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and its quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Hua, Wei; Jian-Hua, Miao; He-Ping, Huang; Shan-Lin, Gao

    2011-01-01

    Background: Zingiber officinale Rosc. is not only an important medical plant in China, but also one of the most commonly used plant spices around the world. Early researches in Z. officinale Rosc. were focused on rapid propagation, germplasm preservation, and somatic embryogenesis, only a few reports focused on the generation of tetraploid ginger plants with colchicines treatment in vitro. Materials and Methods: The adventitious buds were submerged into different concentrations of colchicine water solution for different time to induce polyploid plants, and the induced buds were identified by root-tip chromosome determination and stomatal apparatus observation. Eighteen selected tetraploid lines were transferred to the field, and the leaf characteristics, rhizome yield, contents of volatile oil and gingerol were respectively evaluated to provide evidence of high-yield and good qualities of tetraploid ginger. Results: The induction rate reached as high as 33.3% of treated buds. More than 48 lines of autotetraploid plants were obtained. All tetraploid plants showed typical polyploidy characteristics. All of the 18 selected tetraploid lines possessed higher rhizome yield and overall productivity of volatile oil and gingerol than those of the control. Conclusion: Five elite lines have been selected for further selection and breeding new varieties for commercial production in agricultural production. PMID:21969790

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction of ginger (Zingiber Officinale Var. Amarum) : Global yield and composition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Sulaswatty, Anny; Agustian, Egi; Salahuddin, Aditama, Deska Prayoga Fauzi

    2017-11-01

    An experiment to observe the effect of temperature and time process in ginger rhizome-Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) using CO2 as the solvent has been conducted. The ginger rhizome (Zingiber Officinale Var. Amarum) was washed, drained, sliced, sun-dried, and then stored in a sealed bag prior to usage. The temperature and time process variables are each 35, 40, 45°C and 2, 4, 6 hours respectively with the pressure variable are 3500, 4000, and 4500 psi. It is found that the highest yield (2.9%) was achieved using temperature of 40°C and pressure of 4500 psiwith the process time of 4 hours. However, using the curve-fitting method, it is suggested to use 42°C as the temperature and 5 hours, 7 minutes, and 30 seconds (5.125 Hours) as the time process to obtain the highest yield. The temperature changes will affect both solvent and vapor pressure of diluted compounds of the ginger which will influence the global yield and the composition of the extract. The three major components of the extract are curcumene, zingiberene, and β - sesquipellandrene,

  3. Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale (ginger has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update.

  4. Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H.; Duke, Colin C.; Roufogalis, Basil D.

    2012-01-01

    Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update. PMID:23243452

  5. Micropropagation of ginger (zingiber officinale var. rubrum) using buds from microshoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuraida, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum (ZOR) is cultivated for its medicinal value despite the constraints of longer life cycle. The study has established an efficient and reproducible protocol to micropropagate ZOR using buds generated on the surface of the ginger. Surface sterilized young buds of 0.5-1 cm and 2-4 cm cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplemented with BAP showed the highest survival rate (55-65%) and produced the highest average number of microshoots per explant (3.2±0.06) respectively. MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of auxin and cytokinin were used to evaluate shoot multiplication and root induction. BAP concentrations between 3.0-5.0 mg/L was very effective in promoting microshoots and resulted in 100% of microshoot propagation. Microshoots cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L NAA produced the highest number of shoots while 0-0.5 mg/L BAP enhanced shoot length and 3mg/L NAA in combination with BAP produced highest number of roots. Microshoots maintained on MS medium supplemented with 4.5% sucrose produced the highest number of plantlets (23±2.5) and roots per explants (15.4±2.4) meanwhile reducing the length of lateral roots (2.6±0.2). (author)

  6. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol: an efficient and sustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne; Kristensen, Kasper; Xiao, Langtao; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-08-26

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500 psi and 100 °C for 20 min (static extraction time: 5 min) is recommended as optimized extraction conditions, achieving 106.8%, 109.3% and 108.0% yield of [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol relative to the yield of corresponding constituent obtained by 8h Soxhlet extraction (absolute ethanol as extraction solvent). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Fasciola hepatica eggs: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Khademolhoseini, Ali Asghar

    2016-09-01

    Fasciolosis is of considerable economic and public health importance worldwide. Little information is available on the ovicidal effects of anthelminthic drugs. The use of ovicidal anthelmintics can be effective in disease control. In this study, the effectiveness of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the eggs of Fasciola hepatica is investigated. Fasciola hepatica eggs were obtained from the gall bladders of naturally infected sheep and kept at 4 °C until use. The eggs were exposed to varying concentrations of ginger extract (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/mL) for 24, 48 and 72 h. To investigate the effect of the ginger extracts on the miracidial formation, the treated eggs were incubated at 28 °C for 14 days. The results indicated that F. hepatica eggs are susceptible to the methanolic extract of Z. officinale. The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 1 mg/mL with 24, 48 and 72 h treatment time was 46.08, 51.53 and 69.09 % respectively (compared with 22.70 % for control group). The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 5 mg/mL after 24 h was 98.84 %. One hundred percent ovicidal efficacy was obtained through application of ginger extract at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL with a 48 and 24 h treatment time respectively. The in vitro ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of Z. officinale was satisfactory in this study, however, in vivo efficacy of this extract, remains for further investigation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the ovicidal effect of Z. officinale against F. hepatica eggs.

  8. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5% when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 µmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong were observed at 790 µmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 µmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.

  9. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 μmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 μmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 μmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. PMID:21151455

  10. Acute administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizomes) extract on timed intravenous pentylenetetrazol infusion seizure model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Abdolkarim; Mirazi, Naser

    2014-03-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) or ginger, which is used in traditional medicine has antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of ginger in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male mice. The anticonvulsant effect of Z. officinale was investigated using i.v. PTZ-induced seizure models in mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale (25, 50, and 100mg/kg) were administered intraperitonal (i.p.), 2 and 24h before induction of PTZ. Phenobarbital sodium (30mg/kg), a reference standard, was also tested for comparison. The effect of ginger on to the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints (myoclonic, generalized clonus and forelimb tonic extension phase) was recorded. The results showed that the ginger extract has anticonvulsant effects in all the experimental treatment groups of seizure tested as it significantly increased the seizure threshold. Hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure at doses of 25-100mg/kg (p<0.001) and significantly prevented generalized clonic (p<0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension (p<0.01) seizure 2 and 24h before induction of PTZ compared with control group. Based on the results the hydroethanolic extract of ginger has anticonvulsant effects, possibly through an interaction with inhibitory and excitatory system, antioxidant mechanisms, oxidative stress and calcium channel inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of volatile oil, gingerols, and diarylheptanoids in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yusong; Liao, Qinhong; Zou, Yong; Liu, Yiqing; Lan, Jianbin

    2017-10-23

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a popular flavoring that widely used in Asian, and the volatile oil in ginger rhizomes adds a special fragrance and taste to foods. The bioactive compounds in ginger, such as gingerols, diarylheptanoids, and flavonoids, are of significant value to human health because of their anticancer, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, as a non-model plant, knowledge about the genome sequences of ginger is extremely limited, and this limits molecular studies on this plant. In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed to investigate the expression of genes associated with the biosynthesis of major bioactive compounds in matured ginger rhizome (MG), young ginger rhizome (YG), and fibrous roots of ginger (FR). A total of 361,876 unigenes were generated by de novo assembly. The expression of genes involved in the pathways responsible for the biosynthesis of major bioactive compounds differed between tissues (MG, YG, and FR). Two pathways that give rise to volatile oil, gingerols, and diarylheptanoids, the "terpenoid backbone biosynthesis" and "stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis" pathways, were significantly enriched (adjusted P value < 0.05) for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.005) both between the FR and YG libraries, and the FR and MG libraries. Most of the unigenes mapped in these two pathways, including curcumin synthase, phenylpropanoylacetyl-CoA synthase, trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase, and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, were expressed to a significantly higher level (log 2 (fold-change) ≥ 1) in FR than in YG or MG. This study provides the first insight into the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds in ginger at a molecular level and provides valuable genome resources for future molecular studies on ginger. Moreover, our results establish that bioactive compounds in ginger may predominantly synthesized in the root and then transported to

  12. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnama Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zingiber officinale R. rhizome (ginger is a popular spice that has traditionally been used to combat the effects of various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea. Method This was a randomized, controlled trial. The study was based on a sample of one hundred and twenty students with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. The students were all residents of the dormitories of Shahed University. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, one for ginger and the other for placebo in two different treatment protocols with monthly intervals. The ginger and placebo groups in both protocols received 500 mg capsules of ginger root powder or placebo three times a day. In the first protocol ginger and placebo were given two days before the onset of the menstrual period and continued through the first three days of the menstrual period. In the second protocol ginger and placebo were given only for the first three days of the menstrual period. Severity of pain was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analogue scale. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the two groups (placebo n = 46, ginger n = 56. The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in the severity of pain between ginger and placebo groups for protocol one (P = 0.015 and protocol two (P = 0.029. There was also significant difference in duration of pain between the two groups for protocol one (P = 0.017 but not for protocol two (P = 0.210. Conclusion Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in students with ginger for 5 days had a statistically significant effect on relieving intensity and duration of pain. Trial registration IRCT201105266206N3

  13. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for the treatment of pain: a systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Rohini; Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-12-01

    Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale), commonly known as ginger, has been widely used traditionally for a variety of medicinal purposes, one of which is for the treatment of pain. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence from all human participant clinical trials that have assessed the efficacy of ginger for the treatment of any type of pain.   Following a protocol, multiple databases were sought using comprehensive search strategies for Z. officinale and pain together with a trial filter for randomized or controlled clinical trials. Trials testing the efficacy of Z. officinale, used as a sole oral treatment against a comparison condition in human adults suffering from any pain condition, were included.   Seven published articles, reporting a total of eight trials (481 participants), were included in the review. Six trials (two for osteoarthritis, one for dysmenorrhea, and three for experimentally induced acute muscle pain) found that the use of Z. officinale reduced subjective pain reports. The methodological quality of the included articles was variable. When assessed using the Jadad scale, which allows a score of between 0 and 5 to be given, included articles obtained Jadad ratings ranging from 2 to 5.   Due to a paucity of well-conducted trials, evidence of the efficacy of Z. officinale to treat pain remains insufficient. However, the available data provide tentative support for the anti-inflammatory role of Z. officinale constituents, which may reduce the subjective experience of pain in some conditions such as osteoarthritis. Further rigorous trials therefore seem to be warranted. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Alteration of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold by chronic administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Abdolkarim; Mirazi, Naser

    2015-05-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), or ginger, used in traditional Chinese medicine, has antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of ginger in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male mice. The anticonvulsant effect of Z. officinale was investigated using i.v. PTZ-induced seizure models in mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were administered intraperitonal (i.p.), daily for 1 week before induction of PTZ. Phenobarbital sodium (30 mg/kg), a reference standard, was also tested for comparison. The effect of ginger on to the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints, e.g., myoclonic, generalized clonic, and tonic extension phase, was recorded. Hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure at doses of 25-100 mg/kg (55.33 ± 1.91 versus 24.47 ± 1.33 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and significantly prevented generalized clonic (74.64 ± 3.52 versus 47.72 ± 2.31 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension (102.6 ± 5.39 versus 71.82 ± 7.82 mg/kg, p < 0.01) seizure induced by PTZ compared with the control group. Based on the results, the hydroethanolic extract of ginger has anticonvulsant effects, possibly through an interaction with inhibitory and excitatory systems, antioxidant mechanisms, and oxidative stress inhibition.

  15. Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  16. Comparison of the transcriptomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in response to the bacterial wilt infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  17. QUALITY COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BANGLADESHI AND CHINA GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudam Nandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. was extracted from China and Bangladeshi varieties and yielded 0.21% and 0.23 % by hydro-distillation method on fresh weight basis respectively. Fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The major constituents of China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oils were zingiberene 38.10 % and 41.49%, β-phellandrene 12.0% and 9.92%, α-citral 11.48% and 9.76 %, α-curcumene 9.22% and 11.58%, camphene 5.94% and 4.60% , β-bisabolene 4.39% and 5.0% respectively. The IC50 (DPPH method values were found 61.18 µg/mL and 56.71 µg/mL with the highest inhibition of 78.49 % and 80.77% and the LC50 values in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay were found 0.4842 µg/mL and 0.7151 µg/mL in China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oil respectively. Both the essential oils showed significant activities against some gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The proximate composition of the China and Bangladeshi variety showed the ash (7.12±0.151, 8.15±0.18%, protein (5.47±0.19, 6.60±0.16%, crude fibre (4.32±0.10, 4.61±0.12%, carbohydrate (16..06±0.35, 18.38±0.41 and food energy (70.50±0.89, 81.74±1.01 kcal/100g. respectively. The elemental compositions of the both varieties were found rich in Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Se, Na and K. These results indicate the quality composition of the two varieties may find interest in spice and culinary industries as well as in medicinal preparation.

  18. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez

    2013-08-01

    To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner III was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r (2)=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

  19. Microencapsulation of oleoresin from red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) in chitosan and alginate for fresh milk preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanti, Elsa; Astuty, Rizka Margi; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-02-01

    The usage of red ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) oleoresin extract as the preservative for fresh milk has not been studied yet. The aim of this research was to compare the inhibition effect of oleoresin extract-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles, and various ginger-based preservatives added into fresh milk, on the growth of bacteria. The total count plate growth of bacteria after addition of the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles was the lowest. In addition, the organoleptic test showed that this formulation had no significant effect on the color, taste, and flavor of fresh milk. The experimental results indicated that the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles may effectively be used as a preservative for fresh milk.

  20. Attenuation of gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunsuyi, Opeyemi B; Akinyemi, Ayodele J

    2012-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes on antioxidant status and renal damage induced by gentamycin in rats. Renal damage was induced in albino rats pretreated with dietary inclusion of ginger and turmeric (2% and 4%) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for three days. Assays for renal damage biomarkers (plasma creatinine, plasma urea, blood urea nitrogen and plasma uric acid), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as renal antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were carried out. The study revealed significant (p turmeric rhizome (2% and 4%) prior to gentamycin administration significantly (p turmeric rhizomes may protect against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  1. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and resistance training on some blood oxidative stress markers in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive adiposity increases oxidative stress, and thus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and development of obesity-associated comorbidities, in particular atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and arterial hypertension. Improved body composition, through exercise training and diet, may therefore significantly contribute to a reduction in oxidative stress. Further, some foods high in antioxidants (e.g., ginger provide additional defense against oxidation. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and progressive resistance training (PRT on some nonenzymatic blood [total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA] oxidative stress markers in obese men. Thirty-two obese males (body mass index ≥30, aged 18–30 years were randomized to one of the following four groups: a placebo (PL; n = 8; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL; n = 8; resistance training plus ginger supplementation (RTGI; n = 8; and ginger supplementation only (GI; n = 8. Participants in the RTGI and GI groups consumed 1 g ginger/day for 10 weeks. At the same time, PRT was undertaken by the RTPL and RTGI groups three times/week. Resting blood samples were collected at baseline and at 10 weeks, and analyzed for plasma nonenzymatic TAC and MDA concentration. After the 10-week intervention, we observed significant training × ginger supplementation × resistance training interaction for TAC (p = 0.043 and significant interactions for training × resistance training and training × ginger supplementation for MDA levels (p < 0.05. The results of this study show that 10 weeks of either ginger supplementation or PRT protects against oxidative stress and therefore both of these interventions can be beneficial for obese individuals; however, when combined, the effects cancel each other out.

  2. The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale on human sperm quality and DNA fragmentation: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Hosseini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the effectiveness of ginger as an antioxidant agent has been exploited, little human research has been conducted on its activity on male reproductive functions. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale on sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF in infertile men. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation was performed on 100 infertility treatment candidates who were admitted to Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments: ginger and placebo. Patients were given a 3-month oral treatment (members received capsules containing 250 mg of ginger powder twice a day in ginger and a placebo in other group. Before and after treatment, standardized semen samples were obtained to determine sperm concentration, motility, and SDF according to World Health Organization. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding SDF at baseline (53.48. 95%CI: 37.95-69.02 in cases and (56.75, 95%CI: 40.01-73.5 in controls. The average positive percentage of SDF in patients receiving ginger (17.77, 95%CI: 6.16-29.39 was lower compared with placebo (40.54, 95%CI: 23.94-57.13 after three month of treatment (p=0.02. In multivariate analysis, SDF was significantly lower in patients receiving ginger compared with placebo (mean difference: 3.21, 95%CI: 0.78-5.63, p=0.009. There were no significant differences between two groups regarding to semen parameters. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that ginger in a controlled study of efficacy was effective in decreasing SDF in infertile men.

  3. EFFERVESCENT TABLETS FORMULATION OF GINGER RHIZOME (Zingiber officinale Rosc. WITH VARIATION OF CITRIC ACID AND TARTARIC ACID LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrod Mufrod

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. has efficacy as an anti-emetic. Ginger rhizome is usually consumed as instant beverages, so that need to be made into a dosage form that more effective, efficient and attractive. This research aims to formulate ginger into effervescent tablets by using variation of the levels of citric acid and tartaric acid. Dried extract of ginger was made with percolation method using ethanol 70% and evaporated using spray dryer. Extract was made for 5 formulas with variation of acid source using smelting method. Granules were tested its physical properties include flow time, tap index, angle of repose, water absorption, compactibility, mass density, water content, and total phenolic level. Granules were compressed become tablets and tested for physical properties include weight uniformity, friability, hardness, dissolve time, flavor response test and total phenolic level. Data were analyzed with Anova One Way using 95% confidence level. The result shown that formula III was the best formula because it meets the physical requirements of granules and tablets. While the formula V (100% tartaric acid was a formula that provides the greatest stability phenolic levels.

  4. Characterization of gingerol analogues in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, R.,).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna Sonale, R; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2014-11-01

    Organically grown ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) SC CO2 extract obtained at 280 bar and 40 °C and its column chromatographic fractions are characterised for its composition. The components in the extract and fractions are identified by HPLC and LC based MS and are used as standard for the estimation of gingerol analogues in the extract. HPLC and mass analysis of the extracts confirmed the various forms of gingerol constituents [4]-, [6]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-, [8]-, [10]-shogaols in ginger extracts. SC CO2 extract of organic ginger was found to show 6-gingerol around 25.97 % of total extract. The estimation of [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaols, [4]gingerol, [10]-gingerol and 6-gingediol content of the SC CO2 purified ginger extract was found to be 75.92 ± 1.14, 1.25 ± 0.04, 4.54 ± 0.04, 13.15 ± 0.30 and 0.37 ± 0.00 % respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the assay have shown 652 ± 0.37 mg TE/g and 3.68 ± 0.18 mg TE/100 g respectively, are significantly higher results with SC CO2 organic ginger extract. Paradol analogues are not detected in this study. Small quantities of [4]-, [10]gingediol and [6]-gingediacetate are also found in ginger extract.

  5. Liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The main pungent principles and essential oils of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography. The stationary phase used was (5.0 g silica gel 70-230 mesh) and the mobile phase [petroleum ether (60-80degC) : diethyl ether (3:7 v/v)]. The first 15 ml contained the very volatile and least polar compounds present in the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizome. These compounds are the essential oils (R{sub f} = 0.90) and 25.63% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 25 ml contained the shogaol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.42) and 47.74% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 35 ml contained the gingerol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.20) and 27.13% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. This simple liquid chromatography method can be used to investigate the essential oils and pungent principles of the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizomes. (Author)

  6. Inhibition of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Gang, David Roger

    2013-11-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), members of the Zingiberaceae, are widely used in traditional Asian cuisines and herbal medicine. Gingerols and diarylheptanoids, important compounds from these plants, appear to be produced by enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase class. Previous efforts to detect activity of such enzymes in tissues from these plants were only marginally successful in turmeric and completely unsuccessful in ginger because of very rapid hydrolysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA substrates (p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA) in these assays, presumably due to the presence of thioesterases in these tissues. In order to determine whether such thioesterase activities were specific and could be reduced so that the polyketide synthase activities could be better characterized, three inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase were tested in assays with leaf and rhizome crude protein extracts from these plants: orlistat, a reduced form of lipstatin, and peptide 1 and peptide 2 from hydrolysates of soybean β-conglycinin. Results of these analyses indicated that specific thioesterases do exist in these plants and that they could indeed be inhibited, with highest inhibition occurring with a mixture of these three compounds, leading for example to a reduction of caffeoyl-CoA hydrolysis in leaves and rhizomes of ginger by 40-fold and 27-fold, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; Wisniewski, Michael; Kennedy, John F; Jiang, Yusong; Tang, Jianmin; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-20

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, with the best control at 5g/L. Chitosan and oligochitosan applied at 5g/L also reduced weight loss, measured as a decrease in fresh weight, but did not affect soluble solids content or titratable acidity of rhizomes. The two compounds applied at 5g/L induced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity and the transcript levels of their coding genes, as well as the total phenolic compounds in rhizome tissues. Therefore, the ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to reduce rot in stored rhizomes may be associated with their ability to induce defense responses in ginger. These results have practical implications for the application of chitosan and oligochitosan to harvested ginger rhizomes to reduce postharvest losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM AND GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, SALMONELLA TYPHI, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND BACILLUS CEREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandna Chand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic and Zingiber officinale (ginger has been evaluated against four different bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Two methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of garlic and ginger extracts namely disk diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. Garlic extract exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against all four test organisms while ginger extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus only. In addition, agar well diffusion method showed higher zone in inhibition when compared with the zone of inhibition produced by the spice of same concentration against the test microorganism by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic sensitivity of the four different bacteria was tested with commercially available antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin; Oxytetracycline; Vancomycin; Streptomycin; Gentamicin; Tetracycline; Novobiocin; Amikacin and Penicillin G. Penicillin G produced the highest zone of inhibition of 40.00±0.00against Staphylococcus aureus and the lowest zone of inhibition of 0.00±0.00against Escherichia coli.

  9. Role of dietary ginger Zingiber officinale in improving growth performances and immune functions of Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang; Giri, Sib Sankar

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a feeding supplement on the growth, skin mucus immune parameters, and cytokine-related gene expression of Labeo rohita, and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing six different concentrations of dried ginger (0% [basal diet], 0.2% [G2], 0.4% [G4], 0.6% [G6], 0.8% [G8], and 1.0% [G10] were fed to fish (average weight: 12.3 g) for 60 days. Growth parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Skin mucosal immune responses and gene expression were examined 60 days post-feeding. Results showed that growth parameters such as final weight gain (93.47 ± 1.73 g) and specific growth rate (3.41 ± 0.14) were significantly higher in G8 than in the control. Among the skin mucosal immune parameters examined, lysozyme (46.5 ± 3.8 U mg(-1)), immunoglobulin level (8.9 ± 0.4 unit-mg mL(-1)), protein level (44.3 ± 2.2 mg mL(-1)) were significantly higher in G8. However, alkaline phosphatase activity (171.6 ± 10.2 IU L(-1)) was high (P ginger supplemented diet exhibited significantly higher relative post-challenge survival (65.52%) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplements of ginger (at 0.8%) can promote growth performance, skin mucus immune parameters, and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Therefore, ginger represents a promising food additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of ginger root (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Bui Thanh; Thu, Dang Kim; Thu, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hai, Nguyen Thanh

    2017-05-04

    Background Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of neurological disorder. This study aimed to investigate the phenolic contents, antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) inhibitory activities of different fraction of Z. officinale root grown in Vietnam. Methods The roots of Z. officinale are extracted with ethanol 96 % and fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (BuOH) solvents. These fractions evaluated the antioxidant activity by 1,1-Diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and AChE inhibitory activity by Ellman's colorimetric method. Results Our data showed that the total phenolic content of EtOAc fraction was highest equivalents to 35.2±1.4 mg quercetin/g of fraction. Our data also demonstrated that EtOAc fraction had the strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 was 8.89±1.37 µg/mL and AChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 22.85±2.37 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner, followed by BuOH fraction and the n-hexane fraction is the weakest. Detailed kinetic analysis indicated that EtOAc fraction was mixed inhibition type with Ki (representing the affinity of the enzyme and inhibitor) was 30.61±1.43 µg/mL. Conclusions Our results suggest that the EtOAc fraction of Z. officinale may be a promising source of AChE inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian ginger germplasm (Zingiber officinale) revealed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eleonora Zambrano; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Siqueira, Marcos Vinícius Bohrer Monteiro; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is a vegetable with medicinal and culinary properties widely cultivated in the Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The knowledge of ginger species' genetic variability is essential to direct correctly future studies of conservation and genetic improvement, but in Brazil, little is known about this species' genetic variability. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of 55 Brazilian accessions and 6 Colombian accessions of ginger, using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers. The molecular characterization was based on 13 primers combinations, which generated an average of 113.5 polymorphic loci. The genetic diversity estimates of Nei (Hj), Shannon-Weiner index (I) and an effective number of alleles (n e ) were greater in the Colombian accessions in relation to the Brazilian accessions. The analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation occurred between the two countries while in the Brazilian populations there is no genetic structure and probably each region harbors 100 % of genetic variation found in the samples. The bayesian model-based clustering and the dendrogram using the dissimilarity's coefficient of Jaccard were congruent with each other and showed that the Brazilian accessions are highly similar between themselves, regardless of the geographic region of origin. We suggested that the exploration of the interspecific variability and the introduction of new varieties of Z.officinale are viable alternatives for generating diversity in breeding programs in Brazil. The introduction of new genetic materials will certainly contribute to a higher genetic basis of such crop.

  12. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Renal Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroaganachi, Mercy; Eleazu, Chinedum; Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-03-20

    Although unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) are used as single plants to manage diabetes mellitus in Nigeria, the possibility of combining them in a typical diabetic diet and the glycemic response elicited as a result of such combination has not been investigated. To determine the effect of unripe plantain and ginger on serum total proteins, albumin, creatinine and urea levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 3 received unripe plantain pellets and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger pellets. There were significant increases (P=0.045) of both serum urea and creatinine, but significant decreases (P=0.045) of both serum total protein and albumin levels, in Group 2 rats compared with Group 1. There were significant decreases (P=0.033) of both serum urea and creatinine levels of Group 3 and 4 rats compared with Group 2. In addition, there were significant increases of both serum total protein and albumin levels (P=0.033) in Group 3 rats compared with Group 2, but the comparison of serum total protein and albumin levels between Group 4 and Group 2 did not reach the significant level (P=0.056 and P=0.065 for serum total protein and albumin levels, respectively. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the ratio used in the management of renal dysfunction in diabetics was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  13. Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale (Roscoe ethanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ethanolic extract from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale were evaluated. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated by microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC have been determined. The values were in the range from 0.0024 to > 20 mg/ml. The most sensitive bacteria were Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Anti-biofilm activity was tested by crystal violet assay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used as the test organisms. Ethanolic extract showed the best result on Proteus mirabilis biofilm where biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC50 was 19 mg/ml.

  14. Antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected Wistar mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Kobo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out to determine the in vivo antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five mice were randomly allocated into five groups of five animals each. Group I and II were given Tween 80 (1 ml/kg and diminazene aceturate (3.5 mg/kg to serve as untreated and treated controls, respectively. Groups III-V received the extract at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All treatments were given for 6 consecutive days and through the oral route. The mean body weight, mean survival period and daily level of parasitaemia were evaluated. Results: Acute toxicity showed the extract to be relatively safe. There was an insignificant increase in body weight and survival rate of mice treated with the extract. The level of parasitaemia in the extract treated groups was decreased. Conclusion: This study shows the in vivo potential of methanolic extract of Z. officinale in the treatment of trypanosomiasis.

  15. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  16. A molecular dynamics study of components of the ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract inside human acetylcholinesterase: implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuya, Teobaldo; Baptista, Leonardo; Celmar Costa França, Tanos

    2017-11-23

    Components of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts have been described as potential new drug candidates against Alzheimer disease (AD), able to interact with several molecular targets related to the AD treatment. However, there are very few theoretical studies in the literature on the possible mechanisms of action by which these compounds can work as potential anti-AD drugs. For this reason, we performed here docking, molecular dynamic simulations and mmpbsa calculations on four components of ginger extracts former reported as active inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (HssAChE), and compared our results to the known HssAChE inhibitor and commercial drug in use against AD, donepezil (DNP). Our findings points to two among the compounds studied: (E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hept-4-en-3-on and 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3- ethoxyphenyl) heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate, as promising new HssAChE inhibitors that could be as effective as DNP. We also mapped the binding of the studied compounds in the different binding pockets inside HssAChE and established the preferred interactions to be favored in the design of new and more efficient inhibitors.

  17. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Firouzeh Gholampour; Fatemeh Behzadi Ghiasabadi; Seyed Mohammad Owji; Jaafar Vatanparast

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G...

  18. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Powder Supplement on Pain in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: a Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nadjarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is limited evidence that ginger (Zingiber Officinale powder consumption is effective to relieve the pain and inflammation due to special phytichemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger powder supplementation in pain improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 outpatients with knee osteoarthritis of moderate pain. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: receiving ginger powder supplement and placebo. Ginger and placebo groups received two identical capsules per day for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg ginger powder or starch. Pain severity was measured by VAS (Visual Analog Scale at first and after 3 months. A responder was defined as a reduction in pain of > 1.5 cm on a visual analog scale (VAS. Results: Before intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in severity of pain. However, after ginger supplementation, pain score decreased in ginger group. After 12 weeks, Pain reduction was more significant in ginger group than placebo. Response to intervention was 88% and 14% in ginger and placebo groups, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between both groups in response to intervention (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ginger powder supplementation was effective in reducing pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis, therefore it is recommended as a safe supplement for these patients

  19. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wojciech; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Marzec, Zbigniew; Kasperek, Elwira; Wyszogrodzka-Koma, Lucyna; Szwerc, Wojciech; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2017-02-20

    The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan). GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%); the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg); a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass) and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass) content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb) remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6)-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6)-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, ( E , E )-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar -curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals.

  20. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Koch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan. GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%; the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg; a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, (E,E-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar-curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals.

  1. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion and ginger in comparison with levamisole and triclabendazole drugs (positive controls were evaluated. Distilled water was used as negative control. Paralysis and death of leeches were recorded in 720 minutes. Results: Lethal effect of methanolic extract of ginger against Limnatis nilotica was equal to levamisole and more than triclabendazole and methanolic extract of onion. Conclusion: Ginger equal to levamisole has anti-leech activity and its methanolic extract might be used against Limnatis nilotica.

  2. Enhanced extraction of oleoresin from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder using enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakumar, Sadineni; Umesh, Kannamangalam Vijayan; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used worldwide. The oleoresin consists of gingerols, shogaols and other non-volatiles as chief bioactive constituents. Three phase partitioning (TPP), a bioseparation technique, based on partitioning of polar constituents, proteins, and hydrophobic constituents in three phases comprising of water, ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, was explored for extraction of oleoresin and gingerols from dry powder. Parameters optimized for maximum recovery of gingerols and [6]-shogaol were ammonium sulphate concentration, ratio of t-butanol to slurry, solid loading and pH. Ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatments increased the yield of oleoresin and its phytoconstituents. Ultrasound pretreatment showed separation of starch in the bottom aqueous phase but is an additional step in extraction. Enzymatic pretreatment using accellerase increased the yield of [6]-, [8]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-shogaol by 64.10, 87.8, 62.78 and 32.0% within 4h and is recommended. The efficacy of the enzymatic pretreatment was confirmed by SEM and FTIR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The hidden mechanism beyond ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) potent in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Shahira M; Ezzat, Marwa I; Okba, Mona M; Menze, Esther T; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2018-03-25

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known anti-inflammatory drug in the Egyptian, Indian and Chinese folk medicines, yet its mechanism of action is unclear. To explore its mechanism of action and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated using protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in rats at doses 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg b.wt. All the tested extracts showed significant (p< 0.1) in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for AE that was more significant than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125μg/ml). Purification of AE led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G1, G2 and G8 exhibited potent activity in all the studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw edema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200mg/kg) showed significant reduction in production of PGE2, TNF-α, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity by 60%, 57%, 60%, 41%, 32% and 67%, respectively. AE at 100 and 200mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NO x level and in increasing the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and edema after administration of AE (200mg/kg) prior to

  4. Fluidized bed drying characteristics and modeling of ginger ( zingiber officinale) slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Nezaket

    2015-08-01

    In this study fluidized bed drying characteristics of ginger have been investigated. The effects of the fluidizing air temperature, velocity, humidity and bed height on the drying performance of ginger slices have been found. The experimental moisture loss data of ginger slices has been fitted to the eight thin layer drying models. Two-term model drying model has shown a better fit to the experimental data with R2 of 0.998 as compared to others.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile compounds of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.J.; Yang, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Gingers were irradiated at a dose of 0.05 kGy to inhibit sprouting and conserve quality. Effects of gamma irradiation on the flavor compounds of ginger were studied. After 3 months of storage after irradiation, the quantities of some major volatile compounds such as alpha-zingiberene, alpha-bergamotene, neral, geranial, and alpha-curcumene were significantly lower in irradiated than in unirradiated ginger, although no difference was found immediately after irradiation. A triangle test showed no difference between irradiated and unirradiated gingers stored for 1 month at ambient temperature but showed significant difference after 5 months of storage

  6. A systematic review of the anti-obesity and weight lowering effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Javadivala, Zeinab; Mahluji, Sepideh; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti-obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language. All of the relevant human and animal studies and also in vitro studies were included. Review articles, abstract in congress, and also other varieties of ginger were excluded. Eligibility of included articles were evaluated by 3 reviewers, which also extracted data. Articles were critically assessed individually for possible risk of bias. Twenty-seven articles (6 in vitro, 17 animal, and 4 human studies) were reviewed. Most of the experimental studies supported the weight lowering effect of ginger extract or powder in obese animal models, whereas the results of the available limited clinical studies showed no changes or slight changes of anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with obesity. Ginger could modulate obesity through various potential mechanisms including increasing thermogenesis, increasing lipolysis, suppression of lipogenesis, inhibition of intestinal fat absorption, and controlling appetite. This review article provides some convincing evidence to support the efficacy of ginger in obesity management and demonstrates the importance of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2014-06-17

    Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided.

  8. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents. PMID:21152306

  9. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1 were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale. TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01 with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.

  10. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale on Platelet Aggregation: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Marx

    Full Text Available The potential effect of ginger on platelet aggregation is a widely-cited concern both within the published literature and to clinicians; however, there has been no systematic appraisal of the evidence to date.Using the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed the results of clinical and observational trials regarding the effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in adults compared to either placebo or baseline data. Studies included in this review stipulated the independent variable was a ginger preparation or isolated ginger compound, and used measures of platelet aggregation as the primary outcome.Ten studies were included, comprising eight clinical trials and two observational studies. Of the eight clinical trials, four reported that ginger reduced platelet aggregation, while the remaining four reported no effect. The two observational studies also reported mixed findings.Many of the studies appraised for this review had moderate risks of bias. Methodology varied considerably between studies, notably the timeframe studied, dose of ginger used, and the characteristics of subjects recruited (e.g. healthy vs. patients with chronic diseases.The evidence that ginger affects platelet aggregation and coagulation is equivocal and further study is needed to definitively address this question.

  11. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Platelet Aggregation: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; McKavanagh, Daniel; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Bird, Robert; Ried, Karin; Chan, Alexandre; Isenring, Liz

    2015-01-01

    The potential effect of ginger on platelet aggregation is a widely-cited concern both within the published literature and to clinicians; however, there has been no systematic appraisal of the evidence to date. Using the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed the results of clinical and observational trials regarding the effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in adults compared to either placebo or baseline data. Studies included in this review stipulated the independent variable was a ginger preparation or isolated ginger compound, and used measures of platelet aggregation as the primary outcome. Ten studies were included, comprising eight clinical trials and two observational studies. Of the eight clinical trials, four reported that ginger reduced platelet aggregation, while the remaining four reported no effect. The two observational studies also reported mixed findings. Many of the studies appraised for this review had moderate risks of bias. Methodology varied considerably between studies, notably the timeframe studied, dose of ginger used, and the characteristics of subjects recruited (e.g. healthy vs. patients with chronic diseases). The evidence that ginger affects platelet aggregation and coagulation is equivocal and further study is needed to definitively address this question.

  12. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an Analgesic and Ergogenic Aid in Sport: A Systemic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2015-10-01

    Ginger is a popular spice used to treat a variety of maladies, including pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used by athletes to manage and prevent pain; unfortunately, NSAIDs contribute to substantial adverse effects, including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, hyponatremia, impairment of connective tissue remodeling, endurance competition withdrawal, and cardiovascular disease. Ginger, however, may act as a promoter of GI integrity and as a bronchodilator. Given these potentially positive effects of ginger, a systematic review of randomized trials was performed to assess the evidence for ginger as an analgesic and ergogenic aid for exercise training and sport. Among 7 studies examining ginger as an analgesic, the evidence indicates that roughly 2 g·d(-1) of ginger may modestly reduce muscle pain stemming from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, particularly if taken for a minimum of 5 days. Among 9 studies examining ginger as an ergogenic aid, no discernable effects on body composition, metabolic rate, oxygen consumption, isometric force generation, or perceived exertion were observed. Limited data suggest that ginger may accelerate recovery of maximal strength after eccentric resistance exercise and reduce the inflammatory response to cardiorespiratory exercise. Major limitations to the research include the use of untrained individuals, insufficient reporting on adverse events, and no direct comparisons with NSAID ingestion. While ginger taken over 1-2 weeks may reduce pain from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, more research is needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy as an analgesic for a wide range of athletic endeavors.

  13. Radiation sensitivity of two Ginger varieties (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Ene, L.S.O.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.

    1994-01-01

    The mutability and radiosensitivity of two local ginger varieties in Nigeria ''Tafin Giwa'' (UG 1) and ''Yatsun Biri'' (UG 2) were studied using gamma rays from a 60Co gamma source. There was a high frequency of chlorophyll mutations indicating a high mutability in ginger. GR 50 was obtained at 5.0 and 6.0 Gy in UG1, and UG2, respectively, while LD50 was obtained at 8.75 Gy in both varieties. The dose limitation range for ginger was estimated to be 5.0-9.0 Gy [es

  14. Identification and Concentration of Some Flavonoid Components in Malaysian Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Varieties by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids make up one of the most pervasive groups of plant phenolics. Due to their importance in plants and human health, it would be useful to have a better understanding of flavonoid concentration and biological activities that could indicate their potentials as therapeutic agents, and also for predicting and controlling the quality of medicinal herbs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe is a famous and widely used herb, especially in Asia, that contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, total flavonoids and some flavonoid components including quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol and naringenin were extracted from the leaves and rhizomes of two varieties of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara at three different growth points (8, 12 and 16 weeks after planting, and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method in order to determine the potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The results showed that Halia Bara had a higher content of flavonoids in the leaves and rhizomes as compared to Halia Bentong. In both varieties, the concentration of flavonoids in the leaves decreased (Halia Bentong, 42.3%; Halia Bara 36.7%, and in the rhizomes it increased (Halia Bentong 59.6%; Halia Bara 60.1% as the growth period increased. Quercetin was abundant in both varieties. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay showed high activities (65.7% in the leaves of Halia Bara at 8 weeks after planting. Results suggested a good flavonoid content and antioxidant activity potential in ginger leaves at 8 weeks after planting. The leaves of these ginger varieties could be useful for both food flavourings and in traditional medicine.

  15. Comparison of the histology of (I) fresh, (II) solar dried and (III) solar dried/steam distilled ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome tissue prior to the extraction of its pungent principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-yen, I.; Duncan, E.J. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-06-01

    The histological analysis of the rhizome cells of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has revealed some information about the cell`s design. Comparisons have shown that the oleoresin (pungent principles - gingerols and shogaols) were not observable in cell sections of the fresh ginger rhizomes. However, the number of the oleoresin organelles increased in the order of solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes, the latter having a high oleoresin extraction yield with acetone of 8.0 g per 100 g ginger rhizome (dry wt.). (author)

  16. Protective Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Extract against Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Apoptosis Induced by Interleukin-1β in Cultured Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Bahrampour Juybari, Kobra; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Kamarul, Tunku; Bagheri, Aboulfazl; Tekiyehmaroof, Neda; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract on IL-1β-mediated oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis were investigated in C28I2 human chondrocytes. The effects of various concentrations of ginger extract on C28I2 human chondrocyte viability were evaluated in order to obtain noncytotoxic concentrations of the drug by methylthiotetrazole assay. The cells were pretreated with 5 and 25 μg/mL ginger extract for 24 h, followed by incubation with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) for 24 h. The effects of ginger extract on IL-1β-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation were examined. The mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1, glutathione peroxidase-3, and glutathione peroxidase-4 were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 were analyzed by Western blotting. No cytotoxicity was observed at any concentration of ginger extract in C28I2 cells. Ginger extract pretreatment remarkably increased the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the IL-1β-induced elevation of ROS, lipid peroxidation, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and caspase-3 activity. Ginger extract could considerably reduce IL-1β-induced oxidative stress and consequent mitochondrial apoptosis as the major mechanisms of chondrocyte cell death. These beneficial effects of ginger extract may be due to its antioxidant properties. It may be considered as a natural herbal product to prevent OA-induced cartilage destruction in the clinical setting. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, N.

    1990-01-01

    A study on sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger of a local variety was carried out. Fresh ginger was irradiated at the doses of 0, 25, 50 and 80 Grays (Gy) and stored at temperature 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity ranging from 76-96% for 4 months. The parameters observed were physiological weight loss, sprouting, external appearance, fungal infection, moisture content, water activity, crude fiber content and total sugar. The results show that irradiation at the doses studied effectively inhibited sprouting in ginger when compared to the nonirradiated samples. However, radiation was unable to extend the shelf-life as all samples started to deteriorate after 2 months storage

  18. Central composite rotatable design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzilah, R. Hanum; Sobhana, B. Arianto; Mahfud, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction technique was employed to extract essential oil from ginger. The optimal condition for microwave assisted extraction of ginger were determined by resposnse surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables. The variables is were microwave power 400 - 800W as X1, feed solvent ratio of 0.33 -0.467 as X2 and feed size 1 cm, 0.25 cm and less than 0.2 cm as X3. The correlation analysis of mathematical modelling indicated that quadratic polynomial could be employed to optimize microwave assisted extraction of ginger. The optimal conditions to obtain highest yield of essential oil were : microwave power 597,163 W : feed solvent ratio and size of feed less than 0.2 cm.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Winarti Andayani; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2014-01-01

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  20. Antischistosomal activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Schistosoma mansoni harbored in C57 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Osama M S; Eid, Refaat A; Adly, Mohamed A

    2011-08-01

    The repeated chemotherapy of schistosomiasis has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant schistosome strains. The development of such resistance has drawn the attention of many authors to alternative drugs. Many medicinal plants were studied to investigate their antischistosomal potency. The present work aimed to evaluate antischistosomal activity of crude aqueous extract of ginger against Schistosoma mansoni. Sixteen mice of C57 strain were exposed to 100 ± 10 cercariae per mouse by the tail immersion method; the mice were divided into two groups: untreated group and ginger-treated one. All mice were sacrificed at the end of 10th week post-infection. Worm recovery and egg counting in the hepatic tissues and faeces were determined. Surface topography of the recovered worms was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Histopathological examination of liver and intestine was done using routine histological procedures. The worm burden and the egg density in liver and faeces of mice treated with ginger were fewer than in non-treated ones. Scanning electron microscopical examination revealed that male worms recovered from mice treated with ginger lost their normal surface architecture, since its surface showed partial loss of tubercles' spines, extensive erosion in inter-tubercle tegumental regions and numerous small blebs around tubercles. Histopathological data indicated a reduction in the number and size of granulomatous inflammatory infiltrations in the liver and intestine of treated mice compared to non-treated mice. The results of the present work suggested that ginger has antischistosomal activities and provided a basis for subsequent experimental and clinical trials.

  1. Changes in Nutritional Metabolites of Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe in Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase of atmospheric CO2 due to global climate change or horticultural practices has direct and indirect effects on food crop quality. One question that needs to be asked, is whether CO2 enrichment affects the nutritional quality of Malaysian young ginger plants. Responses of total carbohydrate, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protein, soluble amino acids and antinutrients to either ambient (400 μmol/mol and elevated (800 μmol/mol CO2 treatments were determined in the leaf and rhizome of two ginger varieties namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Increasing of CO2 level from ambient to elevated resulted in increased content of total carbohydrate, sucrose, glucose, and fructose in the leaf and rhizome of ginger varieties. Sucrose was the major sugar followed by glucose and fructose in the leaf and rhizome extract of both varieties. Elevated CO2 resulted in a reduction of total protein content in the leaf (H. Bentong: 38.0%; H. Bara: 35.4% and rhizome (H. Bentong: 29.0%; H. Bara: 46.2%. In addition, under CO2 enrichment, the concentration of amino acids increased by approximately 14.5% and 98.9% in H. Bentong and 12.0% and 110.3% in H. Bara leaf and rhizome, respectively. The antinutrient contents (cyanide and tannin except phytic acid were influenced significantly (P ≤ 0.05 by CO2 concentration. Leaf extract of H. Bara exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited highest content of cyanide (336.1 mg HCN/kg DW, while, highest content of tannin (27.5 g/kg DW and phytic acid (54.1 g/kg DW were recorded from H.Bara rhizome grown under elevated CO2. These results demonstrate that the CO2 enrichment technique could improve content of some amino acids and antinutrients of ginger as a food crop by enhancing its nutritional and health-promoting properties.

  2. Effect of combined administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and atorvastatin on the liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeba, Gehan H; Abd-Elghany, Manal I

    2010-12-01

    Ginger is known to possess hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Combination therapy often takes advantage of complementary effects of different agents. This study investigated the combined effect of ginger extract (GE) and atorvastatin on lipid profile and on atorvastatin-induced hepatic injury. Rats were randomized into: control; GE (400 mg/kg); atorvastatin (20 mg/kg) alone or with GE or vitamin E, and atorvastatin (80 mg/kg) alone or with GE or vitamin E. Administration of 80 mg/kg atorvastatin for 4 weeks had major hepatotoxic effect whereas the lower dose (20 mg/kg) seems to cause mild liver injury. Besides lowering serum total cholesterol and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), atorvastatin significantly increased serum aminotransferases, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). Concurrent administration of GE and atorvastatin had the opposite effect. Histopathological study revealed that GE reduced liver lesions induced by atorvastatin. The results indicate that the ability of ginger to lower serum cholesterol and to decrease aminotransferases, MDA and NO is clinically important, because its chronic administration will neither lead to side-effects nor to hepatic changes as occurs with high atorvastatin doses. Therefore, combination regimens containing GE and low dose of statins could be advantageous in treating hypercholesterolemic patients which are susceptible to liver function abnormalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Chen, Hao; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Xudong; Sun, Zhenshuang

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Electronic literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database from inception of the database to May 19, 2017, and supplemented by browsing reference lists of potentially eligible articles. Randomized controlled trials on research subjects were included. Data were extracted as a mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was performed. 10 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 490 individuals. Ginger showed a significant beneficial effect in glucose control and insulin sensitivity. The pooled weighted MD of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was -1.00, (95% CI: -1.56, -0.44; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that ginger obviously reduced FBG in T2DM patients (-21.24; 95% CI: -33.21, -9.26; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the significant effects of improvement of lipid profile were observed. Most analyses were not statistically heterogeneous. Based on the negligible side effects and obvious ameliorative effects on glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile, ginger may be a promising adjuvant therapy for T2DM and MetS.

  4. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C O, Eleazu; P N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  5. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-06-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling.

  6. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling

  7. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger ( Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-06-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling.

  8. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Gholampour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7: Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection. After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Results: Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p

  9. Amelioration of pancreatic and renal derangements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by polyphenol extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2015-12-01

    Free and bound polyphenol extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome were investigated for their antidiabetic potential in the pancreatic and renal tissues of diabetic rats at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. Forty Wistar rats were completely randomized into five groups: A-E consisting of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprises normal healthy animals and were orally administered 1.0mL distilled water on a daily basis for 42 days while group B-E were made up of 50mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Group C and D received 1.0mL 500mg/kg body weight free and bound polyphenol extracts respectively while group E received 1.0mL 0.6mg/kg of glibenclamide. Administration of the extracts to the diabetic rats significantly reduced (pZingiber officinale could ameliorate diabetes-induced pancreatic and renal derangements in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. AKTIVITAS ANTI INFLAMASI OLEORESIN JAHE (Zingiber officinale PADA GINJAL TIKUS YANG MENGALAMI PERLAKUAN STRES [Anti Inflammation Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Oleoresin on Kidney of Rats Under Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Mudite AdnyanE1

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to observe the role of antioxidant content of ginger oleoresin (Zingiber officinale on inflammation in the kidney of rats under stress condition, as an anti inflammation. A total of sixty male Wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into twelve groups; (1 control group, without treatment of both stress and oleoresin, (2 stress group, was treated by stress only, without oleoresin treatment, while (3 and (4 are groups that were treated by stress and then fed by standard feed for three and seven days, without oleoresin. Group (5 to group (12 were treated by stress and then followed by treatment of oleoresin for three and seven days. The doses of oleoresin were 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kgBW/day. Stress condition was done by 5 days fasting and swimming for 5 minutes/day, while drinking water was provided ad libitum. The highest number of inflammatory cells in the kidney of rats was observed in the stress group. The treatment of oleoresin after fasting stress showed decreasing of the number of inflammatory cells in the tissues. The decreasing rate was higher in the higher dose of oleoresin. The treatment groups that showed the number of inflammatory cells not significantly different from that of control group are treated groups receiving oleoresin 60 mg/kgBW/day for seven days, and 80 mg/kgBW/day for three and seven days, respectively. These results showed that ginger oleoresin has anti inflammatory effect in the kidney of rats kept under stress condition.

  11. Effects of Tissue Culture and Mycorrhiza Applications in Organic Farming on Concentrations of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizomes and Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungrok R; Marsh, Lurline E; Brathwaite, Keegan; Daramola, Adebola O

    2017-04-01

    Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics. Concentrations of the phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities, except for carotenoids and ICC, were significantly higher in organic ginger rhizomes and leaves than in non-organics regardless of the fractions and treatments (P < 0.05). Mycorrhiza application in organic farming significantly increased levels of TP, TF, gingerols, and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the combined application of tissue culture and mycorrhiza significantly increased concentrations of TF and gingerols and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05), suggesting their synergistic effects. Considerable amounts of phenolics were found in the Bound fractions of the rhizomes. Six-gingerol, ferulic acid, and lutein were predominant ones among gingerols, phenolic acids, and carotenoids, respectively, in ginger rhizomes. The results suggest that organic farming with mycorrhiza and tissue culture applications can increase concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in ginger rhizomes and leaves and therefore improve their health-protective potentials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. In silico investigation into the interactions between murine 5-HT3 receptor and the principle active compounds of ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohning, Anna E; Marx, Wolfgang; Isenring, Liz

    2016-11-01

    Gingerols and shogaols are the primary non-volatile actives within ginger (Zingiber officinale). These compounds have demonstrated in vitro to exert 5-HT 3 receptor antagonism which could benefit chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The site and mechanism of action by which these compounds interact with the 5-HT 3 receptor is not fully understood although research indicates they may bind to a currently unidentified allosteric binding site. Using in silico techniques, such as molecular docking and GRID analysis, we have characterized the recently available murine 5-HT 3 receptor by identifying sites of strong interaction with particular functional groups at both the orthogonal (serotonin) site and a proposed allosteric binding site situated at the interface between the transmembrane region and the extracellular domain. These were assessed concurrently with the top-scoring poses of the docked ligands and included key active gingerols, shogaols and dehydroshogaols as well as competitive antagonists (e.g. setron class of pharmacologically active drugs), serotonin and its structural analogues, curcumin and capsaicin, non-competitive antagonists and decoys. Unexpectedly, we found that the ginger compounds and their structural analogs generally outscored other ligands at both sites. Our results correlated well with previous site-directed mutagenesis studies in identifying key binding site residues. We have identified new residues important for binding the ginger compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the ginger compounds and their structural analogues possess a high binding affinity to both sites. Notwithstanding the limitations of such theoretical analyses, these results suggest that the ginger compounds could act both competitively or non-competitively as has been shown for palonosetron and other modulators of CYS loop receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron.

  14. Optimization of Physical Conditions for the Aqueous Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Applying a Box-Behnken Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Godínez, Juan; Jaimez-Ordaz, Judith; Castañeda-Ovando, Araceli; Añorve-Morga, Javier; Salazar-Pereda, Verónica; González-Olivares, Luis Guillermo; Contreras-López, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Since ancient times, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. This rhizome possesses several chemical constituents; most of them present antioxidant capacity due mainly to the presence of phenolic compounds. Thus, the physical conditions for the optimal extraction of antioxidant components of ginger were investigated by applying a Box-Behnken experimental design. Extracts of ginger were prepared using water as solvent in a conventional solid-liquid extraction. The analyzed variables were time (5, 15 and 25 min), temperature (20, 55 and 90 °C) and sample concentration (2, 6 and 10 %). The antioxidant activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power assay while total phenolics were measured by Folin & Ciocalteu's method. The suggested experimental design allowed the acquisition of aqueous extracts of ginger with diverse antioxidant activity (100-555 mg Trolox/100 g, 147-1237 mg Fe 2+ /100 g and 50-332 mg gallic acid/100 g). Temperature was the determining factor in the extraction of components with antioxidant activity, regardless of time and sample quantity. The optimal physical conditions that allowed the highest antioxidant activity were: 90 °C, 15 min and 2 % of the sample. The correlation value between the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the content of total phenolics was R 2  = 0.83. The experimental design applied allowed the determination of the physical conditions under which ginger aqueous extracts liberate compounds with antioxidant activity. Most of them are of the phenolic type as it was demonstrated through the correlation established between different methods used to measure antioxidant capacity.

  15. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIHEGIKO KANAYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant’s organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had

  16. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHANI CINTA BADIA GINTING

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant's organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had significantly

  17. The Effect of Operating Conditions on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Using Combination of Solar Energy-Molecular Sieve Drying System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Zamzami, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an agricultural product that can be used as beverages and snacks, and especially for traditional medicines. One of the important stages in the processing of ginger is drying. The drying process intended to reduce the water content of 85-90% to 8-10%, making it safe from the influence of fungi or insecticide. During the drying takes place, the main ingredient contained in ginger is homologous ketone phenolic known as gingerol are chemically unstable at high temperatures, for the drying technology is an important factor in maintaining the active ingredient (gingerol) which is in ginger. The combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer that are used in the research is capable of operating 24 hours. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of operating conditions (in this case the air velocity) toward the drying characteristics and the quality of dried ginger using the combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer. Drying system consist of three main parts which is: desiccator, solar collector, and the drying chamber. To record data changes in the mass of the sample, a load cell mounted in the drying chamber, and then connected to the automated data recording system using a USB data cable. All data of temperature and RH inside the dryer box and the change of samples mass recorded during the drying process takes place and the result is stored in the form of Microsoft Excel. The results obtained, shows that the air velocity is influencing the moisture content and ginger drying rate, where the moisture content equilibrium of ginger for the air velocity of 1.3 m/s was obtained on drying time of 360 minutes and moisture content of 2.8%, at 1.0 m/s was obtained on drying time of 300 minutes and moisture content of 1.4%, at 0, 8 m/s was obtained at 420 minutes drying time and the moisture content is 2.0%. The drying characteristics shows that there are two drying periods, which is: the increasing drying rate

  18. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Increases Contents of Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activities in Malaysian Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Family Zingiberaceae is well known in Asia. The plant is widely cultivated in village gardens in the tropics for its medicinal properties and as a marketable spice in Malaysia. Ginger varieties are rich in physiologically active phenolics and flavonoids with a range of pharmacological activities. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of increasing levels of flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, naringenin, fisetin and morin and phenolic acid (gallic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, tannic acid, cinnamic acid and salicylic acid, and antioxidant activities in different parts of Malaysian young ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara with CO2 enrichment in a controlled environment system. Both varieties showed an increase in phenolic compounds and flavonoids in response to CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1 CO2. These increases were greater in rhizomes compared to leaves. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC results showed that quercetin and gallic acid were the most abundant flavonoid and phenolic acid in Malaysian young ginger varieties. Under elevated CO2 conditions, kaempferol and fisetin were among the flavonoid compounds, and gallic acid and vanillic acid were among the phenolic compounds whose levels increased in both varieties. As CO2 concentration was increased from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1, free radical scavenging power (DPPH increased about 30% in Halia Bentong and 21.4% in Halia Bara; and the rhizomes exhibited more enhanced free radical scavenging power, with 44.9% in Halia Bentong and 46.2% in Halia Bara. Leaves of both varieties also displayed good levels of flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities. These results indicate that the yield and pharmaceutical quality of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced by controlled environment production and CO2 enrichment.

  19. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p <0.05) in supplemented diet( sumac seed and ginger root powder). Fatty acid content in yolk; saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and rate of n6/n3 were not significant (p <0.05). However, dietary supplementation with sumac and ginger powder reduced and yolk/blood cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p < 0.05) in treatment groups. Moreover, LDL positively decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggested that feeding sumac and ginger tend to be decreasing cholesterol levels in both yolk and blood on laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effect of the radiation processing in species of Zingiberaceae family: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Mariana Correa de

    2012-01-01

    The species of Zingiberaceae family are characterized for rhizome. Phenolic constituents like curcuminoids and gingerols have had reports of biological activities. Food irradiation is an effective means of preservation, however it is important to ensure that their functional properties are not compromised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60 Co in doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy on species of Zingiberaceae: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe). The qualitative determination of bioactive compounds profile was performed by thin layer chromatography. The quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu method and assessing the potential of antioxidant activity by the free radical [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hydrazyl (DPPH.] scavenging and by Rancimat method. The curcumin and 6-gingerol quantification was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Compared to control, there were significant losses of total phenolic compounds in turmeric samples irradiated with 15kGy and 20kGy. There were significant decreases in the ability to scavenge DPPH in irradiated ginger extracts and zedoaria extract irradiated with 20kGy. The Antioxidant Activity Index was significantly lower in 5kGy and 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and in irradiated zedoaria extracts. The curcumin quantification was significantly lower in 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and there was no significant difference in the 6-gingerol quantification between ginger extracts. It is concluded that gamma radiation processing technology in Zingiberaceae can be viable for industry. To maintain safety of antioxidant activity it should be applied doses up 10kGy. (author)

  1. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  2. Qualitative improvement of rabbit burgers using Zingiber officinale Roscoe powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mancini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale powder on physical-chemical traits, microbiological growth and sensory properties of rabbit burger. Raw burgers (only meat and meat added with 1 and 2% w/w ginger powder were stored at 4°C for 1, 4 and 7 d and then cooked. Ginger modified the colour of both raw and cooked burgers, leading to more yellow hue and reducing lightness. Aspect of burgers were affected by ginger powder addition, leading to a noticeable difference between the samples. During storage time, the highest modifications were recorded for control samples, followed by burgers with added ginger. Sensory evaluation highlighted that ginger enhanced the juiciness of the burgers; moreover, burgers with ginger powder presented a significant delay in microbial growth. Ginger powder might be considered as a potential ingredient in rabbit meat products to increase their quality and extend their shelf-life.

  3. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P. A. S. R.; Avanço, G. B.; Nerilo, S. B.; Marcelino, R. I. A.; Janeiro, V.; Valadares, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells. PMID:28042599

  4. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R. Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. S. R. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L., turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L., and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R. essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs, and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells.

  5. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P A S R; Avanço, G B; Nerilo, S B; Marcelino, R I A; Janeiro, V; Valadares, M C; Machinski, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro , using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC 50 obtained was 36.6  μ g/mL for CEO and 129.9  μ g/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81  μ g/mL of CEO and 32.12  μ g/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells.

  6. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125?mg/kg, 250?mg/kg, and 500?mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500?mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officin...

  7. Hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and ameliorative effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and vitamin E in acetaminophen treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeem, Amal S; Hegazy, Amany M; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H; El-Sayed, Eman M

    2013-09-01

    Ginger is a remedy known to possess a number of pharmacological properties. This study investigated efficacy of ginger pretreatment in alleviating acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six groups; negative control, acetaminophen (APAP) (600 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection); vitamin E (75 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), vitamin E + APAP, and ginger + APAP. Administration of APAP elicited significant liver injury that was manifested by remarkable increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), arginase activities, and total bilirubin concentration. Meanwhile, APAP significantly decreased plasma total proteins and albumin levels. APAP administration resulted in substantial increase in each of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs), malondialdhyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, ginger or vitamin E treatment prior to APAP showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the hepatic marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and arginase) and total bilirubin in plasma. In addition, they remarkably ameliorated the APAP-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA). Pretreatment by ginger or vitamin E significantly restored TAGs, and total protein levels. Histopathological examination of APAP treated rats showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, with necrosis and vacuolization of cells. These alterations were substantially decreased by ginger or vitamin E. Our results demonstrated that ginger can prevent hepatic injuries, alleviating oxidative stress in a manner comparable to that of vitamin E. Combination therapy of ginger and APAP is recommended especially in cases with hepatic disorders or when high doses of APAP are required.

  8. Protective properties of 6-gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolaji, Amos O; Ojo, Mercy; Afolabi, Tosin T; Arowoogun, Mary D; Nwawolor, Darlinton; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-05-25

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus pesticide widely used in agricultural applications and household environments. 6-Gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger, 6-GRF) has been reported to possess potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Here, we investigated the protective properties of 6-GRF on CPF-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats. Five groups of rats containing 14 rats/group received corn oil (control), CPF (5 mg/kg), 6-GRF (100 mg/kg), CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (50 mg/kg) and CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (100 mg/kg) through gavage once per day for 35 days respectively. The results showed that 6-GRF protected against CPF-induced increases in oxidative stress ((hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA)), inflammatory (myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF- α)), and apoptotic (caspase-3) markers. Also, 6-GRF improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as glutathione (GSH) level in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats exposed to CPF (p < 0.05). Overall, the protective effects of 6-GRF on CPF-induced toxicity in the brain and reproductive organs of rats may be due to its potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians.

  10. The Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger) on Ethanol-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Abolfazl; Nasiri, Khadijeh; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Iraji, Aida

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Twenty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated daily for 28 days as follows: control, control-ginger (1 g/kg of body weight [BW]/day by gavage), ethanol group (ethanol 4 g/kg of BW/day by gavage), and ginger-ethanol group. At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for measurement of the total homocysteine (tHcy), trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The results in the ethanol group indicate that ethanol decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA and tHcy compared with the control groups ( P < .05). In ginger-ethanol group, ginger improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced tHcy and MDA compared to ethanol group ( P < .05). It can be concluded that ginger protects the ethanol-induced testicular damage and improves the hormonal levels, trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and decreases tHcy and MDA.

  11. Genetic and Histopathological Responses to Cadmium Toxicity in Rabbit's Kidney and Liver: Protection by Ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Mansour, Ahmed A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective effects of ginger (G) on the genetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) and immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the kidney and liver of rabbits. Male rabbits were divided into three groups; each group contains 10 animals: group (C) received basic diet and tap water for 12 weeks, the second group (Cd) received 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water for 12 weeks, group (Cd + G) was given 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water and 400 mg ginger/kg b.w in food for 12 weeks. Cd administration increased the activity of mRNA expression of the examined apoptotic (Caspase3), proliferation (MKI67), proto-oncogene (C-fos), and antioxidant (GST), while decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl2). Ginger counteracted the effects of Cd in (Cd + G) group and downregulated the previously upregulated genes under Cd administration appeared in (Cd) group. The immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the liver and kidney cells of the (C) group was shown very faint to negative reactions, strong staining in hepatocytes and the tubular epithelium in cadmium-treated group, while slight staining in some hepatocytes and tubular epithelium in co-administration with ginger in (Cd + G) group. In conclusion, ginger administration showed a protective effect against cadmium toxicity.

  12. Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kejing; Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Zhengfu; Wu, Jijun; Xu, Yujuan; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2016-04-15

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges in preserving better quality of fruit and vegetable products after processing. Recently, many attentions have been drawn to ginger rhizome processing due to its numerous health promoting properties. In our study, ginger rhizome slices were subjected to air-drying (AD), freeze drying (FD), infrared drying (IR), microwave drying (MD) and intermittent microwave & convective drying (IM&CD). Quality attributes of the dried samples were compared in terms of volatile compounds, 6, 8, 10-gingerols, 6-shogaol, antioxidant activities and microstructure. Results showed that AD and IR were good drying methods to preserve volatiles. FD, IR and IM&CD led to higher retention of gingerols, TPC, TFC and better antioxidant activities. However, FD and IR had relative high energy consumption and drying time. Therefore, considering about the quality retention and energy consumption, IM&CD would be very promising for thermo sensitive material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Volatiles and Localization of Aroma-Active Constituents by GC-Olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xueli; Cao, Jianmin; Wang, Dabin; Qiu, Jun; Kong, Fanyu

    2017-05-24

    For the characterization of chemical components contributing to the aroma of ginger, which could benefit the development of deep-processed ginger products, volatile extracts were isolated by a combination of direct solvent extraction-solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and static headspace analysis. Aroma-impact components were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry, and the most potent odorants were further screened by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA). The AEDA results revealed that geranial, eucalyptol, β-linalool, and bornyl acetate were the most potent odorants, exhibiting the highest flavor dilution factor (FD factor) of 2187. SHDA indicated that the predominant headspace odorants were α-pinene and eucalyptol. In addition, odorants exhibiting a high FD factor in SHDA were estimated to be potent aroma contributors in AEDA. The predominant odorants were found to be monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, as along with their oxygenated derivatives, providing minty, lemon-like, herbal, and woody aromas. On the other hand, three highly volatile compounds detected by SHDA were not detected by AEDA, whereas 34 high-polarity, low-volatility compounds were identified only by AEDA, demonstrating the complementary natures of SHDA and AEDA and the necessity of utilizing both techniques to accurately characterize the aroma of ginger.

  14. Species-specific AFLP markers for identification of Zingiber officinale, Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet (Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Majumder, P B; Sen Mandi, S

    2011-02-08

    The Zingiber genus, which includes the herbs known as gingers, commonly used in cooking, is well known for its medicinal properties, as described in the Indian pharmacopoeia. Different members of this genus, although somewhat similar in morphology, differ widely in their pharmacological and therapeutic properties. The most important species of this genus, with maximal therapeutic properties, is Zingiber officinale (garden ginger), which is often adulterated with other less-potent Zingiber sp. There is an existing demand in the herbal drug industry for an authentication system for the Zingiber sp in order to facilitate their commercial use as genuine phytoceuticals. To this end, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to produce DNA fingerprints for three Zingiber species. Sixteen collections (six of Z. officinale, five of Z. montanum, and five of Z. zerumbet) were used in the study. Seven selective primer pairs were found to be useful for all the accessions. A total of 837 fragments were produced by these primer pairs. Species-specific markers were identified for all three Zingiber species (91 for Z. officinale, 82 for Z. montanum, and 55 for Z. zerumbet). The dendogram analysis generated from AFLP patterns showed that Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet are phylogenetically closer to each other than to Z. officinale. The AFLP fingerprints of the Zingiber species could be used to authenticate Zingiber sp-derived drugs and to resolve adulteration-related problems faced by the commercial users of these herbs.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10141 - Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum. 721... Substances § 721.10141 Oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oils, ginger, zingiber purpureum (PMN P-06...

  16. Terpenoids from Zingiber officinale (Ginger induce apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells through the activation of p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Novel strategies are necessary to improve chemotherapy response in advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer. Here, we demonstrate that terpenoids present in the Steam Distilled Extract of Ginger (SDGE are potent inhibitors of proliferation of endometrial cancer cells. SDGE, isolated from six different batches of ginger rhizomes, consistently inhibited proliferation of the endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and ECC-1 at IC(50 of 1.25 µg/ml. SDGE also enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of radiation and cisplatin. Decreased proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells was a direct result of SDGE-induced apoptosis as demonstrated by FITC-Annexin V staining and expression of cleaved caspase 3. GC/MS analysis identified a total of 22 different terpenoid compounds in SDGE, with the isomers neral and geranial constituting 30-40%. Citral, a mixture of neral and geranial inhibited the proliferation of Ishikawa and ECC-1 cells at an IC(50 10 µM (2.3 µg/ml. Phenolic compounds such as gingerol and shogaol were not detected in SDGE and 6-gingerol was a weaker inhibitor of the proliferation of the endometrial cancer cells. SDGE was more effective in inducing cancer cell death than citral, suggesting that other terpenes present in SDGE were also contributing to endometrial cancer cell death. SDGE treatment resulted in a rapid and strong increase in intracellular calcium and a 20-40% decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Ser-15 of p53 was phosphorylated after 15 min treatment of the cancer cells with SDGE. This increase in p53 was associated with 90% decrease in Bcl2 whereas no effect was observed on Bax. Inhibitor of p53, pifithrin-α, attenuated the anti-cancer effects of SDGE and apoptosis was also not observed in the p53(neg SKOV-3 cells. Our studies demonstrate that terpenoids from SDGE mediate apoptosis by activating p53 and should be therefore be investigated as agents for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  17. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Idowu Kazeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg diabetic rats significantly reduced (P<0.05 the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P<0.05 in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P<0.05 the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians.

  18. Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA applications (10−3 and 10−5 M on activities of nitrate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutases (SOD, catalase (CAT and proline enzymes and physiological parameters was evaluated in two ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara under greenhouse conditions. In both varieties, tested treatments generally enhanced photosynthetic rate and total dry weight. Photosynthetic rate increases were generally accompanied by increased or unchanged stomatal conductance levels, although intercellular CO2 concentrations of treated plants were typically lower than in controls. Lower SA concentrations were generally more effective in enhancing photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Exogenous application of SA increased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content; the greatest responses were obtained in plants sprayed with 10–5 M SA, with significant increases observed in CAT (20.1%, POD (45.2%, SOD (44.1% and proline (43.1% activities. Increased CAT activity in leaves is naturally expected to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus net photosynthesis by maintaining a constant CO2 supply. Our results support the idea that low SA concentrations (10–5 M may induce nitrite reductase synthesis by mobilizing intracellular NO3− and can provide protection to nitrite reductase degradation in vivo in the absence of NO3–. Observed positive correlations among proline, SOD, CAT and POD activities in the studied varieties suggest that increased SOD activity was accompanied by increases in CAT and POD activities because of the high demands of H2O2 quenching.

  19. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Jane T; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R; Ryan, Julie L

    2007-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics such as ondansetron and granistron, up to 70% of patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents experience postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting. Delayed postchemotherapy nausea (nausea that occurs >/= 24 hours after chemotherapy administration) and anticipatory nausea (nausea that develops before chemotherapy administration, in anticipation of it) are poorly controlled by currently available antiemetic agents. Scientific studies suggest that ginger (Zingiber officinale) might have beneficial effects on nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, surgery, and pregnancy. In 2 small studies of patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, addition of ginger to standard antiemetic medication further reduced the severity of postchemotherapy nausea. This article describes a phase II/III randomized, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of ginger for nausea associated with chemotherapy for cancer. The study is currently being conducted by private practice oncology groups that are funded by the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Research Base.

  20. Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) Supplements on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer-407 Induced -Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Kabiru, A; Abdulrasak, A; Mohammed, K A; Salisu, A I; Jimoh, A; Gidado, N M; Sada, N M

    2017-12-30

    This research was aimed at investigating the Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer 407Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with poloxamer P407 (1.5 g/kg   b.w. i.p.) The Animals were grouped into six of five animals each group. Group 1 normal control, Group 2 served as the hyperlipidemic control, Group 3 administered 0.26 g/kg cholestyramine, Group 4 fed on Fenugreek 25% supplement. Group 5 fed on 25% fermented ginger supplement, while group 6 were fed on 25% ginger and fenu greek combined   respectively. All treatments were given for a period of four week. Serum antioxidant activities such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde were evaluated.  As regards to the catalase activity there was a significant decrease in the groups' fed on 25% fenugreek and 25% fermented ginger supplements respectively. However, co-fed with both supplements significantly increase the catalase activity as compared with the hyperlipidaemic control untreated. Comparism with the positive control cholestyramine, there was also a significant increase. Also in relation to the SOD activity there was a significant increase in the activity as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. Furthermore, the Gpx activity there was a significant increase in the as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. oxidative stress biomarker activities SOD) there was significant increase (p<0.05) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the Malondialdehyde levels in the groups fed with the supplement when compared with hyperlipidemic control. In conclusion supplements of Fenugreek and Ginger improved antioxidant status and reduced Malondialdehyde in Poloxamer-407 Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

  1. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber Officinale on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus using alloxan and insulin resistance. Aqueous extracts of raw ginger was administered orally at a chosen dose of 500mg/ml for a period of 4 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic ...

  2. Efecto in vitro de una solución de Zingiber officinale Rosc. (jengibre sobre la respuesta de linfocitos humanos de donantes sanos y enfermos con inmunodeficiencia celular In vitro effect of a solution of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Ginger on the response of human lymphocytes from healthy donors and patients with cellular immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro O. del Valle Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Zingiber officinale Rosc. (jengibre es una especie que se ha utilizado por el hombre con diversos fines. Se estudió el efecto in vitro de una solución acuosa del rizoma de esta planta sobre los linfocitos de 30 donantes voluntarios de sangre y de 30 enfermos con diagnóstico de inmunodeficiencia celular, mediante la prueba de transformación linfoblástica, con el empleo de timidina tritiada, la técnica de formación de roseta activa y el ultramicrométodo inmunocitoquímico (UMICIQ. No se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las condiciones experimentales sin jengibre y con jengibre, con diluciones de este desde 1:2 hasta 1:2048 en la prueba de transformación linfoblástica. En la roseta activa y en los marcadores de activación HLA-DR y CD25 no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los linfocitos sin jengibre y los cultivados con la dilución 1:128, tanto en los donantes sanos como los enfermos.The Zingiber officinale Rosc (ginger is a species used by man to different purposes. The in vitro effect of a aqueous solution from the rhizome of this plant on the lymphocytes of 30 volunteer blood donors and of 30 patients diagnosed with cellular immunodeficiency was studied by the lymphoblastic transformation test using tritiated thymidine, the technique of the rosette active formation and the immunocytochemical ultramicromethod (UMICIQ. There were not statistically significant differences among the experimental conditions with and without ginger with dilutions from 1:2 to 1:128 in the lymphoblastic transformation test. In the active rosette and in markers of the HLA-DR and CD25 activation there weren't statistically significant differences among lymphocytes without ginger and those cultured with a dilution 1:128 for healthy donors and for the patients.

  3. [Analysis of Volatile Oils from Different Processed Products of Zingiber officinale Rhizome by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-bing; Wang, Zhi-hui; He, Fang; Meng, Han; Peng, Jian-hua; Shi, Ji-lian

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the volatile components in different processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome, and to make clear the effect of different heating degree on them. The volatile components were extracted from four kinds of processed products by applying steam distillation, and then were analyzed by GC-MS. There were totally 43 components of volatile oil identified from four kinds of processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome. Fresh product, dried product, and charcoal product of Zingiber officinale rhizome each had 27 components of volatile oil, while sand fried product contained 24 components. Fresh Zingiber officinale rhizome contained 22. 59% of zingiberene, 20. 87% of a-citral and 11. 01% of β-phellandrene, respectively. After processing in different heating degree, the volatile components changed greatly in both of their quantity and quality, For instance, dried Zingiber officinale rhizome contained 40. 48% of α-citral and 8-phellandrene content was slightly lower at 10. 38%. 32.73% of 3,7,11-trimethyl-l, 6, 10-dodecatriene,16. 38% of murolan-3, 9 (11)-diene-10-peroxy and 3. 36% of cubebene newly emerged in the sand fried Zingiber officinale rhizome, and eudesm-4 (14) and β-bisabolol, etc. However, β-phellandrene content was only 1. 95%. The zingiberene and β-sesquiphellandrene were the highest in charcoal product, besides, new components such as α-cedrene, decanal and γ-elemene appeared. Volatile components in different processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome were different in both of their kinds and contents. This method is suitable for the analysis of volatile components in Zingiber officinale rhizome, and this study can provide the experimental evidence for quality evaluation and clinical application for ginger processed products.

  4. Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Elaheh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated-ethanol (GETE) groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in CaMKIIδtotal and isoforms δ2 and δ3 of CaMKIIδ gene expression as well as a significant decrease in the MAO levels in the ethanol group compared to that in the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed histological changes, such as fibrosis, heart muscle cells proliferation, myocyte hypertrophy, vacuolization, and focal lymphocytic infiltration. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated CaMKIIδtotal. In addition, compared to the ethanol group, isoforms gene expression changed and increased the reduced MAO levels and mitigated heart structural changes. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may, in part, be associated with Ca 2+ homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of CaMKIIδ gene and the decrease of MAO levels and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  5. Effect of the radiation processing in species of Zingiberaceae family: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe); Efeitos do processamento por radiacao em especies da familia Zingiberaceae: acafrao (Curcuma longa L.), gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) e zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Mariana Correa de

    2012-07-01

    The species of Zingiberaceae family are characterized for rhizome. Phenolic constituents like curcuminoids and gingerols have had reports of biological activities. Food irradiation is an effective means of preservation, however it is important to ensure that their functional properties are not compromised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co in doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy on species of Zingiberaceae: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe). The qualitative determination of bioactive compounds profile was performed by thin layer chromatography. The quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu method and assessing the potential of antioxidant activity by the free radical [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hydrazyl (DPPH.] scavenging and by Rancimat method. The curcumin and 6-gingerol quantification was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Compared to control, there were significant losses of total phenolic compounds in turmeric samples irradiated with 15kGy and 20kGy. There were significant decreases in the ability to scavenge DPPH in irradiated ginger extracts and zedoaria extract irradiated with 20kGy. The Antioxidant Activity Index was significantly lower in 5kGy and 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and in irradiated zedoaria extracts. The curcumin quantification was significantly lower in 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and there was no significant difference in the 6-gingerol quantification between ginger extracts. It is concluded that gamma radiation processing technology in Zingiberaceae can be viable for industry. To maintain safety of antioxidant activity it should be applied doses up 10kGy. (author)

  6. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  7. Evaluation of Effects of Zingiber officinale on Salivation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goli Chamani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae, Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae, Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01. The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion.

  8. Characterization of N-acylhomoserine lactone-degrading bacteria associated with the Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizosphere: Co-existence of quorum quenching and quorum sensing in Acinetobacter and Burkholderia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra Siri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing (QS co-ordinates bacterial behaviour at a population level. Consequently the behaviour of a natural multi-species community is likely to depend at least in part on co-existing QS and quorum quenching (QQ activities. Here we sought to discover novel N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-dependent QS and QQ strains by investigating a bacterial community associated with the rhizosphere of ginger (Zingiber officinale growing in the Malaysian rainforest. Results By using a basal growth medium containing N-(3-oxohexanoylhomoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, the ginger rhizosphere associated bacteria were enriched for strains with AHL-degrading capabilities. Three isolates belonging to the genera Acinetobacter (GG2, Burkholderia (GG4 and Klebsiella (Se14 were identified and selected for further study. Strains GG2 and Se14 exhibited the broadest spectrum of AHL-degrading activities via lactonolysis while GG4 reduced 3-oxo-AHLs to the corresponding 3-hydroxy compounds. In GG2 and GG4, QQ was found to co-exist with AHL-dependent QS and GG2 was shown to inactivate both self-generated and exogenously supplied AHLs. GG2, GG4 and Se14 were each able to attenuate virulence factor production in both human and plant pathogens. Conclusions Collectively our data show that ginger rhizosphere bacteria which make and degrade a wide range of AHLs are likely to play a collective role in determining the QS-dependent phenotype of a polymicrobial community.

  9. Effects of Zingiber Officinale on Reproductive Functions in the Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of Zingiber Officinale on male reproductive functions and study the mechanisms underlying these effects, aqueous extract of Zingiber Officinale were administered orally to two groups of male rats at 500mg/kg b.w. and 1000mg/kg b.w. A third group served as control and received the treatment ...

  10. Zingiber officinale: A Potential Plant against Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahain, Abdullah; Jahan, Rownak

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease particularly affecting elderly people which leads to massive bone destruction with consequent inflammation, pain, and debility. Allopathic medicine can provide only symptomatic relief. However, Zingiber officinale is a plant belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, which has traditionally been used for treatment of RA in alternative medicines of many countries. Many of the phytochemical constituents of the rhizomes of this plant have therapeutic benefits including amelioration of RA. This review attempts to list those phytochemical constituents with their reported mechanisms of action. It is concluded that these phytochemicals can form the basis of discovery of new drugs, which not only can provide symptomatic relief but also may provide total relief from RA by stopping RA-induced bone destruction. As the development of RA is a complex process, further research should be continued towards elucidating the molecular details leading to RA and drugs that can stop or reverse these processes by phytoconstituents of ginger. PMID:24982806

  11. Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

  12. Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-Oxidative Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is reported in the present study. GRAE at 200 mg kg−1 b.w. protected up to 86% and 77% for the swim stress-/ethanol stress-induced ulcers with an ulcer index (UI of 50 ± 4.0/46 ± 4.0, respectively, similar to that of lansoprazole (80% at 30 mg kg−1 b.w. Increased H+, K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were observed in ulcer-induced rats, while GRAE fed rats showed normalized levels and GRAE also normalized depleted/amplified anti-oxidant enzymes in swim stress and ethanol stress-induced animals. Gastric mucin damage was recovered up to 77% and 74% in swim stress and ethanol stress, respectively after GRAE treatment. GRAE also inhibited the growth of H. pylori with MIC of 300 ± 38 μg and also possessed reducing power, free radical scavenging ability with an IC50 of 6.8 ± 0.4 μg mL−1 gallic acid equivalent (GAE. DNA protection up to 90% at 0.4 μg was also observed. Toxicity studies indicated no lethal effects in rats fed up to 5 g kg−1 b.w. Compositional analysis favored by determination of the efficacy of individual phenolic acids towards their potential ulcer-preventive ability revealed that between cinnamic (50% and gallic (46% phenolic acids, cinnamic acid appear to contribute to better H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, while gallic acid contributes significantly to anti-oxidant activity.

  13. Characteristic fingerprint based on gingerol derivative analysis for discrimination of ginger (Zingiber officinale) according to geographical origin using HPLC-DAD combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudthavorasit, Soparat; Wongravee, Kanet; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun

    2014-09-01

    Chromatographic fingerprints of gingers from five different ginger-producing countries (China, India, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam) were newly established to discriminate the origin of ginger. The pungent bioactive principles of ginger, gingerols and six other gingerol-related compounds were determined and identified. Their variations in HPLC profiles create the characteristic pattern of each origin by employing similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). As results, the ginger profiles tended to be grouped and separated on the basis of the geographical closeness of the countries of origin. An effective mathematical model with high predictive ability was obtained and chemical markers for each origin were also identified as the characteristic active compounds to differentiate the ginger origin. The proposed method is useful for quality control of ginger in case of origin labelling and to assess food authenticity issues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Embryo Rescue, Microrhizome Production, Molecular Profiling, and Genetic Transformation in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Samsudeen, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Ginger is a rhizomatous plant that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, with crop duration of 7-10 months. Ginger is native to India and Tropical South Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of ginger are used as condiment, an aromatic stimulant, and food preservative as well as in traditional medicine. Ginger is propagated vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed material. Cultivation of ginger is plagued by rhizome rot diseases, most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free planting material. Sexual reproduction is absent in ginger, making recombinant breeding very impossible. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice as it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement of these crops.

  15. Aclimatação de gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe e a relação com carboidratos endógenos Acclimation of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and its relation to endogenous carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G Girardi

    2010-03-01

    raízes (225,29±0,75 mgGlu gMF-1, rizoma (250,08±0,93 mgGlu gMF-1 e gemas (225,75±0,80 mgGlu gMF-1. Diante do alto índice de sobrevivência para as plantas aclimatadas e os teores mais elevados de açúcares solúveis totais e de reserva nas primeiras fases de cultivo, recomenda-se um período de aclimatação para garantir maior sobrevivência das plantas e garantir que realizem melhor alocação de reservas.The aim of this work was to determine the variations in total soluble sugar and starch levels during the different development stages of ginger seedlings. Survival parameters, as well as total soluble sugar and starch levels, were evaluated during micropropagation, acclimation and field cultivation phases. The survival of plants was 100% after 60 days of acclimation, whereas under field conditions such value was 80% after the same period. In the first year of cultivation, mean starch levels were higher in micropropagated plants, both in leaves (303.19 ± 0.17 mgGlu gFM-1 and in roots (3341.59 ± 1.24 mg Glu gFM-1. High mean starch levels were detected in rhizomes (164.91 ± 2.4 mg Glu gFM-1 and buds (190.88 ± 0.25 mgGlu gMF-1. The mean levels of total soluble sugars were lower in plants in vitro: 86.56 ± 0.55 mgGlu gFM-1 and 94.26 ± 0.40 mgGlu gFM-1 in leaves and roots, respectively. Higher values were obtained for plants acclimatized in greenhouse, both in leaves (168.22 ± 0.77 mgGlu gFM-1 and roots (189.68 ± 0.70 mgGlu gFM-1; these values were inferior to those detected in leaves and roots of plants grown in the field, which were 227.51 ± 0.8 and 183.97 ± 0.32 mgGlu gFM-1, respectively. In the second cultivation cycle, mean starch levels in rhizomes, buds and roots increased to 210.87 ± 0.85 mgGlu gFM-1, 203.45 ± 0.91 mgGlu gFM-1 and 201 ± 0.69 mgGlu gFM-1, respectively, whereas in leaves these values progressively decreased (41.55 ± 0.88 mgGlu gFM-1 until 240 days of cultivation. However, leaves presented high mean total soluble sugar levels in

  16. De Novo transcriptome assembly of Zingiber officinale cv. Suruchi of Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Mahendra; Das, Aradhana; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Kar, Basudeba; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2016-09-01

    Zingiber officinale Rosc., known as ginger, is an Asian crop, popularly used in every household kitchen and commercially used in bakery, beverage, food and pharmaceutical industries. The present study deals with de novo transcriptome assembly of an elite ginger cultivar Suruchi by next generation sequencing methodology. From the analysis 10.9 GB raw data was obtained which can be available in NCBI accession number SAMN03761185. We identified 41,969 transcripts using Trinity RNA-Seq from ginger rhizome of Suruchi variety from Odisha. The transcript length varied from 300 bp to 8404 bp with a total length of 3,96,40,526 bp and N50 of 1251 bp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data of an elite ginger cultivar Suruchi released for Odisha state of India which will help molecular biologists to develop genetic markers for identification of cultivars.

  17. Ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale on diazinon -induced testicular toxicity: A biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yaghubi Beklar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Diazinon (O,O-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6- methyl pyrimidinyl-4-g-1- phosphorothioate is one of  the organophosphate insecticides for different agricultural and gardening uses, which can be highly toxic. Zingiber officinale(ginger, a spice and herbal medicine, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study has investigated the effects of ginger against DZN-induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Thirty two adult male mice were randomly divided into four groups. The control group; ginger group (200 mg/kg; DZN group (10 mg/kg and ginger + DZN group. Ginger and DZN were received for 30 consecutive days by gavage and DZN treat one hour after receiving ginger. Sperm parameters, testosterone levels, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical assays of testis were evaluated. Results: The results revealed that treatment with DZN caused significant damage of sperm parameters (sperm motility, count, viability rate and abnormalities, increased oxidative stress (increased MDA and decreased GSH level, significant histopathological changes and decreased Johnsen’s Score, testosterone level and increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Ginger preserved sperm parameters and mitigated the toxic effects of DZN. Also, pretreatment with ginger significantly reduced caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Conclusion: Our results concluded that ginger probably with its antioxidant activity and scavenging free radicals protect against DZN-induced testicular toxicity.

  18. Study of Local Herb Potency as Rumen Modifier: The Effect of Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Var.Rubrum) on Parameters of Ruminal Fermentation In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, A.; Widodo; Artama, W. T.; Yusiati, L. M.

    2018-02-01

    Essential oil is one of rumen modifier alternatives due to its antimicrobial property. Red ginger is one of local herbs with high essential oil content. The effect of red ginger on rumen fermentation parameters was studied in this research using in vitro gas production method. Five level of red ginger meal was added to the diet to meet final essential oil concentration in fermentation medium of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L. Substrate of fermentation as microbial feed composed of Penisetum hybride, rice bran, and wheat pollard in ratio 60:20:20 DM basis. Fermentation was carried out for 24 h at 39°C. Total gas production was measured at the end of incubation and sample for methane analysis was taken. Medium sample was taken for analysis of pH, ammonium and VFA concentration, microbial protein and protozoa number. Data showed that addition of red ginger in the diet did not affect the pH, ammonia and VFA concentration, microbial protein and also protozoa number. However, red ginger addition significantly decrease ammonia concentration in all treatment. It could be concluded that addition of red ginger in the diet reduced degradation protein in the rumen as illustrated in lower ammonia concentration.

  19. Comparative study of the effect of dry and wet ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe spice on the proximate and microbial safety of soybean beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola Oladele Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean beverage, most common nutritious local beverage in Nigeria and in the world, is a high protein beverage used as a dairy milk substitute with the limited utilization due to natural or ambient conditions that serve as growth medium for microorganisms. Hence, it has a short shelf life. This study examines the shelf life of soybean beverage preserved with the ginger spice (dried at 70 ˚C, 80 ˚C, 90 ˚C and 100 ˚C, and 2 g and 4 g of fresh/wet ginger respectively over 7-week period. The samples were (A: plain soybean beverage; B: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g of ginger dried at 100 ˚C; C: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g ginger dried at 90 ˚C; D: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g ginger dried at 80 ˚C; E: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g ginger dried at 70 ˚C; F: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g fresh ginger; and G: 200 ml soybean beverage + 4 g fresh ginger respectively. The proximate, pH, microbial and sensory analyses of samples ranged as follows: 87.35% - 90.83% for the moisture content; 0.58% - 0.65% ash content; 4.65% - 4.96% protein; 0.10%-0.26% fibre content; 2.06% - 2.98% crude fat and 1.68% - 4.17% carbohydrate, and pH values ranged from 6.2 - 6.5. Microbiological analysis over storage period showed that the control sample ranged from 0.4×106 -8.3×106 cfu/ml, and treated samples from 0.4×106 to 2.4×106 cfu/ml. Low values of the samples treated with dry ginger spice were preserved better than others, probably due to preservative and anti-microbial properties of the spice. Sensory evaluation, carried out by twenty-eight persons, showed that the sample E: (200 ml soymilk+ 2 g ginger dried at 70 ˚C was most preferred (with respect to taste, aroma and overall acceptability, while there was a significant difference in the appearance of the samples.

  20. Effect of metal salts on antibacterial activity of zingiber officinale roscoe extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, T.; Yaqeen, Z.; Imran, H.; Rehman, Z.; Fatima, N.

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe (ginger) and its combination with different salts like CuSO/sub 4/, ZnSO/sub 4/ and MnCl/sub 2/ was investigated. Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were tested by agar diffusion method. The results showed that ethanol extract of Zingiber Officinale gave the maximum zone of inhibition at 50 mg/ml concentrations against Escherichia coli among Gram negative bacteria and against Staphylococcus aureus in Gram positive bacteria. However antibacterial activity of the ginger and metal salts combination was greater than activity of ethanol extract. These investigations indicate that though ethanol extract has antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, ginger and metal salts complex has more inhibitory effect on microorganisms. Antibacterial activity was also compared with standard drug ampicillin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ginger extract and metal salts complexes against all test organisms ranged from 0.3125 to 2.5 mg/ml. (author)

  1. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum terhadap Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermina Karuna Atmaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Candida albicans infections is increasing in the society. Therefore, an effective and affordable antifungal drug with minimal side effect is needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a traditional herb which has an antifungal effect in its volatile oil. Objective: To investigate antifungal effect of volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var rubrum against C. albicans in vitro, to determine the optimum concentration, and finally to determine the correlation between the various concentrations of the oil and the inhibition zone. Material and method: Strain C. albicans tested was obtained from the Department of Parasitology, Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia. Volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum was produced from water and steam distillation of fresh ginger in BALLITRO, Bogor. Concentrations of the volatile oil used were 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5% 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78%. Methods used were colony counting and disk diffusion method (by using 6 mm blank disk. The specimens were divided into two groups, treatment group (C. albicans with application of volatile oil and control group (C. albicans without application of volatile oil. Result: There was a significant decrease in the amount of C. albicans colonies from 3.125% to 6.25% of concentration. The amount of C. albicans colonies at concentration 6.25% was also significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, there was strong and positive correlation between the concentration of the volatile oil and the inhibition zone. Conclusion: Volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans in vitro with optimum concentration at 6.25%. Increasing concentrations of the oil correlates with increasing inhibition zome.

  2. Comparative study of the effect of dry and wet ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) spice on the proximate and microbial safety of soybean beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbola Oladele Dauda; Olufunmilola Adunni Abiodun

    2017-01-01

    Soybean beverage, most common nutritious local beverage in Nigeria and in the world, is a high protein beverage used as a dairy milk substitute with the limited utilization due to natural or ambient conditions that serve as growth medium for microorganisms. Hence, it has a short shelf life. This study examines the shelf life of soybean beverage preserved with the ginger spice (dried at 70 ˚C, 80 ˚C, 90 ˚C and 100 ˚C, and 2 g and 4 g of fresh/wet ginger respectively) over 7-week period. The sa...

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gamal; Al-Kahtani, Mohammed Ali; El-Sayed, Wael Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Turmeric (rich in curcuminoids) and ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Ayurveda/Chinese medicine since antiquity. Here, we compared the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant activity of these two plants in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Both plants (at dose 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed (but with different degrees) the incidence and severity of arthritis by increasing/decreasing the production of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, and activating the anti-oxidant defence system. The anti-arthritic activity of turmeric exceeded that of ginger and indomethacin (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), especially when the treatment started from the day of arthritis induction. The percentage of disease recovery was 4.6-8.3% and 10.2% more in turmeric compared with ginger and indomethacin (P turmeric over ginger and indomethacin, which may have beneficial effects against rheumatoid arthritis onset/progression as shown in AIA rat model.

  4. Antiproliferative activities of lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum Hance Jam1), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against acute monocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoregie, Samson N; Omoruyi, Felix O; Wright, Vincent F; Jones, Lemore; Zimba, Paul V

    2013-07-01

    Acute monocytic leukemia (AML M5 or AMoL) is one of the several types of leukemia that are still awaiting cures. The use of chemotherapy for cancer management can be harmful to normal cells in the vicinity of the target leukemia cells. This study assessed the potency of the extracts from lesser galangal, turmeric, and ginger against AML M5 to use the suitable fractions in neutraceuticals. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of lesser galangal and turmeric, and from the rhizomes only of ginger were examined for their antiproliferative activities against THP-1 AMoL cells in vitro. Lesser galangal leaf extracts in organic solvents of methanol, chloroform, and dichloromethane maintained distinctive antiproliferative activities over a 48-h period. The turmeric leaf and rhizome extracts and ginger rhizome extracts in methanol also showed distinctive anticancer activities. The lesser galangal leaf methanol extract was subsequently separated into 13, and then 18 fractions using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fractions 9 and 16, respectively, showed the greatest antiproliferative activities. These results indicate that the use of plant extracts might be a safer approach to finding a lasting cure for AMoL. Further investigations will be required to establish the discriminatory tolerance of normal cells to these extracts, and to identify the compounds in these extracts that possess the antiproliferative activities.

  5. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naritsara Saenghong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women.

  6. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  7. Molecular factors involved in the hypolipidemic- and insulin-sensitizing effects of a ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; López-Farré, Antonio; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger in animal models have been reported. However, information related to the mechanisms and factors involved in the metabolic effects of ginger at a hepatic level are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydroethanolic ginger extract (GE) in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The study was conducted in male Wistar rats divided into the following 3 groups: (i) Rats fed a standard diet (3.5% fat), the control group; (ii) rats fed an HFD (33.5% fat); and (iii) rats fed an HFD treated with GE (250 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 5 weeks (HFD+GE). Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Liver expression of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPARα and PPARγ, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen I was measured. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, followed by a Newman-Keuls test if differences were noted. The study showed that GE improved lipid profile and attenuated the increase of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin in HFD rats. This effect was associated with a higher liver expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and GLUT-2 and an enhancement of plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, GE reduced liver expression of GPAT, SREBP1c, CTGF, and collagen I. The results suggest that GE might be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations.

  8. Changes of serum adipocytokines and body weight following Zingiber officinale supplementation in obese women: a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Mehralizadeh, Sajjad; Mahluji, Sepideh

    2016-09-01

    The present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) consumption on some metabolic and clinical features of obesity. Eighty eligible obese women (aged 18-45 years) were randomly assigned to either ginger or placebo groups (receiving 2 g/day of ginger powder or corn starch as two 1 g tablets) for 12 weeks. Body mass index (BMI) and body composition were assessed every 4 weeks, and serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, insulin and glucose were determined before and after intervention. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were also calculated. Ginger consumption significantly decreased BMI, serum insulin and HOMA-IR index, along with increasing QUICKIs as compared to the placebo. Moreover, significant reductions in serum leptin, resistin and glucose were observed in both groups, especially in ginger group with nonsignificant differences between groups. The body composition and serum levels of adiponectin were not significantly changed in study groups. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a minor beneficial effect of 2 g ginger powder supplementation for 12 weeks on weight loss and some metabolic features of obesity. However, given the lack of data in this area, ongoing clinical trials are needed to further explore ginger's effectiveness.

  9. Involvement of Salicylic Acid on Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties, Anthocyanin Production and Chalcone Synthase Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA at different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−5 M was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10−5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10−3 M to 10−5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 μg mL−1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%–72.90% with the 10−5 M SA treatment followed by the 10−3 M SA (52.14%–63.66% treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%–46.7%. These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10−5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of

  10. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Abdul Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes were studied to evaluate their antidiabetic effects on protein glycation and on the diffusion of glucose in vitro in the present study. Zingiber officinale rhizome aqueous extract were examined at concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L. The antidiabetic effects were found to be dose-dependent. Antidiabetic potential of Zingiber officinale was mainly through inhibition of the glucose diffusion and to a limited extent by reducing the glycation. However, further studies are needed to determine in vitro effects of therapeutic potential by restraining postprandial glucose absorptions and plasma protein glycations in diabetic subjects.Extratos aquosos de rizomas Zingiber officinale foram estudados para avaliar os seus efeitos antidiabéticos em glicação de proteínas e sobre a difusão de glicose in vitro, no presente estudo. Extratos aquosos de Zingiber officinale foram examinados nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40 g extrato de planta/L. Os efeitos antidiabéticos observados eram dependentes da dose. O potencial antidiabético de Zingiber officinale se verificou, principalmente, através da inibição da difusão de glicose e, em menor extensão, através da redução da glicação. Estudos adicionais são necessários para elucidar se efeitos in vitro representam potencial terapêutico, restringindo a absorção de glicose pós-prandial e a glicação de proteínas plasmáticas em indivíduos diabéticos.

  11. The effect of temperature and extraction period of time on the chemicals content of emprit ginger ethanol extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningrum, Diah; Endah, Een Sri; Pudjiraharti, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Research on extraction method of emprit ginger using ethanol with agitation of 100 rpm at different temperatures (ambient temperature, 40, and 50°C) and various extraction period of times (30, 60, and 90 minutes) was conducted. Analysis of chemicals content i.e. total phenolic and total flavonoid. The objective of this work was to study the effect of temperatures and extraction period of times on the chemicals content of its ethanol extract. Based on the results of the test, the highest content total flavonoid (5.17% w/w) was resulted at 40°C for 90 minutes, while the total phenolic content was not affected by either temperature or extraction period of times used. The content of total phenolic was around 2.39% to 2.65% w/w.

  12. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  13. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Putih Kecil (Zingiber officinale var. Amarum terhadap Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanny Satriyani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of many antifungal drugs make it necessary to find an herbal alternative with reduced side effects. Many herbals are knwon to have an antifungal effect, including ginger with its volatile oil composition. However, the specific antifungal effect and optimal concentration of the volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. amarum against C. albicans is not yet known. This research was done to verify the antifungal effect of Zingiber officinale var. amarum volatile oil on C. albicans, to determine its optimal concentration, and to determine the relation between the volatile oil was provided by water and steam distillation of BALITTRO, Bogor. The colonies were double counted in two steps. First, the volatile oil at concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78% were applied for treatment, wheras in the second step concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50% were used. In the disk diffusion method, the volatile oil concentrations of 100%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125% were applied in triplicate in Petri dishes containing C. albicans by using 6 mm blank disks. Result: Mann-Whitney test showed the significant decrease of the colonies between 6.25% and 3.125% of the volatile oil concentration (α = 0.021, and also between the volatile oil concentration 6.25% and the control group (α = 0.014. The Spearman test showed a positive and strong correlation between the volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. amarum and its inhibition zone (r = 0.91. Conclusion: The volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. amarum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans with an optimal concentration of 6.25%, and increasing volatile oil concentration is followed by increasing inhibition zone.

  14. Zingiber officinale : evaulation of its Nootropic effect in mice | Joshi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayurveda emphasizes use of herbs, nutraceuticals or life-style changes for controlling age related neurodegenerative disorders. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of an ayurvedic rasayana (rejuvenator) drug Zingiber officinale Roscoe as a memory enhancer. Elevated plus maze and passive ...

  15. Effects of Zingiber Officinale on Reproductive Functions in the Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    was also a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum testosterone level. Malonhydialdehyde levels were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Our results indicated that extract of Zingiber Officinale possesses pro-fertility properties ... thought to be volatile oils and pungent phenol ... weighed for the essential reproductive organs,.

  16. Effects of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga essential oils on the morphological characteristic of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella. ... Therefore, plant natural product is an alternative for controlling C. cramerella, by using three Zingiberaceae species Zingiberofficinale, Curcuma longa and ...

  17. Genetic diversity analysis of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe by RAPD collected from subcontinent of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Kamran; Ahmad, Altaf; Chaudhary, Anis; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Sayeed; Amir, Mohd; Mallick, N

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was undertaken for the assessment of 12 accessions of Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from subcontinent of India by RAPD markers. DNA was isolated using CTAB method. Thirteen out of twenty primers screened were informative and produced 275 amplification products, among which 261 products (94.90%) were found to be polymorphic. The percentage polymorphism of all 12 accessions ranged from 88.23% to 100%. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different levels of genetic polymorphism. The data of 275 RAPD bands were used to generate Jaccard's similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram by means of UPGMA. Results showed that ginger undergoes genetic variation due to a wide range of ecological conditions. This investigation was an understanding of genetic variation within the accessions. It will also provide an important input into determining resourceful management strategies and help to breeders for ginger improvement program.

  18. The Effect of Zingiber Officinale Rosc in The Diets of Performance in Culled Layer Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorda Gede Belawa Yadnya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was design using a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four treatments. Treatment were diets without Zingiber officinale rosc (A, diets contain 2,91% Zingiber officinale Rosc  (B, diets contain 5,66%. Zingiber officinale Rosc (C, and diets contain 8,26% Zingiber officinale Rosc (D. Each treatment with five replicates, and each replicate consist four culled layer ducks. Variable observed were feed conversation ratio, carcass physical composition, and meat quality. It was concluded that present  Zingiber officinale Rosc in the diets could be improved of performance in culled layer ducks.   Keywords : Zingiber officinale Rosc, Culled layer ducks, and  meat qualit

  19. PHYTOPHARMACEUTICAL POTENTIAL AND MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF RHIZOMES OF CURCUMA LONGA AND ZINGIBER OFFICINALE (ZINGIBERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric and ginger are spices derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale respectively. The rhizomes of C. longa and Z. officinale were extracted in hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Phytochemical screening was carried out on each of the extracts. Proximate analysis to determine the extractive values, moisture content, total ash, crude fibre, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash were carried out on the rhizomes of fresh and dried turmeric and ginger. The rhizomes of C. longa revealed alcohol extractive value 22.79%, water extractive value 26.44%, moisture content 11.56 ± 0.04%, total ash 13.24±0.03%, crude fiber 6.40±0.20%, acid insoluble ash 1.02±0.02% and water soluble ash 4.32±0.07%. Extractive values for ginger were recorded as alcohol 2.7% and water 2.1%, fresh and dried ginger rhizomes afforded, moisture content 72.63 ±0.09%, 10.03±0.09%, total ash 2.50 ±0.06%, 7.30±0.10%, acid insoluble ash 0.57±0.03%, 2.03±0.09%, and water soluble ash 1.23±0.03%, 3.87±0.09% respectively. Observations on the microscopic studies of the fresh rhizomes of turmeric and ginger revealed possession of oil duct and spiral xylem vessels. Similarly phytomorphology of the powdered rhizomes of ginger and turmeric revealed the presence of tracheid and compartment of vessels. Presence of similar anatomical features in both the fresh and ground samples confirmed the authenticity or adulterous of the powdered samples.

  20. Ayurvedic preparation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe: effects on cardiac and on smooth muscle parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Poli, Ferruccio; Lianza, Mariacaterina; Graziadio, Alessandra; Venturini, Alice; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Micucci, Matteo

    2017-08-28

    The rhizome of the Zingiber officinale Roscoe, a biennial herb growing in South Asia, is commonly known as ginger. Ginger is used in clinical disorders, such as constipation, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting and its use is also recommended by the traditional medicine for cardiopathy, high blood pressure, palpitations and as a vasodilator to improve the circulation. The decoction of ginger rhizome is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine. In this papery by high-performance liquid chromatography, we have seen that its main phytomarkers were 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol and we report the effects of the decoction of ginger rhizome on cardiovascular parameters and on vascular and intestinal smooth muscle. In our experimental models, the decoction of ginger shows weak negative inotropic and chronotropic intrinsic activities but a significant intrinsic activity on smooth muscle with a potency on ileum is greater than on aorta: EC 50  = 0.66 mg/mL versus EC 50  = 1.45 mg/mL.

  1. A comparative UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics approach for distinguishing Zingiber officinale Roscoe of two geographical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, Enos; Alolga, Raphael N; Wang, Shi-Lei; Linus, Loveth O; Yin, Xiaojin; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2018-02-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is a popular spice used in the food, beverage and confectionary industries. In this study, we report an untargeted UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics approach for comprehensively discriminating between ginger from two geographical locations, Ghana in West Africa and China. Forty batches of fresh ginger from both countries were discriminated using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis. Sixteen differential metabolites were identified between the gingers from the two geographical locations, six of which were identified as the marker compounds responsible for the discrimination. Our study highlights the essence and predictive power of metabolomics in detecting minute differences in same varieties of plants/plant samples based on the levels and composition of their metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect temperature of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondari, Dewi; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Setyaningsih, Dwi; Tursiloadi, Silvester

    2017-11-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been carried out at a pressure of 16 MPa, with temperatures between 20-40 °C, during extraction time of 6 hours and the flow rate of CO2 fluid 5.5 ml/min. The result of supercritical method was compared with the extraction maceration using a mixture of water and ethanol (70% v/v) for 24 hours. The main content in ginger that has a main role as an antioxidant is a gingerol compound that can help neutralize the damaging effects caused by free radicals in the body, as anti-coagulant, and inhibit the occurrence of blood clots. This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on chemical components contained in rough extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and its antioxidant activity, total phenol and total flavonoid content. To determine the chemical components contained in the crude extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracted by supercritical fluid and maceration extraction, GC-MS analysis was performed. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated based on a 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical damping method. The results of the analysis show that the result of ginger extract by using the supercritical CO2 extraction method has high antioxidant activity than by using maceration method. The highest total phenol content and total flavonoids were obtained on ginger extraction using supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, indicating that phenol and flavonoid compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. Chromatographic analysis showed that the chemical profile of ginger extract containing oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpene gingerol and esters. In supercritical fluid extraction, the compounds that can be identified at a temperature of 20-40 °C contain 27 compounds, and 11 compounds from the result of maceration extract. The main component of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracted using supercritical fluid

  3. Attenuation of liver pro-inflammatory responses by Zingiber officinale via inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C-Y; Nammi, Srinivas; Heather, Alison K; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats suppresses Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-driven hepatic inflammation and to subsequently explore the molecular mechanisms in vitro. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) along with a HFD for 6 weeks. Hepatic cytokine mRNA levels, cytokine protein levels and NF-κB activation were measured by real-time PCR, Western blot and an NF-κB nuclear translocation assay, respectively. In vitro, cell culture studies were carried out in human hepatocyte (HuH-7) cells by treatment with Zingiber officinale (100 μg/mL) for 24 hr prior to interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 8 ng/mL)-induced inflammation. We showed that Zingiber officinale treatment decreased cytokine gene TNFα and IL-6 expression in HFD-fed rats, which was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation. In vitro, Zingiber officinale treatment decreased NF-κB-target inflammatory gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), while it suppressed NF-κB activity, IκBα degradation and IκB kinase (IKK) activity. In conclusion, Zingiber officinale suppressed markers of hepatic inflammation in HFD-fed rats, as demonstrated by decreased hepatic cytokine gene expression and decreased NF-κB activation. The study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber officinale occurs at least in part through the NF-κB signalling pathway. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  4. Survey of the Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Effects of Zingiber officinale (in Vitro Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Marzieh; Zahedi Bialvaei, Abed; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kabiri, Fahimeh; Saliani, Negar; Yousefi, Mehdi; Eslami, Hosein; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Candidiasis is one of the most prevalent and important opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity caused by Candida yeast species like Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. In addition, several bacteria can cause oral infections. The inhibition of microbial biofilm is the best way to prevent oral infections. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against Candida species and some bacterial pathogens and the extract's effects on biofilm formation. Ginger ethanolic extract as a potential mouthwash was used to evaluate its effect against fungi and bacteria using the microdilution method, and biofilm was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method and dead/alive staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity effects of the extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ginger extract for evaluated strains were 40, 40, 20, 20, 20, 20, 10, and 5 mg/mL for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter baumannii, C. albicans, and C. krusei, respectively. Ginger extract successfully inhibited biofilm formation by A. baumannii, B. cereus, C. krusei, and C. albicans. MTT assay revealed no significant reduction in cell viability after 24 hours. The minimum inhibitory biofilm concentrations (MIBCs) of ginger extract for fungi strains (C. krusei and C. albicans) were greater than those of fluconazole and nystatin (P = 0.000). The findings of the present study indicate that ginger extract has good antifungal and antibiofilm formation by fungi against C. albicans and C. Krusei. Concentrations between 0.625 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL had the highest antibiofilm and antifungal effects. Perhaps, the use of herbal extracts such as ginger represents a new era for antimicrobial therapy after developing antibiotic resistance in microbes.

  5. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Taherian, A; Azami-Tameh, A; Hosseini, S M; Moravveji, A

    2014-08-01

    Decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy in testis has been the subjects of many studies. In this study, the protective effects of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis were investigated after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide. Histological and biochemical parameters were compared in cyclophosphamide-treated rats with or without ginger extract intake. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups each 10. The control group received a single injection of 1 ml isotonic saline intraperitoneally. The Cyclophosphamide (CP) group received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg kg(-1) BW) intraperitoneally. CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups received orally 300 or 600 mg of ginger extract, respectively, for a period of 6 weeks after cyclophosphamide injection. The morphologic and histological structure of the testis was compared in different groups of the rats. Also, factors like malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were assessed in blood serum as well. Our results showed that although ginger extract could not change testis weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, but antioxidant and testosterone levels in serum were increased significantly. Also, an obvious improved histological change was seen in CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups in comparison with CP group. These protective effects of ginger on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment could be attributed to the higher serum level of antioxidants. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Pengujian Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Jahe (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe Terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus Aureus dan Escherichia Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufriyana Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Testing the antibacterial activity of the Essential Oil of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Purpose of this study is to determine the bacterial growht and activity test active compounds in ginger essential oils that can be used as an antibacterial to inhibit the growth of bacteria. This research uses a method soxhletation with solvent n- hexane to obtain the essential oil of ginger, making the media NA, rejuvenation bacteria, the manufacture of bacterial inoculum and suspension test. Antibacterial activity test using paper disc diffusion method in the form and method of dilution and analysis using GC-MS instrument. Antibacterial activity test result using paper disc method with a concentration of 25%,  50%, 75% and 100% in S. aureus (12, 34; 19, 42; 17, 34; 21, 7 mm and E. coli (10, 56; 13, 76; 16, 5; 23, 6 mm, while the result of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC using ginger essential oil dilution method in S. aureus not found and E. coli at a concentration of 100%. The results of the analysis of essential oil components by GC-MS showed the active compounds in the form of compounds containing hydroxyl groups such as nerol, β- eusdesmol, borneol and compounds containing phenolic groups like zingerone.

  7. Zingiber officinale Roscoe Aqueous Extract Modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Z. officinale rhizomes were extracted with water by continuous shaking for 5 ... Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that ZOA may ameliorate plasma leakage in dengue .... AS1000 autosampler, UV2000 UV detector and.

  8. Efektifitas Pemberian Ramuan Jahe (Zingibers officinale dan Teh Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa terhadap Perubahan Intensitas Nyeri Haid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaili Ramli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As many as 72% of women reported experiencing Dysmenorrhea, 38% require treatment, 15% of them had to leave school or work during menstruation. In nonpharmacologic giving herbs may help reduce menstrual pain. Plants that can reduce pain is Zingibers Rosc Officinale, rhizome sections to function as an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory. Rosella can also reduce pain and inflammation at the time of dysmenorrhea. This study aims to determine the differences in the level of pain on a group of teens who received the herb ginger and groups of teenagers given Rosella tea. The study design is a quasi-experiment with pretest-posttest design nonrandomized, do start. The sample is a student of midwifery experience dysmenorrhea amounted to 177 people, 57 groups, and 60 people ginger herb Rosella tea group and the control group of 60 people. The study began in May 2015. Research and herb ginger tea separately Rosella very effective in reducing menstrual pain intensity at 24.48 and 72 hours, but there is no difference in the pain scale before and after getting the herb ginger and Rosella tea. Conclusions and Recommendations: There is no difference between the herb ginger pain scale and Rosella tea before and after treatment. It is recommended that health workers can provide health education to adolescents by using herbs to reduce menstrual pain.  Keywords:   Dysmenorrhea, ginger herb, tea Rosella  Sebanyak 72% wanita dilaporkan mengalami dismenorhea, 38% memerlukan pengobatan, 15 % diantaranya harus meninggalkan sekolah atau pekerjaan selama menstruasi. Secara nonfarmakologis pemberian rempah-rempah dapat membantu mengurangi nyeri haid. Tanaman yang dapat mengurangi nyeri adalah Zingibers Officinale Rosc, bagian rimpangnya berfungsi sebagai analgesik, antipiretik dan anti inflamasi. Rosella juga dapat mengurangi nyeri dan inflamasi pada saat dismenore. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan tingkat nyeri pada kelompok remaja yang

  9. Zingiber officinale attenuates retinal microvascular changes in diabetic rats via anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongare, Shirish; Mathur, Rajani; Saxena, Rohit; Mathur, Sandeep; Agarwal, Renu; Nag, Tapas C.; Srivastava, Sushma; Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of long-standing diabetes. Several complex interconnecting biochemical pathways are activated in response to hyperglycemia. These pathways culminate into proinflammatory and angiogenic effects that bring about structural and functional damage to the retinal vasculature. Since Zingiber officinale (ginger) is known for its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties, we investigated the effects of its extract standardized to 5% 6-gingerol, the major active constituent of ginger, in attenuating retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetic rats were treated orally with the vehicle or the ginger extract (75 mg/kg/day) over a period of 24 weeks along with regular monitoring of bodyweight and blood glucose and weekly fundus photography. At the end of the 24-week treatment, the retinas were isolated for histopathological examination under a light microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and determination of the retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Results Oral administration of the ginger extract resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and vascular basement membrane thickness. Improvement in the architecture of the retinal vasculature was associated with significantly reduced expression of NF-κB and reduced activity of TNF-α and VEGF in the retinal tissue in the ginger extract–treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusions The current study showed that ginger extract containing 5% of 6-gingerol attenuates the retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes through anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic actions. Although precise molecular targets remain to be determined, 6-gingerol seems to be a potential candidate for further investigation. PMID:27293376

  10. Attenuation of Sulfite-Induced Testicular Injury in Rats by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami Fathabad, Akbar; Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Hoseini, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Zahra

    2017-08-18

    Sulfite salts, including sodium metabisulfte, are widely used as preservatives in foods and pharmaceutical agents. Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress may be an important mediator of testicular injury. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of exposure to sodium metabisulfite by gavage without or with Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract on the rat testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ginger-treated (500 mg/kg/day), sodium metabisulfite- (SMB-) treated (260 mg/kg/day), and SMB + ginger- (SZ-) treated groups. After 28 days, the rats were anesthetized by ether and, after laparotomy, blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone level by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Then left testes and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for histological examination and sperm analysis, and right testes were removed for assessing lipid peroxidation (indexed by malondialdehyde [MDA]) and antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that spermatogenesis, epididymal morphometry, and sperm parameters were affected by SMB. There was a significant increase in MDA level and a significant reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) in the SMB-treated rats compared to the control. Ginger treatment of SMB-exposed rats significantly increased testosterone level and the number of different spermatogenic cells. The level of MDA reversed to the control levels and the activities of GPx and GR were significantly increased when SMB was coadministered with ginger extract. It is concluded that coadministration of ginger, through its antioxidant and androgenic properties, exerts a protective effect against SMB-induced testicular oxidative stress.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zingiber Officinale in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Low-grade inflammation, a common feature in type 2 diabetes (DM2, causes some chronic complications in these patients. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α and the acute phase protein hs-CRP in DM2 patients as a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Methods: A total of 64 DM2 patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups and received 2 tablets/day of each for 2 months. The concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP in blood samples were analyzed before and after the intervention. Results: Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α (P = 0.006, IL-6 (P = 0.02 and hs-CRP (P = 0.012 in ginger group in comparison to baseline. Moreover, the analysis of covariance showed that the group received ginger supplementation significantly lowered TNF- α (15.3 ± 4.6 vs. 19.6 ± 5.2; P = 0.005 and hs-CRP (2.42 ± 1.7 vs. 2.56 ± 2.18; P = .016 concentrations in comparison to control group. While there were no significant changes in IL-6 (7.9 ± 2.1 vs. 7.8 ± 2.9; P > .05. Conclusion: In conclusion, ginger supplementation in oral administration reduced inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients. So it may be a good remedy to diminish the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes.

  12. Perbedaan Pengaruh Pemberian Insulin dan Ekstrak Zingiber officinale Terhadap Berat Badan Lahir Anak Rattus Norvegicus Model Diabetes Melitus Pragestasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Mega Septiasari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes during pregnancy can be divided into pregestational diabetes and gestational diabetes. The risk of fetal Diabetes Mellitus pregestational (DMpG patients can be either macrosomia or low birth weight. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the administration effect of insulin and Zingiber officinale extract on birth weight of Rattus norvegicus pregestational diabetes mellitus model. This research is an experimental research using post test only control group design. Samples contained 30 pregnant Rattus norvegicus and divided into 5 groups, where K0 (negative control group and K1 (positive control group given aquadest 1cc, K2 given insulin 1IU, K3 given ginger extract 500mg/ kg BW, K4 given insulin 1IU and ginger extract 500mg/ kg BW. Treatment was administered during the first 16 days of pregnancy. On the 17th day, the rats were terminated and then the birth weight was measured with the scale. Data analysis using One-way ANOVA test followed by Tamhane test. The results showed that there was a difference of birth weight in the insulin treatment group and ginger extract treatment group (p-value = 0,037 < α =0,05. The conclusion of this study was Zingiber officinale can be used as a single therapy or combination with insulin of Rattus norvegicus pregestational diabetes mellitus model.

  13. Complete Heart Block in a Patient Taking Trachyspermum ammi and Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesamoddin Hosseinjani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal products are one of the most popular medications in the world. Nevertheless, herbal medications are not always safe and several cases of side effects have been reported. A 34 years old man was referred to Tehran heart center (THC for implantation of permanent pacemaker (PPM. Recently, he had experienced several episodes of presyncope and according to the diagnosis of Complete Heart Block (CHB with accelerated junctional rhythm, a temporary pacemaker (TPM was implanted for him in another medical center. He had rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and fatty liver in his past medical history. In his drug history, the patient took only herbal medications for the treatment of his ailments among them daily use of Trachyspermum ammi and Zingiber officinale (ginger products were the main causes of this adverse effect.

  14. In vitro effectiveness of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale extracts on Echinococcus protoscoleces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Esam; Al-Shaebi, Esam M; Al-Quarishy, Saleh; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an important economic and human public health problem with a wide geographical distribution. Surgical excision remains the primary treatment and the only hope for complete cure of hydatosis. The most important complications arising from surgical excision, however, is recurrence, which is due to dissemination of protoscolices during the surgery. Pre-surgical inactivation of the contents of the hydatid cyst by injection of scolicidal agent into the cyst has been used as adjunct to surgery in order to overcome the risk of recurrence. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) and ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) were tested as scolicidal agent for Echinococcus protoscoleces. Protoscoleces were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Three concentrations (10, 30 and 50 mg/ml) of each extract were investigated and viability of the protoscoleces was tested by 0.1% eosin staining. Ginger extract showed the strongest scolicidal effect (100%) after 20 min at a concentration of 30 mg/ml and 10 min at 50 mg/ml . The maximum scolicidal effect of turmeric was 93.2% after 30 min at a concentration of 50 mg/ml. It is concluded that turmeric and ginger extracts have high scolicidal activity and could be used as effective scolicidal agents against Echinococcus protoscoleces.

  15. Endophytic Nocardiopsis sp. from Zingiber officinale with both antiphytopathogenic mechanisms and antibiofilm activity against clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, Rohini; Soumya, K R; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2017-06-01

    Novel and potential antimicrobial compounds are essential to tackle the frequently emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens and also to develop environment friendly agricultural practices. In the current study, endophytic actinomycetes from rhizome of Zingiber officinale were explored in terms of its diversity and bioactive properties. Fourteen different organisms were isolated, identified and screened for activity against Pythium myriotylum and human clinical pathogens. Among these, Nocardiopsis sp. ZoA1 was found to have highest inhibition with excellent antibacterial effects compared to standard antibiotics. Remarkable antibiofilm property was also shown by the extract of ZoA1. Its antifungal activity against Pythium and other common phytopathogens was also found to be promising as confirmed by scanning electron microscopic analysis. By PCR-based sequence analysis of phz E gene, the organism was confirmed for the genetic basis of phenazine biosynthesis. Further GC-MS analysis of Nocardiopsis sp. revealed the presence of various compounds including Phenol, 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) and trans cinnamic acid which can have significant role in the observed result. The current study is the first report on endophytic Nocardiopsis sp. from ginger with promising applications. In vivo treatment of Nocardiopsis sp. on ginger rhizome has revealed its inhibition towards the colonization of P. myriotylum which makes the study to have promises to manage the severe diseases in ginger like rhizome rot.

  16. Zingiber officinale Mitigates Brain Damage and Improves Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta; Tongun, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is known to produce brain damage and related behavioral deficits including memory. Recently, accumulating lines of evidence showed that dietary enrichment with nutritional antioxidants could reduce brain damage and improve cognitive function. In this study, possible protective effect of Zingiber officinale, a medicinal plant reputed for neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-related brain damage, on brain damage and memory deficit induced by focal cerebral ischemia was elucidated. Male adult Wistar rats were administrated an alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome orally 14 days before and 21 days after the permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Cognitive function assessment was performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after MCAO using the Morris water maze test. The brain infarct volume and density of neurons in hippocampus were also determined. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus was also quantified at the end of experiment. The results showed that cognitive function and neurons density in hippocampus of rats receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved while the brain infarct volume was decreased. The cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect occurred partly via the antioxidant activity of the extract. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome to protect against focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:21197427

  17. Zingiber officinale Mitigates Brain Damage and Improves Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia is known to produce brain damage and related behavioral deficits including memory. Recently, accumulating lines of evidence showed that dietary enrichment with nutritional antioxidants could reduce brain damage and improve cognitive function. In this study, possible protective effect of Zingiber officinale, a medicinal plant reputed for neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-related brain damage, on brain damage and memory deficit induced by focal cerebral ischemia was elucidated. Male adult Wistar rats were administrated an alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome orally 14 days before and 21 days after the permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (MCAO. Cognitive function assessment was performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after MCAO using the Morris water maze test. The brain infarct volume and density of neurons in hippocampus were also determined. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus was also quantified at the end of experiment. The results showed that cognitive function and neurons density in hippocampus of rats receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved while the brain infarct volume was decreased. The cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect occurred partly via the antioxidant activity of the extract. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome to protect against focal cerebral ischemia.

  18. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present, while reducing sugars, tannins, oils and acid compounds were absent. Similarly, the results of the proximate analysis of the rhizome showed that ginger ...

  19. Propriétés physico-chimiques de l'amidon de gingembre (Zingiber officinale roscoe de Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical Properties of Starch from Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale roscoe of Ivory Coast. The ginger or rhizome of Zingiber officinale roscoe is one of spice valued for its characteristic aroma and pungency. It grows in tropical region, specially in south and east part of Asia. That spice in commercialised in dry form. In Ivory Coast, the ginger is often consumed in the form of drink commonly called "Gnamakoudji". In order to increase the value of ginger, studies about the physico-chemical and functional properties of ginger starch have been investigated. Its amylose, ash, lipid and protein content are respectively 28.3%, 0.14%, 0.12% and 0.18%. The granule size is between 6.43 and 38.56 μm. Native ginger starch shows a very low sensitiveness to snail's digestive sap, on the other hand, gelatinized starch is very sensitive. Acid hydrolysis gave two phases: a fast one during the first fortnight and a slow one beyond. The swelling and solubility study has revolted a weak swelling power and a low solubility in water. The thermogram showed a high gelatinization temperature in order of 83.2 °C and a gelatinization enthalpy of 14.65 J/g. Retrogradation study reveals that starch retrogrades at the end of two days and at J0, syneresis is 44% and clarity is 11.5%.

  20. Evaluation of Sun Protection Factor of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Extract by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to evaluate the sun protection factor (SPF) of aqueous and methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy method. Aqueous and Methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale having concentration of 200µg/ml and 400µg/ml was prepared respectively and the SPF values were evaluated by UV spectroscopy. In this study, it was found that aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale (200µg/ml) have SPF value about 1.44±0....

  1. Isolation and initial structural characterization of a 27 kDa protein from Zingiber officinale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Saima; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Falke, Sven; Arslan, Ali; Fazel, Ramin; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian; Choudhary, M. Iqbal

    2018-03-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger) is a widely used traditional medicinal plant (for different ailments such as arthritis, constipation, and hypertension). This article describes the isolation and characterization of a so far unknown protein from ginger rhizomes applying ion exchange, affinity, size-exclusion chromatography, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and mass spectrometry techniques. One-dimensional Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE was performed under non-reducing conditions, showing one band corresponding to approx. 27 kDa. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis of the protein solution revealed monodispersity and a monomeric state of the purified protein. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy strongly indicated a β-sheet-rich protein, and disordered regions. MALDI-TOF-MS, and LC-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27.29 kDa protein, having 32.13% and 25.34% sequence coverage with Zingipain-1 and 2, respectively. The monomeric state and molecular weight were verified by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. An elongated ab-initio model was calculated based on the scattering intensity distribution.

  2. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin action of Zingiber Officinale as auxiliary chemical and medicament combined to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Cardoso, Flávia Goulart da Rosa; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Cláudio Antônio Talge

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in vitro to compare the effectiveness of Zingiber Officinale as an auxiliary chemical substance followed by placement of different intra-canal medication in removing endotoxins and cultivable micro-organisms from infected root canals. Seventy-two root canals were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli for 28 days. After, the teeth were instrumented using Zingiber Officinale and divided into six groups according to the intra-canal medication: chlorhexidine gel; calcium hydroxide + chlorhexidine gel; glycolic ginger extract; calcium hydroxide + glycolic ginger extract; calcium hydroxide + saline solution and saline solution (control). Sample collections were performed after root canal contamination (Baseline; S1), after instrumentation (S2), 7 days after instrumentation (S3), after 14 days with intra-canal medication (S4) and 7 days after removal of intra-canal medication (S5). The results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. It was observed that in S2 and S3 there was significant reduction of the micro-organisms and the quantity of endotoxins after instrumentation. In samples S4 and S5 there was complete elimination of micro-organisms and significant reduction of endotoxins. It was concluded that Zingiber Officinale as an auxiliary chemical substance was effective on the micro-organisms tested, yet was unable to eliminate the endotoxins. Similarly, the intra-canal medication were effective on micro-organisms, yet did not completely eliminate the endotoxins.

  4. Regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase expression by Zingiber officinale in the liver of high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammi, Srinivas; Kim, Moon S; Gavande, Navnath S; Li, George Q; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2010-05-01

    Zingiber officinale has been used to control lipid disorders and reported to possess remarkable cholesterol-lowering activity in experimental hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the effect of a characterized and standardized extract of Zingiber officinale on the hepatic lipid levels as well as on the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was investigated in a high-fat diet-fed rat model. Rats were treated with an ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) extract along with a high-fat diet for 6 weeks. The extract of Zingiber officinale significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride and tended to decrease hepatic cholesterol levels when administered over 6 weeks to the rats fed a high-fat diet. We found that in parallel, the extract up-regulated both LDL receptor mRNA and protein level and down-regulated HMG-CoA reductase protein expression in the liver of these rats. The metabolic control of body lipid homeostasis is in part due to enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis and reduced expression of LDL receptor sites following long-term consumption of high-fat diets. The present results show restoration of transcriptional and post-transcriptional changes in low-density lipoprotein and HMG CoA reductase by Zingiber officinale administration with a high-fat diet and provide a rational explanation for the effect of ginger in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  5. Anti-giardial therapeutic potential of dichloromethane extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyab, Ahmad K; Yones, Doaa A; Ibraheim, Zedan Z; Hassan, Tasneem M

    2016-07-01

    Giardiosis is one of the common parasitic diarrhoea in humans, especially in children, worldwide. Many drugs are used for its treatment, but there is evidence of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy and unpleasant side effects. Natural products are good candidates for discovering more effective anti-giardial compounds. This study evaluated the activity of extracts of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma longa (curcumin) against Giardia lamblia in vitro and in vivo. Giardia cyst suspension was prepared from children faecal specimens. For the in vitro experiment, 1, 10 and 50 mg⁄mL dichloromethane extracts of ginger and curcumin separately were incubated with Giardia cysts for 5, 10, 30 and 60 min. The viability was distinguished by 0.1 % eosin and a haemocytometer. For the in vivo experiments, Balb/c mice were infected with Giardia cyst suspension containing 10,000 cysts/mL. Infected mice were administered 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ginger and curcumin extracts separately for 7 days post-infection. The effectiveness of the extracts was evaluated by faecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts and histopathological examination of the small intestine. In vitro ginger extract had a higher significant effect on cyst viability than curcumin, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo ginger (more effective) and curcumin extracts significantly treated infected mice, and this was evidenced by the faecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts reduction, in addition to evident improvement of intestinal mucosal damages induced by Giardia infection. Z. officinale and C. longa extracts may represent effective and natural therapeutic alternatives with low side effects and without drug resistance in the treatment of giardiosis.

  6. Daya Simpan Susu Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus radiatus L. dengan Persentase Penambahan Sari Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilla Dwi Andrestian

    2015-06-01

    Mung bean milk is one of the diversification of processed mung beans. The process of making mung bean milk using Ultra High Temperature (UHT is abundantly sold in the market. As another alternative to have a high shelf life, it needs the addition of natural preservatives such as red ginger. In general, this research aim was to determine the effect of addition of the percentage of red ginger extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum on storability of green beans milk (Phaseolus radiatus L.. This research consisted of two phases, preliminary research and main research. The former stage was conducted to determine the best acceptability of nine treatment variations of red ginger extract addition. After preliminary research was made and it obtained the best results preferred by panelist, it was then followed by main research to determine the storability of green beans milk. From preliminary research, theres were three treatment preferred by panelists, namely P3 (0.75%, P5 (1.25% and P6 (1.5%. After that, those  treatments were tested for their storability in main research. From main research it showed that Q0 (control treatment can last for 0 day, Q1 treatment with the addition of red ginger extract 0,75% and Q2 (1.25% having storability for 1 day and Q3 (1.5% having the best treatment that had the longest storability (for 2 days. The more addition of red ginger extract, the longer storability of green beans milk. The best favored and longest storability of green beans milk was one added with red ginger extract of 1.5%. Keywords: Green Bean Milk, Storability, Red ginger

  7. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W; Kjaer, S K; Dahl, C

    1991-01-01

    Thirty women participated in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial of the efficacy of a natural product, the powdered root of ginger (Zingiber officinale), and placebo in hyperemesis gravidarum. Three patients had to be withdrawn. Each woman swallowed capsules containing either 250 mg ginger...

  8. PENGGUNAAN KOMBINASI KUNYIT (Curcuma domestica DAN JAHE (Zingiber officinale BENTUK ENKAPSULASI DAN TANPA ENKAPSULASI TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK USUS DAN MIKROFLORA USUS AYAM PEDAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Halim Natsir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the use of curcuma (curcuma domestica and ginger (Zingiber officinale combinations with encapsulated and not Encapsulated on intestinal histological and Intestinal Microflora in broiler. The materials used in this research were 180 day-old broiler chicks, flour and encapsulated turmeric and ginger mixture. The encapsulants used were maltodextrin (75 %: casein 25 % and adding BHT 0.075 % from extract of 10 % turmeric and ginger mixture. The methods used a Laboratory experiment of a Completely Randomized Design with 9 treatments (P0 = control feed, namely 2 forms of turmeric and ginger mixture. (flour and encapsulated with 4 levels (0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8%. The results showed that use of turmeric and ginger mixture in the form of non-encapsulation and encapsulation significantly improved (P<0.01 pH, viscocity of digesta and the number of villi, but showed a no significant difference on villi height, and the number of bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus, sp, E Coli and salmonella Sp.. It is concluded that the use of turmeric and ginger mixture of encapsulated form provides better results than the form of non- encapsulation with the optimum level of 0.8%. Therefore using encapsulated form in 0.8% of the combined turmeric and ginger in broiler diet is recommended.   (Key words: Broiler, Encapsulation, Ginger, Histological, Microflora, Turmeric

  9. Composição físico-química e aceitação sensorial da inflorescência de gengibre orgânico (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Physicochemical composition and sensory acceptance of organic ginger inflorescences (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora Balsini Lucio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Em Morretes - PR, Brasil, existe uma demanda da utilização integral da planta do gengibre (rizoma e parte aérea, portanto, o conhecimento da composição química e a avaliação sensorial de inflorescência de gengibre tornam-se importantes. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar a composição físico-química e aceitação sensorial de inflorescência de gengibre orgânico. Com a inflorescência de gengibre orgânico, foram elaborados chá, suco e salada e foi verificada sua aceitação com utilização de escala hedônica. As inflorescências de gengibre orgânico, verde e rosada, respectivamente, apresentaram 93,23 e 94,54% de umidade, 0,83 e 0,81% de cinzas, 17,98 e 12,36% de proteínas, 3,90 e 3,81% de lipídios, 19,22 e 23,99% de fibra bruta e 58,07 e 59,03% de carboidratos. Com o amadurecimento, as inflorescências de gengibre têm o seu teor de proteínas diminuído e o teor de fibras aumentado. Para o consumo das inflorescências, indica-se sua utilização para o preparo de chá, produto que apresentou mais de 80% de aceitação pelos julgadores.In the city of Morretes - PR, Brazil, there is a demand of the use of the full plant of ginger (rhizome and air part; thus, the knowledge of the chemical composition and sensory evaluation of ginger inflorescences have become important. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical composition and sensory acceptance of the organic ginger inflorescence. Tea, juice, and salad were prepared with the inflorescences of organic ginger and their acceptance was verified with the use of the hedonic scale. The inflorescences of organic ginger (green and mature, respectively, presented 93.23 and 94.54% of moisture, 0.83 and 0.81% of ash, 17.98 and 12.36% of protein, 3.90 and 3.81% of fat, 19.22 and 23.99% of crude fiber, and 58.07 and 59.03% of carbohydrates. The content of protein decreased with maturity and the fiber content increased. For the consumption of inflorescences

  10. Essential oil yield and composition of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes after different drying periods Teor e composição de óleo essencial de rizomas de gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe após diferentes períodos de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.M Dabague

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger production in Paraná State, Brazil, has predominated in Morretes Municipality, with around 300 ha cultivated area. The aim of this work was to evaluate the essential oil yield and composition of ginger rhizomes produced in Morretes and subjected to different drying periods at room temperature. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x5 factorial arrangement, with four replicates (four plants each, five origins and five drying periods at room temperature (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type device for 3h and the constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The drying of ginger rhizomes at room temperature for up to 60 days decreased the essential oil yield in most origins. Geranial and neral levels were higher in all origins and as drying periods were longer. Geraniol and geranyl acetate levels decreased after drying in all origins, as well as eucalyptol, camphene, zingiberene and β-bisabolene in most origins.A produção de gengibre no Paraná concentra-se no município de Morretes, ocupando uma área de plantio de aproximadamente 300 ha. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de rizomas de gengibre produzidos em Morretes e submetidos a diferentes períodos de secagem em temperatura ambiente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com quatro repetições (quatro plantas por repetição, avaliando cinco procedências e cinco períodos de secagem a temperatura ambiente (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias. As extrações de óleo essencial foram realizadas por hidrodestilação em aparelho graduado Clevenger durante três horas e a análise dos constituintes foi realizada por meio de cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. A secagem de rizomas de gengibre em temperatura ambiente por até 60 dias resultou na diminuição de teores de

  11. Uji Fitokimia, Toksisitas dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Fraksi n-heksan dan Etil Asetat terhadap Ekstrak Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale var. amarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpina Nora Kaban

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Has conducted research on the phytochemical test, toxicity test and test the antioxidant activity of the fraction of n-hexane and ethyl acetate to extract red ginger (Zingiber officinale amarum var.. The dried leaves weighing 382 grams, was macerated using methanol, filtered and concentrated by rotary evaporator. Then the total extract of red ginger in fractionation with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Based on the test results of secondary metabolites phytochemical extracts of total red ginger (Zingiber officinale var amarum. Are alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids and phenolic. N-hexane fraction contains alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids and phenolic. Ethyl acetate fractions contain alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids and phenolic. Toxicity test showed the mortality rate of shrimp larvae Artemia salina Leach using Probit Analysis SAS (Statistical Analysis System to determine the value of 50% Lethal Concentration (LC50, showed that the fraction of n-hexane toxicity with LC50 values of 63.8130 ppm; extracts of total was 71.0121 ppm and ethyl acetate was 3821.89 ppm. Test the antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical reduction in the spectrophotometer and IC50 values obtained on a total extract was 32.19 ppm; n-hexane was fraction 35.63 ppm; and ethyl acetate fraction was 25.69 ppm.

  12. MANFAAT PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG KUNYIT (Curcuma domestica Val DAN TEPUNG JAHE (Zingiber officinale TERHADAP KUALITAS BAKSO ITIK AFKIR DENGAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Nur Lestarini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the advantage of tumeric flour (Curcuma domestica Val and ginger flour (Zingiber officinale addition on quality of culled duck meatball in different storage times. The materials were thigh duck, tumeric flour and ginger flour. The design used in experiment was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with factorial pattern 4x3 as the first factor was concentration of turmeric flour (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5% and ginger flour (0; 1; 2; 3% and the second one was storage time (0; 8; 16 hours. The result of the research showed that storage time affected (P<0.05 pH, tenderness and waterholding capacity. Concentration of tumeric flour and ginger flour affected tenderness.There was no interaction between those two factors on pH, water-holding capacity, tenderness,and total proteolitic bacteria. Concentration of turmeric flour 0,5% and ginger flour 1% with storage time during 0 hours gave the best result, with a pH value 6.49, tenderness 0.31, water-holding capacity 22.27, and a total proteolytic bacteria , 3.57x104. In conclusion, the finest result founded at 0.5% of turmeric flour and 1% of ginger flouraddition in meatball before storage. (Keywords: Culled duck, Ginger flour, Meatball, Storage time, Tumeric flour

  13. Anti-Platelet Aggregation and Vasorelaxing Effects of the Constituents of the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Shung Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol (1. Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation of their antiplatelet aggregation and vasorelaxing bioactivities. Among the tested compounds, [6]-gingerol (13 and [6]-shogaol (17 exhibited potent anti-platelet aggregation bioactivity. In addition, [10]-gingerol (15 inhibited the Ca2+-dependent contractions in high K+ medium. According to the results in the present research, the bioactivity of ginger could be related to the anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing mechanism.

  14. COMPARISON OF GINGER (Zingiber officiale Roscoe OLEORESIN OBTAINED WITH ETHANOL AND ISOPROPANOL WITH THAT OBTAINED WITH PRESSURIZED CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia P. NOBREGA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe belongs to the Zingiberacea family. It is a spice of great commercial importance. In this work ginger oleoresin was obtained with ethanol, isopropanol and liquid carbon dioxide. The chemical compositions of the extract were compared with each other. All oleoresin samples had monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Carboxylic acids were found in organic solvent extracts for an extraction time of 2 hours. The component responsible the for pungent characteristic of the oleoresin, gingerois, were detected in samples obtained with organic solvent for extraction times of 6 hours and in samples obtained with CO2 liquid for extraction times of 2 hours.O gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe pertence à família Zingiberacea. É uma especiaria de grande importância comercial. Neste trabalho realizou-se extrações da oleoresina de gengibre com etanol, isopropanol e dióxido de carbono líquido e comparou-se a composição química de cada um dos extratos. A oleoresina obtida tem componentes das classes dos monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos em todas as amostras. Ácidos carboxílicos foram encontrados nos extratos obtidos com solvente orgânico, quando o tempo de extração foi de 2 horas. Os componentes que dão a característica pungente à oleoresina, os gingerois, foram detectados nas amostras obtidas com solvente orgânico, quando o tempo de extração foi de 6 horas e, nas amostras obtidas com CO2 líquido, com 2 horas de extração.

  15. Metabolite analysis of endophytic fungi from cultivars of Zingiber officinale Rosc. identifies myriad of bioactive compounds including tyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2017-06-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with rhizomes of four cultivars of Zingiber officinale were identified by molecular and morphological methods and evaluated for their activity against soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum and clinical pathogens. The volatile bioactive metabolites produced by these isolates were identified by GC-MS analysis of the fungal crude extracts. Understanding of the metabolites produced by endophytes is also important in the context of raw consumption of ginger as medicine and spice. A total of fifteen isolates were identified from the four varieties studied. The various genera identified were Acremonium sp., Gliocladiopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Colletotrichum sp., Aspergillus sp., Phlebia sp., Earliella sp., and Pseudolagarobasidium sp. The endophytic community was unique to each variety, which could be due to the varying host genotype. Fungi from phylum Basidiomycota were identified for the first time from ginger. Seven isolates showed activity against Pythium, while only two showed antibacterial activity. The bioactive metabolites identified in the fungal crude extracts include tyrosol, benzene acetic acid, ergone, dehydromevalonic lactone, N-aminopyrrolidine, and many bioactive fatty acids and their derivatives which included linoleic acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, palmitic acid methyl ester, and methyl linoleate. The presence of these varying bioactive endophytic fungi may be one of the reasons for the differences in the performance of the different ginger varieties.

  16. Effect of Zingiber officinale Supplementation on Obesity Management with Respect to the Uncoupling Protein 1 -3826A>G and ß3-adrenergic Receptor Trp64Arg Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Zemestani, Maryam; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on some obesity-associated parameters, with nutrigenetics approach. Accordingly, 80 eligible obese women (aged 18-45 years) were randomly assigned to receive either ginger (2-g ginger rhizomes powder as two 1-g tablets per day) or placebo supplements (corn starch with the same amount) for 12 weeks. Subjects were tested for changes in body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, body composition, appetite score, and dietary intake. Moreover, participants were genotyped for the -3826A>G and Trp64Arg polymorphisms of uncoupling protein 1 and ß3-adrenergic receptor genes, respectively. Over 12 weeks, ginger supplementation resulted in a slight but statistically significant decrease in all anthropometric measurements and total appetite score as compared with placebo group, which were more pronounced in subjects with the AA genotype for uncoupling protein 1 and Trp64Trp genotype for ß3-adrenergic receptor gene. However, there was no significant difference in changes of body composition and total energy and macronutrients intake between groups. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ginger consumption has potential in managing obesity, accompanying with an intervention-genotype interaction effect. However, further clinical trials need to explore ginger's efficacy as an anti-obesity agent in the form of powder, extract, or its active components. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Differential Control of Growth, Apoptotic Activity, and Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Extracts Derived from Medicinal Herbs Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman I. Elkady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative potentiality of an extract derived from the medicinal plant ginger (Zingiber officinale on growth of breast cancer cells. Ginger treatment suppressed the proliferation and colony formation in breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Meanwhile, it did not significantly affect viability of nontumorigenic normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A. Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with ginger resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, accompanied by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase 3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase. At the molecular level, the apoptotic cell death mediated by ginger could be attributed in part to upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. Ginger treatment downregulated expression of prosurvival genes, such as NF-κB, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, and Survivin, and cell cycle-regulating proteins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK-4. On the other hand, it increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21. It also inhibited the expression of the two prominent molecular targets of cancer, c-Myc and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. These findings suggested that the ginger may be a promising candidate for the treatment of breast carcinomas.

  18. SENYAWA BIOAKTIF RIMPANG JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roscue MENINGKATKAN RESPON SITOLITIK SEL NK TERHADAP SEL KANKER DARAH K-562 IN VITRO [Ginger Root Bioactive Compounds Increased Cytolitic Response of Natural Killer (NK Cells Against Leucemic Cell Line K-562 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria 2

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell, a kind of lymphocyte cells, plays an important role in attacking infectious, immature, and cancer cell. Its function could be modulated by food bioactive compounds. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger root bioactive compounds such as oleoresin, gingerol, and shogaol on cytolitic response of NK cell in vitro. Lymphocyte cells were isolated by centrifugation on ficoll-hypaque density (1,77 ?0,001 g/ml method. Leukemic cells line K-562 as target cells(TC labelled by [3H]-timidin, together with lymphocyte as effector cell (EC were cultured in two ratio levels of EC : TC equal to 1:50 and 1:100, and two culture conditions, for 4 hours, respectively. Paraquate dichloride (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridilium dichloride 3 mM was used to induce stress oxidative circumstance. Cytolytic capacity of NK cells was determined by percentage of TC lysed by NK cells, in normal and oxidative stress conditions. Statistical analysis showed that the effects of ginger bioactive compounds on cytolytic response of NK cell depended on the culture conditions, as shown by cultures in the presence of oleoresin, and gingerol, but not shogaol. In the lymphocyte culture without stress oxidative, oleoresin, gingerol and shogaol compounds increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells cultured at a ratio of TC : EC equal to 1:50, with the highest increament of 65 % at oleoresin concentration of 50 ?g/ml. However, in culture at a ratio of TC : EC equals to 1:100, only oleoresin at a concentration of 50 ?g/ml increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells with the highest increament of 8 %. Shogaol did not affect significantly NK cells cytolytic response. Under stress oxidative conditions, shogaol increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells cultured at a ratio of TC:EC equal to 1:50, but the highest increament of 56 % , was by oleoresin at concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Meanwhile, oleoresin and gingerol did

  19. MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of Aboveground and Root Components of Zingiber mioga and Officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Soo; Lee, Sunmin; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-09-03

    Zingiber species are members of the Zingiberaceae family, and are widely used for medicinal and food purposes. In this study aboveground and root parts of Zingiber mioga and Zingiber officinale were subjected to metabolite profiling by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) in order to characterize them by species and parts and also to measure bioactivities. Both primary and secondary metabolites showed clear discrimination in the PCA score plot and PLS-DA by species and parts. Tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, 8-gingerol, and 8-paradol were discriminating metabolites between Z. mioga and Z. officinale that were present in different quantities. Eleven flavonoids, six amino acids, six organic acids, four fatty acids, and gingerenone A were higher in the aboveground parts than the root parts. Antioxidant activities were measured and were highest in the root part of Z. officinale. The relatively high contents of tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, and galanganol C in the root part of Z. officinale showed highly positive correlation with bioactivities based on correlation assay. On the basis of these results, we can suggest different usages of structurally different parts of Zingiber species as food plants.

  20. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A; Zanaty, Mohamed I

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture.

  1. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A.; Zanaty, Mohamed I.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture. PMID:27298610

  2. MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of Aboveground and Root Components of Zingiber mioga and Officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Soo Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber species are members of the Zingiberaceae family, and are widely used for medicinal and food purposes. In this study aboveground and root parts of Zingiber mioga and Zingiber officinale were subjected to metabolite profiling by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS in order to characterize them by species and parts and also to measure bioactivities. Both primary and secondary metabolites showed clear discrimination in the PCA score plot and PLS-DA by species and parts. Tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, 8-gingerol, and 8-paradol were discriminating metabolites between Z. mioga and Z. officinale that were present in different quantities. Eleven flavonoids, six amino acids, six organic acids, four fatty acids, and gingerenone A were higher in the aboveground parts than the root parts. Antioxidant activities were measured and were highest in the root part of Z. officinale. The relatively high contents of tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, and galanganol C in the root part of Z. officinale showed highly positive correlation with bioactivities based on correlation assay. On the basis of these results, we can suggest different usages of structurally different parts of Zingiber species as food plants.

  3. Ameliorating reactive oxygen species-induced in vitro lipid peroxidation in brain, liver, mitochondria and DNA damage by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, T A

    2010-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for a number of cellular activities. However, excess cellular iron can be toxic by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O(2) (-)) and hydroxyl radical (HO(·)) that damage proteins, lipids and DNA. Mutagenic and genotoxic end products of lipid peroxidation can induce the decline of mitochondrial respiration and are associated with various human ailments including aging, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer etc. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) is a widely used spice around the world. The protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale against ROS-induced in vitro lipid peroxidation and DNA damage was evaluated in this study. The lipid peroxidation was induced by hydroxyl radical generated from Fenton's reaction in rat liver and brain homogenates and mitochondrial fraction (isolated from rat liver). The DNA protection was evaluated using H(2)O(2)-induced changes in pBR-322 plasmid and Fenton reaction-induced DNA fragmentation in rat liver. The results indicated that Z. officinale significantly (Pofficinale in the liver homogenate was 94 %. However, the extract could partially alleviate the DNA damage. The protective mechanism can be correlated to the radical scavenging property of Z. officinale. The results of the study suggest the possible nutraceutical role of Z. officinale against the oxidative stress induced human ailments.

  4. Anti-fatty liver effects of oils from Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa on ethanol-induced fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwozo, Sarah Onyenibe; Osunmadewa, Damilola Adeola; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the protective effects of oils from Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma longa (turmeric) on acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in male Wistar rats. Ferric reducing antioxidant power activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the oils were evaluated ex vivo. Rats were pretreated for 28 d with standard drug (Livolin Forte) and oils from Z. officinale and C. longa before they were exposed to 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg) to induce acute fatty liver. Histological changes were observed and the degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Serum triglyceride (TG) level, total cholesterol (TC) level and the effects of both oils on reduced gluthatione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated. Oils from Z. officinale and C. longa at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of serum enzymes, serum TG, serum TC and hepatic MDA, while they significantly restored the level of GSH as well as GST and SOD activities. Histological examination of rats tissues was related to the obtained results. From the results it may be concluded that oils from Z. officinale and C. longa (200 mg/kg) exhibited hepatoprotective activity in acute ethanol-induced fatty liver and Z. officinale oil was identified to have better effects than C. longa oil.

  5. OPTIMASI SABUN CAIR EKSTRAK ETANOL RIMPANG Zingiber officinale Rosc. var.rubrum DENGAN VARIASI MINYAK JARAK DAN KALIUM HIDROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Paramita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of skin diseases are bacterial infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Based on previous studies of red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc var.rubrum have antibacterial activity. The aimed of this research was to find the optimum concentration of castor oil and potassium hydroxide (KOH with good physicochemical properties with Simplex Lattice Design method, and determine the effectiveness of liquid soap against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis with disc diffusion test. Extraction of red ginger with shoxletation and 96% ethanol. The optimization liquid soap design was using Simplex Lattice Design. The basic liquid soap composition was used to predict the optimum formula contain castor oil and KOH for comparasion (0: 100, (25:75, (50:50, (75:25, (100: 0. The research showed optimum consentration value of red ginger ethanol extract is 5%. The optimum formulas contained of 40,035 g of castor oil and 10,875 g KOH. The optimum liquid soap’s colour was brown, charateristic smell of ginger, stiff, with a pH value of 9,4, viscosity of 1233 cP, 1,14% free fatty acids and alkali-free 0%. The independent T test result by using the R-2.14.1 program was p values > 0.05 against S. epidermidis and p 0,05 terhadap S. epidermidis dan p<0,05 terhadap S.aureus. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa metode Simplex Lattice Design dapat menghasilkan formula sabun cair yang optimum dan memiliki efektivitas sebagai antibakteri. Kata kunci: Minyak Jarak, KOH, Simplex Lattice Design, Rimpang Jahe Merah

  6. Endophytic Paraconiothyrium sp. from Zingiber officinale Rosc. Displays Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity by Production of Danthron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, C; Sachidanandan, P; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2018-03-01

    The bioactivity spectrum of fungal endophytes isolated from Zingiber officinale was analyzed against clinical pathogens and against the phytopathogen Pythium myriotylum, which causes Pythium rot in ginger. One of the isolates GFM13 showed broad bioactivity against various pathogens tested including P. myriotylum. The spore suspension as well as the culture filtrate of the endophytic fungal isolate was found to effectively protect ginger rhizomes from Pythium rot. By molecular identification, the fungal endophyte was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp. The bioactive compound produced by the isolate was separated by bioactivity-guided fractionation and was identified by GC-MS as danthron, an anthraquinone derivative. PCR amplification showed the presence of non-reducing polyketide synthase gene (NR-PKS) in the endophyte GFM13, which is reported to be responsible for the synthesis of anthraquinones in fungi. This is the first report of danthron being produced as the biologically active component of Paraconiothyrium sp. Danthron is reported to have wide pharmaceutical and agronomic applications which include its use as a fungicide in agriculture. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of danthron and the endophytic origin of Paraconiothyrium sp. offer immense applications of the study.

  7. Experimental studies on drying of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa l. and Tinospora cordifolia in solar-biomass hybrid drier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, J.; Vijay, V.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Center for Rural Development and Technology

    2005-11-01

    An integral type natural convection solar drier has been fabricated and coupled with a biomass stove. Experiments have been conducted to test the performance of the drier by drying of Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa l. (turmeric) and Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) during the summer climate in Delhi. It was found that, during the load test for ginger, 18 kg of fresh product with an initial moisture content of 319.74(db)% was dried to a final moisture content of 11.8(db)% within 33 h. Similarly, moisture content of turmeric and guduchi were reduced from 358.96 to 8.8 and 257.45 to 9.67(db)% during 36 and 48 h of drying, respectively. The drying of these products has also been studied under 'solar-only' and open sun in the same climatic conditions and the results indicate that for all the products, drying is faster, and is within 33-48 h in hybrid drier, against 72-120 h in 'solar-only' operation of the same drier and 192-288 h in open sun. Efficiency of the drier during its two mode (solar and biomass separately) of operation has been estimated and quality evaluation of under-studied products showed that developed drier is suitable for the drying of these products. The developed drier is a simple system, which can be manufactured locally and can be used for drying of other agricultural products. (author)

  8. Semen characteristics of pubertal Yankasa rams fed Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is consumed by humans and has been reported to possess medicinal uses. It possesses androgenic property with significant increase on male reproductive parameters. This study assessed the reproductive performance of Yankasa rams fed diets supplemented with different levels of ginger ...

  9. Comparative study on the hepatoprotection to heavy metals of Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R; Owu, Daniel U; Nwokocha, Magdalene I; Ufearo, Chibueze S; Iwuala, Moses O E

    2012-10-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is a herb used for culinary and therapeutic purposes due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. We examined its protective ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; Ground Zingiber officinale (7%, w/w of feed) was administered to rats either at the same time with the exposure ofheavy metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. Animals were exposed to either of Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) in drinking water. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Weight losses induced by these metals were not reversed by Zingiber officinale administration. There was a significant (PZingiber officinale affected the bioavailability, elimination and uptake of these metals in a time-dependent way with highest beneficial reducing effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver.

  10. Zingiber officinale and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence from Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Tariq, Muhammad; Chen, Shuqing

    2015-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is being used as diet-based therapy because of its wide therapeutic potential in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and against diabetic complications by directly interacting with different molecular and cellular pathways that provoke the pathogenesis of T2DM. This article explores the overall beneficial effects of Z. officinale on T2DM and its associated complications. Along with elucidating the beneficial facts of Z. officinale, this article may also aid in understanding the molecular basis of its effects in T2DM. The mechanistic rationale for antidiabetic effects of Z. officinale includes the inhibition of several transcriptional pathways, lipid peroxidation, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, and HMG-CoA reductase and the activation of antioxidant enzyme capacity and low-density lipoprotein receptors. Consequently, by targeting these pathways, Z. officinale shows its antidiabetic therapeutic effects by increasing insulin sensitivity/synthesis, protecting β-cells of pancreatic islets, reducing fat accumulation, decreasing oxidative stress, and increasing glucose uptake by the tissues. In addition to these effects, Z. officinale also exhibits protective effects against several diabetes-linked complications, notably nephropathy and diabetic cataract, by acting as an antioxidant and antiglycating agent. In conclusion, this work suggests that consumption of Z. officinale can help to treat T2DM and diabetic complications; nevertheless, patient counseling also is required as a guiding force for the success of diet-based therapy in T2DM.

  11. Protective Effect of Zingiber officinale Against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Tumour by Regulating Inflammatory Mediator and Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubila, Sundararaj; Ranganathan, Thottiam Vasudevan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate Zingiber officinale paste against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA)-induced tumours in Swiss albino mice. Experimental animals received Z. officinale paste (low dose 100 mg/kg bw and high dose 500 mg/kg bw) orally for eight alternative days. Treatment with Z. officinale paste showed significant increase in haemoglobin level and decrease in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) level. Z. officinale paste reduced the inflammatory mediators and cytokine levels, such as inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), tumour necrosis factor level (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment with Z. officinale paste also significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme level, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione transferase (GST), and decreased the lipid peroxidation. Treatment also increased the vitamin C and E levels in treated animals compared with the DLA-bearing host. Histopathological studies also confirmed the protective influence of Z. officinale paste against DLA. The present study suggested that Z. officinale paste could be used as natural spice and a potent antitumour agent.

  12. Effects of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale on Arginase I Activity and Expression in the Retina of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamuchi-Deli, Nasrin; Aberomand, Mohammad; Babaahmadi-Rezaei, Hossein; Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban

    2017-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that an increased arginase activity is involved in vascular dysfunction in experimental animals. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, commonly known as ginger, has been widely used in the traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. This study aimed at investigating the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Z. officinale on arginase I activity and expression in the retina of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In this experimental study, 16 male Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g were assessed. Diabetes was induced via a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight). The rats were randomly allocated into four experimental groups. Untreated healthy and diabetic controls received 1.5 mL/kg distilled water. Treated diabetic rats received 200, and 400 mg/kg of the Z. officinale extract dissolved in distilled water (1.5 mL/kg). Body weight, blood glucose and insulin concentration were measured by standard methods. The arginase I activity and expression were determined by spectrophotometric and western blot analysis, respectively. Our results showed that blood glucose concentration was significantly decreased in diabetic rats treated with the extract compared to untreated diabetic controls (P officinale hydroalcoholic extract may potentially be a promising therapeutic option for treating diabetes-induced vascular disorders, possibly through reducing arginase I activity and expression in the retina.

  13. Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K

    1994-02-01

    Magnolol and honokiol, biphenyl compounds, were isolated as anti-emetic principles from the methanolic extract of Magnolia obovata bark. [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-shogaols and [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols were isolated from the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome as anti-emetic principles. Some phenyl-propanoids with allyl side-chains were found to show the same activity. They inhibited the emetic action induced by the oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard and ranid frogs.

  14. Comparative studies of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and black pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... identification were determined every day of storage until samples were adjudged spoiled. .... examining colonies macroscopically on their cultural properties ... test, coagulase test, indole test, starch fermentation test, gram.

  15. Effect of Poloxamer on Zingiber Officinale Extracted Green Synthesis and Antibacterial Studies of Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, K; Manikandan, A; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    The Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) plant is one of the well-known medicinal plants. Poloxamer finds excellent clinical and therapeutic uses for curing of various ailments. The poloxamer 188 polymer and the plant extract of Z. officinale have been used to prepare the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a green synthesis route. The Z. officinale plant extract has been used as a reducing agent, while the poloxamer 188 has been used as a stabilizing agent. The formation of face-centered cubic (fcc) structure AgNPs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. The effect of addition of poloxamer on the controlling the shape, size and morphologies of the AgNPs has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The elemental composition of AgNPs was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The anti-bacterial activity of AgNPs has been investigated using three human pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The poloxamer 188 protected AgNPs inhibit the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure Z. officinale extract and the Z. officinale extract AgNPs.

  16. Zingiber officinale Roscoe ameliorates anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Hema, Unnikrishnan; Aswathi, Sreedharan

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested in the cardiotoxicity induced by anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin (DXN). The cardioprotective effects of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against DXN-induced acute cardiac damage in rat. The results of the study demonstrated that Z. officinale significantly and dose dependently protected the cardiotoxicity induced by DXN. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in the DXN alone treated group of animals were significantly (pofficinale (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) plus DXN treated groups. The cardiac malondialdehyde was elevated in the DXN alone treated group and declined significantly in the Z. officinale (400 mg/kg) plus DXN treated group. The results concluded that aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale ameliorated DXN-induced cardiotoxicity. The protection can be ascribed to the free radical scavenging activity of Z. officinale. This protective effect may suggest the adjuvant role of Z. officinale against OS induced by cancer chemotherapeutants, which warrant further research. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  17. Óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon nardus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum e Zingiber officinale: composição, atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus and Zingiber officinale: composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Aparecida Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo caracterizar quimicamente e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e gengibre (Zingiber officinale. A obtenção do óleo essencial foi realizada utilizando a técnica de hidrodestilação por meio do aparelho de Clevenger modificado e a identificação e quantificação dos constituintes pelas análises em CG/EM e CG-DIC. A avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada por meio da técnica difusão cavidade em ágar, utilizando os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Salmonella Cholerasuis ATCC 6539 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada utilizando sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoléico e o método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH. Nas análises cromatográficas, os constituintes majoritários encontrados no óleo essencial de C. nardus foram citronelal (47,12%, geraniol (18,56% e citronelol (11,07%, no óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foram identificados (E- cinamaldeído (77,72%, acetato de (E-cinamila (5,99% e o monoterpenóide 1,8-cineol (4,66% e, para Z. officinale os majoritários foram geranial (25,06%, neral (16,47%, 1,8-cineol (10,98%, geraniol (8,51%, acetato de geranila (4,19% e o canfeno (4,30%. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antibacteriana tanto para bactérias Gram-negativas como para bactérias Gram-positivas, sendo que o óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foi o mais eficiente. A atividade antioxidante foi evidenciada pelo teste β-caroteno/ácido linoléico, respectivamente, para C. nardus, seguido de Z. officinale e C. zeylanicum, e pelo teste do DPPH foi observada apenas para C. nardus.The aims of this study were to chemically characterize and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and ginger

  18. Antibacterial activity and medicinal properties of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Ginger extracts were obtained using solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanolic soxhlet and water. The extracts were assayed for antibacterial activity and bacterial growth inhibition activity. The results showed that all the extracts except the ...

  19. Bioreduction potentials of dried root of Zingiber officinale for a simple green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Antibacterial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith Vijaya, J; Jayaprakash, N; Kombaiah, K; Kaviyarasu, K; John Kennedy, L; Jothi Ramalingam, R; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; V M, Mansoor-Ali; Maaza, M

    2017-12-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an extract of dried Zingiber officinale (ginger) root as a reducing and capping agent in the presence of microwave irradiation was herein reported for the first time. The formation of symmetrical spheres is confirmed from the UV-Visible spectrum of Ag NPs. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy confirms the formation of the Ag NPs. X-ray diffraction analysis was utilized to calculate the crystallite size of Ag NPs and the value was found to be 10nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the morphology and size of the synthesized samples. The sphere like morphology is confirmed from the images. The purity and crystallinity of Ag NPs is confirmed by energy-dispersive X-Ray analysis and selected area electron diffraction respectively. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized Ag NPs was assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and shows the redox peaks in the potential range of -1.1 to +1.1V. Agar diffusion method is used to examine the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. For this purpose, two gram positive and two gram negative bacteria were studied. This single step approach was found to be simple, short time, cost-effective, reproducible, and eco-friendly. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. Materials and Methods: AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results: The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375–480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3–6 nm, 3–22 nm, and 3–18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Conclusion: Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. SUMMARY The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger

  1. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-07-01

    Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375-480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3-6 nm, 3-22 nm, and 3-18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger and cayenne pepper were evaluatedThe AgNPs formed were characterized using UV

  2. Characterization of Nanoencapsulated Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale Extract Using Combination of Malto Dextrin and Gum Arabic as Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliana, Y.; Harmami, S. B.; Restu, W. K.

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated nanoencapsulation of Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale extract. The encapsulated extract was used as a complex matrix of multi-layered interfacial membranes between malto dextrin and gum Arabic. Characterization of nanoencapsulation using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and BET surface area (SA) showed the morphology, functional group and cumulative adsorption in the surface area of pores. The TEM image of the nanoencapsulated powders of Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale extract showed a nearly spherical shape with the particle size of 664 nm from its average radius.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on morphology of leaf and shoot apex of ginger, turmeric and mango-ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, E.C.; Patel, J.D.; Shah, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kR gamma irradiation on morphology and growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Valet) and mango-ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb), and shoot apical organisation in ginger was studied. Higher doses (20 and 30 kR) of radiation proved to be lethal. Morphological aberrations in foliage leaves are reported. Irradiated shoot apices appear histologically inert. (auth.)

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on morphology of leaf and shoot apex of ginger, turmeric and mango-ginger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, E C; Patel, J D; Shah, J J [Sardar Patel Univ., Vallabh Vidyanagar (India). Dept. of Biosciences

    1980-06-01

    Effect of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kR gamma irradiation on morphology and growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Valet) and mango-ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb), and shoot apical organisation in ginger was studied. Higher doses (20 and 30 kR) of radiation proved to be lethal. Morphological aberrations in foliage leaves are reported. Irradiated shoot apices appear histologically inert.

  5. Zingiber officinale Roscoe prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity by enhancing hepatic antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, T A; Hema, U; Aswathy, M S

    2007-11-01

    A large number of xenobiotics are reported to be potentially hepatotoxic. Free radicals generated from the xenobiotic metabolism can induce lesions of the liver and react with the basic cellular constituents - proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (3g/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in rat. Aqueous extract of Z. officinale significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum transaminase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and ALP activities were significantly (pHepatic lipid peroxidation was enhanced significantly (pofficinale (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) prior to acetaminophen significantly declines the activities of serum transaminases and ALP. Further the hepatic antioxidant status was enhanced in the Z. officinale plus acetaminophen treated group than the control group. The results of the present study concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale against acetaminophen-induced acute toxicity is mediated either by preventing the decline of hepatic antioxidant status or due to its direct radical scavenging capacity.

  6. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  7. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20. Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  8. Recent perspectives on the medicinal potential of ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunathilake KDPP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available KDPP Gunathilake,1 HP Vasantha Rupasinghe2 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Sri Lanka; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS, Canada Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a globally known food and flavoring ingredient which is also reputed for its wide range of medicinal properties. The rhizome of ginger consists of a unique homologous series of compounds, gingerols, which are the major phenolic plant secondary metabolites responsible for its unique flavor and health benefits. Over the last 2 decades, extensive research has been conducted to identify bioactive constituents and medicinal potential of ginger. This review deliberates chemical composition as well as the most recent research findings on potential health benefits of ginger, including its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, blood pressure-lowering, cholesterol-lowering, antiplatelet aggregation, chemopreventive, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic properties. Keywords: ginger, gingerols, medicinal properties, Zingiber officinale, health

  9. Jenjibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae): etnofarmacognosia, cultivo, composición química y farmacología

    OpenAIRE

    Rosella, María Adelaida; Bongiorno de Pfirter, Graciela; Mandrile, Eloy L.

    1996-01-01

    Se actualizan los conocimientos sobre botánica, etnofarmacognosia, cultivo, y en particular los avances en el aislamiento de nuevos compuestos y sus aplicaciones en la moderna farmacología de Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae).

  10. Zingiber officinale: Its antibacterial activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Narula, Alka; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Biofilm formation, low membrane permeability and efflux activity developed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, play an important role in the mechanism of infection and antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we evaluate the antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale against multi-drug resistant strain of P. aeruginosa. The study explores antibacterial efficacy and time-kill study concomitantly the effect of herbal extract on bacterial cell physiology with the use of flow cytometry and inhibition of biofilm formation. Z. officinale was found to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa, significantly. A major decline in the Colony Forming Units was observed with 3 log 10  at 12 h of treatment. Also it is found to affect the membrane integrity of the pathogen, as 70.06 ± 2.009% cells were found to stain with Propidium iodide. In case of efflux activity 86.9 ± 2.08% cells were found in Ethidium bromide positive region. Biofilm formation inhibition ability was found in the range of 68.13 ± 4.11% to 84.86 ± 2.02%. Z.officinale is effective for killing Multi-Drug Resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolate by affecting the cellular physiology and inhibiting the biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hematotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Mariama; Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a globally marketed flavoring agent and cooking spice with a long history of human health benefits. The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is often detected in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition and has been reported to elicit toxic effects in different experimental animal models. The present study investigated the protective effects of 6-Gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from ginger on hematotoxicity and hepatorenal damage in rats exposed to CBZ. CBZ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg alone or simultaneously administered with 6-GRF at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, whereas control rats received corn oil alone at 2 mL/kg for 14 days. Hematological examination showed that CBZ-mediated toxicity to the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets counts were normalized to the control values in rats cotreated with 6-GRF. Moreover, administration of CBZ significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level in the livers and kidneys of rats compared with control. However, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were markedly elevated in kidneys and livers of CBZ-treated rats compared with control. The significant elevation in the plasma indices of renal and hepatic dysfunction in CBZ-treated rats was confirmed by light microscopy. Coadministration of 6-GRF exhibited chemoprotection against CBZ-mediated hematotoxicity, augmented antioxidant status, and prevented oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of the light-regulation and circadian-rhythm of the VDE gene promoter from Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenchao; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Xin; Huang, Hongyu; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2012-08-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is prone to photoinhibition under intense sunlight. Excessive light can be dissipated by the xanthophyll cycle, where violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays a critical role in protecting the photosynthesis apparatus from the damage of excessive light. We isolated ~2.0 kb of ginger VDE (GVDE) gene promoter, which contained the circadian box, I-box, G-box and GT-1 motif. Histochemical staining of Arabidopsis indicated the GVDE promoter was active in almost all organs, especially green tissues. β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity driven by GVDE promoter was repressed rather than activated by high light. GUS activity was altered by hormones, growth regulators and abiotic stresses, which increased with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and decreased with abscisic acid, salicylic acid, zeatin, salt (sodium chloride) and polyethylene glycol. Interestingly, GUS activities with gibberellin or indole-3-acetic acid increased in the short-term (24 h) and decreased in the long-term (48 and 72 h). Analysis of 5' flank deletion found two crucial functional regions residing in -679 to -833 and -63 to -210. Northern blotting analysis found transcription to be regulated by the endogenous circadian clock. Finally, we found a region necessary for regulating the circadian rhythm and another for the basic promoter activity. Key message A novel promoter, named GVDE promoter, was first isolated and analyzed in this study. We have determined one region crucial for promoter activity and another responsible for keeping circadian rhythms.

  13. Leaf Area Estimation Models for Ginger ( Zingibere officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to develop leaf area estimation models for three cultivars (37/79, 38/79 and 180/73) and four accessions (29/86, 30/86, 47/86 and 52/86) of ginger. Significant variations were observed among the tested genotypes in leaf length (L), leaf width (W) and actual leaf area (ALA). Leaf area was highly ...

  14. Dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet to heat-stressed broiler chickens and its effect on heat shock protein 70 expression, blood parameters and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheimi, S R; Zulkifli, I; Somchit, M N; Zunita, Z; Loh, T C; Soleimani, A F; Tang, S C

    2013-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Different extracts of Zingiber officinale decrease Enterococcus faecalis infection in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 μL inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae.

  16. Efecto del extracto hidroalcohólico de Zingiber officinale Roscoe (jengibre) en modelo de hepatotoxicidad en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Banely Trinidad; Cortés Suárez, Saúl; Izquierdo-Sánchez, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: el rizoma de Zingiber officinale Roscoe (jengibre) familia Zingiberaceae, presenta actividad antioxidante como atrapador de radicales libres y de protección en lipoperoxidación en modelos in vivo e in vitro, debido a sus principales compuestos bioactivos. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto del extracto hidroalcohólico obtenido de Zingiber officinalis en el modelo de hepatotoxicidad por sobredosis de acetaminofén en ratas. Métodos: se preparó un extracto hidroalcohólico del rizoma fresc...

  17. Nine New Gingerols from the Rhizoma of Zingiber officinale and Their Cytotoxic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zezhi; Wang, Yanzhi; Gao, MeiLing; Cui, Wanhua; Zeng, Mengnan; Cheng, Yongxian; Li, Juan

    2018-02-02

    Nine new gingerols, including three 6-oxo-shogaol derivatives [( Z )-6-oxo-[6]-shogaol ( 1 ), ( Z )-6-oxo-[8]-shogaol ( 2 ), ( Z )-6-oxo-[10]-shogaol ( 3 )], one 6-oxoparadol derivative [6-oxo-[6]-paradol ( 4 )], one isoshogaol derivative [( E )-[4]-isoshogaol ( 5 )], and four paradoldiene derivatives [(4 E ,6 Z )-[4]-paradoldiene ( 8 ), (4 E ,6 E )-[6]-paradoldiene ( 9 ), (4 E ,6 E )-[8]-paradoldiene ( 10 ), (4 E ,6 Z )-[8]-paradoldiene ( 11 )], together with eight known analogues, were isolated from the rhizoma of Zingiber officinale . Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. It was noted that the isolation of 6-oxo-shogaol derivatives represents the first report of gingerols containing one 1,4-enedione motif. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and HRESIMS data. All the new compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cells (MCF-7, HepG-2, KYSE-150).

  18. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkyu

    2016-07-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. This study aims to re-examine the therapeutic potential of co-administration of natural products and cancer chemotherapeutics. Candidate material for this project, α-zingiberene, was extracted from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and α-zingiberene makes up 35.02 ± 0.30% of its total essential oil. α-Zingiberene showed low IC50 values, 60.6 ± 3.6, 46.2 ± 0.6, 172.0 ± 6.6, 80.3 ± 6.6 (μg/mL) in HeLa, SiHa, MCF-7 and HL-60 cells each. These values are a little bit higher than IC50 values of general essential oil in those cells. The treatment of α-zingiberene produced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in SiHa cells, and the percentage of sub-diploid cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner in SiHa cells, hallmark features of apoptosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c activation and an in vitro caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that the activation of caspases accompanies the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene, which mediates cell death. These results suggest that the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene on SiHa cells may converge caspase-3 activation through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm. It is considered that anti-proliferative effect of α-zingiberene is a result of apoptotic effects, and α-zingiberene is worth furthermore study to develop it as cancer chemotherapeutics.

  19. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhos...

  20. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  1. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity of Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinal e ( Z. officinal e) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis ( T. canis ) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinal e extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on infectivity of T. canis eggs. Treated embryonated eggs by Z. officinale extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL for 24 h were inoculated into mice and their livers were examined for the presence of T. canis larvae on the 7th day after infection and for histopathological evaluation at 14th day post-infection. Z. officinal e showed a significant ovicidal activity on T. canis eggs. The best effect was observed with 100 mg/mL concentration after 24 h with an efficacy of 98.2%. However, the treated eggs by 25, 50 mg/mL of Z. officinale extract after 24 h showed ovicidal activity by 59.22 and 82.5% respectively. Moreover, this extract effectively inhibited T. canis eggs embryogenesis by 99.64% and caused their degeneration at the concentration of 100 mg/mL after 2 weeks of treatment. However, the lower concentrations, 25 and 50 mg/mL inhibited embryogenesis by 51.19 and 78.57% respectively. The effect of Z. officinal e on the infectivity T. canis eggs was proven by the reduction of larvae recovery in the livers by 35.9, 62.8 and 89.5% in mice groups inoculated by Z. officinale treated eggs at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively. Histopathologically, the liver tissues of mice infected with Z. officinale treated eggs at the concentration of 100 mg/mL appeared healthy with slight degenerative changes of hepatocytes, opposite to that recorded in the infected mice

  2. Zingiber officinale (GENGIBRE COMO FONTE ENZIMÁTICA NA REDUÇÃO DE COMPOSTOS CARBONÍLICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Alves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various vegetables as biological catalysts were evaluated in enantioselective reduction of carbonyl compounds. The stereoselectivity of the process was in agreement with Prelog's rule for twelve of the vegetables, whereas okra and green peppers formed anti-Prelog products. Zingiber officinale exhibited the best results with 30% conversion and 89% ee. The parameters of the reaction such as time, solvent and other substrates investigated, as well as the specie, showed good chemo- and enantioselectivity.

  3. Efecto antifúngico de hidrodestilados de Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif&Par

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gregorio Joya-Dávila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis, ocasionada por el hongo Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. & Par, es la principal enfermedad del cacao en Latinoamérica, y las medidas para su manejo sostenible son aún escasas. Con base en reportes previos, el objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar el proceso de extracción por destilación de Zingiber officinale, evaluando in vitro su efecto antifúngico sobre conidias de M. roreri. Se elaboraron ocho hidrodestilados con material fresco (300 y 600 g/L y seco al sol (45 y 90 g/L, con dos solventes (agua-alcohol, relación 10:1 y 10:0, y en tubos de ensayo con conidias del hongo, mediante la técnica de cultivo en medio líquido (agua-extracto de cacao, se adicionó cada hidrodestilado de Z. officinale en relación 1:1 v/v, determinando su efecto sobre la formación y germinación de conidias del hongo en cinco momentos de observación (0, 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas. Los resultados muestran que todos los hidrodestilados de Z. officinale presentan metabolitos con efectos de inhibición sobre las variables evaluadas, siendo el tratamiento J5 (Z. officinale seco, 45 g/L, relación 10:1 agua: alcohol el mejor, pues alcanza el 88% y el 100% de control sobre la formación y germinación de conidias, respectivamente, con respecto al testigo absoluto a las 72 horas, siendo posible optimizar la extracción mediante destilación utilizando 45 g/L de material seco y el uso de solvente agua-alcohol en una relación 10:1.

  4. Synergistic potential of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa to ameliorate diabetic-dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Naveed; Hashmi, Abu-Saeed; Wasim, Muhammad; Akhtar, Tauqeer; Saeed, Shagufta; Ahmad, Toheed

    2018-03-01

    To find the cure of world's one of the leading morbid and mortal disorders; diabetes mellitus and its most prevalent complication, 'diabetic-dyslipidemia', is one of the leading health challenges of 21st century. The use of phytomedicine is a glimmer of hope in this scenario. Studies of current decade have shown that methanolic extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa have highly effective therapeutic potentials against the aforesaid disorders, however, which of the extracts has more potential is still unclear. Furthermore, synergistic effect of the extracts has never been studied. Forty-eight Albino adult rats of either sex were randomly divided into eight groups. A-D groups were containing healthy rats while E-H groups were of induced diabetic-dyslipidemic rats. For forty-two days, rats of each group were given either distilled water or Zingiber officinale methanolic extract (ZOME) or Curcuma longa methanolic extract (CLME) or ZOME+CLME therapies at dose rate of 300mg/100 mL dist. H 2 O/kg body wt/day. FPG and lipid profiles were estimated before and after the trial, and were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA along with Post-hoc Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Although, ZOME and CLME significantly (P<0.05) lowered fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and controlled lipid profiles in diabetic-dyslipidemic rats; yet, synergistic therapy of both extracts (ZOME+CLME) most significantly (P<0.05) controlled all parameters of diabetic-dyslipidemia (78.00±1.06mg/dL FPG, 62.00±0.58mg/dL TG, 66.50±0.76mg/dL cholesterol, 32.00±0.36mg/dL HDL, 22.43±0.64 mg/dL LDL, and 12.40±0.12mg/dL VLDL). Our findings may be useful to formulate new medicines having multiple potentials to control diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and diabetic-dyslipidemia.

  5. Effect of nature based antioxidant from Zingiber officinale Rosc. on the oxidation stability, engine performance and emission characteristics with neem oil methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthickeyan, V.

    2018-05-01

    In past few years, the demand for energy increased drastically due to excess utilization of the natural reserves. Thus, it leads to extinction of non-renewable energy resources. Today, the world turning over renewable source of energy for power production (like wind energy, tidal energy, biodiesel, biomass and so on). In the present study, raw neem oil was taken and converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. Nature based antioxidant namely ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) was used as an antioxidant instead of synthetic antioxidants. An anti-oxidants were added in various proportions like G5 (0.5% additive), G10 (1% additive) and G15 (1.5% additive) with B20 (20% neem oil methyl ester with 80% diesel). B20G15 sample showed higher induction period than other samples. Thus, it was considered as an optimum blend with oxidation stability test using Rancimat instrument. Diesel showed higher Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) than biodiesel samples. On the other hand, B20G15 showed higher BTE than B20. Higher CO, HC and smoke emissions were observed for B20 with an antioxidant than other fuel samples. B20 with an antioxidant showed lower NOx emissions than diesel and B20. Thus, the nature based antioxidant was considered as the most promising alternative for NOx emission reduction.

  6. Action of Chlorhexidine, Zingiber officinale, and Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Endotoxin in the Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia C; Oliveira, Sarah Ac; Maekawa, Lilian E; Cardoso, Flávia Gr; Chung, Adriana; Silva, Stephanie Fp; Carvalho, Cláudio At

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX) as auxiliary chemical substance and intracanal medications on Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and their endotoxins in the root canals. The study was conducted on 48 single-rooted human teeth divided into four groups (n = 12), according to intracanal medications used: (1) Calcium hydroxide + apyrogenic saline solution (Ca(OH)2 + SS), (2) 20% ginger glycolic extract (GEN), (3) calcium hydroxide + 20% ginger glycolic extract (Ca(OH)2 + GEN), (4) apyrogenic SS (control). Collections were made from the root canal content before preparation (baseline-S1), immediately after instrumentation (S2), 7 days after instrumentation (S3), after 14 days the action of intracanal medication (S4), and 7 days after removal of the intracanal medication (S5). The antimicrobial activity and endotoxin content were analyzed for all collections. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests at a significance level of 5%. After instrumentation with CHX, there was complete elimination of E. coli and C. albicans, except for E. faecalis, which was significantly reduced and then completely eliminated after intracanal medication. There was significant reduction of endotoxin after instrumentation. Comparison of collection after instrumentation and intracanal medication revealed reduction of endotoxins in all groups; this reduction was greater in group Ca(OH)2 followed by the group GEN. It was concluded that the instrumentation using CHX and intracanal medication used were able to eliminate the microorganisms from the root canal; the endotoxins were reduced, yet not completely eliminated. This study is important and relevant for searching alternatives during endodontic therapy, since it aims to study the effect of Zingiber officinale on microorganisms and endotoxins present in root canals.

  7. FORMULASI TEH CAMELIA-MURBEI DENGAN BUBUK JAHE (Zingiber officinale DAN ASAM JAWA (Tamarindus indica, L. SEBAGAI MINUMAN KESEHATAN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN RESPON IMUN TIKUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Darningsih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The Camelia-mulberry tea has a big potential to becomes a healthy beverage according to its bioactive components, and added by red ginger powder and tamarind. Those ingredients may increase immunity againts various diseases. The aims of this study was to develop formula of a healthy beverage contained of two varieties of leaves (camelia and mulberry, with Ginger (Zingiber officinale and Tamarind (Tamarindus indica, L.   This main research  used mice strain Spraque Dawley, 1.5-2 month old with  weight 75–105 gram. The instruments used in this study were tea maker, organoleptic test and ELISA test. The experimental design used factorial complete random design with 5 groups, where on each group consists of 5 mouse, with two selected variables of the best camelia-mulberry tea, i.e., multikaulis enzymatic oxidation + Gambung 7 enzimatic non-oxidation; bulk tea (Tea A with difference time observation ( 0, 2 and 4 weeks.  The given dosage was 1 ml/100 gram mice weight, with different concentration of camelia-mulberry tea i.e. 3, 6, 9, and 12 gram/ml. The statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA shows that a significant different exist for the time observation of a mice serum IgG (p  Followed by Tukey test, which  shows that a significant differences exist on IgG average at the beginning and after  the 2nd weeks of treatment, and the 2nd weeks vs 4th weeks treatment. Key Words: Camelia-mulberry tea, healthy beverage, immune response

  8. Neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects of the combined extract of Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2017-03-03

    Currently, food supplements to improve age-related dementia are required. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of the combined extract of Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale (CP1) on the improvement of age-related dementia in rats with AF64A-induced memory deficits. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were orally given CP1 at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg.kg -1 BW for a period of 14 days after bilateral intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A. Spatial memory was assessed in all rats every 7 days throughout the 14 day-experimental period. At the end of the study, neuronal density, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, oxidative stress status and the activation of MAPK cascades in the hippocampus were determined. Enhanced memory, increased neuronal density, decreased AChE activity and decreased oxidative stress status together with activated pERK1/2 were observed in the hippocampus of CP1-treated rats. These results suggested that CP1 might improve memory via enhanced cholinergic function and decreased neurodegeneration and oxidative stress. CP1 is a potential novel food supplement for dementia. However, further investigations on the subchronic toxicity of CP1 and drug interactions are required.

  9. Longevity and Stress Resistant Property of 6-Gingerol from Zingiber officinale Roscoe in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; An, Chang Wan; Kim, Yeong Jee; Noh, Yun Jeong; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ju-Eun; Shrestha, Abinash Chandra; Ham, Ha-Neul; Leem, Jae-Yoon; Jo, Hyung-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Sung; Moon, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Kyung Ok; Kim, Dae Keun

    2018-03-14

    In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions. Additionally, 6-gingerol elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities of C. elegans , and showed a dose-depend reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in worms. Further studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of 6-gingerol-mediated worms could result from the promotion of stress resistance proteins such as heat shock protein (HSP-16.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-3). The lipofuscin levels in 6-gingerol treated intestinal worms were decreased in comparison to the control group. No significant 6-gingerol-related changes, including growth, food intake, reproduction, and movement were noted. These results suggest that 6-gingerol exerted longevity-promoting activities independently of these factors and could extend the human lifespan.

  10. Structural Elements and Cough Suppressing Activity of Polysaccharides from Zingiber officinale Rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, K; Nosalova, G; Sivova, V; Ray, B

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is used for the management of fever, bronchial asthma and cough for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in human, the active principle of the formulation remains unknown. Herein, we have investigated a water extracted polysaccharides (WEP) containing fraction from its rhizome. Utilizing a traditional aqueous extraction protocol and using chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods a fraction containing a branched glucan and polygalaturonan in a ratio of 59:1 was characterized. This glucan, which has a molecular mass of 36 kDa, is made up of terminal-, (1,4)- and (1,4,6)-linked α-Glcp residues. Oral administration of WEP in doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight significantly inhibited the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts in guinea pigs. It does not alter the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity significantly. Thus, traditional aqueous extraction method provides molecular entities, which induces antitussive activity without addiction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2008-10-01

    The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC-MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane oleoresins, respectively). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. They were found to be better antioxidants than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antimicrobial properties were also studied using various food-borne pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. The essential oil and CCl(4) oleoresin showed 100% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme. For other tested fungi and bacteriae, the essential oil and all oleoresins showed good to moderate inhibitory effects. Though, both essential oil and oleoresins were found to be effective, essential oil was found to be better than the oleoresins.

  12. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  13. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  14. Potential effect of the medicinal plants Calotropis procera, Ficus elastica and Zingiber officinale against Schistosoma mansoni in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif el-Din, Sayed H; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Mohamed, Mona A; Hamed, Manal M; Sterner, Olov; Botros, Sanaa S

    2014-02-01

    Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae) and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) have been traditionally used to treat many diseases. The antischistosomal activity of these plant extracts was evaluated against Schistosoma mansoni. Male mice exposed to 80 ± 10 cercariae per mouse were divided into two batches. The first was divided into five groups: (I) infected untreated, while groups from (II-V) were treated orally (500 mg/kg for three consecutive days) by aqueous stem latex and flowers of C. procera, latex of F. elastica and ether extract of Z. officinale, respectively. The second batch was divided into four comparable groups (except Z. officinale-treated group) similarly treated as the first batch in addition to the antacid ranitidine (30 mg/kg) 1 h before extract administration. Safety, worm recovery, tissues egg load and oogram pattern were assessed. Calotropis procera latex and flower extracts are toxic (50-70% mortality) even in a small dose (250 mg/kg) before washing off their toxic rubber. Zingiber officinale extract insignificantly decrease (7.26%) S. mansoni worms. When toxic rubber was washed off and ranitidine was used, C. procera (stem latex and flowers) and F. elastica extracts revealed significant S. mansoni worm reductions by 45.31, 53.7 and 16.71%, respectively. Moreover, C. procera extracts produced significant reductions in tissue egg load (∼34-38.5%) and positively affected oogram pattern. The present study may be useful to supplement information with regard to C. procera and F. elastica antischistosomal activity and provide a basis for further experimental trials.

  15. Potential Alleviation of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale on Lead-Induced Testicular Toxicity: an Ultrastructural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Hesham Noaman

    2015-01-01

    Natural, products were studied to combat reproductive alterations of lead. The current work aimed to disclose the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale to alleviate lead acetate induced toxicity. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups. Group 1 was considered control, group 2 received 200 mg/l PbAc water, group 3 received 50 mg/kg/rat of C. vulgaris extract and 200 mg/l PbAc water, and group 4 received 100 mg/kg/rat of Z. officinale and 200 mg/l PbAc water for 90 days. Testis samples were subjected to ultrastructural examination. It was observed that PbAc caused degenerative alterations in the spermatogenic series in many tubules, with a loss of germ cells and vacuoles inside the cytoplasm and between the germ cells. Mitochondria exhibited ballooning, with lost cristae and widening of the interstitial tissue, while nuclear envelopes of primary spermatocytes were broken up, and axonemes of the mid-pieces of the sperms were distorted. With the treatment with C. vulgaris or Z. officinale, there were noticeable improvements in these modifications. It was concluded that both C. vulgaris and Z. officinale represent convincing medicinal components that may be used to ameliorate testicular toxicity in those exposed to lead in daily life with superior potentials revealed by C. vulgaris due to its chelating action.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression levels of the monoterpene synthase gene (ZMM1) in Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bua-In Saowaluck; Paisooksantivatana Yingyong; Weimer Bart C.; Chowpongpang Srimek

    2014-01-01

    Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr.) is a native Thai herb with a high content and large variety of terpenoids in its essential oil. Improving the essential oil content and quality of cassumunar ginger is difficult for a breeder due to its clonally propagated nature. In this research, we describe the isolation and expression level of the monoterpene synthase gene that controls the key step of essential oil synthesis in this plant an...

  17. Three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hoggas, Naouel; Hafid, Kahina

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes for the first time an elegant non-chromatographic method, the three phase partitioning for the purification and recovery of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme, from Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Factors affecting partitioning efficiency such as (NH4)2SO4 saturation, crude extract to t-butanol ratio and pH on zingibain partitioning were investigated. Optimal purification parameters were 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation with 1.0:1.0 ratio of crude extract:t-butanol at pH 7.0, which gave 14.91 purification fold with 215% recovery of zingibain. The enzyme was found to be exclusively partitioned in the aqueous phase. The enzyme showed a prominent single band on SDS-PAGE. It is a monomeric protein of 33.8 kDa and its isoelectric point is 4.38. The enzyme exhibited maximal proteolytic activity at a temperature of 60 °C and pH 7.0. It was found to be stable at 40-65 °C during 2 h. The enzyme was found to be highly stable against numerous metal ions and its activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+). It was completely inhibited by heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) and partially by Cd(+). Zingibain milk-clotting activity (MCA) was found to be highly stable when stored under freezing (-20 °C) for 30 days compared at 4 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Atheroprotective potentials of curcuminoids against ginger extract in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, M M; Younis, N N; Elswefy, S E; Abdallah, F R; El-Dahmy, S I; Elnagar, G; Kassem, H M

    2015-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic potentials of total ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract (TGE) or curcuminoids extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), members of family Zingiberaceae, were compared in hypercholesterolaemia. Rabbits were fed either normal or atherogenic diet. The rabbits on atherogenic diet received treatments with TGE or curcumenoids and placebo concurrently for 6 weeks (n = 6). The anti-atherogenic effects of curcuminoids and ginger are mediated via multiple mechanisms. This effect was correlated with their ability to lower cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity. Ginger extract exerted preferential effects on plasma lipids, reverse cholesterol transport, cholesterol synthesis and inflammatory status. Curcuminoids, however, showed superior antioxidant activity.

  19. Zingiber officinale, Piper retrofractum and Combination Induced Apoptosis and p53 Expression in Myeloma and WiDr Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY EKOWATI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, Zingiber officinale, Piper retrofractum, and the combination showed cytotoxic activity, induced apoptosis, and p53 expression of HeLa, T47D, and MCF-7 cell lines. This study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of Zingiber officinale (ZO, Piper retrofractum (PR, and the combination as well as their effect to p53 expression on Myeloma and WiDr cells. The powder of ZO, PR, and ZO + PR combination (1:1 were macerated with 96% ethanol for 3 x 24 hours. MTT cytotoxic assay was performed on Myeloma and WiDr cell lines. Apoptotic cells were stained with ethidium bromide and acridine orange. Imunohistochemical expression of p53 was examined on Myeloma and WiDr cell lines. Doxorubicin was used as positive control in all assays. Results showed that ZO, PR, and ZO + PR combination had cytotoxic activity on Myeloma cells with IC50 of 28, 36, and 55 mg/ml respectively and WiDr cell lines with IC50 of 74, 158, and 64 mg/ml respectively, induced apoptotic activity, and increased p53 expression on Myeloma and WiDr cells. These results suggest that ZO, PR, and their combination induced Myeloma and WiDr cells in apoptosis through p53 expression.

  20. Combinatorial cytotoxic effects of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale on the PC-3M prostate cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurapati, Kesava Rao V.; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Kadiyala, Dakshayani B.; Zainulabedin, Saiyed M.; Gandhi, Nimisha; Sathaye, Sadhana S.; Indap, Manohar A.; Boukli, Nawal; Rodriguez, Jose W.; Nair, Madhavan P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many plant-derived products exhibit potent chemopreventive activity against animal tumor models as well as rodent and human cancer cell lines. They have low side effects and toxicity and presumably modulate the factors that are critical for cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. The present study investigates the effects of some medicinal plant extracts from generally recognized as safe plants that may be useful in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Methods Clonogenic assays using logarithmically-growing cells were performed to test the effect. The cytotoxic effects of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were studied using sulforhodamine B assay, tetrazolium dye assay, colony morphology and microscopic analysis. Results Out of the 13 lyophilized plant-derived extracts evaluated for growth-inhibitory effects on the PC-3M prostate cancer cell line, two extracts derived from C. longa and Z. officinale showed significant inhibitory effects on colony-forming ability. The individual and augmentative effects of these two extracts were tested for their narrow range effective lower concentration on PC-3M in clonogenic assays. At relatively lower concentrations, C. longa showed significant inhibition of colony formation in clonogenic assays; whereas at same concentrations Z. officinale showed only moderate inhibitory effects. However, when both the agents were tested together at the same concentrations, the combined effects were much more significant than their individual ones. On normal prostate epithelial cells both C. longa and Z. officinale had similar effects but at a lower magnitude. These observations were confirmed by several cytotoxicity assays involving the morphological appearance of the colonies, microscopic observations, per cent inhibition in comparison to control by sulforhodamine B and tetrazolium dye assay. Conclusions From these observations, it was concluded that the combined effects of C. longa and Z. officinale

  1. Mining and characterization of EST-SSR markers for Zingiber officinale Roscoe with transferability to other species of Zingiberaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Praveen; Singh, Ashish; Sheikh, Gulfam; Mahajan, Vidushi; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Gupta, Suphla; Bedi, Yashbir S; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2017-10-01

    Zingiber officinale is a model spice herb, well known for its medicinal value. It is primarily a vegetatively propagated commercial crop. However, considerable diversity in its morphology, fiber content and chemoprofiles has been reported. The present study explores the utility of EST-derived markers in studying genetic diversity in different accessions of Z. officinale and their cross transferability within the Zingiberaceae family. A total of 38,115 ESTs sequences were assembled to generate 7850 contigs and 10,762 singletons. SSRs were searched in the unigenes and 515 SSR-containing ESTs were identified with a frequency of 1 SSR per 25.21 kb of the genome. These ESTs were also annotated using BLAST2GO. Primers were designed for 349 EST-SSRs and 25 primer pairs were randomly picked for EST SSR study. Out of these, 16 primer pairs could be optimized for amplification in different accessions of Z. officinale as well as other species belonging to Zingiberaceae. GES454, GES466, GES480 and GES486 markers were found to exhibit 100% cross-transferability among different members of Zingiberaceae.

  2. Effects of pricking, sun-drying and sieving on Ginger (Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pricking, sun drying and sieving on the color retention of Nigerian yellow bark ginger were investigated. The exterior and interior surface of fresh, pricked and sun dried medium sized Nigerian ginger rhizomes (Tafin giwa) were analysed for colour variation. The colour values of the exterior surface of fresh ginger ...

  3. 6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE...

  4. The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Iñaki; Allué, José

    2016-01-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites. PMID:27053918

  5. Data in support of three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hafid, Kahina; Hoggas, Naouel

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article titled “Three Phase Partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes” (Gagaoua et al., 2015) [1]. Zingibain (EC 3.4.22.67), is a coagulant cysteine protease and a meat tenderizer agent that have been reported to produce satisfactory final products in dairy and meat technology, respectively. Zingibains were exclusively purified using chromatographic techniques with very low yield purification. This paper includes data of the effect of temperature, usual salts and organic solvents on the efficiency of the three phase partitioning (TPP) system. Also it includes data of the kinetic activity characterization of the purified zingibain using TPP purification approach. PMID:26909379

  6. EXPERIENCE OF TREATMENT OF PATIENT WITH JUVENILE SERONEGATIVE POLYARTHRITIS WITH MEDICATION CONTAINING GLUCOSAMINE AND EXTRACTS OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Gudkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report on a severe course of juvenile seronegative polyarthritis is presented in this article. Successful treatment with «zinaxin» containing glucosamine and extracts of zingiber officinale, made with lipocap technology as an alternative to nonsteroidal anti9inflammatory drugs was performed is patient with developed adverse event to the medicaments (increase of plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase five times a much compared to norm, combined with quadrotherapy of duodenal ulcer. Patient had a good status, pain syndrome and morning joint stiffness were absent during treatment with «zinaxin with glucosamine» daily and dsintoxication course (2 months in conditions of withdrawal of immunosuppressive treatment. activity of disease had 0–1 grade according to examination data.Key words: children, juvenile arthritis, pain syndrome.

  7. Ginger From Ancient Times to the New Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaie, Laleh; Sadeghpoor, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ginger is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a perennial plant, used alone or in compounds as a spice or remedy in ancient recipes of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as an effective tonic for the memory and digestive system, the opener of hepatic obstructions, aphrodisiac, for expelling compact wind from stomach and intestines, diluting, desiccating and emollient of phlegmatic and compact humor sticking to body organs, stomach, intestine, brain and throat. The ITM scholars believ...

  8. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60 μg/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO. PMID:24396831

  9. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleya Abdulaziz Bardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p. for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween, respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60 μg/mL. This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO.

  10. In vivo evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes for its protective effect against liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2-5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38-60 μ g/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO.

  11. Prevention of CCl4-induced liver damage by ginger, garlic and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Ayalogu, E O

    2007-02-15

    The hepatoprotective effects of garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and vitamin E pre-treatment against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male wistar albino rats were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg(-1) body weight) was administered after 28 days of feeding animals with diets containing ginger, garlic, vitamin E and various mixtures of ginger and garlic. Serum alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, 24 h after CCl4 administration, decreased significantly (p hepatic cells decreased remarkably in pre-treated rats.

  12. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome on the development of metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammi, Srinivas; Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2009-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome, including obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance that predisposes type 2 diabetes is a major disease problem around the world and a plethora of herbal medicines are claimed to be effective in controlling these disorders. The rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is commonly used as a spice in various foods and beverages. Apart from its other traditional medical uses, Z. officinale has been used to control diabetes and dyslipidaemia. In the present study, the protective effects of an ethanolic extract of Z. officinale on the development of metabolic syndrome were investigated in a high-fat diet-fed rat model at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The marked rise in body weights, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids in serum of the rats that followed 6 weeks of high-fat diet treatment were significantly reduced by Z. officinale treatment. However, no significant change in serum HDL cholesterol was observed either with high-fat diet or Z. officinale compared to both control groups. The present results provide scientific evidence to substantiate the traditional use of Z. officinale in preventing metabolic disorders.

  13. Antibacterial Studies and Effect of Poloxamer on Gold Nanoparticles by Zingiber Officinale Extracted Green Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, K; Reena, K; Manikandan, A; Antony, S Arul

    2015-07-01

    Poloxamer finds excellent clinical and therapeutic uses for curing of various ailments. The Zin- giber officinale (Z. officinale) is one of the well-known medicinal plants. The poloxamer188 and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale have been used to synthesize the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by a green approach. The Z. officinale extract has been used as a reducing agent while the polox- amerl88 has been used as a stabilizing agent. The effect of addition of poloxamer on the controlling the shape and size of the AuNPs has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The formation of AuNPs has also been confirmed by UV-Visible spectral, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The anti-bacterial activity of the green synthesized AuNPs has been investigated on the three human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia. The poloxamer188 protected AuNPs inhibit the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure Z. officinale extract and the standard tetracycline (TA).

  14. Phytochemicals Boost Anti-inflammatory Effect Against Gamma Radiation: Activities of Ginger and Coriander Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salam, H.S.; Hassan, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Phytochemicals are known to modulate immune function, and possess antitumor and antimicrobial properties. The present study is conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of ginger and coriander extracts against tumor cells (MTT), anti-fungal and antioxidant activities of Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum) seed were evaluated. Essential oil of both plants showed 100% inhibition against Alternaria Alternata pathogen. The antioxidant activity showed the highest activities for ginger ( methanol extract), where as the lowest activity was for Coriander (water extract). To study the antioxidant and radio-protective effect of Ginger and Coriander, Swiss albino mice were exposed to shot dose 4 Gy γ radiation after 14 days oral administration of ginger (100 mg/Kg b.wt) and coriander extracts ( 600 mg/kg b.wt). After irradiation, anti-inflammatory mediators and phospholipase A2 were examined. In conclusion, Ginger and Coriander showed significant antioxidant and radio-protective effects

  15. PENGARUH EKSTRAK JAHE MERAH (Zingiber officinale DAN MADU TERHADAP KADAR KOLESTEROL TOTAL TIKUS MODEL DIABETES MELITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Muntafiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia caused by deficiency of insulin, and insulin resistance or both. This chronic disease prevalence is increasing nationally and globally. This study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract and honey various doses on levels of total cholesterol in the Wistar diabetic rat model induced by alloxan. This research is true experimental post-test only with control group design. Subject of the study 30 male Wistar rats weight 150-200 grams, divided into 6 groups: A healthy controls (K1, B DM control (K2, C Treatment with red ginger extract 1000 mg / kg and honey 1 ml / kg (K3, D Treatment with ginger extract red 1000 mg / kg and honey 2 ml / kg (K4, E Treatment with red ginger extract 500 mg / kg and honey 1 ml / kg (K5, F Treatment with red ginger extract 500 mg / kg and honey 2 ml / kg (K6. DM induction by alloxan 160 mg / kg intraperitoneally for 5 days, and the provision of treatment for 14 days. Total cholesterol levels were measured by CHOD-PAP method. Results: The mean total cholesterol levels of healthy control group vs the diabetic control 58.20 ± 8.76 vs. 87.80 ± 5.81 mg / dL. Based on one way ANOVA test, red ginger extract and honey various doses significantly lower total cholesterol level (p <0.05. The mean total cholesterol levels between the group K3 to K4 was not statistically different, as well as K5 with K6. However, mean total cholesterol levels at K3 and K4 differ significantly from the K5 and K6. Conclusion: Combination of red ginger extract and honey can lower total cholesterol levels in diabetic rat model induced by alloxan.

  16. Induction of Apoptosis by Alcoholic Extract of Combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale on Iranian Isolate of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh FAKHRIEH-KASHAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Metronidazole is a chosen drug for the treatment. This study evaluated the anti trichomonal activity of alcoholic extracts of combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale.Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the Parasitology Laboratory, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2015, on 23 women with suspected trichomoniasis referring to Kashan clinical centers. Medium TYI-S-33 was used for culture of three T. vaginalis isolates. Different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml of V. thapsus and G. officinale ethanol extract added to Trichomonas trophozoites in 48-well plates and metronidazole considered as positive control and the negative control was TYI-S33 containing Trichomonas trophozoites without any drug. In all of mentioned groups, trophozoites number counted 12, 24, 48 h after culture. Results were analyzed using ANOVA statistical test, to evaluate the toxicity of extract, measured by MTT assay. Induced apoptosis of T. vaginalis after treatment with different concentrations of extract was determined by Flow Cytometry. Results: IC50 of alcoholic extract of combination V. thapsus and G. officinale and metronidazole after 24h was 73.80 µg/ml and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. The toxicity percentage of 25-800 μg/ml concentrations of this combination were between 0.2-1.98. In different concentrations of extract (25,50,100,200 and 400 µg/ml apoptosis percent after 48h was 18.97 to 77.19 and necrosis percent was calculated 1.35, 3.18, 3.10, 1.16 and 4.09, respectively.Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of combination V. thapsus and G. officinale induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. Due to no toxicity on macrophages, it can be examined in vivo studies.

  17. Anti-emetic mechanisms of Zingiber officinale against cisplatin induced emesis in the pigeon; behavioral and neurochemical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ihsan; Subhan, Fazal; Ayaz, Muhammad; Shah, Rehmat; Ali, Gowhar; Haq, Ikram Ul; Ullah, Sami

    2015-02-26

    Zingiber officinale (ZO, family Zingiberaceae) has been reported for its antiemetic activity against cancer chemotherapy induced emesis in animal models and in clinics. Current study was designed to investigate ZO for potential usefulness against cisplatin induced vomiting in pigeon and its effects on central and peripheral neurotransmitters involved in the act of vomiting. Zingiber officinale acetone fraction (ZO-ActFr) was investigated for attenuation of emesis induced by cisplatin in healthy pigeons. Neurotransmitters DA, 5HT and their metabolites DOPAC, HVA and 5HIAA were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography system coupled with electrochemical detector in area postrema, brain stem and intestine. Antiemetic effect of ZO-ActFr was correlated with central and intestinal neurotransmitters levels in pigeon. Cisplatin (7 mg/kg i.v.) induced emesis without lethality upto the observation period. ZO-ActFr (25, 50 & 100 mg/kg) attenuated cisplatin induced emesis ~ 44.18%, 58.13% (P < 0.05) and 27.9%, respectively; the reference drug, metoclopramide (MCP; 30 mg/kg), produced ~ 48.83% reduction (P < 0.05). ZO-ActFr reduced (P < 0.05 - 0.001) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) concentration in the area postrema, brain stem and intestine at 3(rd) hour of cisplatin administration, while at the 18(th) hour ZO treatments attenuated the dopamine upsurge (P < 0.001) caused by cisplatin in the area postrema and 5HT concentration (P < 0.01 - 0.001) in the brain stem and intestine. ZO treatments alone did not altered the basal neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the brain areas and intestine. The behavioral study verify the antiemetic profile of ZO against cisplatin induced emesis in the pigeon, where central and peripheral neural evidences advocate the involvement of serotonergic mechanism at initial time point (3(rd) hr), while the later time point (18(th) hr) is associated with serotonergic and dopaminergic component in the mediation

  18. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of young Zingiber officinale against human breast carcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Asif

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginger is one of the most important spice crops and traditionally has been used as medicinal plant in Bangladesh. The present work is aimed to find out antioxidant and anticancer activities of two Bangladeshi ginger varieties (Fulbaria and Syedpuri at young age grown under ambient (400 μmol/mol and elevated (800 μmol/mol CO2 concentrations against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Methods The effects of ginger on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines were determined using TBA (thiobarbituric acid and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] assays. Reversed-phase HPLC was used to assay flavonoids composition among Fulbaria and Syedpuri ginger varieties grown under increasing CO2 concentration from 400 to 800 μmol/mol. Results Antioxidant activities in both varieties found increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 with increasing CO2 concentration from 400 to 800 μmol/mol. High antioxidant activities were observed in the rhizomes of Syedpuri grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The results showed that enriched ginger extract (rhizomes exhibited the highest anticancer activity on MCF-7 cancer cells with IC50 values of 34.8 and 25.7 μg/ml for Fulbaria and Syedpuri respectively. IC50 values for MDA-MB-231 exhibition were 32.53 and 30.20 μg/ml for rhizomes extract of Fulbaria and Syedpuri accordingly. Conclusions Fulbaria and Syedpuri possess antioxidant and anticancer properties especially when grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The use of ginger grown under elevated CO2 concentration may have potential in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  19. KAJIAN PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG JAHE (Zingiber officinale Rose DALAM RANSUM TERHADAP LEMAK ABDOMINAL DAN KADAR KOLESTEROLDARAH ITIK BALI AFKIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. B. Yadnya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pemanfaatan tepung jahe (Zingiber officinale Rose dalam ransumterhadap lemak abdominal dan kolesterol darah itik bali afkir. Menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok (RAK,dengan empat perlakuan, yaitu ransum tanpa tepung jahe (A, ransum mengandung 2,91% tepung jahe (B,ransum mengandung 5,66% tepung jahe (C, dan ransum mengandung 8,26% tepung jahe (D. Setiap perlakuanterdiri atas lima kelompok, dan setiap kelompok berisi empat ekor itik bali afkir. Variabel yang diamati meliputikonsumsi ransum dan serat kasar, kadar kolesterol darah, dan lemak abdominal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa pemberian pemberian 2,91% dan 5,66% tepung jahe dalam ransum tidak berpengaruh terhadap konsumsiransum (P>0,05, namun dengan pemberian 8,26% dapat menurunkan konsumsi ransum secara nyata (P<0,05,jika dibandingkan dengan perlakuan yang lainnya dan disertai dengan penurunan konsumsi serat kasar (P<0,05.Pemberian 2,91%, 5,66%, dan 8,26% tepung jahe dalam ransum dapat menurunkan lemak abdominal dankolesterol darah secara nyata (P<0,05 dibandingkan dengan pemberian perlakuan kontrol. Dari hasil penelitiandapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian tepung jahe dalam ransum dapat menurunkan jumlah lemak abdominal dankolesterol darah itik bali afkir.

  20. Participation of citral in the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil and possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangprayool, Thitiya; Kupittayanant, Sajeera; Chudapongse, Nuannoi

    2013-09-01

    The extract of ginger, the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), has been reported to possess anti-hyperactivity and anti-inflammation on airway. The present study described brochodilatory activity of ginger oil and identified its active compound. Ginger oil was extracted by hydro-distillation. The compositions of ginger oil were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometer. Citral, eucalyptol and camphene were found to be the major components. Ginger oil and citral, but not camphene, suppressed rat tracheal contraction induced by carbachol (CCh). Consistent with previous report, eucalyptol showed a relaxing effect on rat airway. Since the content of eucalyptol in ginger oil was relatively low, the contribution of eucalyptol to the bronchodilatory effect of ginger oil was small. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the myorelaxing effect, propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), indomethacin (a COX inhibitor) and L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor) were used to block the inhibitory effects of ginger oil and citral. It was found that propranolol, but not indomethacin and L-NAME, reversed bronchodilatory effects of both ginger oil and citral, suggesting that a possible mechanism involved β-adrenergic receptor. This study provides the pharmacological basis supporting the therapeutic potential of Z. officinale rhizomes as a bronchodilator. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stereological study of the effect of ginger's alcoholic extract on the testis in busulfan-induced infertility in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bordbar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In traditional medicine zingiber officinale used to regulate female menstural cycle and treat male infertility. Recent studies have suggested the possible role of ginger extract in improving the testicular damage of busulfan. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zingiber officinale on the sperm parameters, testosterone level and the volume of the testes and seminiferous tubules by stereological methods. Materials and Methods: Fifty rats were divided into four groups. All the rats were given a single intraperitoneally injection of 5mg/kg busulfan solution. The first group was kept as busulfan control, while the other groups were orally administrated ginger extract in graded doses of 50, 100 and 150mg/kg b.wt, for 48 consecutive days. At the end, all animals were anesthetized and their testes and vas deference were removed, fixed, embedded, and stained. The volume of testes and seminiferous tubules were estimated by cavalieri methods. Results: The result showed, that zingiber officinale increased the volumes of seminiferous tubule in 100mg/kg treated group compared to control group. Sperm count (706×105 and 682×105 and the level of testosterone (50.90 ng/mL and 54.10 ng/mL enhanced in 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg treated groups compared to control group (p=0.00. Conclusion: It seems that zingiber officinale stimulate male reproductive system in induce busulfan infertility

  2. Ginger species in Besiq Bermai forest, East Borneo: Inventory and collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimanto

    2017-05-01

    This research is aimed to inventory and collect ginger species from Borneo, especially from Besiq Bermai forest, East Borneo forest. This research was conducted by surveys and using a purposive sampling method. The characterization of Borneo gingers also used a guide to ginger of Borneo. The results showed that there are 19 species which have been recorded in this forest. Amomum, Alpinia, Plagiostachys, Globba, Hornstedtia, Plagiostachys, Zingiber, is genus that found in the forest. The life collections are conserved in Purwodadi Botanical Gardens. The species of Zingiberaceae are Alpinia pubiflora (Benth.) K. Schum., Alpinia aquatica (Retz.) Roscoe, Alpinia capitellata Jack, Alpinia beamanii R.M.Sm. Amomum oliganthum K. Schum, Etlingera pauciflora (Ridl.) R.M.Sm, Elettaria surculosa (K.Schum) B.L. Burrt&R.M. Sm, Hornstedtia rumphii (Sm.) Valeton, Hornstedtia conica Ridl, Hornstedtia reticosa Valeton, Globba pumila Ridl, Plagiostachys bracteolata R.M. Sm, Plagiostachys albiflora Ridl, Plagiostachysbreviramosa Cowley, Zingiber aromaticum Noronha, Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr, and Zingiber leptostachyum Valeton.

  3. Zingiber officinale and 6-gingerol alleviate liver and kidney dysfunctions and oxidative stress induced by mercuric chloride in male rats: A protective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepmala; Srivastav, Sunil Kumar; Belemkar, Sateesh; Dixit, Vaibhav A

    2017-07-01

    Mercury toxicity is an emerging problem in the world as its concentration is rising continuously due to increased industrial, medicinal and domestic uses. Exposure to mercury represents a serious challenge to humans and other living biomes. The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of natural products as Zingiber officinale extract and its active compound (6-gingerol) against mercuric chloride-induced hepatorenal toxicity and oxidative stress in male rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150±10g, n=6 per group) were administered HgCl 2 (12μmol/kg, ip; once only) the treatment of Zingiber officinale Rosc. extract (ZO: 125mg/kg, po) and 6-gingerol (GG: 50mg/kg, po) for three days after 24h of HgCl 2 administration. Acute HgCl 2 administration altered various biochemical parameters, including transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and cholesterol, urea, creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen contents with a concomitant decline in protein and albumin concentration in serum. In addition, a significant rise in lipid peroxidation level with concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione content and the antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase after acute HgCl 2 exposure. Results of the present investigation clearly showed that both treatments as Zingiber officinale extract and 6-gingerol provide protection against acute mercuric chloride-intoxication by preventing oxidative degradation of a biological membrane from metal mediated free radical attacks. Biochemical data were well supported by histopathological findings. In conclusion, natural products may be an ideal choice against oxidative damage induced by mercury poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. ANTIBIOFILM EFFECTS of Citrus limonum and Zingiber officinale Oils on BIOFILM FORMATION of Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella terrigena SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcioglu, Nermin Hande; Sahal, Gulcan; Bilkay, Isil Seyis

    2016-01-01

    Microbial cells growing in biofilms, play a huge role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, biofilm formation of Klebsiella strains belonging to 3 different Klebsiella species ( K. ornithinolytica , K. oxytoca and K. terrigena ), cooccurences' effect on biofilm formation amount and anti-biofilm effects of Citrus limon and Zingiber officinale essential oils on biofilm formations of highest biofilm forming K. ornithinolytica , K. oxytoca and K. terrigena strains were determined. Anti-biofilm effects of Citrus limon and Zingiber officinale essential oils on biofilm formations of highest biofilm forming K. ornithinolytica , K. oxytoca and K. terrigena strains were investigated. 57% of K. ornithinolytica strains and 50% of K. oxytoca strains were found as Strong Biofilm Forming (SBF), there wasn't any SBF strain in K. terrigena species. In addition to this, clinical materials of urine and sperm were found as the most frequent clinical materials for strong biofilm forming K. ornithinolytica and K. oxytoca isolations respectively (63%; 100%) Secondly, all K. ornithinolytica strains isolated from surgical intensive care unit and all K. oxytoca strains isolated from service units of urology were found as SBF. Apart from these, although the amount of biofilm, formed by co-occurence of K. ornithinolytica - K. oxytoca and K. oxytoca - K. terrigena were more than the amount ofbiofilm formed by themselves separately, biofilm formation amount of co-occurrence of K. ornitholytica - K. terrigena strains was lower than biofilm formation amount of K. ornithinolytica but higher than biofilm formation amount of K. terrigena . The antibiofilm effects of Citrus limonum and Zingiber officinale essential oils could be used against biofilm Klebsiella aquired infections.

  5. Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Iram

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. Methods In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Results All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml. Conclusion In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens.

  6. A Study of Ginger Herbal Pharmacopuncture for Practical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Woo Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to present the standard for practical application of ginger herbal pharmacopuncture Material and Methods : We refer to ancient literatures and the recent papers for ginger. Conclusions : The following results have been obtained 1. The effect of ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe is to "release exterior", "balance nutrient & defe nsive qi", "resolve phlegm", "arrest coughing", "warm the lungs". So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating fever, chilling sign, headchae, snuffle and gasping cough due to cold affection and treating the symptoms like sputum and asthma that be revealed by pulmonary disease. 2. The effect of ginger is to "warm spleen and stomach", "arrest vomiting" "promote normal flow of water". So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and diarrhea due to phlegm & dampness and treating edema. 3. The effect of ginger is to eliminate blood stasis. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating contusion, blood stasis, sprain and gynecologic disease. 4. Ginger can treat myalgia and pain due to wind-damp and have anti-inflammatory effect in pharmacology. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating disease of joint, ligament and muscle. 5. Ginger can resolve phlegm and resuscitate. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating unconsciousness. But, treating incipient cardiovascular accident, it needs to call your special attention to the danger of blood pressure increase. 6. In pharmacology, ginger is effective for antitumor, antioxidant effects and activating immunocyte. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating broadly varieties of tumor and allergic disease.

  7. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hung-Cheng; Chern, Ching-Yuh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, You-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Liao, Yu-Ren; Teng, Che-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b) exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads. PMID:24599082

  8. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Shih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.

  9. Estudo dos efeitos comportamentais, neuroquÃmicos e tÃxicos do Ãleo essencial de Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    OpenAIRE

    CÃcero Francisco Bezerra Felipe

    2004-01-01

    O Gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Ã uma planta bastante apreciada em todo o mundo, nÃo apenas como um condimento, mas tambÃm por suas importantes propriedades medicinais. Os efeitos comportamentais e neuroquÃmicos do Ãleo essencial do gengibre - OEG foram estudados em camundongos tratados diariamente com o Ãleo essencial de gengibre (OEG 25, 50 e 100 mg/Kg, i.p. e v.o.). No sÃtimo dia de tratamento foram realizados os testes do labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE), campo aberto (CA), rota ro...

  10. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE LARVICIDA DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DO Zingiber officinale Roscoe (GENGIBRE) FRENTE AO MOSQUITO Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRESON LEANDRO SANTANA SILVA

    2012-01-01

    Na procura pelo controle químico alternativo contra o mosquito Aedes aegypti, diversas pesquisas são desenvolvidas e estimuladas no intuito de descobrirem novas substâncias inseticidas de origem vegetal. Neste trabalho a partir da extração e do estudo analítico do óleo essencial dos rizomas do Zingiber officinale Roscoe, foi analisado o efeito larvicida do óleo contra larvas em terceiro estágio do mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1792). Extraiu-se quantitativamente o óleo essencial por hidro...

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Plant Extracts from Aloe Vera, Citrus Hystrix, Sabah Snake Grass and Zingiber Officinale against Pyricularia Oryzae that causes Rice Blast Disease in Paddy Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Harzana Shaari, N.; Shamiera. Said, N.; Hulwani Ibrahim, Nur; Akhir, Maisara A. M.; Khairul Rabani Hashim, Mohd; Salimi, M. N.; Nuradibah, M. A.; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2018-03-01

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus known as Pyricularia oryzae, has become an important and serious disease of rice worldwide. Around 50% of production may be lost in a field moderately affected by infection and each year the fungus destroys rice, which is enough to feed an estimated 60 million people. Therefore, use of herbal plants offer an alternative for the management of plant diseases. Herbal plant like Aloe vera, Citrus hystrix, Sabah snake grass and Zingiber officinale extracts can be used for controlling disease of rice blast. In this study, these four herbal plants were used for evaluating antimicrobial activity against rice plant fungus Pyricularia oryzae, which causes rice blast disease.

  12. Preliminary Studies on Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Aloe Vera Leaf, Citrus Hystrix Leaf, Zingiber Officinale and Sabah Snake Grass Against Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uda M.N.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal plants have several potential antimicrobial activities either as antifungal or antibacterial to fight against the disease and pathogen that attack the plants. The extractions of the Aloe vera leaf, Citrus hystrix leaf, Zingiber officinale rhizome and Sabah snake grass were selected in this study to fight against Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium, rodshaped and catalase-positive that lives on decayed organic material. It is known as Gram-positive bacteria because of its thick peptidoglycan and would appear purple when subjected to Gram test. This species is commonly found in the upper layers of the soil, in meat or vegetables, in pastry, cooked meat, in bread or poultry products. The extracts of Sabah Snake Grass found to be most effective than A.vera leaf, Z. officinale, and C. hystrix against the B. subtilis.

  13. Ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Science For Health Care Professionals Clinical Practice Guidelines Literature Reviews All Health Information Research Research Results ... by motion, chemotherapy, or pregnancy; rheumatoid arthritis; and osteoarthritis. Common forms of ginger include the fresh or ...

  14. Biological activities of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important bacterial pathogens, their phytochemical and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Uzma Azeem; Ali, Shaukat; Shahnawaz, Amna Mir; Shafique, Irsa; Zafar, Atiya; Khan, Muhammad Abdul Rauf; Ghous, Tahseen; Saleem, Azhar; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2017-05-01

    The spread of bacterial infectious diseases is a major public threat. Herbs and spices have offered an excellent, important and useful source of antimicrobial agents against many pathological infections. In the current study, the antimicrobial potency of fresh, naturally and commercial dried Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts had been investigated against seven local clinical bacterial isolates such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Serratia marcesnces by the agar disc diffusion method. All tested pathogens except P. aeruginosa and E. coli were most susceptible to ethanolic and methanolic extracts of A. sativum. Similarly, chloroform and diethyl ether extracts of Z. officinale showed a greater zone of inhibition of tested pathogens except for P. aeruginosa and E. coli. We found that all extracts of A. sativum and Z. officinale have a strong antibacterial effect compared to recommended standard antibiotics through activity index. All results were evaluated statistically and a significant difference was recorded at Psativum and Z. officinale proposed the presence of various phytochemicals such as tannins, phenols, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Retention factor of diverse phytochemicals provides a valuable clue regarding their polarity and the selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Significant inhibition of S. aureus was also observed through TLC-Bioautography. FT-IR Spectrometry was also performed to characterize both natural and commercial extracts of A. sativum and Z. officinale to evaluate bioactive compounds. These findings provide new insights to use A. sativum and Z. officinale as potential plant sources for controlling pathogenic bacteria and potentially considered as cost-effective in the management of diseases and to the threat of drug resistance phenomenon.

  15. Effect of Two Ginger Varieties on Arginase Activity in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2016-04-01

    Recently, ginger has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as an herbal therapy for treating several cardiovascular diseases, however, information on its mechanism of action is limited. The present study assessed the effect of two ginger varieties (Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa) on the arginase activity, atherogenic index, levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma lipids in rats fed with a high-cholesterol (2%) diet for 14 days. Following the treatment period, it was found that feeding a high-cholesterol diet to rats caused significant (p ginger and turmeric (2% and 4%) caused significant (p ginger and turmeric) inhibited arginase activity and prevented hypercholesterolemia in rats that received a high-cholesterol diet. Therefore, these activities of ginger and turmeric represent possible mechanisms underlying its use in herbal medicine to treat several cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Gamma radiation, cold and four different wrappings to preserve ginger rhizomes, Zingiber officinallis Roscoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirol, Marco Antonio P.; Neto, J.T.; Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2002-01-01

    After irradiating with a single dose of 50 Gy, ginger rhizomes were dipped into paraffin for coating, wrapped in a plastic film of low-density polyethylene, on perforated or non-perforated polivinyl chloride film, and compared with non-wrapping and non-irradiation as the controls. After treatments the rhizomes were maintained refrigerated at 13 deg. C and 80% relative humidity. As a main result it could be observed that dipping into paraffin and wrapping with plastics resulted in smaller weight loss of the rhizomes

  17. Molecular cloning and expression levels of the monoterpene synthase gene (ZMM1 in Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bua-In Saowaluck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr. is a native Thai herb with a high content and large variety of terpenoids in its essential oil. Improving the essential oil content and quality of cassumunar ginger is difficult for a breeder due to its clonally propagated nature. In this research, we describe the isolation and expression level of the monoterpene synthase gene that controls the key step of essential oil synthesis in this plant and evaluate the mechanical wounding that may influence the transcription level of the monoterpene synthase gene. To isolate the gene, the selected clones from DNA derived from young leaves were sequenced and analyzed and the monoterpene synthase gene from cassumunar ginger (ZMM1 was identified. The ZMM1 CDS containing 1 773 bp (KF500399 is predicted to encode a protein of 590 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is 40-74% identical with known sequences of other angiosperm monoterpene synthases belonging to the isoprenoid biosynthesis C1 superfamily. A transcript of ZMM1 was detected almost exclusively in the leaves and was related to leaf wounding. The results of this research offer insight into the control of monoterpene synthesis in this plant. This finding can be applied to breeding programs or crop management of cassumunar ginger for better yield and quality of essential oil.

  18. Molecular phylogenetics and anti-Pythium activity of endophytes from rhizomes of wild ginger congener, Zingiber zerumbet Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, D; Aswati Nair, R; Prasath, D

    2016-03-01

    Zingiber zerumbet, a perennial rhizomatous herb exhibits remarkable disease resistance as well as a wide range of pharmacological activities. Towards characterizing the endophytic population of Z. zerumbet rhizomes, experiments were carried out during two different growing seasons viz., early-June of 2013 and late-July of 2014. A total of 34 endophytes were isolated and categorized into 11 morphologically distinct groups. Fungi were observed to predominate bacterial species with colonization frequency values ranging from 12.5 to 50%. Among the 11 endophyte groups isolated, molecular analyses based on ITS/16S rRNA gene sequences identified seven isolate groups as Fusarium solani, two as F. oxysporum and one as the bacterium Rhizobium spp. Phylogenetic tree clustered the ITS sequences from Z. zerumbet endophytes into distinct clades consistent with morphological and sequence analysis. Dual culture assays were carried out to determine antagonistic activity of the isolated endophytes against Pythium myriotylum, an economically significant soil-borne phytopathogen of cultivated ginger. Experiments revealed significant P. myriotylum growth inhibition by F. solani and F. oxysporum isolates with percentage of inhibition (PoI) ranging from 45.17 ± 0.29 to 62.2 ± 2.58 with F. oxysporum exhibiting higher PoI values against P. myriotylum. Using ZzEF8 metabolite extract, concentration-dependent P. myriotylum hyphal growth inhibition was observed following radial diffusion assays. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis wherein exposure to ZzEF8 metabolite extract induced hyphal deformities. Results indicate Z. zerumbet endophytes as promising resources for biologically active compounds and as biocontrol agents for soft rot disease management caused by Pythium spp.

  19. SNP in Chalcone Synthase gene is associated with variation of 6-gingerol content in contrasting landraces of Zingiber officinale.Roscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; Mandi, Swati Sen

    2015-07-25

    Zingiber officinale, medicinally the most important species within Zingiber genus, contains 6-gingerol as the active principle. This compound obtained from rhizomes of Z.officinale, has immense medicinal importance and is used in various herbal drug formulations. Our record of variation in content of this active principle, viz. 6-gingerol, in land races of this drug plant collected from different locations correlated with our Gene expression studies exhibiting high Chalcone Synthase gene (Chalcone Synthase is the rate limiting enzyme of 6-gingerol biosynthesis pathway) expression in high 6-gingerol containing landraces than in the low 6-gingerol containing landraces. Sequencing of Chalcone Synthase cDNA and subsequent multiple sequence alignment revealed seven SNPs between these contrasting genotypes. Converting this nucleotide sequence to amino acid sequence, alteration of two amino acids becomes evident; one amino acid change (asparagine to serine at position 336) is associated with base change (A→G) and another change (serine to leucine at position 142) is associated with the base change (C→T). Since asparagine at position 336 is one of the critical amino acids of the catalytic triad of Chalcone Synthase enzyme, responsible for substrate binding, our study suggests that landraces with a specific amino acid change viz. Asparagine (found in high 6-gingerol containing landraces) to serine causes low 6-gingerol content. This is probably due to a weak enzyme substrate association caused by the absence of asparagine in the catalytic triad. Detailed study of this finding could also help to understand molecular mechanism associated with variation in 6-gingerol content in Z.officinale genotypes and thereby strategies for developing elite genotypes containing high 6-gingerol content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of nutritional supplement of ginger root on antioxidant status in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid fartashvand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a medicinal plant and pungent food spice, which has antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger on antioxidant status of blood in healthy sheep. In this study, dried ginger root powder was added to the ration of 10 male yearling sheep (treatment group, at the rate of 1g/head/day for a period of 2 months. In the second group (n = 10 sheep, a single dose of vitamin E+selenium injection was administered intramuscularly (positive control group and the control group (n=10 sheep received no medication or special additives. Blood samples were collected regularly at 2 week intervals and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT and total antioxidant levels were measured. Ginger increased total antioxidant capacity of serum and blood levels of SOD, GPX and CAT, which was significant compared to the control group (p

  2. Efektifitas Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum sebagai Additif Pakan dan Antimikrobia terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Anaerob dan Coliform Secara In Vivo pada Ayam Pedaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Manullang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jahe merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum dikenal sebagai bakteriasida. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakterial bubuk jahe terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri anaerob dan coliform (Escherichia coli dan Salmonella sp. secara in vivo pada Broiler. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua puluh empat DOC dengan berat badan 40,7 g. Pemberian bubuk jahe diberikan pada Broiler selama 5 hari dengan konsentrasi ekstrak jahe merah yaitu, 0,5, 1, dan 1,5% per kg pakan. Peubah yang diamati adalah berat badan, asupan pakan dan koloni bakteri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat pengaruh ekstrak jahe merah pada total koloni bakteri yang cenderung menurun dengan semakin tinggi konsentrasi ekstrak jahe merah, semakin tinggi efek hambatan pertumbuhan bakteri. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak jahe merah memiliki sejumlah aktivitas antibakteri untuk pertumbuhan bakteri anaerob dan coliform (E. coli dan Salmonella sp..

  3. Avaliação da atividade larvicida do óleo essencial do Zingiber officinale Roscoe (gengibre frente ao mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.B. GOMES

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho analisa o efeito larvicida do óleo Zingiber officinale Roscoe contra larvas em terceiro estágio do mosquito Aedes aegypti. Extraiu-se quantitativamente o óleo essencial por hidrodestilação e calculou-se a CL50 do óleo, a partir dos métodos de Reed-Muench e Pizzi, respectivamente. O óleo essencial obteve CL50 de 76,07 (±2,24 μg mL-1 e rendimento de 0,52% m/v. Os resultados indicam que o óleo essencial avaliado é composto por substâncias que propiciam efeito larvicida contra Aedes aegypti.

  4. Avaliação da atividade larvicida do óleo essencial do Zingiber officinale Roscoe (gengibre) frente ao mosquito Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    GOMES, P.R.B.; SILVA, A.L.S.; PINHEIRO, H.A.; CARVALHO, L.L.; LIMA, H.S.; SILVA, E.F.; SILVA, R.P.; LOUZEIRO, C.H.; OLIVEIRA, M.B.; FILHO, V.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Este trabalho analisa o efeito larvicida do óleo Zingiber officinale Roscoe contra larvas em terceiro estágio do mosquito Aedes aegypti. Extraiu-se quantitativamente o óleo essencial por hidrodestilação e calculou-se a CL50 do óleo, a partir dos métodos de Reed-Muench e Pizzi, respectivamente. O óleo essencial obteve CL50 de 76,07 (±2,24) μg mL-1 e rendimento de 0,52% m/v. Os resultados indicam que o óleo essencial avaliado é composto por substâncias que propiciam efeito larvicida cont...

  5. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snuossi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; Ben Taleb, Sabrine; Dehmeni, Ameni; Flamini, Guido; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-10-22

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus , Enterobacter cloacae , Klebsiella ornithinolytica , Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera . The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils' antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  6. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdi Snuossi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  7. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxin; Hong, Yan; Han, Yanquan; Wang, Yongzhong; Xia, Lunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Suites of Terpene Synthases Explain Differential Terpenoid Production in Ginger and Turmeric Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jo; Gang, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+)-germacrene D synthase and (S)-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (−)-caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+)-α-turmerone and (+)-β-turmerone, are produced from (−)-α-zingiberene and (−)-β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase. PMID:23272109

  9. Suites of terpene synthases explain differential terpenoid production in ginger and turmeric tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jo Koo

    Full Text Available The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale and turmeric (Curcuma longa contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+-germacrene D synthase and (S-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (--caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+-α-turmerone and (+-β-turmerone, are produced from (--α-zingiberene and (--β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase.

  10. Gingerols and shogaols: Important nutraceutical principles from ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Combrinck, Sandra; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2015-09-01

    Gingerols are the major pungent compounds present in the rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and are renowned for their contribution to human health and nutrition. Medicinal properties of ginger, including the alleviation of nausea, arthritis and pain, have been associated with the gingerols. Gingerol analogues are thermally labile and easily undergo dehydration reactions to form the corresponding shogaols, which impart the characteristic pungent taste to dried ginger. Both gingerols and shogaols exhibit a host of biological activities, ranging from anticancer, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic to various central nervous system activities. Shogaols are important biomarkers used for the quality control of many ginger-containing products, due to their diverse biological activities. In this review, a large body of available knowledge on the biosynthesis, chemical synthesis and pharmacological activities, as well as on the structure-activity relationships of various gingerols and shogaols, have been collated, coherently summarised and discussed. The manuscript highlights convincing evidence indicating that these phenolic compounds could serve as important lead molecules for the development of therapeutic agents to treat various life-threatening human diseases, particularly cancer. Inclusion of ginger or ginger extracts in nutraceutical formulations could provide valuable protection against diabetes, cardiac and hepatic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective Effect of Zingiber Officinale against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis Is Mediated through Downregulating the TGF-β1/Smad3 and NF-ĸB/IĸB Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Iman H; El-Desouky, M A; Hozayen, Walaa G; Abd el Aziz, Ghada M

    2016-01-01

    No ideal hepatoprotective agents are available in modern medicine to effectively prevent liver disorders. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the potential of Zingiber officinale in the regression of liver fibrosis and its underlining mechanism of action. To induce liver fibrosis, male Wistar rats received CCl4 (2 ml/kg/2 times/week; i.p.), with and without 300 or 600 mg/kg Z. officinale extract daily through oral gavage. To assess the protective effect of Z. officinale, liver function parameters, histopathology, inflammatory markers and gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)/Smad3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB)/IĸB pathways were analyzed. Results demonstrate that Z. officinale extract markedly prevented liver injury as evident by the decreased liver marker enzymes. Concurrent administration of Z. officinale significantly protected against the CCl4-induced inflammation as showed by the decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as well as the downregulation of the NF-ĸB)/IĸB and TGF-β1/Smad3 pathways in CCl4-administered rats. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that the protective effect of Z. officinale against rat liver fibrosis could be explained through its ability to modulate the TGF-β1/Smad3 and NF-ĸB)/IĸB signaling pathways. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Afarin; Toghiani, Ali; Shafiei, Katayoun; Afshar, Hamid; Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Memari, Mahnaz; Adibi, Peyman

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) that affects in different aspects of life and patients experienced depression and anxiety more than others. There are several herbal medicines with positive effects in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of mixture of Boswellia carterii , Zingiber officinale , and Achillea Millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in IBS patients. This clinical trial study was done in sixty IBS patients (with mild-to-moderate symptoms) divided into two case and control groups. Patients were assessed at the beginning, 1 month, and 3 months after by IBS-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IBS-SSS is used for quality of life evaluation too. Sixty IBS patients (with mild to moderate symptoms) with a mean age of 38.75 ± 11.74 participated that 55.4% of cases and 72.8% of controls were men. The most prevalent type of IBS was the mixed type of IBS. The mean score of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bloating score, and depression and anxiety score were decreased in patients administered herbal medication, but changes in these variables in controls were not statistically significant. The changes in quality of life score between cases and controls were significant in men ( P = 0.01) although it was not significant in women. A mixture of B. Carterii , Z. officinale , and A. millefolium is effective in eliminating IBS symptoms and its related depression and anxiety and using herbal medicine in IBS treatment is suggested.

  13. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Kazemian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs that affects in different aspects of life and patients experienced depression and anxiety more than others. There are several herbal medicines with positive effects in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea Millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in IBS patients. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was done in sixty IBS patients (with mild-to-moderate symptoms divided into two case and control groups. Patients were assessed at the beginning, 1 month, and 3 months after by IBS-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IBS-SSS is used for quality of life evaluation too. Results: Sixty IBS patients (with mild to moderate symptoms with a mean age of 38.75 ± 11.74 participated that 55.4% of cases and 72.8% of controls were men. The most prevalent type of IBS was the mixed type of IBS. The mean score of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bloating score, and depression and anxiety score were decreased in patients administered herbal medication, but changes in these variables in controls were not statistically significant. The changes in quality of life score between cases and controls were significant in men (P = 0.01 although it was not significant in women. Conclusion: A mixture of B. Carterii, Z. officinale, and A. millefolium is effective in eliminating IBS symptoms and its related depression and anxiety and using herbal medicine in IBS treatment is suggested.

  14. In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of Piper longum, Piper nigrum, and Zingiber officinale extracts against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay K; Saini, S P S; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Sharma, S K; Rath, S S

    2017-03-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a major constraint for the sustainable cattle industry in the tropical and subtropical regions including the Indian subcontinent. The development of resistance to most of the commonly used acaricides leads to an attempt to screen plant extracts and their combinations for their possible acaricidal activity to develop an eco-friendly tick control alternative. An alcoholic and various aqueous extracts of Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale and their combinations were evaluated for acaricidal activity against the three-host ixodid tick, Hyalomma anatolicum by larval immersion test using 14-21 days old unfed larvae. The efficacy was assessed by measuring larval mortality (%) and the lethal concentrations for 50% (LC 50 ) and 95% (LC 95 ) with their 95% confidence limits (CL) values were estimated by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality. A concentration-dependent mortality response was recorded in all extracts prepared from seeds of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations. The highest acaricidal property was exhibited by the alcoholic extract of P. longum seeds with the minimum LC 50 and LC 95 (95% CL) values of 0.071% (0.07-0.072) and 0.135% (0.13-0.14), respectively, followed by alcoholic combinations. Interestingly, no acaricidal activity was recorded in extracts prepared from the rhizome of Z. officinale. The results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations can be used effectively for tick control in an integrated format.

  15. Differential control of growth, apoptotic activity and gene expression in human colon cancer cells by extracts derived from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2014-11-07

    To investigate the effects of extracts from Rhazya stricta (R. stricta) and Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) on human colorectal cancer cells. Human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) were subjected to increasing doses of crude alkaloid extracts from R. stricta (CAERS) and crude flavonoid extracts from Z. officinale (CFEZO). Cells were then harvested after 24, 48 or 72 h and cell viability was examined by trypan blue exclusion dye test; clonogenicity and soft agar colony-forming assays were also carried out. Nuclear stain (Hoechst 33342), acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and comet assays were performed to assess pro-apoptotic potentiality of the extracts. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), using gene-specific primers and Western blot analyses were performed to assess the impact of CAERS and CFEZO on the expression levels of key regulatory proteins in HCT116 cells. Treatment with a combination of CAERS and CFEZO synergistically suppressed the proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells. Calculated IC50, after 24, 48 and 72 h, were 70, 90 and 130 μg/mL for CAERS, 65, 85 and 120 μg/mL for CFEZO and 20, 25 and 45 μg/mL for both agents, respectively. CAERS- and CFEZO-treated cells exhibited morphologic and biochemical features of apoptotic cell death. The induction of apoptosis was associated with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases 3 and 9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase. CAERS and CFEZO treatments downregulated expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, survivin and XIAP, and upregulated expression levels of proapoptotic proteins such as Bad and Noxa. CAERS and CFEZO treatments elevated expression levels of the oncosuppressor proteins, p53, p21 and p27, and reduced levels of the oncoproteins, cyclin D1, cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and

  16. Insights into Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacies of Synthetic and Organic Agents: The Case of ZnS Nanoparticles and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidi, O. F.; Nejo, A. O.; Ayeni, R. A.; Revaprasadu, N.

    2018-03-01

    The differences among the antimicrobial activities of synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), organic agents and conventional antibiotics against human pathogens are little known. We compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes with ZnS NPs and tetracycline/nystatin using agar-diffusion techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to characterize ZnS NPs. At 100 mg/ml, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract inhibited Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition (ZOI) ranging between 0-42 mm and 0-39 mm, respectively. Candida albicans had a remarkable ZOI of 42 mm and 22 mm from ethanol and ZnS NPs compared with 20 mm from conventional nystatin. TEM and FTIR revealed spherically shaped polydispersed NPs with particle size of 12.5 nm and the role of banana peel extracts in ZnS NPs synthesis. Organic and synthetic NPs proved potential alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents.

  17. Gengibre (zingiber officinale roscoe brasileiro: aspectos gerais, óleo essencial e oleoresina. parte 2 - secagem, óleo essencial e oleoresina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Taveira Magalhães

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de amostras de gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe do tipo "Gigante", oriundas das diversas localidades produtoras do Brasil, procurou-se estabelecer as melhores condições de processamento e verificar a qualidade do óleo essencial e da oleoresina obtidos. A composição do óleo essencial de gengibre gigante varia de acordo com a técnica de extração e o estado do rizoma. Os óleos essenciais de rizomas frescos e secos foram comparados através de seus índices físico-químicos e composição por CG. São apresentadas as características do óleo essencial do rizoma seco obtido por arraste direto a vapor. Nas oleoresinas obtidas com diferentes solventes determinou-se o teor de óleo essencial. O gengibre comercial brasileiro fornece óleo essencial num rendimento de 2,2% e oleoresina em rendimentos que variam de 6,91-10,90% (etanol, 2,53-5,62% (acetona e 3,35-3,91% (dicloroetano, sendo alternativas interessantes de utilização.

  18. 6-Gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale ameliorates carbendazim-induced endocrine disruption and toxicity in testes and epididymis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, M; Ajayi, B O; Adedara, I A; de Souza, D; Rocha, J B T; Farombi, E O

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of 6-gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from Zingiber officinale on carbendazim (CBZ)-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Adult male rats were treated with either CBZ (50 mg/kg) alone or in combination with 6-GRF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis revealed that 6-GRF consists of ten bioactive chemical components with 6-gingerol being the most abundant (30.76%). Administration of 6-GRF significantly (p < .05) prevented CBZ-mediated increase in absolute and relative testes weights as well as restored the sperm quantity and quality in the treated rats to near control. In testes and epididymis, 6-GRF significantly abolished CBZ-mediated increase in oxidative damage as well as augmented antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level in the treated rats. Moreover, CBZ administration alone significantly decreased plasma levels of testosterone, thyrotropin, triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly elevated without affecting luteinising hormone and prolactin levels when compared with the control. Conversely, 6-GRF ameliorated the disruption in the hormonal levels and restored their levels to near normalcy in CBZ-treated rats. Collectively, 6-GRF inhibited the adverse effects of CBZ on the antioxidant defence systems, hormonal balance and histology of the testes and epididymis in rats. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Insights into Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacies of Synthetic and Organic Agents: The Case of ZnS Nanoparticles and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidi, O. F.; Nejo, A. O.; Ayeni, R. A.; Revaprasadu, N.

    2018-06-01

    The differences among the antimicrobial activities of synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), organic agents and conventional antibiotics against human pathogens are little known. We compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes with ZnS NPs and tetracycline/nystatin using agar-diffusion techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to characterize ZnS NPs. At 100 mg/ml, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract inhibited Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition (ZOI) ranging between 0-42 mm and 0-39 mm, respectively. Candida albicans had a remarkable ZOI of 42 mm and 22 mm from ethanol and ZnS NPs compared with 20 mm from conventional nystatin. TEM and FTIR revealed spherically shaped polydispersed NPs with particle size of 12.5 nm and the role of banana peel extracts in ZnS NPs synthesis. Organic and synthetic NPs proved potential alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents.

  20. How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisiere, Julien; Mousset, Pierre-Yves; Lafay, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed) until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety. PMID:29614764

  1. HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics for pattern recognition of ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Kong, Weijun; Wei, Jianhe; Ou-Yang, Zhen; Yang, Meihua

    2014-03-01

    Ginger, the fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae), has been used worldwide; however, for a long time, there has been no standard approbated internationally for its quality control. To establish an efficacious and combinational method and pattern recognition technique for quality control of ginger. A simple, accurate and reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) detection was developed for establishing the chemical fingerprints of 10 batches of ginger from different markets in China. The method was validated in terms of precision, reproducibility and stability; and the relative standard deviations were all less than 1.57%. On the basis of this method, the fingerprints of 10 batches of ginger samples were obtained, which showed 16 common peaks. Coupled with similarity evaluation software, the similarities between each fingerprint of the sample and the simulative mean chromatogram were in the range of 0.998-1.000. Then, the chemometric techniques, including similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis were applied to classify the ginger samples. Consistent results were obtained to show that ginger samples could be successfully classified into two groups. This study revealed that HPLC-PDA method was simple, sensitive and reliable for fingerprint analysis, and moreover, for pattern recognition and quality control of ginger.

  2. How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Stanisiere

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP. However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety.

  3. Preventive and curative effects of ginger extract against histopathologic changes of gentamicin-induced tubular toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gentamicin (GM is a commonly used aminoglycoside, however, renal toxicity has limited its usage. This study was designed to evaluate the curative and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against gentamicin tubular toxicity in rats. The phenolic and flavonoid components and antioxidant activity of ginger were also evaluated. Methods: In a preclinical study, 50 male Wistar rats were designated into 5 groups of 10 and treated as follows: Group I: vehicle. Group II: 200 mg/kg/d of ginger for 3 days then, GM (80 mg/kg for 7 days. Group III: 200 mg/kg ginger orally for 3 days, then ginger plus GM for 7 days. Group IV: GM for 7 days. Group V: GM for 10 days. Group VI: GM for 7 days, then 200 mg/kg ginger orally for 10 days. At the end of the study, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were histologically evaluated. Results: Ginger could prevent degeneration of the renal cells and reduce the severity of tubular damage caused by gentamicin. However, it could not regenerate the GM degeneration. Conclusions: The results indicate that ginger is effective as a prophylaxis agent, but has not curative effect.

  4. Actividad estimulante de la fracción de saponósidos triterpénicos de la Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms (aralia) y la fracción de gingeroles del Zingiber officinales Roscoe (jengibre)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Alejo, José Luis; Larionova, María; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Gilda; Miranda Flores, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Se extrajeron mediante fraccionamiento químico los saponósidos triterpénicos de la Polyscias fruticosa (L.) HARMS (Aralia) y los gingeroles del Zingiber officinale Roscoe (jenjibre). Las 2 fracciones crudas de la Polyscias; la fracción butánolica (FBP), la acuosa (FAP); y la fracción cruda de gingeroles se ensayaron farmacológicamente en un modelo experimental de fatiga, para conocer su posible actividad estimulante. Se realizó un estudio cromatográfico para saponósidos y gingeroles, y se det...

  5. Ginger and turmeric starches hydrolysis using subcritical water + CO2: the effect of the SFE pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. M. Moreschi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the hydrolysis of fresh and dried turmeric (Curcuma longa L. and ginger (Zingiber officinale R. in the presence of subcritical water + CO2 was studied. The hydrolysis of ginger and turmeric bagasses from supercritical fluid extraction was also studied. The reactions were done using subcritical water and CO2 at 150 bar, 200 °C and reaction time of 11 minutes; the degree of reaction was monitored through the amount of starch hydrolyzed. Process yields were calculated using the amount of reducing and total sugars formed. The effects of supercritical fluid extraction in the starchy structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Higher degree of hydrolysis (97- 98 % were obtained for fresh materials and the highest total sugar yield (74% was established for ginger bagasse. The supercritical fluid extraction did not significantly modify the degree of hydrolysis in the tested conditions.

  6. Active ingredients of ginger as potential candidates in the prevention and treatment of diseases via modulation of biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; shabrmi, Fahad M Al; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment based on synthetic drugs is expensive and also causes genetic and metabolic alterations. However, safe and sound mode of treatment is needed to control the diseases development and progression. In this regards, medicinal plant and its constituents play an important role in diseases management via modulation of biological activities. Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber officinale, has shown therapeutic role in the health management since ancient time and considered as potential chemopreventive agent. Numerous studies based on clinical trials and animal model has shown that ginger and its constituents shows significant role in the prevention of diseases via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. In this review, we focused on the therapeutics effects of ginger and its constituents in the diseases management, and its impact on genetic and metabolic activities. PMID:25057339

  7. Supramolecular interaction of 6-shogaol, a therapeutic agent of Zingiber officinale with human serum albumin as elucidated by spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular docking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroz, S R; Mohamad, S B; Lee, G S; Malek, S N A; Tayyab, S

    2015-06-01

    6-Shogaol, one of the main bioactive constituents of Zingiber officinale has been shown to possess various therapeutic properties. Interaction of a therapeutic compound with plasma proteins greatly affects its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The present investigation was undertaken to characterize the interaction between 6-shogaol and the main in vivo transporter, human serum albumin (HSA). Various binding characteristics of 6-shogaol-HSA interaction were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. Thermal stability of 6-shogaol-HSA system was determined by circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques. Identification of the 6-shogaol binding site on HSA was made by competitive drug displacement and molecular docking experiments. Fluorescence quench titration results revealed the association constant, Ka of 6-shogaol-HSA interaction as 6.29 ± 0.33 × 10(4) M(-1) at 25 ºC. Values of the enthalpy change (-11.76 kJ mol(-1)) and the entropy change (52.52 J mol(-1) K(-1)), obtained for the binding reaction suggested involvement of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces along with hydrogen bonds in the complex formation. Higher thermal stability of HSA was noticed in the presence of 6-shogaol, as revealed by DSC and thermal denaturation profiles. Competitive ligand displacement experiments along with molecular docking results suggested the binding preference of 6-shogaol for Sudlow's site I of HSA. All these results suggest that 6-shogaol binds to Sudlow's site I of HSA through moderate binding affinity and involves hydrophobic and van der Waals forces along with hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination of Nigella sativa with Glycyrrhiza glabra and Zingiber officinale augments their protective effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in h9c2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Azar; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2014-12-01

    The use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its dose-dependent cardio toxicity in which reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play an important role in the pathological process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of three medicinal plants, Nigella sativa (N), Glycyrrhiza glabra (G) and Zingiber officinale (Z), and their combination (NGZ), against DOX-induced apoptosis and death in H9c2 cells. The cells were incubated with different concentrations of each extract or NGZ for 4 hr which continued in the presence or absence of 5µM doxorubicin for 24 hr. Cell viability and the apoptotic rate were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) staining assays, respectively. The level of ROS and lipid peroxidation were measured by fluorimetric methods. Treatment with doxorubicin increased ROS generation, enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and induced apoptosis. Co-treatment of the cells with each herb extract increased viability of cells dose-dependently with a maximum protection effect of about 30%, and their potencies were N>G>Z. The combination of the threshold dose of each extract (NGZ) produced a similar effect, which was increased dose-dependently to a maximum protection of 70%. These effects were correlated with the effects of NGZ on ROS and MDA. All of the extracts have some protective effects against DOX-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes with similar efficacies, but with different potencies. However, NGZ produced much higher protective effect via reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting of apoptotic induction processes. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of NGZ on DOX chemotherapy.

  9. Antibacterial activity of [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol isolated from ginger rhizome against periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Miri; Bae, Jungdon; Lee, Dae-Sil

    2008-11-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used widely as a food spice and an herbal medicine. In particular, its gingerol-related components have been reported to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, as well as several pharmaceutical properties. However, the effective ginger constituents that inhibit the growth of oral bacteria associated with periodontitis in the human oral cavity have not been elucidated. This study revealed that the ethanol and n-hexane extracts of ginger exhibited antibacterial activities against three anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 53978, Porphyromonas endodontalis ATCC 35406 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611, causing periodontal diseases. Thereafter, five ginger constituents were isolated by a preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic method from the active silica-gel column chromatography fractions, elucidated their structures by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and their antibacterial activity evaluated. In conclusion, two highly alkylated gingerols, [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol effectively inhibited the growth of these oral pathogens at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 6-30 microg/mL. These ginger compounds also killed the oral pathogens at a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) range of 4-20 microg/mL, but not the other ginger compounds 5-acetoxy-[6]-gingerol, 3,5-diacetoxy-[6]-gingerdiol and galanolactone.

  10. Ginger from ancient times to the new outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaie, Laleh; Sadeghpoor, Omid

    2015-02-01

    Ginger is the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, a perennial plant, used alone or in compounds as a spice or remedy in ancient recipes of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as an effective tonic for the memory and digestive system, the opener of hepatic obstructions, aphrodisiac, for expelling compact wind from stomach and intestines, diluting, desiccating and emollient of phlegmatic and compact humor sticking to body organs, stomach, intestine, brain and throat. The ITM scholars believed that ginger was a vermifuge as well as a remedy for paralysis and obstructive jaundice. They also revealed that this phytomedicine cures diarrhea due to corrupted food. This study aimed to compare the medicinal properties (afaal) of ginger in ITM with those indicated in modern research. Results of this study showed that the modern phytotherapy confirmed some of the properties of ginger. In addition, some of the properties of this phytomedicine have not been studied yet. By studding the ITM literature, herb elements or in other words ITM keywords, researchers can predict and state some unknown or less known potential pharmacologic effects of medicinal plants.

  11. Optimization protocol for the extraction of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and improving antioxidant and anticancer activity using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2015-07-30

    Analysis and extraction of plant matrices are important processes for the development, modernization, and quality control of herbal formulations. Response surface methodology is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques that are used to optimize the range of variables in various experimental processes to reduce the number of experimental runs, cost , and time, compared to other methods. Response surface methodology was applied for optimizing reflux extraction conditions for achieving high 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol contents, and high antioxidant activity in Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade . The two-factor central composite design was employed to determine the effects of two independent variables, namely extraction temperature (X1: 50-80 °C) and time (X2: 2-4 h), on the properties of the extracts. The 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol contents were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the rhizome extracts was determined by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Anticancer activity of optimized extracts against HeLa cancer cell lines was measured using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Increasing the extraction temperature and time induced significant response of the variables. The optimum extraction condition for all responses was at 76.9 °C for 3.4 h. Under the optimum condition, the corresponding predicted response values for 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and the antioxidant activity were 2.89 mg/g DW, 1.85 mg/g DW, and 84.3%, respectively. 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were extracted under optimized condition to check the viability of the models. The values were 2.92 and 1.88 mg/g DW, and 84.0% for 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and the antioxidant activity respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the models employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction condition. With optimizing of reflux extraction

  12. Update on the chemopreventive effects of ginger and its phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Pereira, Manisha Maria; D'Souza, Jason Jerome; Pallaty, Princy Louis; Bhat, Harshith P; Popuri, Sandhya

    2011-07-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger, is one of the most widely used spice and condiment. It is also an integral part of many traditional medicines and has been extensively used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, Tibb-Unani, Srilankan, Arabic, and African traditional medicines, since antiquity, for many unrelated human ailments including common colds, fever, sore throats, vomiting, motion sickness, gastrointestinal complications, indigestion, constipation, arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, and helminthiasis. The putative active compounds are nonvolatile pungent principles, namely gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and zingerone. These compounds are some of the extensively studied phytochemicals and account for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiemetic, and gastroprotective activities. A number of preclinical investigations with a wide variety of assay systems and carcinogens have shown that ginger and its compounds possess chemopreventive and antineoplastic effects. A number of mechanisms have been observed to be involved in the chemopreventive effects of ginger. The cancer preventive activities of ginger are supposed to be mainly due to free radical scavenging, antioxidant pathways, alteration of gene expressions, and induction of apoptosis, all of which contribute towards decrease in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. This review provides concise information from preclinical studies with both cell culture models and relevant animal studies by focusing on the mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive action. The conclusion describes directions for future research to establish its activity and utility as a human cancer preventive and therapeutic drug. The above-mentioned mechanisms of ginger seem to be promising for cancer prevention; however, further clinical studies are warranted to assess the efficacy and safety of ginger.

  13. Efficacy of ginger in alleviating the severe radiation-induced biochemical, histological and embryological impactions pregnant female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Ibrahim, M.F.; Darwish, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale), a common part of the diet in many parts of the world, is one of the strongest plant antioxidants that has various pharmacological effects. Accordingly, this study was investigated to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of ginger on radiation-induced maternal and fetal detrimental impacts. Pregnant albino rats were administered ginger tea from gestation day 10 to 14 at a dose rate of 10 ml/kg body weight before being exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation at day 15 of gestation, after which they were excised on the 18th day of pregnancy. Maternal ginger pre-treatment before radiation exposure was able to diminish the high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, lipids, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) recorded in the serum of irradiated mother rats in addition to restoring the histopathological lesions induced in their aorta and uterus tissues. Moreover, ginger intake was found to reduce the severe deleterious symptoms of radiation-induced fetal mortality rate with increased growth in surviving fetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities.The present study suggests that ginger is an effective agent for improving the affected maternal biochemical and histological studied parameters and reducing the embryonic injuries induced by gamma irradiation

  14. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  15. Efficacy of Ginger for Alleviating the Symptoms of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, James W; Zhang, Xin; Kim, Da Sol; Park, Sunmin

    2015-12-01

    There has been no attempt to date to synthesize the available evidence for the efficacy of ginger for treating primary dysmenorrhea. This systematic review evaluates the current evidence for the effectiveness of ginger for treating primary dysmenorrhea. Literature searches were conducted using 12 electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Korean databases, Chinese medical databases, and Indian scientific database. Search terms used were: "ginger" or "Zingiber officinale" and "dysmenorrhea" and "pain." Studies using ginger as a treatment of primary dysmenorrhea were considered for inclusion. The major outcome of primary dysmenorrhea was assessed using a pain visual analogue score (PVAS). Initial searches yielded 29 articles. Of these original results, seven met specific selection criteria. Four of the RCTs compared the therapeutic efficacy of ginger with a placebo during the first 3-4 days of the menstrual cycle and were included in the meta analysis. The meta-analysis of these data showed a significant effect of ginger in reducing PVAS in subjects having primary dysmenorrhea (risk ratio, -1.85; 95% CI of -2.87, -0.84, P = 0.0003). Six RCTs out of 7 exhibited low to moderate of risk of bias. Collectively these RCTs provide suggestive evidence for the effectiveness of 750-2000 mg ginger powder during the first 3-4 days of menstrual cycle for primary dysmenorrhea. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A preliminary 13-week oral toxicity study of ginger oil in male and female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayastelter B; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-12-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, is a major spice extensively used in traditional medicine. The toxicity profile of ginger oil was studied by subchronic oral administration for 13 weeks at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg per day to 6 groups of Wistar rats (5/sex per dose). Separate groups of rats (5/sex per group) received either paraffin oil (vehicle) or were untreated and served as comparative control groups. There was no mortality and no decrease in body weight or food consumption as well as selective organ weights during the study period. Administration of ginger oil to rats did not produce any treatment-related changes in hematological parameters, hepatic, renal functions, serum electrolytes, or in histopathology of selected organs. The major component of ginger oil was found to be zingiberene (31.08%), and initial studies indicated the presence of zingiberene in the serum after oral dosing. These results confirmed that ginger oil is not toxic to male and female rats following subchronic oral administrations of up to 500 mg/kg per day (no observed adverse effect level [NOAEL]).

  17. An evaluation of the wilt-causing bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum as a potential biological control agent for the alien Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Hawaiian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) is an invasive weed in tropical forests in Hawaii and elsewhere. Bacterial wilt caused by the ginger strain of Ralstonia(=Pseudomonas) solanacearum systemically infects edible ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ornamental gingers (Hedychium spp.), causing wilt in infected plants. The suitability of R. solanacearum as a biological control agent for kahili ginger was investigated by inoculating seedlings and rooted cuttings of native forest plants, ornamental ginger, and solanaceous species to confirm host specificity. Inoculation via stem injection or root wounding with a bacterial–water suspension was followed by observation for 8 weeks. Inoculations on H. gardnerianum were then carried out in ohia-lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) wet forests of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park to determine the bacterium's efficacy in the field. No native forest or solanaceous species developed wilt or other symptoms during the study. The bacterium caused limited infection near the inoculation site on H. coronarium, Z. zerumbet, Heliconia latispatha, and Musa sapientum. However, infection did not become systemic in any of these species, and normal growth resumed following appearance of initial symptoms. All inoculated H. gardnerianum plants developed irreversible chlorosis and severe wilting 3–4 weeks following inoculation. Systemic infection also caused death and decay of rhizomes. Most plants were completely dead 16–20 weeks following inoculation. The destructiveness of the ginger strain of R. solanacearum to edible ginger has raised questions regarding its use for biological control. However, because locations of kahili ginger infestations are often remote, the risk of contaminating edible ginger plantings is unlikely. The ability of this bacterium to cause severe disease in H. gardnerianum in the field, together with its lack of virulence in other ginger species, contributes to its potential as a biological control agent.

  18. Ginger Stimulates Hematopoiesis via Bmp Pathway in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-Lagneau, Karine F.; Moshal, Karni S.; Grimes, Matthew; Zahora, Braden; Lv, Lishuang; Sang, Shengmin; Leung, TinChung

    2012-01-01

    Background Anemia is a hematologic disorder with decreased number of erythrocytes. Erythropoiesis, the process by which red blood cells differentiate, are conserved in humans, mice and zebrafish. The only known agents available to treat pathological anemia are erythropoietin and its biologic derivatives. However, erythropoietin therapy elicits unwanted side-effects, high cost and intravenous or subcutaneous injection, warranting the development of a more cost effective and non-peptide alternative. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used in traditional medicine; however, to date there is no scientific research documenting the potential of ginger to stimulate hematopoiesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we utilized gata1:dsRed transgenic zebrafish embryos to investigate the effect of ginger extract on hematopoiesis in vivo and we identified its bioactive component, 10-gingerol. We confirmed that ginger and 10-gingerol promote the expression of gata1 in erythroid cells and increase the expression of hematopoietic progenitor markers cmyb and scl. We also demonstrated that ginger and 10-gingerol can promote the hematopoietic recovery from acute hemolytic anemia in zebrafish, by quantifying the number of circulating erythroid cells in the dorsal aorta using video microscopy. We found that ginger and 10-gingerol treatment during gastrulation results in an increase of bmp2b and bmp7a expression, and their downstream effectors, gata2 and eve1. At later stages ginger and 10-gingerol can induce bmp2b/7a, cmyb, scl and lmo2 expression in the caudal hematopoietic tissue area. We further confirmed that Bmp/Smad pathway mediates this hematopoiesis promoting effect of ginger by using the Bmp-activated Bmp type I receptor kinase inhibitors dorsomorphin, LND193189 and DMH1. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides a strong foundation to further evaluate the molecular mechanism of ginger and its bioactive components during hematopoiesis and to investigate their

  19. Pemanfaatan Pati Jahe Merah (Zingiber Officinale Var Rubrum) sebagai Modifikasi Tepung Terigu dalam Pembuatan Kue Bawang dan Analisis Gizinya serta Daya Terimanya oleh Masyarakat

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Ratih

    2016-01-01

    Food diversification is the governments effort to realize food security. Hence, as an effort to support the food diversification program, so did the utilization of red ginger starch is by product from making instant red ginger as modified of wheat flour in making onions chips. The type of research was an experiment conducted by completely randomized design. There were 2 treatment, the first treatment with composition red ginger starch 30%, cassava flour 20%, wheat flour 50% ...

  20. Ginger and Its Constituents: Role in Prevention and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, a cancer of different organs of the digestive system, is one of the most common cancers around the world. The incidence and death rate of some of these cancers are very high. Although a large variety of chemotherapeutic agents have been introduced since the last few decades to combat GI cancer, most of them are very expensive and have side effects. Therefore, the compounds derived from natural sources, which are considered to be safe and cost effective, are needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the most widely used natural products consumed as a spice and medicine for treating nausea, dysentery, heartburn, flatulence, diarrhea, loss of appetite, infections, cough, and bronchitis. Experimental studies showed that ginger and its active components including 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol exert anticancer activities against GI cancer. The anticancer activity of ginger is attributed to its ability to modulate several signaling molecules like NF-κB, STAT3, MAPK, PI3K, ERK1/2, Akt, TNF-α, COX-2, cyclin D1, cdk, MMP-9, survivin, cIAP-1, XIAP, Bcl-2, caspases, and other cell growth regulatory proteins. In this review, the evidences for the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of ginger extract and its active components using in vitro, animal models, and patients have been described. PMID:25838819

  1. Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol dan Destilat Jahe dan Sirih terhadap Mycoplasma gallisepticum dan Escherichia coli (ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT AND DESTILAT OF GINGERS AND PIPER BETLES AGAINST MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM AND ESCHERICHIA CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Rahminiwati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Betle and ginger juice extracts have been reported to have antibacterial activity against E. coliand M. gallisepticum. However, fractionation analysis showed the have differences in their antibacterialpotency which appeared to be associated with the nature of the solvent polarity. This study wasconducted to obtain information about antibacterial activity of Piper betles and gingers extract againstE. coli and M. gallisepticum. Three types of betle, P. betle, P. betle var nigra, P. crocatum, wereexamined for their antibacterial activity using disc method and three types of ginger, Zingiber officinale,Z. officinale Linn var rubrum, and Z. majus rumph which were extracted by soxhletation using ethanol30%, 60% and 90% as well as distestillation for three and five hours. Piper betle and P. crocatumconsistently have antibacterial effect against E. coli whereas Z. officinale consistently has antibacterialeffect against M. gallisepticum, either extracted by distillation or soxhletation. Piper betle is potentialyield of distillate and extract that has the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli, and M.gallisepticum with inhibitory zone were 9.76 mm and 22 mm respectively.

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyari, Saman; Mahyari, Behnam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2016-02-01

    Gingivitis is a highly prevalent periodontal disease resulting from microbial infection and subsequent inflammation. The efficacy of herbal preparations in subjects with gingivitis has been reported in some previous studies. To investigate the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis (5% v/w) compared with chlorhexidine and placebo mouthwashes in subjects with gingivitis. Sixty patients participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the polyherbal mouthwash (n = 20), chlorhexidine mouthwash (n = 20) or placebo mouthwash (n = 20). Participants were instructed to use the mouthwash twice a day (after breakfast and dinner) for 30 s for a period of two weeks. Gingival and plaque indices were assessed using MGI, GBI and MQH scales at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of the trial. There were significant improvements in all assessed efficacy measures i.e. MGI, GBI and MQH scores from baseline to the end of trial in both polyherbal and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups; however, the scores remained statistically unchanged in the placebo group. MGI, BGI and MQH scores in the treatment groups were significantly lower compared with those of the control group at both day 7 and day 14 of the trial. However, there was no significant difference between the polyherbal and chlorhexidine groups, neither at day 7 nor day 14 of the trial. Polyherbal mouthwash was safe and there was neither report of adverse reactions, nor any drop-out during the course of study. Polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Z. officinale, R. officinalis and C. officinalis (5%) was effective in the treatment of gingivitis and its efficacy was comparable to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber Officinale on blood cholesterol and glucose levels of rats. ... Subsequently, group 3 rats were given 0.8 ml/kg body weight of H. sabdarffa extract, while those in group 4 were given 0.2 ml Z. officinale extract/kg body weight. Rats in group 5 were given 1 ml of H.

  4. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Mahfudli Fadli, U.; Bayu Prasada, A.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber, Cinnamomum, Curcuma, and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO2), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm2. Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm2. Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm2. Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω-1m-1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm2. Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye.

  5. Dye characteristics of Zingiber officinale var rubrum, Cinnamomum zaylanicum, Curcuma longa L., Oryza sativa L. Indica in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cari; Fadli, U. Mahfudli; Prasada, A. Bayu; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the research to were know performance of DSSC using the dye of Zingiber , Cinnamomum , Curcuma , and Oryza as a photosensitizer with a variation of dye deposition area with spin coating techniques. The structure of the samples as a sandwich consisting of the working electrode (TiO 2 ), dye, electrodes of platinum (Pt) and the electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. Test absorbance dye using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer Lambda 25, using a two-point conductivity test probes El Kahfi 100 and characterization test IV using a Keithley 2602A. For Zingiber results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 279 nm, photoconductivity of 0.29 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.015% on 0.5 cm 2 . Cinnamomum results showed that absorbance at 253 nm and 403 nm, photoconductivity of 0.11 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.002% on 3 cm 2 . Curcuma results showed that absorbance at 243 nm and 422 nm, photoconductivity of 0.177 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.072% on 3 cm 2 . Oryza results showed that absorbance at 240 nm and 423 nm, photoconductivity of 0.21 Ω -1 m -1 and the efficiency is 0.04% on 2.25 cm 2 . Best absorbance value was obtained from Oryza dye; the highest photoconductivity was obtained from Zingiber dye, and the highest efficiency was obtained from Curcuma dye. (paper)

  6. Efficacy of ginger-based treatments against infection with Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G; Zilberg, D; Paladini, G; Fridman, S

    2015-04-30

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy. In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5ppt for 90 and 30min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e. 7.5ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative antioxidant and bioavailability studies of Vitamin C in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and its combinations with Piper nigrum Linn. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Somasekhar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla is used in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine and its major constituent is vitamin C which has effective free radical scavenging property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and the bioavailability profile of vitamin C in amla and its combinations with piperine and ginger in comparison to synthetic vitamin C using New Zealand rabbits. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger were carried out using different models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Nitric Oxide, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, Total reductive capability and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity estimation. The study results showed that synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger possess significant in vitro antioxidant activity. For bioavailability studies, synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger 100 mg/kg, were administered orally and the serum samples were analyzed by HPLC at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Bioavailability studies revealed that amla with piperine combination has higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to synthetic vitamin C. This is probably due to presence of piperine, which is a bioavailability enhancer. The present study supports the fact that amla with piperine combination can be an alternative to synthetic vitamin C.

  8. Actividad antifúngica in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par Evans et ál.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis del cacao ocasionada por Moniliophthora roreri origina grandes pérdidas en los países donde se ha estado dispersando; en México, de reciente ingreso ha afectado drásticamente la producción, ya que daña los frutos en sus diferentes estados y son escasas las medidas de control que se han podido implementar, por lo que se investigó el efecto in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre M. roreri. Se aisló el hongo de frutos enfermos y se cultivó en laboratorio, las plantas fueron recolectadas y sometidas a cuatro formas de extracción: hidrolato por destilación, presurizado, fermentación aeróbica y anaeróbica. Dichos extractos se incorporaron al medio de cultivo al 50% (V/V, se sembró el hongo y se incubó durante 12 días, cuantificando el crecimiento diario y la formación de conidias; a los extractos que inhibieron totalmente al hongo se les determinó la concentración mínima.

  9. Tolerability of the combination of ginger (Zingiber officinalis), gentian (Gentiana lutea) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in patients with cancer-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanatani, Michael; Younus, Jawaid; Stitt, Larry; Malik, Nazish

    2015-03-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom for patients with advanced cancer. Gentian, ginger, and turmeric have traditionally been used to stimulate appetite. We tested these agents in combination, in a pilot study to assess tolerability in patients indicating 4/10 or worse anorexia on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, and who were not currently on chemotherapy. We collected exploratory data on the patient's appetite using a visual analogue scale. Between 2009 and 2012, 17 patients were enrolled in arm 1 (turmeric 1 g and ginger 1 g orally twice daily, and gentiana lutea tincture 1 mL three times a day, for 14 days). The three patients enrolled in arm 2 received the same doses of ginger and turmeric but no gentian. All patients completed a daily appetite diary and a weekly symptom assessment. In arm 1, seven patients (41%) completed treatment. Seven patients (41%) stopped early because of unacceptable toxicity or patient-initiated discontinuation, and 3 stopped because of other reasons. All patients in arm 2 stopped taking the study medication within few days of starting the treatment, leading the study committee to recommend stopping the trial. The most common adverse effects attributed to study drugs were nausea (6 patients), vomiting (3), fatigue (3), diarrhea (2) and bloating (2). There was no statistically significant effect seen on appetite. At the doses used in this study, the combination of ginger, turmeric, and gentian is not tolerated well in cancer patients. Future studies should use fewer agents or lower doses.

  10. Combined ginger extract & Gelam honey modulate Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway genes in colon cancer HT29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Analhuda Abdullah; Sani, Nur Fathiah Abdul; Murad, Noor Azian; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2015-04-01

    The interconnected Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways play a central role in colorectal tumorigenesis, and they are targets for elucidating mechanisms involved in attempts to induce colon cancer cell death. Both ginger (Zingiber officinale) and honey have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor and anti-inflammation properties against many types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. However, there are currently no reports showing the combined effect of these two dietary compounds in cancer growth inhibition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of crude ginger extract and Gelam honey in combination as potential cancer chemopreventive agents against the colorectal cancer cell line HT29. The cells were divided into 4 groups: the first group represents HT29 cells without treatment, the second and third groups were cells treated singly with either ginger or Gelam honey, respectively, and the last group represents cells treated with ginger and Gelam honey combined. The results of MTS assay showed that the IC50 of ginger and Gelam honey alone were 5.2 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC50 of the combination treatment was 3 mg/ml of ginger plus 27 mg/ml of Gelam honey with a combination index of ginger and Gelam honey treatment was associated with the stimulation of early apoptosis (upregulation of caspase 9 and IκB genes) accompanied by downregulation of the KRAS, ERK, AKT, Bcl-xL, NFkB (p65) genes in a synergistic manner. In conclusion, the combination of ginger and Gelam honey may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for inducing the death of colon cancer cells.

  11. A comparison study of the nutritional, mineral and volatile compositions of three dry forms of ginger rhizomes, and antioxidant properties of their ethanolic and aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Jelled

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the most accessible dry forms of ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale used as a spice and as a remedy in order to choose the best ginger for medicinal purpose. Methods: Freshly air dried ginger, commercially dry rhizomes and ginger available in powder form are investigated in terms of nutritional values (proximate and mineral compositions and volatiles profile. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts (decoctions and infusions were prepared for total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents determination. Also, three standard tests were established in order to estimate the best extract with the better antioxidant potential. Results: The results showed unlike proximate composition revealing different nutritional values. In fact, freshly dried ginger contained much ash, while already dry samples contained much protein. In addition, mineral contents of studied samples indicated their dissimilar richness especially in Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Fe, and Mn. Solid phase micro-extraction gave volatile profiles with many interesting compounds, only 26 from the 51 identified components were common to studied samples with bioactive compounds predominance in freshly dried sample. Also, the antioxidant potential established by three different tests was higher in already dry samples and was positively correlated with their higher contents in the determined phytochemicals. The ethanolic extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than aqueous extracts. Decoctions and infusions were almost similar proving that long cooking time did not affect ginger antioxidant potential. Conclusions: This work highlighted the benefits of traditional preparations of ginger as sources of bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants, and proved that the available commercial samples are not identical and encouraged analyzing samples before uses depending on needs.

  12. Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L. e gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe frente a salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Majolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar, quantificar os constituintes, e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais extraídos de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L. e gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe cultivados nas condições de Manaus/AM frente a 14 salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado. A extração dos óleos essenciais foi realizada utilizando-se aparelho tipo Clevenger e a composição determinada por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (CG-MS. A atividade antibacteriana foi realizada com o emprego de técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de gengibre se mostrou expressivamente mais eficiente do que o óleo de açafrão, tanto em termos de ação bacteriostática (concentração inibitória mínima de 2500 a 5000 µg.mL-1 quanto bactericida (concentração bactericida mínima de 5000 a 10000 µg.mL-1 observando-se variação apenas em duas as amostras em termos de resistência a ação bactericida deste óleo. Assim, o óleo essencial de gengibre, representa uma alternativa para o controle de Salmonella enterica, entretanto, demais estudos abordando o sinergismo com alimentos são indicados.

  13. Ginger extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Koichi; Hashizume, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-10-01

    The initiation of obesity entails an imbalance wherein energy intake exceeds expenditure. Obesity is increasing in prevalence and is now a worldwide health problem. Food-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) stimulators represent potential treatment options for obesity. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was previously shown to regulate the PPARγ signaling pathway in adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ginger in vivo and the mechanism of action in vitro. Energy expenditure was increased, and diet-induced obesity was attenuated in C57BL/6J mice treated with dietary ginger extract (GE). GE also increased the number of Type I muscle fibers, improved running endurance capacity and upregulated PPARδ-targeted gene expression in skeletal muscle and the liver. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol acted as specific PPARδ ligands and stimulated PPARδ-dependent gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle myotubes. An analysis of cellular respiration revealed that pretreating cultured skeletal muscle myotubes with GE increased palmitate-induced oxygen consumption rate, which suggested an increase in cellular fatty acid catabolism. These results demonstrated that sustained activation of the PPARδ pathway with GE attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved exercise endurance capacity by increasing skeletal muscle fat catabolism. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol may be responsible for the regulatory effects of dietary ginger on PPARδ signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochemical changes in ginger after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Salahuddin; Pervaiz, K.; Niazi, A.H.K.

    2001-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinate) was irradiated with gamma rays (0.1Kgy, 1.0Kgy). Biochemical changes during storage at room temperature (23-28 degree centigrade), in sand (23-28 degree centigrade) and at cold (8 degree centigrade) temperature were observed. Changes in starch, soluble protein, fixed oil and volatile oil contents showed that treatment of ginger at 0.1Kgy radiation level was most appropriate for storage upto 45 days

  15. Analyses between Reproductive Behavior, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. Reveal an Adaptive Significance for Hemiclonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Geethu E.; Geetha, Kiran A.; Augustine, Lesly; Mamiyil, Sabu; Thomas, George

    2016-01-01

    Mode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen) whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet). However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behavior on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behavior, amplified fragment length polymorphism diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii, and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale). Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behavior. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and continuous, sexual and genetically

  16. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Giacosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61. Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG showed a significant amelioration (SG: αS=+1.195 MCA score units (u, P=0.017; placebo: αP=+0.347 u, P=0.513. The intercept (α resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (αS-αP=+0.848 u, P<0.001. At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (βS-βP=+0.077 u, P=0.542. In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (βS-βP=-0.398 u, P<0.001, epigastric fullness (βS-βP=-0.241, P<0.001, epigastric pain (βS-βP=-0.173 u, P=0.002, and bloating (βS-βP=-0.167 u, P=0.017. Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease.

  17. Impact of ginger aqueous extract on carbimazole induced testicular degenerative alterations and oxidative stress in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Abdel-Rahman Sakr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale aqueous extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, on testicular toxicity and oxidative stress induced by the antithyroid drug carbimazole in albino rats. Methods: Four groups of male albino rats were used. Group I served as control. Group II rats were treated with ginger aqueous extract (24 mg/mL. Group III rats were given orally carbimazole (1.35 mg/kg bw. Group IV rats were given carbimazole and ginger extract. Animals were sacrificed and their testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epididymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Immunohistochemical expression of PCNA and Bax was detected in the testes. MDA, CAT and GSH were measured in the sera. Results: Treating rats with carbimazole revealed significant alterations in the tissue of testis including decreased seminiferous epithelium height, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubule and changes in the spermatogenic layers arrangement. Intertubular hemorrhage and congested blood vessels were noted. An increase in sperm head abnormalities was recorded. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in PCNA expression, while the increase in apoptotic rate was accompanied with an increase in Bax expression. Oxidative stress was demonstrated by an increase in malondialdehyde and decrease in activity of catalase and glutathione. Combined treatment of carbimazole and aqueous ginger extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical, immunohistochemical changes and oxidative stress induced by carbimazole. Conclusions: The ameliorative effects of ginger extract could be due to its antioxidant properties.

  18. Ginger improves cognitive function via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation in the hippocampus of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soonmin; Moon, Minho; Oh, Hyein; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-10-01

    Ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used worldwide for many centuries in cooking and for treatment of several diseases. The main pharmacological properties of ginger include anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antiarthritic, antiemetic and neuroprotective actions. Recent studies demonstrated that ginger significantly enhances cognitive function in various cognitive disorders as well as in healthy brain. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the ginger-mediated enhancement of cognition have not yet been studied in normal or diseased brain. In the present study, we assessed the memory-enhancing effects of dried ginger extract (GE) in a model of scopolamine-induced memory deficits and in normal animals by performing a novel object recognition test. We found that GE administration significantly improved the ability of mice to recognize novel objects, indicating improvements in learning and memory. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanisms of GE-mediated cognitive enhancement, we focused on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced signaling pathways. NGF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that GE administration led to elevated NGF levels in both the mouse hippocampus and rat glioma C6 cells. GE administration also resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), as revealed by Western blotting analysis. Neutralization of NGF with a specific NGF antibody inhibited GE-triggered activation of ERK and CREB in the hippocampus. Also, GE treatment significantly increased pre- and postsynaptic markers, synaptophysin and PSD-95, which are related to synapse formation in the brain. These data suggest that GE has a synaptogenic effect via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation, resulting in memory enhancement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variation of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade Associated with Different Drying Methods and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-06-17

    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential.

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ginger variety Suprabha from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Mahendra; Das, Aradhana; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sujata; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2016-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), a well-known member of family Zingiberaceae, is bestowed with number of medicinal properties which is because of the secondary metabolites, essential oil and oleoresin, it contains in its rhizome. The drug yielding potential is known to depend on agro-climatic conditions prevailing at the place cultivation. Present study deals with comparative transcriptome analysis of two sample of elite ginger variety Suprabha collected from two different agro-climatic zones of Odisha. Transcriptome assembly for both the samples was done using next generation sequencing methodology. The raw data of size 10.8 and 11.8 GB obtained from analysis of two rhizomes S1Z4 and S2Z5 collected from Bhubaneswar and Koraput and are available in NCBI accession number SAMN03761169 and SAMN03761176 respectively. We identified 60,452 and 54,748 transcripts using trinity tool respectively from ginger rhizome of S1Z4 and S2Z5. The transcript length varied from 300 bp to 15,213 bp and 8988 bp and N50 value of 1415 bp and 1334 bp respectively for S1Z4 and S2Z5. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome analysis of elite ginger cultivars Suprabha from two different agro-climatic conditions of Odisha, India which will help to understand the effect of agro-climatic conditions on differential expression of secondary metabolites.

  1. Biochemistry and Chemotherapy of Malaria and Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-06

    ethanol plant extracts including; nutmeg (Myristicaceae sp.), ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), goldenseal root (Hydrastis canadensis), garlic (Allium...scorodoprasum (elephant garlic), Ailium sativum (garlic), Zingiber officinale ,ginger), Myristicaceae sp. (nutmeg), Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal...They were Glycyrrhiza glabra (IC25: 6 ug protein/ml)(Fig.7), Zingiber officinale (IC25: 14 ug protein/ ml), and ethanol extracts of Myristacea sp

  2. Detection of Irradiated Tubers (Ginger and Potato) Using Photostimulated Luminescence Technique (PSL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Foziah Ali; Zainab Harun

    2016-01-01

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) measurement was conducted to detect irradiated gingers (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) after dark storage for 1 week, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all the samples were correctly distinguished between non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 50, 150 and 500 Gy based on photon count values. The PSL signal stability of irradiated samples (150 and 500 Gy) appeared to fade upon 6 months storage but remained well above upper threshold values of 5000 photon counts/ 60 s (PCs) for irradiated gingers and potatoes. The PCs of irradiated tubers showed a general trend of increase with the increase in doses up to 500 Gy. Samples showed highest intensity after irradiation. The differences in intensity to irradiation are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each tuber sample. Tubers irradiated at doses higher than 150 Gy, showed sensitivity index ratio of less than 10. Sensitivity Index was suggested for irradiated samples at doses slightly above 150 Gy. Irradiated samples at doses less than 150 Gy should be subjected for further investigation using thermoluminescence (TL) analysis. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated tubers. (author)

  3. Anticancer Effect of Ginger Extract against Pancreatic Cancer Cells Mainly through Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Autotic Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Miho; Iizuka, Mari; Kanematsu, Rie; Yoshida, Masato; Takenaga, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    The extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its major pungent components, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol, have been shown to have an anti-proliferative effect on several tumor cell lines. However, the anticancer activity of the ginger extract in pancreatic cancer is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ethanol-extracted materials of ginger suppressed cell cycle progression and consequently induced the death of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, including Panc-1 cells. The underlying mechanism entailed autosis, a recently characterized form of cell death, but not apoptosis or necroptosis. The extract markedly increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, decreased SQSTM1/p62 protein, and enhanced vacuolization of the cytoplasm in Panc-1 cells. It activated AMPK, a positive regulator of autophagy, and inhibited mTOR, a negative autophagic regulator. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine partially prevented cell death. Morphologically, however, focal membrane rupture, nuclear shrinkage, focal swelling of the perinuclear space and electron dense mitochondria, which are unique morphological features of autosis, were observed. The extract enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and the antioxidant N-acetylcystein attenuated cell death. Our study revealed that daily intraperitoneal administration of the extract significantly prolonged survival (P = 0.0069) in a peritoneal dissemination model and suppressed tumor growth in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer (P < 0.01) without serious adverse effects. Although [6]-shogaol but not [6]-gingerol showed similar effects, chromatographic analyses suggested the presence of other constituent(s) as active substances. Together, these results show that ginger extract has potent anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cells by inducing ROS-mediated autosis and warrants further investigation in order to develop an efficacious candidate drug. PMID:25961833

  4. 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger up-regulates the antioxidant defense systems in cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-07-04

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in vitro and in vivo. 6-Shogaol-rich extract was produced by extracting ginger powder with 95% ethanol at 80 °C after drying at 80 °C (GEE8080). GEE8080 contained over 6-fold more 6-shogaol compared to the room temperature extract (GEE80RT). In HepG2 cells, GEE8080 displayed much stronger inductions of ARE-reporter gene activity and Nrf2 expression than GEE80RT. GEE8080 stimulated phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Moreover, the GEE8080-induced expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were attenuated by treatments of SB202190 (a p38 specific inhibitor) and LY294002 (an Akt specific inhibitor). In a mouse model, the GEE8080 decreased the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-mediated elevations of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the DEN-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Inductions of Nrf2 and HO-1 by GEE8080 were also confirmed in the mice. In addition, the administration of GEE8080 to the mice also restored the DEN-reduced activity and protein expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. In conclusion, GEE8080, a 6-shogaol-rich ginger extract, may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 regulated by p38 MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Anticancer Effect of Ginger Extract against Pancreatic Cancer Cells Mainly through Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Autotic Cell Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Akimoto

    Full Text Available The extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and its major pungent components, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol, have been shown to have an anti-proliferative effect on several tumor cell lines. However, the anticancer activity of the ginger extract in pancreatic cancer is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ethanol-extracted materials of ginger suppressed cell cycle progression and consequently induced the death of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, including Panc-1 cells. The underlying mechanism entailed autosis, a recently characterized form of cell death, but not apoptosis or necroptosis. The extract markedly increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, decreased SQSTM1/p62 protein, and enhanced vacuolization of the cytoplasm in Panc-1 cells. It activated AMPK, a positive regulator of autophagy, and inhibited mTOR, a negative autophagic regulator. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine partially prevented cell death. Morphologically, however, focal membrane rupture, nuclear shrinkage, focal swelling of the perinuclear space and electron dense mitochondria, which are unique morphological features of autosis, were observed. The extract enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and the antioxidant N-acetylcystein attenuated cell death. Our study revealed that daily intraperitoneal administration of the extract significantly prolonged survival (P = 0.0069 in a peritoneal dissemination model and suppressed tumor growth in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer (P < 0.01 without serious adverse effects. Although [6]-shogaol but not [6]-gingerol showed similar effects, chromatographic analyses suggested the presence of other constituent(s as active substances. Together, these results show that ginger extract has potent anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cells by inducing ROS-mediated autosis and warrants further investigation in order to develop an efficacious candidate drug.

  6. Prevention of allergic rhinitis by ginger and the molecular basis of immunosuppression by 6-gingerol through T cell inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Yuki; Nakahashi, Emiko; Obayashi, Momoko; Sugihara, Kento; Qiao, Shanlou; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Yajima, Ichiro; Goto, Yuji; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Takeda, Kozue

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of allergies has recently been increasing worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity is central to the pathogenesis of asthma, hay fever and other allergic diseases. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its extracts have been valued for their medical properties including antinausea, antiinflammation, antipyresis and analgesia properties. In this study, we investigated the antiallergic effects of ginger and 6-gingerol, a major compound of ginger, using a mouse allergy model and primary/cell line culture system. In mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis, oral administration of 2% ginger diet reduced the severity of sneezing and nasal rubbing by nasal sensitization of OVA and suppressed infiltration of mast cells in nasal mucosa and secretion of OVA-specific IgE in serum. 6-Gingerol inhibited the expression of not only Th2 cytokines but also Th1 cytokines in OVA-sensitized spleen cells. Accordingly, 6-gingerol suppressed in vitro differentiation of both Th1 cells and Th2 cells from naïve T cells. In addition, 6-gingerol suppressed both superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)- and anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation. 6-Gingerol also abrogated PMA plus ionomycin- and SEB-induced IL-2 production in T cells, suggesting that 6-gingerol affected T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction rather than the antigen-presentation process. Indeed, 6-gingerol inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases, calcium release and nuclear localization of c-fos and NF-κB by PMA and ionomycin stimulation. Thus, our results demonstrate that 6-gingerol suppresses cytokine production for T cell activation and proliferation, thereby not causing B cell and mast cell activation and resulting in prevention or alleviation of allergic rhinitis symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of Black Rot Disease in Tomato Fruits by Using Formulated Ginger Essential oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, I.M.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Ginger essential oil (Zingiber officinale) treated by gamma radiation at dose of 10 kGy was selected as an active ingredient for formulation of the biocide. Liquid formulations (emulsifiable concentrates) were prepared using different emulsifiers (Emulgator B.L.M. and tween 80 or tween 20) and additive oil (soybean oil). Physicochemical properties of the formulated oil (spontaneous emulsification, emulsion stability; cold stability and heat stability, viscosity, surface tension and ph) were measured. The formulated oil was tested in vivo to investigate its efficiency for controlling the growth of Alternaria alternata inoculated into tomato fruits. The results indicated that soaking inoculated tomato fruits in the formulated oil (ginger essential oil + soybean oil + emulgator B.L.M. + tween 80) treatment at concentration of 300 ppm for a period of 12 minute was the most effective for controlling the growth of the tested fungus. In addition, the formulated oil had efficiency for controlling the rot development on tomato fruits when applied as therapeutic and protective agents

  8. 6-Paradol and 6-Shogaol, the Pungent Compounds of Ginger, Promote Glucose Utilization in Adipocytes and Myotubes, and 6-Paradol Reduces Blood Glucose in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Kei Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-diabetic activity of ginger powder (Zingiber officinale has been recently promoted, with the recommendation to be included as one of the dietary supplements for diabetic patients. However, previous studies presented different results, which may be caused by degradation and metabolic changes of ginger components, gingerols, shogaols and paradols. Therefore, we prepared 10 ginger active components, namely 6-, 8-, 10-paradols, 6-, 8-, 10-shogaols, 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and zingerone, and evaluated their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Among the tested compounds, 6-paradol and 6-shogaol showed potent activity in stimulating glucose utilization by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. The effects were attributed to the increase in 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 6-Paradol, the major metabolite of 6-shogaol, was utilized in an in vivo assay and significantly reduced blood glucose, cholesterol and body weight in high-fat diet-fed mice.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the the quality of ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, K.; Khawaja, M.A.; Salahuddin' Kausar, T.

    1998-01-01

    Ginger (Zingebar officinale) was irradiated with gamma rays (10 k and 100 k rad) and stored at room temperature in sand, in refrigerator and deep freezer. 10 k rad. dose was most appropriate because it kept the texture of ginger intact for a longer storage period without affecting its important food ingredients i.e. moisture, soluble, insoluble ash and proteins, total sugar, soluble and reducing sugar contents. (author)

  10. Ginger and turmeric expressed sequence tags identify signature genes for rhizome identity and development and the biosynthesis of curcuminoids, gingerols and terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) accumulate important pharmacologically active metabolites at high levels in their rhizomes. Despite their importance, relatively little is known regarding gene expression in the rhizomes of ginger and turmeric. Results In order to identify rhizome-enriched genes and genes encoding specialized metabolism enzymes and pathway regulators, we evaluated an assembled collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from eight different ginger and turmeric tissues. Comparisons to publicly available sorghum rhizome ESTs revealed a total of 777 gene transcripts expressed in ginger/turmeric and sorghum rhizomes but apparently absent from other tissues. The list of rhizome-specific transcripts was enriched for genes associated with regulation of tissue growth, development, and transcription. In particular, transcripts for ethylene response factors and AUX/IAA proteins appeared to accumulate in patterns mirroring results from previous studies regarding rhizome growth responses to exogenous applications of auxin and ethylene. Thus, these genes may play important roles in defining rhizome growth and development. Additional associations were made for ginger and turmeric rhizome-enriched MADS box transcription factors, their putative rhizome-enriched homologs in sorghum, and rhizomatous QTLs in rice. Additionally, analysis of both primary and specialized metabolism genes indicates that ginger and turmeric rhizomes are primarily devoted to the utilization of leaf supplied sucrose for the production and/or storage of specialized metabolites associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway and putative type III polyketide synthase gene products. This finding reinforces earlier hypotheses predicting roles of this enzyme class in the production of curcuminoids and gingerols. Conclusion A significant set of genes were found to be exclusively or preferentially expressed in the rhizome of ginger and turmeric. Specific

  11. Analyses between Reproductive Behaviour, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. reveal an adaptive significance for hemiclonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethu Elizabath Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet. However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behaviour on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behaviour, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale. Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behaviour. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and

  12. Control of weight loss and sprouting of ginger rhizome in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paull, R.E.; Chen, N.J.; Goo, T.T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Methods were investigated to control weight loss and sprouting of stored ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc), including waxing, sprout inhibitors, and gamma irradiation. Rhizomes stored for 3 months at 22°C and 70% RH lost about 20% weight. Waxing of the rhizome did not reduce water loss. Some wax treatments increased the number and length of sprouts. Preharvest application of maleic hydrazide significantly increased the number and reduced the length of sprouts. Postharvest CIPC application significantly reduced the length of sprouts. Vacuum infiltration increased the effectiveness of CIPC in reducing sprout length. Gamma and X-ray irradiation also reduced sprout number and length. Minimum doses of gamma radiation for sprout control was 25 Gy and 120 to 150 Gy for X-ray irradiation if the rhizome was stored for more than 3 months at 22°C. At higher dose of irradiation (500 Gy) was required if complete sprout growth control was needed for storage periods < 3 months at 22.degree. Suberization occurred during curing at 22°C, but the suberin layer did not completely protect the cut surface

  13. [6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eok-Cheon; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Shin-Jeong; Yang, Hyun-Ok; Han, Sanghwa; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2005-01-01

    [6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae), has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor-promoting activities. Here, we describe its novel anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, [6]-gingerol inhibited both the VEGF- and bFGF-induced proliferation of human endothelial cells and caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. It also blocked capillary-like tube formation by endothelial cells in response to VEGF, and strongly inhibited sprouting of endothelial cells in the rat aorta and formation of new blood vessel in the mouse cornea in response to VEGF. Moreover, i.p. administration, without reaching tumor cytotoxic blood levels, to mice receiving i.v. injection of B16F10 melanoma cells, reduced the number of lung metastasis, with preservation of apparently healthy behavior. Taken together, these results demonstrate that [6]-gingerol inhibits angiogenesis and may be useful in the treatment of tumors and other angiogenesis-dependent diseases

  14. Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of crude ginger and rosemary extracts obtained through supercritical CO2 extraction on macrophage and tumor cell line: the influence of vehicle type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Oselys Rodriguez; Simioni, Patricia Ucelli; Gabriel, Dirce Lima; Tamashiro, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha; Rosa, Paulo de Tarso Vieira; Moraes, Ângela Maria

    2015-10-29

    Numerous plants from have been investigated due to their anti-inflammatory activity and, among then, extracts or components of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sources of polyphenolic compounds. 6-gingerol from ginger rhizome and carnosic acid and carnosol from rosemary leaves present anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, the evaluation of the mechanisms of action of these and other plant extracts is limited due to their high hydrophobicity. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a vehicle of liposoluble materials to mammalian cells in vitro, presenting enhanced cell penetration. Liposomes are also able to efficiently deliver agents to mammalian cells, being capable to incorporate in their structure not only hydrophobic molecules, but also hydrophilic and amphiphilic compounds. Another strategy is based on the use of Pluronic F-68, a biocompatible low-foaming, non-ionic surfactant, to disperse hydrophobic components. Here, these three delivery approaches were compared to analyze their influence on the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of ginger and rosemary extracts, at different concentrations, on primary mammalian cells and on a tumor cell line. Ginger and rosemary extracts free of organic solvents were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and dispersed in DMSO, Pluronic F-68 or liposomes, in variable concentrations. Cell viability, production of inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide (NO) release were measured in vitro on J774 cell line and murine macrophages primary culture stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ after being exposed or not to these extracts. Ginger and rosemary extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the release of NO by peritoneal macrophages and J774 cells. The delivery vehicles influenced the anti-inflammatory effects. Comparatively, the ginger extract showed the

  15. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri; Ryu, Shi Yong; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. ► 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. ► 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-κB-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. ► MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-β gene and IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  16. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Shi Yong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-{kappa}B-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-{beta} gene and IFN-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  17. High Frequency Plant Regeneration System from Transverse Thin Cell Layer Section of In vitro Derived ‘Nadia’ Ginger Microrhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible procedure is outlined for rapid in vitro multiplication of Zingiber officinale var. ‘Nadia’ through high frequency shoot proliferation from transverse thin cell layer (tTCL sections of in vitro derived microrhizome. In vitro derived microrhizome of size 500 μm in thickness was used as initial explants for induction of somatic embryos. Among the different phytohormones tested, tTCL explants shows maximum calli proliferation in medium containing 2 mg/L 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (88.30±0.11%. Reduced concentration of 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was supplemented with different cytokinins for regeneration of callus. Among the different medium tested, optimum redifferentiation of somatic embryos were observed in medium containing 0.2 mg/L 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6.0 mg/L BAP (141.08±0.25. Clump of regenerated plantlets were further subculture and transfer into microrhizome inducing medium containing high sucrose concentration (8%. Plantlets with well developed microrhizome were successfully acclimatized and eventually transferred to the field. The application of studying embryo section for regeneration of plants might be useful alternative to ginger improvement programme. Histological analysis showed formation of somatic embryos and regenerated adventitious shoot.

  18. Effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50–60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris, 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale, 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms. PMID:28546803

  19. Effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Taavoni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50–60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris , 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale, 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms.

  20. Effect of Tribulus terrestris, ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Menopausal symptoms experienced by women vary widely, and while many women transition through menopause with manageable symptoms, others experience severe symptoms, which may impair their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tribulus terrestris , ginger, saffron, and Cinnamomum on menopausal symptoms. A randomised, triple-blind, controlled trial design was used for this study. The participants were 80 postmenopausal women aged 50-60 years. A demographic data form and the Menopause Rating Scale were used to collect data. The women were randomly divided into two groups, each of which received either an Aphrodit capsule or a placebo twice a day for four weeks. The two bottles looked exactly the same, so that the investigator and the participants were not aware of the contents of the bottles. Each Aphrodit capsule contained 40 mg of Tribulus terrestris , 12.27 mg of Zingiber officinale , 3 mg of Crocus sativus extract, and 11 mg of Cinnamomum zeylanicum , while the placebo capsules contained 50 mg of starch. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. A statistically significant change was reported in the menopausal symptoms of the intervention group compared with the placebo group. The results of the study demonstrate that the Aphrodit capsule was effective in reducing menopausal symptoms.

  1. 6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE pathway in vitro and in vivo. 6-Shogaol-rich extract was produced by extracting ginger powder with 95% ethanol at 80 °C after drying at 80 °C (GEE8080. GEE8080 contained over 6-fold more 6-shogaol compared to the room temperature extract (GEE80RT. In HepG2 cells, GEE8080 displayed much stronger inductions of ARE-reporter gene activity and Nrf2 expression than GEE80RT. GEE8080 stimulated phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Moreover, the GEE8080-induced expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were attenuated by treatments of SB202190 (a p38 specific inhibitor and LY294002 (an Akt specific inhibitor. In a mouse model, the GEE8080 decreased the diethylnitrosamine (DEN-mediated elevations of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the DEN-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Inductions of Nrf2 and HO-1 by GEE8080 were also confirmed in the mice. In addition, the administration of GEE8080 to the mice also restored the DEN-reduced activity and protein expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. In conclusion, GEE8080, a 6-shogaol-rich ginger extract, may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 regulated by p38 MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of multi-trait plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for their growth promoting and disease suppressing effects on ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Raghavan; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Kumar, Aundy; Bini, Yogiyar Kundil; Subila, Kizhakke Purayil; Aravind, Ravindran

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 100 PGPR strains isolated from different varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) were first characterized for their morphological, biochemical, and nutrient mobilization traits in vitro. The PGPR were also screened in vitro for inhibition of Pythium myriotylum causing soft rot in ginger. Results revealed that only five PGPR showed >70% suppression of P. myriotylum. These 5 PGPR viz., GRB (Ginger rhizobacteria) 25--Burkholderia cepacia, GRB35--Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; GRB58--Serratia marcescens; GRB68--S. marcescens; GRB91--Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for further growth promotion and biocontrol studies in the green house and field. The green house study revealed that GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) and GRB68 (S. marcescens) registered markedly higher sprouting (96.3%) and lower disease incidence (48.1%) and greater rhizome yield (365.6 g pot(-1) and 384.4 g pot(-1), respectively), while control registered the lowest sprouting (66%), maximum soft rot incidence (100%) and lowest rhizome yield (134.4 g pot(-1)). In the field experiments also, GRB68 (S. marcescens) and GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) registered the greatest sprouting (80% each), markedly lower soft rot incidence (5.2% and 7.3%, respectively) and higher yield (5.0 and 4.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) compared to chemicals like Streptomycin sulphate (73.0%, 18.5% and 2.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively), Metalaxyl-Mancozeb (73.0%, 14.0% and 3.8 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) and control (73.0%, 25.1% and 2.2 kg 3m(-2), respectively). Overall, the results suggested that for growth promotion and management of soft rot disease in ginger, GRB35 B. amyloliquefaciens and GRB68 S. marcescens could be good alternatives to chemical measures. Since, the latter has been reported to be an opportunistic human pathogen, we recommend the use of B. amyloliquefaciens for integration into nutrient and disease management schedules for ginger cultivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. [6]-Gingerol, from Zingiber officinale, potentiates GLP-1 mediated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion pathway in pancreatic β-cells and increases RAB8/RAB10-regulated membrane presentation of GLUT4 transporters in skeletal muscle to improve hyperglycemia in Leprdb/db type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Mehdi Bin; Mohsin, Md Nurul Absar Bin; Razu, Bodiul Alam; Hossain, Mohammad Tashnim; Mahzabeen, Sinayat; Unnoor, Naziat; Muna, Ishrat Aklima; Akhter, Farjana; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Hannan, J M A

    2017-08-09

    [6]-Gingerol, a major component of Zingiber officinale, was previously reported to ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Endocrine signaling is involved in insulin secretion and is perturbed in db/db Type-2 diabetic mice. [6]-Gingerol was reported to restore the disrupted endocrine signaling in rodents. In this current study on Lepr db/db diabetic mice, we investigated the involvement of endocrine pathway in the insulin secretagogue activity of [6]-Gingerol and the mechanism(s) through which [6]-Gingerol ameliorates hyperglycemia. Lepr db/db type 2 diabetic mice were orally administered a daily dose of [6]-Gingerol (200 mg/kg) for 28 days. We measured the plasma levels of different endocrine hormones in fasting and fed conditions. GLP-1 levels were modulated using pharmacological approaches, and cAMP/PKA pathway for insulin secretion was assessed by qRT-PCR and ELISA in isolated pancreatic islets. Total skeletal muscle and its membrane fractions were used to measure glycogen synthase 1 level and Glut4 expression and protein levels. 4-weeks treatment of [6]-Gingerol dramatically increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance. Plasma GLP-1 was found to be significantly elevated in the treated mice. Pharmacological intervention of GLP-1 levels regulated the effect of [6]-Gingerol on insulin secretion. Mechanistically, [6]-Gingerol treatment upregulated and activated cAMP, PKA, and CREB in the pancreatic islets, which are critical components of GLP-1-mediated insulin secretion pathway. [6]-Gingerol upregulated both Rab27a GTPase and its effector protein Slp4-a expression in isolated islets, which regulates the exocytosis of insulin-containing dense-core granules. [6]-Gingerol treatment improved skeletal glycogen storage by increased glycogen synthase 1 activity. Additionally, GLUT4 transporters were highly abundant in the membrane of the skeletal myocytes, which could be explained by the increased expression of Rab8 and Rab

  4. Ethanolic Extract Cytotoxic Effect of Zingiber Afficinale in Breast Cancer (MCF7 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tavakkol Afshari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Biological activities of Zingiber afficieale plants have been reported as possessing anticancer, antibacterial, anti ulcer, antifungal, and insecticidal properties. However, its antitumor effects haven't been studied in cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of zingiber afficieale on breast cancer cell lines. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2010 at Mashhad University of medical Sciences. Breast cancer cell line (MCF7 and normal connective tissue cell line (L929 were cultured in DMEM medium. Ethanolic extract of Zingiber afficinale was prepared and cell lines were treated with different concentration of extract (5000 to 78 µg. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay after 24, 48, and 72 hours. The collected data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The effects of Zingiber afficinale on cell viability were observed after 48 hours on cell lines. Ginger doses in 2500 µg concentration inhibited 50% of cell growth (IC50 in cell lines after 48 hours. Conclusion: Our study revealed that fresh ginger extract has cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, but it doesn’t have any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. It seems that ginger could be considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment.

  5. High Frequency Plant Regeneration System from Transverse Thin Cell Layer Section of In vitro Derived ‘Nadia’ Ginger Microrhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible procedure is outlined for rapid in vitro multiplication of Zingiber officinale var. ‘Nadia’ through high frequency shoot proliferation from transverse thin cell layer (tTCL sections of in vitro derived microrhizome. In vitro derived microrhizome of size 500 μm in thickness was used as initial explants for induction of somatic embryos. Among the different phytohormones tested, tTCL explants shows maximum calli proliferation in medium containing 2 mg/L 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (88.30±0.11%. Reduced concentration of 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was supplemented with different cytokinins for regeneration of callus. Among the different medium tested, optimum redifferentiation of somatic embryos were observed in medium containing 0.2 mg/L 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6.0 mg/L BAP (141.08±0.25. Clump of regenerated plantlets were further subculture and transfer into microrhizome inducing medium containing high sucrose concentration (8%. Plantlets with well developed microrhizome were successfully acclimatized and eventually transferred to the field. The application of studying embryo section for regeneration of plants might be useful alternative to ginger improvement programme. Histological analysis showed formation of somatic embryos and regenerated adventitious shoot.

  6. Ginger components as new leads for the design and development of novel multi-targeted anti-Alzheimer’s drugs: a computational investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Faizul Azam,1,2 Abdualrahman M Amer,1 Abdullah R Abulifa,1 Mustafa M Elzwawi1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Misurata University, Misurata, Libya; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Nims Institute of Pharmacy, Nims University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale, despite being a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, is well known to contain a number of potentially bioactive phytochemicals having valuable medicinal properties. Although recent studies have emphasized their benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, limited information is available on the possible mechanism by which it renders anti-Alzheimer activity. Therefore, the present study seeks to employ molecular docking studies to investigate the binding interactions between active ginger components and various anti-Alzheimer drug targets. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking of 12 ligands with 13 different target proteins using AutoDock 4.2 program. Docking protocol was validated by re-docking of all native co-crystallized ligands into their original binding cavities exhibiting a strong correlation coefficient value (r2=0.931 between experimentally reported and docking predicted activities. This value suggests that the approach could be a promising computational tool to aid optimization of lead compounds obtained from ginger. Analysis of binding energy, predicted inhibition constant, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions of ligands with target receptors revealed acetylcholinesterase as most promising, while c-Jun N-terminal kinase was recognized as the least favorable anti-Alzheimer’s drug target. Common structural requirements include hydrogen bond donor/acceptor area, hydrophobic domain, carbon spacer, and distal hydrophobic domain flanked by hydrogen bond donor/acceptor moieties. In addition, drug-likeness score and molecular properties responsible for a good pharmacokinetic profile were calculated

  7. Several aspects of Zingiber zerumbet: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Y. Koga

    Full Text Available Abstract Zingiber zerumbet (L. Roscoe ex Sm., Zingiberaceae, is a perennial, aromatic and tuberose plant that grows in humid locations. Also known as bitter ginger, Z. zerumbet is traditionally found throughout Asia, where it is widely used in foods, beverages and for ornamental purposes. The viscous juice present in the inflorescence of the plant is rich in surfactants and is also known as "ginger shampoo". The rhizome can be macerated in ethanol and used as a tonic and a stimulant. In Brazil Z. zerumbet is found in the Amazon region, in Taruma-mirim and Puraquequara (rural areas of Manaus, Amazon, Brazil. The main chemical compounds found in Z. zerumbet are terpenes and polyphenols. Zerumbone, a sesquiterpene, is the principal bioactive compound of Z. zerumbet and it is widely studied for its medicinal properties. The extracts and isolated metabolites of Z. zerumbet have exhibited the following properties: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, antimicrobial, analgesic and antiviral. The National Institute of Amazon Research in Brazil is currently conducting studies using extracts from this plant to obtain compounds active in tumor models. The aim of this review is to provide a overview about the main aspects related with pharmacognosy and pharmacology of Z. zerumbet published in the literature over the last decade.

  8. Drug: D06744 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06744 Crude ... Drug Ginger (JP17); Powdered ginger (JP17); Ginger (TN) Zingibere...C09877 C11392], Myrcene [CPD:C06074], [6]-Gingerol [CPD:C10462], [8]-Gingerol [CPD:C17495], [10]-Ginger...nger family) Zingiber officinale rhizome Major component: Gingerol [CPD:C10462 C17495 C17496] ... PubChem: 47208395 ...

  9. Effects of Zingiber officinale extract on antioxidation and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... 200, 400, 800 or 1600 mg/kg body weight (B.W.) of ZOE (oral gavage) p.o. once daily for five days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities increased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents decreased along with an increase in the ZOE dose of up to 800.

  10. Effects of Zingiber officinale extract on antioxidation and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... The activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px increased significantly, while MDA content decreased ... attracted people's attention. It is generally .... To evaluate the radioprotective ability of ZOE, 20 mice were divided into two groups ...

  11. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger ...

  12. Induction of apoptosis by zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith in protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani due to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Debarati; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Dey, Somaditya; Mandal, Supratim; Ghosh, Joydip; Mallick, Suvadip; Hussain, Aabid; Swapana, Ningombam; Ross, Samir Anis; Pal, Chiranjib

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmaniainfection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zeru...

  13. Tissue Culture an Alternative for Commercial Corm Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    compounds are found in extremely important proportion in stigmas (Sampathu ..... Phenolic compounds in corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during bud development. ... multiplication and rhizome formation in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) ...

  14. Jeruto et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(6):168 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefits among most communities in treating a wide range of ailments. ... been recognised by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2002) as a building ..... Antibacterial effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ...

  15. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti – inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tetrapleura Tetraptera (Schumach ... Anticoagulant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae) ... Evaluation of viability of lactic acid bacteria in a Nigerian commercial yogurt and its ...

  16. PRODUCTION OF ginger vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Leonel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar is a food of condiments group that have great use in the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of parameters of the acetic fermentation process in the production of ginger vinegar. A suspension of ginger rhizomes with 12% of starch was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis process to obtain hydrolyzed with 85.6% of glucose. After the alcoholic fermentation the wine was obtained with 40.3% ethanol. The acetic fermentation process of ginger alcoholic solution followed a completely randomized design in a factorial for three factors at two levels. The independent variables were: temperature, nutrients and proportion of "strong vinegar" and alcoholic solution (initial acidity. Results showed variation from 2.74 to 3.70% for dry extract and 2.13 to 2.83 % for ash in vinegars. The profile of organic acids of ginger vinegars showed the presence of acetic, citric, malic and succinic acids in all treatments. The condition of 20°C, initial acidity 1:1,with addition of nutrients allow obtaining good quality vinegars and higher GK yields

  17. Zingiber zerumbet flower stem postharvest characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston Gonçalves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available About the Zingiber zerumbet little is known about its cut flower postharvest and market, despite its high ornamental potential. The inflorescences, which resemble a compact cone, emerge from the base of the plants and start with green color changing to red with the age. This study objective was to characterize floral stem of ornamental ginger in two cultivate conditions and to evaluate the longevity of those submitted to post-harvest treatments. Flower stems were harvest from clumps cultivated under full sun and partial shade area, and were submitted to the postharvest treatments: complete flower immersion in tap water (CFI or only the base stem immersion (BSI. The flower stems harvested from clumps at partial shade presented higher fresh weight, length and diameter of the inflorescences compared to flower stems harvested from clumps at full sun area. The flower stem bracts cultivated in full sun area changed the color from green to red 10.69 and 11.94 days after BSI and CFI postharvest treatments, and the vase life were 22.94 and 28.19 days, respectively. Flower stem harvest in partial shade area change the color only after 18.94 and 18.43 days and the vase life durability was 27.56 and 31.81, respectively. The complete immersion of the flower stem increase the vase life durability in 5.25 and 4.25 days compared to flowers kept with the stem base immersed only, in flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and partial shade area, respectively. Flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in partial shade area and completely immerse in tap water during 3 hours increase the vase life durability in 8.87 days compared to flowers harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and base immersed only.

  18. Protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and ginger extracts on sperm characteristics, biochemical parameters and epididymal histology in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Somaieh; Nikzad, Hossein; Mahabadi, Javad Amini; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Azami-Tameh, Abolfazl; Taherian, Aliakbar; Sajjadian, Seyyed Mohammad Sajjad; Kamani, Mehran

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive toxicity is one of the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in cancer treatment. Pumpkin seeds and Zingiber officinale are natural sources of antioxidants. We investigated the possible protective effect of combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extracts on sperm characteristics, epididymal histology and biochemical parameters of CP-treated rats. Male adult Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1, as a control, received an isotonic saline solution injection intraperitoneally (IP). Group 2 were injected IP with a single dose of CP (100 mg/kg) once. Groups 3 and 4 received CP plus 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract (50:50). Groups 5 and 6 received only 300 and 600 mg/kg combined pumpkin seed and Zingiber officinale extract. Six weeks after treatment, sperm characteristics, histopathological changes and biochemical parameters were assessed. In CP-treated rats, motile spermatozoa were decreased, and abnormal or dead spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.001) but administration of the mixed extract improved sperm parameters. Epididymal epithelium and fibromascular thickness were also improved in extract-treated rats compared to control or CP groups. Biochemical analysis showed that the administration of combined extracts could increase the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) level significantly in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the mixed extract could decrease most of the side effects of CP such as vacuolization and separation of epididymal tissue. Our findings indicated that the combined extracts might be used as a protective agent against CP-induced reproductive toxicity.

  19. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Amornrat Intorasoot; Piyaorn Chornchoem; Siriwoot Sookkhee; Sorasak Intorasoot

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the antibacterial activity of ten volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, E...

  20. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  1. Environ: E00074 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00074 Processed ginger (JP17) Crude drug [6]-Shogaol [CPD:C10494], [6]-Gingerol [CPD:C10462], (8)-Ginger...ol [CPD:C17495], (10)-Gingerol [CPD:C17496], Zingerone [CPD:C17497], Zingiberene [CPD...Zingiber officinale rhizome Major component: Gingerol [CPD:C10462 C17495 C17496] ...

  2. Effect of Ginger or Oregano addition to diet of growing male Zraibi goats on growth rate and some physiological body functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at Experimental Farm Project (Goats Farm), Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, at Inshas during 2011 on twenty four male Zaraibi goats (zaraibi kids) after weaning. The animals were healthy and clinically free of external and internal parasites and divided to three equal groups. Animals in the 1st group were fed the basal ration without additives (Control), while those in the 2nd and 3rd groups were fed the same basal ration with additive 1 gram daily from Ginger (Zingiber officinal) or Oregano(Origanum vulgare) /10 kg live body weight / kid, respectively. Changes of live body weight and dry matter feed intake of each animal were recorded individually every month. Blood samples were withdrawn in the end of experiment to determine blood components as well as immunity, kidney and liver functions, energy metabolites, heart healthy factor and some minerals. The results showed that the addition of Ginger or Oregano to diet of Zaraibi goats improved significantly live body weight, daily body weight gain and dry matter intake. The improvement in Ginger was better than with Oregano. In addition, significant increase of Hg values, RBC'S count as well as total protein and globulin levels was recorded in animals treated with Ginger or Oregano. In the same time, liver and kidney functions were not affected by supplementation either with Ginger or Oregano. Moreover, supplementation decreased the factor related to heart disease (glucose, total cholesterol and total lipids) and improved the animal immunity, especially in Ginger supplement.

  3. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  4. GINGER: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, Angela D. V.; Belfi, Jacopo; Ni, Wei-Tou; Beverini, Nicolo; Carelli, Giorgio; Maccioni, Enrico; Porzio, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    GINGER (Gyroscopes IN General Relativity) is a proposal for an Earth-based experiment to measure the Lense-Thirring (LT) and de Sitter effects. GINGER is based on ring lasers, which are the most sensitive inertial sensors to measure the rotation rate of the Earth. We show that two ring lasers, one at maximum signal and the other horizontal, would be the simplest configuration able to retrieve the GR effects. Here, we discuss this configuration in detail showing that it would have the capability to test LT effect at 1%, provided the accuracy of the scale factor of the instrument at the level of 1 part in 1012 is reached. In principle, one single ring laser could do the test, but the combination of the two ring lasers gives the necessary redundancy and the possibility to verify that the systematics of the lasers are sufficiently small. The discussion can be generalised to seismology and geodesy and it is possible to say that signals 10-12 orders of magnitude below the Earth rotation rate can be studied; the proposed array can be seen as the basic element of multi-axial systems, and the generalisation to three dimensions is feasible adding one or two devices and monitoring the relative angles between different ring lasers. This simple array can be used to measure with very high precision the amplitude of angular rotation rate (the length of the day, LOD), its short term variations, and the angle between the angular rotation vector and the horizontal ring laser. Finally this experiment could be useful to probe gravity at fundamental level giving indications on violations of Einstein Equivalence Principle and Lorenz Invariance and possible chiral effects in the gravitational field.

  5. DIFFERENTIATION OF Curcuma longa, Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Zingiber cassumunar BY THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rafi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa, java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza and cassumunar ginger (Zingiber cassumunar are widely used in traditional Indonesian medicine. These three herbs have relatively similar rhizomes colour so it is difficult to be differentiated especially if they are in powder form. A rapid and reliable method, thin layer chromatography (TLC fingerprint, has been developed in order to identify, authenticate and differentiate these three herbs through fingerprint profile of chemical compounds. TLC fingerprints of the three herbs were obtained by visualization of separate zones with visible and UV (254 and 366 nm light. The TLC fingerprint pattern is different each other and showed a specific marker zones respectively. Therefore, TLC fingerprint can be utilized for identification, authentication and differentiation method in quality control of the three herbs tested.

  6. Pupicidal activities of zingiber officinale, curcuma longa, and zlpinia galanga essential oils against conopomorpha cramerella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella, is a major threat to cocoa plantation in the South-East Asia region. The infestation in Malaysia is very serious; even several control approaches are suggested to the growers. However, heavy reliance and prolonged use of synthetic chemical insecticide in...

  7. The use of different concentrations of ginger root oil to improve the mating propensity of the Medfly sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhl, Salma; Msaad Guerfali, M.; Kahlani, A.; Hamden, Haithem; Chevrier, C.

    2008-01-01

    The sterile insect technique in an efficient technique used to control fruit flies such as Medfly Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera : Tephritidae). Unfortunately, this technique involves mass breeding of huge quantities of target insects in the factory and sterilizing the males by exposing them to low doses of radiation. this procedure reduces the mating propensity of the sterile males which are the active agent of the technique. It was reported that the exposition of the sterile males to ginger root oil (Zingiber official Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)) improves the mating propensity of the sterile males in comparison with the non exposed ones. In this study, we exposed irradiated males at two different doses (100 and 110 Gy) to different concentrations of the ginger oil (20μl; 50μl; 80μl; 0.25 ml;0.5 ml; 1 ml) the third day after emergence. This study shows that the irradiated males at 100 Gy are more competitive in comparison with those irradiated at 110 Gy with a mating propensity percentage respectively of 60 and 35 %. regarding the exposition dose of the ginger oil, 1 ml gave the best mating propensity ( 42%) in comparison with the other concentrations

  8. Induction of apoptosis by zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith in protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani due to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmania infection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith, has been studied for its pharmacological potential as antiulcer, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial. In this study, we have shown that zerumbone could induce ROS mediated apoptosis in Leishmania donovani promastigotes and also found effective in reducing intracellular amastigotes in infected-macrophages. We emphasized the potential of zerumbone to be employed in the development of new therapeutic drugs against L. donovani infection and provided the basis for future research on the application of transitional medicinal plants.

  9. Economic Methods of Ginger Protease'sextraction and Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuanyuan; Tong, Junfeng; Wei, Siqing; Du, Xinyong; Tang, Xiaozhen

    This article reports the ginger protease extraction and purification methods from fresh ginger rhizome. As to ginger protease extraction, we adapt the steps of organic solvent dissolving, ammonium sulfate depositing and freeze-drying, and this method can attain crude enzyme powder 0.6% weight of fresh ginger rhizome. The purification part in this study includes two steps: cellulose ion exchange (DEAE-52) and SP-Sephadex 50 chromatography, which can purify crude ginger protease through ion and molecular weight differences respectively.

  10. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    OpenAIRE

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of ...

  11. Effect of Dendrobium officinale Extraction on Gastric Carcinogenesis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yan; Lan, Xi-Ming; Xu, Guo-Liang; Sun, You-Zhi; Li, Fei; Liu, Hong-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale (Tie Pi Shi Hu in Chinese) has been widely used to treat different diseases in China. Anticancer effect is one of the important effects of Dendrobium officinale. However, the molecular mechanism of its anticancer effect remains unclear. In the present study, gastric carcinogenesis in rats was used to evaluate the effect of Dendrobium officinale on cancer, and its pharmacological mechanism was explored. Dendrobium officinale extracts (4.8 and 2.4 g/kg) were orally adminis...

  12. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from some spices and assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred twenty five samples from five different Ethiopian sauce spices were examined for the incidence and level of contamination of Bacillus species. The spices consisted of fenugreek (Trigenella foenum-graecum), black cumin (Nigella sativa), Ethiopian caraway (Trachyspermum ammi), ginger (Zingiber officinale) ...

  13. In-Vitro Antibacterial Activities And Preliminary Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the in-vitro antibacterial activities and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against some clinical bacterial isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) obtained from ear and urine samples were carried out using ...

  14. The effects of four agrobotanical extracts and three types of bags on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Shaki area of Oyo State, Nigeria and treated with extracts from Azadiractha indica (neem) leaf, Xylopia aethiopica(uda) pod, Occimum graticimum (nche anwu) leaf and Zingiber officinale (ginger) stem tuber. The storage bags were 0.05mm gauge polythene bags, 0.05mm gauge polythene-lined-jute bags and jute bags.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extract and essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... The antioxidant potential of extracts and essential oils of korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun). P.C.M. Jansen) ... growing interest, both in industry and in scientific research, for ... Due to the complex composition of different plant pro- ducts ..... extracts of Turmeric and ginger (Zingiber officinale). J. Phytol.

  16. Effect of growth regulators on growth, flowering and rhizome yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2001 and 2002, to study the effect of foliar application of growth regulators on growth; flowering and rhizome yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Treatments consisted of gibberellic acid (GA3) at 0,150 and 300 ppm; ethrel at 0,100 and 200 ppm and cycocel (CCC) at 0,250 ppm ...

  17. Changes in the quality of zobo beverages produced from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality changes in zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdarifa during storage and the effects of extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) alone or in combination with refrigeration at 6C were evaluated for six (6) weeks duration. Results shows that the total viable bacterial count increased from 0.9 ± 0.01 log10 cfu/ml to ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obasi, CP. Vol 43 (2012) - Articles Effect of Poultry Manure and Palm Bunch Ash on Growth and Yield Of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on a Tropical Ultisol at Umudike, Nigeria Abstract · Vol 43 (2012) - Articles Response of Sweet Potato and Maize Intercrop to Nitrogen Levels (N) and Effect on Weed Biomass in Humid ...

  19. Morphometric and agronomic characterization of 56 ginger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-04-30

    Apr 30, 2016 ... 2011). Ginger is native to India and South East ... al., 2012), in vitro tissue culture (Hiremath, 2006 ;. Hossain et al. ... and Malaysia (Jatoi and Watanabe, 2013). However ..... conditions have a great influence on expression of.

  20. Drug: D06702 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06702 Crude ... Drug Processed ginger (JP17) [6]-Shogaol [CPD:C10494], [6]-Gingerol [CPD:C10462], (8)-Ging...erol [CPD:C17495], (10)-Gingerol [CPD:C17496], Zingerone [CPD:C17497], Zingiberene ... 5100 ... Zingiberaceae (ginger family) Zingiber officinale rhizome Major component: Gingerol [CPD:C10462 C17495 C17496] ... PubChem: 47208353 ...

  1. Price Variation of Tomatoes and Ginger in Giwa Market, Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jamila Rabe Mani

    ginger marketing an indication of principle of supply and demand. The feasibility for storage were 20.71% and 21.44% for tomato and ginger respectively, implying that the producers/marketers of both tomato and ginger will make highest returns if they stored and sold to other (urban/international) markets during periods of ...

  2. Further sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, W; Barszcz, B

    2000-06-01

    Five germacrane- and guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones, including two previously described taraxinic acid derivatives, were isolated from the roots of Taraxacum officinale, together with benzyl glucoside, dihydroconiferin, syringin and dihydrosyringin. The other three lactones were identified as 11beta, 13-dihydrolactucin, ixerin D and ainslioside. Moreover, the stereochemistry at C-11 in dihydrotaraxinic acid was assigned.

  3. Radurisation of ginger rhizomes to increase shelf lifes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, D L; De Rooster, K; Du Toit, L W [Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Inst., Nelspruit (South Africa)

    1979-04-01

    In an attempt to increase the shelf-life of ginger rhisomes for marketing purposes and to prevent the use of imported ginger as planting material, trials were carried out in which ginger was radurised at various dosages using a Co 60 source. It was found that even at rates as low as 0,05 kGy both the sprouting and growth of ginger in the soil could be inhibited. Ginger which was already sprouting, virtually ceased further development when treated at dosages of 0,30 and 0,50 kGy. Brief reference is made to the commercial potential of the process.

  4. Radurisation of ginger rhizomes to increase shelf lifes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, D.L.; De Rooster, K.; Du Toit, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the shelf-life of ginger rhisomes for marketing purposes and to prevent the use of imported ginger as planting material, trials were carried out in which ginger was radurised at various dosages using a Co 60 source. It was found that even at rates as low as 0,05 kGy both the sprouting and growth of ginger in the soil could be inhibited. Ginger which was already sprouting, virtually ceased further development when treated at dosages of 0,30 and 0,50 kGy. Brief reference is made to the commercial potential of the process

  5. Effect of Dendrobium officinale Extraction on Gastric Carcinogenesis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium officinale (Tie Pi Shi Hu in Chinese has been widely used to treat different diseases in China. Anticancer effect is one of the important effects of Dendrobium officinale. However, the molecular mechanism of its anticancer effect remains unclear. In the present study, gastric carcinogenesis in rats was used to evaluate the effect of Dendrobium officinale on cancer, and its pharmacological mechanism was explored. Dendrobium officinale extracts (4.8 and 2.4 g/kg were orally administered to the rats of the gastric carcinogenesis model. Compared with the cancer model group, the high dose of Dendrobium officinale extracts significantly inhibited the rate of carcinogenesis. Further analysis revealed that Dendrobium officinale extracts could regulate the DNA damage, oxidative stress, and cytokines related with carcinogenesis and induce cell apoptosis in order to prevent gastric cancer.

  6. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  7. Antimicrobial Effect of Escherichia Coli on Essential Oils Derived from Romanian Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şandru Daniela Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of Escherichia coli ATCCR CRM-8739TM on the following essential oils: Teucrium marum, Pinus sylwestris, Thymus vulgaris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia, Abies alba, Zingiber officinale, Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Origanum vulgare, extracted industrialy from romanian plants, using the diffusion disc method. The most intense activity was observed at the essential oil of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cinnamon and the mildest activity was observed at Zingiber officinale (ginger. Many of the essential oils tested exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity, as Teucrium marum, Thymus vulgaris, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia,Coriandrum sativum. The lowest antibacterial activity was exhibited on Pinus sylwestris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens.

  8. Chemical and microbial quality of irradiated ground ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.S.

    1995-01-01

    Fresh ground ginger was irradiated with a 10-kGy ionizing radiation dose from a Cobalt-60 source. Gamma radiation decreased most of the extractable volatile flavor components. Those known to contribute to typical ginger flavor, e.g., zingiberene, beta-sesquiphellandrene, beta-bisabolene, farnesene isomers, arcurcumene, and alpha-cubebene, decreased 27-59% following irradiation. Most odors recognized through gas chromatography/olfactometry produced similar patterns from irradiated and nonirradiated samples. The radiation treatment reduced the aerobic microbial population from 10(8) to 10(1) CFU/g. Sensory qualities of flavor, color and odor of ginger powder were similar for treated and untreated ginger

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF THE ISOLATED COMPOUNDS FROM Zingiber amaricans BL. RHIZOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Riyanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Five extracts were obtained from extraction of rhizomes of Zingiber amaricans. Hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were obtained by maceration, while dichloromethane and acetone extracts the resulted of soxhlet extraction. By column chromatography technique 2,6,9-humulantrien-9-one (zerumbone was isolated as the major constituent of the hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts. The minor constituents were phytosterol mixtures isolated from hexane and dichloromethane extracts. The mixtures consisted cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and b-sitosterol. The structure elucidations of zerumbone was confirmed by spectroscopic method, whereas the phytosterol mixtures was identified by gas chromatography-mass.   Keywords: zerumbone, phytosterol, zingiber amaricans, spectroscopy

  10. Environ: E00115 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00115 Ginger (JP17) Crude drug; Medicinal herb; ... Zingiberene [CPD:C09750], beta-B...[CPD:C16777], Comphene [CPD:C06076], 1,8-Cineole [DR:D04115], beta-Phellandrene [CPD:C09877 C11392], Myrcene [CPD:C06074], [6]-Ginger...ol [CPD:C10462], [8]-Gingerol [CPD:C17495], [10]-Gingero...inale [TAX:94328] Same as: D06744 Zingiberaceae (ginger family) Zingiber officinale rhizome Major component: Gingerol [CPD:C10462 C17495 C17496] ...

  11. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for discrimination of Curcuma longa, Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Zingiber cassumunar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaeti, Eti; Rafi, Mohamad; Syafitri, Utami Dyah; Heryanto, Rudi

    2015-02-25

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) and cassumunar ginger (Zingiber cassumunar) are widely used in traditional Indonesian medicines (jamu). They have similar color for their rhizome and possess some similar uses, so it is possible to substitute one for the other. The identification and discrimination of these closely-related plants is a crucial task to ensure the quality of the raw materials. Therefore, an analytical method which is rapid, simple and accurate for discriminating these species using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with some chemometrics methods was developed. FTIR spectra were acquired in the mid-IR region (4000-400 cm(-1)). Standard normal variate, first and second order derivative spectra were compared for the spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA) were used for the classification of the three species. Samples could be discriminated by visual analysis of the FTIR spectra by using their marker bands. Discrimination of the three species was also possible through the combination of the pre-processed FTIR spectra with PCA and CVA, in which CVA gave clearer discrimination. Subsequently, the developed method could be used for the identification and discrimination of the three closely-related plant species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for discrimination of Curcuma longa, Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Zingiber cassumunar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaeti, Eti; Rafi, Mohamad; Syafitri, Utami Dyah; Heryanto, Rudi

    2015-02-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) and cassumunar ginger (Zingiber cassumunar) are widely used in traditional Indonesian medicines (jamu). They have similar color for their rhizome and possess some similar uses, so it is possible to substitute one for the other. The identification and discrimination of these closely-related plants is a crucial task to ensure the quality of the raw materials. Therefore, an analytical method which is rapid, simple and accurate for discriminating these species using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with some chemometrics methods was developed. FTIR spectra were acquired in the mid-IR region (4000-400 cm-1). Standard normal variate, first and second order derivative spectra were compared for the spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA) were used for the classification of the three species. Samples could be discriminated by visual analysis of the FTIR spectra by using their marker bands. Discrimination of the three species was also possible through the combination of the pre-processed FTIR spectra with PCA and CVA, in which CVA gave clearer discrimination. Subsequently, the developed method could be used for the identification and discrimination of the three closely-related plant species.

  13. Ginger-supplemented diet ameliorates ammonium nitrate-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of ginger to repair the oxidative stress induced by ammonium nitrate. 50 male rats were divided into 5 groups; they underwent an oral treatment of ammonium nitrate and/or ginger (N mg/kg body weight + G% in diet) during 30 days. Group I served as control (C); ...

  14. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  15. Nigeria in World Ginger Trade: An analysis of performance from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the performance of Nigeria in the world ginger trade using available secondary data from the United Nations commodity trade statistics. The trade performance of Nigeria was based on world ginger export characteristics, value of trade and quantity traded from 2008 to 2012 assessed on yearly and ...

  16. Use of gemcitabine and ginger extract infusion may improve the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combination of effective chemopreventive agent (such as ginger) with chemotherapeutic agents may enhance efficacy while reducing toxicity to normal tissues, resulting in better survival. In this study, we observed that treatment of human cervical carcinoma cell line, HeLa with ethanolic ginger extract in combination with ...

  17. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in maleWistar rats ...

  18. Ginger Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger’s ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39–56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor. PMID:24086697

  19. Cost and Return Analysis of Ginger Production in the Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses on the cost and return analysis of ginger production in the guinea savannah agro ecology of Nigeria. The study is aimed at highlighting the profitability of ginger production with a view to informing and influencing farmers and relevant stakeholders. The study was conducted at Kajuru, Kaduna state in the ...

  20. A comparative study of Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber zerumbet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber zerumbet plantlets could be micropropagated via induction of multiple shoots from in vitro shoot explants using different culture systems such as the agar-gelled medium cultures, shake flask system and temporary immersion system (TIS). The immersion period in TIS did not influence shoot ...

  1. Essential oils of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordoloi, A.K.; Sperkova, J.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The essential oils of Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiberaceae, were isolated from its rhizomes and leaves by hydrodistillation. Analysis of the oils by GC and GC/MS revealed that the rhizome oil contained terpinen-4-ol (50.5%), (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)buta-1,3-diene 09.1%),

  2. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  3. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GINGER OIL AGAINST FOOD BORN PATHOGENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAHA, S.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of ginger oil against Food Born pathogens and the effect of heating, microwave heating and gamma irradiation on microbiological quality and antibacterial activity of ginger oil. Growth and survival of A. hydrophila and L. monocytogenes in broth media and carrot juice with different concentrations of ginger oil was also studied. Gram-negative bacteria were more resistant than gram-positive bacteria. Heating at 80 0 C for 10 min did not change the antibacterial activity of ginger oil, whereas heating at 100 0 C for 5 min and autoclaving at 121 0 C for 15 min caused slight reduction in antibacterial activity in most microorganisms tested. Heating by microwave of ginger oil destroyed its antibacterial activity against B. cereus although it still works against other microorganisms tested. The dose 6 kGy caused slight reduction in antibacterial activity of ginger oil, whereas the dose 10 kGy caused markedly reduction in antibacterial activity of ginger oil against most microorganisms tested. Ginger oil was more effective on L. monocytogenes as compared with its effect on A. hydrophila in tryptone soya broth at 4 0 C or 25 0 C. Supplementation of ginger oil with carrot juice was more effective on A. hydrophila and L. monocytogenes than in tryptone soya broth and this effect was increased with increasing the time of incubation and the concentration of ginger oil. These results support the notion that plant essential oils may have an important role as pharmaceuticals and food preservatives

  4. PENGARUH RASIO RIMPANG RUMPUT TEKI (Cyperus rotundus L. DENGAN JAHE (Zingiber officinale TERHADAP KAPASITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN MUTU WEDANG TEKI INSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwikan Sutralestari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh proses pengolahan wedang teki ins­tan, mengetahui kapasitas antioksidan serta mutu (rendemen, waktu rehidrasi, sifat fi­sik warna, dan uji hedonik wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe berbeda. Jenis penelitian yang dilakukan merupakan penelitian eksperimen meng­­­­gunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan dua kali pengulangan. Data ha­sil analisis diuji menggunakan ANOVA (Analysis of Variances. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe yang berbeda berpengaruh terhadap kapasitas antioksidan, waktu rehidrasi, si­­fat fisik warna, serta uji hedonik rasa dan warna. Kapasitas antioksidan dan ke­su­ka­an rasa terbaik  pada wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe 1 : 2½. Waktu rehidrasi tercepat, sifat fisik warna paling cerah dan kesukaan war­­­­na pada wedang teki instan dengan rasio rimpang rumput teki dan jahe 1 : 1½.

  5. Impact of sulphur fumigation on the chemistry of ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ying; Kong, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Long, Fang; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jin-Di; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2018-01-15

    Ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma), a commonly-consumed food supplement, is often sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling, but it remains unknown if sulphur fumigation induces chemical transformations in ginger. In this study, the effects of sulphur fumigation on ginger chemicals were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based metabolomics. The results showed that sulphur fumigation significantly altered the holistic chemical profile of ginger by triggering chemical transformations of certain original components. 6-Gingesulphonic acid, previously reported as a naturally-occurring component in ginger, was revealed to be a sulphur fumigation-induced artificial derivative, which was deduced to be generated by electrophilic addition of 6-shogaol to sulphurous acid. Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS extracting ion analysis with 6-gingesulphonic acid as a characteristic chemical marker, all the commercial ginger samples inspected were determined to be sulphur-fumigated. The research outcomes provide a chemical basis for further comprehensive safety and efficacy evaluations of sulphur-fumigated ginger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  7. Technology of sprouting inhibition by irradiation for ginger storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shuangqing; Wang Shoujing; Yu Zihou; Sun Shouyi; Zou Jiwan; Lei Peng

    2003-01-01

    The study results showed that the proper irradiation dose for ginger sprouting inhibition was 0.08-0.40 kGy and the maximum tolerable irradiation dose for ginger was 0.4 kGy. Treatment with proper irradiation combined with PE film package could keep ginger fresh after 120 days of storage and the fresh ratio was above 90%. In order to obtain good storage results, keeping lower absorbed dose ununiformity was necessary. Content of V C and Ca was not affected by the irradiation with 0.08-0.25 kGy

  8. Micropropagation and cytogenetic assessment of Zingiber species of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Archana; Kesari, Vigya; Rangan, Latha

    2013-12-01

    An improved micropropagation protocol was developed for Zingiber moran and Z. zerumbet, two wild species of the genus Zingiber, found in Northeast India. The effects of growth regulators, sugar concentrations, and nutrients were tested on the rate of shoot initiation and multiplication. An increase in proliferation and multiplication occurred in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzyladenine and kinetin. About 2 % sucrose and 0.7 % agar were found to be the optimum for shoot multiplication and regeneration. Naphthalene acetic acid at 0.5 mg/L produced the best rooting response for both the species. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized successfully and cytogenetic stability was confirmed by RAPD profiling and ploidy checks.

  9. Effect of methotrexate combined with ginger, silymarin or propolis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... the same MTX dose combined with ginger, silymarin or propolis oral administration. The doses of ... Propolis (bee glue) is a natural antioxidant produced .... labeled by VIC fluorescent dye and the three target gene cDNA.

  10. Ecstasy-Induced Caspase Expression Alters Following Ginger Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soleimani Asl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA leads to cell death. Herein, we studied the protective effects of ginger on MDMA- induced apoptosis. Methods: 15 Sprague dawley male rats were administrated with 0, 10 mg/kg MDMA, or MDMA along with 100mg/kg ginger, IP for 7 days. Brains were removed to study the caspase 3, 8, and 9 expressions in the hippocampus by RT-PCR. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using the one-way ANOVA test. Results: MDMA treatment resulted in a significant increase in caspase 3, 8, and 9 as compared to the sham group (p<0.001. Ginger administration however, appeared to significantly decrease the same (p<0.001. Discussion: Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to the improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.

  11. In vitro mutagenesis of red ginger (Alpinia purpurata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamseejan, S.; Ubonprasert, B.; Kareeros, P.; Pungkan, V.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma rays and in vitro culture techniques were used for mutation induction experiment in red ginger. Shoot clusters of red ginger were treated with gamma rays at 0, 30, 50, 70 and 90 Gy. Treated shoots were then isolated and transferred individually to fresh medium. L D 50 was calculated based on a number of surviving plants in each treatment at 30 days after irradiation. L D 50 for in vitro vulture of red ginger was approximately 20 Gy. In an attempt to isolate mutants by sub culturing 3 times at 1 month interval, two mutants were isolated. One mutant has a normal growth with numerous white streaks on green leaves. The other mutant has darkly wrinkled leaves with abnormal plant type. These mutants were both isolated from in vitro culture of red ginger treated with 10 Gy of gamma rays

  12. Phyto-metals screening of selected anti-diabetic herbs and infused concoctions

    OpenAIRE

    Olanrewaju O. Olujimi; Olusegun N. Onifade; Adeleke T. Towolawi; Temilade F. Akinhanmi; Adeniyi A. Afolabi; Kabir A. Olanite

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the levels of some selected heavy metals in both the selected anti-diabetic herbal plants and infused concoctions for diabetes treatment. Methods: Ten anti-diabetic plant samples: pawpaw leaves (Carica papaya), bitter melon leaves (Momordica charantia), holy basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale), garlic (Allium sativum), African red pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens), negro pepper grain (Xylopia aethi...

  13. Preparation and characterization of Dendrobium officinale powders through superfine grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingran; Fan, Haoran; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Tiancun; Zhang, Lianfu

    2018-03-01

    Dendrobium officinale has been used in China for several thousand years as a health food and has become one of the most expensive tea materials worldwide as a result of extremely scarce resources in the wild and an increasing demand. Hence, it is very important to improve the depth and width of its application. In the present study, the physico-chemical, surface chemistry and thermal properties of micron range particles and coarse particles prepared by superfine grinding and shear pulverization were investigated. As the particle size decreased, the specific surface area of D. officinale powders increased significantly. Microscopy observations confirmed that superfine grinding effectively changed the original structure of D. officinale. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra depicted the characteristic bands shifted in terms of absorbance and/or wave number as the powder particle size decreased. The crystallinity and intensity of the crystal peaks of D. officinale powders increased as the particle size decreased. Moisture sorption isotherms suggested that superfine powders were more unstable as a result of the increase in surface area, as well as the exposure of polar groups. The results of the present study suggest that superfine grinding may provide new methods of processing for D. officinale with respect to further enhancement of its application value. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. [Ecological basis of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale growth on cliff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Juan; Zhu, Yan; Si, Jin-Ping; Wu, Ling-Shang; Cheng, Xue-Liang

    2016-08-01

    In order to make Dendrobium officinale return to the nature, the temperature and humidity in whole days of the built rock model with different slopes and aspects in the natural distribution of wild D. officinale in Tianmu Mountain were recorded by MH-WS01 automatic recorder. The results showed that the slope has a significant impact on the extreme temperature on the surface of the rocks. In summer, the extreme temperature on the surface of horizontal or soft rock can reach to 69.4 ℃, while the temperatures were lower than 50 ℃ on the vertical rock. In winter, the temperatures on the surface of vertical rock were higher and the low temperature duration was shorter than those on the horizontal or soft rock. Also, the humidity of the rocks was significantly influenced by the slope. The monthly average humidity on the surface of vertical rock was above 80%RH. Furthermore, the aspect had a significant impact on the temperature and humidity on the surface of the rocks, but had no significant effect on the daily mean temperature and extreme temperature on the surface of vertical rock. Therefore, the slope affects the survival of D. officinale by affecting the extreme temperature of rocks and affects the growth of D. officinale by affecting the humidity. The choice of slope is the key to the success of cliff epiphytic cultivation for D. officinale. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. The effect of garlic and ginger phytogenics on the shelf life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of garlic and ginger phytogenics on the shelf life and microbial contents ... The preservative effects of garlic and ginger was compared with that of sodium ... reduced health risks of infection and/or intoxication from their consumption.

  16. Proliferative and antioxidant activity of Symphytum officinale root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Paduch, Roman; Strzemski, Maciej; Zielińska, Sylwia; Rydzik-Strzemska, Ewelina; Sawicki, Jan; Kocjan, Ryszard; Polkowski, Janusz; Matkowski, Adam; Latalski, Michał; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    The root of Symphytum officinale L. is commonly used in folk medicine to promote the wound healing, reduce the inflammation and in the treatment of broken bones. The objective of our investigation was to analyse the extract from S. officinale in term of its antioxidant activity and the effect on cell viability and proliferation of human skin fibroblast (HSF). Moreover, the quantification of main phenolics and allantoin was conducted using HPLC-DAD method. Five compounds were found: rosmarinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic and p-coumaric acid. DPPH, FRAP and TPC assay showed the high antioxidant activity of the extract. MTT test proved the stimulatory effect on cell metabolism and viability of HSF cells. Moreover, no changes in cytoskeleton structure and cells shape were observed. The obtained results indicate that non-toxic extract from S. officinale root has strong antioxidant potential and a beneficial effect on human skin fibroblasts.

  17. The effect of ginger for relieving of primary dysmenorrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenabi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of ginger in providing relief to patients of primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods: The clinical trial was conducted at Toyserkan Azad University in western Iran from July 10 to September 5, 2010. It comprised of 70 female students of the university with primary dysmenorrhoea. The subjects were randomly divided in to two equal groups and were given either placebo or ginger in capsule form for 3 days in first menstruation cycles. They graded the severity of their pain using a visual analogue scale. A 5-point Likert scale was used to assess response to treatment. Wilcoxor's rank-sum test was used to compare the severity of pain in the two groups. Results: Compared with the baseline, the decrease in the visual analogue scores of post-therapy pain in the ginger group was significantly greater than that for placebo group. In the ginger group, 29 (82.85%) subjects reported an improvement in nausea symptoms, compared with 16 (47.05%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: Ginger is effective in minimising the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhoea. (author)

  18. Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Meera; Gundala, Sushma R.; Asif, Ghazia; Shamsi, Shahab A; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals offer non-toxic therapeutic management as well as chemopreventive intervention for slow-growing prostate cancers. However, the limited success of several single-agent clinical trials suggest a paradigm shift that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are not ascribable due to individual phytochemicals rather may be ascribed to but to synergistic interactions among them. We recently reported growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing properties of ginger extract (GE) in in vitro and in vivo prostate cancer models. Nevertheless, the nature of interactions among the constituent ginger biophenolics, viz. 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogoal, remains elusive. Here we show antiproliferative efficacy of the most-active GE biophenolics as single-agents and in binary combinations, and investigate the nature of their interactions using the Chou-Talalay combination-index (CI) method. Our data demonstrate that binary combinations of ginger phytochemicals synergistically inhibit proliferation of PC-3 cells with CI values ranging from 0.03-0.88. To appreciate synergy among phytochemicals present in GE, the natural abundance of ginger biophenolics was quantitated using LC-UV/MS. Interestingly, combining GE with its constituents (in particular, 6-gingerol) resulted in significant augmentation of GE’s antiproliferative activity. These data generate compelling grounds for further preclinical evaluation of GE alone and in combination with individual ginger biophenols for prostate cancer management. PMID:23441614

  19. en flores de ginger (Alpinia purpurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de 3 condiciones de luz (completa-548,63 W m-2, media luz-280,02 W m-2, sombra-76,38 W m-2, el uso de repelentes (ajo más chile, neem y pichichío y el uso de bolsas de exclusión, en el daño de Cholus pilicauda a las flores de ginger rosado (Alpinia purpurata en una plantación asociada con poró (Erythrina poeppigiana. El embolse de las flores redujo significativamente el número de flores dañadas, independientemente de la intensidad lumínica. No se encontró diferencias entre el número de flores dañadas con el uso de Azatina®

  20. Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; Yeasmin, Tanzima

    2011-10-01

    To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L.) Smith and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The fresh rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet were extracted in cold with ethanol (4.0 L) after concentration. The crude ethanol extract was fractionated by petroleum ether and chloroform to form a suspension of ethanol extract (15.0 g), petroleum ether fraction (6.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (5.0 g). The crude ethanol extract and its petroleum ether and chloroform fractions were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and three fungi by the disc diffusion method. Commercially available kanamycin (30 µg/disc) was used as standard disc and blank discs impregnated with the respective solvents were used as negative control. At a concentration of 400 µg/disc, all the samples showed mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and produced the zone of inhibition ranging from 6 mm to 10 mm. Among the tested samples, the crude ethanol extract showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude ethanol extract and its fractions were within the value of 128-256 µg/mL against two Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and all the samples showed the lowest MIC value against V. parahemolyticus (128 µg/mL). It can be concluded that, potent antibacterial and antifungal phytochemicals are present in ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet (L).

  1. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethanolic Extract Cytotoxic Effect of Zingiber Officinale in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HEPG2 Cell Line

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called malignant hepatoma is a primary malignancy (cancer of the liver. Most cases of HCC are secondary to either a viral hepatitic infection (hepatitis B or C or cirrhosis (alcoholism being the most common cause of hepatic cirrhosis. Recently, the biological activities of zingiber officieale plants have been reported as possessing antitumor, antibacterial, anti ulcer, antifungal, and insecticidal properties. However, the antitumor effects haven't been studied in cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of zingiber officieale on hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Materials & Methods: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2 cell lines and normal connective tissue cell line (L929 were cultured in DMEM medium. Zingiber officinale was extracted and different concentration of zingiber extract (5000 to 78 µg was added to cell culture. Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay after 24,48 and 72 hours. Results: The effects of zingiber officieale on cell viability was observed after 48 hours on cell lines. Ginger doses in concentration 2500 µg inhibited 50% cell growth (IC50 in (HEPG2 cell lines after 48 hours of incubation, respectively. Conclusion: Our study shows that fresh ginger extract has cytotoxic effects on tumor cells but it doesn’t have any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. It seems that ginger can be considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:52-56

  2. Irradiated pepper and ginger detected by viscosity and starch measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmueler, F.; Meier, W.

    1999-01-01

    Starch and rheological measurements of alkaline suspensions of white pepper, black pepper and ginger are a useful tool to distinguish not irradiated samples from the gamma-treated spices (dose gtoreq 2 kGy). In addition it is shown that starch is not the material which determines the different rheological behaviour of the alkaline suspensions of the spices. The differences in the viscosity data are rather due to irradiation damages of polymers which are enriched in the cell wall material of the pepper grains and the roots of the ginger

  3. Solid state fermentation of Trichoderma viride for enhancement phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M; Al-Ghamdi, Maryam A; Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Mohamed, Saleh A

    2018-05-04

    The phenolic content of methanolic and water extracts of ginger fermented by Trichoderma spp. during solid state fermentation (SSF) was detected as compared with unfermented ginger. The total phenolic content of fermented ginger increased several times. The highest phenolic content of ginger was detected after SSF by T. viride. The optimal physiological conditions for the maximum production of the phenolic content and β-glucosidase activity of fermented ginger by T. viride were detected at day 7 incubation, pH 6.0, 30°C and 30% moisture. There are consistent between the maximum production of β-glucosidase and phenolic content. The SSF of ginger by T. viride greatly enhanced the antioxidant potency of phenolic compounds by using DPPH and ABTS assays. Potent antibacterial activity was appeared by phenolic compounds of fermented ginger against all the tested human-pathogenic bacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Cancer Chemoprevention Effects of Ginger and its Active Constituents: Potential for New Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Ginger is a commonly used spice and herbal medicine worldwide. Besides its extensive use as a condiment, ginger has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the management of various medical conditions. In recent years, ginger has received wide attention due to its observed antiemetic and anticancer activities. This paper reviews the potential role of ginger and its active constituents in cancer chemoprevention. The phytochemistry, bioactivity, and molecular targets of ginger constituents, especially 6-shogaol, are discussed. The content of 6-shogaol is very low in fresh ginger, but significantly higher after steaming. With reported anti-cancer activities, 6-shogaol can be served as a lead compound for new drug discovery. The lead compound derivative synthesis, bioactivity evaluation, and computational docking provide a promising opportunity to identify novel anticancer compounds originating from ginger.

  5. Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Water Dynamics in Different Ginger Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chongyang; Zhou, Qi; Gao, Shan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Liu, Chaoyang

    2016-01-20

    Different ginger cultivars may contain different nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, a time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance method was employed to study water dynamics in different ginger cultivars. Significant differences in transverse relaxation time T2 values assigned to the distribution of water in different parts of the plant were observed between Henan ginger and four other ginger cultivars. Ion concentration and metabolic analysis showed similar differences in Mn ion concentrations and organic solutes among the different ginger cultivars, respectively. On the basis of Pearson's correlation analysis, many organic solutes and 6-gingerol, the main active substance of ginger, exhibited significant correlations with water distribution as determined by NMR T2 relaxation, suggesting that the organic solute differences may impact water distribution. Our work demonstrates that low-field NMR relaxometry provides useful information about water dynamics in different ginger cultivars as affected by the presence of different organic solutes.

  6. Bioinformatics analysis on molecular mechanism of rheum officinale in treatment of jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Si; Tu, Jun; Nie, Peng; Yan, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the molecular mechanism of Rheum officinale in the treatment of Jaundice by building molecular networks and comparing canonical pathways. Methods: Target proteins of Rheum officinale and related genes of Jaundice were searched from Pubchem and Gene databases online respectively. Molecular networks and canonical pathways comparison analyses were performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results: The molecular networks of Rheum officinale and Jaundice were complex and multifunctional. The 40 target proteins of Rheum officinale and 33 Homo sapiens genes of Jaundice were found in databases. There were 19 common pathways both related networks. Rheum officinale could regulate endothelial differentiation, Interleukin-1B (IL-1B) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) in these pathways. Conclusions: Rheum officinale treat Jaundice by regulating many effective nodes of Apoptotic pathway and cellular immunity related pathways.

  7. Hyperaccumulator straw improves the cadmium phytoextraction efficiency of emergent plant Nasturtium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Lin, Lijin; Wang, Jin; Xia, Hui; Liang, Dong; Wang, Xun; Liao, Ming'an; Wang, Li; Liu, Li; Chen, Cheng; Tang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    With the development of economy, the heavy metal contamination has become an increasingly serious problem, especially the cadmium (Cd) contamination. The emergent plant Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is a Cd-accumulator with low phytoremediation ability. To improve Cd phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale, the straw from Cd-hyperaccumulator plants Youngia erythrocarpa, Galinsoga parviflora, Siegesbeckia orientalis, and Bidens pilosa was applied to