Sample records for gijutsu ni yoru

  1. Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology; Teihin`itan kaishitsu ni yoru CWM seizo gijutsu

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tsurui, M.; Suto, Y.; Asakura, M. [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, J.; Yui, M.; Takano, S. [Japan COM Co. Ltd., Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    A CWM manufacturing technology was developed by means of upgrading low rank coals. Even though some low rank coals have such advantages as low ash, low sulfur and high volatile matter content, many of them are merely used on a small scale in areas near the mine-mouths because of high moisture content, low calorification and high ignitability. Therefore, discussions were given on a coal fuel manufacturing technology by which coal will be irreversibly dehydrated with as much volatile matters as possible remaining in the coal, and the coal is made high-concentration CWM, thus the coal can be safely transported and stored. The technology uses a method to treat coal with hot water under high pressure and dry it with hot water. The method performs not only removal of water, but also irreversible dehydration without losing volatile matters by decomposing hydrophilic groups on surface and blocking micro pores with volatile matters in the coal (wax and tar). The upgrading effect was verified by processing coals in a pilot plant, which derived greater calorification and higher concentration CWM than with the conventional processes. A CWM combustion test proved lower NOx, lower SOx and higher combustion rate than for bituminous coal. The ash content was also found lower. This process suits a Texaco-type gasification furnace. For a production scale of three million tons a year, the production cost is lower by 2 yen per 10 {sup 3} kcal than for heavy oil with the same sulfur content. 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Treatment wastewater containing dyestuffs by adsorption technology; Kyuchaku gijutsu ni yoru senryo gan`yu haisui no shori

    Yoshida, H. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    For treatment of wastewater containing dyestuffs, the adsorption/separation recovery method using chitosan fiber was studied. Acid orange as acid dye and brilliant yellow as direct dye were used in experiment, and the pH, inorganic electrolyte and temperature dependency of dye adsorption into chitosan fiber were studied together with the dissolution curve of dyestuffs by NaOH aqueous solution. The result showed the possibility of adsorption, dissolution and concentrating recovery of dyestuffs. This method has the following features: (1) Efficient separation of dyestuffs and water + dyeing auxiliaries from dyeing wastewater, (2) recycling of water and dyeing auxiliaries in dyeing process, (3) high- concentrating recovery of dyestuffs by NaOH aqueous solution and recycling of fibers, (4) separation of dyestuffs from NaOH aqueous solution by cooling and salting out of desorption solution, (5) recycling of NaOH aqueous solution in desorption process, and (6) the possible closed system discharging no new wastewater in wastewater treatment. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Hydrogenation of heteroaromatics by high pressure DTA techniques. 3; Koatsu DTA ho ni yoru hokozoku kagobutsu no suisoka (rutenium tanji shokubai ni yoru kakusuisoka datsu hetero hanno)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    Ring-opening of heteroaromatics and heteroatom-removal reaction were studied experimentally using the acidic catalyst containing phosphoric acid for improvement of an upgrading method of coal derived oils. In experiment, some Ru-carrying metal oxide catalysts such as RMZ, RML and RMN catalyst, and MNP catalyst containing phosphoric acid were used as specimens. Nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of dibenzothiophene and carbazole were compared with each other. The experimental results are as follows. Both RMN and RMNP catalysts offer a superior selectivity in nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of carbazole. Although both catalysts offer an extremely high nuclear hydrogenation activity at 360{degree}C, these offer the high selectivity of denitrogenation products at 430{degree}C. In comparison of the activities of MN and MNP catalysts with the same Mn2O3:NiO ratio, MNP catalyst offers the higher denitrogenation activity than MN catalyst at 430{degree}C. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  4. Global environmental benefits of industrial heat pumps (fiscal 1993); 1993 nendo koon heat pumping gijutsu ni yoru chikyu ondanka keigen koka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho



    An investigational study was conducted aiming at making a quantitative grasp of effects of the spread of industrial heat pumps on energy conservation and greenhouse gas reduction and at promoting the spread. Finally, the following eight countries joined this international joint research: Canada, France, Japan, Holland, Norway, Sweden, the U.K. and the U.S. Each country share the work and expenses for the research with each other. Japan made investigational researches on the application of heat pumps to processes of the chemical industry, oil refining industry, food industry, paper/pulp industry, and dyeing/weaving industry, and on the effects of greenhouse gas reduction. As procedures taken, values up to 2010 were estimated of energy prices in each country, energy supply/demand, rates of the heat source configuration for electric power supply, etc., the heat flow of the above-mentioned process was made clear, and analyses were conducted of annual profits, energy consumption, and depreciation period in the case of adopting heat pumps. Moreover, the energy conservation amount and greenhouse effect gas reduction amount were estimated based on the result of the analyses. 69 figs., 196 tabs.

  5. Investigation on innovation of technology development by means of strategic energy intelligence; Energy senryakurontekina approach ni yoru gijutsu kaihatsu no kakushin ni kansuru chosa



    For the purpose of developing the future innovative energy technology, the paper described a strategic point of view. Effects of the energy issue are remarkable on the next generation and thereafter as seen in the finite of energy resource, global-scale environmental changes, the increasing energy demand, natural/social influences of large-scale technology development. If the technological development is going on in the same way as until now, there will appear limits. Relating to the strategies, to seek what energy should be among the strategies, it is necessary to consider not only global-scale problems but particular conditions in Japan (self-sufficiency, international cooperation, creativity, etc.) Also, wisdom and technique are necessary to attain it. Technological development in a wide sense plays a major role in the energy strategy. Technology innovation must be advanced according to the energy strategy. Integrating ideology into the development of energy technology and selecting therefrom developmental subjects which meet the purpose, required is the construction of the energy system with high flexibility and functionality. Looking at the conventional way of thinking from a different angle and posing a future pull plan, Japan should show leadership to the world. 20 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Research of environmental bioecosensing technology using ecological information. Part 2; Seitaikei joho ni yoru kankyo bio ecosencing gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2



    Basic considerations of exploring and cultivating environmental reporter organisms are summarized. Mechanism of genetic engineering amplification and molecular biological amplification, and approach to combining them to a hardware as a bioindicator system are investigated. For the current status of molecular biological measurement technology for measuring ecological environment and its application, environmental diagnosis from a phyropathological viewpoint, environmental diagnosis using microorganisms, test fabrication of genetic sensor, and overseas examples of environmental monitoring network are described. For the application of ecological information and functions for developing innovative environmental remediation technology, issues and potential areas for research and development regarding the bioremediation technology in which the US has achieved a progress for the benefit of soil environment remediation are summarized. For the phytoremediation, an area of bioremediation, the metabolism of microorganisms which live in the rhizosphere, and the technology for controlling the microorganisms in the soil through plants are investigated. 66 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Imaging technique for magnetic susceptibility and resistivity by electromagnetic tomography. 1. Numerical experiments; EM tomography ni yoru taijiritsu to hiteiko no imaging gijutsu. 1. Suchi jikken ni yoru kisoteki kento

    Sakashita, S.; Fukuoka, K. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper proposes imaging techniques which utilize electromagnetic waves in a wide frequency band for magnetic susceptibility and resistivity, and describes the basic investigation results by numerical experiments. The electromagnetic tomography generates electromagnetic waves by passing current through a receiving coil, to measure their magnetic components by an induction coil. The magnetic field generated by the electromagnetic waves can be handled as a pseudo-static one, when the current is passed at a sufficiently low frequency, and the field response measured by an induction coil contains information mainly regarding magnetic susceptibility. The field generates induction as transmitting frequency is increased, and the measured magnetic response contains mainly regarding resistivity. They can be measured for imaging susceptibility, when distance between the holes is 50 to 100m or less and transmitting frequency is 100 to 10Hz or less. The use of the expanded Born approximation allows to establish a high-speed model for imaging resistivity. 23 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Surface wettability control by titanium dioxide photo-induced reaction. Super-hydrophilic properties. Sanka chitan ni yoru hikari reiki shinsuika gijutsu. Hikari shokubai chosinsuisei

    Watanabe, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)


    Hydrophilicity results when the surface of titanium dioxide is reduced for the specified oxygen to be replaced by hydroxyl groups. The ease with which such a structural change occurs is subject to variation between titanium dioxide crystal surfaces, and is dependent greatly on the atmosphere. No hydrophilic trend is observed in an atmosphere of oxygen only without moisture and, in darkness without light, hydrophobicity occurs early. Although the contacta angle titanium dioxide with water with stability is not known, yet it is presumed, on the analogy of the case of strontium titanate, that it is in the range of 20-40 degrees. A hydrophilic trend below the range is attrributed to structural changes. The control of surface wettability is one of the basic tasks to fulfill in various kinds of mechanisms and manufacturing processes. The technology of wettability control using a titanium dioxide coating which is quite durable will be applied not only to functions involving defogging, dripproof, and self-cleaning, but also to the control of heat transmission in the mechanism and to the bonding process. (NEDO)

  9. Surface wettability control by titanium dioxide photo-induced reaction. Super-hydrophilic properties; Sanka chitan ni yoru hikari reiki shinsuika gijutsu. Hikari shokubai chosinsuisei

    Watanabe, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology


    Hydrophilicity results when the surface of titanium dioxide is reduced for the specified oxygen to be replaced by hydroxyl groups. The ease with which such a structural change occurs is subject to variation between titanium dioxide crystal surfaces, and is dependent greatly on the atmosphere. No hydrophilic trend is observed in an atmosphere of oxygen only without moisture and, in darkness without light, hydrophobicity occurs early. Although the contacta angle titanium dioxide with water with stability is not known, yet it is presumed, on the analogy of the case of strontium titanate, that it is in the range of 20-40 degrees. A hydrophilic trend below the range is attrributed to structural changes. The control of surface wettability is one of the basic tasks to fulfill in various kinds of mechanisms and manufacturing processes. The technology of wettability control using a titanium dioxide coating which is quite durable will be applied not only to functions involving defogging, dripproof, and self-cleaning, but also to the control of heat transmission in the mechanism and to the bonding process. (NEDO)

  10. Formation of NiCrAlY laser cladding with preplaced method; Funtai tofu reza kuraddingu ho ni yoru NiCrAlY himaku no keisei

    Iwamoto, H. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Sumikawa, T. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Nishida, K. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Graduate School; Nishida, M.; Araki, T. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Cladding technique on the surface of structure materials using high corrosion resistance and wear resistance materials has been used in many fields as compared to conventional one. The heat source for cladding was mainly arc welding, however, these recent years, laser cladding where laser having special characteristics like high control, high output density and so forth is used as a heat source, has been studied. In this report, in order to cope with the change in composition of base material, coating layer formation with preplaced method was studied systematically using NiCrAlY powder formed by mixing mechanically commercial metal powder with raw material powder and low power (1200W) CO2 laser. As a result, good NiCrAlY cladded layer with good composition and with no defect was achieved using basic powder formed by mixing mechanically the metallic powder and commercial organic binder. Cladding of broad area was possible by weaving method even at low power (1200W) CO2 laser. Cladded layer with lower dilution ratio and higher cross sectional area was achieved with smaller powder particle diameter. 9 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Advanced industrial technologies by the Tohoku National Industrial Research Institute. ADI function grading by the temperature gradient type austenpering treatment; Tohoku kogyo gijutsu kenkyusho sentan kogyo gijutsu. Ondo kobaigata austenper shori ni yoru ADI keisha kinoka



    The advanced industrial technologies were introduced which are under research in the Tohoku National Industrial Research Institute. As for the research to grade the ADI function by the temperature gradient type austempering treatment, an ADI was produced which was graded in both hardness and toughness by austenpering-treating a graphite cast iron sphere. As for the research on the lamination by plating, a composite which was high in lamination strength and low in residual stress was produced by plating the base sheet with a thin film, giving a compressive force and heating it in vacuum in order to produce the composite with ceramics-metal or interceramics lamination. As for the research on the removing method of iron ions from the plating solution, a chelate resin was produced which contained multidentate ligands similar to the nitrirotriacetic acid selectively adsorbing the iron ions. As for the research to evaluate the corrosion of steel in the geothermal water, geothermal hot water in Miyagi Prefecture was experimentally evaluated in damaged quantity of carbon steel and stainless steel. Then, the damaged quantity even of carbon steel was shown to be within the usable limits as a construction structural material. 5 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Development of hydroponic system using agricultural waste. 2. Utilization of ozone for sterilization of nutrient solution; Suiko saibai ni okeru haikibutsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu. 2. Ozone ni yoru baiyoeki sakkin ni kansuru kento

    Terazoe, H.; Yoshihara, T.; Nakaya, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given on a sterilizing effect of ozone on Fusarium bacteria in hydroponic culture, and its effect on components in the culture solution. In an experiment, dry air with O3 concentration of 3.5 ppm was sent into aqueous solution inoculated with Fusarium bacteria at a flow rate of 5 liters per minute. The Fusarium bacteria was sterilized nearly completely in about five minutes. No change was observed in pH, EC and dissolved oxygen concentration of the O3-treated culture solution. However, iron and manganese among the soluble components have been oxidized by O3 and precipitated, hence these components must be added after the O3 treatment. In spinach culture performed on a culture medium inoculated with Fusarium bacteria, ozone water containing dissolved O3 at 0.8 ppm was flown into a urethane foam medium and vegetable roots. This treatment has resulted in reduction of the number of strains occurred with a wilt symptom below that in the section flown with distilled water. The spinach has grown normally without showing an effect of the ozone water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Study of highly efficient power generation system based on chemical-looping combustion; Chemical loop nenshoho ni yoru kokoritsu hatsuden system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Ishida, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamamoto, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper describes the research and development of power generation system by means of chemical-looping combustion. For this system, fuel flows in a reduction reactor and air flows in an oxidation reactor. These two flows are separated. As a result, recovery of CO2 without energy consumption, drastic improvement of power generation efficiency, and suppression of NOx emission are expected. To realize the above, two promising candidates, NiCoO2/YSZ and NiO2/NiAl2O4, have been found as recycle solid particles between the both reactors. These have excellent oxidation/reduction cycle characteristics. By these particles as well as the existing particle, NiO/YSZ, practical application of the chemical-looping combustion is realized. Besides LNG, coal and hydrogen were considered as fuels. When using coal or hydrogen, it was found that temperature of the reduction reactor should be increased the same as that of the oxidation reactor. This is a different point from a case using LNG as a fuel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Research cooperation project in fiscal 1998. General report on research cooperation related to mine waste water treatment technology by utilizing biotechnology; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Bio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku sokatsu hokokusho



    This paper describes cooperative development of bio-treatment technology for mine waste water generated by operating mines in China. Certain types of bacteria have capability to oxidize ferrous iron in the waste water into ferric iron ions. The bacteria cause ferric iron oxides in low pH regions to get deposited, and can remove them from sedimentation by using cheap calcium carbonate as a neutralizer. Volumetric reduction in waste sediments may also be achieved during removing heavy metals in a pretreatment process. Great advance may be expected in taking actions to prevent water quality contamination. This paper summarizes activities taken in fiscal 1998. Eight site surveys in total were carried out using 47 persons in total. Major activities included operation study guidance of a pilot plant, and surveys for measures on heavy metal generation sources in Wushan Mine. In addition, site surveys were performed at Dexing Mine and Yinshan Zinc Mine. Subsequently from fiscal 1997, a bench scale testing equipment used in Japan and consumables were transported to China. The operation study data on the pilot plant were put into order and analyzed. Concept design was also made on a waste water treatment facility for Wushan Mine. (NEDO)

  15. Study on solidification and stabilization technique by steam treatment of the coal ash from fluidized-bed combustion boilers; Ryudoso sekitanbai no joki shori ni yoru koka / anteika gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Shibata, Y. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    In fluidized-bed coal combustion boiler supporting one end of boilers for power generation and process heating, coal ash comprised of the products of ash of coal and lime stone used for desulfurizer was used for raw material. The fluidized-bed combustion boiler really working at present is of normal pressure (AFBC) type due to bubbling or cycling system, and pressure type of the bubbling system (PFBC) due to high pressure of about 1.0 MPa is promoted development for a next generation type power generation. Then, by using the coal ash obtained from the AFBC boiler with different kind of coal, volume of boiler, and so on (AFBC ash) and the coal ash obtained from the PFBC boiler under actual proof operation, a study on properties of coal, lime stone and solids after steam treatment of mixture with water (kind/volume, strength and elution of hazard heavy metals of hydrates) were conducted to investigate to use for civil engineering materials such as road materials, filling back materials, and so forth. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of geological conditions by ''drilling logging system''. Yuatsu drill ni yoru sakuko data wo mochiita ganban hyoka oyobi kiriha zenpo chishitsu no yosoku gijutsu ni tsuite

    Aoki, K.; Inaba, T.; Shiogama, Y.; Tezuka, Y. (KajimaCorp., Tokyo (Japan))


    In order to predict precisely geological conditions ahead of a face changing with the progress of excavation work of rock caverns such as a tunnel, the drilling logging system was developed which allows to measure, store and analyze drilling data during drilling by hydraulic rotary percussion drilling machines, and the quantitative prediction of geological conditions ahead of a face was tested applying the system to a granite site. As a result, by adopting the drilling energy rate (workload per rock volume of a drilling machine during drilling) as an analytical parameter, the good correlation was found between the drilling energy rate and geological condition (rock property classification) such as a hardness of rocks and quantity of cracks. In addition, the geological condition ahead of a face was probably predictable by estimating the distribution of the drilling energy rate in a wide area by geostatistics mehtod. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (low-cost Si sheets by continuous casting method); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (renzoku cast ho ni yoru tei cost Si kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports the study results on manufacturing of low-cost Si substrates by continuous casting method in fiscal 1994. (1) On manufacturing of ingots of 16 piece size, the ingot of nearly 170kg was manufactured by batch process using the Si melt injection unit prepared in last year. (2) On oxygen and carbon contents in wafers, the contents were measured by FT-IR after slicing of the ingot. As a result, the oxygen and carbon contents could be successfully reduced to the targets of 10ppma and 5ppma or less, respectively. (3) The resistivity distribution of the ingot ranged over the target of 1-2ohm-cm. (4) Cells of 100 {times} 100mm{sup 2} wide and 350{mu}m thick were verified by in-house evaluation process. Although lower cell conversion efficiency was found at the center top of the ingot, a vertical efficiency stability was nearly sufficient as a whole. (5) On the crystal growth unit prepared in fiscal 1994, any problems were not found on automatic driving and vibration during moving. 8 figs.

  18. Technology to prevent deposition of marine organisms by means of electrically conductive coating. Discussions on current and potential distribution by using experiments; Doden tomaku ni yoru kaiyo seibutsu fuchaku boshi gijutsu. Denryu den`i bunpu ni kansuru jikken ni yoru kento

    Usami, M.; Masaki, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, K.


    Steel structures in sea water and surface of hulls are deposited with such marine organisms as microorganisms, algae and shellfish. The deposition causes a large problem such as occurrence of abnormal local corrosion in the structures, and increase in cruising resistance in ocean vessels. The present study has introduced a simplified equation of estimation for current and potential distribution in parts coated with an electrically conductive film, and verified its reasonability by an experiment. The equation of estimation was introduced by following a model of current flow in the electrically conductive coating. The experiment has the conductive coating applied to the interior of a concrete water tank with a length of 10.8 m, a width of 5 m and a depth of 3 m to measure potential at different locations. The conductive coating was energized from copper foils attached on each applied face, whereas the current was applied to two faces between the conductive films as a pair among the four coating applied faces to measure potential in each location. A simulated calculation revealed that the potential range in the depth direction is made smaller if specific resistance of the conductive film is decreased, and made greater if increased. Effectiveness of the equation of estimation was verified by an experiment. This method has provided a prospect of achieving optimization of the specification for application of the conductive film. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  19. FY 1999 report on the results of the introductory study on the global environmental industry technology. Investigational study on the environmental creation technology by the application of ecosystem information functions; 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu ni kakawaru sendo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Seitaikei joho kino oyo ni yoru kankyo sozo gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    To know the state of environmental pollution before it clearly exists, an investigational study was made on the technology to measure environmental stress at high sensitivity, in wide range and at high speed using functions to respond chemical substances, etc. which living organisms have. The FY 1999 results were outlined. As to the application of ecosystem information functions, survey was conduced paying attention to the environmental stress response of each of the bacteria, algae, plants and animals, responses viewed from the manifestation of immunity antibodies which occurs inside living organisms and changes at genetic level, and responses of algae and plants in case of specifying environmental pollutants. In relation to the application of the biological amplification mechanism, survey was carried out on environmental stress signals sent from plants, selection of environmental stress index plants, detection of environmental pollutants using bacteria, high sensitivity detection using animal (nematode), etc. Concerning the standardization of the environmental measuring technology by the application of ecosystem information functions, survey was conducted on artificial molecular recognition sensor, antibody device sensor, biochips, system construction, etc. (NEDO)

  20. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology. Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. ; Shizen energy ni yoru CO2 global recycle system no kanosei-chosa


    The paper studies a global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region. 112 refs., 70 figs. 36 tabs.

  1. Imaging technique for magnetic susceptibility and resistivity by electromagnetic tomography. 2. Scale modeling and applications; EM tomography ni yoru taijiritsu to hiteiko no imaging gijutsu. 2. Mokei jikken oyobi tekiyorei

    Sakashita, S.; Fukuoka, K. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper outlines an EM tomographic analyzer developed by the authors, and the results of its applications to experiments for grasping resistivity structures of complex geographic structures and also to detection of underground pipes in urban areas. The actual analysis procedure starts with scanning, to determine which frequency is optimum for obtaining information regarding magnetic susceptibility and resistivity. This step is followed by the logging measurement at the predetermined frequency, where the signal-receiving points are moved at adequate intervals for repeated logging measurements, to obtain spatially dense data for the measured section. The tests were conducted at Shirakawa Heights, Fukushima Pref., where two bores, 50m apart with each other were excavated at a depth of 120m. The analysis results are in agreement with the logging results. The experiments were also conducted to accurately locate approxiamtely 20m deep underground sewage pipes. Validity of the new technique is confirmed by comparing the analysis results with the boring results. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Fiscal 1998 research report. Development of metal forming technology by new energy-saving process (2nd fiscal year); 1998 nendo sho energy gata shin process ni yoru kinzoku seikei gijutsu no kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo)



    Based on computer-aided science possible to estimate phase transformation temperatures affecting fine crystal grain control strongly, this research develops the energy- saving production technology for near-net-shape manufacturing of heat-resistant hard materials such as HSS, TiAl and W, by using the new sintering and bonding technology by texture control, complex carbide dispersion technology and pulse discharge sintering based on phase diagram calculation. In fiscal 1998, study was made on optimum alloy composition and heat treatment condition to obtain high-hardness steel with the performance over that of existing HSS by carbide dispersion carburizing process using conventional gas-carburizing facility, based on the data of phase diagram calculation. As a result, the composition and heat treatment condition necessary to obtain a target hardness of Hv1000 were determined. As the research result in both fiscal 1997 and 1998, 10Mo-5V alloy for HSS including a large amount of Mo and V, and 3.5Mo- 1.5V-3Cr alloy for HSS including less than 6% Mo and V are promising as basic composition for the future R and D. (NEDO)

  3. Evaluation of hot corrosion resistance of Ni-base alloys using immersion test, coating test and embedding test; Shinseki shiken , tofu shiken , maibotsu shiken ni yoru Ni ki gokin no koon taishoku sei hyoka

    Zang, G.; Nishikata, A.; Tsuru, T. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    Coating test, immersion test and embedding test are usually employed as the methods for testing high temperature corrosion caused by molten salts. In this study, corrosion-resistant properties of twelve kinds of Ni-based alloys are evaluated systematically by immersion, coating and embedding tests using a sulfate, a chloride and a mixture thereof as the molten salts, and the differences of the results obtained by each testing method are examined. The main results of this study are described herein. The reproducibility of said tests is getting higher in an order of embedding test, coating test and immersion test. Especially an extremely high reproducibility is shown by the immersion test. In all corrosive ashes of sulfate, chloride and the mixture thereof, a good correlation is shown between the results of the immersion test and those of the coating test. The results of embedding test are correlated well with those of other tests in sulfate and sulfate/chloride mixture circumstance, while no such a correlation is indicated in chloride. In chloride corrosive ash and sulfate/chloride mixture corrosive ash, the corrosion amounts in coating and embedding tests are rather bigger than that in immersion test. In particular, a large amount of corrosion more than one digital is shown in the alloys with excellent corrosion-resistance. 33 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Development of generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement system using hydrogen absorbing alloy; Suiso kyuzo gokin ni yoru hatsudenkinai suiso jundo kojo system no kaihatsu

    Nishimura, Y.; Sato, J.; Haruki, N.; Kogi, T.; Okuno, Y. [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Takeda, H.; Wakisaka, Y. [The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement system was developed by utilizing hydrogen absorbing and discharging functions of hydrogen storage alloy. For demonstration test with an actual machine, four elements, Ca, Ni, Mm and Al, were used as hydrogen storage alloys. To treat hydrogen gas with a wide range of purity and reduce hydrogen gas feed, flow operation for hydrogen purity improvement, batch operation, and recycle operation for maintaining the hydrogen purity were performed. As a result of the generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement demonstration test, it was found that the hydrogen purity can be enhanced from 97.69% before operation to 99.9% after operation for 104 hours and to 99.95% after operation for 140 hours. The hydrogen recovery rates during flow test and batch test were between 92 and 95%. For the hydrogen purity maintaining test, it was confirmed that the high hydrogen purity of 99.9% has been continuously maintained for 140 days, and that the hydrogen recovery rate was over 99%. 2 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Part 2. ; Effect of alloying elements and transformation temperature on stress releasement. Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa. 2. ; Oryoku kanwa ni oyobosu gokin genso oyobi hentai ondo no eikyo

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan))


    Steel test pieces having various transformation temperatures (M {sub S}) were fabricated varying Ni and Cr contents, and tests were done on their torsional transformation resistance in cooling process, and stress relaxing characteristics due to transformation superplasticity, using a forced twisting equipment. The test pieces, while being twisted, were heated by high frequency induction from an external source to 1000 {degree} C in 50 seconds, retained for 50 seconds, and then their transformation resistance was detected during cooling. The motor was so controlled in five steps that the added shear distortion speed is constant per unit temperature reduction. The Ni and Cr contents and M {sub S} are in linear relation, and its experimental formula was sought. Even if Ni and Cr contents differ, similar stress relaxing characteristics were presented as long as the M {sub S} points are identical. Therefore, hardness and corrosion resistance can be controlled in welding metals by means of so varying Ni and Cr contents that the M {sub S} point is maintained in a certain range. The transformation resistance showed the minimum value lower by 70 to 80 {degree} C than the M {sub S} point. To apply the phenomena of transformation superplasticity, the temperature difference between preheating paths is important in addition to chemical constituents. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effect of transformation on stress releasement of stress concentration area in welding. Part 6. ; Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Sohentai ga oryoku shuchubu no oryoku kanwa tokusei ni oyobosu eikyo. 6. ; Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N.; Iiyama, T. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    As the various contrivances are being done for raising the strength and reliability of the joints in the usual welding execution, the welding defects out of them are thought that they impair the reliability of the joints, and therefore the efforts not so as to let them occur, and in addition, to secure the safety by screening them through the nondestructive inspection, are being performed. In this report, through the double end constraint thermal cycle tests by using the smooth and notched round bar specimen prepared by the friction pressure welding of 9%Ni steel, which could transform at a low temperature, with SUS 304, and moreover through welding by using the welding rod prepared experimentally of the Fe-Ni-Cr system, which could transform at a low temperature, and furthermore through measuring the thermal contraction stress when the extreme strains have been concentrated in the weld metal parts on the way of cooling off, the fracture character of the weld metal has been investigated. In case of actual welding, even when the extreme stress concentration has been created so excessively as D4316 has started to be fractured on its way of cooling off, no crack has occurred in the welding rod of the low temperature transformation. This is thought because of that the superplasticity phenomena due to the martensite transfomation act effectively on the stress releasement. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fiscal 1993 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for environmental preservation using biotechnology, technology for effective use unused hydrocarbon resource, technology of solid electrolyte fuel cells for high-efficient electric vehicles); 1993 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (biotechnology ni yoru kankyo taisaku gijutsu, miriyo tanka suiso shigen no yuko riyo gijutsu, kokoritsu denki jidosha no kotai denkaishitsu nenryo denchi gijutsu)



    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: 1) environmental preservation technology using biotechnology, 2) technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, 3) solid electrolyte fuel cell (SOFC) technology for high-efficient electric vehicles. In 1), bio-remediation is a choice as the result of trially using technologies for remediation of the environment polluted by pollutant, but it is not a technically completed one, but one which will be improved by trial and error. By the application of gene engineering, the use of gene recombination enables wide spread of decomposition genes. In 2), technical subjects were studied such as superheavy distillate, oil shale, coalhead methane and methane hydrate. In 3), designed were cylinder type and planar type SOFC of 850degC operation and 10kW output. Accumulation and weight of a total SOFC system are 81 liters and 100 kg in cylinder type and 136 liters and 200 kg in planar type. The vehicle can be equipped with the SOFC. 171 refs., 72 figs., 54 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1993 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for environmental preservation using biotechnology, technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, technology for development of environmental harmony type catalyst); 1995 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (biotechnology ni yoru kankyo taisaku gijutsu, miriyo tanka suiso shigen no yuko riyo gijutsu, kankyo chowagata shokubai kaihatsu gijutsu)



    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: 1) environmental preservation technology using biotechnology, 2) technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, 3) technology for development of environmental harmony type catalyst. In 1), a survey was conducted of applicability of biological surfactant to prevention measures of pollution by heavy distillate. It showed that part of the biological surfactants is reaching a stage of its being industrially produced by gene recombination bacteria, but as a whole, biosynthetic genes have hardly been elucidated. In 2), a survey of high-grade treatment technology of petroleum coke was made. It pointed out that it is necessary to develop a technology which makes the most of features of petroleum coke and allows defects. In 3), scientists and engineers of Japan and Europe searched for themes on which they can jointly study in the fields of NOx removal catalyst, up-grading of fuel, and development of catalyst combustion of fuel. 287 refs., 136 figs., 128 tabs.

  9. Wrong Forms of some Yorùbá Personal Names: Some Phonological and Sociolinguistic Implications

    Reuben Olúwáfẹ́mi Ìkọ̀tún


    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the wrong forms of some Yorùbá sentences that have become personal names through compounding. The data were extracted from the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB lists of candidates that were considered for admission into three Nigerian Universities between the 2005 and 2010 academic sessions. The names extracted from that source were compared with names written in the staff lists of the three Universities in Nigeria. The wrongly written names were recorded on tapes and some native speakers were asked to listen to them to determine their correctness. We argue that wrong forms of some Yorùbá sentential/personal names are common occurrences and establish that they are traceable to the freedom granted by Yorùbá orthography developers. We also argue that, the confusion that results from the different spelling forms of some Yorùbá personal names is seriously observable in social interactions, labour market, schools or Colleges of Education/Universities, Embassies and Nigerian civil service both Federal and State and that court affidavits become imperative to authenticate or reconcile both the wrong and the correct forms for the purposes of admissions, appointments and overseas travelling documents. Similarly, we show that the position of the Yorùbá orthography developers has resulted in a loss of the actual pronunciation of some Yorùbá personal names which has severe implications for the semantic contents of the names as well as implications for the rich religious, cultural and philosophical heritage of the Yorùbá people.

  10. Effect of transformation on residual stress in welding. Part 5. ; Stress releasement by transformation superplasticity. Sohentai ga yosetsu zanryu oryoku ni oyobosu eikyo. 5. ; Hentai chososei ni yoru oryoku kanwa

    Murata, H. (Yokogawa Medical System Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, N. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, H. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    The residual stress and angular deformation occurred in welding are the important factors for the welding design. In the previous report, by measuring the welding angular deformation caused by the welding rod prepared experimentally with the various transformation temperatures, it was shown that the materials, which could transform at a low temperature, have been effective to restrain the welding deformation. In addition, also the elongation and stress variation in transformation after welding have been examined in detail, and consequently it has been shown quantitatively, that not only the transformation expansion, but also the transformation superplasticity have acted effectively for the stress relaxation during transformation depending on the condition. In this report, the same as in the previous report, the welding with the multilayers and multi-passes has been performed by using the welding rod prepared experimentally and of Fe-Ni-Cr system, which could transform at a low temperature and had a high stress releasement effect, and then the effect of phase transformation on the welding residual stress has been investigated. As a result, the phase transformation had a tight relation with the welding residual stress, and furthermore the compression stress has been observed on the welding metal depending on the transformation temperature. In addition, it was found that in the welding metal, the compression stress has occurred, the tensile stress has remained directly under it, and it has been connected with a peak part of the tension, and has been redistributed. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Study on optimizing design/evaluation technology using quality engineering; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Hinshitsu kogaku ni yoru saitekika sekkei hyoka gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu



    To take up methodology of quality engineering as ISO standards, the basic document was worked out which regulates general items for the method to evaluate the operation of various systems as function for proposal to ISO. A method is developed for evaluating the design quality by function and predicting/optimizing the quality of finished products. For the evaluation of slippage from ideal function, the SN ratio and Maharanobis`s distance are used. In the two basic working groups (WG), a document on general methods to evaluate function was made. To reinforce the basic document, WGs divided into five by content/business were set up. Each WG collected examples from the past, studied methods to evaluate function in each field, and recorded them in the document. Five experiments for each WG were conducted to verify effectiveness of the above-mentioned method to evaluate function recorded in the document. As a result, the draft to present to ISO was worked out since the experimental WGs proved the effectiveness of the method to evaluate function in each field. 85 refs., 147 figs., 185 tabs.

  12. Super water repellent finishing technology by simulating bio-structures. Improvement of chemical durability by super water repellent finishing of hydroxy- apatite/titan composite films prepared by high-frequency plasma arc spraying; Seibutsu no kozo wo mohoshita chohassuika gijutsu. Koshuha plasma yoshaho ni yori sakuseishita suisan apataito/chitan fukugo himaku no chohassuika ni yoru kagakuteki taikyusei no kojo

    Hozumi, A.; Inagaki, M.; Okuderaa, H.; Nishizawa, K.; Nagata, F.; Teraoka, H.; Yokogawa, Y.; Kameyama, T. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)


    Artificial joint and tooth root produced by coating hydroxy- apatite (HA) onto Ti alloy base surface by DC plasma torch arc spraying in commercially available in Europe, and have been used for persons not less than 100,000 since 1985. However, peeling and dissolution of coats after implant have been reported as a serious problem. The long-term stability of coats is dependent on the chemical durability of coats. Paying attention to physical structure of HA/Ti composite film surface. this study attempted super water repellent finishing of the surface through reduction of surface energy by chemical modification of the surface in a molecular level. Self-organization single-molecule film of organic silane compound with perfluoroalkyl group was formed by CVD on the HA/Ti composite film surface prepared on Ti alloy by high- frequency plasma arc spraying. The extremely hydrophobic HA/Ti composite film with a contact angle ranging 130-160 degrees was thus obtained from the highly hydrophilic coat. This sample showed a very high chemical durability as compared with conventional ones. (NEDO)

  13. Development of hydriding alloys with multi-functionally-graded properties and their applications to energy conversion devices; Keishagata fukugo kino wo hyomen ni motsu suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu to energy henkan gijutsu eno oyo

    Suda, S.; Kadoma, H.; Nagamoto, H.; Okura, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the formation of fluoride layer on the surface of hydriding alloys. The fluoride formation reaction consists of a reduction removal process of surface oxide and a fluorination process. Specific surface area of alloy grains can be increased by the hydrogenation reaction in the surface layer accompanied with the removal of surface oxide, which results in easier permeation of molecular hydrogen into fluoride layer. During the fluorination process, a large amount of Ni in the alloy components is eluted, which results in the reduction of Ni distribution immediately under the fluoride layer in the alloy. Consequently, collector sites near the surface are reduced, and conductivity among alloy grains is degraded. To enhance the hydrogen collector sites, specific surface area of alloy grains can be increased by controlling the pH value of fluorination treatment solution in a given range. Moreover, performance of fluoride layer can be advanced by electrochemically dispersing metal Ni in the fluoride layer using Ni complex ion mixed in the treatment solution. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  14. BTX production by in-situ contact reforming of low-temperature tar from coal with zeolite-derived catalysts; Zeolite kei shokubai wo mochiita sekitan teion tar no sesshoku kaishitsu ni yoru BTX no seisei

    Matsunaga, T.; Fuda, K.; Murakami, K.; Kyo, M.; Hosoya, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College


    On BTX production process from low-temperature tar obtained by pyrolysis of coal, the effect of exchanged metallic species and reaction temperature were studied using metallic ion-exchanged Y-zeolite as catalyst. In experiment, three kinds of coals with different produced tar structures such as Taiheiyo and PSOC-830 sub-bituminous coals and Loy Yang brown coal were used. Y-zeolite ion-exchanged with metal chloride aqueous solution was used as catalyst. Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and In{sup 3+} were used as metal ions to be exchanged. The experiment was conducted by heating a pyrolysis section up to 600{degree}C for one hour after preheating a contact reforming section up to a certain proper temperature. As a result, the Ni system catalyst was effective for BTX production from aromatic-abundant tar, while the Zn system one from lower aromatic tar. In general, relatively high yields of toluene and xylene were obtained at lower temperature, while those of benzene at higher temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the program system CO2 fixation/effective utilization technology. Development of the technology to assess global warming gas recovery/emission control by restoring/preserving the tropical mangrove coastal ecosystem; 2000 nendo program hoshiki nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Mangrove nado nettai engan seitaikei no shufuku hozen ni yoru chikyu ondanka gas kaishu hoshutsu yokusei hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu



    For the purpose of developing the technology to assess the CO2 storage amount using the tropical mangrove coastal ecosystem, survey was conducted in the mangrove tree area in Ishigaki island, Japan and in Trat province, Thailand, and a draft of the assessment method was worked out. As to the assessment of the CO2 existence amount by analysis of satellite pictures, the regression equation between the mangrove existence amount and Landsat satellite data was determined to study a method for assessment of the CO2 storage amount in the whole area for survey. Further, using the relational equation between NDVI and LAI, vegetation indices reflecting vegetation conditions, methods to estimate the CO2 absorption amount by photosynthesis of mangrove tree community, the CO2 emission amount by respiration and the net production amount. Concerning the technology to assess the terrestrial area photosynthesis CO2 absorption amount, methods were studied for direct measurement of the amount of photosynthesis/respiration of the leaf area of mangrove tree community and the respiration amount by area such as trunk, branch and root and for assessment of CO2 absorption amount. Besides, studies were made on a variety of items such as the CO2 absorption/emission amount by underwater photosynthesis/respiration and decomposition of organic substances, the seawater exchange amount, and the rate of decomposition of organic substances. (NEDO)

  16. Sputter deposition of pure titanium onto complete denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming. Chososei keiseishita Ti-6Al-4V gishi zenbusho eno sputter jochaku ni yoru jun Ti no hifuku

    Kato, M.; Sonoda, T. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))


    In order to improve the biocompatibility of TiNi shape memory alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy of functional Ti base alloys which are paid attention as the dental materials or implant materials, the sputter deposition coating using bio-inactive Ti metal was studied. DC source was superior to RF source in characteristics of sputtered film and the rate of deposition. The wiping with gauze impregnated by acetone followed by the ultrasonic cleaning was more effective for the precleaning of the substrate. The sputtered Ti film thickness was nearly proportional to electric power and showed the orientation which depended highly on the heating temperature of the substrate. The complete surface of denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming was well coated with pure Ti and the prospect of biocompatibility of this Ti alloy could be obtained. But the film deposited by the heating condition showed the different characteristics of film compared with that formed under the cooling condition, and it is necessary that the effect of this on the biocompatibility must be investigated. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Design of environment-friendly and next generation-type conversion system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials; Kokino zairyo kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo chowagata jisedai miriyo tanso shigen tenkan system no kochiku

    Wakabayashi, K.; Morooka, S.; Arai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study


    Studies are conducted for the development of now-unused kinds of fossil carbon resources, such as low rank coal and heavy gravity crude oil, into higher-value liquid fuel. In the preliminary treatment process, the fossil carbon resources are dried by use of supercritical carbon dioxide, when it is found that the resources are disintegrated and water is desorbed. In a low rank coal liquefaction process using the NiMo/KB (Kefjen Black) catalyst, more than 60% is converted into oil, which rate is improved by use of the dual-temperature liquefaction process. This catalyst may be recovered by separation utilizing specific gravity difference. As a low temperature gasification catalyst, the alkaline carbonate-carried carbon catalyst is very quick at the initial stage of reaction. The perovskite-carried alkaline carbonate catalyst is high in carbon oxidizing/activating efficiency at low temperatures. The silica film deposited on an alumina-coated support tube is excellent in selectivity and speed as a hydrogen separating film, and a carbonized polyimide film as a carbon dioxide separating film. For the supercritical phase adsorption/separation of chemicals not to be distilled easily, the NaY-type zeolite functions effectively. Pd/ZrO2 serving as a carbon monoxide conversion catalyst enables the recovery of more MeOH when Pd grains are smaller in diameter.

  18. FY 1998 annual report on the decomposition/removal of harmful compounds in the gaseous phase by porous membrane provided with a catalytic function; 1998 nendo shokubai kinotsuki fuyo takomaku ni yoru kisochu yugai busshitsu no bunkai jokyo chosa hokokusho



    Harmful compounds, e.g., dioxins and nitrogen oxides, released into the air are causing severer environmental problems on a global scale. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to efficiently remove the released compounds in the vicinity of the living environments, while preventing, as far as possible, their formation at the sources. An attempt has been made to develop porous membranes impregnated with composites of a variety of metallic oxides showing activities as photocatalysts and for dark reactions by the ion engineering method, in order to drastically solve the above problems. Described herein are the FY 1998 results. Thin films of various titanium oxide crystals (anatase, rutile, and their combinations) are formed on Si substrates by the ion engineering method, as the photocatalysts for decomposition of aldehyde and water (for hydrogen production), to validate the optimum crystalline structures for the photocatalysis. Porous bodies of Ni and carbon are also impregnated with anatase TiO{sub 2} for decomposition of harmful gaseous compounds and water, to validate the effects of the porous membranes provided with catalytic functions. (NEDO)

  19. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industrial technology. Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. ; Chikyu kankyo kanren kenkyu doko no chosa (nisanka tanso no kankyo fuka teigensaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)


    The paper studies the measures for reduction of environmental load of CO2 from the standpoint of chemical technology. As for methanol synthesis from CO2, accelerating of the reaction using Cu base compound catalyst is reported. Also, CO2 is methanated at high speed by low temperature waste heat using Ni-La2O3-Ru catalyst. Discussions are given on the subject for development of catalyst reaction relating to hydrogen production technology by methane reforming reaction using steam or CO2. Synthesis of polymetric materials by use of CO2 is also described. The paper mentions that it is indispensable to design high-function electrode and elucidate the reaction mechanism of electrochemical CO2 reduction for electrochemical and photochemical CO2 reduction measures. Moreover, in case of using solar energy, it is required to study photovoltaic excitation process in semiconductor electrode/ electrolyte solution interface. For production of hydrogen from CO2 by photosynthetic organisms and solar energy, the problem is control of inhibiting effect of oxygen combinedly produced. Described are production of polyhydroxy butyric acid and biodegradable polymer from CO2 and hydrogen by bacteria, and CO2 fixation imitating the enzyme reaction. 267 refs., 79 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology. Feasibility study on CO2 global recycling system by using natural energy; Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. Shizen energy ni yoru CO2 global recycle system no kanosei-chosa


    The paper studies a global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region. 112 refs., 70 figs. 36 tabs.

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on research and development project for regional consortiums. Regional consortium field (Development of super devices for medical treatment devices using three-dimensional micro processing technology (the second year)); 1998 nendo chiiki consortium bun'ya. Maikuro sanjigen kako gijutsu ni yoru iryo kikiyo super device no kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo)



    It is intended to develop super devices for medical treatment devices using a three-dimensional micro processing technology by developing and combining precision processing technologies accumulated in the Suwa area. Main targets were placed on device size reduction, and a high reliability portable chemical liquid sustaining injector. This paper describes achievements made in fiscal 1998. Micromotors currently used have as low output torque as 1/4 of the target. Enhancement of reduction gear mechanism efficiency and durability is the problem to be solved. Microtubes with an inner diameter of 0.1 mm were produced on a trial basis by using four kinds of materials. The delivery mechanism assured the targeted flow rate successfully by using the direct cum screw system, but reduction in driving torque is desired. Completion of the cartridge system is also in the realm of aim. Joints will be moved closer to commercialization by selecting materials taking into account the chemical resistance and disposition. Micro connectors and cables still have problems for development. The bubble sensor was virtually decided to be of optical type from the points of detection performance requirements. Detectors and peripheral devices will be reduced in dimensions, and their reliability will be enhanced. The flow rate sensor has a problem to be solved in responsiveness to intermittent flows. (NEDO)

  2. Production of gerbera throughout a year by utilizing water heat accumulating heat pumps. Practical application of control of culture medium temperature by rock wool cultivation, and technology to produce gerbera throughout a year; Mizu chikunetsushiki heat pump wo riyoshite gabera wo shunen seisan. Rokku uruko ni yoru baichion seigyo to gabera no shunen seisan gijutsu no jitsuyoka

    Aoki, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    In order to utilize electric power more effectively in agriculture, technology to produce gerbera throughout a year by using rock wool cultivation has been established, by which culture medium temperature is cooled (heated) by using heat pumps. Once implanted, gerbera can provide flowers for two years, and demand for its cut flowers is increasing year after year. However, because high temperature in summer can create deformed flowers, reducing the rate of acceptable flower production, cut flower production is suspended during summer at the present. Therefore, nighttime electric power was utilized to accumulate cold (warm) water in a heat accumulation tank, circulate the water, and control the rock wool culture medium temperature to 20 to 25 degrees C which is suitable for growth of the plant. This system has made it possible to reduce greenhouse warming cost in winter. A non-control area had the average culture medium temperature vary to 30 degrees C or higher in summer and 15 degrees C in winter, while the control area maintained the temperature at 22 {+-} 1 degrees C both in summer and winter. The control area created not too great difference in flow quality as flower diameter and weight as compared to that in the non-control area, but had better flower stalk length with less deformed flower production, enhanced the acceptable product rate, and attained annual yield as great as 1.4 times. The assignment to the system is cost reduction. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium research field (Development of super-devices for medical equipment by 3-dimensional microstructure machining technology - 3rd year); 1999 nendo micro sanjigen kako gijutsu ni yoru iryo kikiyo super device no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (dai 3 nendo)



    In the development of micromechanisms, a highly efficient micromotor capable of outputting 25g/cm is developed, in which a DC motor, 4mm in diameter and 12.5mm in length, and a deceleration mechanism are combined. A technology is established of manufacturing microtubes 0.1mm in internal diameter of various materials for use with medical equipment. A direct cam screw type discharge mechanism for minute amounts is developed. It is now foreseen that a cartridge (air pressurized) discharge mechanism and a tube pump will be commercialized. A microjoint is developed with a built-in micro check valve for medicine flow channels. A microfilter is developed using a polypropylene hollow yarn membrane. A microsensor is developed, which responds to a 0.01-second change in flow rate at an error rate of {+-}3% or less. A microcomputer control system is test-produced. Newly developed devices are integrated for the test production of a portable device for sustained infusion of medicine, and the product is found to be superior to the existing systems. Also described are the utilization of various micromachining techniques. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on project for supporting the formation of energy/environmental technology verification project. International joint verification research project (Verification project relative to ignition and NOx reduction using plasma sub-burner in pulverized coal-fired furnace); 1999 nendo plasma sabubana ni yoru bifuntan nenshoro ni okeru chakka oyobi NO{sub x} teigen gijutsu ni kansuru jissho project seika hokokusho



    This project is executed through the cooperation of a Russian research institute, Akita Prefectural University, and the Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. In the development of a plasma sub-burner and the basic research for its verification, a pulverized coal burning plasma sub-burner is designed and fabricated, a basic burning experiment is conducted for the plasma sub-burner, and plasma stabilization in a pulverized coal flow is simulated. In the verification study of the ignition by the plasma sub-burner in a pulverized coal-fired furnace, it is found that the newly-developed plasma sub-burner satisfies the prescribed operating conditions in the system and that the ignition of pulverized coal takes place across the air ratio range of 0.5-1.5 when pulverized coal is fed to the sub-burner. It is also found that NOx is reduced a great deal when a plasma operating on an orifice gas of air or nitrogen is generated in a gas which contains NOx. (NEDO)

  5. Studies on water treatment by adsorption. Kyuchaku ni yoru mizushori

    Suzuki, M. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)


    This paper summarizes studies on the water treatment by adsorption, as for the adsorption during water treatment, reactivation of activated charcoal, and clarification of heating process. Reactivation of activated charcoal for the water treatment is carried out through drying in the heating furnace. Basic problems are the recovery degree of adsorption performance of reactivated activated charcoal and the recovery yield. Behavior of the activated charcoal in the heating reactivation furnace is divided into three stages including drying process, heating process, and gasification process. Among these processes, behaviors of organic matters during heating process are described. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted for activated charcoals adsorbing various organic matters in aqueous solutions. Three types of organic matters were classified from the TGA pattern, i.e., organic matters with relatively low boiling point (type-I), organic matters with higher boiling point (type-II), and phenol and lignin (type-III). Organic matters belonging to type-I and type-II are desorbed or decomposed, to be disappeared. Effectiveness of alkali cleaning is suggested for the type-III organic matters. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Bonded structure application for aircraft. Kokuki ni okeru secchaku gijutsu

    Yoshida, O. (Japan Airlines Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Adhesives play an important role in a technology of the aircraft structure for which lightness and strength are required. The paper explains the present situation of bonding technology employed for aircraft, the honeycomb structure, production of composite materials and the related problems. Advantages and purposes of employing adhesives as substitutes for fasteners like screws, rivets, etc. are as follows: decreases in stress concentration, weight reduction, smoothing of surfaces, improvement of acoustic fatigue by adhesives flexibility, prevention of gas-liquid leakage. Epoxide adhesives are mainly used for aircraft. Together with tear straps, which are metal-metal bonded to the rear fuselage plate of aircraft, and waffle doublers, an aluminium honeycomb sandwich structure, whose weight is 1/7 of an aluminium plate same in rigidity, is used in such parts of aircraft as spoilers, outer plates of flaps, etc. The problem of the bonded structure is detachment. Therefore, how to prevent, discover and repair it is most important. 3 figs.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on area consortium research and development business. Area consortium for venture business development by building base for small business (high-efficiency superhigh-accuracy grinding technology by nano-scale in-process measurement and control using novel grinding wheel); 1998 nendo venture kigyo ikuseigata chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu (chusho kigyo sozo kibangata). Shingata kensaku toishi wo mochiita nano in-process keisoku seigyo ni yoru konoritsu choseimitsu kensaku kako gijutsu no kaihatsu



    The aim is to develop a superflat grinding system for functional devices such as hard disks and magnetic heads. Cast iron powder is used as bonding material high in reacting with diamond for an increase in the anchoring power. A chemical reaction occurs to realize a strong bond between the two, producing a precision grinding wheel long in life and high in efficiency. A wheel with some hollows is also developed in which the grits have to bear more load because of the hollows, this achieving grinding efficiency five times higher than that of other types of the same grit size. A system is developed, provided with a constant pressure mechanism for the grinding direction and constant travel mechanism normal to the work surface. Using the constant pressure system, the grinding speed depends on the wheel grinding capability, and then the wheel is allowed to exhibits its best. The system suffers less clogging than the conventional ones. The specific grinding energy which is the index of the match between the wheel and the work may be determined, and this enables prompt condition optimization. It is proved that the wheel with hollows is remarkably higher in grinding capability than wheels of the same grit size on the market. The two are found to be alike in achieving top-class finish in terms of surface coarseness and flatness. (NEDO)

  8. Robotics in port construction. Kowan kensetsu ni okeru roboto ka gijutsu ni tsuite

    Sakai, Hiroshi (Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan))


    To cope positively with the problems of securing labor, improving work environment, etc., mechanization and robotics in port and marine development are the urgent subjects. Technologies for robotics of various levels are being developed, coverning data acquisition, processing, display, recording simple automation, and high inteligent fuction which can automatically make such judgement as having been done by man. Some representative cases of technological development in the fields of robotics and mechnization being carried on by the Ports and Harbors Bureau in the Ministry of Transportaion are introduced. Technological develpment required for the mechanization of rubble mound foundation construction work has been carried on. A demonstration test was carried out at Kamaishi Port, proving the practicability of the technology. Robots are developed which can walk on the sea bottom to perform underwater investigation and unmanned operation. Underwater visual device and underwater position measurement device are provided as the supporing systems. Several tests were already performed in actual sea areas and the success of the development was verified. 3 figs.

  9. FY 1995 development of fluorinated hydriding alloys with multi functional and functionally-graded surface and their application to energy conversion devices; 1995 nendo keishagata fukugo kino wo hyomen ni motsu suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu to energy henkan gijutsu eno oyo



    The project is the extended researches of a fluorination technique invented by the project leader (Suda) for improving the surface properties and characteristics of conventional hydriding alloys from the following viewpoints; (1) To investigate the roles of fluorinated surface during hydrogen uptake both in the gas-solid and the electrochemical reactions. (2) To elucidate the factors which increase the protective nature of the surface. (3) To develop a material design procedure for synthesizing thin layer of functionally graded surface which is composed of metallic Ni and the fluoride compound. (1) An advanced fluorination technique was developed to incorporate metallic Ni in the surface fluoride layer. (2) Metallic Ni was successfully distributed in a functionally graded manner in the Surface fluoride layer. (3) Through the technique developed, the following properties and characteristics were successfully donated in the fluorinated hydriding alloys such as AB{sub 5}, AB{sub 2}, and AB; (3-1)Surface oxides which act as the resistant layer to the hydrogen up take was completely eliminated to result in the enhancement of the initial activation characteristics. (3-2) Hydrogen selectivity and permeability was greatly improved. (3-3) Surface protective nature against the impurity gases and contaminants was significantly improved. (3-4) Initial activation characteristics both in the gas-solid and the electrochemical reactions were distinguishably improved. (3-5) Fluorinated surface was found to function as the catalyst for a methanation reaction between the CO{sub 2} gas adsorbed over the fluorinated surface and the monatomic hydrogen absorbed in the metal lattice of the crystalline structure of the hydriding alloys. (4) A technique was developed for increasing the specific surface area and decreasing the specific surface diameter of the fluorinated hydriding alloy articles. (NEDO)

  10. Survey of the trend of technical development and industrial policies in Asian countries; Asia shokoku ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu no doko to sangyo gijutsu seisaku ni kansuru chosa



    A sharp rise in industrial productivity in Asia countries indicates a rising level of R and D technology. Since Japan has not clearly grasped the R and D ability in these countries, it has not given appropriate personnel/material R and D support to them. Therefore, for the purpose of exactly grasping the R and D ability of Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India) and studying an effective and appropriate method for R and D cooperation, a survey was conducted of R and D potentials in Asia and R and D support policies of the countries. As a result of the survey, the following are taken up as items to be considered: promotion of exchanges between Tsukuba, etc. in Japan and research/university towns and science parks being constructed in lots of countries, participation of private companies in high-tech joint work in cooperation with Japan, sending information from Japan using internet, etc. and exact grasp of needs at partner side, cooperation given to new comers without asking for research results (use of OB researchers, etc.) 25 refs., 39 figs., 59 tabs.

  11. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industrial technology. Trend survey of global environment related studies (researches on measureds for reduction of environmental load of CO2); Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. Chikyu kankyo kanren kenkyu doko no chosa (nisanka tanso no kankyo fuka teigensaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)


    The paper studies the measures for reduction of environmental load of CO2 from the standpoint of chemical technology. As for methanol synthesis from CO2, accelerating of the reaction using Cu base compound catalyst is reported. Also, CO2 is methanated at high speed by low temperature waste heat using Ni-La2O3-Ru catalyst. Discussions are given on the subject for development of catalyst reaction relating to hydrogen production technology by methane reforming reaction using steam or CO2. Synthesis of polymetric materials by use of CO2 is also described. The paper mentions that it is indispensable to design high-function electrode and elucidate the reaction mechanism of electrochemical CO2 reduction for electrochemical and photochemical CO2 reduction measures. Moreover, in case of using solar energy, it is required to study photovoltaic excitation process in semiconductor electrode/ electrolyte solution interface. For production of hydrogen from CO2 by photosynthetic organisms and solar energy, the problem is control of inhibiting effect of oxygen combinedly produced. Described are production of polyhydroxy butyric acid and biodegradable polymer from CO2 and hydrogen by bacteria, and CO2 fixation imitating the enzyme reaction. 267 refs., 79 figs., 32 tabs.

  12. Adsorption of rare earth metal ion by algae. Sorui ni yoru kidorui ion no kyuchaku

    Kuwabara, T.; Yazawa, A. (Miyagi National College of Technology, Miyagi (Japan))


    This paper reports the result of investigations on adsorption of rare earth metal ion by using algae, and adsorption of different metal ions by using egg white and soy bean protein. Rare earth metal ion is adsorbed at a considerably high rate with alga powder of different kinds. The adsorption has been judged to be cation exchange reactive adsorption, while with use of spirulina and chlorella a maximum value of adsorption rate has been observed at pH from 3 to 4.5. Therefore, selective adsorption and separation of metal ions other than rare earth metal ion has become possible. When the blue pigment extracted from spirulina, the spirulina blue, is used, the rare earth metal ion had its selective adsorption and separation performance improved higher than using spirulina itself at pH from 3 to 4.5. As a result of adsorption experiment using egg white and soy bean protein, it has been found that the metal ion adsorption behavior of the spirulina blue depends on coagulative action of protein structure to some extent. However, the sharp selective adsorption performance on rare earth metal ion due to particular pH strength has been found because of actions unique to the pigment structure of phycocyanin, a major component in the spirulina blue. 7 refs., 19 figs.

  13. Indoor air pollution by particulate matter; Ryushijo busshitsu ni yoru osen

    Irie, T. [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Education


    This paper explains the standards and the purport of the law for maintenance of sanitation in buildings, the outbreak of sickness relating to the sick-building syndrome and its countermeasures, etc., in connection with particulate matters in the indoor environment. The law of 1970 specified 0.15mg/m{sup 3} as the standard of indoor maintenance control for suspended particulate matters. As a number of data were subsequently accumulated, however, it was revealed that tobacco smoke particles were the very cause of the indoor particulate pollution though it was unpredicted at the beginning. As a result, it led to the development of high level filters, improvement of air conditioning operation, measures for smoking, and so on, for which the regulation of 0.15mg/m{sup 3} has been believed to be correct after all. The most frequently disqualified item was particulate matters at the initial enforcement of the law, but the moisture standard has been ranked first in recent years. The problems of tobacco smoke, asbestos and allergens are particularly to be watched among many problems involved. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science


    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Laser material purification of neodymium. Hikari reiki seiseiho ni yoru neodymium no kojundoka

    Ogawa, Y.; Ozaki, T.; Yoshimatsu, S. (National Research Institute for Metals, Tokyo (Japan)); Chiba, K.; Umeda, H.; Saeki, M. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    Selective photoexcitation and photoionization of neodymium atoms were studied basically by using laser. Also, using their properties, feasibility of laser material purification (LPM) technology in gaseous phase was presented. In the selective 3-step ionization, laser beam with two kinds of proper wave length causes resonance exitation of the target element, which goes up to the excitation level of the first step, and the element is ionized by the second laser beam and the third laser beam. The 3-step ionization scheme by a single wave length laser beam of 577.612nm was used for the ionization of Nd. Nd ionized selectively by laser beam was recovered as thin layer at the negative potential side of plane electrodes placed at both sides of the laser irradiation area. In the layer formed by the TPD technology with this scheme, it is possible to decrease impuritis such as Pr by 1/16 and to form highly purified thin layer. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Continuous gravity monitoring of geothermal activity; Renzoku juryoku sokutei ni yoru chinetsu katsudo no monitoring

    Sugihara, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    To clarify the geothermal activity in the geothermal fields in New Zealand, gravity monitoring was conducted using SCINTREX automatic gravimeter. The measurements were conducted between the end of January and the beginning of March, 1996. Firstly, continuous monitoring was conducted at the standard point for about ten days, and the tidal components were estimated from the records. After that, continuous monitoring was conducted at Waimangu area for several days. Continuous monitoring was repeated at the standard point, again. At the Waimangu area, three times of changes in the pulse-shape amplitude of 0.01 mgal having a width of several hours were observed. For the SCINTREX gravimeter, the inclination of gravimeter is also recorded in addition to the change of gravity. During the monitoring, the gravimeter was also inclined with the changes of gravity. This inclination was useful not only for the correction of gravity measured, but also for evaluating the ground fluctuation due to the underground pressure source. It is likely that the continuous gravity monitoring is the relatively conventional technique which is effective for prospecting the change of geothermal reservoir. 2 figs.

  17. Groundwater exploration by self-potential method; Shizen den`iho ni yoru chikasui tansa

    Onaru, I.; Irie, S.; Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes results measured from the field experiments and data analysis of the groundwater exploration by self-potential method. The field survey was conducted in the vicinity of spring water source in the suburbs of Fukuoka City. For the field experiments, potential differences from the standard potential electrode set at the distance about 200 m were measured at multi-points, simultaneously. For the laboratory experiments, assuming that the groundwater flows in a permeable layer, streaming potential change was observed against the changes of flow rate and electrical conductivity. Thus, the generation of streaming potential was investigated. For the experiment using specimens obtained at the spring water source, the potential changed to negative and was stabilized in around -80 mV after 15 minutes. Numerical simulation was conducted by means of the three-dimensional finite difference method using parameters obtained from the laboratory experiments. From these results, the groundwater flow image could be obtained. It was also confirmed that the self-potential observed in the spring water source area was caused by the streaming potential. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  18. 3D pre-stack time migration; Kiruhihoffuho ni yoru sanjigen jugo mae jikan migration shori

    Nakajima, Y.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports pre-stack migration in elastic wave exploration as to its algorithm and examples of processed data. The time migration processing hypothesizes that seismic waves propagate linearly. It calculates travel time by dividing the sum of the straight distance from a vibration transmitting point to an image point and the straight distance from the image point to a vibration receiving point with RMS velocity given as a parameter. To maintain the relative relation of amplitude sizes, the signal on an elliptic body is made smaller in inverse proportion to the size of that elliptic body. With regard to apparent interval of input trace as seen from the reflection surface, or with regard to density, the signal is made smaller by cos{theta} times. While this program deals with three-dimensional migration, its output turns out as an arbitrary two-dimensional plane. The program requires a huge amount of data processing, whereas a method is used, that the input trace is divided, each group is processed by using separate computers, and the results are summed up. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Depolymerization of coal by oxidation and alkylation; Sanka bunkai to alkyl ka ni yoru sekitan kaijugo

    Tomita, H.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology


    Change in depolymerization degree and coal structure was studied for depolymerization treatment of coal in various alcohol containing aqueous hydrogen peroxide. In experiment, the mixture of Yallourn coal, alcohol and aqueous hydrogen peroxide was agitated in nitrogen atmosphere of normal pressure at 70{degree}C for 12 hours. As the experimental result, the methanol solubility of only 5% of raw coal increased up to 35.2% by hydrogen peroxide treatment, while the yield of insoluble matters also decreased from 94% to 62%. Most of the gas produced during treatment was composed of inorganic gases such as CO and CO2, and its carbon loss was extremely decreased by adding alcohol. From the analytical result of carbon loss in hydrogen peroxide treatment, it was clarified that alkylation advances with introduction of alkyl group derived from alcohol into coal by hydrogen peroxide treatment under a coexistence of alcohol, and depolymerization reaction of coal itself is thus promoted by alcohol. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Surface improvement of asbestos by wet process. Shisshiki shori ni yoru asbesto no hyomen kaishitsu

    Yasue, T.; Kojima, Y.; Obata, H.; Ogura, T.; Arai, Y. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering)


    The eluting process of each ion in asbestos was pursued up to the decomposition by processing with hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid to verify the acid processing condition making asbestos harmless and holding the fibrous structure. The decomposition of asbestos is significantly affected by the eluting condition. When treated by 3N hydrochloric acid, Mg{sup 2+} in asbestos elutes perfectly after 7days at 20 centigrade and after 30 minutes at 100 centigrade, remaining amorphous silica of comparatively high purity. When asbestos fiber which was acid-processed to exchange almost all sites with Ca{sup 2+} ion after Mg{sup 2+} in the first to fifth layers eluted, is put in Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution, hydroxyapatite is formed on the surface. When this asbestos is hydrothermally processed in the Ca(OH){sub 2} solution adjusted so that the atomic ratio of Ca{sup 2+}/Si{sup 4+} to silicate radical remained on the surface becomes 0.8, calcium silicate hydrate is formed on the surface. 22 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Preparation of hydroxyapatite whiskers by hydrothermal method; Suinetsuho ni yoru hidorokishi apataito hoisuka no gosei

    Asaoka, N. [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Electronics Technology Research Center; Suda, H. [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshimura, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Lab. of Engineering Materials


    In order to make good use of crystallographic anisotropy of hydroxyapatite (HAp : Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) positively, synthesizing method for whiskery HAp crystals which are elongated along the C-axis has been investigated. Adding suitable amounts of citric acid (Cit.) on HAp slurries with two different concentrations of 1.7 and 4.4 wt%, these slurries became clear solutions. Each solution of 1.0L was hydrothermally treated respectively in an autoclave at a temperature 200{degree}C for 0,1,2,3,5 and 10h. As a result, no HAp whiskers could be obtained from the solutions containing 4.4 wt% of HAp. From the solutions containing 1.7% of HAp, whiskers could be obtained only when the Cit. /HAp ratio was more than 14.8 and the time of hydrothermal treatment was more than 3h. The whiskers were from 10 to 30{mu}m in length and about 0.5{mu}m in diameter. Excepting the above conditions, plate-like calcium hydrogenphosphate (monetite) was obtained in return. This writer took into consideration about the reason on the rise and fall of obtaining the whiskers. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Countermeasures for increasing sequence continuous casting; Renchu kinosei taikabutsu zaishitsu, kozo kaizen ni yoru renrenchusu kojosaku

    Tsuda, Masato; Shinagawa, Hiroaki; Kamada, Ryuji; Hiraga, Yutaka; Hara, Takayasu [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In the second continuous casting line of Kure Iron Works, Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. improvement of the continuous casting counts per tundish was attempted for a target of max. 20. The results are as follows: (1) Non-SiO{sub 2} conversion of material for the long nozzle immersed part: About 20% improvement of durability compared with a conventional material to clear 0.059 mm/min of the targeted erosion speed when 20 CCC/TD is realized, (2) Durability improvement of SN plate: About 20% durability improvement was attained compared with a conventional material by the adoption of a non-SiO{sub 2} material, (3) Erosion resistance improvement of the immersed nozzle slug line part: Castable period was extended to 1 ch life improvement by increasing zirconia content, (4) Rise of stopper full open position: The rise of the full open position produced less variation of melt level than the conventional structure without increase of the SN opening, enabling plugging prevention between the stopper head and the upper nozzle which was an objective of this improvement, (5) Structure improvement of the upper nozzle: This improvement successfully prevented leaks from damage of the casting stop nozzle metal case and enabled casting under low gas flow even in TD nozzle plugging. These improvements gave a possibility to achieve max. 20 CCC/TD. (NEDO)

  3. Faults survey by 3D reflection seismics; Sanjigen hanshaho jishin tansa ni yoru danso chosa

    Tsuchiya, T.; Ejiri, T.; Yamada, N.; Narita, N.; Aso, H.; Takano, H.; Matsumura, M. [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes fault survey by 3D seismic reflection exploration. Survey has been conducted mainly at flat land area without pavement not in urban area in Japan. Subsurface structure is complicated with intersecting multiple faults. In this area, a lot of geological investigations have been done prior to the seismic reflection exploration. Fairly certain images of faults have been obtained. However, there were still unknown structures. Survey was conducted at an area of 170m{times}280m in the CDP range. Measurements were carried out by using 100 g of dynamite per seismic generation point combined with 40 Hz velocity geophones. Fixed distribution consisting of lattice points of 12{times}12 was adopted as an observation method. In and around the lattice, a great number of explosions were carried out. The CDP stacking method and the method of migration after stacking were used for the data processing. The 3D structures of six horizons and five faults could be interpreted. Interpreted horizons were well agreed with the logging results. 3 figs.

  4. Foods hygiene management according to HACCP.; HACCP ni yoru shokuhin eisei kanri

    Seki, T. [Niigata Enginering Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    New foods hygiene management system HACCP(Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) was explained, which prevents food poisoning. Followings are described; (1) Outline of HACCP, (2) History of HAPPC, (3) Process to perform HACCP, (4) Infrastructure for HACCP, (5) How to promote HACCP, (6) Certification system in Japan. HACCP secures the safety in foods hygiene by making rules of Critical Control Points (CCP) on foods hygiene and by administrating strictly their performance. Details of works, frequency and person in charge of the work and methods to confirm and record the work are prescribed in PP (Prerequisite Program) and SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operation Procedure). (NEDO)

  5. Active control of aerodynamic noise; Active control ni yoru furyoku soon no seigyo

    Nishimura, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces summary and examples of active noise control (ANC) and active flow control (AFC) as the aerodynamic noise control techniques. The ANC is a technique to generate noise of a reverse phase which cancels the original noise. Noise reduced especially effectively by the ANC is noise from fans and ducts used for engine air supply and exhaust. The ANC is effective in low frequencies, and when used with a passive method, a compact exhaust silencer can be realized, which has high noise reducing performance over the whole frequency band and has low pressure loss. Signal processing in active noise reduction system is always so adjusted that noise is discharged from a secondary noise source in which signals detected by a detection microphone is given a digital filter treatment, and output from an error microphone is minimized. The AFC has been incapable of realizing a reverse phase over a wide frequency band when depended on analog treatment. However, the authors have developed an adaptive type feedback control system, and verified that the system can be applied to any frequency variation and control it in a stable manner. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Characterization of earthquake fault by borehole experiments; Koseinai sokutei ni yoru jishin danso no kenshutsu

    Ito, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishizawa, O.; Kuwahara, Y.; Kiguchi, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A borehole was excavated to penetrate the Nojima fault at the Hirabayashi area, to investigate the underground structures of the fault by observation of the cores and well logging. The borehole was excavated from 74.6m east of the fault surface. Soil is of granodiorite from the surface, and fault clay at a depth in a range from 624.1 to 625.1m. Observation of the cores, collected almost continuously, indicates that the fault fracture zone expands in a depth range from 557 to 713.05m. The well logging experiments are natural potential, resistivity, density, gamma ray, neutron, borehole diameter, microresistivity and temperature. They are also for DSI- and FMI-observation, after expansion of the borehole. The well logging results indicate that resistivity, density and elastic wave velocity decrease as distance from fault clay increases, which well corresponds to the soil conditions. The BHTV and FMI analyses clearly detect the fault clay demarcations, and show that elastic wave velocity and BHTV results differ at above and below the fault. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Monitoring of ground water aquifer by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui monitoring

    Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering (Japan)


    This paper describes three case studies for monitoring ground water aquifers by electrical prospecting. An example in the Hofu plain, Yamaguchi Prefecture is presented, where the ground water environment has been monitored for more than 30 years from the viewpoint of hydrology. Then, transition from the fresh ground water to sea water is evaluated by a sharp boundary as salt-water wedges through the field survey in a coastal area of a large city for a short term using vertical electrical prospecting. Moreover, streaming potential measurements are described to grasp the real-time behavior of ground water flow. From the long-term monitoring of ground water aquifer, it was found that the variation of ground water streaming can be evaluated by monitoring the long-term successive change in the resistivity of ground water aquifer. From the vertical electrical prospecting, water quality can be immediately judged through data analysis. From the results of streaming potential measurements and vertical electrical prospecting using Schlumberger method, streaming behavior of ground water in the area of spring water source can be estimated by determining three-dimensional resistivity structure. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Berthing control with multi-agent system; Multi agent system ni yoru chakusan seigyo

    Ito, H. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)


    The berthing of a ship is a kind of control operations of position, speed and direction of a ship in order to bring a ship alongside a quay. Berthing control is accompanied with a hard problem in which the 6 freedoms of position and speed in 3 directions such as fore and behind, right and left and a revolution must be controlled. In this study, a concept of the agent was introduced as a means of berthing. The agent is a computer program which can be worked in a person`s place. If an autonomous intelligence is carried on each element such as a tugboat or a propeller of ship, the element is able to act based on judgement decided by itself without an instruction from a control center. Thereby, the berthing control system as a multi-agent system having an adaptability and a cooperativeness will be realized. Then the multi-agent system to help berthing was constructed by applying the Muller`s three phase model as a cooperative autonomous agent and by sharing the role of each phase. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Purification of carbon nanotube by wet oxidation; Shisshiki sanka ni yoru carbon nanotube no seisei

    Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)


    In order to efficiently recover carbon nanotubes, the purification method by wet oxidation with orthoperiodic acid and perchloric acid is investigated. The reactivity of the carbonaceous material toward the acids depends on the type of carbon. Carbon nanotubes are selectively recovered under the mild oxidation conditions. The degree of purification depends on the concentration of orthoperiodic acid. It is suggested that wet oxidation is an effective method for purification of carbon nanotubes. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Spray visualization by laser sheet tomography; Laser sheet ni yoru funmu danmen no kashikaho

    Oda, T.; Hiroyasu, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Laser sheet tomography was applied to the visualization of the cross section of a spray. In this method, fluorescent dye, eosine-Y(C20H6Br4Na2O), was used at a concentration of 10 g/l of the injectant, water, and the light source which illuminated the spray was a Nd: YAG laser (532 wavelength, 20ns pulse width) in laser sheet tomography. The thickness of the laser sheet which was scattered by the spray was measured to elucidate the effect of the concentration of fluorescent dye in the injected liquid. In the case of water without eosine-Y, multiscattered light-illuminated drops were observed outside of the laser sheet therefore the thickness of the laser sheet increased. However, in the case of water with eosine-Y, there were few drops which were illuminated by the multiscattered light, and only drops which existed within the laser sheet scattered green laser light and emitted the yellow fluorescent light of eosine-Y. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Biomodification of edible fats and oils by yeasts; Kobo ni yoru shokuyo yushi no seibutsugakuteki kaishitsu

    Fujimoto, K.; Endo, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture


    Lipid-biomodification ability was examined for yeasts isolated from soil using culture medium containing beef tallow (2%). Some yeasts, e.g. Candida, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula species were able to grow on fats and oils. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions were modified in lipids of some strains. Candida sp. MIS-1 and YM1-1 preferentially produced oleic acid. Candida sp. MIS-1 had high level of triacylglycerol with a melting point like olive oil. Fatty acid composition of lipids in Candida lipolytica IAM4948 and Rhodotorula sp. AO3-5 was similar to that of cacao butter. Yeast oils obtained from C. lipolytica provided the melting characterization different from beef tallow. 30 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Simulation of Korotkoff sounds by starling resistor; Sutaringu rejisuta ni yoru korotokofu on no mogi

    Hayashi, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science


    Starling resistor is a device in which the both ends of a collapsible tube are connected to a solid tube and external pressure is applied from the circumference to flatten the tube, and is used as a constant flow maintenance device in biological experiments. The validity of a mathematical model is established by numerical analysis of the static characteristics of starling resistor, stability of constant flow, and produced self-excited oscillation. Using the model, transient artery blood flow is simulated under the same conditions as those of human indirect blood pressure measurement. Oscillatory waves similar to Korotkoff sound are obtained in sectional area time differential waveform when the external pressure is between the blood pressure in contraction stage and that in expansion stage. It is confirmed by the locus of phase plane that this characteristic oscillation is produced in unstable region of the tube static characteristics. This fact seems to suggest that Korotkoff sound is closely related to unstable behavior due to non-linearity particular to collapsible tubes. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Ground water contamination by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui osen chosa

    Irie, S.; Fujii, Y.; Sakaguchi, S.; Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A report is made about the result of vertical electric sounding conducted in the MK district, Fukuoka City, where Kyushu University is about to move. As for the method of electrical prospecting, in consideration of the need for probing a depth of 50m at the shallowest, vertical electrical sounding with a Schlumberger array of electrodes was employed. Measurements were made for 57 locations on the planar ground, the interval between electrodes gradually increased from 1 to 200m. In the 2D structure model analysis, a 2D inversion program was utilized in the ABIC minimization method. Also investigated were the relationship of electric prospecting and the geology, geological conditions, water level in the well, water quality, salt water, and pore rate from the previously-conducted investigative boring. As the result, it was estimated that the boundary between the first and second layers detected by electric prospecting reflected the level of underground water and that the boundary between the second and third layers reflected the portion where the N-value sharply increases. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Archaeological prospecting by DEF method; Denkai zansaho ni yoru iseki tansa

    Kishikawa, H.; Aono, T.; Tanaka, T.; Mizunaga, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A study is made of a newly-developed differential electric field (DEF) method, wherein potentials between potential electrodes equidistant from a current electrode is measured for directly detecting the secondary potential attributable to an anomalous-resistivity body. In this method, a current is fed into the ground from a point source C1, and four potential electrodes, two each on the X-axis and Y-axis, are provided equidistant from the point source C1 for the measurement of the potentials in the directions of X and Y. Numerical experiments and field experiments in a playground were conducted for this DEF method, and it was found that this method is effective in detecting an anomalous-resistivity bodies (ruins, etc.) situated in a homogeneous medium or in a horizontal multi-layer structure, is capable of displaying anomalous vectors enabling the estimation of the direction from the observation point of the anomalous-resistivity body, improves on work efficiency over the conventional mapping method, enables the estimation of the boundary of the anomalous-resistivity body on the basis of the peak of the anomalous electric field residue on the display, and that the obtained data can be easily processed by use of a personal computer on the site. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Seismic traveltime tomography by use of gridpoints discritization; Koshitenho ni yoru danseiha tomography kaiseki

    Hirai, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Efforts were made to enhance analytical precision and stabilize the results in seismic traveltime tomography by use of a method wherein the velocity distribution is expressed as a continuous function interpolated by parameters respectively assigned to the gridpoints. In this method, the slowness data are regarded as the parameters respectively assigned to the gridpoints, and the slowness value at a given point is determined after interpolation by the gridpoints surrounding the said point. A method based on the variation principle was used for ray tracing. As the result, it was confirmed that this method determines the ray path and traveltime with high precision. A method of least squares using Lagrange`s multiplier was applied for inversion. Comparison was made between the use of cells and the use of gridpoints in the results of inversions performed for an inclined 4-layer structure model, when it was found that the values involving the boundaries between layers, inclinations of the layers, and velocities of seismic waves are ambiguous with the cells while those with the gridpoints are reconstructed roughly correctly. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. FY1995 community support by mobile agents; 1995 nendo mobile agent ni yoru community keisei shien



    The purpose is to develop fundamental technologies for navigation systems and mobile computing systems in museums, theme parks and cities. Concretely, we implement software agents into the mobile computing environment which consists of PHS, mobile computers and mobile robots, and realize various functions to access regional information. We have studied on Communityware which supports human activities and communities by using mobile agents implemented into mobile computers and town robots. The mobile agents, which intelligently process information obtained in physical and virtual worlds, access regional information which is omnipresent in the environment. With respect to the approach using mobile computers, we have provided one hundred mobile computers in the international conference on multiagent systems 1996 and carried out the first experimentation of mobile computing in the world. The mobile computer has two functions: Community Viewer which displays interactions between members of communities and Social Matchmaker which supports to hold meetings by searching for people who have common interests. With respect to the approach using town robots, we have developed a robot system which can robustly behave in a complex outdoor environment by using vision agents embedded in the environment. The system aims at support of people in streets. (NEDO)

  17. Keynote report by special guest. Tokubetsu guest ni yoru kicho hokoku


    A lecture at the Maui meeting of U.S.-Japan Energy Policy Consultations was delivered by Mr.Yoichi Funabashi, General Director in the U.S., Asahi Shimbun Publishing Company. The historical significance of Japan's diplomatic policy since the U.K.-Japan Alliance and the present situation in Japan, the U.S. and China were explained. As a present problem in Japan, it was pointed out that the votes of urban electors were not fully reflected in the number of parliamentary seats, and votes in agricultural and rural districts applied imbalanced pressure to Japanese politics, and negative pressure to politic parties insisting market liberation and with an international global view. In addition, since the Hosokawa administration, there has been power vacuum, political and financial power weakened, and the Ministry of Finance has filled the vacuum. According to his lecture, it was unclear who promoted regulation relaxation, and administration reforms in their true sense. The economic community should propose policy plans independently, and should have them reflected in decision making of the nation. Also it was important to maintain and strengthen the value of the U.S.-Japan alliance relation.

  18. Separation of flavonoids by means of solvent extraction; Yobai chushutsuho ni yoru flavonoid rui no bunri

    Kitazaki, H.; Ishimaru, M. [Tsumura and Co., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, K.; Nakamura, S. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering


    Some herb medicines may contain various flavonoids. The bioactivity of them has been attracted attention. In this paper, the separating purification method by solvent extraction was investigated. The extractant is di (ethylhexyl) amine, tributyl phosphate, N,N-dioctyl hexanamide, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), and Cyanex 925. Flavonoids are considered to be separated based on the difference of solubility in an ethanol solution, the existence of a glycoside in flavonoids, and the number of hydroxyl groups or their bonding position. For example, flavone, flavonol, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein, and baicalin are used as the representative substance of flavonoids. If a target substance is baicalin, this mixture is dissolved in an ethanol solution to eliminate insoluble matter such as flavonol. Next, flavone is extracted and eliminated by hexane. In the last step, the target baicalin is left in raffinate by TOPO or Cyanex 925. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Three dimensional wavefield modeling using the pseudospectral method; Pseudospectral ho ni yoru sanjigen hadoba modeling

    Sato, T.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Saeki, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Discussed in this report is a wavefield simulation in the 3-dimensional seismic survey. With the level of the object of exploration growing deeper and the object more complicated in structure, the survey method is now turning 3-dimensional. There are several modelling methods for numerical calculation of 3-dimensional wavefields, such as the difference method, pseudospectral method, and the like, all of which demand an exorbitantly large memory and long calculation time, and are costly. Such methods have of late become feasible, however, thanks to the advent of the parallel computer. As compared with the difference method, the pseudospectral method requires a smaller computer memory and shorter computation time, and is more flexible in accepting models. It outputs the result in fullwave just like the difference method, and does not cause wavefield numerical variance. As the computation platform, the parallel computer nCUBE-2S is used. The object domain is divided into the number of the processors, and each of the processors takes care only of its share so that parallel computation as a whole may realize a very high-speed computation. By the use of the pseudospectral method, a 3-dimensional simulation is completed within a tolerable computation time length. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Nondestructive material characterization with laser ultrasound. Laser choonpa ni yoru hihakai zaishitsu keisoku

    Suzuki, N.; Takamatsu, H.; Arai, A.; Yanai, S.; Ogawa, T.; Akamatsu, M. (Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan). Electronics Research Lab.)


    From the requirement of shortening time for delivery of goods, an equipment of evaluating the characteristics of steel plates in on-line is expected. Concerning this problem, development of an equipment for measuring the lankford value (r-value) of the cold rolled steel plates at outlet in the continuous annealing line by using the Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) was reported. However, since measurement is performed by using the electromagnetic force in this equipment sensor is necessary to be put near a steel plate, so that its application is limited. In this paper, the multiple reflecting echos of laser ultrasound to the thin steel plates were measured by using the Fabry-Perot interferometer that is suitable to be applied in the wide-band measurement of ultrasound. Application to measurement of crystal grain size of steel plates by using this method was clarified. In evaluating the measurement of crystal grain size, the necessaries were described concerning which bottom echos would be selected for reducing the errors caused by widening range of echos due to the irradiating diameter of excitation laser. Components of low frequencies occurred among multiple reflects would be removed by a filter. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Technology of latent-heat recovery for boiler system; Boira ni okeru sennetsu kaishu gijutsu

    Moriyama, T. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan)


    The boiler has reached the highest degree of completion among combustion equipment and is highly efficient. In order to enhance its efficiency further, it is ordinary to recover the retention heat of the combustion exhaust gas, but due to the problem of low temperature corrosion caused by the sulfur content in fuel resulted from a temperature drop of the exhaust gas, heat recovery has been done not sufficiently. In this article, an example is introduced to plan the betterment of efficiency by application of a latent heat recovering economizer to a sugar manufactory and a report is made on the energy saving effect by recovering the latent heat and a study on the quality of the material for the latent heat reclaimer. The above latent heat reclaimer is a system which takes advantage of the feature of the natural gas reportedly having no sulfur content, brings down the temperature at the outlet of a heat exchanger of the boiler exhaust gas to below the dew point, thereby recovers the condensed latent heat of the vapor in the exhaust gas and utilizes it for heating up the boiler feed water. In this example, the line of an already installed boiler has been partially modified and only a latent heat reclaimer has been installed newly. The increase of efficiency has been as high as 5.28%. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Process improvement technology for petrochemical plant; Sekiyu kagaku puranto ni okesu purosesu kaizen gijutsu

    Yamada, Shin


    Before, GTC technology Co. was a manufacturer of the tray as a Greenwich technology. It is the subsidiary, which undertakes technology and licence of the engineering firm in U.S.A. at present. It carries out besides the technology licence support in the startup for the prolonged driving of technical service, operating condition of the plant of improvement and optimization and, etc. Has made separation and purification technology, which made extractive distillation to be a beginning good and has the process improvement technology to the PTA (high-pure terephthalic acid) from BTX (benzene toluene xylene) of petrochemical plant. (NEDO)

  3. Investigation on food sanitation controlling technologies; Shokuhin eisei kanri gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Doi, Y. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Nishioka, J.


    Investigation has been made on the current status of food sanitation controlling technologies. Eighty percent of food poisoning is caused by bacte such as Salmonera, enteritis vibrio, staphylococcus, and pathogenic colibacillus. Putrefaction as the cause for food poisoning occurs from proliferation of different microorganisms. Heating sterilization is the main method being performed, but non-heating method may include sterilization by flash and high voltage pulse discharge in addition to ultra-high pressure and ultraviolet ray sterilization. As a result of the questionnaire survey, what is extracted as the problems in the food sanitation controlling technologies is to establish a rinsing and sterilizing method with large sterilization effect, an effective sterilizing method and thawing of processed marine products, and a cooling method in food processing. Increasingly demanded for the future is to develop a foodstuff sanitation control system using as the core the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP, a quality control program developed by the U.S. NASA to ensure safety in manufacturing space food), and micro-organism control and sterilizing technologies to support the above system. The flash pulse and high-voltage pulse sterilizing technologies as the non-heating sterilizing technology are more effective than the conventional heating sterilization methods also from the aspect of quality retention after sterilization. More active development thereof is desired. (NEDO)

  4. Measuring techniques for martensitic transformations; Marutensaito hentai ni kansuru sokutei gijutsu

    Murakami, Y.; Morito, S. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan). Graduate School; Otsuka, K. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science


    It is better to measure physical amount that shows significant change during transformation in order to carry out precise detection of martensitic transformations or to decide the transformation temperature. One of it is Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. This method is very easy along with the determination of transformation enthalpy and also specific heat and is used widely. In martensitic transformation, there exist the intrinsic crystal habit face to the alloy system and crystal azimuthal relation between parent phase and martensite, and it is important to decide them correctly as crystallographic parameters. Overhere, method for measuring crystallographic parameters from martensite caused in parent phase single crystal material is introduced. Further, role of electron microscope is extremely large regarding the revelation of martensitic transformation mechanism in atomic scale. In this report, as for what is revealed regarding martensitic transformation when using electron microscope, crystal structure of martensite, form, structure of the interface and so forth are cited. 39 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Evaluation technology of lead-free solders; Namari free handa zairyo ni okeru hyoka gijutsu

    Yamashita, M.; Shiokawa, K. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development,Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)


    Solders mainly composed of tin and lead are currently in widespread use in semiconductor devices. However, in view of lead influences on the human body and environmental problems, lead-free solders have been in urgent demand. In this study, aiming to improve the solderability and reliability of a tin-silver solder, one of most promising lead-free solder materials, we have investigated elements to be added. Focusing on typical lead-free tin-silver solders and tin-lead eutectic solders, this paper describes the result of investigations into the mechanical properties solderability, micro structures of the solder materials and gas analysis in soldering. (author)

  6. Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology; Sanso nensho gijutsu ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu

    Kato, M. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kiga, T.; Yamada, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, K. [Nippon Sanso K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Mori, T. [Inst. of Research and Innovation, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, N.; Okawa, M. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This study is being progressed during a period from 1992 to 1999 as part of the NEDO`s clean coal technology program. This paper describes what has been discussed to date. The absorption method and the adsorption method may be used to recover CO2 as means to deal with the problem of global warming resulted from burning coals. These methods, however, have problems in economy caused from concentration of CO2 in flue gas being low. The present study is intended to raise the CO2 concentration in flue gas by using oxygen plus circulated flue gas in the place of combustion air, so that CO2 may be recovered as it is without being separated from the flue gas. Therefore, an oxygen-blown pulverized coal fired power generation plant having a cryogenic oxygen manufacturing equipment was designed to discuss the plant operability and economy, and the pulverized coal combustion technology by using a dynamic simulation. A large number of findings have been obtained already, and the study has reached a level at which grasping the whole image is now possible. 13 figs.

  7. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa



    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. High-accuracy measurement of ship velocities by DGPS; DGPS ni yoru sensoku keisoku no koseidoka ni tsuite

    Yamaguchi, S.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics


    The differential global positioning system (DGPS) can eliminate most of errors in ship velocity measurement by GPS positioning alone. Through two rounds of marine observations by towing an observation robot in summer 1995, the authors attempted high-accuracy measurement of ship velocities by DGPS, and also carried out both positioning by GPS alone and measurement using the bottom track of ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler). In this paper, the results obtained by these measurement methods were examined through comparison among them, and the accuracy of the measured ship velocities was considered. In DGPS measurement, both translocation method and interference positioning method were used. ADCP mounted on the observation robot allowed measurement of the velocity of current meter itself by its bottom track in shallow sea areas less than 350m. As the result of these marine observations, it was confirmed that the accuracy equivalent to that of direct measurement by bottom track is possible to be obtained by DGPS. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Research on crystal growth by using pressure as a control parameter; Atsuryoku seigyo ni yoru kessho seicho ni kansuru kenkyu



    This research project aims to establish a technique for crystal growth using pressure as a principal control parameter, and combining it with a microgravity condition, to develop a novel process material fabrication. Since the solubility of materials depends on pressure, it is possible to control a supersaturated condition for crystal growth by changing pressure. The growth condition can be controlled precisely, which is not possible by conventional methods that vary temperature and other factors. On the other hand, because a concentration diffusing field is formed autonomically around crystals in association with their growth, density convection is generated under gravity as a result of difference in the concentrations, making the growth conditions severely complex and uncontrollable. Ideal crystal growth condition control may be possible if the pressure control is performed under micro-gravity by which generation of the density convection can be suppressed. Realization has been achieved on in-situ observation by using high-magnification microscope which uses a diamond anvil cell, development of a hydraulic type optic pressure cell, and a high- speed crystal growing technology by means of pressure control utilizing the cell. New findings were also obtained on effects of pressure on crystal forms, and the pressure induced solid phase transfer mechanism. 67 refs., 49 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Flat plate approximation in the three-dimensional slamming; Heiban kinji ni yoru sanjigen suimen shogeki keisanho ni tsuite

    Toyama, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A slamming load generated by interactive motions between a ship body and water face is an important load in ensuring safety of the ship. A flat plate approximation developed by Wagner is used as a two-dimensional slamming theory, but it has a drawback in handling edges of a flat plate. Therefore, an attempt was made to expand the two-dimensional Wagner`s theory to three dimensions. This paper first shows a method to calculate water face slamming of an arbitrary axisymmetric body by using circular plate approximation. The paper then proposes a method to calculate slamming pressure distribution and slamming force for the case when shape of the water contacting surface may be approximated by an elliptic shape. Expansion to the three dimensions made clear to some extent the characteristics of the three-dimensional slamming. In the case of two dimensions or a circular column for example, the water contacting area increases rapidly in the initial stage generating large slamming force. However, in the case of three dimensions, since the water contacting area expands longitudinally and laterally, the slamming force tends to increase gradually. Maximum slamming pressure was found proportional to square of moving velocity in a water contacting boundary in the case of three dimensions, and similar to stagnation pressure on a gliding plate. 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Waste gas treatment technology at steelmaking plants. Seitetsu setsubi ni okeru hai gas shori gijutsu ni tsuite

    Tanaka, M.; Shimizu, K.; Deshimaru, K.; Watari, S. (Nihon Univ., Narashino, Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology)


    A variety of furnaces are employed for steelmaking. The waste gases from these furnaces are used as fuel gases or flared to the atmosphere. For the enhancement of energy efficiency at these plants and the improvement of environment, it is essential to remove the impurities contained in the waste gases, such as soot, dust, NOx and SOx with high efficiency at the lowest possible cost. In coke oven and sintering furnace, soot and dust consisting of sulphuric element, cyanogenic element and fume of alkali metals as main constituents are the subject of treatment, because these elements were contained in the raw materials. And, in blast furnace and LD converter, soot and dust are the subject of treatment because the materials have already been treated under high-temperature and the waste gases contain little chemical impurities consequently. On the other hand, in various combustion furnaces, purified by-product gases, such as the above mentioned BFG (blast furnace gas), LDG (LD converter gas) and COG (coke oven gas), etc., are used frequently and NOx generated by the high-temperature combustion is often the subject of treatment. In this report, the waste gas treatment technology developed by Nippon Steel Corporation for these various furnaces was described. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Final report of `research on advanced uses of cast materials`; Chusho kigyo taisaku gijutsu tokubetsu kenkyu `chuzo zairyo no kodo riyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu` shuryo hokokusho

    Tada, S.; Takahashi, T.; Abe, T. [Tohoku National Industrial Research Institute, Sendai (Japan)


    For the advanced utilization of casting iron, temperature differential austempering and partial austempering with the gradient mechanical properties of ADI (austempered ductile iron) by local electric method were experimentally investigated. For the former, gradient mechanical properties are obtained by giving temperature difference to the material in the process of austempering of casting iron, to add the strength and toughness. For the latter, mechanical properties are controlled by repeating partial austempering with changing the isothermal transformation condition by means of local electric method, to obtain the strength characteristics with appropriate balance. As a result of the former experiment, function gradient materials could be obtained with continuously changing internal mechanical properties. The fabricated material provided different properties depending on the direction of load. Radial crushing strength constant of the ring material depended on the treatment temperature of inside surface of the specimen. Fatigue and yield strengths can be simultaneously improved. As a result of the latter experiment, it was found that the mechanical properties can be improved at arbitrary part by the partial austempering. 13 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Integrated practical technology for rationalization of production system in Miike coal mine; Seisan kozo kaikaku no tame no sogo shien gijutsu (Miike tanko ni okeru gijutsu kaikaku)

    Furukawa, H. [Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the improvement of production structure and the reduction since the latter half of FY 1990 in the Miike Coal Mine. The annual production was reduced from 4.5 to 2.35 million tons. The rationalization strategy is composed of the increase in productivity with intensive faces by introducing high performance mining facilities (MHP) and by modifying mining method, the mechanization of driving works, the simplification of underground structures, the reduction of indirect costs, and the rationalization of surface management departments. Faces were reduced to one or two by the MHP, and high operation rate and energy saving are achieved using self-advancing frames. Face moving period was reduced by rotating the MHP within the underground. Labor-saving of belt conveyors was achieved using built-up frames. For the gallery driving, a base gallery was excavated before production, and level driving was expanded through the base gallery. High-speed and systematic face driving was realized through in-seam driving by operating road header without using blasting. To avoid the decrease in operation rate due to unexpected faults or spring waters, early grasping system of face conditions was established, and environmental arrangement was enriched. The efficiency was improved from 96 in FY 1988 to 159 t/person{center_dot}month in FY 1995. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Feasibility of hydrogen production from seaweeds by fermentation; Kaiso wo kishitsu ni riyoshita hakoho ni yoru suiso seisan no kanosei ni tsuite

    Tanisho, Shigeharu; Suganuma, Takeshi [Yokohama National University, Kanagawa (Japan)


    To use kelps as a substrate for fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes strain E.82005, hydrogen evolution rates and yields from mannitol were measured under various salt-concentration cultures. Under non-salt condition, they were 13 mmol per litter culture per hour and 1.6 mol H{sub 2} per mol mannitol, as compared with these, under salt condition 1%, 2%, and 3%, they were 9.9 and 1.5, 4.3 and 1.2, and 3.0 and 0.9, respectively. From these results, we concluded that the production of hydrogen is suitable under non-salt condition, but lower salt condition than seawater especially around 1% is allowable for practical production of hydrogen. The higher yield of H{sub 2} from mannitol than from glucose was clearly shown from the mass balance between evolved H{sub 2} and calculated H2 from metabolite. (author)

  15. Development of a ceramics filter technology for aluminum recycling. Discussion on an unnecessary constituent reducing process by means of solid-liquid separation; Recycle arumiyo ceramics filter gijutsu no kaihatsu. Koeki bunrini yoru fuyo seibun teigen process no kento

    Saegusa, T.; Honma, K. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Narita, T.; Suzuki, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Matsubara, H.; Aoki, S. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya (Japan)


    A problem in recycling aluminum scraps is the existence of Fe and Pb as impurities, in addition to added alloy elements (Cu, Si, Mg and Zn). Discussion was given on an Fe concentration reducing method, in which molten Al-Cu-Fe-based alloy to simulate scrapped materials is filtered by an alumina ceramics filter at the solid-liquid phase coexisting temperature zone. The ceramics filter was formed by mixing thermally hardening resin into fine powder material. By using a method to drill through-holes during the forming stage, fine pores were optionally controlled in the sub-millimeter to millimeter order. In the filtration, if the Fe concentration is lower than that in the eutectic composition, Cu and Fe are condensed in the permeate phase, whereas primary crystal of aluminum is accumulated on the filter as the remaining phase, enhancing the aluminum purity. Filtration, repeated three times, has reduced the Fe concentration from 0.75 to 0.63% by atoms. If the Fe concentration is higher than eutectic concentration, since Fe is condensed in the form of intermetallic compound of FeAl{sub 3} as the remaining phase on the filter, the Fe concentration is reduced in the permeation phase, and three-time filtration reduced the Fe concentration from 1.5 to 0.70% by atoms. (NEDO)

  16. Drag reduction of high altitude airships by active boundary layer control. Effect of a cusp on the reduction; Nodo kyokaiso seigyo ni yoru koso hikosen no teiko teigen. Cusp ni yoru teigen koka

    Yamamura, N. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuuchi, K.; Yamazaki, S.; Sasaki, A. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Onda, M. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)


    The aerodynamic character of station-keeping airships at high Reynolds numbers is examined. The boundary layer developing on the surface is sucked by an axial flow fan through a slot located at the rear part of the airship and the sucked gas is blown out as a jet. To know the effect of the cusp two models with and without a cusp attached to the inlet of the suction slot were used. The flow field near the inlet, in particular the pressure on the surface, was measured as the suction discharge was varied. We obtained the form drag by integrating the pressure distribution in a wide range of Reynolds number and of suction discharge. Taking into account the jet thrust and the calculated friction drag, we finally determined the total drag and evaluated the role of the cusp. It was found that the cusp plays an efficient role in reducing the drag. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Study on the active noise control method and the effect of noise reduction due to the multi-connected branch dusts. Gyakuiso no fukaon ni yoru soon seigyoho no kento to tarengata bunkikan ni yoru soon keigen koka

    Nakao, Kiyoatsu.


    This paper reports the results of experimental studies on the utility of the active noise control method, and the effects of the multi-connected branch pipes silencer, concerning the reduction of noise. In the experiments of active noise control by using ducts, when the canceling sound was produced by the speaker set at the end of the short-length pipe corresponding to the one forth wave-length, the sound pressure of canceling noise was less one sixth as compared with setting the speaker at the wall of pipe. The noise reduction quantity to the random noise by the active noise control method was about as much as 15db. This method is not adaptable for noise with wide ranges of frequency. A branch pipe silencers, when it was used as multi-connected branch pipe, could extend the bounds of noise frequency which was able to be reduced and could increase the noise reduction quality. This silencer can deal with the fluctuation of frequency od noise and has higher practicability. 10 refs., 21 figs.

  18. Decomposition of water-soluble dyes by ozonation and its evaluation by color measurement methods; Suiyosei senryo no ozon sanka ni yoru dasshoku to shikido sokuteiho ni yoru hyoka

    Takahashi, N.; Nakai, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to control colors in waste waters from dye making factories and dying factories, aqueous dye solutions having different hues and coloration were ozonated to measure and discuss the decoloration process by using different hue measurement methods. Sixteen kinds of dyes were selected, which have poor treatment efficiency in bio-treatment or coagulative precipitation. For absorbance method for hue measurement, two methods were used: a method to estimate absorbance at wavelengths of every 50 nm from 350 nm to 700 nm to measure its reduction rate, and a method for reduction rate of absorbance at the maximum absorption wavelength. The color difference method performed calculations using the permeability and coefficient at selected wavelengths divided into ten segments. In the dilution method, the hue was indicated by distilled water dilution magnification which was compared with that for the reference liquid. The absorbance method expressed the decoloration reaction in a pseudo-first order reaction expression, but the color difference method was incapable of indicating the decoloration process. The dilution method was capable of indicating the decoloration process by a behavior close to that in the absorbance method. Values derived from the absorbance method and the dilution method are related by a certain expression, based on which a proposal was made on a due control method approximated to visual decoloration sense. 13 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Formation of concentrated solid cluster in a liquid-solid mixture by ultrasonic wave. 3rd Report. Simulation by superposing Oseen`s flow field; Choonpa ni yoru suichu ryushi no cluster keisei. 3. Oseen sokudo kasaneawaseho ni yoru simulation

    Asakura, K.; Nakajima, I. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Imai, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The numerical calculation was carried out on the reported empirical result in the cluster formation of particles in water by ultrasonic wave. In addition, the attenuation of an ultrasonic wave was measured from sound pressure in a tube. Since the Reynolds number of the particles was less than 2, a method of using a local analytical solution was employed as the calculation method. A method superposing Oseen`s flow field was used for calculating the relative speed of the particles and the fluid. The following knowledge was obtained. It was observed from the actual measurement that the soundwave attenuated with the energy consumed through dispersion and absorption by the polyethylene particles in the fluid. The attenuation coefficient became larger in proportion to the particle concentration, with no difference caused by the particle size. Improvement was found necessary for the method of measuring attenuation factor in a high concentration area. It was judged possible, by verifying the mathematical method, to qualitatively calculate the interaction of the particles by the 1st order Oseen approximation. This method was applicable to a particle flow such as a standing wave in which particle movement is different in direction depending on the position. The method was effective to grasp the interaction of a discrete small number of particles but was limited in a large number. 14 refs., 16 figs.

  20. Exhaust heat recovery in internal combustion engine; Netsukokan ni yoru nainen kikan no hainetsu kaishu no kento

    Goto, E.; Kase, S.; Dong, D. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given as measures to solve thermal efficiency and environmental problems on recovery of waste heat from an internal combustion engine by means of heat exchange. Means are used to increase the thermal efficiency and the output without changing any of the compression ratio, maximum temperature and maximum pressure in the internal combustion engine. The means consist of nearly isothermal compression of suction air and simultaneous exchange of heat in the compressed suction air with that in high-temperature exhaust gas to recover the heat. Since the isothermal compression and simultaneous heat exchange with the exhaust gas are carried out in place of adiabatic compression, the thermal efficiency increases by 4% to 11% in the compression ratio ranging from 10 to 20, and the output per working fluid unit flow rate increases by 19% to 37%. If the heat generated in catalytically purifying exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is recovered by means of heat exchange, the thermal efficiency in an automotive engine may improve by more than 10%, serving for reducing pollutant production and saving the fuel consumption. Such concepts may also be conceivable as recovering vehicle braking energy as air pressure to be re-utilized for accelerating the restarting, and recovering the backpressure of exhaust gas by converting it into mechanical energy through expansion. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Production of energy and chemical substances by microalgae. Bisai morui ni yoru energy oyobi kagaku busshitsu no seisan

    Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Miura, Yoshiharu (Osaka Univ., Osaka, (Japan). Faculty of Pharamaceutical Science)


    Microalgae can fix carbon dioxide by photosynthesis but the conversion rate is only 5 to 6%. Dried algae contain different lipids of 20 to 40%. Therfore, it is desirable to culture a large amount of an alga or algae having high photosynthetic and lipid producing abilities in order to effectively convert photoenergy to liquid fuel. It is reported that US established the target of 50g dry wt/m{sup 2}/day by greatly improving the productivity for 4 years since 1982 and the lipid amount exceeded 60% in 1986. A method to make photosysnthesis during daytime to avoid the interference with oxygen and to generate hydrogen by decomposing stored organic substances during night is studied and regarded as promising. In addition, the production of vitamines and other fine chemicals by microalgae is also paid attention. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 3 tabs.

  2. Method for analyzing electromagnetic-force-induced vibration and noise analysis; Denjiryoku reiki ni yoru dendoki no shindo hoshaon kaisekiho

    Shiohata, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Ito, M.; Koharagi, H. [Hitachi, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)


    In this analysis method, electromagnetic force calculated by 2-dimensional analysis is transformed into external force for 3-dimensional structural-vibration analysis. And a modeling procedure for a vibrating structure is developed. Further, a space-modal-resonance criteria which relates electromagnetic force to structural-vibration or noise is introduced. In the structural-vibration analysis, the finite element method is used; and in the noise analysis, the boundary element method is used. Finally, vibration and noise of an induction motor are calculated using this criteria. Consequently, high-accuracy modeling is achieved and noise the calculated by the simulation almost coincides with that obtained by experiments. And it is clarified that the-space-modal resonance criteria is effective in numerical simulation. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Glass marking with diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser; Handotai reiki Nd:YLF laser ni yoru glass marking

    Sakai, F.; Hayashi, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The compact marking system based on a beam scanning system in which the fourth harmonic (FHG: 262 nm in wavelength) of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF (Nd:LiYf4) laser is used for the source of ultraviolet light is described. The result of application to the glass marking that caused a problem due to the generation of cracks is also explained. The machining characteristics significantly vary depending on the type of glass. During actual marking, sample processing must be beforehand carried out to optimize the processing conditions after confirming that there is no problem in practical use. For marking on the glass used for liquid-crystal board, it is valid to improve the density of a dot and increase the number of shots per dot for obtaining high visibility. However, cracks may occur in the clearance of each dot because of the thermal effect. Therefore, the processing conditions must be optimized according to the glass type and crack generation state. The generation of cracks can be suppressed by setting the processing conditions to the optimum level. As a result, satisfactory marking is obtained. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Glyco change of the vancomycin due to the chemical glycosylated; Kagaku gurikoshiruka ni yoru bankomaishin no tohenkaku

    Fukuzawa, Seiketsu


    Glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin is drawing attention of the organic composition chemist as a target of the composition from the peculiarity of that structure and the demand in medical treatment. I had the part of the aglycone, which consists of peptides made all the composition in 1997. However, effective activation isn`t shown, and the addition of the part of the sugar is indispensable only with an aglycone. The glycosylated of the part of the aglycone was done, and the re-composition was attained, and this completed all the formal composition. (NEDO)

  5. Application of vector CSAMT for the imaging of an active fault; CSAMT ho ni yoru danso no imaging

    Kobayashi, T.; Fukuoka, K. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to identify three-dimensionally resistivity in deep fault in the Mizunawa fault in Fukuoka Prefecture, a measurement was carried out by using the CSAMT method. The measurement was conducted by arranging seven traverse lines, each line having observation points installed at intervals of about 500 m. Among the 68 observation points in total, 33 points performed the vector measurement, and the remaining points the scaler measurement. For observation points having performed the vector measurement, polarized wave eclipses were depicted in the electric field to discuss which direction the current will prevail in. For analyses, a one-dimensional analysis was performed by using an inversion with smoothing restriction, and a two-dimensional analysis was conducted by using the finite element method based on the result of the former analysis. The vector measurement revealed that the structure in the vicinity of a fault was estimated to have become complex, and the two-dimensional analysis discovered that the Mizunawa fault is located on a relatively clear resistivity boundary. In addition, it was made clear that the high resistivity band may even be divided into two regions of about 200 ohm-m and about 1000 ohm-m. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Detection of buried pipes by polarimetric borehole radar; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru maisetsukan no kenshutsu jikken

    Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nakauchi, T. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    If the borehole radar is utilized for detection of buried pipes, the underground radar measurement becomes possible even in the situation where the mesurement on the earth surface is difficult, for example, such a place as under the road where there is much traffic. However, since buried pipes are horizontally installed and the existing borehole radar can send/receive only vertical polarization, the measurement conducted comes to be poor in efficiency from a viewpoint of the polarization utilization. Therefore, by introducing the polarimetric borehole radar to the detection of buried pipes, a basic experiment was conducted for the effective detection of horizontal buried pipes. Proposing the use of a slot antenna which can send/receive horizontal polarization in borehole in addition to a dipole antenna which sends/receives vertical polarization, developed was a step frequency type continuous wave radar of a network analyzer basis. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that reflection from buried pipes is largely dependent on polarization. Especially, it was found that in the slot dipole cross polarization mesurement, reflection from buried pipes can be emphasized. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Structural changes in deashed coals induced by heat treatment; Kanetsu shori ni yoru dakkaitan no kozo henka

    Sugano, M.; Sekita, M.; Muramatsu, Y.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology


    Change in structures of 3 kinds of coals with different coal ranks and their deashed coals was studied by heat treatment below 200{degree}C. In experiment, crushed Adaro, Taiheiyo and Huaibei coals below 200mesh and their deashed coals were used as specimens. The coal and deashed coal specimens dried in vacuum at 110{degree}C for 3 hours were filled into an autoclave, and the heat-treated coal specimens were prepared by holding them under initial nitrogen pressure of 2kg/cm{sup 2} at a fixed temperature for 30min. Extraction using pyridine as solvent, volumetric swelling using methanol or benzene as solvent, and measurement of the amount of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl functional groups were conducted for these coal specimens. The experimental results are as follows. Huaibei coal has developed aromatic ring structure, and its structure is hardly affected by heat treatment. The oxygen containing functional groups decrease by heat treatment over 100{degree}C in Adaro coal and 150{degree}C in Taiheiyo coal, and PS, MQ and BQ also decrease due to aggregation between molecules. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Wide area stabilization of a magnetic bearing using exact linearization; Genmitsuna senkeika ni yoru jiki jikuuke no koiki anteika

    Matsumura, F.; Namerigawa, T.; Murata, T. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan)


    An active magnetic bearing (AMB) is a bearing to suspend a rotor by magnetic forces without any contact. Feedback control is indispensable for a magnetic bearing, because it is essentially an unstable system. To design a feedback control system, a linear mathematical model of the plant is convenient, however the force of electromagnet is highly nonlinear. Then usually a linear approximation around the operating point is employed, but the obtained linearized model can not express the exact behavior of the system at any other operating points. In this paper, we discuss the wide area stabilization of magnetic bearing using exact linearization approach. At first, we derive a nonlinear mathematical model for a magnetic bearing, then we show this nonlinear system is belong to a class of exactly linearizable nonlinear systems. Next, by using exact linearization method, we transfer the nonlinear model of a magnetic bearing to a linear time invariant state model in spite of change of the operating point and the rotational speed of the rotor. Then we construct the state feedback control system by conventional LQ method. Finally, we evaluate the validity of our proposed method by experiment. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Quantification of tactile effect of building materials. Shokkaku ni yoru kenchiku shiage zairyo no kaiter dot fukaikan no teiryoka

    Okajima, T.; Wu, J. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)); Takeda, Y. (Imamiya Technical High School, Osaka (Japan))


    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the quantification of the tactile effect of building finishing materials from their physical properties. On the basis of psychology and physiology, sensation and perception were interpreted. Three fundamental physical values, i.e., warmth, hardness, and roughness were taken up as the physical properties of the materials, and the relationship between these physical properties and the pleasant and unpleasant sensation was analyzed. For the measurement of perception of pleasant and unpleasant sensation, the method of sensory inspection or mental measurement was applied. Then, the concept of psychophysio-dynamics was proposed connecting psychophysics with psychodynamics. As a result, it was found out that the tactile effect of building finishing materials can be predicted from the physical values of warmth, hardness, and roughness. Furthermore, a psychological experiment was performed using 66 building finishing materials. As a result, the applicability of the method proposed in this paper was verified. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Investigation of iron current measurement to detect combustion quality; Ion denryu ni yoru nensho jotai kenshutsu no kento

    Nakata, K.; Mogi, K. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    The possibility and problems were investigated in detecting the combustion quality by means of ion current measured at the spark plug. The ion current has two peaks during one combustion stroke; first peak is generated by flame around the spark plug just after ignition and second one appears with the rise in temperature of burned gases. As the result of investigations, it was confirmed that the first ion peak might be useful to forecast the combustion quality, but it would be hard to practice owing to the spark duration. And the second peak offered the information of combustion chamber pressure. 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no nensho to haishutsubutsu tokusei

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tsujimura, K. [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, S.; Shimizu, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A new concept of multiple stage diesel combustion was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation, in order to reduce NOx emissions at high load conditions. With this concept, the premixed combustion occurs under the fuel lean conditions and the diffusion combustion occurs under the high temperature conditions. As seen in the result of combustion observation, a first stage combustion occurs with no luminous flame. A second stage combustion occurs with a luminous flame after very short ignition delay period. However the luminous flame is disappeared immediately. Because cylinder temperature is high, and hence soot oxidizes immediately. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Adaptation of topology optimization on truck-structure; Kinshitsukaho ni yoru iso saitekika shuho no truck kozo eno tekiyo

    Tachibana, H.; Kojima, A.; Chiba, S. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    An optimization using the homogenization method has been applied to a truck-structure on the concept design stage. A truck-structure is grouped into 3 classes (thin plate structure , thick plate structure and solid structure), then example, effectiveness and method for the application for the purpose of weight reduction , high rigidity and high eigen-frequency are introduced. 3 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Modeling of power train by applying the virtual prototype concept; Kaso genkei ni yoru power train no model ka

    Hiramatsu, S.; Harada, Y.; Arakawa, H.; Komori, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sumida, S. [U-Shin Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the simulation of power train that includes the model developed by applying the virtual prototype concept. By this concept, subsystem models which consist of functional model and mechanism models are integrated into a total system model. This peculiarity in architecture of model, which is called the hierarchical structure, enables us to model a system of large scale with many units, systems and parts easily. Two kinds of computer simulations are performed. One is engine revolution fluctuation by accessory load input, and the other is changing gears by automatic transmission. They are verified to have sufficient accuracy. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Wavefield analysis in inhomogeneous media by wavelet transform; Wavelet henkan ni yoru fukinshitsu baitai no hadoba kaiseki

    Matsushima, J.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ichie, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Data processing techniques have been investigated for clarifying structures and physical properties of geothermal reservoirs in the deep underground by seismic exploration using multiple wells. They include the initial motion time-distance tomography, amplitude tomography, diffracted wave tomography, and structure imaging using reflected wave or scattered wave. When applying these data processing methods to observed records, weak and minor signals essentially required are canceled due to averaging the analytical fields. In this study, influence of inhomogeneous media on the wavefield was evaluated. Data were analyzed considering frequency by using wavelet transform by which time-frequency can be easily analyzed. From the time-frequency analysis using wavelet transform, it was illustrated that high frequency scattered waves, generated by scatterer like cracks or by irregularity on the reflection surface, arrive behind direct P-wave and direct S-wave. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Monitoring of EOR operations by electrical prospecting. 2; Denki tansaho ni yoru sekiyu kyosei kaishuho no monitoring. 2

    Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H.; Tanaka, T.; Masuda, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tamagawa, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    Fluid flow tomography (FFT) was applied to monitor the behavior of underground fluid in steam enhanced oil recovery (EOR) for oil sand reservoirs. FFT uses electrode arrangement of a mise-a-la-masse method, and continuously measures time variation in charged and spontaneous potential at various surface points to obtain realtime the images of underground seepage flow. It continuously measures ground surface potentials of 120 channels at intervals of 2s by applying alternative DC between a casing pipe and distant current electrode. It separates charged and spontaneous potential components, and converts them into time series data. It estimates the time and spacial distributions of seepage flow from time variation in spontaneous potential. It determines the change rate distribution of time-sliced apparent resistivity from charged potential to estimate the scale and area of seepage flow. As the experimental result, positive and negative electrodes in the change rate distribution were observed, and the direction connecting each electrode agreed with that of resistivity anomaly. FFT could observe realtime time variation in apparent resistivity due to steam injection. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Monitoring of IOR/EOR operations by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru IOR/EOR monitoring

    Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H.; Ikeda, H.; Masuda, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Fluid flow tomography (FFT) was developed to monitor enhanced oil recovery IOR/EOR operations. This method uses a casing pipe as linear current source by connecting a current electrode with a well inlet, and the other electrode is grounded at a point far different from the well. Potentials are rapidly measured at the same time by multi-channel receiving electrodes installed on the ground to obtain time series data composed of charged potential and superimposed spontaneous potential. After separation of both potentials, the charged potential data are processed by the conventional mise-a-la-masse method to extract local anomaly, determine the residual distribution and relative change distribution of time-sliced apparent resistivity, and obtain the 3-D profile of fluid. The spontaneous potential is also processed to obtain the deflection distribution of time-sliced potential at a specific time. Quantitative 3-D interpretation is conducted focusing attention on the generation mechanism of spontaneous potential. Behavior of underground permeated flow is determined as time series animation images to image fluid direction. This method was effective in real fields. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Hydrogen production from garbage by the bacterium enterobacter aerogenes; Daidokoro no namagomi wo riyoshita bakuteria ni yoru suiso seisan

    Tanisho, S.; Fujii, Y. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This writer, aiming at hydrogen production by fermentation using biomass, has studied production from various carbohydrates, organic acids and alcohols by using Enterobacter aerogenes strain E.82005 which bacterium was picked from leaves of four-o`clock and has high ability of hydrogen production. This bacterium being facultative anaerobic, it need not intercept O2, and the gas generated from its common culture solution which contains inorganic ingredients (YNOB3), peptone and glucose was composed of only H2 and CO2. As the tests for kitchen garbage, from each garbage of apples, oranges, bananas and spinage, H2 were obtained at the rate of 0.51, 0.27, 0.09 and 0.15 m mol/g respectively. Guts of fishes, tofu, tofu-refuse and eggs were alternative nitrogen sources of peptone. Especially, miso, soy sauce and soybean flour were very good substrates for hydrogen production as well as good nitrogen sources. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Production of ethyl alcohol with a repetitive batch fermentation method. Kurikaeshi kaibun hakkoho ni yoru alcohol no seizoho

    Saiki, T. (Tokyo (Japan)); Takagi, Y. (Chiba (Japan)); Shiba, M. (Kagashima (Japan))


    This invention aims to present a production method of ethyl alcohol with a repetitive batch fermentation method in which each batch fermentation is performed rapidly with high concentration of yeast to overcome weak points of conventional procedures and the end point of the fermentation is determined accurately and quickly to switch to the next batch with long-term stability. This invention relates to a production method of ethyl alcohol with repetitive batch fermentation by use of carbohydrate and starchy raw materials, in which a gas flow meter to measure velocity water head is equipped and the end point of the fermentation is judged when the flow rate of fermentation exhaust gas is 0.35-0.1 m[sup 3]/kl[center dot]hr or under. This invention produces ethyl alcohol effectively from raw materials and enables efficient repetitive batch fermentation with less damage of the yeast. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Production of ethyl alcohol by a repeated batch fermentation method. Kurikaeshi kaibun hakkoho ni yoru arukoru no seizoho

    Saiki, T. (Tokyo (Japan)); Takagi, Y. (Chiba (Japan)); Shiba, M. (Kagoshima (Japan))


    This invention relates to a production method of ethyl alcohol from sugar and starch raw materials by a repeated batch fermentation method and aims to provide a method to produce ethyl alcohol efficiently by accurate repetition. Conventional batch fermentation methods require the experiences and skill to confirm an end point of the fermentation and have a problem in a control of repeated batch fermentation. This invention uses a gas flow meter of a velocity head measurement type and judges an end point of fermentation at a time when the amount of the exhaust gas flow from the fermentation is 0.35 to 0.1 m[sup 3] per hour and per 1 kl fermentation liquid or below and the next batch fermentation is started. By this invention, ethyl alcohol is produced efficiently from the raw materials with less damage of the yeast and efficient repeated batch fermentation is realized. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. nimpu no LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG yoguruto sesshu ni yoru nyujiki soki no cho nai BIFIDOBACTERIUM zokukin keisei sokushin

    小峰, 由美子


    主査 : 舘田一博 / タイトル : Maternal consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG yogurt during pregnancy promotes bifidobacteria growth in intestinal microflora of infants /著者 : Yumiko Komine, Misa Watanabe, Takehiko Soutome, Koichi Uchino, Takako Uchino, Tsutomu Saji /掲載誌 : 東邦医学会雑誌 /巻号・発行年等 : 61(1):3-12, 2014 /本文ファイル: 出版者版 /

  2. Hydrogen production from food processing waste by anaerobic bacteria; Kenkisei saikin ni yoru shokuhin kako haikibutsu kara no suiso seisei

    Mizuno, O.; Ohara, T.; Noike, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    To produce hydrogen from bean-curd refuse discharged from bean-curd production process, effects of solid concentration on the hydrogen production activity and the final amount of hydrogen production are clarified using hydrogen production sludge obtained from a soybean silo with hydrogen explosion. Decomposition characteristics of bean-curd refuse by hydrogen fermentation are also investigated. Hydrogen contents of fermentation gas produced from decomposed bean-curd refuse were between 54 and 78%. It was found that bean-curd refuse can be used for hydrogen fermentation. The final amounts of hydrogen production were between 0.014 and 0.020 m{sup 3}centre dotkgVS{sup -1}, which was not greatly affected by the solid concentration. Even under high solid concentration conditions, sufficient hydrogen was produced. The hydrogen production activity was affected by the solid concentration. During the hydrogen production process, concentrations of alcohol and volatile fatty acid increased with decreasing the concentration of soluble sugars in the liquid phase. Acetate, propionate, n-butyrate and ethanol were the main metabolic products. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fracture mapping in rock slope using geophysical instruments; Butsuri tansa ni yoru ganban shamennai no kiretsu bunpu hyoka

    Kurahashi, T.; Inazaki, T. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    An attempt was made to visualize distribution of cracks in a rock slope by applying geophysical survey onto a rock slope. Geophysical logging and seismic survey using the reflection method were used as the methods for the geophysical survey. The rock slope subjected to the survey is located in a gorge along the Yoshino river in Yamashiro Town, Tokushima Prefecture. The slope has a width of 25 m and a height of 30 m. Its overhang in a nose form may has a possibility of causing collapse due to sliding. Cracks developed by horizontal schistosity were detected by performing geophysical logging on VSP, calipers, natural gamma-ray spectra, temperature and borehole in a borehole drilled vertically from the top of the slope. The seismic survey using the reflection method detected the cracks by emphasizing joints in the perpendicular direction. A possibility was shown to visualize the crack distribution with high resolution by using the above geophysical survey on the rock slope. In order to detect the crack distribution with still higher resolution, development into a three-dimensional exploration in the future is desired, not to speak of improvement in signal receivers, and discussions on geometry. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  4. Free convective heat loss from cavity-type solar furnace; Sora reshiba karano shizen tairyu ni yoru netsu sonshitsu

    Fujii, I.; Ito, N. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan)


    Heat loss by free convective heat transfer from the solar furnace is investigated experimentally, and the result is arranged in formulas. It may be unjustifiable somewhat to apply the result of the experiment as it is to actual systems, but it seems that the result is not apart so far from those of actual systems, at lease when there is no wind. Moreover, arrangement of the experimental point in a formula can be considered to be a very useful result. A simulated receiver system is prepared which heats air in the cavity of the receiver by an electric heater, and has been used for experiments. In addition, a glass receiver having affixed transparent heaters on the bottom and side surfaced is prepared separately for the observation of convective phenomenon of air in the receiver and leaking of heat with air flow from the aperture, which enables visualization of the air flow. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Fundamental study of noise reduction by active noise control. Active soon seigyo ni yoru soon taisaku no kiso kenkyu

    Sugiyama, T.; Naganawa, A. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan))


    Fundamental experiments were conducted on active noise control as sound insulation fence. This control method generates a sound source with the same amplitude and opposite phase as noise, and reduces noise through the interference of acoustic wave from the source. However, this method has too many problems with the three-dimensional sound field to be actually exploited in this environment. The following experiments were conducted to apply the active noise control to the sound insulation fence: one method of installing a geometric path along the inner side of the sound insulation fence used the acoustic delay process generated on the source side to attenuate the sound pressure level on top of the fence through interference of routing difference sound. The other method used an additional sound source attached to the bottom of the geometric path above to obtain a higher attenuation than using the simple sound insulation fence. At the second step, the active control duct model was used for the test. Then, the three-dimensional model test was conducted for active control of the sound insulation fence. The results of these fundamental experiments have indicated that each method can reduce the relative sound pressure level and the active noise control system using the acoustic phase difference can effectively reduce noise with dominant components in a low frequency band. There are still several problems with the three-dimensional mock-up model. 4 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Vision system for driving control using camera mounted on an automatic vehicle. Jiritsu sokosha no camera ni yoru shikaku system

    Nishimori, K.; Ishihara, K.; Tokutaka, H.; Kishida, S.; Fujimura, K. (Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Okada, M. (Mazda Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)); Hirakawa, S. (Fujitsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The present report explains a vision system, in which a CCD camera, used for the model vehicle automatically traveling by fuzzy control, is used as a vision sensor. The vision system is composed of input image processing module, situation recognition/analysis module to three-dimensionally recover the road, route-selecting navigation module to avoid the obstacle and vehicle control module. The CCD camera is used as a vision sensor to make the model vehicle automatically travel by fuzzy control with the above modules. In the present research, the traveling is controlled by treating the position and configuration of objective in image as a fuzzy inferential variable. Based on the above method, the traveling simulation gave the following knowledge: even with the image information only from the vision system, the application of fuzzy control facilitates the traveling. If the objective is clearly known, the control is judged able to be made even from vague image which does not necessitate the exact locative information. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Biological treatment of dialysis wastewater by PUF fluidized-bed; PUF ryudoshoho ni yoru toseki haisui no seibutsugakuteki shori

    Toyoda, A. [Envisys Ltd., Hyogo (Japan); Kanki, T.; Momoda, S.; Marukami, M.; Maeda, Y. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)


    For the purpose of high-efficiency microorganism treatment in bicarbonate type saccharated dialysis wastewater, a study has been made on a fluidized-bed method using porous polyurethane foam (PUF) as a carrier. Discussions have been given especially on the effects of substrate load, carrier size, and the number of carrier cells on the treatment characteristics from the initial stage of cultivation to the steady-state operation. The carried and suspended microorganisms grew while showing oscillatory variation. The larger the number of carrier cell becomes, the more the carried microorganism quantity becomes, and the less the suspended microorganism quantity becomes. A carrier with a size of 10 mm forms more stable living organism phase than that with a carrier with a size of 5 mm. While the carried and suspended microorganism quantity increases with the load, the lower the load, the carried microorganism ratio increases. With regard to the microbial phase immediately after the substrates having flown in, the dispersive bacteria and the Colpidum group grow preferentially. In the steady-state region, the flock-forming bacteria and the Vorticella group grow preferentially. The carried microorganisms disperse over the whole carrier during the initial stage, form flock-formed lumps thereafter, and grow concentratedly in the vicinity of the carrier surface in the steady-state region. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of permeability of Nojima fault by hydrophone VSP; Hydrophone VSP ni yoru Nojima danso no tosuisei hyoka

    Kiguchi, T.; Ito, H.; Kuwahara, Y.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    The multi-offset hydrophone VSP experiments were carried out using a 750m deep borehole as the oscillation receiver, which penetrates the Nojima fault, to detect water-permeable cracks and evaluate their characteristics. Soil around the borehole is of granodiorite, and fault clay is found at a depth in a range from 623 to 624m. A total of 4 dynamite tunnels were provided around the borehole as the focus. The VSP results show that the tube waves are generated at 22 depths, including the depth at which fault clay is found. However, these waves are generated at only 6 depths in an approximately 150m long fracture zone, suggesting that the cracks in the zone are not necessarily permeable. It is also found that crack angle determined by the analysis of tube waves almost coincides with that of fault clay determined by the core, BHTV and FMI, and that permeability is of the order of 100md at a depth of fault clay or shallower. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Velocity structure of Nojima-fault by VSP method; VSP ho ni yoru Nojima danso no sokudo kozo

    Kuwahara, Y.; Ito, H.; Kiguchi, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to investigate in detail structures of the fractured fault band, the VSP tests were conducted using a 750m deep borehole penetrating the Nojima fault in Awaji Island. The borehole penetrates the fault clay band at a depth of 624m in the Hirabayashi area. The offset VSP survey, conducted by the aid of hydrophone through the naked borehole, detects many characteristic phenomena resulting from the fault fracture. Largely fractured lithofacies are found by the core observation at a depth in a range from 557 to 673m. P-waves propagate at 4.6 and 5.1km/s above and below the fractured band, respectively. The fractured band is subdivided into 2 sections, both being of low speed of 4.5 and 3.1km/s. The X1 and X2 phases resulting from the fault fracture are also observed, above and below the fractured band. The causes for these wave phases are now under investigation. 4 figs.

  10. Structural analysis of microtubule-kinesin complex; Mota tanpakushitsu bunshi no kozo kaiseki ni yoru undo hassei kiko no kenkyu

    Toyoshima, Yoko [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Arts and Sciences


    To understand the molecular mechanism of motor proteins which work in cell motility, the information of three dimensional structure of the complex between motor proteins and cytoskeletal filaments is important. Although crystal sacarato of kinesin motor domain and tubulin are determined respectively, their relative position in interacting state is unidentified. In this study, we made a series of several mutant kinesin motor domains which have reactive cystein using protein engineering methods, and labelled with gold clusters. Next, we formed the complex of these proteins and microtubules, and then embedded in amorphous ice. Three dimensional reconstitution of the complexes from the electron microscopic images can decide the position of the specific residue and relative position of kinesin motor domain and microtubules, which brings the structural basis to elucidate the molecular mechanism of motor proteins. (author)

  11. SCWO characteristics of organics in a vertical type continuous reactor; Renzokushiki tategata hannoki ni yoru yukibutsu no chorinaki suisanka kyodo

    Sekikawa, R.M.; Usui, T.; Nishimura, T.; Sato, H.; Hamada, S.; Sekino, H. [Ebara Research Co., Kanagawa (Japan). Center for Advanced Research


    SCWO characteristics are investigated for a vertical type, down stream continuous reactor system with mixing nozzle and sapphire windows. 2-propanol, hexane and biphenyl solution are used as fuel and air as oxidizer. 2-propanol is observed to be effective as makeup fuel to keep a stable autogenic SCWO reaction. Even for low air ratio as 1.1, high decomposition rate without CO, NO, NO{sub 2} or soot production is achieved. Calculated and experimental flue gas composition is in good agreement for a wide range of air ratio. Spontaneous flame formation is observed for SCWO of 2-propanol using air ratio over 1.8. These flame formations are not particular to 2-propanol and are also confirmed when using hexane and biphenyl solution as fuel. (author)

  12. Study on effects of high pressure injection for DI diesel combustion. Koatsu funsha ni yoru chokufun diesel no nensho kaizen

    Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.; Sami, H. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)); Nakakita, K.; Osawa, K. (Toyota Centeral Research and Development Lab., Aichi (Japan))


    A study was conducted on properties of exhaust gas of diesel engine by using high pressure injection type diesel engine equipped with pressure-reservoir for changing injection pressure, together with improvement of combustion conditions by high pressure injection of fuel. Equipments for the experiments were explained by figures. As for experiment, effects of injection pressure and its timing on emission quantities of NO {sub x} and paticulate were measured. Based upon the obtained results, those were understood that NO {sub x} and particulate were to be reduced by adjusting injection pressure and injection timing, and that, by reducing initial injection pressure, trade-off effect between NO {sub x} and particulate were improved. Observation of combustion conditions by inside-visible engine, those were recognized that low injection pressure caused poor atomization and, by that, delay of vaporization, that propagation of flame rapid to whole combustion room in case of pressure-reservoir type, and that lower injection rate at initial stage suppressed combustion rate and reduced NO {sub x} generation. 4 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Test on qualitative improvement of reservoir water by fountain. Funsui ni yoru chosuichi suishitsu kaizen no kokoromi

    Miyanaga, Y.; Toyota, K. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)); Kimura, M. (The Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))


    Qualitative improvement of water was tested by fountain as measures for enriching the water reservoir with nurture. Moored at a bank which was 5km upstream from the dam, a fountain unit sucked cold water at a water depth of 10m. Then, a region of 35m in diameter was sprayed with it by 32 nozzles. The flow rate was 5.0m[sup 3]/min. In the region of 30m in distance from the unit, it was confirmed from the experiment that the largest drop in water temperature and that in concentration of chlorophyll-a were 0.9 centigrade and 4.0mg/m[sup 3], respectively. It was also known that a flow existed at a 1m-waterdeep spot which was 20m distant from the unit. Judging from the above, the water was qualitatively improved by the fountain as far as 30m in radius. The field experiment was analyzed by a numerical analysis model which treated the fountain flow as a two-dimensional axially symmetric flow. It was confirmed that the change in water temperature and flow can be roughly evaluated, if the oblique incidence of fountain flow is taken into consideration. It was also known that the fountain flow converges in a 1 to 2m-waterdeep surface layer. Though there is a possibility of amplifying the region to be influenced, it is not a specifically effective method. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Study on effects of high pressure injection for DI diesel combustion. Koatsu funsha ni yoru chokufun diesel no nensho kaizen

    Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.; Sami, H.; Nakakita, K.; Osawa, K. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi, (Japan) Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc., Aichi, (Japan))


    Accumulator type high pressure fuel injection equipment (HPIE), able to freely set the fuel injection pressure, was applied to a 94mm bore small type high speed direct injection Diesel engine (with turbo-charger), of which exhaust gas characteristics were investigated. Also by using a 102mm bore visualized single-cylinder engine, was observed combustion improvement effect by the HPIE. As a result, partial load exhaust gas characteristics were investigated at the rotation, 60% of the maximum number of rotations. That accumulator type HPIE changed in initial injection ratio due to the injection pressure. NO {sub x} emission depending upon both the injection pressure and timing, increase in NO {sub x} emission due to increase by 20MPa in injection pressure could be balanced with a CA delay by about 2 degrees in injection timing angle. Particulate is different by load in exhaust characteristics. In combustion observation, soot decreased in produced quantity with diminution in luminous portion of flame. 3 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  16. Separation of baicalein from baicalin by means of solvent extraction; Yobai chushutsuho ni yoru baicalein /baicalin no bunri

    Kitazaki, H.; Ishimaru, M. [Tsumura and Co., Ibaraki (Japan); Inoue, K.; Yoshida, K. [Saga University, Saga (Japan)


    In this work, solvent extraction behaviors of some commercial extractants such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 925 for baicalein and baicalin decocted from Suctellaria root, which is a crude drug, were examined to elucidate their mutual separation by solvent extraction. Baicalein was extracted selectively by trialkylphosphine oxides over baicalin. From analyses of the extraction mechanism the equilibrium constant of extraction reaction and enthalpy change were evaluated. A porous resin impregnated with Cyanex 923 in XAD-7 was prepared to remove baicalein from baicalin by using a column packed with the resin. Baicalein was able to be completely removed by this column operation. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Phase Transformation of Zirconia Ceramics by Annealing in Hot Water; Jirukoniaseramikkusu no suichu aniru ni yoru soten`i

    Omichi, Nobukatsu.; Kamioka, Kunikazu.; Ueda, Kuniyoshi.; Matsui, KOji.; Ogai, Michiharu. [Tosoh Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} polycrystals (Y-TZP) was investigated by annealing at 140 degree C in hot water. Sintered bodies of Y-TZP were prepared by sintering at temperatures ranging between 1300 and 1500 degree C, using a 3 mol% Y-TZP fine powder, synthesized by means of the hydrolysis method, as a starting powder. X-ray diffraction measurements on the sample surfaces and Rietveld analyses revealed that the amount of cubic phase increased and the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration within the tetragonal phase decreased as the sintering temperature increased. Scanning electron microscopy measurements also showed that the grain size on the sample surfaces increased as the sintering temperature increased. When the sinered bodies were subjected to annealing in hot water, the phase-transformation rate on their surfaces increased as the sintering temperature increased. This behavior can be explained by both the decrease in the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration within the tetragonal phase and the increase in the grain size. (author)

  18. nimpu no LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG yoguruto sesshu ni yoru nyujiki soki no cho nai BIFIDOBACTERIUM zokukin keisei sokushin

    小峰, 由美子


    主査 : 舘田一博 / タイトル : Maternal consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG yogurt during pregnancy promotes bifidobacteria growth in intestinal microflora of infants /著者 : Yumiko Komine, Misa Watanabe, Takehiko Soutome, Koichi Uchino, Takako Uchino, Tsutomu Saji /掲載誌 : 東邦医学会雑誌 /巻号・発行年等 : 61(1):3-12, 2014 /本文ファイル: 出版者版 /

  19. Suppression of 3D coherent noise by areal geophone array; Menteki jushinki array ni yoru sanjigen coherent noise no yokusei

    Murayama, R.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    For improving the quality of data collected by reflection seismic exploration, a lattice was deployed at one point of a traverse line, and the data therefrom were used to study the 3D coherent noise suppression effect of the areal array. The test was conducted at a Japan National Oil Corporation test field in Kashiwazaki City, Niigata Prefecture. The deployed lattice had 144 vibration receiving points arrayed at intervals of 8m composing an areal array, and 187 vibration generating points arrayed at intervals of 20m extending over 6.5km. Data was collected at the vibration receiving points in the lattice, each point acting independently from the others, and processed for the composition of a large areal array, with the said data from plural vibration receiving points added up therein. As the result of analysis of the records covering the data collected at the receiving points in the lattice, it is noted that an enlarged areal array leads to a higher S/N ratio and that different reflection waves are emphasized when the array direction is changed. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  20. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  2. Tidal energy conversion. Renewable energy; 3-3 choseki / choryu hatsuden. II. saisei kano energy ni yoru hatsuden

    Makino, T. [Tobishima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    There are not much examples applying tidal energy conversion, but tide and tidal current phenomena can be forecasted so correctly regardless of weather that the applying tidal energy is to be expected in the future. The largest tidal power plant is at Reims in France and install 24 Kaplan turbines each of which outlet power is 10,000kW (rotational direction is reversible) on the breakwater (750m is length). Tidal range at this place being 8.5m on an average, during the period of flowing seawater into the reservoir and on the contrary during the period of discharging seawater to the sea generation is both performed. Though there is no actual result of tidal power plant in Japan, in tidal current power system experimental generators have been installed at Kurushima channel and Naruto channel. Nihon University carried out various kinds of experiment using a Darius turbine (1.6m in dia.) at Kurushima channel and got outlet power of 3kW at the maximum (1983-`88). There are few coasts which have sufficient tide range in Japan, but there are so good many applicable coasts in China and Southeast Asia that the tidal power generation is to be expectatively. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Confinement of solar thermal energy by Nesa film; Nesa maku ni yoru taiyo netsu energy no fujikome

    Shimizu, A.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M.; Daigo, Y. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports a Nesa (SnO2) film as selective transmissive film for effective confinement of solar thermal energy. Solar light spectrum ranges from 0.3 to 2.0{mu}m, while thermal radiation from bodies at 100-200degC is infrared ray more than 2{mu}m. Consequently, a solar water heater using the film which can pass rays below 2.0{mu}m while reflect rays over 2.0{mu}m for windows is very efficient. The Nesa film reflects rays with wavelengths more than plasma wavelengths (controllable from 1 to several {mu}m) by plasma action of free electrons. The Nesa films with different carrier densities were fabricated by spraying deposition method at dopant rates (Sb/Sn) from 0 to 2mol%. The solar water heaters were prepared using normal glass and specific glass coated with the Nesa film as selective transmissive film. The heater using the glass coated with the Nesa film of 2{mu}m plasma wavelength for windows could efficiently confine solar heat. The Nesa film of 700nm plasma wavelength which can pass visible light while reflect infrared ray was effective to reduce cooling/heating losses. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Realization of an accelerator for environmental refreshment in case of soil; Fukyugata kasokuki ni yoru kankyo sosei eno koka

    Isogai, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Learning from a history of the earth of ancient times, the paper studies effects of refreshing environment and soil or making them natural and harmless mostly using primitive bacteria, and develops element technology which is industrially accelerating. The spread type accelerator working only by solar energy was installed and operated for experiment. As indices of refreshment effects, a study was comparatively made between a sugar degree of sweet potato and a yield shown in the number of potatotimesunit weight. An EM propagation garbage layer is formed, and the two sections were installed of a site of the actual installation of the spread type accelerator and a site naturally left alone. Other effects of weather, temperature and humidity which are external factors and general fertilization are offset as common modes, and a consideration was so made that only refreshment effects of primitive bacteria can be relatively compared. Acceleration effects in using accelerator for growing sweet potato could be quantitatively confirmed. As to sugar degree, because the last study was made in the beginning of summer, the underground temperature was high enough. Even only EM effects were fully effective. This time, the weather was much colder, and it was found to be a must to use accelerator. 2 figs.

  5. Preparation of mullite fiber sol-gel method. Sol-gel ho ni yoru mullite sen prime i no gosei

    Nishio, T. (Unichika Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Fujiki, Y. (National Institute for Research and Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba (Japan))


    This report discribes a method to prepare mullite fiber by a new process using aqueous solution of aluminum nitrate, aluminum isopropoxide, and tetraethoxisilane(TEOS). Presursors of mullite were obtained by a method to add aluminum isopropoxide and TEOS simultaneously to the solution of aluminum nitrate, or by another method to add TEOS after adding aluminum isopropoxide. Then, structural analyses on the spinning solution, precursor fibers, and calcination process were carried out by {sup 27}Al- and {sup 29}Si-NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, and DTA. The spinnable range of the method to add aluminum isopropoxide and TEOS at the same time was wider when it was shown with H{sub 2}O mol/(Al+Si)mol and Al(OPr{sup i}){sub 3} mol/Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} mol. Manifastation of spinnability deeply related to the bonding condition of Al and Si formed in the solution. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Three-dimensional TDEM modeling using integral equation method. 2; Sekibun hoteishikiho ni yoru TDEM no sanjigen modeling. 2

    Noguchi, K.; Endo, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering


    A study was made about integral equation-assisted numerical calculation in a time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) 3D modeling. The total number of cells should be minimized now that the time required for calculation depends a great deal upon the total number of cells. On the assumption of a thin plate-like layer of anomaly in presence, with its center positioned just below the receiving point and with its entirety buried in a homogeneous 100 Ohm m medium, the correlation between the distance and the maximum cell length in the horizontal direction and the method of dividing were examined. As the result, it was found that a dividing method respecting the exponential function shortens the calculation time and that, for obtaining a true response and for minimizing the calculation time, the length of the horizontal side of the cell nearest to the transmission source needs be set to be not more than 1/2 of the distance. It was also found that the length of the side in the direction of depth of the topmost cell needs be set to be not more than approximately 1/3 of the depth of the upper surface of the plate-shaped anomaly. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Three dimensional reflection velocity analysis based on velocity model scan; Model scan ni yoru sanjigen hanshaha sokudo kaiseki

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Introduced herein is a reflection wave velocity analysis method using model scanning as a method for velocity estimation across a section, the estimation being useful in the construction of a velocity structure model in seismic exploration. In this method, a stripping type analysis is carried out, wherein optimum structure parameters are determined for reflection waves one after the other beginning with those from shallower parts. During this process, the velocity structures previously determined for the shallower parts are fixed and only the lowest of the layers undergoing analysis at the time is subjected to model scanning. To consider the bending of ray paths at each velocity boundaries involving shallower parts, the ray path tracing method is utilized for the calculation of the reflection travel time curve for the reflection surface being analyzed. Out of the reflection wave travel time curves calculated using various velocity structure models, one that suits best the actual reflection travel time is detected. The degree of matching between the calculated result and actual result is measured by use of data semblance in a time window provided centering about the calculated reflective wave travel time. The structure parameter is estimated on the basis of conditions for the maximum semblance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  8. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)


    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Free convective heat loss from cavity-type solar furnace; Solar receiver kara no shizen tairyu ni yoru netsusonshitsu

    Fujii, I.; Ito, N. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Free convective heat loss from solar heat receivers was studied, using three laboratory model receivers (different in depth L and aperture diameter d) heated by electric heaters. Most of the heat produced by heaters was transmitted to the air inside. The cylindrical vessel walls were fully insulated against heat. Heat loss being supposed to result mainly from transfer by free convection, the experiment results were edited by use of Nusselt number Nu and Rayley number Ra. Relations between Nu(D/d){sup m1} and Ra(L/D){sup m2} were plotted in a chart. Here, D is the receiver inner diameter, and m1 and m2 are constants that can be determined by computation. Tests points were provided approximately lineally, irrespective of D, L, or receiver inclination. Air currents were found to produce one or more swirls inside, thanks to the current visualization technique, when the receiver inclination was not sharper than 120{degree} (except 0{degree}). The number of swirls increased as the inner wall temperature rose. This kind of behavior of air currents directly affects the degree of heat loss. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Cooling effects of artificial water facilities by using a moving type turbulence promoter; Kudo ranryu sokushintai ni yoru suireikyaku jikkenho

    Miyake, K.; Nomura, T.; Nishimura, N.; Iyota, H. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan)


    Artificial water facilities present an effective means to alleviate trying micrometeorological phenomena such as warming of the urban space. For the reproduction of such an alleviating means by use of a model in a wind tunnel, a moving disturbance promoter (moving spire) was developed so as to render disturbances in a wind tunnel current similar in scale to ones in the real atmosphere, and an air current cooling experiment was conducted using a model fountain. The effort was intended for a small-size wind tunnel without a space large enough for disturbance promoter installation, and a moving type spire was developed for promoting disturbance effectively. The new spire is driven by a driving unit consisting of a motor and cam and can change its angle relative to the main current by 140{degree} at a rotation cycle of 1.7Hz., and this changes the flow direction of the main current periodically. As compared with the generally used combination of a roughness block and stationery spire, this new spire produced a disturbance intensity two times greater and a disturbance scale three times larger. When the disturbance intensity and scale were increased, the cooling characteristics of the air current changed in response to changes in the state of flow. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Membrane thickness of microcapsules generated by complex coacervation method; Coacervation ho ni yoru microcapsule no capsule makuatsu

    Kage, H.; Ogura, H.; Matsuno, Y. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Yada, N. [Idemitsu Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kunimasa, M. [Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    Microencapsulation of glass beads was carried out by complex coacervation of gelatin and acacia. Glass beads were chosen as the core material, because their surface was easily treated to be hydrophobic. We succeeded in excluding the complicated influence of emulsion on microencapsulation by the use of the coacervation method and a solid core material with narrow size distribution. The membrane of the microcapsule became thick with the increase of acetic acid dosage, while encapsulation was prevented by its excess addition because of the low pH value in the hardening process. Hydrophobizing of the core surface decreased the amount of acetic acid required to microencapsulate. A thin membrane was obtained due to the existence of salt, however the membrane thickness conversely became thick with a minute quantity of salt. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Detection of multiple AE signal by triaxial hodogram analysis; Sanjiku hodogram ho ni yoru taju acoustic emission no kenshutsu

    Nagano, K.; Yamashita, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)


    In order to evaluate dynamic behavior of underground cracks, analysis and detection were attempted on multiple acoustic emission (AE) events. The multiple AE is a phenomenon in which multiple AE signals generated by underground cracks developed in an extremely short time interval are superimposed, and observed as one AE event. The multiple AE signal consists of two AE signals, whereas the second P-wave is supposed to have been inputted before the first S-wave is inputted. The first P-wave is inputted first, where linear three-dimensional particle movements are observed, but the movements are made random due to scattering and sensor characteristics. When the second P-wave is inputted, the linear particle movements are observed again, but are superimposed with the existing input signals and become multiple AE, which creates poor S/N ratio. The multiple AE detection determines it a multiple AE event when three conditions are met, i. e. a condition of equivalent time interval of a maximum value in a scalogram analysis, a condition of P-wave vibrating direction, and a condition of the linear particle movement. Seventy AE signals observed in the Kakkonda geothermal field were analyzed and AE signals that satisfy the multiple AE were detected. However, further development is required on an analysis method with high resolution for the time. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Photoelasticity analysis of thermal stresses in the plastic ICs. Hikari danseiho ni yoru IC package nai oryoku no keisoku

    Hasegawa, T.; Shibuya, Y. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    Recent highly integrated semiconductors have tendencies of being finer patterns and larger silicon chip area. Plastic packages excellent in productivity have been proved to be highly reliable in moisture resistance due to improved sealing resin and have become the main part of IC packages. However, in such devices featuring larger chip area and finer circuit pattern as large capacity memories, the problem of internal stress due to sealing resin contraction has been highlighted as a new problem. In this study, a photoelasticity which is a relatively simple method is employed to evaluate stress within sealing resin, and the review on effects of stress on the interior of sealing resin and chip are reported. Further, the effect of a buffer coat formed on the chip to reduce the stress on a silicon chip, and the effect of package shape on the thermal stress has been examined by means of photoelasticity, and the result is also shown. 10 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Leveling of battery load and extension of battery life by serial connection of electric double layer capacitors with batteries for electric vehicles. Experimental results on the small model; Denki jidoshayo denchi to denki nijuso capacitor no chokuretsu setsuzoku ni yoru denchi futan no heijunka oyobi denchijumyo no enshinka. (kogata model ni yoru jikken seika). Kogata model ni yoru jikken seika

    Takehara, J.; Okubo, N.; Miyaoka, K. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    The load leveling method of batteries for electric vehicles was studied for extension of a battery life and mileage every charging. Under large load fluctuation conditions such as deceleration and acceleration, use of electric power sources other than battery for peek load at acceleration can improve a battery life, output power capacity and mileage every charging. Combination of effective recovery of regenerative power at deceleration with its discharge at acceleration is one of the effective methods. The electric double layer capacitors are serially connected with the batteries, regenerative power is charged only into the capacitors, and both voltages of the battery and capacitor are applied to a power circuit. Battery load is reduced by load on the capacitor. Until the capacitor is re-charged by regenerative power after full discharge, power is supplied only by battery through a diode. Capacitor power is used as effectively as possible until approaching considerably low voltage. As peak load of the battery is reduced by 30%, the mileage increases by 5.7%, and the battery cycle life becomes 1.5 times longer. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Researches and studies about technological trend of `functionally gradient materials`; Keisha kino zairyo no gijutsu doko ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Morishima, H. [Information Center of Exploitation of Petroleum, Tokyo (Japan)


    Introduced herein is a summary of the technological research report about functionally gradient materials that was presented by Information Center of Exploration of Petroleum in fiscal 1994. The functionally gradient material was realized in the 1980s thanks to more than 30 technologies industrial or government sector bodies interested in science and technology, which effort was related to Japan`s recoverable manned spaceplane program. The material, equipped with the high thermal conductivity and mechanical strength required of a material to cover the spaceplane body, was born out of a innovative idea in which the constitution, etc., of two different materials should continuously change for the elimination of any boundary between the two now that a direct bondage of a metal and ceramics would after all experience separation or cracking. The new idea enabled a plurality of desired functions to be freely distributed within the material, creating hopes in various fields. It has been found that probabilities are high that the functionally gradient material will improve at a surprising rate the conversion rate in utilizing thermoelectricity, photoelectricity, or nuclear energy. In the oil industry, studies are under way to use the new material in petroleum exploration, etc., that have to be undertaken under severe conditions. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Research on EBEP (Electron Beam Excited Plasma) applications; EBEP (denshi beam reiki plasma) no tekiyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Yanase, E.; Ryoji, M.; Mori, Y.; Tokai, M. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    Research and development is actively conducted on machining technologies using plasma in various fields, with studies energetically pursued on etching techniques or those of forming a thin film by the use of high frequency and microwave plasma. The EBEP system jointly developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research is a plasma source for forming a high density plasma by implanting into a plasma chamber from the outside a high-current electron beam accelerated to an energy of approximately 60 to 100eV where the collision cross-section of gas ionization is maximized. The characteristics of the system are such as (1) it enables electron energy distribution to be controlled from outside by varying acceleration voltage, (2) it excels in the controllability of ion energy and (3) it allows to form a steady high-density plasma in a nonmagnetic field. This paper presents the generating principle of EBEP, its plasma characteristics, etching technique using EBEP, thin film forming technique by EBEP-CVD method, and multipurpose apparatus for research and development. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Survey of regulations accompanied with isolation technology of carbon dioxide; Nisanka tanso no kakuri gijutsu ni tomonau hokisei no chosa



    Regulations, conventions and agreements relating to the discharging liquefied carbon dioxide (CO2) into the bathypelagic zone from a cruising ships are investigated. The ocean storage of CO2 is not specifically prohibited by law, but must be regulated on a global scale because such treatment may impact the marine environment. In principle, treatment with impact on the nature is prohibited. Laws of environmental conservation are completed in European, Asian, and Pacific countries, which join international conventions and committees with high interests. It is suggested that the engineering technique of the storage should be improved to observe regulations and that an impact assessment for the ocean storage should be carefully conducted in full understanding of the basic premise of the regulatory systems or organizations. Furthermore, it is significant to study on the possible effect of the ocean storage of CO2 on global warming and life-cycle assessment inventory analysis, namely the balance of the energy budget between the separation and the ocean storage of CO2. 23 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Research trend survey on the stable isotope utilization technology; Antei doitai no riyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu doko chosa



    This report reviews the activities and the trends in the area of the stable isotope use attracting attention recently. In the medicine and clinical treatment sector, the remarkable trends are the extension of {sup 13}C use. The breath test and the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) diagnosis have been developed as inspection methods. It is noted that investigation has been initiated on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using {sup 3}He and {sup 129}Xe for the lung imaging. In the organic chemistry and biochemistry sector, the stable isotopes are used for analyzing the structures of complicated natural compounds and materials relating to life science and for analyzing the chemical reaction mechanism of organic compounds. In the nuclear energy sector, {sup 10}B and {sup 7}Li have been used as neutron absorption materials and pH neutralizing reagent, respectively. In the analysis and measurement sector, the process of isotopic dilution is used for the environmental analysis of trace elements including harmful substances. Among various separation methods of isotopes, well studied uranium enrichment processes and deuterium separation processes are described. Separation of {sup 15}N by ion exchange resin method and plasma ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) isotope separation have been studied, recently. 133 refs., 53 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, T. [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)


    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  1. Study on local cooling culture technology of carnation; Kaneshon no kyokusho reibo saibai gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Nakayashiki, Y. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    Production of high-quality carnation cut flowers is difficult due to growth of weak flower stems in the district along the coast of the Inland Sea of Japan higher in average summer air temperature. The growth promotion effect of carnation by night local cooling was thus tested using midnight electric power. The glass greenhouse of 0.9m wide, 13m long and 0.25m deep was used as culture bed, and in night cooling by spot cooler, the culture bed was covered with PVC curtain for forming a small space. As the test result, high-quality spray carnation flowers with hard flower stem could be reaped from late August by combination of night local cooling and reflective film covering, and extremely high yielding of 92% was also achieved for the second flowers. The running cost of local cooling was estimated to be nearly 18yen/root in 6-ridge/3-root culture, while the facility cost to be nearly 27yen/root. This culture method was estimated to be profitable by adopting high culture density and 3 harvests for a year. 3 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Advanced technology for environmentally friendly dry battery. Chikyu ni yasashii kandenchi no kaihatsu (kandenchi no musuigin, mu cadmium ka gijutsu)

    Kawai, O.; Miyasaka, K.; Maeda, M. (Toshiba battery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    A dry battery was developed that does not contain mercury and cadmium having been used in carbon-zinc batteries and alkaline batteries. This paper describes its summary. Mercury in carbon-zinc batteries is used as a corrosion inhibitor for zinc, and cadmium is used to retain mechanical strength of zinc cans. Surfactants and metal oxides were used as a corrosion inhibitor in place of mercury, added into separators. Magnesium was adopted to substitute cadmiun, and the required mechanical strength was obtained. Mercury in alkaline batteries prevents corrosion in zinc particles (which generated hydrogen gas) and gas generation from impurities (iron and others), and plays roles of improving contacts among zinc particles and suppressing electric resistance low. Discussions were given on zinc alloy composition and corrosion inhibitors to replace the mercury having these roles. For zinc alloy, an alloy using lead with less gas generation and excellent discharge characteristics and bismuth as an added element was adopted. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Survey on the energy transportation technology for the alternative energies; Sekiyu daitai energy nado no yuso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa


    Studied is a system in which hydrogen is produced through a water electrolysis process using clean energy from hydro-electric and solar power generations which can be obtained overseas with relative ease and at a low cost and is converted to a transportable chemical medium for transportation to Japan and utilization as energy like electricity, etc. The hydroelectric power generation is the most realistic alternative energy source in terms of energy density, technology and economy. Described here is the feasibility of development of hydroelectric power generation using rivers in Indonesia and Canada. As chemical substances which can be transportable chemical media, methanol/CO cycle (methanol is synthesized from coal gasified CO and electrolytic hydrogen) or liquid hydrogen cycle are the most practical on a short-term basis, and ammonia cycle and cyclohexane cycle are more advantageous than other cycles on a long-term basis. It is essential to reduce a cost of water electrolysis for each chemical substance. Potential needs are great for distribution and utilization of hydrogen energy regenerated from the transportable chemical medium, but it requires a lot of technological innovations regarding the system structure and materials (safety, particularly). 58 refs., 116 figs., 79 tabs.

  4. Engineering technologies for steel structure applied to Trans-Tokyo bay highway project; Tokyowan odan doro ni okeru kokozo gijutsu

    Furumuro, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Kanda, K. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway is a 15.1 km toll road that spans the Tokyo Bay from Kawasaki City in Kanagawa Prefecture to Kisarazu City in Chiba Prefecture by a bridge, an undersea shield tunnel, and two man-made islands. Many new technologies and methods were introduced to construct a large-scale structure safely, rationally, and in a short time on the weak ground under the depth of water in a seismic region such as Tokyo Bay. Kawasaki Steel participated in this project in: (1) development and construction of a revetment structure to which the technology of an oil drilling jacket was applied, (2) design and construction of a large-sized bridge with long-span and multi-span continuous girders on the sea, and (3) design and installation of a mud water treatment module for the shield tunnel constructed on the sea. As a result, the bearing-capacity measurement technology based on the dynamic method of a large diameter steel pipe pile was developed in item (1). The long-term corrosion-proof method using titanium clad steel was developed in item (2), and the way to construct the treatment facilities of approximately 5100 tons in item (3). 3 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Steel structure (bridge and building); Doboku/kenchiku bun`ya ni okeru yosetsu gijutsu no tenkai

    Fukazawa, M. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In this article, the trends of welding engineering are discussed in two groups, namely bridges and steel frames. First of all, in the field of bridges, as the themes of technical innovation of steel bridges, the challenge to build long span bridges, coping with new structural forms, and rationalization of general bridges are selected. Concerning very long bridges, considerable elongation of its spans and technological development for materials, design, construction and erection relating to improvement of profitability become inevitable. Besides, in addition to the functions of bridges, the bridges playing the roles of environmental and/or artistic structures become many, thereby the cases of using welding for the site joints increase. As the measure for rationalize bridge construction, it is to reduce steel weight and working costs for increasing profitability, and the progress of welding technology therefor has been observed. With regard to the manufacture of bridge portions in a factory, labor saving, automatization and robotization of in-house welding have been made, and bridge maintenance as well as pursuance of attaining the state of maintenance free are also important. The trend that the bridge load is becoming larger and enhancement of earthquake resistance are also important. Regarding steel frames, functionalization of steel, making steel very thick, various automatization of manufacturing, and pursuance of earthquake resistant safety are being made. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Development of coal gas production technology acceptable for fuel cells; Nenryo denchiyo sekitan gas seizo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Watanabe, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, N.; Omata, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In utilizing coal for high-efficiency direct power generation using fuel cells, it is necessary that coal be fed into the fuel cells after having been made into ash-free gaseous fuel. Research and development works are being carried out with an objective to develop a coal gasification furnace most suitable for fuel cells and establish a system to refine coal up to the one that can be fed into fuel cells. Fiscal 1995 has conducted investigations on coal gasification technologies, air separation technologies, and gas refining technologies as the important element technologies, and a trial design on integrated coal gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems. This paper reports from among the above items the result of the trial design on an IGFC system using molten carbonate fuel cells. The paper describes system comparison on paths of produced gases and anode waste gas, comparison on refining processes using a wet system and a dry system, and parameter studies on oxygen concentration in gasifying agents. It was made clear that the suitable furnace is an oxygen blown coal gasification furnace, and the power generation efficiency at the system terminal can be higher than 53%. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Dream of future on human-machine cooperative system; Ningen robot system ni okeru fluid power gijutsu

    Tanaka, Y. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes the human-machine cooperative system and fluid power technology. Most of Japanese robot R and D activities shifted from early R and D on hydraulic or pneumatic driving to that on simple electric driving, and development of fluid power technology as actuator and control technology is retarded. For creating an artificial work environment with a presence by virtual reality formation technology, an equipment (actuator) directly acting such five senses (sensor) of operators as visual, auditory, pressure and contact senses is essential. Pneumatic actuator is extremely suitable for such one because of its small size, light weight, safety and high power density. Robocup has been held as the soccer game of many autonomous robots. For the soccer game of human beings and robots, development of such technologies for advanced autonomous robots is necessary as realtime processing, advanced intelligence, human friendliness, safety, high-efficiency high-power actuator equivalent to human muscle, and energy source. (NEDO)

  8. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  9. Floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system; Zenmen yuka fukidashi kucho system ni kansuru gijutsu kaihatsu

    Takebayashi, Y.; Nobe, T. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Hatanaka, H. [Nitto Boseki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanabe, S. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)


    This development is proposing an alternative air-conditioning method, 'floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system'. The idea comes from the principle of displacement ventilation originally, using breathable carpet tiles laid over a perforated raised floor system. In this system, fresh cool or heated air are supplied at very low velocity throughout the carpet tiles. This system has been applied to 25 buildings and total floor area reached 10,000m{sup 2}. (author)

  10. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)


    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  11. Research and development of jellyfish compaction technology; Kurage gen'yoka shori gijutsu ni kansuru kaihatsu kenkyu

    Uemura, N. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    An on-site test is conducted of devices for reducing in a short time the volume of jellyfish that flow into power plants. There are three methods to reduce the volume of jellyfish by separating water from them, which are heating, pressing, and chemical. The chemical treatment is not an object of this test because it is expected that the volume reduction rate by this method will be too low. For the achievement of a reduction rate of 80%, the two methods, physical and crushing, are compared at the laboratory level. It is found that the crushing method is superior because it can dispose of jellyfish in a shorter time. Using this method, the crushed jellyfish is separated into drain and bubbles, the latter containing jellyfish fragments. An on-site test is conducted using a general-purpose crusher. The relationship between the filter diameter (1-5mm) and the separation rate is investigated, and it is found that separation proceeds more rapidly when the filter diameter is smaller. It is found that the addition of a certain chemical accelerates the separation. COD (chemical oxygen demand) is 300-490mg/l in the drain, and BOD (biological oxygen demand) 400-500mg/l, with COD having increased by approximately 20%. A study is scheduled to be conducted using an experimental apparatus. (NEDO)

  12. Estimation of performance of a high-speed boat by using the Rankine source method; Kosokutei no rankinsosuho ni yoru seino suitei ni tsuite

    Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes estimation of performance of a high-speed boat by using the Rankine source method. An orthogonal coordinate system is considered, which uses the center of a hull as the zero point, and is made dimensionless by using the hull length. The catamaran boat or the single hull boat being the subject of the discussion is supposed to have a transom stern, and to be sailing at a constant speed in the -X direction. A governing equation and a border condition were formulated using disturbance speed potential and X-direction speed differentiation. An inverse specular image was employed as a specular image system upon considering attitude change in the high-speed boat. As to the division of hull surface, the portions protruded above the static water surface were cut off from among the panel data of boat CAD. Considering a high speed condition in which the water surface is completely separated at the transom section, the water level at the transom section was supposed to be at the same height as at the rear end of the hull. Blow-out intensity at the water surface was derived in such a way that a CAD panel of the rear end of the hull is searched and wave height agrees with the height of the transom in the Z direction. A resistance curve may be obtained easily by using a personal computer. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Experimental study on condensation heat transfer enhancement by various kinds of integral finned tubes. Hankei hoko ni tokki wo motsu shuhoko fin ni yoru gyoshuku netsudentatsu sokushin

    Hijikata, K. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology., Tokyo (Japan)); Wang, S.


    Condensation heat transfer enhancement by a finned tube having radial ridges on the fin surface (called the R-tube), was investigated. Thermoexcel-C has a flat fin surface, while the R-tube has ridges on the fin surface, consequently the mean heat-transfer coefficient of the R-tube is 30-40% higher than that of Thermoexcel-C, in spite of same condensing areas in the two. The function of ridges on the fin surface of the R-tube to heat transfer enhancement, is remarkable. It is considered that a thin condensate film is formed on the tip of ridges, in the same way as that on the tip of fin without having ridges. The ridges disturb the flow of condensate in the channel, and promote a convective heat transfer due to an agitation action. Though the R-tube shows superior performance than other heat transfer tubes, the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement are different in the upper part and the lower part of the tube. In the upper part of the tube, the effect of heat transfer enhancement due to the formation of thin film region by the ridges, is predominant. And in the lower part, the enhancement effect due to the convective heat transfer by the agitation of the condensate, is important. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Fundamental study on leak detection of underground gas pipeline using passive acoustic method; Judogata onkyo keisoku ni yoru maisetsu gas dokan hason kasho no kenshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Jinguji, M.; Imaizumi, H.; Kunimatsu, S.; Isei, T. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    With an objective to detect gas leaking from an underground gas pipeline, discussions have been given on a method which utilizes acoustic characteristics of leakage. On leaking sound generated from damaged portions, the form of damaging was hypothesized as pinholes, and spectra of leaking sounds from holes with different diameters were measured. The dominant frequency decreases as the hole diameter increases, while it is in a region of relatively high frequency of 1 kHz or higher. However, detection from the ground surface was impossible when cover soil has thickness from 0.5 to 1.5 m. In an experiment to measure leaking sound inside the pipe, pressure in the pipe was adjusted to 0.02 atm which is a standard pressure for a low-pressure pipe, and the sound was measured when the hole diameters were varied. In any of the results obtained by varying the hole diameter, spectra having the dominant frequency in the region of 1 kHz or higher were measured. In addition, it was found that sound pressure difference of as much as 50 dB at maximum is generated as compared with a case of no sound leakage. The above results verified that monitoring the high frequency of 1 kHz or higher is effective in detecting leakage from small damages. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Regulation of gene expression by carbohydrates. Part 1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene; Tansui kabutsu ni yoru idenshi hatsugen seigyo ( 1 ). Phosphoenolpyruvate san carboxykinase idenshi ni tsuite

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)


    Focusing on Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), recent knowledge on the transcription regulating function by carbohydrates via hormone is introduced. PEPCK exists mainly in the liver, kidney, adipose tissue, and small intestine, and the synthetic rate of PEPCK protein is regulated virtually by the transcription of PEPCK gene. Most part of the change is regulated via insulin and glucagon, and glucagon accelerates transcription while insulin suppresses transcription. Suppression by insulin becomes smaller in transgenic mice having reporter genes which lack RE containing part, but sufficient suppression of PEPCK gene expression by high carbohydrate diet is observed. Fasting and high protein diet increase glucagon concentration in the blood to increase cAMP concentration in cells. High PEPCK gene expression is observed with diabetes, which is the main cause for the increase in the value of blood glucose in diabetes. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Detection of bit location by acoustic emission technique in horizontal directional drilling. Kojo sakushin koho ni okeru bit ichi no AE ho ni yoru hyotei

    Abe, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sugimori, S. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Grauduate School); Nakajima, T. (NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The accuracy of the bit location in the excavation of pilot holes with horizontal drilling technique must be kept less than several tens of centimeters. Such an accuracy is hard to be achieved by the existing controlling technology. The depth of the bit tip can be measured comparatively accurately using a clinometer and the like. The azimuth meter, gyroscope, underground radar, locator, etc. are used for the detection of azimuth of the bit, but every one of them has its own problem. Therefore, new measuring methods to be used in combination with the conventional methods are required which can cover up the shortcomings of the conventional methods. Acoustic emission (AE) technique is employed for the detection of the bit location, and the accompanying problems as well as detecting performance are investigated. It is used for the measurement in the drilling test performed at the reclaimed land on the premises of Keihin ironworks of NKK Corp. In connection with the detection of the bit location in horizontal pilot drilling, a study is made on the zone detection technique for AE signals generated by the bit when striking ground and those generated during drilling. 7 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Encouraging chemical biology / international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education; Chemical biology no susume / monbusho ni yoru kokusai gakujutsu koryu no suishin ni tsuite

    Imanaka, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Described herein is encouraging chemical biology. Chemistry to elucidate fundamental elementary reactions involved in various phenomena and actual conditions of key molecules must be supported by physics for understanding behavior of electrons. The research themes attracting attention recently include sex pheromones of insects, photosynthesis, reactions involving antigens or antibodies, recognition of molecules, memorizing and leaning, and so on. Fundamentals of the life-related phenomena are being elucidated from structures of the related substances and reaction mechanisms involved by the NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses to determine structures of these substances and also by theoretical quantum chemistry to understand electron transfer phenomena within life-related molecules. Also described are international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education. Academic researches for the pursuit of truth are crossing the borders in nature. International exchange to promote information exchange and joint researches by researchers of different nationalities pursuing common themes is indispensable for scientific development. The Ministry of Education has been promoting the international academic exchange programs by providing subsidies for international academic researches, promoting international exchange projects at various institutions, such as national universities, inter-university organizations and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and supporting scientific projects promoted by UNESCO. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Matsuda, K.; Shinjo, H.; Harada, M.; Ohata, K.; Sakata, K. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Evaluation for characteristics of around the Nojima fault; Butsuri tansa ni yoru `Nojima jishin danso` shuhen no jiban bussei ni kansuru ichihyoka

    Shimizu, K.; Tsuji, T. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan); Tsuji, M. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Various surveys were conducted for the area around the Nojima fault, including ground surface, two-dimensional electrical and boring surveys and elastic wave tomography, in order to grasp properties of the ground around the `Nojima earthquake fault.` The resistivity image method as one of the two-dimensional electrical methods was used to grasp fault shapes over a wide range of the 1.6km long section extending between Esaki and Hirabayashi. The courses of traverse were set in the direction almost perpendicular to the fault. Boreholes were excavated and elastic wave tomography was conducted between the boreholes on the 9th and 17th courses of traverse, to confirm ground/mountain conditions and to compare the results with observed elastic wave velocities. Very low resistivities are observed at places where granite is distributed, suggesting that the fault-induced changes are not limited to the area around the fault. The zone in which elastic wave velocity decreases is narrow, 10m at the longest, at a velocity of 2.4km/s or lower, which is a low velocity for that propagating in granite. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Study on load levelling by means of the control of air conditioner operation; Kuchoki kado seigyo ni yoru fuka heijunka ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Sadakuni, S. [Japan Broadcasting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The recent drastic increase in the number of air conditioners has caused sharp and narrow peaks in summer seasons due to the inherent temperature sensitive characteristics. The authors proposed to reduce the peak power demand by controlling air conditioner operations, verifying its effectiveness on peak demand clipping. However, the former study has shortcomings in that any qualitative treatment of room temperatures or pleasant feeling was not attempted and it did not provide a way of assessing peak demand clipping in a power system as a whole. In this paper, we shall first propose a new control method that can compromise pleasant feeling and reduction in power demand. Although air conditioners are used to pursue `pleasant feeling`, this contradicts to reduce power consumption and further more the concept of `pleasant feeling` is very vague. Hence, `Weber-Fechner`s law` is utilized to quantify the pleasant feeling which is treated as fuzzy quantity. Fuzzy co-ordination method is used to compromise power demand curtailment and pleasantness. In the second part of this paper, we shall propose an approach of assessing the amount of peak load clipping when the newly proposed control strategy is adopted in a real size power system: A decrease in the required generation capacity is estimated provided that the Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) is maintained at the same level before and after the application of the new control strategy. The reduction can be regarded as a dividend of load management. 5 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Application of information theory to the sensitivity analysis of cogeneration system performance; Johoryo no gainen ni yoru kojenereshon system ni okeru fuka deta eikyo bunseki

    Takahashi, K.; Ishizaka, T.; Honnma, I. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)


    Cogeneration system (CGS) is anticipated by department of energy to play an important role in environment preservation. Cogeneration system`s estimation is depended on the preconditions, heat and electricity load data. Since the recognition of heat and electricity load is difficult, efficiency in load data is demanded repeatedly for the evaluation of cogeneration system. Necessary load factors for the estimation of cogeneration system from the energy department`s point of view as well as what measure may become good while recognizing load factors are investigated in this paper. Based on this, a proposal is made by considering load factors of buildings as a standard for estimation of the system. Further fixed quantity assessment is made with the results of computer simulation. From the obtained results, following observations are noted. Recognization of total load capacity is become very important when base load is introduced considerable amount for houses. Load factor`s information is very important for hotel when heat and electricity are used in balance. It is concluded that irrespective of motor capacity, whole day load factor information is necessary for office buildings. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Improvement of performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator by means of segmented loads; Hiheiko disk gata MHD hatsudenki ni okeru bunkatsu fuka ni yoru seino kaizen

    Kobayashi, H.; Okuno, Y.; Kabashima, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator with segmented loads is examined with {gamma}-{theta} two dimensional numerical simulations. The use of segmented loads is found to improve the generator performance when a low electron temperature plasma is introduced to the channel. The simulation results reveal the desired values of load resistances connected in upstream and downstream regions, respectively. The concept of the segmented loads is considered to be superior to rearranging seed fractions and load resistances. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Optimization of the ship type using waveform by means of Rankine source method; Rankine source ho ni yoru hakei wo mochiita funagata saitekika ni tsuite

    Hirayama, A.; Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Among the numerical calculation methods for steady-state wave-making problems, the panel shift Rankine source (PSRS) method has the advantages of rather precise determination of wave pattern of practical ship types, and short calculation period. The wave pattern around the hull was calculated by means of the PSRS method. The waveform analysis was carried out for the wave, to obtain an amplitude function of the original ship type. Based on the amplitude function, a ship type improvement method aiming at the optimization of ship type was provided using a conditional calculus of variation. A Series 60 (Cb=0.6) ship type was selected for the ship type improvement, to apply this technique. It was suggested that optimum design can be made for reducing the wave making resistance by means of this method. For the improvement of Series 60 ship type using this method, a great degree of reduction in the wave making resistance was recognized from the results of numerical waveform analysis. It was suggested that the ship type improvement aiming at the reduction of wave-making resistance can be made in shorter period and by smaller labor compared with the method using a waveform analysis of cistern tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Evaluation stationariness of triaxial seismic while drilling and detection of reflected wave; Kosei kussaku ni tomonau danseiha no sanjiku kaiseki ni yoru hiteijo hyoka to hanshaha no kenshutsu

    Yoshida, T.; Asanuma, H.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports a method to detect reflected wave components contained in an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling. Measurement was made on an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling in an experimental field by using a triaxial elastic wave detector disposed in a measurement well. Analyzing the particle motion tracks in the derived elastic wave signals (to derive the main axial direction of a three-dimensional hologram) revealed that oscillation direction of the signals changes non-steadily by time centering around the S-wave oscillation direction. In addition, a sound source position was estimated during the drilling. Existence probability of the S-wave signal in the non-steady continuous signals was estimated by handling the particle motion tracks stochastically. In addition, this existence probability was used as a weighting function for a correlative analysis to detect a reflected wave from directly reaching wave components in the non-steady continuous signals. Thus, improvement in reliability of reflected wave detection was attempted. Effectiveness of this method was endorsed by the field data. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Interpretation SP anomaly caused by subsurface fluid flow; Chika ryudokei ni yoru shizen den`i anomaly no kaishaku ni tsuite

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Mogi, T.; Kawahira, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A PTSP simulator, developed by combining a fluid flow simulator and a simulator for computing the spontaneous potential (SP) out of flow velocity distribution, was used to investigate the impact of the distribution of terrain, permeability, and resistivity upon the ground surface SP. SP computation using simple models such as highlands or cliffs indicated that the terrain-caused SP anomaly was negatively dependent upon elevation. It was also indicated, however, that, in some types of resistivity distribution, the SP profile changes, the peak goes out of place, and even the apparent polarity may reverse in extreme cases. In the study of the SP profile for the Takeyu hot spa, Oita Prefecture, PTSP-aided modeling was carried out. It was then found that fluid flows caused by the terrain were not enough to explain the peak at the middle of the mountain, which suggested the existence of a fluid flow caused by temperature distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Interpretation of seismic section by acoustic modeling. Study of large amplitude events; Hadoba modeling ni yoru jishin tansa danmen no kaishaku. Kyoshinhaba event ni taisuru kosatsu

    Tamagawa, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Sato, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A large amplitude event difficult to interpret was discovered in the overlap section in offset data beyond 10km targeting at deep structures, and the event was examined. A wave field modeling was carried out by use of a simplified synclinal structure model because it had been estimated that the large amplitude event had something to do with a synclinal structure. A pseudospectral program was used for modeling the wave field on the assumption that the synclinal structure model would be an acoustic body and that the surface would contain free boundaries and multiple reflection. It was found as the result that a discontinuous large amplitude event is mapped out in the synclinal part of the overlap section when a far trace is applied beyond the structure during a CMP overlap process. This can be attributed to the concentration of energy produced by multiple reflection in the synclinal part and by the reflection waves beyond the critical angle. Accordingly, it is possible that phenomena similar to those encountered in the modeling process are emerging during actual observation. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Model experiments on imaging subsurface fracture permeability by pulsed Doppler borehole televiewer; Pulse doppler borehole televiewer ni yoru kiretsu tosuisei hyoka ni kansuru model jikken

    Inagaki, Y.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports model experiments to evaluate flow rates of fluids passing through a fracture by using a Doppler borehole televiewer (DBHTV). A supersonic transducer disposed on a well axis transmits transmission pulses, and a transducer receives scattered waves generated by particulates in water and waves reflected on a well wall. This signal is applied with time gating to extract only the scattered waves from particulates in the vicinity of the well wall. Deriving spectra in the recorded Doppler signal obtains flow velocity components in the direction of the well radius. A model was made with a polyvinylchloride pipe with a diameter of 14.6 cm to simulate a well, to which an aluminum pipe with an inner diameter of 2 mm is connected to be used as a simulated fracture, and mud water is circulated in the pipe. The result of deriving a passed flow volume in this model by integrating flow rate distribution derived by using the above method to a predetermined range in the vicinity of the fracture showed a good proportional relationship with actual flow rate in the simulated fracture. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  9. Experimental study on onset of asthma like symptoms by diesel exhausts particles (DEP); Diesel haiki biryushi (DEP) ni yoru zensoku yo byotai no hassho ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Sagai, M. [National Research Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)


    By experiments using mice, facts which suggest that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) produce a large amount of superoxide (O2{sup -})by chemical or biochemical reaction and this superoxide causes lung injury with a result of asthma like symptoms. It is verified, by the use of mice, that four fundamental symptoms of the onset of asthma like symptoms, i.e. rise of blood vessel permeability, mucus hypersecretion, inflammation accompanying chronic eosinophil infiltration, and airway hyperresponsiveness, are caused by DEP. It can be derived from the fact that mankind asthma may also be caused by DEP. The knowledge obtained by this experiment, which indicates that DEP causes chronic inflammation accompanying eosinophil infiltration, may add important information to the study on the causal relationship of DEP with asthma symptoms. 31 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Research on giving antibacteria activity of tailored dental materials; Gin ion ni yoru shikayo zairyo no kokinsei fuyo ni kansuru kenkyu



    The secondary dental caries easily occur by breeding of bacteria in cavities between living body and composite resin, false tooth or root of tailored tooth as tooth repairing materials. The antibacteria activity of tailored dental materials was thus studied by implanting Ag ion. The antibacteria effect with time after culture of caries bacteria was studied by implanting Ag ion into SiO2 powder, PMMA samples and Ti alloy samples at 20 and 200keV in energy of ion. In addition, the antibacteria activity of SiO2 powder as composite material was found at 25keV which was previously effective for the antibacteria activity. This SiO2 filler (Ag{sup +} filler) showed the antibacteria activity on every bacteria sample after 2h, and in particular, could kill all of 3 kinds of bacteria obtained from a composite resin surface after 12h. The number of living S. salivarius was reduced by half after 12h. The application of the composite resin filler implanted with Ag{sup +} is significant to prevent recurrence of caries. 5 refs., 27 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Maneuvering response of slender ship with sinusoidal steering in shallow waters; Sensuiiki ni okeru saichosen no seigen soda ni yoru soju oto

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to grasp memory effect of wake vortices on the maneuvering hydrodynamic characteristics and motions in shallow waters, this paper discusses maneuvering performance of ship advancing with sinusoidal steering. The unsteady slender body theory is used for analyzing the hydrodynamic characteristics acting the hull obliquely advancing or turning around, and hinge-flap model is employed for analyzing the rudder force characteristics. A method has been proposed by which variable components of bearing and transverse displacement of ship advancing with sinusoidal steering in shallow waters can be calculated. Differential coefficient of hull and rudder was calculated by varying the frequency. It was confirmed that the differential coefficient of hull agreed with the test results using cistern. Using this method, maneuvering response using hydrodynamic coefficient in the actual motion frequency was compared with that near the zero frequency. As a result, it was found that memory effect of wake vortices on the maneuvering response of ship can not be ignored in very shallow waters. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Development of multi-filter spectroradiometry; Filter hoshiki ni yoru bunka hosharyo no keisoku hoho to sono supekutoru no hyogen hoho ni tsuite

    Miyake, Y.; Aoshima, T.; Minoda, T.; Kato, T.; Kondo, S. [Eiko Instruments Trading Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Described in this paper is a technique of solar radiation spectroradiometry in which high-resolution wavelength computation adds to a multi-filter method. The solar spectrum upon entering the atmosphere is scattered and absorbed by parameter-constituting elements such as gas, aerosol, cloud particles, etc., and its spectral contour is complicatedly deformed relative to wavelength. Taking advantage of the fact that the scattering and absorbing characteristics of some of the elements are constant relative to wavelength, a simple equation was constructed to enable high-resolution spectrum measurement wavelength-wise, and this compensates for the limit in measurable wavelength that the conventional multi-filter method suffers from. The new method discussed here is not so expensive as the grating method thanks to the employment of filters, is capable of determining spectral radiation quantities with a precision of {plus_minus}5%, and is reduced in terms of the capacity of memory for data storage. The new method enables data collection under various atmospheric conditions that the four seasons present, which the difficult-to-apply and expensive spectroradiometer fails. It is expected that this method will find its use in collecting basic data for the designing of photovoltaic power generation systems, in the study of photochemical reaction in agriculture, and in collecting basic data for daylight lighting. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Study on vibration fatigue damage due to the blow of OPGW aluminum tube; OPGW aluminium kan no kyofu ni yoru shindo hiro hason ni kansuru kenkyu

    Aikawa, S.; Kohara, H. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    The cause of damage in the cashing portion of an aluminum tube incorporating OPGW (OPAC 120mm{sup 2}) was investigated and proper measures for the prevention of recurrence were examined. The investigation result of the past accident of the same kind or the result of stress measurement showed that the cause of aluminum tube damage is the fatigue rupture based on the repeated stress occurring by the rolling of OPGW. Moreover, it was known that the attached wire in a jumper lead-in system is most effective and valid as preventative measures of damage. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  15. Trend of recent motor sports related technology. From engine point of view; Saikin no motor sports ni okeru saishin gijutsu no doko. Engine no shiten kara mita gijutsu doko

    Okamoto, T. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    This paper presents the trend of the motorsports related technology focusing on F1, Champ Car and Le Man using high technology and high fundamental technology. Indeed each category of these three has its own regulation. Therefore the difference in the regulations which depends on the restriction level for usable technology requires different technological development. One is using real high technology while another is using high fundamental technology. Taking these affairs into account, characteristic of the each technology for each motor sports category is described from engine point of view. (author)

  16. Report on the invitation program for developing countries concerning technology promotion project of global environmental industry in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu suishin jigyo ni kakawaru chikyu kankyo kanren gijutsu kaigai kenkyusha shohei jigyo hokokusho



    In an effort to help preserve the global environment, International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer (ICETT) contributes to the solution of global environmental problems by promoting research exchanges with developing countries. As a part of this effort, ICETT hosted an environmental development researcher who visited Japan from the Institute of Environmental Research of Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand. The invitation was extended at the request of NEDO. During the period of this investigation between September 16 and December 14, 1997, a photocatalyst was prepared and its performance was evaluated under the theme ``Application of photocatalysis to purification of atmospheric environment.`` At the same time, roadside test spots were inspected to study the practical application of optical photocatalysis. The visiting researcher also visited the National Institute for Resources and Environment to discuss with the staff of institute. This helped to deepen understandings of the state of air pollution problems confronting Japan, Europe, and North America, as well as issues related to the technologies that have been developed to solve these problems. The visiting researcher toured the RITE and examined Japan`s progress in the development of environmental control technology through joint research involving government, industry, and academia. At ICETT, the visiting researcher received training in Japan`s approaches to environmental problems in developing countries

  17. Recent exploration and production technologies on natural gas; 20 seiki ni okeru tennengasu kaihatsu gijutsu no henkan. Tanko oyobi kaihatsu {center_dot} seisan gijutsu no gaiyo to sono suii

    Tada, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Natural Gas and Project Planning Dept.


    New diplomatic policies based on energy diversification and multinational cooperation, the rapid growth of economic development and energy demand, and the social consideration of preventing environmental pollution (such as CO{sup 2} emissions, acid rain, destruction of the ozone layer and global warming) have caused the utilization of natural gas resources to become the new energy trend. Exploration and production technologies for natural gas are basically very similar to those for crude oil. They also consist of various relevant technical aspects such as gravity survey, seismic survey, logging, well drilling, reservoir simulation, field development planning and production monitoring. Additionally, the oil and gas industry has been continuously making efforts to resolve various technical issues and improve its performance and efficiency. For the past ten years, as the result of these tremendous and ceaseless efforts, we have obtained various innovations and reduced risks and costs. Furthermore, new natural gas utilization technologies such as GTL (Gas to liquid), DME(Di-methyl ether), fuel cell and hythane are now under development and moreover, it's expected that the utilization of natural gas resources will further increase. This paper briefly explains the outline of exploration and production technologies applied to natural gas in the world. (author)

  18. Survey of history/succession of industrial technology. Book of survey of the domestic industrial technology which contributed greatly to the industrial development; Sangyo gijutsu rekishi keisho chosa. Sangyo no hatten ni okiku kiyoshita kokunai sangyo gijutsu no chosahen



    The paper surveyed a history of the industrial technology development which contributed to the innovation of technology in Japan for contribution to the future selection of technical themes and decision on developmental methods. In accordance with the increasing contribution of the Japanese industrial technology to scientific and economic activities in Japan and abroad, it is important to clarify a historical significance of the industrial technology and to make the most of results of the survey for the future succession/development of industrial technology. The survey focused on chemical processes brought up as the Japanese industrial technology which is regarded as world-famous and on the systematical study of the history of the Japanese scientific technology. Hereafter, this becomes a guiding principle for engineers. The paper arranged the survey results of production processes of 2-ethylhexanol, acrylic acid, acrylamide, and cresol/resorcinol, optical resolution process of amino acids, and flue gas desulfurization process. The paper also surveyed technologies of ammonia synthesis, coal liquefaction, high polymer film production and synthesis of medical raw materials. The results were obtained which are suggestive for developing creative/original technology. 210 refs., 93 figs., 49 tabs.

  19. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 9. Investigation of innovative and leading technologies; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 9. Kakushinteki sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    The WE-NET Project is a long-term project designed to ensure that an energy network technology using hydrogen becomes a reality not later than 2020. So the project cannot remain effective unless constant efforts are made to foresee future trends of technology and optimize it as the making of entire system for the project. In this project, new technologies which are not up for development are also investigated. Their feasibility should be studied, if necessary. From the foregoing point of view, new technologies are studied, collected and evaluated. Thus, useful suggestions and proposals may be made as to the course for the project to follow, as well as its research and development. Proposals highly evaluated up to FY 1995 are the hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling`s engine, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration technology for liquefaction of hydrogen, solar thermal hydrogen production with iron sponge technology, and hydrogen producing technology with photocatalyst. Conceptual investigation themes in FY 1996 are the hydrogen internal-combustion Stirling engine, solar thermal hydrogen production, phototransformation process, and high-temperature steam electrolysis. 9 figs., 54 tabs.

  20. Development of technology for organic wastewater treatment by microorganisms and production of materials for conserving environment. Part 1. ; Organic wastewater treatment by photoshynthetic bacteria and microalgae. Biseibutsu ni yoru yukikei haisui shori to yojo biseibutsu no shigenka ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. ; Kogosei saikin to sorui ni yoru haisui shori ni kansuru kihonteki kento

    Kato, A.; Kita, D.; Kubotera, T.; Tsuji, H. (Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The present report introduces a system which simultaneously executes the purification of organic wastewater and recovery of recyclable matters. The system uses photosynthetic bacteria and microalgae as well as the conventionally used activated sludge bacteria. Environmental maintenance use agents are produced by processing bacteria and algae generated during the wastewater treatment. The photosynthetic bacteria are purple non-sulfuric bacteria, which also contain amino acid, vitamin and other useful physiologically activated matter. The wastewater treatment which utilizes them has the advantage of miniaturizing the plant and lowering the power. As algae, chlorella and spirulina are used in order to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus in the water to be treated. The following is an actual result of wastewater treatment in a beancurd maker's plant: if purple non-sulfuric bacteria are used, high concentration organic wastewater can be treated without dilution so that the plant can be miniaturized. The chlorella culture is so effective that the nitrogen and phosphorus remaining in the wastewater are absorbed and removed by the chlorella with its increasing. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Development of a new numerical method for visco-elastic flows using the GSMAC-method and the MUSCL-TVD method. Flows of Maxwell fluid through planer abrupt contraction; Kosei hoteishiki ni TVD gata MUSCL ho wo mochiita GSMAC ho ni yoru nendansei ryutai no kaiseki ni tekishita scheme kaihatsu. Maxwell ryutai no kyushuku shoheibannai nagare ni yoru kensho

    Fujieda, T.; Tanahashi, T.; Okada, A. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Kato, Y. [Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In this paper, we propose a new GSMAC-FEM (generalized simplified marker and cell-finite element method) which is suited to the numerical analysis of visco-elastic fluids. The equation of continuity and the equation of momentum are solved by the GSMAC-FEM algorithm and the constitutive equation is solved by the finite volume method. This scheme employs the third order MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Law) in order to guarantee the absence of spurious oscillation near the steep gradients of the variable. This method uses a minmod limiter in order to satisfy the TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) condition. The present method employs the simultaneous relaxation of velocity and pressure for the incompressible condition. The flows of Maxwell fluid through two-dimensional planer abrupt contraction are calculated by the present method and the effects the Weissenberg number and the Reynolds number are discussed. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Detection of the oscillation mode of measured waveforms in power systems by Prony analysis; Puroni kaisekiho ni yoru denryoku keito ni okeru jissoku hakei no doyo mode kenshutsu ni tsuite

    Shibata, K. [Kansai Electaric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes the detection method of the oscillation modes by Prony analysis from measured data on power systems. A Prony analysis method can obtain the oscillation frequency and logarithmic damping rate corresponding to eigenvalue directly, and is suitable for detecting the oscillation modes. The analysis result showed that longer sampling intervals of 0.2-0.4s allows detection of the long-period oscillation modes from less data, and the index corresponding to waveform areas allows evaluation of the significance of each mode. It was also confirmed that a low-pass filter with a time constant of nearly 0.2s is effective for poor data including various noises, and correction of amplitude and phase shifts is possible by filter. In addition, the study result on application of a Prony analysis method to instantaneous value waveforms showed that analysis of harmonic characteristics is possible by selecting proper analytical parameters, and a Prony analysis method is applicable to analysis of measured data enough. (NEDO)

  3. Study on computer graphics. PC graphic system for supposed landscape images of substations and transmission lines; Computer graphics ni kansuru kenkyu. Pasokon ni yoru hendensho sodensen keikan kansei yosozu sakusei system ni tsuite

    Matsuda, Y.; Usagawa, Y.; Kawamoto, A. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    In order to obtain the understanding of residents around sites for landscape images in construction of power plants, substations and transmission lines, preparation of supposed landscape images was studied using computer graphics (CG). The system developed on a graphics workstation in 1994 was expensive and poorer in operability than PC although real clear images were obtained. The system was thus improved to be usable on PC. The improved system is usable on OA systems in offices, and possible to transmit image data and print out high-quality images. In addition, the system offers the preparation function of facility layouts and computer graphics. The system is featured by necessary training only for 2-3 days, lower cost and necessary lower initial investment. Since its user interface was, in particular, considered to make it possible for designers to easily operate and timely cope with demands of residents, flexible selection out of various cases, rapid simulation and efficient business became possible. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Relationship between the electric resistivity and the rain fall in discontinuity zone of rock slope by the continuous measurement; Renzoku tokei ni yoru ganban shamen no furenzokutaibu ni okeru mikake hiteiko henka to kou tono kankei ni tsuite

    Kusumi, H.; Nishida, K. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    The relationship between change in resistivity and rainfall was studied by continuously measuring resistivities of fracture zone and stratum boundary along the measuring line of 95m long from the top to bottom of rock slope. The measurement field was located on a hill of 150-200m high at the northern part of Arima-Takatsuki tectonic line. Electrodes of 30m in maximum measuring depth were arranged at 289 points by dipole-dipole method. Resistivity was continuously measured at time intervals of 6 hours. Apparent resistivity was hardly affected by rainfall at points with less infiltration of stormwater from the ground surface, while it decreased by rainfall at points on fracture zone, stratum boundary or bleeding channel. The change rate of apparent resistivity could be approximated with the exponential function of rainfall. In such case, the apparent resistivity under most dried condition at the concerned point should be used as reference maximum apparent resistivity. The change rate of apparent resistivity due to rainfall in fracture zone reflects infiltration of stormwater, suggesting to be useful for disaster prevention of slopes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Topographic effects on SP anomaly caused subsurface fluid flow. Numerical approach; Chikasui ryudo ni tomonau shizen den`i ijo ni taisuru chikei no koka. Suchi modeling ni yoru approach

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Mogi, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Self-Potential (SP) anomaly at the ground surface caused by subsurface fluid flow is numerically calculated for two-dimensional models using a simulation code PTSP to investigate the topographic effects on the SP profile. The result shows that the negative SP anomaly generally seen in higher elevation can be explained as a result of topographic effects on the near surface fluid flow system for cases of homogeneous earth. However, heterogeneous permeability distribution possibly changes the fluid flow pattern and its derived SP profile. Heterogeneity in electrical resistivity and cross-coupling conductivity also affects on the SP pattern, causing the shift of peak anomaly location. Therefore, a numerical approach applying hydrogeological and physical property distributions is invaluable for detailed interpretation of SP survey data. 19 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Studies on power augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine with variable speed control. 2nd Report. Determination of optimum slip due to second-power torque control; Kahensoku unten ni yoru field suiheijiku fusha no koseinoka ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Jijo torque seigyo ni yoru saiteki suberi no kettei

    Shimizu, Y.; Takada, M.; Maeda, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kamikawa, H.; Marumo, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan)


    An inverter-assisted variable speed power generation system is subjected to a field test and the optimum slip for optimum operation against changing wind velocities is determined. The system is a horizontal-axis wind turbine of the up-wind type provided with three variable-pitch blades. The rotor is 8.2m in diameter, the rotation axis is positioned 12.7m above the ground, and the output is rated at 8kW. The rotation of the rotor is multiplied nine times by a step-up gear using a timing belt, and drives the 8-pole/3-phase squirrel-cage 8kW induction generator whose rotation is rated at 900rpm. The generated AC power is converted into DC by transistors before being charged into storage batteries. In the experiment, power is generated at variable speeds using the inverter and four types of second-power torque control are tested, different from each other in the magnitude of slips. After an overall evaluation of the amount of generated power and system efficiency, it is found that a slip of -2.0% is the optimum for the control of power generation in this type of wind turbine. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  7. Study on rapid curing for laminated rubber using induction heating. 3rd Report. Uniform heating by ultra low frequency magnetic field; Yudo kanetsu ni yoru sekiso gomu no kosoku karyu ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Choteishuha jiba ni yoru kin'itsu kanetsu

    Fukumoto, H.; Kurokawa, Y.; Sakiyuama, K.; Adachi, S. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    The authors are doing research to develop a rapid curing device by using inductive heating for the production of a laminated rubber bearing. In the previous paper, it was shown that three problems exist; i.e. (i) the slit mold necessary, (1) lower uniform temperature in the radial direction, and (3) necessary temperature control by the internal location temperature, when the e frequency (60 Hz) induction heating was used to vulcanize a laminated rubber. This paper demonstrates that ultra low frequency heating is adequate to cope with the above problems. It will be shown that (i) the mold is not necessary a slit, (2) the radial temperature difference is within {+-}5 degree C, and (3) the internal temperature can be controlled by the side mold temperature, as the result of ultra low frequency induction heating test. (author)

  8. Direct control of stabilization for nonlinear systems using power state feedback; Hisenkei system no beki jotai feedback ni yoru chokusetsutekina anteika seigyo

    Okubo, S. [Yamagata Univ. (Japan)


    The design method for stabilization of nonlinear systems by direct feedback without using evaluation function is shown. This method is a very important controlling method which is the basis for nonlinear system control, and it is expected to be applied to very wide fields. It is made clear that numerical solution is not possible because the number of equations exceeds that of variables in the extended Lyapunov equation which becomes an equation for the design. There is no concept of pole of linear system in nonlinear systems although stabilization of nonlinear system is natural extension of stabilization of linear system in case of using Lyapunov function. Numerical difficulty is avoided by the use of genetic algorithm in the design calculation, and strict designing with finite degree becomes possible as a result. This method can design strictly nonlinear feedback control law of bounded power degree to stabilize globally nonlinear system of odd highest degree polynomial. The effectiveness of this system is shown an instance of numerical calculation. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Fission track dating using sphene. ; Example of the Hanawa pluton. Sphene wo mochiita fission track ho ni yoru nendai sokutei. ; Hanawa shinsei gantai no rei

    Ohira, H. (Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)); Honda, T. (Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Laboratory)


    As for the Hanawa pluton which distributes near the boundary between Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures, the fission track (FT) dating was conducted by using sphene. The inside surfaces of the polished samples of sphene crystal were stuck by outside detectors and the grain-by-grain method was used to determine the age by the calibration method where a Mount Dromedary Complex sphene was used as the age standard sample. The spontaneous track density differed greatly from a sample to another sample, and even in the same sample the number of crystal grains which could be the measuring subject was limited. The FT ages determined on 5 samples were 67.4Ma for mylonite-like subfacies, 91.9 Ma and 92.5Ma for large shpene bearing subfacies, and 92.5 Ma and 93.1 Ma for fine grained quartz diorite-tonalite. Furthermore, the effect of ratio of Th content to U content on the measured age was also studied. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Investigation of flow field inside a savonius rotor by image processing technique with conditional sampling. Joken chushutsuho ni yoru savonius fusha no naibu nagareba no gazo keisoku

    Fujisawa, N.; Taguchi, Y.; Sato, T.; Nagaya, K.; Ikai, S. (Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Uemura, T. (Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    The particle image measuring system, or particle-tracking velocimetry was applied and validity estimation was made for the purpose of quantitatively estimating the flow rate field inside a Savonius rotor. This image measuring system is constituted by a CCD camera, image processing board, microcomputer, and 120byte hard disk. The experiment was carried out at a mean flow rate of 0.1m/s and a Reynolds number of 4[times]10[sup 3]. The binary correlation algorithm was applied to two consecutive images with an interval of 1/60s to make correspondence between tracer particles and calculate the instantaneous velocity vector. The experimental results showed that the instantaneous velocity distribution for each of various rotational angles of rotor in the inner flow of a Savonius rotor was obtained and consistent with the visualization data using the smoke-wire method. As for the output mechanism of the windturbine a wind-collecting effect contributing to generation of windturbine torque in the flow field of the advancing blade was recognized. On the other hand, formation of a separated shearing layer was found in the vicinity of the blade tip on the return blade side. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Method for solving an inverse problem of wing type by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru yokugata gyaku mondai no ichikaiho

    Ando, J.; Matsumoto, D.; Maita, S.; Nakatake, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes one method for solving an inverse problem of wing type based on the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) in designing marine propellers and underwater wings. With the SQCM, vortices and control points are distributed on wing camber according to the QCM, and wing surface is divided into certain number of panels. This is the method to decide vortex intensity and blow-out intensity simultaneously from the condition that vertical speed on the camber and the wing surface is zero, upon having distributed blow-out with certain intensity inside the panel. The method solves the inverse problem with the following process: specific point distribution is so determined that the targeted velocity on the wing surface is satisfied when wing surface pressure distribution and uniform flow velocity are given; and then the panels are so rearranged as in parallel with direction of the flow on the surface of the wing calculated by using these specific points to derive the targeted wing shape. This paper describes the problem solving procedure in great detail. It also introduces examples of numerical calculations. It shows one method for solving the inverse problem in wing type using the SQCM as a simple panel method, whereas its good convergence and stability were verified. Considerations on effects of free surface and expansion of the method into three-dimensional problems will be implemented in the future. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Method for calculating wave resistance in a catamaran by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru katamaran no zoha teiko keisanho

    Kataoka, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes a method for calculating wave resistance in a catamaran by using a simple panel method. Two Wigley models were put side by side to make a catamaran, speccular images were taken on a face symmetrical in the left and right sides, and only one side (the demi-hull) was used as a region to be calculated. Considering blow-out onto the demi-hull surface and still water surface, a model was constituted, in which discrete vortices were distributed on the demi-hull camber to flow the vortices out to an infinitely distance place from the stern. A free surface condition according to double model linearization by Dawson was derived for this model in terms of numerical analysis. The Kutta`s condition is incorporated when SQCM is used concurrently with the Rankine source method, but not incorporated when not used. Calculations were performed on both conditions. Wave resistance was derived by using pressure integral on the hull surface. It is better to consider the Kutta`s condition when the distance between the demi-hulls is small. However, if the distance is large, or speed is great for the boat length resulting in less interference between the demi-hulls, there is very little difference due to the Kutta`s condition. Difference in the wave shapes causes how waves are made to vary. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Control of population of excited nitrogen molecules by mixing hydrogen in low pressure discharge; Chisso jun`antei reiki bunshi mitsudo no quenching ni yoru seigyo no kento

    Uematsu, K.; Yumoto, M.; Sakai, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The authors have studied on surface treatment of PTFE by a low pressure discharge. It is deduced that excited nitrogen molecules contribute to introduce polar components on the surface. To confirm the speculation, we tried to change population of metastable nitrogen N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) by quenching precursor N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g), with hydrogen molecule. The decrease of relaxation time which indicates a change of excited molecule and measured by emission spectroscopy using a time after glow method was obtained. As a result, the relaxation times of N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g) and N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) decreased to 55% and 20% respectively, when mixing ratio of hydrogen was 3%. It was also deduced that hydrogen atom may take a part in a quenching process of N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}). 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Numerical simulation of an excited round jet under helical disturbances by three-dimensional discrete vortex method; Helical kakuran ni yoru reiki enkei funryu no uzuho simulation

    Izawa, S.; Kiya, M.; Mochizuki, O. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    The evolution of vortical structure in an impulsively started round jet has been studied numerically by means of a three-dimensional vortex blob method. The viscous diffusion of vorticity is approximated by a core spreading model originally proposed by Leonard (1980). The jet is forced by axisymmetric, helical and multiple disturbances. The multiple disturbances are combinations of two helical disturbances of the same mode rotating in the opposite directions. The multiple disturbances are found to enhance both the generation of small-scale structures and the growth rate of the jet. The small-scale structures have highly organized spatial distributions. The core spreading method is effective in aquiring the core overlapping in regions of high extensional rate of strain. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Production of Nd-Fe-B alloys by mechanical alloying; Mechanical alloying ni yoru Nd-Fe-B gokin no sakusei

    Saito, T. [Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino (Japan)


    Nb-Fe-B system magnet known as a high performance permanent magnet is produced by powder metallurgy and quench solidification methods. At present, although for a magnetic powder for Nd-Fe-B magnet an isotropic powder coarsely crashed after conducting heat treatment to and Nd-Fe-B amorphous thin belt produced by melt-spin method, research and development on an anisotropic magnetic powder are being propagated earnestly for magnetic powder with high magnetic property alternating with this. For a new producing method of magnetic powder alternating with the melt spin method, manufacturing methods using mechanical alloying method and using hydrogen storing feature of the Nd-Fe-B alloy called HDDR method are studied. In this study, mechanical alloying of mixed powders of Nd, Fe and B was conducted under hydrogen or nitrogen atmosphere to investigate the reaction to atmospheric gas such as hydrogen, nitrogen and so forth. And, by conducting the obtained powders to vacuum treatment, it was also investigated if Nd2Fe14B ferromagnetic phase formed or not. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Change of the electron attachment coefficient caused by corona discharge in oxygen. Sanso gas chu, corona hoden ni yoru denshi fuchaku keisu no henka

    Kajita, Shogo; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Ushiroda, Sumio (Toyota College of Tech., Aichi (Japan))


    The relationship between the electron attachment coefficient of ozone which is one of gases genearated during discharge and the ozone concentration was determined by discharging negative corona discharge in pure oxygen to research and develop a small and highly efficient ozonizer. These measured results are useful as the basic data necessary for simulation of a ozonizer using oxygen as the raw material. The experiment was carried out by releasing photo-electrons generated by pulse glow discharging with a Xe lamp in oxygen sealed into a drifttube, by generating negative ions due to attaching electrons to gaseous molecules and by measuring the induced current accompanied by the transfer. As the results, if ozone of hundreds of ppm is contained in oxygen, followings were confirmed: electron attachment coefficient increased for E/N of about 10Td or less, where E is electric charge and N is molecular density of gas; electron attachment coefficient increased by the dissociative attachment of ozone for E/N of about 10Td or less; and further, the cross section of dissociative attachment for ozone could be estimated by solving the Boltzmann equation. 12 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Numerical simulation for submerged body fitted with hydrofoil by boundary element method; Kyokai yosoho ni yoru yokutsuki bossuitai mawari no nagare keisan

    Masuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Ashidate, I. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In a high-speed boat of a type using hydrofoils, lifting force increases in proportion to square of its length, while displacement is proportional to the third power. Therefore, an idea has come up that speed of a large boat may be increased by combining the hydrofoils with a submerged body. In other words, the idea is to levitate a ship by using composite support consisting of buoyancy of the submerged body and lifting force caused by the hydrofoils. Insufficiency of the lifting force may be complemented by the buoyancy of the submerged body which increases in an equivalent rate as that in the displacement. However, combining a submerged body with hydrofoils render a problem that lifting force for hydrofoils decreases because of interactions among the submerged body, hydrofoils, and free surface. Therefore, assuming a model of a submerged body with a length of 85 m cruising at 40 kt, analysis was given on decrease in lifting force for hydrofoils due to interactions between the submerged and lifting body and free surface by using the boundary element method. As a result, it was verified that the lifting force for the hydrofoils decreases as a result of creation of a flow that decreases effective angle of attach of the hydrofoils. It was also made clear that making the submerging depth greater reduces the decrease in the lifting force. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Numerical prediction with `DMDF` model of pack ice motion in the Okhotsk sea; DMDF model ni yoru Okhotsk kai ryuhyo undo no suchi yosoku

    Matsuzawa, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Suzuki, S.; Kato, H. [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Rheem, C. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    A simulation was performed on pack ice motion in the Okhotsk Sea in winter by using the distributed mass/discrete floe (DMDF) method that carries out a dynamic numerical calculation of pack ice motion. Several kinds of cases were compared and calculated. As a result, effectiveness was verified on a DMDF model with boundary conditions which are relatively large in range and complex in nature. At the same time, it was possible to estimate part of the characteristics of pack ice motion in this sea area. The numerical calculation used the floe distribution on February 1, 1994 as the initial condition, and performed calculations on conditions until February 8 giving considerations on meteorological and hydrographic data. As a result, the calculation result showed the same movements as those in the observed ice conditions. If an ocean current is hypothesized steady, the calculation is affected more than necessarily by the ocean current, and it derives a result departed from reality. From these findings, it was elucidated that floe motions are governed mainly by wind; and in making a numerical modeling, a consideration including composition with the ocean current is necessary. Shear stress of wind has its acting direction displaced from the wind direction because of effect of the Corioli`s force. 6 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Simulation of tandem hydrofoils by finite volume method with moving grid system; Henkei koshi wo tsukatta yugen taisekiho ni yoru tandem suichuyoku no simulation

    Kawashima, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Miyata, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With an objective to clarify possibility of application of time-advancing calculated fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation by using a finite volume method with moving grid system, a simulation was performed on motion of a ship with hydrofoils including the control system therein. The simulation consists of a method that couples a moving grid system technology, an equation of motion, and the control system. Complex interactions between wings and with free surface may be considered automatically by directly deriving fluid force from a flow field by using the CFD. In addition, two-dimensional flows around tandem hydrofoils were calculated to solve the motion problem within a vertical plane. As a result, the following results were obtained: a finite volume method using a dynamic moving grid system method was applied to problems in non-steady tandem hydrofoils to show its usefulness; a method that couples the CFD with the equation of motion was applied to the control problems in the tandem hydrofoils to show possibility of a new technology for simulating motions; and a simulation that considers such wing interference as wave creation, discharged vortices, and associated flows was shown useful to understand characteristics of the tandem hydrofoils. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Vibration suppression of robot arm feedforward control with on-line parameter identification; Online kansei dotei ni yoru robot arm no feedforward shindo yokusei seigyo

    Iwasaki, M.; Kuze, Y.; Otsuka, K.; Matsui, N. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    Generally, robot arms with flexible joints are multi-mass resonant systems, thus causing mechanical vibration. Since the vibration deteriorates the arm position control accuracy, the vibration suppression is indispensable to achieve the high performance arm motion. The authors have already proposed a feedforward vibration suppression scheme using an optimal control command shaping. The scheme is suitable for practical industrial use because of its simple control algorithm, however, there still remains a problem inherent in feedforward techniques that parameter setting errors in controller have significant effects on the suppression control accuracy. This paper presents an adaptive feedforward control of the vibration suppression with on-line mechanical parameter identifier, based on the proposed command shaping. In this scheme, the on-line identification of arm inertia using a method of least squares is performed during acceleration in arm motion. The identified parameter is used during deceleration to suppress the residual vibration. Experimental results using a prototype show the effectiveness of the proposed control. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by use of a simulated moving bed reactor. Mogi idoso wo mochiita kyusoku shoon ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Sano, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of CArbonaceous Resources Conversion); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Iwakiri, H. (Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan))


    An experiment to manufacture coke with rapid temperature raising was carried out using an equipment simulating a vertical moving bed coke oven. Two kinds of trial manufacturing patterns were tested: Pattern A to raise coal temperature rapidly to about 450[degree]C, which is held for about 20 minutes, and then raised again to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min, and pattern B to raise the temperature from about 300[degree]C to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min. An experiment on test samples from heavy caking coal (PDH coal) and light caking coal (OP coal) revealed the following results: The PDH coal applied with the pattern A produced in about two hours a coke with quality equivalent to or better than practically used coke; the temperature raising pattern B resulted in no full lump formation even with the PDH coal; according to the temperature raising pattern A, manufacturing coke from the OP coal is impossible; however, if the PDH coal or pitch is mixed with the OP coal, coke may be manufactured. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum in the fluid of hydroponic culture using DNA analysis; DNA kaiseki ni yoru suiko saibai yoekichu no horenso ichobyokin

    Oyama, K.; Kawabata, T. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    In the case of circularly using a fluid of the hydroponic culture for crops such as vegetable, the destructive damage is caused when specified harmful germs multiply in the growing crop. therefore, it is necessary to find the germs in question out and deal with them as quickly as possible. In this paper, studies were made on a sure identification technology of F. oxysporum using DNA analysis and the measures to prevent crop damages caused by diseases. The results of the study are reported. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Development of power transmission tower monitoring system. Landslide detection by GPS carrier sensor; Soden tetto ijo kanshi system no kaihatsu. GPS carrier sensor ni yoru jisuberi kenshutsu



    In order to reduce labor required for monitoring, patrolling, and checking anomalies in power transmission towers, a development has been made on a remotely controlled monitoring system that can detect landslides easily by detecting carrier waves from the global positioning system (GPS) in combination with use of cellular phones. The present system does not use code signals from the GPS, but receives carrier waves used for its transmission at two locations, measures precisely the phase difference therein, and calculates a very small change in the distance between two points from difference in arrival time of the waves. Receivers are placed at base points (substations) and GPS measuring points (transmission towers). Pocket bells are called from a personal computer at the maintenance location (a power center) during observation, and power is supplied into the receivers from solar cells. The data of GPS carrier waves received at both locations are transmitted to the power center through a cellular phone. The phase difference is calculated and the amount of movement is displayed on the personal computer screen to carry out remote surveillance. A measurement of accuracy of about 1 cm may be realized. Demonstration tests have begun in 1995 at towers installed in the Shiga plateau district where landslide occurs frequently, and the feasibility of the system was verified. 5 figs.

  4. Potential evaluation of cold heat and hot heat supply by solar heat; Taiyonetsu ni yoru reinetsu onnetsu no kyokyu potential hyoka

    Akizawa, A.; Ishida, K.; Kashiwagi, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    When the recovered solar heat is supplied to demands such as heating, cooling by absorption refrigerator and hot water supply, the maximum available heating value was determined using a model in which solar heat collector was installed in the residence, to investigate the possibility of alternative demand. In this study, the supply temperatures were 80 {degree}C for cooling, 50 {degree}C for heating, and 50 {degree}C for hot water supply, where a flat plate type heat collector was employed. It was assumed that the heat storage can be conducted for 24 hours. Results obtained are as follows. For detached houses, most of the monthly demand can be supplied due to the actual predominant fine days in each month. For the cold and intermediate periods, it was supposed that monthly demand can be supplied by using excess heating value of fine days in the case of sufficient capacity of heat storage tank. For the model with heat insulating structure, demands except hot water supply can be supplied from solar energy. It was found that the heat insulation greatly contributes to the energy saving. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Ultra long-term simulation by the integrated model. 1. Framework and energy system module; Togo model ni yoru tanchoki simulation. 1. Flame work to energy system module

    Kurosawa, A.; Yagita, H.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper introduces the study on the ultra long-term energy model `GRAPE` with considering global environment and the results of trial calculation. The GRAPE model is to consist of modules of energy system, climate change, change of land use, food demand/supply, macro economy, and environmental impact. This is a model that divides the world into ten regions, gives 1990 as a base year, and enables the ultra long-term simulation. In this time, emission of carbon is calculated as a trial. In the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission, energy supply in the latter half of 21st century is to compose photovoltaic energy, methanol from coal gasification, and biomass energy. In addition, the shear of nuclear energy is to remarkably increase. For the constitution of power generation, IGCC power generation with carbon recovery, wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, and nuclear power generation are to extend their shears. In the case of constrained concentration of carbon emission, structural change of power generation option is to be delayed compared with the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Archaeological prospecting using electrical resistivity method. Case history of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb; Denki tansaho ni yoru iseki tansa. Kaibukiyama kofun no chosarei

    Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K.; Kishikawa, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    To grasp the three-dimensional structure of ancient tomb during the archaeological prospecting of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb, various electrical resistivity methods were tried. For the survey, firstly, in order to clarify the electrical resistivity structure of rear circular part of ancient tomb, roughly, mapping was conducted by means of two-electrode method using a multi-channel measuring system. Then, the vertical prospecting was conducted densely with a mesh form having VES intervals of 2 m as a detailed survey by means of Schlumberger method. For the three-dimensional inverse analysis of apparent electrical resistivity data by the two-electrode method, a program with high calculation speed was developed by using algorithm where Jacobian with a homogeneous model is adopted for the Jacobian calculation. As a result of the analysis, an outline of underground 3-D resistivity structure was determined. The resistivity anomaly with high values obtained from the results of 2-D inverse analysis of VES curve by means of Schlumberger method agreed well with the central part of the ancient tomb, which was confirmed during the archaeological survey. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Three dimensional numerical modeling for investigation of fracture zone filled with water by borehole radar; Borehole radar ni yoru gansui hasaitai kenshutsu no sanjigen suchi modeling

    Sanada, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hasegawa, K.; Yabuuchi, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Water bearing fracture zones existing in rock mass largely influence the underground water flow and dynamic property of rock mass. The detailed survey of the location and size of water bearing fracture zones is an important task in the fields such as civil engineering, environment and disaster prevention. Electromagnetic waves of high frequency zones can be grasped as a wave phenomenon, and the record obtained in the actual measurement is wave forms of time series. In the exploration using borehole radar, this water bearing fracture zone becomes the reflection surface, and also becomes a factor of damping in the transmitted wave. By examining changes which these give to the observed wave forms, therefore, water bearing fracture zones can be detected. This study made three dimensional numerical modeling using the time domain finite difference method, and obtained the same output as the observed wave form obtained using borehole radar. By using this program and changing each of the parameters such as frequency and resistivity in the homogeneous medium, changes of the wave forms were observed. Further, examples were shown of modeling of detection of water bearing fracture zones. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cavity detection based on EM migration of TEM data; TEM ho data no denji migration ni yoru kudo kenshutsu no kokoromi

    Shiga, N.; Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hara, T. [Toda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to discuss applicability of resistivity imaging using electromagnetic migration to detection of underground cavity, an applicability test was carried out on calculation of a numerical model and measurement data. By using the numerical model, a calculation was performed on a hypothetical case that a cubic cavity with sides each at 40 m exists in a homogenous medium of 200 ohm-m, with the cavity top located 20 m below the ground surface. As a result, it was possible to structure in a very short calculation time an image of the cavity which cannot be identified by one-dimensional inverse analysis. In the case of this cavity, a center of the image was structured on its lower face. It was shown that a location to indicate the image must be changed according to difference in the measurement locations. In a test on data measured in an underground cavity in the city of Utsunomiya, Tochigi Prefecture, it was found that the result may vary largely depending on structure of the background necessary for migration. Referring to a result of measurement performed in a location in which no target has been set can provide a good result. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fault detection by Turam TEM survey. Numerical model studies and a case history; TEM ho Turam sokutei haichi ni yoru danso kenshutsu no kokoromi. Model keisan to jisshirei

    Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T. [Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Takeuchi, A. [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Faculty of Science; He, P. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to detect faults estimated to exist along the Shigesumi valley in the Kamioka mine, discussions were given by using electromagnetic survey, which uses the Turam measurement arrangement based on the TEM method, and three-dimensional model calculations. The Turam measurement arrangement, which installs transmission loop fixedly, is used to identify nature and distribution of electrically conductive objects upon noticing abnormal portions in magnetic fields in the measurement data. In the model calculation, the plate model calculation method and the FDTD method were used, and so was the calculation code TEM3DL. The result revealed that strong topographical influence is seen from steep V-shaped valley existing along the traverse line in the measurement data, but an abnormal resistivity band accompanying remarkable distortion in the curve was detected. According to the result of the model calculation, anomaly detection may be found difficult in locations where a low resistivity band has not grown enough locally. It was possible from these facts to assume a model in which the low resistivity band exists directly below the Shigesumi valley, suggesting existence of faults. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Laboratory study on streaming potential for exploring underground water flow; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru ryudo den`i wo mochiita mizu michi tansa no kanosei no kento

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    To investigate a possibility of exploration of underground water flow as well as to grasp the underground fluid flow by measuring streaming potential at the ground surface, some experiments were conducted using a model unit by considering the difference of permeability. For this experimental unit, water is driven by adding head difference between the polyethylene vessel filled with water and the experimental water tank. The size of water tank is 350{times}160 mm with a height of 160 mm. Twenty platinum electrodes are set on the cover of water tank. Toyoura standard sand and Kanto loam were used for the experiments. For the experiments, fluid was injected in various combined models by considering the permeability, to measure the streaming potential. As a result, it was explained by the streaming potential that the fluid flows in a form of laminar flow in the experimental water tank, and that the movement of fluid in the Kanto loam is quite slow. It was also confirmed that the streaming potential method is an effective technique for grasping the movement of fluid. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Experiment for buried pipes by stepped FM-CW radar; Step shiki FM-CW radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa jikken

    Suzuki, K.; Ito, M. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanabe, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    The underground radar exploration is adopted to surveys of cavity under the road and buried pipes since the result of high resolution is obtained. However, the explorative depth of the radar is shallow, 2-3m in soil basement, and its applicable field has been limited. The continuous wave radar (FM-CW radar) was devised to get deeper explorative depth, but has been used for the geological structure survey such as the fault survey since it is lower in resolution as compared with the pulse radar. Therefore, to make use of characteristics of the continuous wave radar and enhance resolution in the shallow part, an experiment on buried pipes was conducted for the purpose of assessing and improving the FM-CW radar. In this processing, the wave form treatment used in the reflection method seismic survey was adopted for the radar survey. There are some problems, but it is effective to adopt the same algorithm to that used in the seismic survey to the radar exploration. The explorative depth was discussed from the damping rate of electromagnetic waves and dynamic range of facilities of the experimental site, and 7m was obtained. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Polarimetric borehole radar measurement near Nojima fault and its application to subsurface crack characterization; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru Nojima danso shuhen no chika kiretsu keisoku jikken

    Sato, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Miwa, T.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ikeda, R. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Makino, K. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Practical application of subsurface crack characterization by the borehole radar measurement to which the radar polarimetric method was introduced was attempted to measuring objects for which the borehole radar has not been much used, for example, the inside of low loss rock mass or fracture zone where cracks tightly exist. A system was trially manufactured which makes the radar polarimetric measurement possible in the borehole at a 1000m depth and with a about 10cm diameter, and a field experiment was conducted for realizing the subsurface crack characterization near the Nojima fault. For the measuring experiment by the polarimetric borehole radar, used were Iwaya borehole and Hirabayashi borehole drilled in the north of Awaji-shima, Hyogo-ken. In a comparison of both polarization systems of Hirabayashi borehole, reflected waves at depths of 1038m and 1047m are relatively stronger in both polarization systems than those with the same polarization form and at different depths, whereas reflected waves around a 1017m depth are strong only as to the parallel polarization system. Characteristics of the polarization in this experiment indirectly reflect crack structures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Improvement of D.I. diesel engine combustion using numerical simulation; Chokufun diesel kikan no nensho kaizen shuho. Suchi kaiseki ni yoru torikumi

    Minami, T.; Adachi, T.; Isyii, Y. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of improving DI diesel engine combustion, it is important to predict air flow of intake and exhaust manifold, intake port flow, combustion chamber swirl and fuel spray combustion. This paper describes the application of numerical simulation to the engines, the analysis of phenomena and a problem of simulation model modification. (author)

  14. Dynamic stability analysis of circular arch subjected to follower forces with small disturbances; Judo kaju wo ukeru enkei arch no yuran ni yoru doteki kyodo to anteisei kaiseki

    Fukuchi, N.; Okada, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirano, Y. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the deformation and dynamic stability of circular arch subjected to follower forces in a submerged membrane type marine structure reinforced by arch frames. Governing equations for finite deformations of the circular arch subjected to follower forces are introduced using an embedded curve coordinate, which are formulated by applying Galerkin method. In addition, equations of motion due to small disturbances under given condition of loading are introduced. Based on these equations, dynamic stability of the arch is analyzed by means of Runnge-Kutta-Gill method, to clarify the relationship between disturbances and instability regions and the resulting phenomena. Near the boundary regions of stability, both amplitude and cycle of deformation are greatly affected by the amplitude of disturbances. The dynamic instability is governed by the inverse symmetry primary mode with minimum characteristic frequency which is specific for the circular arch. The dynamic stability has high parameter dependency, and the instability regions have a complicated shapes. Although flattened arch has a smaller static critical load, it provides the dynamic stability against the disturbance. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Development of spherical fine powders by high-pressure water atomization using swirl water jet; Senkaisui jet wo mochiita koatsusui atomize ni yoru kyujo bifun no kaihatsu

    Kikukawa, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Inaba, T.; Iwatsu, O.; Takeda, T. [Fukuda Metal Foil and Powder Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)


    In order to obtain spherical fine powders, a new high-pressure water atomization method using swirl water jet was developed. In this paper the effects of jet swirl angle ({omega}) upon the properties of powders were investigated. Cu-10 mass%Sn alloy was atomized by this method at the constant water pressure of 83.3 MPa and constant metal orifice diameter of 4mm, while {omega} was varied from 0 to 0.18 rad. Median diameter of the powder by the laser diffraction method (D{sub 50}) decreased from 12.5 {mu}m to 7.5{mu}m with increasing {omega}, and this corresponded to Fisher average diameter (D{sub FS}) at about w=0.18 rad. The apparent and tap density of the powder increased about 1 and 1.5 Mg/m{sup 3} respectively, and the particle shape observed by SEM became spherical with increasing {omega}. (author)

  16. Treatment of photographic processing wastewater by biological activated carbon fixed-bed reactor. Seibutsu kasseitan ni yoru shashin haieki no shori

    Shirota, H.; Kishino, T. (Ube College, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Ukita, M.; Nakanishi, H. (Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Since photographic processing wastewater includes very small quantity but high density of organic and inorganic chemicals, it is one of the difficult wastewaters for water treatment. Although ozone oxidation methods or chemical oxidation methods to reduce COD or BOD have been examined as treatment processes for photographic wastewater, their commercialization have not been progressed yet from the view of efficiency or of costs. In this paper, aerobic microbial film fixed-bed reactor, of which microbes carrier was granular activated carbon (GAC), was used to treat photographic processing wastewater, and its characteristics of biological treatments have been examined. As a result, by treatment experiments of photographic processing wastewater distinguished depending on their resources, it was clarified treatment characteristics were different depending on a sort of photographic wastewater, and that COD was increased by biological treatments. Moreover, based on experiments to be carried out by changing COD loads using mixed wastewater by each photographic processing wasterwater with generic propotion, it could be considered that loading quantity without pH adjustment was approximately 10g{center dot}Kg{sup {minus}1}GAC {center dot}d{sup {minus}1} of COD loading based on carrier weight. Further, there was closed relationship between COD load and COD removal speed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Solution to non-steady two-dimensional hydrofoil problems by using a simple panel method; Kantanna panel ho ni yoru hiteijo nijigen`yoku mondai no kaiho

    Maita, S.; Ando, J.; Nakatake, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A simple panel method, the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) was expanded to two-dimensional non-steady hydrofoil problems. Discussions were given on the results of calculations on two-dimensional hydrofoils making a simple non-steady motion. In calculating hydrofoils which move suddenly from a still state with angle of elevation {alpha} at a velocity U, the following results were obtained: the time differential item in a pressure equation gives a considerably strong effect on lifting power; and the lifting power converges to a steady state with lapse of time, and the lifting power coefficient in that state shows that the lifting power increases as hydrofoil thickness increases. This result agrees with the hydrofoil thickness effect in the two-dimensional steady problem, proving the reasonability of this calculation method. In the calculations of time history of the lifting power acting on hydrofoils passing a sinusoidal gust and hydrofoils in a pitching motion, the calculated values from the SQCM were found to approach analysis solution to thin hydrofoils as the hydrofoil thickness becomes thinner for both cases. This result also proves the result of calculations on non-steady state by using the SQCM reasonable. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Marine pollution by heavy oil and bio-purification. Bacteria decomposing oil hydrocarbon; Juyu ni yoru umi no osen to seibutsu joka. Juyu tanka suiso wo bunkaisuru saikin

    Itagaki, E. [Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Science


    It is said that 23 genuses of bacteria decomposing hydrocarbon such as bacterium species, actinomycetes species, mold species and yeast of 10-10{sup 5}/ml live in seawater. No survey has been made on bacteria decomposing heavy oil hydrocarbon in the area contaminated by heavy oil from Russian tanker `Nakhodka` in the Sea of Japan. Survey was thus made on the existence and distribution of bacteria decomposing heavy oil hydrocarbon along the coast of Kaga district, Ishikawa prefecture. Such bacteria were successfully separated by repeated cultivation. The bacteria are short bacillus of nearly 1{mu}m long, and show a spherical shape as preserved at low temperature. Since the bacteria change their shape according to growth conditions, those are the germ of `Arthrobacter` genus. The bacteria of nearly 10{sup 5}/g lived along the sand beach in spite of low seawater and air temperatures in the early spring. The bacteria increased to nearly 10{sup 7}/g in May, however, decreased with a progress of oil decomposition in June. 3 figs.

  19. Characterization of interactions of coal surface with solvent by flow microcalorimetric measurement. 3; Netsuryo sokutei ni yoru sekitan hyomen to yozai tono sogo sayo no hyoka. 3

    Wang, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Corporation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    An investigation was given on the relationship between methanol adsorbing behavior of reformed coal surface and oxygen containing functional groups in coal. Akabira bituminous coal was air-oxidized or Yallourn brown coal was decarbonated in oil as a reformation treatment. Both of the treated and untreated coals showed an adsorption heat curve of the Langmuir type. The Akabira coal had its oxygen content and the adsorption heat increased as a result of the air oxidizing reformation treatment. The Yallourn coal had its oxygen content and adsorption heat decreased as a result decarbonation reformation treatment. Oxygen containing functional groups act as strong adsorption sites for methanol, and the maximum adsorption amount depends on oxygen content in the coals. Since the coal surface is non-uniform in terms of energy, methanol is adsorbed first into sites with higher molar adsorption heat, and then into lower sites sequentially. Therefore, distribution of the molar adsorption heat can be derived from the relationship between adsorption amount and adsorption heat by changing methanol adsorption amount. The distribution of molar adsorption heat becomes broader when the oxygen content is high, and narrower when low. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Explosive treatment of Illinois No.6 coal with a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol; Mizu-cyclohexanol kongo yozai ni yoru Illinois tan no bakusai shori

    Hashimoto, T.; Takada, H.; Asami, K.; Yano, M. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Coal was treated at high temperature under high pressure in the binary system mixed solvent of water and organic solvent, and the solvent treated coal was liquefied. When the treated coal was treated again by the explosive method in which high temperature and pressure were released immediately, the oil yield was higher than that by the normal method in which high temperature and pressure were reduced gradually to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this study, an explosive treatment unit with increased scale of sample amount was newly fabricated. Illinois No.6 coal was treated by the explosive method in a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol using this unit. Changes in shape on the surface, specific surface area, and functional groups were analyzed. The explosively treated coal contained more amount of low boiling point components than the normally treated coal. It was suggested that the oil yield of explosively treated coal increased due to the liquefaction of these components during the successive hydrogenation process. For the explosively treated coal, micro pores were fractured by the rapid change in the volume of solvent molecules, and the specific surface area was smaller than that of the normally treated coal. When the treatment temperature was increased from 300{degree}C to 350{degree}C, specific surface areas of both the treated coals increased. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kochiku chishiki to bubunteki energy hyoka ni yoru sekitan bunshi kozo kochiku system

    Okawa, T.; Sasai, T.; Komoda, N. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The computer aided coal structure construction system is proposed, and a computational construction example is presented. The coal structure construction engine of this system fabricates molecular structure by connecting fragments sequentially inputted through a user interface. The best structure candidate is determined using construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation every addition of one fragment, and this process is subsequently repeated. The structure evaluation engine analyzes the 3-D conformation candidate by molecular dynamics, and evaluates the conformation by determining the energy value of an optimum structure. As an example, this system was applied to construction of coal molecular structure based on the actual data of partial structure composed of 26 structures from 2l kinds of aromatic cluster structures, 27 bonds from 2 kinds of bridged bonds, and 16 groups from 2 kinds of terminal substitutional groups. As a result, this system could construct a superior structure according to expert knowledge from the viewpoint of energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Depolymerization of coal by O2 oxidation followed by acid hydrolysis; Sanso sanka-kasui bunkai ni yoru sekitan no teionkai jugo

    Aizawa, S.; Hayashi, J.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With an objective to elucidate characteristics of oxygen addition to coal, and characteristics of solvent extraction by means of depolymerization, experiments were performed on oxygen oxidation and acid hydrolysis of brown coals. Coals used for the experiments are Morwell (MW), Yallourn (YL) , South Banko (SB) and Wyoming (WY) coals. Test samples were suspended in weak alkaline aqueous solution, and then oxygen was blown into them with pressure kept at atmospheric pressure. After a lapse of a predetermined time, the samples were cooled, and made as acidic as pH 1.3 in hydrochloric acid, followed by acid hydrolysis. Oxygen consumption increased with the reaction time, and with the MW coal, one mol oxygen reacted to 11 mols of coal. Spectral analysis on the YL and WY coal experiments revealed that aliphatic carbon combined with aromatic carbon or ether group has turned to peroxide, whose C-C or C-O bond was broken down as a result of acid hydrolysis of the peroxide, producing oxygen containing compounds. As a result of the depolymerization, the rate of extraction by using DMF, DMSO and methanol/THF mixed solvent increased to 90% or higher. Proportion of bond and cutting-off affects largely collapse of the cross-link structure. The carbon conversion to volatiles was at most 4%. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  3. Estimation for origin of coals on biomaker analysis; Jinko sekitan oyobi tennen sekitan no biomaker bunseki ni yoru sekitan kigen busshitsu no suitei

    Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugimoto, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to study coal production processes, an estimation study was carried out on coal originating materials by using biomaker analysis. Test samples are original coals collected directly from a mine in Hokkaido (not having been subjected cleaning). Mixing and solvent extraction were performed after pulverization, and then tests were given on saturated hydrocarbon components divided by using a silicagel column chromatograph for the present study. It can be known from n-alkane distribution in the coal that low molecular alkane increases with increasing degree of coalification. Artificial coal made by wet-heating Metasequoia leaves contains only little n-alkane. Diterpenoid compound exists in the Taiheiyo and Akabira coals. Tetra-cyclic diterpernoid is contained abundantly in subtropical coniferous trees, serving as a parameter for warm environment. The compound is contained also in the Fushun coal, but not in Indonesian coals. Hopanoid constitution shows very high similarity, but H/C atomic ratio may vary largely even if the coalification is at the same degree. This is likely to be caused from difference in originating materials. Hopanoids are bacteria attributed substances, whose activities are not affected by the originating materials. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Energy-saving by teh reduction of the pressure loss in tge water supplying system of boilers. Boiler kyusui keito no atsuryoku sonshitsu keigen ni yoru sho energy

    Nakayama, T. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan))


    In the water supplying system of boilers for the power generators scale deposits are mainly composed by Fe {sub 3} O {sub 4}. With removing this scale by the chemical cleaning the recovery of the heat transfer efficiency and the reduction of the pressure loss were expected. Generally scale in the narrow tubes is removed with the jet cleaning which uses high pressure water, but in this method scale is not removed completely. To raise the pH of the supplying water is also tried, but it is not sufficient to solve the problem. Therefore, the chemical cleaning using the citric acid and the hydroxy acid was done. In this case, a part of scale which can not be solved in the cleaning water might be left in the pipe as sludge. So the best conditions of the solvent flow for the removal of this sludge were investigated in the experiments and those conditions were applied. Further, the sludge catchers were used. As a result of those cleaning, the gains obtained in 2 years were 199 million yen in No.5 generator, 519 million yen in No.6 generator in Chita thermal power plant, and 187 million yen in Chita second thermal power plant. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Sterilization of microorganisms by photocatalyst of thermal sprayed TiO{sub 2} coatings; Chitania yosha himaku ni yoru biseibutsu no sakkin

    Horie, Y.; Hirano, T. [Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Shimane Prefecture, Shimane (Japan); Shibata, H.; Kono, Y. [Shimane University, Shimane (Japan)


    It has been known that when titania (TiO{sub 2}) is exposed to light in the presence of water, active oxygen species such as {center_dot} OH and O{sub 2} are generated through photocatalysis. These oxygen species degrade poisonous compounds and bad smells and also have antimicrobial effects. Here, we investigated the amount of {center_dot} OH generated from thermal sprayed TiO{sub 2} coatings and their sterilizing effects on microbials. (1)Malondialdehyde assay revealed that a photocatalytic reaction was induced on the coatings by UV light at less than 366nm and {center_dot} OH was generated. The amount of malondialdehyde production (Y:nmol/10{sup -4}m{sup 2}/1.8ks), corresponding to the amount of {center_dot} OH was proportionate to the content of anastase titanium oxide (X:wt%) in the coatings, showing the presence of a relation expressed as Y=e{sup -0.397}X{sup 0.867} between the two. (2)Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichta coli and Salmonella enteritidis were spread on the coatings to examine the sterilizing effects through photocatalysis induced by fluorescene. All of these bacteria died within 1.2-1.8ks. For anti-bacterial ceramic tiles on the market, the survival rates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia colt and Salmonella enteritidis after UV exposure for 1.8ks were 60.4, 52.7 and 26.9%, respectively, showing that these tiles are inferior to the coatings in respect to sterilizing effects. (author)

  6. Implementation of IIR ADF for narrow band noise elimination by using of DSP; DSP ni yoru kyotaiiki zatsuon jokyoyo IIR-ADF no jitsugen

    Nakanishi, T.; Yamaguchi, E.; Takumi, I.; Hata, M. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Nakano, M. [Denso Corp., Nagoya (Japan)


    An Adaptive Digital Filter (ADF), which has palarel connected 2nd order IIR filters, for narrow band noise elimination is proposed already. The proposed adaptation algorithm, however, does not take account of delay caused by anti-alias Low-Pass Filter (LPF) and Analogue to Digital (A/D), and Digital to Analogue (D/A) converter. So, in real applications, the ADF implemented with Digital Signal Processor (DSP) shows poor capability of eliminating narrow band noise. In this paper, we propose a method to compensate phase of output signal from ADF. The compensation is accomplished with 1st order FIR filter inserted in the output line of the ADF. We also show how to set the coefficient values of the FIR filter. And, we scrutinize ability to eliminate noise and computational cost through practical implementation of the ADF and the proposed phase compensation filter. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Evaluation of the force rum flotation result by the ion exchange using the rubidium; Rubijiumu wo mochiita ion kokan ni yoru karamu fusen kekka no hyoka

    Kamiyama, Jun' ichi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Fujimoto, Hidekazu; Matsukata, Masahiko


    The following are contained: Hydroxyl group and carbonyl, functional oxygen group and mineral like the carboxyl group in which the coal is the hydrophilic component. The column flotation result is greatly different, since existence proportion of these components is different by the coal type. We regarded it as whether it could not simply evaluate the force rum flotation result of the coal at area proportion of the syneresis site on the coal particle exterior. In this study, the force rum flotation was carried out using balance wheel (bituminous coal), mountain west (anthracite), bituminous coal, and Illinois (lignit) charcoal it is almost same (bituminous coal). The ladder of carbon material recovery rate was the balance wheel > Kawanishi > almost same > Illinois charcoal. Next, area proportion ({alpha}{sub ex-OH}, {alpha}{sub in-OH} respectively) of the hydrophilic site in coal particle exterior and particle inside {alpha}{sub ex-OH} was obtained. In case of the almost same charcoal, was bigger than {alpha}{sub in-OH}. It seems to slightly oxidize the particle surface the almost same charcoal. In 3 kinds of bituminous coal, the ladder of carbon material recovery rate and {alpha}{sub in-OH} agreed. However, it is necessary to consider not only area proportion but also wettability of the hydrophobic site of the hydrophilic site for the planktonic of mountain west charcoal which is the anthracite. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Immobilization of biocatalysts using crosslinked acetoacetyl polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels. Acetoacetyl ka polyvinyl alcohol kakyo suisei gel ni yoru seitai shokubai no kateika

    Kondo, M.; Mannen, T. (Food Research Institute, Aichi Prefectural Government, Nagoya (Japan)); Shimokawa, w.; Fukumori, k. (Hoechst Gosei Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan))


    In order to develop crosslinked hydrogels competent for immobilization of biocatalysts, gelation of acetoacetyl polyvinyl alcohol (AA-PVA) and immobilization of biocatalysts using the gel were investigated. AA-PVA solution formed crosslinked hydrogels when it was treated with bifunctional gelating agents such as albehyde and hydrazide. Since the gelating times were adjustable at appropriate pH, the hydrogels were able to be formed in various shapes such as granules and thin films. The appearance of the hydrogels was similar to calcium alginate gels, and they were stable under conditions which would cause decomposition of the latter. Acetic acid fermentation by immobilized growing cells were tested using the hydrogels, and then acetic acid productivity up to 3.7 g{center dot} l{sup {minus}1} {center dot} h {minus}1 and stability over six months were exhibited. In addition, activities of immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase using the hydrogels were measured. As the results, the hydrogels were concluded to be useful as immpbilization supports for microorganisms and enzymes. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Hydrophobization og the surface fo malachite with some fluorosurfactants. 2,3 no fussokei kaimen kasseizai ni yoru malachite hyomen no sosuika

    Kobayashi, M. (National Reserach Institute for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan)); Wakamatsu, T. (Kyoto University, Kyoko (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    The depleting trends of high-grade ores in recent years make it unavoidable to float ores in fine powder forms. To achieve this, research and development is important on such a recovering agent that can hydrophobize the surfaces of useful ores selectively and powerfully. This paper describes the discussion on three kinds of fluorosurfactant, namely perfluorooctanoic acid, Ftergent-100 and Ftergent-150, whic were used to hydrophobize the surface of malachite, and compared of its utilization possibility as a recovery agent with other surfactants. As a result, it was found that the Ftergent-100, which contains five CF{sub 3}{sup {minus}} in one molecule having extremely low critical surface tension, and the Ftergent-150 can hydrophobize sufficiently the malachite surface and provide good deposition. The region providing good deposition was at a weak-acidic to weak-alkali region in the case of the Ftergent-150. Therefore, both materials are thought they could be used as a recovering agent. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Umeda, K.; Ono, S. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Development of fuel cells using biogas and effects for environmental protection; Bio gas ni yoru nenryo denchi no kaihatsu to kankyo hozen no torikumi

    Saito, K. [Sapporo Breweries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The Chiba plant of Sapporo Breweries Ltd. has introduced a biogas-using fuel cell system as one of its efforts for environmental protection, and the system generated power in June, 1998, for the first time in the world. This paper discusses the efforts for environmental protection, power generating system, and future tasks. The biogas-using fuel cell system makes use of fermentation gas (biogas), produced when wastewater from the plant is subjected to anaerobic treatment, as fuel for the generation of electricity (200kW), steam (160 degrees C, 5.3kg/cm{sup 2}), and higher-temperature water (80-120 degrees C). The biogas is a low-calorie gas consisting of approximately 70% methane gas and approximately 30% CO2 gas. Since the gas contains trace quantities of approximately 1,000-1,500ppm sulfur compounds, and salts and ammonia not higher than several dozens in ppm, a pre-treatment device is installed upstream the fuel cell power generation unit for their removal. The merits brought about by the adoption of the system include the lowered electricity rate, reduced CO2 emission, damped noise, and enhanced maintainability. It is believed that the system introduced here will work advantageously in satisfying the ISO14001 requirements. (NEDO)

  12. Impact three-point bending tests on FRP by split-Hopkinson bar technique. Hopkinson boho ni yoru FRP no shogeki santenmage shiken

    Higashida, F.; Ogawa, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) are widely used as high ratio strength structural material and strong interest is taken in their impact strength. In their impact bending test, observation is made of stress waveform, with which largely interferes high frequency fluctuation. Various measurement methods being studied to eliminate that interference, the present report used a split-Hopkinson bar technique, not influenced by the reflection of stress wave in the tester, and made impact three-point bending tests, up to about 15cm/s in impact speed, on CFRP and GFRP by having loosely ramped incident stress act. The result gave a smooth relation, almost free from high frequency fluctuation, between the load and time, which relation could accurately derive bending rigidity, breaking strength, etc. Of the CFRP and GFRP, elucidation was further made of independency of bending strength upon the strain speed, relation between the maximum stress and strain speed, effect of deformation speed on the three-point bending strength, etc. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the acoustic wave-equation; Onkyoha hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The effect of initial models on full-wave inversion (FWI) analysis based on acoustic wave-equation was studied for elastic wave tomography of underground structures. At present, travel time inversion using initial motion travel time is generally used, and inverse analysis is conducted using the concept `ray,` assuming very high wave frequency. Although this method can derive stable solutions relatively unaffected by initial model, it uses only the data of initial motion travel time. FWI calculates theoretical waveform at each receiver using all of observed waveforms as data by wave equation modeling where 2-D underground structure is calculated by difference calculus under the assumption that wave propagation is described by wave equation of P wave. Although it is a weak point that FWI is easily affected by noises in an initial model and data, it is featured by high resolution of solutions. This method offers very excellent convergence as a proper initial model is used, resulting in sufficient performance, however, it is strongly affected by initial model. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Study of heart rate variability in driving situation by fractal analysis; Fractal kaiseki ni yoru untenchu no shinpaku hendo no bunseki

    Hirata, Y.; Nagaoka, M. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    This paper will explain method of fractal analysis for heart rate variability, as measuring method of mental stress in vehicle driving. In the previous, although there was a measuring method of mental stress by RSA, a issue arise such as reliability of analysis, because driver`s heart rate affect by respiration and muscle motion as well. We have established a method to measure mental stress by fractal dimension. And tried it is the proving ground and public road driving. We have confident that it is more reliable than RSA to quantify driver`s mental stress and fatigue. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan with end wall injection and suction; Hekimen fukidashi suidashi ni yoru han'yo jikuryu sofuki no shissoku kaizen

    Nishioka, K.; Kuroda, H.; Obata, S.; Chimura, O. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The experimental studies are conducted to reveal the mechanism of stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan by injection or suction from the end wall. In case of injection, the largest improvement is obtained by the injection at about 0. 14 {approx} 0 .21 times axial chord length downstream from leading edge. The reason for large improvement is that stall vortex, shed intermittent separation vortex and tip leakage vortex are dissipated by this injection, and also that this blowing suppresses the separation of boundary layer. In case of suction, the largest improvement is found for the suction from the end wall near leading edge. The amplitude of periodic static pressure after stall inception becomes smaller in comparison with injection cases. These effects are increased with the increase of suction flow rate, because the discharge of the vortex occurs more easily. On the other hand, the suction from the upstream of leading edge reduces the axial velocity near rotor tip, and then it induces stall. Also we tried to visualize the tip region flow, The suppression mechanism is discussed based on the visualization. The suppression of stall is successfully photographed. (author)

  16. Life prolongation and cost reduction of steel ladles with improving refractories and their structure; Taikabutsu zaishitsu to kozo kaizen ni yoru shuka taikabutsu no chojumyoka to kosuto teigen

    Nakai, Masato; Kasahara, Hajime; Fukutani, Fujio; Imai, Hiroyuki [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Steel Making Plant, Hirohata Iron Works, Nippon Steel Corp. succeeded to reduce the cost of furnace materials by measures described below down to 49% compared to that in 1992. (1) For tuyre bricks, cleanability against oxygen was improved by compacting by vacuum cast forming. (2) For SL bricks, the cost was reduced by applying imported bricks and optimization of the range of use. (3) For alumina-magnesia amorphous refractories for side walls, low expansion and breaking resistance were improved by optimization of magnesia quantity and silica ultra fine powder quantity. (4) For side wall structure, improvement of tie-in between the ground part and the side wall and lining with efficient thickness were carried out. (NEDO)

  17. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  18. Application of monolithic lining to tundish and extension of tundish life with improvement of refractories; Tandeisshu futeiseika to taikabutsu kaizen ni yoru jumyo kojo

    Mori, Eiichiro; Fujta, Takashi; Tanikawa, Kanji [Kobe Steel Corp., Hyogo (Japan)


    As a part of realization of monolithic liming of a tundish lining refractory, a study on 2CC and 3CC tundish monolithic refractories was carried out to improve placing efficiency and extend its life. Main inspection points were set on (1) casting facility specifications and (2) structure and material. A force feeding pump system with a high degree of freedom for placing layout was selected. It was judged preferable than a hopper dolly type ladle repair facility in the degree of freedom for a placing site and facility expenses, though little inferior at maintenance. A force feeding pump is combined with a boom to enable the facility to cast for plural objects. Low expansion and creep properties were given to the refractory by reviewing the addition of the expansive material and the structure was improved by setting anchor blocks at corner parts. The cost of refractories was reduced and labor saving of refractory placing workers was achieved by widely extending the life. (NEDO)

  19. Improvement of wells turbine performance by means of 3D guide vanes; Sanjigen annai hane ni yoru wells turbine seino no kaizen

    Takao, M.; Kim, T.H. [Saga University, Saga (Japan); Setoguchi, T. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Inoue, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Performance of a Wells turbine was improved by equipping 3D guide vanes before and behind a rotor. For further improvement, 3D guide vanes have been proposed in this paper. The performance of the Wells turbine with 2D and 3D guide vanes have been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions. Then, the running and starting characteristics in irregular ocean waves have been obtained by a computer simulation. As a result, it is found that both of the running and starting characteristics of the Wells turbine with 3D guide vanes are superior to those of the turbine with 2D guide vanes. (author)

  20. Improvements of diesel combustion with pilot and main injections at different piston positions; Piston iso wo koryoshita pilot funsha ni yoru diesel nenshono kaizen

    Li, C.; Ogawa, H.; Miyamoto, N. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sakai, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The fuel spray distribution in a DI diesel engine with a pilot injection was actively controlled by pilot and main fuel injections at different piston positions to avoid the main fuel injection from hitting the pilot flame. A CFD analysis demonstrated that the movement of the piston with a cavity divided by a central lip along the center of the sidewall effectively separated the cores of the pilot and main fuel sprays. The experiments showed that more smoke was emitted with pilot injection in an ordinary cavity without the central lip while smokeless and low NO{sub x} operation was realized with pilot injection in a cavity divided by a central lip even at heavy loads where ordinary operation without pilot injection emitted smoke so much. The indicated specific energy consumption ISEC was a little bit higher with the pilot injection, mainly because of the reduction in the degree of constant volume combustion. With the advanced pilot injection, ISEC was improved more than that with the retarded pilot injection while the NO{sub x} is a little higher than the retarded pilot injection maintaining still much lower than in ordinary operation. (author)

  1. Quantitative measurements of air-fuel mixture distribution in a cylinder using LIF; LIF ni yoru tonai kongoki nodo no teiryoteki keisoku

    Kato, S.; Kadoi, N. [Subaru Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of mixture formation in a cylinder to improve engine performance, especially for a gasoline direct injection engine. In this study, a quantitative air-fuel mixture measurement technique using PLIF was developed. Across a laser sheet, a transparent liner was placed between two calibration cells which increased the reliability of fuel concentration. This technique was applied to gasoline direct injection engine to clarify the effect of injection timing on stratified charged mixture. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Analysis of combustion in an ATAC engine with measurement of radical luminescence; Radical hakko keisoku ni yoru ATAC engine no nensho kaiseki

    Park, Y.; Oguma, H.; Ueda, H.; Iida, N. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to make clear of the combustion mechanism and the frame structure in two stake, so called, active thermo-atmosphere combustion (ATAC) engine fueled by gasoline and methanol, we measured the 2-demensional images of OH, CH and C2 radical band spectra in both ATAC and SI combustion mode. From the results of pressure data in the cylinder, the heat release rate was calculated. We evaluated the correlation of radical luminescence intensity and the rate of heat release. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Measurements of apex seal behavior in a rotary engine using four displacement sensors; Rotary engine no apex seal kyodo. Yon`i sensor ni yoru sokutei

    Matsuura, K. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering


    Behavior measurements of an apex seal of three-piece slanted horizontal split type were made, using an overhanging eccentric shaft-type single-rotor engine equipped with a multichannel packaged slip ring. To analyze the behavior, a computer plotting program was developed, by means of which the sequences of the configuration of top and bottom parts in the slot at given eccentric shaft angles were plotted on the trochoidal curves from the measured displacement data. The measurement results revealed the details of the behavior. Under high working chamber pressure, the top part of the leading apex seal is flush with the leading side of the slot, while that of the trailing apex seal is considerably tilted with respect to the trailing edge of the slot. 8 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Improvement of power system stability by high speed power control of adjustable speed machine; Kahensokuki no koshutsuryoku seigyo ni yoru denryoku keito no anteido kojo

    Nojiri, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Nakagawa, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Goto, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nohara, H. [Hitachi Nuclear Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Large capacity adjustable speed machines (ASMs) at pumped storage power station have been put into full operation and the operating characteristics of ASM have been highly evaluated from the view point of power system operation. The output power (input power) of ASM can be controlled very quickly by applying a vector control scheme to the excitation control. This quick responsive feature of ASM can make it possible to improve the stability of the neighbor sub-power system. For improvement of transient stability, the output power of ASM is reduced very quickly in order to control the acceleration of neighbor generators during and after transmission line faults. For improvement of dynamic stability, the output power of ASM is modulated in accordance with the stabilizing signals detected from the swing of generator rotor or the power flow fluctuation on the transmission line. This paper describes the design concepts and method of control system for improving the transient and dynamic stability and proposes a power system stabilizing control system. The effects of the proposed stabilizing control system have been verified by a power system simulator. 9 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  5. SVC control method to improve the stability of power systems applying fuzzy control. Fuzzy seigyo wo riyoshita SVC ni yoru denryoku keito no anteika seigyoho

    Uezato, K.; Senju, T.; Shiroma, T. (University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan))


    The SVC (static var compensator) control method featured by fuzzy control is proposed to improve the stabilization of power systems. The method is applicable to a simple single-machine infinite bus system, and SVC is allocated at the center of a transmission line to keep the line terminal voltage constant. The SVC controller is composed of the PI controller to keep the terminal voltage constant and the fuzzy controller-1 parallel to the PI controller for determining SVC admittances to suppress system fluctuation. The fuzzy controller-2 switches control between stabilizing control during system fluctuation and constant voltage control in normal operation. The fuzzy rules are remarkably simple because those are constructed qualitatively on the basis of sliding mode control. System fluctuation can be also reduced rapidly by using not only the terminal information such as terminal voltage and power flow on an interconnection line but also the generator information such as load angle and slip. 10 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Power system stabilizing control by superconducting magnetic energy storage using neural network; Newral network wo mochiita chodendo energy chozo sochi ni yoru keito anteika seigyo

    Osawa, Y.; Kanemitsu, T.; Kawakami, T.; Shintaku, M.; Arai, K. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)


    In order to solve the difficulty of realizing power system stabilization using non-linear optimal control, this paper discusses a power system stabilization control by superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) using a neural network. This system consists of a kind of feedback control system that derives an optimal stabilizing control on various initial system operating conditions and failure conditions applied with the maximum principles, and learns the best stabilization using the control as tutorial signals and using the neural network. The object model system is a one-unit infinite busbar system, whose generator terminal is installed with the SMES. With respect to the system learning using the neural network, the network output to the learned failure patterns has agreed with the tutorial signals nearly completely. As a result of simulating example systems, it was confirmed that the operating conditions within a reasonable range and failure conditions were learned well, control effects close to the optimal control were shown, and the oscillation suppressing effect of the SMES can be utilized effectively. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Operating condition and membrane thickness of microcapsules generated by complex coacervation method; Coacervation ho ni yoru seisei microcapsule no sosa joken to capsule makuatsu

    Kage, H.; Ogura, H.; Matsuno, Y. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Kunimasa, M. [Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, H. [Dainippon Ink Chemicals, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    Microencapsulation of glass beads with a narrow size distribution was carried out by complex coacervation of gelatin and acacia. The coacervation process was observed in detail and the effects of agitation strength, cooling rate, addition time of core material, addition plans of acetic acid and distilled water, and heating rate in the hardening process on membrane thickness of the microcapsules were investigated systematically. The membrane thickness of the microcapsules increased under the operating conditions where low cooling rate and relatively strong agitation were utilized, and pH was changed moderately by discrete addition of acetic acid or distilled water over a certain time interval. It became clear that strict control of operating conditions at 19{degree}C in the cooling process where the viscosity of the coacervate suddenly increases is remarkably important for the control of membrane thickness. 3 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Laboratory investigation on streaming potential for sandy soil and weathered rock; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru sashitsu jiban oyobi fuka ganban no ryudo den`i no kento

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Laboratory experiment on sandy soil and weathered rock was conducted to clarify the generation mechanism of streaming potential due to underground fluid. Streaming potential is caused by underground fluid flow, namely by fluid flow in porous substances as electrokinetic phenomenon. In experiment, Inagi sand, Toyoura sand and strongly decomposed weathered granite were used. In Inagi and Toyoura sands, positive streaming potential was observed downstream in fluid flow. Streaming potential could be nearly determined as primary function of fluid velocity, and generated streaming potential increased with fluid resistivity. Streaming potential was higher in Inagi sand than Toyoura sand, probably depending on hydraulic radius, size of bleeding channel, and conductivity of sand surface. In weathered granite, negative streaming potential was measured. In the case of positive {zeta} potential, negative streaming potential is theoretically generated downstream in fluid flow. This experiment suggested possible generation of negative streaming potential in some kinds of ground. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Inversion of Love wave phase velocity using smoothness-constrained least-squares technique; Heikatsuka seiyakutsuki saisho jijoho ni yoru love ha iso sokudo no inversion

    Kawamura, S. [Nippon Geophysical Prospecting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization was applied to the inversion of phase velocity of surface waves during geophysical exploration, to confirm its usefulness. Since this study aimed mainly at the applicability of the technique, Love wave was used which is easier to treat theoretically than Rayleigh wave. Stable successive approximation solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement of velocity model of S-wave, and an objective model with high reliability could be determined. While, for the inversion with simple minimization of the residuals squares sum, stable solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement, but the judgment of convergence was very hard due to the smoothness-constraint, which might make the obtained model in a state of over-fitting. In this study, Love wave was used to examine the applicability of the smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization. Applicability of this to Rayleigh wave will be investigated. 8 refs.

  10. Studies on utilization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria for saving energy; Chisso koteikin no katsuyo ni yoru sho energy no kenkyu

    Uozumi, T.; Koyama, R.; Horiuchi, M.; Hidaka, M.; Masaki, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, T.; Inoue, A. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)


    This paper describes analysis and enhancement of nitrogen-fixing gene of rice root bacteria, such as Klebsiella oxytoca, Azospirillum lipoferumn and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, for realizing energy saving through conservation of nitrogenous fertilizers. For K. oxytoca, modified strain R-16 was developed, which can fix nitrogen effectively even in the presence of NH4{sup +}. Nitrogen-fixing ability of A. lipoferumn depends on the activity control by the modification of nitrogen-fixing enzyme as well as on the adjustment of transcription level by the transcription activating gene, nifA. The control gene relating to the above was analyzed by making clones. As a result, a modified strain TAl without the control by NH4{sup +} was developed. The R-16 and TAl strains were inoculated into rice sterile-cultured without nitrogen. Consequently, inoculated strains were settled in the root, which resulted in the increased vegetation weight of plant to two times heavier than that without inoculation. 9 refs.

  11. Quality assurance in welded structures. Part 3. ; NDT technology enhanced by computer. Yosetsu kozobutsu no hinshitsu hosho. 3. ; Computer riyo ni yoru hihakai shiken no kodoka

    Matsumura, H.; Ogata, T. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan))


    The basic theory of nondestructive testing (NDT) technology enhanced by computer and its practical example are outlined. Higher reliability of the products, reduction in production cost by automation, countermeasures for dirty, hard and dangerous works, technical communication by skilled workers, and higher efficiency of the products are the principles of enhancement of nondestructive testing. The fields of application of computer to the NDT specially handy, light and cheap micro-computer are numerical analysis, drawings, image processing, automation, artificial intelligence, measurement/control, data reserve and so forth. As for the trend of NTD advancement, radiation penetrating test, automation of probe in ultrasonic flow detection or real time measurement of inspection, three dimensional graphic expression of defect results and so forth are advanced. Future topics are the normalization of appropriate thinking of quality level and improvement and clarification of reliability of NDT. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Concurrent multidisciplinary mechanical design based on design task analysis and knowledge sharing; Sekkei task bunseki to joho kyoyu ni yoru mechatronics kyocho sekkei

    Kondo, K.; Ozawa, M.; Mori, T. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    We have developed a systematic design task planning method based on a design structure matrix(DSM) and a lumped model- based framework for knowledge sharing in a concurrent design environment as key techniques for developing higher quality products in a shorter design time. The DSM facilitates systematic analysis of dependencies among design tasks and optimization of the design process. The framework based on a lumped model description of mechanical systems enables concurrent and cooperative work among multidisciplinary designers at an early stage of the design process. In this paper, we also discuss the relationships between these techniques and the product development flow from product definition to detailed design. (author)

  13. Improvement of diesel engine performance by hydraulically powered electronic control (mechatronics) system. Hakuyo diesel kikan no mechatronics system ni yoru seino kojo

    Sonoda, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kajima, T.; Sato, S.; Fujii, T.; Tobe, Y. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes new hydraulically-actuated mechanisms for both fuel injection and inlet/exhaust valve operation of diesel engines through solenoid valves, which obviate the conventional cam-driven system. These mechanisms were integrated with an electronic control unit also developed in this study and they were mounted as a mechatronics system'' on a power-increased single-cylinder engine. This mechatronics system was mainly composed of an injection control. boost and accumulation component, an inlet and exhaust valve control component, a solenoid valve, an electronic control equipment, a hydraulic power unit, and a maneuvering unit. The verification test was carried out for the improvement of diesel engine performance by the hydraulically powered mechatronics system. As a result, it was proved not only that these mechanisms provide stable operating characteristics over a wide range of conditions, but also that the electronic control system allows accurate, smooth response. 3 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Mass spectra of benzaldehyde using time resolved ion trapping mass spectrometer. Jikan bunkai ion trapping shitsuryo bunsekikei ni yoru benzaldehyde no mass spector

    Ishigane, M.; Isa, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Education); Nishioka, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    An ion trapping mass spectrometer for time resolved analysis has been set up. The time resolved analysis function of this system is excellent and the ion detecting sensitivity is also high. Benzaldehyde is used as the specimen for the measurement of the A group of the mass spectra (m/z 105 106 and 107) by this system and similar mass spectra are obtained at delay time zero to those reported by now. Big changes are observed in the spectra when the delay times are varied. It is found that mass spectra which are different from those reported already are obtained when the mass spectrometer is pulse operated. In other words it can be said that the time dependence of the data on ion decomposition ( fragmentation) and ion/molecule reactions can be obtained in the state where solvent has no influence if this new system is adopted. 6 refs. 12 figs.

  15. On-line temperature control of fluidized bed incinerator using fuzzy algorithm; Fuzzu seigyo donyu ni yoru ryudosogata shokyakuro unten no jidoka

    Okayasu, S.; Kuratani, T.; Imai, H. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    Automatic control of incinerators for their stable operation has been desired for the preservation of the environment in the factory. An on-line fuzzy control system has been successfully introduced for temperature control of the fluidized bed of incinerator for industrial wastes. In this case, manual control can be applied to the plant instead of a PID control system, because of the complexity of the waste materials and the large delay in detection of the temperature change in the fluidized bed sand. On the basis of analyzing the dynamic performance of the process and the know-how of skilled operators, membership functions and fuzzy control rules are selected, then determined carefully for the system. Introduction of the system resulted in almost the same performance as manual control. Subsequently the operators are freed from manual operation in the control room for an hour. 6 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Preparation and space charge accumulation characteristics of acrylate-grafted polyethylenes using reaction extrusion; Hanno oshidashi ni yoru acrylate polyethylene no seizo to kukan denka chikuseki tokusei

    Lee, C.; Okamoto, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Suh, K. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Space charge accumulation characteristics of chemically modified polyethylenes which were grafted with acrylates like acrylic acid and n-butylacrylate using reactive extrusion were investigated. In LDPE-g-Acrylic Acid (LDPE-g-AA), it was showed that the heterocharge found in low-density polyethylenes (LDPE) decreased with the increase of acrylic acid graft ratio and changed to the homocharge formation above 0.1 wt% due to the introduction of carbonyls. Conduction currents and charge mobilities of LDPE-g-AA decreased with the increase of AA graft ratio, while the conduction mechanism remains unchanged. However, in the LDPE-g-n-Buthylacrylate (LDPE-g-nBA), the change of space charge accumulation characteristics were not observed and charge mobilities of them not affected by the graft ratio. The differences of space charge formation between two grafted polyethylenes were closely related to the ability of trap site in monomer grafted to LDPE and the chemical structure of it. 18 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Evaluation of anticorrosive films on copper by a low-energy photoelectron emission measurement. Tei energy hikari denshi ni yoru do hyomen boshoku himaku no hyoka

    Asabe, Y.; Wakasa, H.; Mori, S. (Iwate Univ., Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    As a result of investigation on the effect of inhibitor based on the emission initiating energy E{sub t} (threshold) of low energy photoelectron emitted from the surface of the BTA (benzotriazole) treated specimen, it is found that E{sub t} shifts to the high energy side if copper is treated with effective inhibitor BTA, but no shift is observed with iron even if it is treated with BTA. The shift of E{sub t} is eminent at BTA concentration of larger than 1{times} 10{sup {minus}4} mol/l, which agrees well with the tendency of corrosion inhibition obtained from the polarization curves. When copper specimens are coated with films of oxide and others, E{sub t} shifts to the high energy side. From this fact, the shift of E{sub t} to the high energy side when copper is treated with BTA can be considered to be corresponding to the thickness of anticorrosion film. The effect of inhibitor on copper surface can be evaluated easily by this method even in low BTA concentration region. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Interactive steering of supercomputing simulation for aerodynamic noise radiated from square cylinder; Supercomputer wo mochiita steering system ni yoru kakuchu kara hoshasareru kurikion no suchi kaiseki

    Yokono, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Precision Engineering Lab.


    This paper describes extensive computer simulation for aerodynamic noise radiated from a square cylinder using an interactive steering supercomputing simulation system. The unsteady incompressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method using a steering system which can visualize the numerical process during calculation and alter the numerical parameter. Using the fluctuating surface pressure of the square cylinder, the farfield sound pressure is calculated based on Lighthill-Curle`s equation. The results are compared with those of low noise wind tunnel experiments, and good agreement is observed for the peak spectrum frequency of the sound pressure level. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Experimental analysis of the structure attenuation characteristics on engine noise by pseudo cylinder pressure excitation; Giji tonaiatsu kashin ni yoru engine kozo no soon tokusei hyoka

    Ozawa, H.; Nakada, T. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The engine structure attenuation has been experimentally analyzed by the newly developed in-cylinder excitation system. It can reproduce the complete cylinder pressure in non-running engine conditions by adopting the hydraulic and the piezoelectric actuator. The structure attenuation measured in this system has a good coincidence with the ones measured in actually engine operating conditions, meanwhile the current method, which applied only high frequency components as the excitation pressure, was shown to have the unsatisfied agreement. As a result, the proposed system has been concluded to be very useful to estimate the engine noise characteristics in non-running conditions. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Case study of geostructural prospect of a tunnel by using geophysical methods; Butsuri tansa ni yoru tunnel chisan yosoku to jissai

    Ueda, H. [Japan Railway Construction Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kawakami, J. [Taisei Construction Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nagasue, I.; Hiwatashi, S.; Wakuno, M. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A preliminary survey was carried out by combining elastic wave exploration (using a refraction method) and electrical exploration (using a resistivity imaging method) on a long tunnel planned in a granite distributed area. This paper describes a case of verifying geological condition in the area by using a trial survey well and horizontal boring. This tunnel goes through the Seburi mountainous area on the border of Fukuoka Prefecture and Saga Prefecture for a total distance of 12 km. The refraction method and the resistivity imaging method were selected from the necessity of identifying the weathering condition in natural ground, and distributions of fault crush zones and underground water in a section extending 560 m from the well entrance. As a result of comparing the natural ground condition interpreted from the geophysical survey results with the construction records, the fault was detected as a cracked or deformed section in the part where the resistivity value changes abruptly or where the resistivity is low. The tunnel natural ground classification showed a good correspondence with the elastic wave velocities. The largest flooding section showed a good agreement with the section where the resistivity changes suddenly to a lateral direction. Thus, the geological information interpreted from both surveys presented a good correspondence with the construction records, leading to a judgment that the prediction is possible. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Solidification point measurements of high melting ceramics by digital pyrometry with solar furnace; Taiyoroyo tanshoku hosha ondokei ni yoru koyuten ceramics no gyokoten sokutei

    Yamada, T. [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Yoshimura, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    In order to measure a solidification point or melting point, it is necessary to the heating methods to be sufficient to melt the subject to be measured. In particular, as for the method to melt ceramics having high melting point (>200K), radiation heating, plasma heating, electron beam heating, resistance heating, induction heating and so forth are cited. This time, a solar furnace utilizing natural energy is used as a heating method. Authors carried out the remesurement of the solidification point of high melting ceramics using apparatus equipped a digital pyrometry with solar furnace system. Samples and in the experiment are MgO(3063-3124K), CaO(2873-3223K) and HfO2, comparative less evaporation at high temperature, especially having a large scattering value on literatures. Based on the measurements of effective emissivity and luminance temperature, the solidification points were determined to be 314K{+-}13K for MgO, 3174K{+-}7K for CaO and 3076K{+-}3K for HfO2, respectively. 21 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Nonlinear system control by extended feedback system with forward model; Jun moderu wo riyoshita kakucho fido bakku kei ni yoru hisenkei system no seigyo

    Oyama, E. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tachi, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    For controlling a nonlinear system with unknown characteristics, utilization of learning elements such as multi-layer neural networks has been studied. For such control, the techniques of control by learning an inverse model of the target system have been proposed, but there are many drawbacks to obtain an inverse model. The technique to calculate a control command by using a forward model is based on iterative methods, including the Newton`s method, which are based on local information, and there could be the cases when the precise control command cannot be calculated including the case when it converges to the local optimal solutions. In this paper, as the control technique of a discrete nonlinear system with unknown characteristics, the control method by an extended feedback system utilizing a forward model of the target system and the utilization technique of the inverse model have been proposed and their effectiveness have been shown by simulation. In case when an inverse model is not available or in case when an inverse model has not been learned, the search for the initial value and the iterative methods are repeated in calculating control signals by the extended feedback system, but this will be avoided thanks to the improvement of the computer capacity. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Forward prediction of tunnel face by use of equi-traveltime planes; Tosojimen no riyo ni yoru tunnel kiriha zenpo tansa

    Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirano, T. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The result is reported herein of a depth transform algorithm application utilizing equi-traveltime planes in reflection seismic exploration for the purpose of knowing the structure configuration in front of the tunnel face in a tunnel excavation process. A vibration producing hole was provided 0.5m above the ground surface while a vibration receiving hole was provided at 1.5m above the ground surface, and the excavated lengths were 1.5m and 0.5m, respectively. There were 24 recording channels, from which inline offset records were taken. The on-site records were subjected to 100-1000Hz band pass filtering. The elastic wave propagation rate in the rock used for depth conversion was set at 400m/s in consideration of the distance and direct wave travel time from the vibration source to the vibration receiving point. As the result of study, weak layers were found in the neighborhood of 230-240m, 260-270m, and 280-290m. This method requires less core memory for calculation and completes calculation in a shorter period of time, which enables a conclusion that it will be effective in grasping the 3-dimensional structure in front of the tunnel face in the working scene. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Reduction of nitrogen in the excretion on Japanese flounder using Ulva and Capitellid; Anaaosa to itogokai ni yoru hirame haisetsubutsuchu no chisso shori

    Honda, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    To develop the culture residue treatment technique using aquatic organisms, the ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of seaweed Ulva and the nitrogen reduction rate of polychaeta annelid Captella sp. with organic sediment predaceous ability were examined in the excretion of Japanese flounder. Nitrogen uptake rate of Ulva was affected by water temperature. It was highest at 20degC, followed at 15degC and 25degC in the order. It was not affected by light intensity between 1500 and 6000 lux. Ammonia and nitrate uptake rates by Ulva were estimated to be 28.2 and 14.6 {mu}g-N/g/h at 20degC under 3000 lux, respectively. Proportion of feces excreted from Capitellid to ingested sediments was 0.38. At 25degC, Capitellid population of one thousand individuals ingested-N at the rate of 24 mg-N/day, and excreted the feces-N of Capitellid at the rate of 7 mg-N/day. About 70% of nitrogen in the sediment was reduced through this process. 15 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Preparation of Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salt (2); Yukisan'en tofu netsubunkai ho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei (2)

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)


    A method of forming superconductive film by firing substrate coated organ solution consisting of organic metal compound and organic solvent was investigated. After spin coating of octyl acid salt solution on Ag tape, YBCO film was produced by heat treatment at 920 degrees of centigrade for 10-60 minutes. Three kinds of Ag tapes with different of surface roughness was used, but oriented film in film plane of them could not be obtained. However, oriented YBCO film in film plane could be obtained on (100) substrate of LaAlO{sub 3}. (NEDO)

  6. Preparation o Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salts; Yukisanen tofu netsubunkaiho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)


    Critical current characteristics in the magnetic field is excellent in the Y system oxide superconducting wire rod, and it is expected as next generation wire rod, because the magnetic field dependence is good even in the liquid nitrogen temperature. We have carried out the examination of the Bi system superconductor tape wire rod by the applicator in respect of organic metal raw material on the metal tape state backing since the convention continue. This time, we newly made the octyl acid salt to be a raw material, and we examined the Y system superconductive film manufacture on the polycrystal Ag tape substrate. (NEDO)

  7. Analysis on the R-R interval time series of automobile long distance drivers; Kosoku doro no chojikan soko ni yoru R-R kankakuji keiretsu kaiseki

    Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya Municipal Women`s College, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshioka, T.; Watanabe, Y. [Toyota National College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    Analyses were performed on change in living body information as time elapses while driving a car, the differences between automobile drivers and fellow passengers, and between automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers. A comparison on body temperatures in automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers shows sharper changes in the motorcycle drivers. Motorcycles, being different from automobiles, put the drivers exposed to atmosphere during driving, applying larger living body load. Adrenalin increases its concentration when a human is under mental load, so does noradrenalin when under physical load. Both of adrenalin and noradrenalin showed an increasing trend in the afternoon as compared with in the morning. From the comparison with the normal daily life, fellow passengers have also large mental living body load, who were found to have concentration change of nearly two times or more than that in normal conditions. A subject who rode in a car in the first experiment and drove a motorcycle in the second experiment was discovered to have his right hand grasping power decreased remarkably after the second experiment. Fatigue factors unique to motorcycle driving are thought the engine vibration, the hot air, the need of taking balance of the motorcycle attitudes, and stress from noise. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Controllability of expansion of light-weight aggregates with natural zeolites on firing. Tennen zeolite ni yoru keiryo kotsuzai no shoseiji no bochosei no control

    Guo, Y. (Tsinghua University, Beijing, BJ (China))


    Light-weight aggregates were prepared by using raw materials of natural zeolites consisting mainly of clinoptilolites from Heilongjiang Province, China. Chemical analyses and ion exchange of the natural zeolite materials were carried out. By the ion exchange method, only chemical composition of the natural zeolite was able to be changed without destroying their structures. Changes in shape during firing and expansion of the prepared light-weight aggregates were illustrated. In addition, fracture surfaces were observed by using a scanning electron microscope. For the Ca type, Na type, and Ca-Na type zeolites obtained by the ion exchange, volume expansion took place at relatively low temperatures during their firing, and they exhibited high expansion coefficients. Consequently, it was found that expansion of the natural clinoptilolite during firing can be controlled by this preparation method. An optimum chemical composition range of zeolite was provided for obtaining the light-weight aggregates with high quality. 13 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Load leveling by a battery system in an electric power system with a photovoltaic system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ga donyusareta denryoku keito no chikudenchi ni yoru fuka heijunka

    Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)


    Storage battery-aided load leveling system is introduced into a power system having a photovoltaic power generation (PV) system, and the effect of the introduction is examined. For this purpose, the resultant improvement on the load factor and reduction in the annual cost are evaluated. Used as the load factor in the studies are the hourly records of power transmitted and received by Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., in 1995. The output of the PV system is calculated using weather data collected in Nagoya City in the same year. Findings as the result of the studies are stated below. The maximum power is suppressed but a little if it is only the PV system that is introduced into the system. That is, a 2GW PV system introduced into the system suppresses the maximum power only by 0.5GW or less. The maximum power is suppressed more effectively when a storage battery is added, and it decreases linearly with an increase in the storage battery capacity. As for reduction in the cost, the reducing effect is higher when the rate of storage battery capacity/introduced PV capacity is higher in the presence of an introduced PV capacity of 0.8GW or more. 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Thermochemical recuperative combined cycle with methane-steam reforming combustion; Tennengasu kaishitsu nensho ni yoru konbaindo saikuru hatsuden no kokoritsuka oyobi denryoku fuka heijunka taio

    Kikuchi, R.; Essaki, K.; Tsutsumi, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering; Kaganoi, S.; Kurimura, H. [Teikoku Sekiyu Co., Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, T.; Ogawa, T. [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)


    Thermochemical recuperative combined cycles with methane-steam reforming are proposed for improving their thermal efficiency and for peak-load leveling. For targeting higher thermal efficiency, a cycle with methane-steam reforming reaction heated by gas turbine exhaust was analyzed. The inlet temperature of gas turbine was set at 1,350 degree C. Low-pressure steam extracted from a steam turbine is mixed with methane, and then this mixture is heated by part of the gas turbine exhaust to promote a reforming reaction. The rest of the exhaust heat is used to produce steam, which drives steam turbines to generate electricity. The effect of steam-to-methane ratio (S/C) on thermal efficiency of the cycle, as well as on methane conversion, is investigated by using the ASPEN Plus process simulator. The methane feed rate was fixed at constant and S/C ratio was varied from 2.25 to 4.75. Methane conversion shows an increasing trend toward the ratio and has a maximum value of 17.9 % at S/C=4.0. Thermal efficiency for the system is about 51 % higher than that calculated for a conventional 1,300 degree C class combined cycle under similar conditions. A thermochemical recuperative combined cycle is designed for peak-load leveling. In night-time operation from 20 : 00 to 8 : 00 it stores hydrogen produced by methane steam reforming at S/C=3.9 to save power generation. The gas turbine inlet temperature is 1,330 degree C. In daytime operation from 8 : 00 to 20 : 00 the chemically recuperated combined cycle operated at S/C=2.0 is driven by the mixture of a combined cycle operated at constant load with the same methane feed rate, whereas daytime operation generated power 1.26 times larger than that of the combined cycle. (author)

  11. Ion exclusion chromatography for the purification of L-glutamine; Ion haijo chromatography ni yoru L-glutamine no seiseiho no kenkyu

    Ito, H.; Nishi, A.; Naruse, M. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Kawasaki (Japan)


    Ion exclusion chromatography for the purification of L-glutamine is studied. L-glutamine is usually produced by fermentation and used in pharmaceuticals. By using a model solution of L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid, the optimum cation exchange resin is examined. As a result of the experiments, it is found that a cation exchange resin which has smaller crosslinkage and smaller diameter is better. Ammonium sulfate, L-glutamic acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, which are usually contained in fermentation broth as impurities, are effectively separated by this method. Moreover, the experimental data of the chromatography is expressed fairly well by the differential equations which express the mass transfer in the fixed bed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Cultivation of spirulina platensis and its growth behavior controlling cultivation medium; Baiyoeki sosei no seigyo ni yoru spirulina platensis no baiyo oyobi sono zoshoku kyodo

    Kobayashi, K.; Fujita, K. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)


    Cultivation of Spirulina platensis while controlling pH and nitrate ion in the culture medium was investigated in order to obtain a high density culture. In the cultivation of Spirulina platensis using sodium bicarbonate as a carbon source, the pH value increased during growth of Spirulina, and then the growth stopped at a pH value of more than 12. The cell concentration reached 2.2g/l by maintaining a pH range of 8.5 to 10.0 using CO2 gas without controlling the nitrate ion concentration. By controlling the pH and adding nitrate to a concentration of 2.0g/l, the cell concentration reached 4.2g/l at 350 hours. It was found that the cell concentration was about four times that of the culture without controlling pH and nitrate. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Calculation of electric potential around line electrode by 2.5-D FEM; 2.5 jigen FEM ni yoru sen denkyoku shuhen no den`i keisan

    Sugimoto, Y. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A new method to calculate 2.5-D electric potentials around line electrodes in an inhomogeneous medium was developed. While certain conventional analyses of electric potentials due to line sources have assumed that current density is constant along the line source, this assumption is invalid for electrically inhomogeneous media. In the newly developed method, line electrodes are modeled approximately using line elements of 1-D FEM. Since line elements cannot be combined directly with a 2.5-D FEM model, equivalent scattered sources were introduced to evaluate the effect of the line elements on the 2.5-D potentials (equivalent scattered source method). The equivalent scattered sources represent current interchange between the line elements and the 2.5-D FEM elements. A simulation test was carried out and the following results were obtained. 1. In the uniform formation model, potentials calculated by the equivalent scattered source method agreed with the solutions obtained by analytical and charge simulation methods. 2. The results of the equivalent scattered source method indicate that current density increases slightly as depth increases and is concentrated at the tip of the electrode. This phenomenon was also observed in the results of the charge simulation method. Current concentration is considered an effect of the finite radius of the electrode. 3. In the horizontal multi-layered model, calculated current density along line electrodes is inversely proportional to the layer resistivity. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  14. Detecting technology of buried pipes and hollow areas by using physical detecting method; Senbu chika deno butsuri tansaho ni yoru maisetsukan, kudo chosa

    Nagashima, Y. [NTT Technical Assistance and Support Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    No precise records are available on positions of buried pipes which constitute such life lines as electric power, water supply, gas supply, and telecommunications under roads. This record unavailability is causing troubles of damaging these pipes when road excavating constructions are carried out. Therefore, a technology has been demanded, which can measure positions of buried pipes non-destructively from the ground surface. To meet this requirement, development has been performed on a technology to explore pipes buried in depths up to 3 meters. Research results thereon have made achievements today causing a large number of practically usable devices to emerge into existence. Major exploration methods include the electromagnetic wave method and the electromagnetic induction method. This paper describes principles, problems, and exploration application examples of the pulse radar electromagnetic wave method and the electromagnetic induction method, and some considerations thereon. No devices have been completed to date, which can fully satisfy the requirements in exploring buried objects. This is because electromagnetic waves get attenuated sharply under the ground, and because a large number of boundary faces exist underground to reflect electromagnetic waves. It is necessary to continue research and development efforts. 7 refs., 32 refs.

  15. New magnetotelluric inversion scheme using generalized RRI method and case studies; GRRI ho ni yoru MT o nijigen inversion kaiseki to sono tekiyorei

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Lee, K. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper describes a new two-dimensional (2-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inversion scheme. For the 2-D Frechet derivative scheme, the model correction values are calculated from the Jacobian matrix after the Taylor expansion of Maxwell`s equation. Although numerical solutions with high calculation accuracy and reliability can be obtained, it requires very large computer capacity and high speed load. While, the RRI (rapid relaxation inversion) approximation scheme proposed by Smith and Booker provides high efficiency in the computer capacity and speed load. However, since horizontal changes in the electric field or magnetic field are determined only from a single observation point for the calculation of model correction values, the calculation accuracy is inferior to that by Frechet scheme. In this study, improvement in the calculation was tried with keeping the efficiency of RRI scheme. The Maxwell`s equation was modified into form of perturbation method using magnetic field or electric field and conductivity of ground. The perturbed equation was then multiplied by a test function, to relate the boundary integral and region integral. A modified equation with 2-D property similar to RRI scheme could be obtained. Thus, results similar to those from the Frechet scheme could be obtained in a period similar to that by the RRI scheme. 11 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Estimation of bainite transformation temperatures in steels by the empirical formulas; Hagane no bainite hentai ondo no jikkenshiki ni yoru suitei

    Okada, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kunitake, T.


    Relational formulas were proposed for bainite transformation temperatures and chemical compositions in steels. Thirty-one isothermal transformation charts were selected, whose forms are such that transformation regions in both of pearlite stage and bainite stage are separated, and bainite transformation starting temperature reaches a constant value on the longer duration side in isothermal retention. Multiplex analysis was performed on the charts. Then, an experimental formula was presented to derive the bainite transformation temperature from chemical compositions of the steels. An assessed value very close to the measured value was derived. Another experimental formula was presented to estimate the bainite transformation temperature from the chemical compositions of the steels during continuous cooling, which is more practicable than isothermal transformation in heat treatment of the steels. Two kinds of parameters, B {sub 1} and B {sub 2} were introduced into the formula. The parameter B {sub 1} is a bainite transformation starting temperature in the case when cooling is performed at a critical cooling rate in which the pearlite transformation can appear, and B {sub 2} is a bainite transformation starting temperature when cooling is performed at such a critical cooling rate that a structure containing bainite is transformed completely to a pearlite transformed structure. A formula more versatile than conventional formulas was obtained. 9 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Electricity demand and the structure in Japan. Examination using time series analysis; Nippon denryoku juyo no suii to sono kozo. Jikeiretsu bunseki ni yoru kento

    Kato, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Stable supply of power was studied by applying the time-series analytical technique to the analysis of domestic power demand time series shift and power demand structure. Unit root tests were performed for four series of demands for power, that is, the great demand, business demand, small demand, and lighting demand. Then, the null hypothesis advocating the presence of unit roots in them could not be rejected but, on the other hand, the null hypotheses was discarded in some tests advocating their steady presence. Furthermore, a power demand function was derived and the relationship of power demand with the cointegration component as the income and price factor was examined, when it was found that the power demand function itself gives a long-range, stable relationship. Utilizing this conclusion, an error correction model and vector autoregression model were induced. It was then shown that a short-range disequilibrium in the long-range stable relationship is corrected approximately in 2 years in the case of the great demand, and approximately in 9 months in the case of the lighting demand. Again, a conclusion was reached that the price factor did not involve any causality in the case of the lighting demand. 14 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Flow channel design of a multi-cavity mold by filling simulation for thermosets. Netsu kokasei jushi ryudo kaiseki ni yoru cavity tasuko tori kanagata no ryuro sekkei

    Saeki, J. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kaneda, A. (Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    A study was made on the flow channel design of a multi-cavity mold by filling simulation for thermosets. A practical analytic method was developed for the calculation of pressure losses at various locations in the channel following the estimation of viscosity change in the thermosets in the mold with optional shape. The runner and gate are designed for equal flow distribution to each cavity, and a newly developed model and a conventional type model were trially made for various evaluation using the conditions set at the time of designing. Ideal filling was achieved with the newly developed type model, and the design method of the type was confirmed to be reasonable. Characteristic values were studied which can be considered to give effect on the deformation of gold wires and void formation in molded devices. The effects on the prevention of gold wire deformation, decrease in void formation, and widening formation margin were confirmed. By the developed mold designing method, less diameter gold wire may be used without decreasing the quality of the package. 10 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Analysis of forces from the subframe into sidemembers for road noise reduction; Riya subframe keijo no saitekika ni yoru road noise no kaizen

    Arakawa, M.; Asai, M.; Kiyota, Y.; Akiyama, A. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    In a rigidity added rear subframe structure, an analysis was made of the internal force working on the joint with the sidemember, for studying how to reduce road noise. In the frequency domain giving rise to low noise related problems in a rigidity added rear subframe structure, the rear subframe and floor crossmember produces bending oscillation with the sidemember section serving as the point of articulation. Now that the floor is the location wherein the low noise originates, what is important in the effort to reduce noise is to suppress the up-and-down oscillation of the floor crossmember. The result of the analysis indicates that the floor oscillation, responding to the up-and-down force inputted by the rear subframe, reduces when the position of installation of the rear subframe is changed and rigidity is secured two times more than the rigidity required for optimization in the central cross section. In an application to a service vehicle, the road noise during a run along a tennis court evaluation road resulted in a 2.0dB reduction, which enables the conclusion that the technique introduced herein is better than the technique of providing a rear subframe with a dynamic damper. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Production of L-aspartic acid by bioreactors using immobilized microorganisms. Koteika biseibutsu wo mochiiru baio riakuta ni yoru L-asuparagin san no seizo

    Sato, T. (Tanabe Seiyaku Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))


    A developmental progress of a continuous process is introduced, wherein L-aspartic acid is produced in an industrial scale from fumaric acid with immobilized aspartase. First, immobilization of aspartase extracted from Escherichia coli was tried by entrapping it in polyacryllamide gel. The enzyme was proved unstable to be used in an industrial scale because of being taken out of bacterial organism. It was found that E. coli with 10-fold high enzymic activity can be held by entrapping the bacteria in polyacrylamide gel without extracting enzyme. In consideration of optimum temperature, pH, heat resistance and other properties of E. coli, and of exothermic reaction, a continuous enzyme reactor was designed of a radiation (heat exchanger) type with E. coli packed multi-step columns. Using this reactor, the production cost of L-aspartic acid could be reduced to about 60 % of that by conventional batch-wise type. Further, the productivity has been raised remarkably by improving immobilizing efficiency with use of [kappa]-carrageenan instead of polyacrylamide and by using mutant strains with 7-fold high aspartase activity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Tidal simulation of a bay with a very large floating structure using multi level model; Taso moderu ni yoru choogata futai mawari no ryukyo keisan

    Hu, Changhong; Kyozuka, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School


    Tidal currents and drift currents in a bay with a pontoon type very large floating structure are calculated using a multi-level model. A method of solving two dimensional Poisson equation is proposed to obtain the hydrodynamic pressure under the floating structure. Vertical displacement of the floating structure due to the calculated surrounding water levels can also be calculated. Computation is performed also for tidal flows of a bay to study the effect of the vertical displacement of the pontoon. Lastly, building an airport in the Ariake Sea is assumed as an example, and the effect of the structure on tidal currents is calculated using this method. A floating airport has less effect on tidal currents and residual currents in comparison with a reclaimed island. The horizontal flow velocity under a floating structure increases more than in the case of no platoon, and the effect on the flow rate becomes smaller relatively. There is a little difference in the vertical flow rate between the case of allowing vertical displacement of the platoon and the case of restricting the displacement, but the change in the horizontal flow rate is very little. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Studies on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability. Kotai sagyo ni yoru suimin dotai to hiro oyobi sono sagyo tekiosei no kenkyu

    Matsuoka, N.; Yokota, A. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Studies were made on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability with respect to the following items: (1) With a nurse work system as the object, a survey of rectum temperature, heart rate and rhythm before and after a midnight shift, and sleep at rising in the morning using the OSA survey method; (2) To analyze actual conditions of cumulative fatigue felt by shift workers and fatigue factors, a survey on shift work history, overtime work time, work patterns, symptoms of cumulative fatigue, and and life satisfaction; (3) A survey on daytime sleep record maintained at working places of guards including those of middle or advanced age, and sleep as affected by a nap; (4) A method of improving complains of circadian rhythm disorders because of variations in sleep and emergence rhythms experienced by shift workers, and discussions of usability of light radiation; and (5) Establishment of a technique to indicate effects of psychological burdens and psychogenic stress on visual functions of shift workers using tensions in focal adjustment. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Vowel recognition by fuzzy inference and application to recognition of continuous Korean speech. Fuzzy suiron ni yoru boin ninshiki to kankokugo renzoku onsei eno oyo

    Choi, W.K.; Akizuki, K. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Lee, H.H. (Fukuoka Inst. of Tech., Fukuoka (Japan))


    The target of voice recognition is to recognize continuous speech which is effective for speech recognition of unspecified persons. As a new matching method, the variations of feature parameters of speakers are represented as fuzzy variables to express the variation by membership functions. It is a new pattern matching method of fuzzy inference using feature parameters, fuzzy relation and synthesis of each formant, and the fuzzy rule. It is a recognition method for the inference of best formant which matches the fact by providing each characteristic quantity and fuzzy rule for composite calculation. For consonant recognition, pitch, logarithmic energies, zero crossing rates, etc. are used which represent features of each formant. KOSRES 2, recognition system for continuous Korean speech, was structured using this method which was subjected to recognition experiments on continuous Korean speech, and the recognition method by fuzzy inference is found to be effective for speech recognition of unspecified persons. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Study on the inside gas flow visualization of oxygen sensor cover; Kashika ni yoru O2 sensor cover nai no gas nagare hyoka

    Hocho, S.; Mitsuishi, Y.; Inagaki, M. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Hamaguchi, S.; Mizusawa, K. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    In order to make clear the difference of the response time between the oxygen sensors with different protection covers, we visualized gas flow inside of sensor covers by means of two experimental methods: One is `Smoke Suspension Method` using liquid paraffin vapor as the smoke. With smoke suspension method, we detected the streamlines inside of the covers. The other is `Color Reaction Method` using the reaction of phenolphthalein and NH3 gas. With color reaction method, we confirmed the streamline inside of the cover and furthermore detected the difference of the response time of each sensor. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Improvement of heat degradation in Y-TZP by surface modification. Y-TZP no hyomen kaishitsu ni yoru netsu rekka no kaizen

    Shikata, R.; Yamamoto, T. (Osaka Cement Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Shiono, T.; Nishikawa, T. (Kyoto Inst. of Tech., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering and Design)


    Since Y-TZP (stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals by Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) shows superior mechanical properties, it is expected to be applied to structural ceramics. However, currently, anxiety for a long term reliability to heat degradation has been still observed. Therefore, in order to enhance the long periodical heat stability in low temperature as well as to keep the high intensity of Y-TZP, it is desirable to reform only the surface of Y-TZP to the one which has a superior characteristic of heat stability. In this paper, to obtain such Y-TZP with heat stability on the surface, zirconia product was fabricated at first using sintered raw material powder in low temperature, and subsequently impregnate it by nitric acid yttium solution to increase Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} solids on the surface. As a result, impregnation depth from the surface of cubic zirconia and nitric acid yttrium on the surface of Y-TZP has been increased in proportion to the impregnation volume of nitric acid yttrium, and the surface of Y-TZP could be completely coated by cubic zirconia. 20 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Construction of a highway tunnel with TBM. ; No. 2 Yuda tunnel of Akita motorway. TBM ni yoru doro tonneru no seko. ; Akita jidoshado Yuda daini tonneru

    Miura, M. (Obayashi Corp., Osaka (Japan))


    The tunnel excavator TBM has an ability of executing excavation works rapidly and is attractive for excavating speedily and efficiently a tunnel which has a trend to be larger in cross section and longer in length in the future. In order to study possibility and workability of the excavation techniques using this TBM, TBM has been adopted for excavating No.2 Yuda tunnel of Akita motorway. It is the technique to execute an excavation work of a top heading with a TBM whose diameter is 3.5m, then to expand the heading by cutting the earth to a predetermined cross section through the total cross sectional excavation technique with an auxiliary bench. The total length of the tunnel is 2,413m. The temperature in the winter is low, snowfall is heavy and rocks are volcanic. In planning the usage of TBM, it has been considered to design and build a TBM capable of digging the soft earth, not to let the TBM caught by the expansive earth, to be able to take muck out even in case of voluminous gushing water and to grasp the earth in front quickly and exactly. Also an automatic operation system has been adopted taking into consideration that no individual difference of operator would be reflected and manpower saving would be expected in the future. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Geoelectrical structure by electrical logs and Schlumberger sounding at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture; Denki kenso oyobi Schlumberger ho ni yoru Akinomiya chinetsu chiiki no hiteiko kozo

    Kajiwara, T.; Takemoto, S.


    Based on the electrical logging data of the existed well and Schlumberger sounding data obtained in 1974, a two-dimensional inversion analysis of the specific resistance profile was conducted at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture. From the electrical logging data, relationships between the geology and the specific resistance were illustrated. The specific resistance values of basement rocks showed more than 100 ohm-m, which were higher than those of the other seams. Intrusive rocks and tuffs in the basement rocks showed locally low values less than 100 ohm-m. Younger volcanic rocks showed low values around 10 ohm-m. As a result of the two-dimensional inversion analysis, the basement rocks could be detected as high specific resistance layers. Accordingly, it was considered that the basement rocks in this field can be detected as high specific resistance layers by analyzing the results of field survey sufficiently. Low specific resistance zones were observed in the shallow depth, which corresponded to the fumarolic gases. There were some layers with remarkably varied specific resistance values, which were considered to be related with alteration. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Vertical vibration control system for PC cable-stayed bridge during cantilever construction; Shuketa jogedo seishin sochi ni yoru haridashi sekoji no PC shachokyo no seishin

    Oshio, M.; Nakano, R.; Niihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Takeda, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A PC cable-stayed bridge under extension construction having long span length may have long-cycle vibration generated because of wind. The vibration puts workers working on main girders into a state of seasick causing the workability to drop. Therefore, with an objective to reduce vibration occurring on the main girders during construction, discussions were given on application of an active type vertical vibration absorbing device. The vibration absorbing device is an active system that a weight is driven vertically by a hydraulic actuator. The device was developed with a target that damping ratio when a maximum extension is 120 m becomes three times that when no vibration is absorbed for a 5-span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge with a length of 675 m, a central span of 260 m, and a width of 11 m. A cage housing the weight is connected with the actuator at its top by using pins, and the weight is supported being suspended from the top of the actuator. Vibration is absorbed by utilizing reactive force generated when the weight is driven vertically by the hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator contains a gas spring that supports the dead weight of the weight. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the vertical vibration absorbing device. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Identification of dynamic characteristics by field vibration test in Tsurumi Tsubasa bridge; Tsurumi Tsubasakyo no shindo jikken ni yoru doteki tokusei no dotei

    Yamaguchi, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takano, H.; Ogasawara, M.; Shimosato, T. [Metropolitan Expressway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, M.; Okada, J. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Field vibration test of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, a long span cable stayed bridge, has been conducted. Focusing on its dynamic characteristics, an identification method from test results and its validity were investigated. The natural frequency identified using mode circle and resonance curve from steady vibration test agreed with that identified by the peak method from free damping test. Accordingly, there was no difference due to identification methods, and both methods provided appropriate accuracy. The natural vibration mode obtained from the steady vibration test agreed with that obtained by the eigenvalue analysis. The dispersion of experimental values, which indicates the adaptation to mode circle method, became a scale indicating reliability of identified values. When the damping obtained by the half power method for the microtremors test is compared with that identified from the steady vibration test and free damping test, it is required to compare them at lower amplitude level region, considering that the amplitude level of microtremors test is very low. For the dynamic characteristics of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, it was found that it has lower natural frequency and higher modal damping compared with other cable stayed bridges with similar scale of span. 18 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Reduction of seismic response long-span PC cable-stayed bridge by passive dampers; Damper ni yoru saidai PC shachokyo no jishinji oto no teigen

    Takeda, T.; Yamanobe, S.; Niihara, Y. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    It is important in designing a PC cable-stayed bridge to properly estimate the seismic response of the bridge for reduction of the response. In this paper, an improvement of the seismic resistance of PC cable-stayed bridges when dampers are installed between the deck and piers and lateral vibration of the deck is restricted is investigated using a time history response model. PC cable-stayed bridges with a span length of 400 m, particularly two types of bridges of harp and semi-harp are investigated and the following is found by analyzing the case where there are installed hysteresis type dampers (with 1 cm yield displacement and secondary rigidity assumed to be 1/10 times that of initial rigidity, the initial rigidity being parametrically changed.) or viscous type dampers (a damping factor is changed.) The result shows that the dampers can reduce the seismic response of a PC cable-stayed bridge and that a semi-harp configuration of stay cables where stay cable members are substantially vertically arranged is more effective than a harp configuration for the seismic performance of PC cable-stayed bridges. The damper partly bear inertial force of the bridge upon earthquake whereby tension of the stay cable members is reduced and bending moment of the deck is reduced. There is existing an optimum characteristic value of the damper concerning the bending moment of the piers. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Rational design for SPAC to counter wash-away by waves and discharge waster; Nami to hosuiryu ni yoru senkutsu taisakuko SPAC no goriteki sekkei

    Shimizu, T.; Ikeno, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Ujiie, H.; Yamauchi, I. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan)


    Investigations were made as to how to design an SPAC (Spreading Armor Coat) for the prevention of wash-away from landfill-protected shores by warm water discharge. In this method, the sandy sea bottom in front of the discharge outlet is dredged and a stone layer is placed therein, and the spread of the layer forms an armor coat. This method is advantageous in that it requires less stone and less dredging than others. In the experiment, a discharge outlet model was used, and data were collected concerning the spread of the stone layer, etc. Findings are to be stated below. The deployment width of the stone layer is to be determined in view of the coverage of the junction slope sharing an angle of repose of 20 degrees with the wash-away width. In case the discharged current drifts under attacks by tall waves coming in obliquely, some allowance needs be added to the SPAC width in consideration of the drifting. A drift may be evaluated by some empirical formulae now available. For the prevention of sand from being drawn out through between the stones after the stone layer deployment, pebbles (1/3 of the stone in diameter) should be mingled with the stones, which will narrow the gap to 5% from 20%, the latter being the percentage with stones only. Pebbles work effectively when they are placed on the dredge-formed slope in the SPAC deployed area. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Survey of ancient river trace in Hotta stockade site using vertical electrical method; Denki tansa (suichoku tansa) ni yoru futsudenssaku sekinei no kasenseki chosa

    Nishitani, Tadasho; Takano, Kasumi; Matsuno, Katsutoshi [Akita University, Akita (Japan); Kodama, Jun


    The vertical electric prospecting was carried out at a high density to investigate the characteristics of ancient river trace in Hotta stockade site, and therefore the ancient river trace at the final stage, the distribution of sand soil and gravel layers due to flooding were clarified. It has been known that the rive terrace was roughly divided into two and merged into one near the government office trace. When estimating the river trace at the final stage, it was also found that the watercourse was divided into two on the east side. It was considered that there were two watercourses existing simultaneously or the watercourse had changed and moved. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Flame-Retarding of Cotton/Polyester Blended Yarn Fabrics Using Two-Component Sequential Treatment; Nidankai shori ni yoru men/poriesuteru konboshifu no nannenka

    Kubokawa, Hiroo. [Textile Research Institute of Gunma Prefecture, Gunma (Japan)


    Cotton/polyester (C/P) blended yarn fabrics were treated with several flame retardants used for poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) using pad-dry-cure method. The relationships between the chemical structures of the flame retardants and their partition into PET fibers were investigated. When tetrabromobisphenol A (TBP-A) was tested, the amount of sorption increased with increasing concentration of TBP-A in treating acetone solution, and reached 4.0%o.w.f. (% on the weight of the fibre) at 10 wt%. THis treated fabric was again treated with a flame retardant for cotton, Pyrovatex CP New, which contains dimethyl 2-(N-hydroxymethylcarbamovl)ethylphosphonate as a main component. However, sufficient flame retardancy was not obtained. The second partition of TBP-A to cotton during heating was thought to lower the sorption efficiency of Pyrovatex CP New. Based on this assumption, for the case of the two-component sequential treatment, the Pyrovatex CP New treatment, which generates covalent bonds with hydroxy groups of cellulose, should be carried out prior to the TBP-A treatment. When a C/P blended yarn fabric was treated with Pyrovatex CP New and then with TBP-A, the amount of sorption of Pyrovatex CP New was 9.6%o.w.f. and the amount of sorption of TBP-A was 4.6%o.w.f. The limiting oxygen index of the treated fabric was 27.2%, a sufficient value for flame retardancy. Fromthis result, it was concluded that the practica flame-retardant finishing of c/p blended yarn fabrics could be carried out by using a simple finishing machine. (author)

  14. Optimal operation by dynamic programming in a solar/electric hot-water system; Taiyonetsu/denryoku kyuto system no doteki keikakuho ni yoru saiteki un`yo

    Edo, S.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)


    With regard to utilization of a solar/electric hot-water system, a discussion was given by using a dynamic programming method on operation of a system which minimizes power charge. The discussed system is an installation in a welfare facility accommodating 100 persons, where solar heat is stored in a heat storage tank from a heat collector, and utilized for hot water supply. If the solar heat is insufficient for required hot water quantity, the water is heated by using an electric heater. The discussion compared the system operation using the dynamic programming method with the following two systems: the operation method 1, which does not utilize insolation forecast and the operation method 2, in which insolation forecast is utilized and late-night electric power is utilized for heating water in shortage. As a result of the calculation, the operation using the dynamic programming method conducts heat storage by utilizing the late-night power even if insolation is sufficient in winter in order to suppress heating by utilizing late-night power for days with less insolation. Thus, suppression is given on excessive utilization of day-time power and on rise in annual maximum power demand. It was found that the present system reduces power consumption by 37.7% when compared with the operation method 1, and 22.7% when compared even with the operation method 2. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Economical effect of introducing a photovoltaic system on future electric power system; Shorai no denryoku keito eno taiyoko hatsuden system donyu ni yoru keizaiteki eikyo

    Akata, N.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)


    Economic impact of introduction in the future of photovoltaic power generation (PV) systems into the commercial power system is discussed from the electric utilities` point of view. In the discussion, future demand for power is predicted from the demand for power in the base year, and the optimum power source configuration corresponding to the future demand and power generation curve are worked out by use of linear programming. Then, the fixed cost and variable cost are calculated for each of the power source components, and then the expected reduction in cost per unit of power generated is calculated. As the power sources, the hydroelectric, pumped storage, oil-fired, coal-fired, LNG-fired, combined cycle, and atomic technologies are considered. The conclusion is stated below. Upon introduction of PV power equivalent to 10% of the maximum demand power, the maximum power in the service area of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., will be reduced by 1.23GW in 2025, and the yearly demand power by 5472GWh. Since PV lowers the peak, an increased number of power sources low in variable cost will be used although such will be low in tracking capability. An increase in power demand will enhance the cost reducing effect of the PV system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Investigation of the simulation for the solar DHW system by TRNSYS; TRNSYS ni yoru kaihogata tank wo mochiita solar kyuto system no simulation chosa

    Oishi, M.; Noguchi, T. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan); Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)


    With an objective of establishing a method for evaluating performance of a photovoltaic hot water supply system, a discussion was given on utilization of the simulation program, TRANSYS. The discussion was addressed on a photovoltaic hot water supply system of forcible circulation type using commercially available open-type heat storage tanks. An experiment was performed as an indoor test using an artificial solar light source. The TRANSYS makes available a type 04 which handles each node as a complete mixture by fixing and dividing the heat storage tank, and a type 38 which expresses heat transfer between temperature layers by means of piston flow as a heat transfer coefficient. Both types were subjected to calculation. The result of the discussion may be summarized as follows: both types provided values close to the experimental values of quantity of heat derived by utilizing solar heat; however, with the type 04, heat transfer cannot be modeled if the system is left still with temperature difference in the heat storage tank being large; and with the type 38, modeling is possible when the system is left still with temperature difference in the heat storage tank being large, but temperature gradient is difficult to be modeled during heat collection and when hot water is supplied. 1 ref., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Simulation by using model of two species of biomass on biological phosphorus removal processes. Seibutsugaku teki datsu rin katei no niso seibutsu model ni yoru simulation

    Cho, H.; Suzuki, M. (Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science)


    This study experimented with a simple model on the process of biological phosphorus removal by anaerobic/aerobic processes in order to estimate the changes in the concentration of phosphorus and biomass. In this model, assuming that an active sludge is constituted of two phases of phosphorus removability and non-phosphorus removability in microorganisms, characteristics in the change of concentrations of phosphous and biomass in a cycle period were examined. According to the study on the factors affecting the phosphorus concentration change during a cycle period, content of microorganisms capable of removing phosphorus in the chamber and the concentration of organic materials in the initial anaerobic stage greatly influence the behavior of phosphorus. In addition, the comparative study with the experimental results indicates that this model can roughly, accurately express the characteristics of concentration change. However, the future problem left is a proposal of a model which can apply to the accummulation and and decomposition of the biomass in the non-phosphorus microorganisms. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Analysis of taste qualities and ingredients of beer by taste sensing system; Mikaku sensor ni yoru beer no ajishitsu to seibun no bunseki

    Ezaki, S.; Yuki, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuda, Y.; Nakatani, K. [Suntory Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    The taste of beer was measured using a taste sensing system with eight kinds of lipid membrane. The output from the sensor has high discriminating power and high correlation with taste substances in beer and sensory test by human. The estimation of the concentration of taste substances by multiple regression analysis was fairly well. The taste sensor also well estimated the result of sensory test of many keywords concerning beer taste. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Resistance test of high-speed ship by means of attitude control method. Part 2; Shisei seigyo hoshiki ni yoru kosokutei no teiko shiken. 2

    Hayashida, S. [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)


    The previous paper has proposed a resistance test method by controlling the attitude of a high-speed model ship using a personal computer without making a data base. For this method, the fluid force acting on the hull of model ship is measured, to change its attitude based on the measurement, and then, the fluid force is measured again, to change the attitude again. The traveling attitude is created by repeating this, to measure the force acting on the hull. Since the attitude is changed by calculating using the fluid force measured, various factors can be considered in the calculation process. For example, a test with an arbitrary displacement in an arbitrary position of center of gravity can be conducted in spite of actual displacement and position of center of gravity of the model ship. A test for a high-speed ship was conducted through this method, to obtain nearly satisfactory results compared with a usual resistance test. Occasionally, a lot of repetitions were required to satisfy the balancing condition of the force. In this study, the improvement of testing efficiency has been planned by modifying the analyzing program. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Field test results using existing equipment; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Kison sochi ni yoru test sokutei kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    With the purpose of developing an electromagnetic tomography system, an observation was carried out with existing equipment combined, and the data was analyzed. The measuring equipment consisted of existing borehole vertical magnetic field sensors as the sensor part, MT method receivers as the receiving device, and existing CSMT method transmitters as the transmitting device. The measuring was performed at the Richmond Field Station which was abundant in existing data and which had a comparatively simple resistivity structure. The borehole vertical magnetic field sensors were lowered inside the borehole, and signal sources were arranged at 10m apart on the traverse line in the direction from northeast to southwest with the borehole as the center. The analysis of the data was made with the use of EM1D by three models, namely, 10 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, and horizontal 7 layer model prepared on the basis of electric logging results; and a comparative examination was made against the measured data. As a result, it was demonstrated that the test measurement agreed very well with the model from the electric logging results and that it was the data reflecting a resistivity structure. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Study of underground structure of Osaka basin and seismic ground motions; Osaka bonchi no chika kozo chosa to Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni yoru jishindo

    Iwasaki, Y. [Geo-Research Institute, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes the following matters on the study of underground structure of Osaka Basin and seismic ground motions caused by the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. Elastic wave investigations using reflections intended for deep structures were carried out in the Hyogo prefectural area and the Osaka bay area by an association of the Geological Survey Institute, Hyogo Prefectural Government, Kobe Municipality and Universities. Reflection investigations were conducted in the Osaka land areas using the east-west traverse line along Yamato River (by the Geological Survey Institute), the south-north traverse line along the Naniwa street in the city of Osaka, and the east-west traverse line at the south end of the Uemachi fault. In addition, investigations using shallow bed reflections were performed in the Osaka bay area by the Hydrographic Office. Results of the active fault investigations using the reflection method may not agree with positions of faults which are estimated topographically. An existing structure model of the Osaka basin (something like of a primary approximation) and the result of inverse analysis on epicenter faults in the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake were used as the base for calculating seismic motions in the Abeno area in Osaka City. The result agreed relatively well with observations if the calculation is intended for waves having cycles longer than about two seconds. 6 figs.

  3. Simulation on breakage of heterogeneous materials caused by detonative loading; Bakugo shogeki ni yoru fukinshitsu zairyo no hakai gensho no simulation

    Sassa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Investigations were conducted by simulation of breakage of inhomogeneous materials (rock) attributable to detonative loading, which simulation used the Days-2 Code. During the simulation, one-free-face blastings were used for testing a homogeneous structure, horizontal 2-layer structure, and horizontal 3-layer structure. Property values were assigned to the rocks on the assumption that they were sedimentary rocks such as sandstone or mudstone or hard rocks such as granite. As the result, it was found that a detonative loading resulted in shear failure in a sphere near the focus that was followed by radially developed cracks due to tension breakage, that more area is damaged in a soft rock than in a hard rock, that cracks due to breakage are produced by the overlapping of waves directly from the focus and those reflected from the free face in case of one-free-face blastings, that such cracks propagated along the soft rock layer in case there is a soft rock layer in a hard rock, but that breakage does not extend beyond the soft rock layer. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Subsurface geology by shallow seismic reflection survey and microgravity survey in Kobe area; Senso hanshaho danseiha tansa oyobi seimitsu juryoku tansa ni yoru Kobe chiiki no chika chishitsu

    Endo, H.; Makino, M.; Murata, Y.; Watanabe, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper reports discussions on subsurface structure of the Kobe area by means of microgravity survey. A Bouguer anomaly distribution graph was obtained (which is close to a near straight line) by measuring the gravity at measurement points with an interval of about 25 m along a traverse line (with a total length of about 1.7 km) in an approximately NNW-SSE direction crossing the downtown of the city of Kobe. Viewing the residuals to a straight line linking the values at both ends of the traverse line revealed that the gradient in the Bouguer anomaly distribution changes as if it is bent at a point near the center of the traverse line as a boundary. Deriving the residuals from fine changes seen in a distribution graph for the residuals made clear that this residual distribution has two discontinuous points. The paper indicates that the bending point in the former case corresponds to a reverse fault in a base bed of a flat land as compared with the result of model calculation on the base structure and gravity distribution. The discontinuous points in the latter case agree with positions of fault distribution derived by a reflection elastic wave survey. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Sensitivity study of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    An examination was made by a model analysis on sensitivity and the like against a resistive anomalous body, in connection with an electromagnetic tomography system with surface earthquake sources and underground receiver arrangements. A resistivity model was of a three-dimensional structure, and built with a 5 ohm{center_dot}m low resistivity anomalous body assembled in a 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous medium. As a result of the examination, it was shown that the size limitation of an analyzable anomalous body was 50{times}50{times}20m at a frequency of 8 to 10kHz and that a system with high precision in a high frequency range was necessary. The examination of effects under a shallow anomalous body revealed, for example, that the fluctuation of a low frequency response was large compared with a deep anomalous body and that, where a second anomalous body existed under it, the effect also appeared with a surface earthquake source positioned in the opposite side from the anomalous body. The examination of effects under the three dimensional structure revealed, for example, that a remarkable change appeared in the data with the change in the inclined angle of the transmission line against the strike of the anomalous body. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Estimation of subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement; Kiretsuha sanjiku keisoku ni yoru chika kiretsumen no hoko suitei

    Nagano, K.; Sato, K. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    This paper reports experiments carried out to estimate subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement. The experiments were performed by using existing subsurface cracks and two wells in the experimental field. An air gun as a sound source was installed directly above a subsurface crack intersection in one of the wells, and a three-component elastic wave detector was fixed in the vicinity of a subsurface crack intersection in the other well. Crack waves from the sound source were measured in a frequency bandwidth from 150 to 300 Hz. A coherence matrix was constituted relative to triaxial components of vibration in the crack waves; a coherent vector was sought that corresponds to a maximum coherent value of the matrix; and the direction of the longer axis in an ellipse (the direction being perpendicular to the crack face) was approximated in particle motions of the crack waves by using the vector. The normal line direction of the crack face estimated by using the above method was found to agree nearly well with the direction of the minimum crust compression stress measured in the normal line direction of the crack face existed in core samples collected from the wells, and measured at nearly the same position as the subsurface crack. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Fundamental principles of a new EM tool for in-situ resistivity measurement; Denji yudoho ni yoru den`ichi hiteiko sokutei sochi no kento

    Noguchi, K.; Aoki, H. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Saito, A. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of measuring in-situ resistivity without contact with the rock, a study was made about a measuring device using electromagnetic induction. This measuring device has two concentric transmission loops and a receiving point at the center of the loops, and performs focusing by canceling the primary magnetic field at the receiving point. Using this device, a trial was made to eliminate the influence of surface undulation. In the model calculation, response was calculated after the structure with a heavily undulated ground surface was replaced by a two-layer structure with the first layer provided with a higher resistivity. In the model, the first layer had a resistivity of 10000 Ohm m, and the second layer 1000 Ohm m. Using the ratio between the transmission loop radii as a parameter, relationship with the thickness of the first layer was studied, and it was found that the sensitivity to the second layer resistivity increases when the inner and outer loops are nearer to each other in terms of radius and that this eliminates the influence near the surface layer. A decision needs to fall within a scope assuring good reception because response intensity decreases as the ratio between the transmission loop radii approaches 1. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Robust control of wire-driven system using linear DC motor; Linear DC motor ni yoru wire kudokei no robust seigyo

    Ikeda, M. [Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    The driving system and its control method were studied to miniaturizing the robot and multiplying its degree of freedom. Through designing the composition of force-transferring device driven by wire and actuator done by thin linear motor, the space can be saved by separating the places needing the force-transferring device and those doing the actuator. However, the driving by wire has the unknown stiffness, backlash, friction and other hardly controllable elements. Three types of robust control, observer-based control, sliding-mode control and H{infinity} control were applied and mutually compared. The H{infinity} control was a H{infinity} norm which was adopted, with optimization, into the evaluation function to measure the objective transfer function. Enabling the comparatively easy designing of high-gain controller to comply with the objective, the H{infinity} control theory was known to be effectively applicable even to the objective having the backlash, friction and resonance point. The present control was robust also against the fluctuation in load. 10 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Ultra long-term simulation by the integrated model. 1. Framework and energy system module; Togo model ni yoru tanchoki simulation. 1. Flame work to energy system module

    Kurosawa, A.; Yagita, H.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper introduces the study on the ultra long-term energy model `GRAPE` with considering global environment and the results of trial calculation. The GRAPE model is to consist of modules of energy system, climate change, change of land use, food demand/supply, macro economy, and environmental impact. This is a model that divides the world into ten regions, gives 1990 as a base year, and enables the ultra long-term simulation. In this time, emission of carbon is calculated as a trial. In the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission, energy supply in the latter half of 21st century is to compose photovoltaic energy, methanol from coal gasification, and biomass energy. In addition, the shear of nuclear energy is to remarkably increase. For the constitution of power generation, IGCC power generation with carbon recovery, wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, and nuclear power generation are to extend their shears. In the case of constrained concentration of carbon emission, structural change of power generation option is to be delayed compared with the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Potential evaluation of cold heat and hot heat supply by solar heat; Taiyonetsu ni yoru reinetsu onnetsu no kyokyu potential hyoka

    Akizawa, A.; Ishida, K.; Kashiwagi, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    When the recovered solar heat is supplied to demands such as heating, cooling by absorption refrigerator and hot water supply, the maximum available heating value was determined using a model in which solar heat collector was installed in the residence, to investigate the possibility of alternative demand. In this study, the supply temperatures were 80 {degree}C for cooling, 50 {degree}C for heating, and 50 {degree}C for hot water supply, where a flat plate type heat collector was employed. It was assumed that the heat storage can be conducted for 24 hours. Results obtained are as follows. For detached houses, most of the monthly demand can be supplied due to the actual predominant fine days in each month. For the cold and intermediate periods, it was supposed that monthly demand can be supplied by using excess heating value of fine days in the case of sufficient capacity of heat storage tank. For the model with heat insulating structure, demands except hot water supply can be supplied from solar energy. It was found that the heat insulation greatly contributes to the energy saving. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of biomass resources using SD method-aided world energy/land utilization model; SD shuho no sekai energy tochi riyo model ni yoru

    Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    For the evaluation of the world-wide conflict between the utilization of biomass resources and the restrictions on land utilization, analysis was made using the system dynamics method. In the advanced area, there is scarcely any changes in land utilization, thanks to stable demand for biomass and perfect forestry protection. On the other hand, in the developing area, demand for biomass is increasing and areas of mature forests are decreasing due to imperfect forestry protection. In 2050 and after when the forests will be enjoying the same protection as that in practice in the advanced area, the forest area will stabilize. Mature forests, however, will not stop shrinking, and there will be only 400-million ha of mature forests remaining in 2100. There will be serious food shortage in the developing area because there will be a huge demand for food for livestock. Accordingly, there will be no room at all for the production of energy making crops. Both in advanced and developing areas, the potential is high of cereal residue, livestock`s dung, raw material timber residue, by-products, and refuse energy resources. On the contrary, the potential is low of kitchen refuse, paper, and chemical industry products refuse. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Measurement of a jet issuing from a circular pipe with a laser doppler velocimeter. Laser ryusokukei ni yoru enkan kara no funryu no keisoku

    Kita, Y.; Kitamura, Y.; Yamamoto, K. (Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Yoshinaga, K. (Daikin Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Hirose, K. (Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan))


    In case that the liquid jet issues under gravity from a vertical circular pipe into the atmosphere, the present research investigated the aspect of jet prior to forming the flapping free surface with droplets and then, measured the flow rate, by a laser Doppler velocimeter, in the jet immediately before and after its issuing. Thus, the jet surface profile and change in flowing condition were demonstrated to be relatively expressible by the three dimensionless numbers, i.e., Reynolds, Froude and Weber numbers. The experimental unit forms a circulating loop of lower water tank to pump to main water tank to valve to sub water tank (fitted with an air valve) to acrylic pipe (1m in length, and 8, 12 and 16mm in diameter) to laser probe to lower water tank. The outlet of acrylic pipe is contracted to 30{degree} and opened in the lower water tank. As liquid, used were water, aqueous solution of glyceline and kerosene. As an experimental result, the in-pipe flow also properly maintain its characteristics for the Poiseuille velocity distribution in the flowing region from approximately 12mm in diameter to the issuing extremity in the vicinity of outlet. The other different particulars are also expressible by the above three dimensionless numbers. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Characterization of the interface states in ZnO varistors by DLTS method. DLTS ho ni yoru ZnO barisuta kaimen jun'i no hyoka

    Tsuda, Koichi; Mukae, Kazuo (Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development Ltd., Kanagawa, (Japan))


    The Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy(DLTS) technique was applied to characterize the interface states at the grain boundaries of ZnO varistors, such as Bi-type and Pr-type. The ordinary DLTS method gave similar spectra showing two peaks, which were assigned as bulk traps. Then, a new technique called zero-biased DLTS method was tried for observing the interface states at the grain boundaries. A peak for the interface states of ZnO varistors was detected at higher temperatures for the first time. The Arrhenius plots of the emission rate gave the depths of the interface states of 1.03eV and 0.94eV for Pr-type and Bi-type varistors respectively. Numerical simulation of the DLTS peak revealed that the interface states are distributed monoenergetically. Furthermore, since the nonlinear exponent({alpha}) depended strongly on the peak height, the concentration of the interface states should give a large effect on the nonlinearity of the ZnO varistors. The origin of the interface states was suggested to be identified as chemisorbed oxygen ion at the ZnO grain boundaries. 22 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Characteristics on the heat storage and recovery by the underground spiral heat exchange pipe; Chichu maisetsu spiral kan ni yoru chikunetsu shunetsu tokusei

    Imai, I. [Kure National College of Technology, Hiroshima (Japan); Taga, M. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan)


    The consistency between the experimental value of a soil temperature and the calculation value of a soil temperature given by a non-steady heat conduction equation was confirmed. The experimental value is obtained by laying a spiral heat exchange pipe in the heat-insulated soil box and circulating hot water forcibly in the pipe. The temperature conductivity in soil significantly influences the heat transfer in soil. The storage performance is improved when the temperature conductivity increases because of the contained moisture. As the difference between the initial soil temperature and circulating water temperature becomes greater, the heat storage and recovery values increase. A thermal core heat transfer is done in the spiral pipe. Therefore, the diameter of the pipe little influences the heat storage performance, and the pitch influences largely. About 50 hours after heat is stored, the storage performance is almost the same as for a straight pipe that uses the spiral diameter as a pipe diameter. To obtain the same heat storage value, the spiral pipe is made of fewer materials than the straight pipe and low in price. The spiral pipe is more advantageous than the straight pipe in the necessary motive power and supply heat of a pump. 1 ref., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Clearness index in cloudy days estimated with meteorological information by multiple regression analysis; Kisho joho wo riyoshita kaiki bunseki ni yoru dontenbi no seiten shisu no suitei

    Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Study is under way for a more accurate solar radiation quantity prediction for the enhancement of solar energy utilization efficiency. Utilizing the technique of roughly estimating the day`s clearness index from forecast weather, the forecast weather (constituted of weather conditions such as `clear,` `cloudy,` etc., and adverbs or adjectives such as `afterward,` `temporary,` and `intermittent`) has been quantified relative to the clearness index. This index is named the `weather index` for the purpose of this article. The error high in rate in the weather index relates to cloudy days, which means a weather index falling in 0.2-0.5. It has also been found that there is a high correlation between the clearness index and the north-south wind direction component. A multiple regression analysis has been carried out, under the circumstances, for the estimation of clearness index from the maximum temperature and the north-south wind direction component. As compared with estimation of the clearness index on the basis only of the weather index, estimation using the weather index and maximum temperature achieves a 3% improvement throughout the year. It has also been learned that estimation by use of the weather index and north-south wind direction component enables a 2% improvement for summer and a 5% or higher improvement for winter. 2 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Heat storage characteristics of latent microcapsules using hot air bubbles by direct contact heat exchange; Onshitsu kihogun to sennetsu microcapsule tono chokusetsu sesshohku kokan ni yoru chikunetsu tokusei

    Nakagawa, K.; Sugiura, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    This paper has dealt with the heat storage characteristics of fine microcapsules packed with latent heat storage material in the water layer. The heat storage operation to the latent microcapsules was carried out using hot air bubbles by direct contact heat exchange. The microcapsule consists of n-paraffin as a core latent-heat storage material and melamine resin as a coating substance. The relation of the completion time of latent-heat storage to some parameters was examined experimentally. The non-dimensional correlation equations for the completion time of latent-heat storage process had were derived in terms of the ratio of water layer height to diameter of microcapsule, Reynolds number for air flow, Stefan number and modified Stefan number for absolute humidity of flowing air. (author)

  17. Microbial degradation of crude oil on the sea surface by adding nutrient microcapsules. Eiyo ennaiho microcapsule no tenka ni yoru kaimen deno genyu no biseibutsu bunkai

    Yamane, Akiko; Okada, Mitsumasa; Murakami, Akihiko (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Tech., Tokyo (Japan))


    Microbial degradation of spilled crude oil on the sea surface has been studied. It was found that the concentration of nutrient was a large rate-determining factor in microbial degradation of oil, consequently microbial degradation can be enhanced by adding nutrient. While, a nutrient microcapsule was developed so as to keep a certain concentration of nutrient on the sea surface, and the biodegradation capacity and the dosing condition were investigated through experiments. In the up-and-down shaking apparats modeled on sea surface, crude oils were degraded by a marine bacteria. The percentages of total oil removal were 18-22% in the sea water, on the other hand, by dose of the nutrient microcapsules they were enhanced to 43-56%. On the biodegradation of 5g of crude oil, the oil removal was amounted roughly to maximum when 116mg of the microcapsule per vessel (11.6% to crude oil) was added 5 times every 4 days, and the dosage effect was not increased even if more nutrient microcapsules were added. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Synthesis of calcium-deficient by hydroxyapatite-collage composite by the electrolytic deposition method; Denkai sekishutsu ho ni yoru karushiumu kesson hidorokishiapataito-coragen fukugotai no gosei

    Okamura, H. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School Of Science and Technology; Yasuda, M.; Oota, M. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)


    Hydroxyapatite is known as that it has a good joining property with teeth and bone, and a study on the application to the living body was conducted by using this property. Its application examples were given as the cement used in dentistry, the artificial tooth root, the artificial bone, the bone cement and the artificial joint. However, they were a sinter heated at more than 1000degC, and were put into use by means of reinforcement using a titanium alloy since their mechanical strength was low. In this study, synthesis of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (DAp) and collagen composite by the electrolytic deposition method was attempted in order to develop bionic materials, and the correlation of various physical properties of the obtained composite and the electrolytic deposition conditions were investigated. When the electrolytic voltage is more than 22.0V, a single phase of DAp could be obtained. It was clarified that a DAp and collagen composite was synthesized from results of IR and ESR. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Cross-polarization borehole radar system with a RF analog optical transmission link. Hikaridenso ni yoru chokko henpa bore hole radar keisoku system

    Miwa, T.; Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    The cross-polarization borehole radar system (BRS) was reported. The RF analogue optical transmission system (using the optical fiber cable) was introduced into the signal transmission between the sonde and the surface station to broaden the band and to heighten the S/N ratio. The sonde consisted of cable head (to transmit the trigger signal), receiving antenna, and transmitting antenna. The transmitting antenna was excited by the trigger signal from the surface to generate the pulse by the pulse generator. The signal received by the receiving antenna was sent to the oscilloscope on the surface. The field test of cross-polarization borehole system revealed that the effect of noise associated with the BRS employing the eccentric cable did not appear on the BRS. Examples of field test of the cross-polarization borehole measurement system employing the BRS were described. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Improvement of output characteristics of a wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyoho ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no shutsuryoku tokusei kaizen

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Conformity was studied between the wind turbine and generator's output characteristics to effectively collect the wind energy which fluctuates with time. According to the theoretical analysis, it is necessary for the generator-driving torque to be proportional to the revolving speed (n) squared of wind turbine in order that the wind turbine may generate the highest output always regardless of wind velocity. In the output current control method by current controller, the generator's output current (i[sub a]) is controlled so as to satisfy i[sub a]=cn[sup 2], where c is the output current control coefficient, the optimized value of which is 2[alpha][sup 2]Kw/Kt if the generator loss is nil. Therefore, that value is fixed independently of the wind velocity. [alpha] and Kw are the characteristic constants of wind turbine while Kt is the torque coefficient of generator. In order to confirm the effect of the present control method, the output characteristics were studied through simulation with already known systems. In both cases of constant and variable wind velocity, the change in output is similar against the change in c. Different from the resistance load control method, the present control method improves the output characteristics in a wide range of wind velocity even if the c remains fixed. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Maximizing output power of wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyo ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no denryoku saidaika

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan))


    This paper reports a method in a wind power generation system to control output current from a generator so that it fits automatically the wind turbine characteristics where the turbine characteristics are unknown and the generator characteristics are known. The paper details the following methods: a method that rotation speed of a wind turbine is observed to make the output current from the generator proportional to a square of the turbine rotation speed, and optimize the proportion coefficient so that the generator output at an equilibrium operation point of this system (wind turbine generated torque is in equilibrium with the generator driven torque) is maximized; and a method to derive an optimal proportion coefficient in discrete time control using a digital computer. The paper then describes the following matters: a simulation that assumes a pseudo natural wind velocity has verified the effectiveness of this control method; discovering an optimal proportion coefficient has required about ten minutes; and the way this control method handles fluctuation in wind velocity has a room of further improvement. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Fracture inspection by BHTV logging through a vinyl chloride tube; Enbi pipe ga sonyusareta kosei deno BHTV ni yoru kiretsu chosa

    Horikawa, H.; Okabe, T.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)


    A borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging was conducted to investigate cracks in bored wells. The logging process shoots ultrasonic waves onto bore walls and utilizes reflection waves from the bore walls. If the bores are filled with muddy water, or the ultrasonic waves can pass through even if vinyl chloride tubes have been inserted after excavation, the state of the bore walls can be investigated in principle. Conventional optical scanners are, however, incapable of making this investigation. The BHTV logging can be used for identifying lithofacies from reflection intensities from bore walls (it depends on sound impedance of rocks), not to speak of finding cracks. As a result of making logging upon setting time windows from 105 to 145 {mu} sec in a bored well inserted with a vinyl chloride tube, cracks in the bore wall were identified clearly through the vinyl chloride tube. If the distance between the bore wall and the vinyl chloride tube becomes smaller, setting the time window becomes difficult, making reflection data acquisition more difficult. Impacts of decentering in the vinyl chloride tube on the data and the crack analysis result are small. The reflection intensity has decreased by about half as a result of having the circular vinyl chloride tube inserted. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Recognition and detection of seismic phases by artificial neural network detector; Jinko neural network ni yoru jishinha no ninshiki to kenshutsu

    Yamazaki, K.; Wang, W. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Initial parts of P-waves, medium or high in intensity, are detected using an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is the generic name given to information processing systems of the non-Neumann type configured to human brain in point of information processing function, and is packaged into computers in the form of software capable of parallel processing, self-organizing, learning, etc. In this paper, a hierarchical ANN-assisted seismic motion recognition system is constructed on the basis of an error reverse propagation algorithm. It is reported here, with a remark that this study wants much more data from tests for the evaluation of the quality of the recognition, that P-wave recognition has been achieved. When this technique is applied to the S-wave, much more real-time information will become available. For the improvement of the system, a number of problems have to be solved, including the establishment of automatic refurbishment through adaptation-and-learning and configuration that incorporates frequency-related matters. It is found that this system is effective in seismic wave phase recognition but that it is not suitable for precision measurement. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the elastic wave-equation; Dansei hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Algorithm is constructed and a program developed for a full-wave inversion (FWI) method utilizing the elastic wave equation in seismic exploration. The FWI method is a method for obtaining a physical property distribution using the whole observed waveforms as the data. It is capable of high resolution which is several times smaller than the wavelength since it can handle such phenomena as wave reflection and dispersion. The method for determining the P-wave velocity structure by use of the acoustic wave equation does not provide information about the S-wave velocity since it does not consider S-waves or converted waves. In an analysis using the elastic wave equation, on the other hand, not only P-wave data but also S-wave data can be utilized. In this report, under such circumstances, an inverse analysis algorithm is constructed on the basis of the elastic wave equation, and a basic program is developed. On the basis of the methods of Mora and of Luo and Schuster, the correction factors for P-wave and S-wave velocities are formulated directly from the elastic wave equation. Computations are performed and the effects of the hypocenter frequency and vibration transmission direction are examined. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Development of micro capacitive accelerometer for subsurface microseismic measurement; Micromachining ni yoru chika danseiha kenshutsu no tame no silicon yoryogata kasokudo sensor no seisaku

    Nishizawa, M.; Niitsuma, H.; Esashi, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A silicon capacitive accelerometer was fabricated to detect subsurface elastic waves by using micromachining technology. Characteristics required for it call for capability of detecting acceleration with amplitudes from 0.1 to 1 gal and flat amplitude characteristics in frequency bands of 10 Hz to several kHz. For the purpose of measuring transition phenomena, linear phase characteristics in the required bands must be guaranteed, cross sensitivity must be small, and resistance to water, pressure and heat is demanded. Sensitivity of the sensor is determined finally by noise level in a detection circuit. The sensor`s minimum detection capability was 40 mgal in the case of the distance between a weight and an electrode being 3 {mu}m. This specification value is a value realizable by the current micromachining technology. Dimensions for the weight and other members were decided with the natural frequency to make band width 2 kHz set to 4 kHz. Completion of the product has not been achieved yet, however, because of a problem that the weight gets stuck on the electrode plate in anode bonding in the assembly process. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Study of lightning attack location by detecting polarization fluctuation in OPGW; OPGW denpako no henpa hendo ni yoru sodensen raigekiten hyotei no kento

    Kurono, M.; Kuribara, M.; Asakawa, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, H. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    A method has been established by which lightning attack location can be automatically measured by detecting polarization fluctuation in OPGW. A return transmission method and a two way transmission method were proposed, and their characteristics were made clear. For the both methods, optical fiber is used as detecting and transmission media. Additional equipment such as fault locator, the conventional linkage apparatus to transmission line is not required. Optical fiber can be also used as optical communication circuit using wavelength multiplex. For the return transmission method, two times of rising polarization fluctuations can be separated using delaying fiber. Tailings of the fluctuation are often overlapped. A value of polarization fluctuation velocity d{beta} was determined from instantaneous differential values of three measured polarization components. Thus, a method has been proposed by which the lightning attack time can be derived from the peak time. The fluctuation peak could be distinguished from the waveform of d{beta} using data of largest lightning attack polarization fluctuations, and the distances to the lightning attack spots could be calculated. The lightning location agreed well with the result of location by LLS. 9 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Experiment on measuring temperature distribution in OPGW as a result of electric heating; OPGW tsuden kanetsu ni yoru ondo bunpu sokutei jikken

    Yamashita, I. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    An experiment was performed on measuring variation in temperatures in the lengthwise direction when optical fibers laid on an overhead power transmission line (OPGW) are heated electrically and by using arc discharge. The OPGW has a structure that the optical fibers are wrapped by a metallic sheathing made of aluminum for example. The OPGW can be heated when the sheathing is energized electrically or given arc discharge. A 40-m OPGW was laid in insulated condition with a tensile force of 500 kg. The core wire was extended for 100 m by using an optic fiber cord, and connected to a temperature measuring instrument. Large current pulse was applied for electric heating to measure temperature variation in the OPGW. A change in which temperature rises sharply during the energization was measured successfully. The measured value agreed well with that from a thermocouple. Both ends of the OPGW were grounded, and arc discharge was made from a discharge electrode connected to a central voltage generator. Experiments were carried out with three patterns of charge of 50C, 100C and 200C with the discharge time set to 20 ms. It was possible to measure the temperature rise variation during the discharge. Measurements using GI fibers achieved good results on time resolution and temperature resolution, verifying the effectiveness of an optical fiber sensor as the temperature measuring technology. (NEDO)

  8. Future trends in coal mining technology at Ikeshima Colliery. Mainly, setup and actual results of high-speed man riding train; Ikeshima Tanko ni okeru tanko gijutsu no doko. Toku ni kosoku jinsha no donyu to jisseki ni tsuite

    Hiromoto, K.; Irie, T.; Murakami, M. [Matsushima Coal Mining Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan); Takahashi, K. [The Coal Mining Research Center, Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the introduction of high-speed man riding train at Ikeshima Coal Mine. The production area is below the sea bottom in the southern offshore of the Ikeshima Island. With increasing the depth of production faces, it is significant for the insurance of operation time to enhance the intensive and highly efficient transportation system and to reduce the transportation and movement time. A high-speed man riding train has been introduced as a transportation system for workers. It is operated in the base gallery at the -650 m level from No. 1 train stop to southern train stop with a distance of 5477 m. It is operated at the maximum speed of 50 km/h, and the single transportation time can be reduced from 18 to 12 minutes. Construction was started in 1995, and practical operation was started in November 1996. Various technical problems were solved concerning the high-speed operation, advanced management of tracks, and monitor and control of operation conditions and a signal system. This system was named as `Goddess-Jikai` which has been operated 19 times a day in the running interval with a return way of 11 km. It has been safely and comfortably operated in a total distance of 33700 km by the end of May 1997. Oscillation is measured by the continuous oscillation monitoring system, and track management is enhanced using a track inspection train. Future high-speed safe operation is expected. 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Technology of discharge and laser resonators for high power CO2 lasers. Koshutsuryoku CO2 laser ni tsukawareru hoden reiki laser kyoshinki gijutsu

    Takenaka, Y.; Kuzumoto, M. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes discharge excitation technology and resonator technology as basic technologies for high power CO2 lasers. As a result of progress in high-frequency power element techniques, the discharge excitation technology now generally uses laser excitation using AC discharge of capacity coupling type. Its representative example is silent discharge (SD) excitation. This is a system to excite laser by applying high voltages with as high frequency as 100 kHz to 1 MHz across a pair of electrodes covered with a dielectric material. The system maintains stability in discharge even if power supply voltage amplitude is modulated, and easily provides pulse outputs. Discharge excitation for diffusion cooled type CO2 laser generates a discharge in a gap with a gap length of about 2 mm, and can perform gas cooling by means of thermal conduction of gas, whereas a compact resonator can be fabricated. A resonator for the diffusion cooled type CO2 laser eliminates gas circulation and cooling systems, hence the device can be made more compact. A report has been given that several of these compact resonators were combined, from which a laser output of 85W was obtained by using RF discharge of 2kW. 43 refs., 21 figs.

  10. Research report of fiscal 1997. Basic research on the commercialization of innovative energy technologies; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kakushinteki energy gijutsu no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kiso chosa



    This paper summarizes the research result in fiscal 1997 from the basic research results on the commercialization of innovative energy technologies. The target of a photovoltaic power generation market includes isolated power sources (several kWp) for distant places or developing countries, and those (several tens kWp) for personal residences or public facilities. Although the former is mainly promoted in the West, while the latter over the world, their profitability is unsolved. Power plants over several hundreds kWp are in demonstration test. Solar heat power generation of several tens to hundreds MWp is most profitable, however, small-scale one is poor in feasibility. Australia takes an interest in distributed photovoltaic power generation directly connected with actual lives of residents, and has a dominant opinion that desert is useless as large-scale site. This country lays emphasis on protection and maintenance rather than positive use of desert based on a basic cognition that desert is easily changed and broken. The Australian government announced power company`s obligation to use renewable energy by 2%, and a strong organization is scheduled to be newly established. 59 figs., 57 tabs.

  11. Survey on the possibility of international cooperation on production technology of biohydrogen; Bio suiso seizo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa



    R and D on the production technology of hydrogen by biotechnology is one of the effective projects for worldwide energy supply technology and global environment protection technology in the 21st century. The research trend of various institutions promoting R and D on production technology of biohydrogen in the U.S.A. and other countries was surveyed together with the possibility of international cooperation. The production technology of biohydrogen is being watched over the world. Various researches are in promotion corresponding to environmental conditions as follows: search of not only photosynthetic bacteria but also such bacteria with hydrogen productivity as algae and anaerobic bacteria, and the gene engineering study for improving the hydrogen productivity of target microorganisms. All the institutions visited for this survey have great expectations in wide cooperative study in the future. On the possibility of international cooperation on the production technology of biohydrogen, the further precise survey should be promoted for developing more effective technologies based on the previous survey results. 156 refs., 10 tabs.

  12. Technical development of cost-efficient installation of power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka ni okeru doboku kensetsu gorika gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Kokusho, Koji; Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Yasuo; Ikemi, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Kitano, Koichi; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Kanazu, Tsutomu; Komada, Hiroya.


    Various latest technical developments were surveyed for the cost-effective installation of power distribution cables under pavements, and their applicabilities were demonstrated with the evaluation of their cost-reduction effects. Cables in conventional vinyl protection tubes could be buried only 30cm under pavements, and in such case, the cost was reduced to 51% of those of conventional methods. As the results of soil tests, excavated soil over 80% was reusable through coarse screening. Underground radar technique to explore buried pipes from the surface was detectable several pipes buried 1.5-2.0m underground, although some problems in precision were found. The improvement of reinforced concrete man-hole structures to minimize the volume of excavated soil indicated the cost reduction of nearly 20%. The application of these techniques to the installation of cables was expected to ultimately halve the total civil engineering cost. 21 refs., 130 figs., 46 tabs.

  13. Leading research in fiscal 1996. Research study on advanced measurement/analysis technology; 1996 nendo sendo kenkyu. Kodo keisoku bunseki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    For development of production technologies suitable for environment, safety and advanced information-oriented society by improving the flexibility of production lines, some new measurement technologies were researched. Problem solution was attempted by combining the in-situ multi-dimensional measurement technology capable of easily obtaining various 3-D information with the non-contact photon measurement technology superior in operability and sensitivity under any environment conditions. This solution requires a compact radiation source with higher brightness and wider spectral range, and a high-sensitive detector. The technology concentrating photon onto minute regions, high-efficiency transmission, and control technology of photon wave front are also necessary. Development and international standardization of a common interface is unavoidable. In addition, its network is essential for advanced use of multimedia,. In the future, the comfortable life surrounded by advanced products and multimedia, comfortable social environment, safety and resource saving will be achieved by this technology. 94 refs., 75 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Study of seismic data acquisition using physical modeling system; Butsuri model jikken sochi wo mochiita data shutoku gijutsu ni kansuru kento

    Tsukui, R.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the physical modeling system of Technology Research Center, Japan National Oil Corporation, data acquisition on the ocean and ground can be simulated using models. This system can provide data for verification of the data processing and elastic wave simulation algorithm. This can also provide data for decision of experiment specifications by making a model simulating the underground structure of the given test field. The model used for the physical modeling system is a gradient multilayer model with six-layer structure. Depth migration before stacking was conducted using data obtained through two acquisition methods, i.e., up-dip acquisition and down-dip acquisition. The depth migration before stacking was performed for data obtained by up-dip acquisition in addition to the records obtained by down-dip acquisition. Consequently, a definite reflection surface was observed, which has not been observed from the processing results of down-dip acquisition data. 9 figs.

  15. Aiming at development of a technology that is welcomed by customers and that sees one step ahead; Okyakusama ni yorokobareru ipposaki wo mita gijutsu kaihatsu wo mezashite

    Tsujimura, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes technological development at the Kansai Cable Service Company. A momentary voltage drop monitoring system detects momentary power failure at substations in the load system, transmits and aggregates the information at branch offices via control stations. Data are processed into readily identifiable information, and displayed quickly on branch office terminals or at sales offices. In a TV wave reception disturbance survey, the disturbance can be surveyed by utilizing the image quality evaluation characteristics of MPEG2 that can store animated images of good quality in digital data. The SS wireless system consists of a wireless transmission device intended for remote monitoring and image information transmission. The communications distribution frame control system puts terminal information (the number of terminals exceed several hundred thousand depending a case) into a database, and structures a system by using a low-cost general purpose personal computer which can perform information retrieval and terminal table preparation easily in a short time. The system improved the efficiency and accuracy of the control operation. A PHS quasi animated image transmitting system was also developed. A CATV telephone system and a CATV Internet system were investigated and studied as an experimental study on wide-area multi-media service. (NEDO)

  16. Study on the application of plasma technology to advanced global environmental harmony type technology; Kankyo chowagata gijutsu no kodoka eno plasma no oyo ni kansuru chosa



    Plasma application technology is systematically investigated. Fundamental feature of plasma, method of plasma generation, special features of plasma, and its application area are arranged. The present application area of plasma chemical reaction in industry has been arranged for each utilization and process according to the patents research and scientific journals. For the global environmental harmony type technology, functions required for the membrane separators are investigated by assuming the recovery of environmental load substances, and possible manufacturing process of the membrane by using plasma technology is also investigated. For the improvement of catalysis by the plasma process, the requirement for the catalyst, a fine particle effect for catalyst, production of catalyst, plasma technology applicable to the improvement of catalyst, thermal plasma, and low-temperature plasma are described. For the application of plasma to enhance the catalysis reaction, synthesis of ammonia and methanol are described. 177 refs., 67 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Feasibility study on the demonstrative test on the hybrid mini hydroelectric power generation technology. 2; Hybrid gata mini suiryoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho shiken kanosei chosa. 2



    A study was made for the purpose of electrification of unelectrified zones of the mountainous areas in developing countries using extremely small hydroelectric power facilities. The target for this project is a development of a micro hydroelectric power system with a size of about 5kW, which is estimated regarding that 1 village has 80 houses and each house needs electricity of 60W. In the study, the low-head system using a weir of irrigation channels in Subang pref. of West Java state was selected by the evaluation of access, stability of flow rate, natural conditions, etc. The hydroelectric power plant is of a flow-in method in which water is taken from the left bank and is injected/discharged to the downstream of the left bank. As the hybrid complementary power source, hybrid battery with a two-hour charging time at peak and a capacity of 3.5kWh was considered. When estimating the construction cost of the hybrid micro hydroelectric power system and equalizing by durable years, the operational cost per kW is 15 times higher than the benefits which local people receive. It was judged to be difficult to say that the micro hydroelectric power system is economically feasible. It was predicted that the financial profit during the demonstrative test is good, according to a trial calculation of income from power rates and the operational cost. 18 refs., 90 figs., 53 tabs.

  18. Development of high field magnets at the National Research Institute for Metals. Kinzoku zairyo gijutsu kenkyusho ni okeru kojikai magnet gun no kaihatsu

    Kiyoshi, T.; Inoue, K.; Maeda, H. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Sinece 1988, the Scince and Technology Agency has initiated the superconductor multicore project, which has a purpose of the versatile study on the high temperature superconducting materials of the oxide series. The National Research Institute for Metals is in charge of 5 cores out of them, and in the performance evaluation core which is one of them, the development of each kind of the high field magnets is being advanced for evaluating the characteristics under the high magnetic field. As the magnets, including the 40T class hybrid magnet which generates the steady state magnetic field of 40T, the superconducting magnet of 20T with a large diameter which generates the magnetic field over 20T with a superconductor, the condenser bank system for the pulse magnet to generate the pulse magnetic field up to 80T, and the ultra-precise magnet system which generates the magnetic field with a high uniformity will be consolidated. Keeping pace with a removal of the National Research Institute for Metals to Tsukuba, the construction of the strong magnetic field station is being advanced in the Sakura area. These several kinds of magnets are scheduled to be used in turn for the international joint study. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. FY 1998 annual report on the surveys on high-efficiency power generation techniques of the next generation; 1998 nendo jisedai kokoritsu hatsuden gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho



    Comprehensive surveys on and assessment of seeds of the high-efficiency power generation techniques of the next generation, both domestic and overseas, are conducted to help propose preliminary national research themes. In FY 1998, the survey efforts are directed not only to the trends of those for industrial power generation under development, e.g., combined cycle, coal-gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combined cycle, but also to the trends of newly proposed systems, e.g., humid air combined cycle, methane reforming combined cycle, fuel reforming/humid air combined cycle, fuel reforming/fuel cell combined cycle and micro gas turbine, to further enhance efficiency by integration with a gas turbine power generation system. The efforts are also directed to (new power generation techniques in the basic research stage) being studied mainly by academic and research organizations, and to development trends of new power generation techniques under development by private enterprises, mainly based on the patent survey. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1995 research investigation on chemical process technology using supercritical fluid; 1995 nendo chorinkai ryutai wo riyoshita kagaku process gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    With relation to the supercritical fluid utilization technology, conducted in fiscal 1995 were collection of basic data, extraction of R and D subjects and survey/analysis of application fields based on the literature survey and overseas field survey. From the research results, the following were selected as research subjects: as to the clean/recycling process technology, non-selection cascade treatment process of mixed waste plastics, hazardous waste treatment process, and radioactive waste treatment process. As to the unused resource utilization process technology, the supercritical submerged combustion power generation process, heavy hydrocarbon resource reutilization process, biomass synthetic utilization process, and carbon dioxide reutilization process. As to the next generation reaction process technology, the simple reaction process, de-organic solvent process, chemical materialization process for methane, and reaction separation combined process. As the innovative material process technology, the plastic forming process, high-functional materials, high-efficiency energy conversion materials, and heightening of function of solid wastes. 537 refs., 116 figs., 54 tabs.

  1. Survey of pollution-resistant plants and their cultivating techniques; Osen busshitsu taisei shokubutsu to sono shokusai gijutsu ni kansuru chosa



    The reduction of forests due to environmental pollution has been surveyed, to investigate the pollution-resistant plants and solid microorganisms. In Japan, the blight of needle-leaf trees (pine and momi fir) and of Japanese oak has occurred, and blight of some other trees, such as wild cherry trees, Japanese apricot trees, birch, Japanese cedar, cypress and bamboo, has been reported from various regions. In this article, plants reported to be resistant to pollutants are listed, and the physiological features of these plants are described. Furthermore, to develop pollution-resistant plants, reports relating to clarification of the mechanism of resistance development and the genes involved are reviewed. Microorganisms which symbioses for roots support these root functions. They also suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and improve the environment around the roots, thus helping plants to grow normally. The roles played by symbiotic microorganisms and how to utilize these organisms are discussed. Their functions in coping with acid rain and heavy metal pollution, and how to utilize such functions are also discussed. 707 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Survey on the technological development issues for large-scale methanol engine power generation plant; Ogata methanol engine hatsuden plant ni kansuru gijutsu kaihatsu kadai chosa



    Based on the result of `Survey on the feasibility of large-scale methanol engine power generation plant` in fiscal 1992, concrete technological development issues were studied for its practical use, and the technological R & D scheme was prepared for large-scale methanol engine power plant featured by low NOx and high efficiency. Technological development issues of this plant were as follows: improvement of thermal efficiency, reduction of NOx emission, improvement of the reliability and durability of ignition and fuel injection systems, and reduction of vibration. As the economical effect of the technological development, the profitability of NOx control measures was compared between this methanol engine and conventional heavy oil diesel engines or gas engines. As a result, this engine was more economical than conventional engines. It was suggested that development of the equipment will be completed in nearly 4 years through every component study, single-cylinder model experiment and real engine test. 21 refs., 43 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Technical engineers exchange project (coal mine technology field). Training in China; Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun`ya). Chugoku no kenshu ni tsuite

    Adachi, T. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The paper described JCOAL`s project on the exchange of technical coal engineers of China. In the project on sending of engineers to China in the first term, coal mine engineers of Japan (Taiheiyo Coal Mine, Kushiro Works, Training Center) were sent to the Daitun coal-thermal power plant, Peixuan city, Jiangsu province, in September, 1997 to introduce the production control technology in Japan. They contributed to the heightening of productivity in coal mines in China. Eighteen Chinese participated in the training. Mechanization has been comparatively well in progress, and it was 83% in coal mining and 91% in drilling. The kind of coal is mostly a raw material coal. The stuff members are 30,000, and expert engineers are 4,200. The plant has an output of 130,000 kWh, owns its railroad, is run on the general multiple management, and is largely developing. The project on sending of engineers to China in the last term was carried out in February 1998 for tracing/confirming how the results of the training conducted in September are made the most of and if or not there is something bad and for obtaining the detailed data. A certain degree of promotion and effects were able to be confirmed. A project on training of the head, sub-head, etc. who were invited to Japan to lean production/management control was also carried out in November and December 1997. 1 tab.

  4. Historical overview of geophysical exploration for hydrocarbon prospecting in Japan; Nippon no sekiyu kogyo ni okeru butsuri tanko gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Tamura, Y. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes a historical overview of geophysical exploration for hydrocarbon prospecting in Japan. In general, history is divided into eras by the qualitative change. In the case of geophysical exploration, the history is desired to be divided by considering the both of qualitative change in the technology and that in the practical application. In the early time of geophysical prospecting, gravitational exploration, magnetic exploration, seismic refraction method and seismic reflection method were elementarily and successfully tried. In the era of classical geophysical exploration, seismic reflection method and gravitational/magnetic methods were basically completed, and accumulation structures of potential petroleum were discovered around existing oil fields. In the era of systematic geophysical exploration, techniques of underground geological reflection profiles were completed with digitalization, and systematic petroleum exploration was conducted. In the era of modern geophysical exploration, 3D seismic was put into practice, and the inversion accuracy was improved, in which the geophysical exploration could be contributed jointly with the geological techniques. New development era of geophysics is expected. 31 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Applied technology by use of inverters for underground minig in Ikeshima Colliery; Ikeshima tanko no konaiyo inverter oyo gijutsu ni tsuite

    Hiromoto, K.; Murakami, M.; Horinouchi, K.; Yamaguchi, M. [Matsushima Coal Mining Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)


    This paper describes the application of inverters for underground mining in the Ikeshima Coal Mine. The total length of belt conveyors for coal transportation in the seam road has become 7500 m with increasing the peak transportation by the belt conveyors from the face to pocket. The coal transportation facilities composed of 25 belt conveyors have become significant. At the same time, facilities for transportation of materials and members have been increased with a long distance to the faces. Inverter control of belt conveyors was introduced in 1985 for controlling the coal transportation amount. After that, explosion proof inverters for underground use were developed. In 1985, 22 kW inverter variable speed motor was employed for the chain conveyor at the main coal lifting facility. Thus, the coal transportation amount can be controlled. In 1994, this system was employed for the belt conveyor at the intermediate pocket. Thus, the transportation amount can be controlled in the centralized control room. In 1995, an explosion proof 45 kW inverter remote control hoist has been developed, which is operated by wire remote control. Labor-saving of transportation of materials and members can be achieved. In 1996, shuttle running high-speed man riding car with inverter driving has been introduced in the southern horizontal gallery. 4 figs.

  6. Investigation on the development and introduction of new geothermal exploration technology. Part 2; Chinetsu shintansa gijutsu kaihatsu donyu ni kansuru chosa. 2



    For the purpose of maintaining and increasing the geothermal power generation amount, the development was made of exploration technologies which become necessary in the stage of geothermal reservoir exploration and in the stage of reservoir management and peripheral development. As development technologies, the following were proposed: fracture flow characteristics exploration method (FE), production/circumference areas flow characteristics exploration method (PE), and integrated analyzing method (IA). As to FE, for the survey of geothermal fluid dynamic characteristics in fracture aggregate composing the geothermal reservoir, developments were made of the well hydraulic testing method for examining hydraulic characteristics of fracture system and of the fracture evaluation method composed of the core/logging analysis method, the permeability logging method and electroseismic exploration method. As to PE, for maintaining and managing steam production in the developmental area and developing the area to the circumference area, development was conducted of technology for exploring variations of reservoirs and fluid flow from the data on precision gravity, three-dimensional resistivity, fluid geochemistry, active seismic wave and self potential, precision electromagnetism, passive seismic wave, etc. As to IA, development was made of reservoir simulation technique, etc. 2 refs., 70 figs., 41 tabs.

  7. Report on the cooperative study of technology to collect valuable resources in brine; Kansuichu no yuka shigen kaishu gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku hokokusho



    The paper reported on the research, design, and evaluation on a system to recover by sedimentation magnesium from the brine in the salt manufacture by solar evaporation in Mexico, and a system to recover by adsorbent lithium, boron, etc. from the brine of the solar pond salt field in China. In the case of Mexico, an overall recovery system was developed, but in the evaluation of economy of the system, it cannot be said that the system is feasible even if assuming that the required fresh water can be secured. It was found out that the economical efficiency largely depends upon the cost of hydrated lime and the selling price of magnesia clinker. In the case of China, a plant for production of 500 tons/year of lithium carbonate was conceptually designed to evaluate the economical efficiency. As a result, the internal profitability of the plant is not so high, approximately 6%, though continuously profitable during the operation of 15 years. It was indicated that the project was not economically very efficient. 164 figs., 44 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1996 investigational research on the chemical process technology using supercritical fluids; 1996 nendo chorinkai ryutai wo riyoshita kagaku process gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    Importance was studied of making a research on the chemical process technology using the supercritical fluid. As for its effect on global warming, the amount of CO2 emission was compared during the operation between the conventional process and the process using the supercritical fluid, the CO2 reduction rate and amount were trially calculated, and a CO2 reduction of a several ten thousand ton scale in carbon conversion was predicted. As to hazardous materials and the reaction of waste retrieval, it was made clear that the process using the supercritical fluid was valid also for objects for which the chemical process used to be impossible, which indicates a possibility of the widening field of application. Concerning its effect on the energy conservation, energy reduction of several ten thousand tons in heavy oil conversion was predicted by replacing all the existing processes with supercritical fluids. Relating to the recycling, with the use of supercritical fluids, the process is possible which produces higher quality and yield and fewer unnecessary products such as char than the conventional process. 197 refs., 102 figs., 71 tabs.

  9. Study of seismic data acquisition using physical modeling system; Butsuri model jikken sochi wo mochiita data shutoku gijutsu ni kansuru kento

    Tsukui, R.; Tsuru, T. [Tech. Research Center, Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The Physical Modeling System introduced into the Technology Research Center, Japan National Oil Corporation, and data collected by use of the system are presented. The Physical Modeling System is 10,000 times smaller than the real one, comprising a water tub section, measuring device section, and control section, etc. The water tub section comprises a tub for housing the model, transducers for transmitting and receiving vibration, controllers, etc. The water tub measures 1.8{times}1.2{times}0.9m. The model used in the experiment is an `inclined multilayer model` with each of its six layers pinching out toward the top, and is usable for the comparison of various migration methods. In one case in the records, reception was made at 184 reception points deployed at intervals of 3mm, when the minimum offset was 15mm and the maximum offset 564mm. Nothing very obvious was observed when the ordinary overlapping of DMO and CDP was applied to this record, which suggests that pre-overlapping migration treatment is required. 5 figs.

  10. Development of melting system using oxy-coal combustion; Sekitan chokusetsu riyo kinzoku yoyu system gijutsu (NSR) (pilot setsubi unten jokyo ni tsuite)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Suwa, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Iino, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Igarashi, H. [Nippon Sanso K.K., Tokyo (Japan)


    This metal melting system is a process to efficiently melt and regenerate scraps of aluminum, copper and iron by utilizing high-temperature energy obtained from pulverized coal-oxygen combustion. The process is intended to utilize coal in place of petroleum for reduced fuel cost. Joint studies have been carried out as a subsidy operation of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy with a schedule of six years starting fiscal 1992. Development tests are being performed using a 5-ton/ch pilot plant facility since fiscal 1995 after having gone through experiments using a 1-ton/ch bench scale furnace. This paper reports the results obtained to date. Using the pilot plant facility, fiscal 1995 has achieved the initial target values, such as thermal efficiency of 55% or higher, and yield of 96% or higher for non-ferrous metals and 94% or higher for iron. The melting behavior in the furnace has improved the thermal efficiency as a whole by retaining the conditions in the preheating step for an extended period of time. The thermal efficiency has been improved better than with the bench furnace as a result of upscaling effect. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Investigational research on CO2 isolation technology in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo nisanka tanso no kakuri gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    The paper studied present technical subjects and future study subjects of the CO2 isolation technology in order to clarify technical and social problems and the developmental subjects of the CO2 isolation technology and related technologies for separating/concentrating CO2 emitted in relation to quantity consumption of fossil fuel and storing it in ocean or underground. Main items for the study were: (1) investigational study of the technology of CO2 ocean storage, (2) investigational study of environmental effect assessment in storing CO2 in ocean, (3) investigational study of the technology of CO2 ocean storage, etc. Technologies required for the ocean isolation were arranged such as CO2 storage, injection, dispersion technique, CO2 behavior simulation, and the developmental subjects were extracted. Further, in the deep-sea bottom storage method, a simulation to calculate the range of PH effects was conducted presuming the specified amount of CO2 and applying known physical values, and evaluation of the CO2 ocean discharge/solution method was made. A method was also studied for experiments on water bacteria and benthos. 127 refs., 102 figs., 81 tabs.

  12. Technical trend and prospect for wafer cleaning on LSI manufacturing process; LSI seizo kotei ni okeru weha senjo gijutsu no saikin no doko totenbo

    Hiratsuka, Y. [Dan Science Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Presently used cleaning process of silicone wafer is based on the modification of so called RCA method from the knowhow point of view, presented by W.Kern and others 25 years ago. On the other hand, with the progress of development of element for next generation, it was already clarified to be required on the process, demanded for high degree control of silicone surface. When considered the practical measure for this, there is a movement towards the establishment of new silicone wafer cleaning concept for new generation instead of making difficult process by precise RCA cleaning. One of the new proposed method is IMEC cleaning. Further, in Tohoku University, new cleaning process, alternative to RCA method is proposed, in which treatment of all chemicals is carried out at room temperature, types of chemicals used for cleaning are limited to minimum and also, concentration of these chemicals is kept as minimum as possible, amount of used superpure wafer is saved by effective recycling and reutilization of spent chemicals. With these tecnologies, there has appeared the sign for new development for cleaning technology. 36 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Survey on the innovative well drilling technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kakushinteki kosei kussaku gijutsu ni kansuru chosa



    In the geothermal drilling, reduction of the cost of well drilling is an important subject for technical development. The geothermal resource development tends to be made at higher temperatures and at deeper wells. In the present drilling technology, the cost is rising with the exponentially increasing depth and temperature, and there is also occurring the technical limit. Accordingly, the survey clarified the limit of the present drilling technology/cost to point out the research trend of the drilling technology as substitute for the present one, possibilities of the introduction, and the R and D target and subjects. As to latest drilling systems abroad and in Japan, the following were surveyed to study and extract promising technologies and systems: improvement/application of drilling equipment/materials (enhancement of heat resistance of the main drilling equipment, etc., cooling effects of top drive, heat resistance verification of MWD tools, PDM, tricone bits, multi-stage cementing tools, etc.), heightening of drilling rates, trend surveys of slim hole drilling, control drilling, well maintenance/workover, and well design technology. 68 refs., 73 figs., 40 tabs.

  14. Wind energy technology : from the past to the future; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no henkan. Furyoku hatsuden : kako kara mirai e

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)


    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20{sup th} century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  15. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Survey on the commercialization on analysis; Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports the survey results on analysis of super-high efficiency solar cells for practical use in fiscal 1994. (1) On the survey on crystalline compound solar cells, it was pointed out that the present study target is III-V compound semiconductor solar cell, and efficiencies of 36-39% are theoretically expected by use of two-junction cells. (2) On structure of super-high efficiency solar cells of 40%, selection of upper and lower cell materials for multi-junction cells, high-efficiency tandem Si solar cells, and the merit and possibility of light collection operation were surveyed, and their issues were discussed. (3) On physical properties of mixed crystalline semiconductors and characteristic evaluation of solar cells, impurities, trap center, minority carrier life, and applicability of supper lattice structure to high-efficiency solar cells were surveyed. (4) On fabrication technology of compound semiconductor solar cells, various problems of and approaches to electrode formation and antireflection film technologies, the meaning and issues of thin film substrate technology and continuous process, trial calculation of costs, safety, and resource problem were surveyed.

  16. Fiscal 1999 research report on long-term energy technology strategy. Basic research on industrial technology strategy (Individual technology strategy). Electronic information technology field (Human process ware field for computers); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chsao hokokusho. Sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa (bun'yabetsu gijutsu senryaku) denshi joho gijutsu bun'ya (computer kanren bun'ya no uchi, human process wear bun'ya)



    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 basic research result on industrial technology strategy of a human process ware (HPW) field on electronic information. Although the current HPW industry is not yet complete, various technologies concerned are being stored, and the HPW industry is expected as new major industry for home and personal information equipment. As factors hindering technological innovation in Japan, the incomplete market, poor cooperation between industry and government, ambiguous role of university, and poor standardization were pointed out. Technology trends were analyzed to extract seed technology fields from 3 viewpoints of mobile HPW available at any time, at any place and to anybody, HPW system capable of customizing every personal use, and HPW supporting development of a creativity. As general strategy, the technology seed chart and map of technical development targets for every HPW were prepared to conceive a route to practical use, and develop element technologies required for practical use, based on the future trend of the market. (NEDO)

  17. The exchange bias effect in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles

    Kou, Angela; Feygenson, Mikhail; Kreno, Lauren; Patete, Jonathan; Tiano, Amanda; Zhang, Fen; Wong, Stanislaus; Aronson, Meigan


    We used magnetic measurements, X-ray diffraction, and HRTEM to study the exchange bias field in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles made by a modified wet chemistry method. We oxidized re-dispersed powders of bare Ni nanoparticles in air at 400^oC and 900^oC. HRTEM showed that annealing at 900^oC of bare Ni nanoparticles led to the formation of exceptionally high quality NiO nanoparticles, resembling perfect bulk-like crystalline order. To our knowledge, there are no reports of NiO particles of such quality in the literature. The loop shift was 1000 Oe at 300K for the NiO nanoparticles, while it was only 120 Oe at 10K for the Ni/NiO nanoparticles. The difference is explained by the different origins of the loop shift in Ni/NiO and NiO nanoparticles. In Ni/NiO nanoparticles, the loop shift is associated with exchange interactions between ferromagnetic Ni and antiferromagnetic NiO. In NiO nanoparticles, however, the origin of the shift is an uneven number of ferromagnetic sublattices present in NiO nanoparticles, which interact differently with an applied magnetic field (Kodama, 1999).

  18. Suppression of inducer stall based on inlet recirculation in a centrifugal impeller. 1st Report. Improvement in stall limit by ring groove arrangement; Enshin haneguruma iriguchi junkanryu ni yoru inducer shissoku no yokusei. 1. kanjoko ni yoru shissoku genkai no kaizen

    Ueki, H.; Ishida, M.; Sakaguchi, D.; Sun, Z. [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A ring groove arrangement is proposed to suppress unstable flow or surge in a centrifugal blower. The ring groove arrangement connects the upstream position of impeller inlet and the inducer throat tip through a bypass. The recirculation flow 'vas formed by the pressure difference between the two positions, and the recirculation flow rate was changed by increasing the ring groove widths. The inlet recirculation results in a decrease in the flow rate of unstable flow inception, and an up to 800 improvement in stall limit was obtained by the ring groove arrangement at a small expense of the delivery pressure drop. The improvement of stall limit in the present experiment seems to be mainly due to decrease in flow incidence based on the inlet recirculation flow. Tre flow incidence decreases more as the recirculation flow rate increases, thus resulting in a larger improvement in stall limit. (author)

  19. Developments of DPF systems with mesh laminated structures. Performances of DPF systems which consist of the metal-mesh laminated filter combustion with the alumina-fiber mesh, and the combustion device of trapped diesel particles; Mesh taso kozo no DPF no kaihatsu. Kinzokusen to arumina sen`i mesh ni yoru fukugo filter to filter heiyo heater ni yoru DPF no seino

    Kojima, T.; Tange, A.; Matsuda, K. [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)


    For the purpose of continuous run without any maintenance, new DPF (diesel particulate filter)systems laminated by both metal-wire mesh and alumina-fiber mesh alternately, are under the developments. The perfect combustion of trapped diesel particulate can be achieved by a couple of the resistance heating devices inserted into the filter. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Investigation of the near-field structure of jet diffusion flames by the laser sheet method. 2nd Report. Mechanism of flame stabilization by speaker excitation; Laser sheet ho ni yoru funryu kakusan kaen no kibu kozo no kaimei. 2. Speaker kashin ni yoru kaen anteika no mechanism

    Noda, S.; Kamitakahara, Y.; Onoreda, K.; Onuma, Y. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kamiya, S. [Yokogawa Analytical Systems Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    The near-field structure of jet diffusion flames excited by a speaker has been investigated to make clear the mechanism of flame stabilization obtained by the excitation. Vortices in flames induced by the excitation were visualized using laser sheet method. The acoustic excitation lifts flames off under the stretch of large scale vortices, but the higher frequency excitation leads reattachment of lifted flames. This phenomenon has been reproduced by the numerical approach under the axisymmetric assumption. Consequently, the vortex push mechanism of flame propagation caused by small-scale vortex rings has been clarified. Moreover, the laser sheet visualization unveiled azimuthal structures attributed to streamwise vortices. Roles of baloclinic torque and pressure pushes related to the azimuthal structure have been also discussed. 32 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)


    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  2. `Research and Development of Technology for Controlling the Structure of Multiple-Function Component,` local research and development of important technology for fiscal 1997. 2. Technological development of advanced surface treatment for methane-powered aircraft engine components (Laser-aided advanced treatment system (technology)); 1997 nendo juyo chiiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu `fukugo kino buzai kozo seigyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu`. 2. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu (laser oyo senshin kako system gijutsu)



    Surface reforming technologies, such as laser-aided Ti alloying, are studied for developing erosion-resistant materials for the fore section of a methane-fueled aircraft engine. In the formation of intermetallic compound film, the laser plasma hybrid spraying is applied for the formation of a film which is 100-400 times higher than Ti6Al4V in terms of resistance to erosion. For the quantitative evaluation of bond strength, a boundary shear testing jig is built. When the laser irradiating conditions are optimized, the boundary shear strength is elevated to 150-230MPa. NiAl film is studied for realizing resistance to high-temperature oxidation, and then a perfect NiAl film is obtained, which is done by use of a mechanical alloying powder mixed on the atomic level. In the manufacture of ceramic cermet film, a powder is studied, in which powder SiC and Al2O3, excellent in high-temperature oxidation characteristics and fracture toughness, are the parent materials which are coated by NiCr. It is found that an excellent oxidation-resistant film will be manufactured by use of this powder. 40 refs., 132 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Development of ELID mirror surface grinding by cast iron bond grinding wheel. Ohkochi memorial technology prize; Chutetsu bond toishi ni yoru denkai inpurosesu doresshingu (ELID) kyomen kensakuho no kaihatsu. Okochi kinen gijutsusho jusho ni yosete

    Omori, H.; Takahashi, I. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Hagiuda, Y.; Karikome, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)


    Development was accomplished on the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) mirror surface grinding process using a cast iron bonded grinding wheel. This paper describes the history of the development, which may be summarized as follows: a study was begun on powder forging of cutting chips in 1970; a research was started on powder forging of decarburized cast iron powder; developments were made on powder metallurgy of cast irons and cast iron bonded lapping tools in 1980, and cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheels were put on the market; a high-efficiency grinding process using MC and cast iron fiber-bonded grinding wheels were developed in 1985 and the grinding wheels made therefrom were put on the market; and a study was begun on the ELID grinding in 1987, and marketing was started on power supply, grinding liquid and tools for the ELID grinding process in 1990. Discussions on converting raw materials for the powder forging into cutting chips have triggered developing the cast iron bonded grinding wheel. The cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheel improves dressability and sharpness of conventional grinding wheels. The grinding wheel is fabricated by mixing carbonyl iron powder, diamond grinding grains and cast iron powder, pressing the mixture in a die, sintering it at 1140 degC, and assembling and dressing the sinter. The grinding stone can grind high-tech materials. 4 figs.

  4. Prediction method for VC-value of roller compacted dam concrete using neural network; Neural network ni yoru RCD yo concrete no VC chi no suitei shuho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Yasuda, N.; Tsutsumi, T.; Sekine, Y.; Akamatsu, H. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Matsushima, M. [Tokyo Electric Power Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The applicability of a neural network was investigated to predict the quality management item (i.e., VC-value) of roller compacted dam (RCD) concrete. In this study, the aggregate amount, binding agent amount, input water amount, water amount on the fine aggregate surface, aggregate specific gravity, water absorption percentage, and power consumption during mixing were set as an input value to construct the neural network according to the result of the mixing test made in an actual plant during test construction. Moreover, the real-time VC-value in an actual plant was predicted. As a result, the conclusion below was given. The VC-value could be predicted in higher precision by adding the moisture percentage measurement data on the fine aggregate surface as well as mixing conditions and power consumption to the input items. The prediction system for a VC-value of RCD concrete using a neural network has a precision of about 5 sec. Considering that the conventional management standard of a VC test made by the test examiner is 20 {+-} 10 sec, the precision is high sufficiently. 20 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Condensation heat transfer on finned tubes with radial ridges on the fin surfaces. 2nd Report. ; Theoretical study. Hankei hoko ni tokki wo motsu shuhoko fin ni yoru gyoshuku netsu dentatsu sokushin. 2. ; Rironteki kenkyu

    Hijikata, K.; Nakabeppu, O. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Wang, P.


    A model of finned tubes is developed to predict condensation performance of R-tubes with radial ridges circumferential fin surfaces. Results predicted by this model make an accurate explanation of experimental data, and the condensation mechanism of R-tubes and freon {prime} s condensation heat transfer to R-tubes are predicted by the model R-tubes have high condensation heat transfer coefficients because the ridges on the fin surfaces of the R-tube extend the thin condensate film area and also promote convective heat transfer in the film. In condensation of high performance finned tubes, load values like local temperature differences, local heat flux, local heat transfer coefficient change circumferentially. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this change using theoretical models. 17 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 3. Removal of organic solvents by catalytic oxidation method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 3. Shokubai sankaho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper summarizes circumstances of a catalytic oxidation type deodorizing experiment and a demonstration test on exhaust gas discharged actually from a print shop. The catalytic oxidation method is a method to burn the odor constituents, which are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene, at temperatures of 200 to 300 degC. Space velocity was used as a parameter, and two kinds of platinum systems and two kinds of manganese + copper systems were used as catalysts. Elucidation was made on the space velocity and removal efficiency, removal efficiency of each catalyst, unreacted decomposition originated constituents at low temperatures (150 to 180 degC), and efficiency of each catalyst to remove each constituent. The result revealed that nearly 100% removal is possible at a space velocity of 33000 hr {sup -1} when the platinum-based catalyst and the manganese + copper based catalyst (both in pellet form) are combined. It was also found that the combination is advantageous in terms of cost. A demonstration test was performed at a new factory. Under a condition of combination of the above catalysts at 1:1 ratio, the space velocity of 30000 hr {sup -1}, and gas temperature at catalyst layer inlet of 200 degC, the removal efficiency was 97.9% to 98.7%, which clears the exhaust regulation value specified by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Average concentration in the working environment was 120.9 ppm, which cleared the maximum permissible concentration. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 1. Removal of organic solvents by activated carbon adsorption method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 1. Kasseitan kyuchakuho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper describes the state of discharge of organic solvents from a print shop and a deodorizing experiment using a deodorizing equipment of activated carbon adsorption type of a bench test scale. The subject existing print shop has a working space volume of 2000 m{sup 3} and total air exhaust volume of 32000 m{sup 3} per hour. The identified main solvents are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene. Solvent exhaust concentration at a duct was more than two times greater than the exhaust regulation value. The experiment was performed by using an equipment having an adsorption tower filled with activated carbons of particle form and pellet form made from coconut shell respectively. The gas concentration at an inlet to the deodorizing equipment was 394 ppm as the total concentration, exceeding the exhaust regulation value of 200 ppm. It was verified that the activated adsorption process has high removal effect. The break-through time which expresses life of activated carbon was 38 hours for the particle-formed carbon and 29 hours for the pellet-formed carbon when the total outlet gas concentration was set to 10 ppm. If the adsorption continues after the break-through time has been reached, a displacement phenomenon (displacement among constituents due to selective adsorption) can occur. The required length of the adsorption belt was derived. It was verified that the activated carbons can be regenerated and re-used. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1999 research result report. Research on improvement of boiling heat transfer characteristics by photocatalyst wall; 1999 nendo hikari shokubai hekimen ni yoru futto netsu dentatsu tokusei kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho



    Research was made on improvement of the wettability and boiling heat transfer characteristics of a photocatalyst wall. Measurement experiment of the wettability was made for anatase type titan oxide-coated Al, SUS and Pb plates, rutil type titan oxide-flame coated SUS plate, raw plate, and oxide-plasma coated titan plate. In the ground experiment, the contact angles of distilled water and oil on specimen surfaces were measured. In the microgravity experiment, falling droplet images were recorded by using the facility of Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). For obtaining the effect of radioactive emission, UV irradiation, {gamma} ray and neutron beam irradiation by nuclear reactor, and {gamma} ray irradiation by Co-60 were carried out. As the experiment result, the rutil type titan oxide-flame coated SUS plate, nonconductor-coated titan plate, and zircaloy plate showed large improvement of the wettability by {gamma} ray irradiation with Co-60. It was also confirmed that in particular, titan shows the large effect of radioactive emission, and the wettability deteriorates rapidly after {gamma} ray irradiation. (NEDO)

  9. Relation between front suspension layout and handling performance. Analysis depending on the Taguchi method and ADAMS; Front suspension layout to soda tokusei no kankei ni tsuite. Kiko kaiseki gengo wo mochiita hinshitsu kogaku ni yoru kaiseki

    Okada, K. [Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    A variation of suspension layout gives an influence to the vehicle dynamics. Examined the suspension layout variation to make the handling performance change small. Analyzed the effect of suspension layout variation about steering response delay and gain besides the tire wear effect and movable load. 3 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. FY1998 report on a survey related to joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network; 1998 nendo kokusai network ni yoru fukushi kiki kaihatsu data no kyodo riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho



    A survey was made in relation with joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network. Developing welfare devices requires data from ergonomic and medical systems, while the cope of the objects is wide, and the kinds are various. For proliferation of welfare devices, system compatibility evaluation including that on using environment is important, including living environments that are different by countries. The present survey has identified how data for aged, handicapped and help-needing persons are accumulated and utilized in research organizations in America and Europe for both of the ergonomic and medical areas. The survey also investigated major academic societies in overseas countries, and collected database and academic network information that support the advanced research and development. At the same time, investigations were also made on organizations and corporations who are moving forward the efficient data utilization. Welfare device and service information providing systems in Japan were investigated to compare them with the trends in other countries. Conceptions and methods were compiled to utilize data internationally and jointly. Database models for device development were considered, and a proposal was made on structuring a research and development supporting database, and the operation method thereof. (NEDO)

  11. Combustion characteristics of spark ignition and pilot flame ignition systems in a stratified charge Wankel type rotary engine; Sojo kyuki bankerugata rotary kikan ni okeru spark plug tenka to pilot kaen tenka ni yoru nensho tokusei

    Song, Y.; Moriyoshi, Y.; Wada, Y. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Muroki, T. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)


    A pilot flame ignition system, which has superior characteristics in the high ignition energy and the large flame contact area to a conventional spark ignition system, is experimentally examined by the indicated pressure analysis and the high speed direct photography. A model combustion chamber, which simulates a Wankel-type direct injection stratified charge rotary engine, was employed to test the ignition performance of both the pilot flame ignition and spark ignition systems. As a result, it was found that the pilot flame system successfully ignites the very lean charge stratified mixture which the spark system fails to ignite and that the combustion characteristic difference using different ignition systems becomes small as the overall equivalence ratio is increased. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Investigation on the dynamic response and strength of very long floating structures by beam modeling on an elastic foundation; Dansei shishojo no hari model ni yoru chodai futai kozo no doteki tawami kyodo tokusei ni kansuru kosatsu

    Tsubogo, T.; Okada, H. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A very large floating structure was replaced with the beam on an elastic foundation to examine the response characteristics in waves. Another evidence was regularly and numerically given for the basic characteristics of a very large floating body Suzuki found. New information was also obtained. The frequency response is mainly classified into a wave number control area and proper frequency control area when buoyancy elasticity exists. When the buoyancy structure is long and flexible, the proper frequency becomes continuous and the frequency control area becomes a resonance area. In the wave number control area, the Suzuki`s characteristic wave number becomes a control parameter, and various characteristic values are indicated by characteristic wave numbers. The response in the wave number control area becomes quasi-static when the distribution mass of buoyancy is fully small. The design in which the distribution mass of buoyancy is fully large must be avoided. In the displacement amplitude, the mass on the free end is severest. The proper frequency of vertical vibration relatively moves to the high-frequency side when buoyancy is considered as an elastic foundation. Attention must be thus paid to the proper frequency of vibration on the horizontal surface. 9 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Fundamental study on stabilizing control method for electric power system using distributed circuit model; Bunpu teisu kairo moderu ni yoru denryoku keito doyo mogi to anteika seigyo ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Hamada, A.; Kawasaki, K. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Takigawa, K. [Shikoku Reserch Institute Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Ariyoshi, H. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan)


    To grasp the electric power system disturbance, the detailed simulation model of the electric power system is applied, however, it is not so easy to grasp the disturbance characteristics of a large scale electric power system in the broader aspects. On the other hand, from a shut down test of generator and electric load in the electric power system, it is well known that the power disturbance is transmitted from the test point to the other points with constant delay time. The phenomena shows that the electric power system has a similar dynamic characteristic to the distributed constant circuit. In this paper, the electric power system is expressed with the distributed constant circuit so that the main disturbance characteristics are obtained without difficulty. Moreover, the possibility of suppressing the disturbance is discussed by employing active sink method, and distributed constant circuit model and lumped constant circuit model are compared with the viewpoint of eigenvalue and its propriety is showed. Further, as an example, active sink method, the effectiveness of distributed constant model in the suppressing control of electric power system disturbance, is showed. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Baseline experiment of interferometric PGS at the EDM network in the south Kanto area, Japan. GPS kansho sokuiho ni yoru kisen sokuryo no kiso jikken (Minamikanto koha sokuryomo ni okeru hikaku kansoku)

    Kato, T.; Murata, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Hirata, Y.; Takahashi, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute); Tsuchiya, A. (National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)); Watada, S. (California Institute of Technology, California (USA)); Iga, A. (Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The first field baseline observation using SONY GTT-4000, a GPS (Global Positioning System) interferometer was conducted at the EDM (Electromagnetic Distance Measurements) network of the Earthquake Research Institute in the southern Kanto Area, Japan. For the experiments, three GTT-4000 receivers of single frequency version were deployed at three sites which compose a triangle with side distances of about 8km, 12km, and 14km. The present paper introduces the receiver briefly, and the distances obtained by this receiver are compared with those obtained by the EDM observations. Consequently, it was shown that the results by GTT-4000 coincided well with those by EDM with less than 2ppm of accuracy. It was also shown that misclosures of the triangle which was obtained by the relative coordinate estimates were smaller than 1ppm. Furthermore, it was revealed that due to introduction of upgraded dual frequency capability, the receiver can reduce the effect of the ionospheric path delays. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Measurements of fiber orientation in two-dimensional fiber suspension flow using image-processing method; Gazo shoriho ni yoru sen`i gan`yutai no nijigen nagare ni okeru sen`i haiko no sokutei

    Chono, S.; Tanoue, S.; Iemoto, Y. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Orientation profiles of fibers in fiber suspension flow between two parallel plates with a square cylinder on the center axis was studied by using the computer image analysis. The orientational order parameter S decreases near the square cylinder because the flow changes its direction and also a wake is developed, while it is large near the channel wall owing to high shear deformation. The preferred angle and S decrease in the downstream vicinity of the square cylinder, and reach fully-developed values at a farther area. S along the channel center axis increases with increasing a fiber concentration and the Reynolds number. The size of a square cylinder has an effect on the fiber orientation near the cylinder. Since a stagnation region and a large wake are developed before and after a cylinder for a viscoelastic fluid, a lower value of S near the cylinder is obtained for the viscoelastic fluid compared to that for a Newtonian fluid. At a downstream area, however, the viscoelastic fluid gives a higher values of S. 21 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Estimation of subsurface structures in a Minami Noshiro 3D seismic survey region by seismic-array observations of microtremors; Minami Noshiro sanjigen jishin tansa kuikinai no hyoso kozo ni tsuite. Bido no array kansoku ni yoru suitei

    Okada, H.; Ling, S.; Ishikawa, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tsuburaya, Y.; Minegishi, M. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Japan National Oil Corporation Technology Research Center has carried out experiments on the three-dimensional seismic survey method which is regarded as an effective means for petroleum exploration. The experiments were conducted at the Minami Noshiro area in Akita Prefecture. Seismometer arrays were developed in radii of 30 to 300 m at seven points in the three-dimensional seismic exploration region to observe microtremors. The purpose is to estimate S-wave velocities from the ground surface to the foundation by using surface waves included in microtremors. Estimation of the surface bed structure is also included in the purpose since this is indispensable in seismic exploration using the reflection method. This paper reports results of the microtremor observations and the estimation on S-wave velocities (microtremor exploration). One or two kinds of arrays with different sizes composed of seven observation points per area were developed to observe microtremors independently. The important point in the result obtained in the present experiments is that a low velocity bed suggesting existence of faults was estimated. It will be necessary to repeat experiments and observations in the future to verify whether this microtremor exploration method has that much of exploration capability. For the time being, however, interest is addressed to considerations on comparison with the result of 3D experiments using the reflection method. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Decomposition of yallourn coal by microwave plasma. Effect of Plasma source on the product distribution; Maikuroha purazuma ni yoru yarun tan no tenkan hanno. Purazumagasu shu ga seiseibutsu bunpu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Kamei, Osamu; Marushima, Wataru; Kobayashi, Motoki; Onoe, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Tatsuaki [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan). Department of Industrial Chemistry; Kawai, Satoshi; Ito, Yoichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This report described the experiments that used plasma reaction between plasma source gases and brown coal (Yallourn). The properties of the products were influenced by changes of the experimental conditions. The reaction experiments were carried out with 2.45 GHz microwave plasma by using hydrogen, helium and argon systems. Ratios of coal conversion (X{sub c}) were as follows; X{sub c} (H{sub 2}) was 33.2%, X{sub c} (He) was 13.7%, and X{sub c} (Ar) was 24.8% at reaction time 1 minute. No practical difference was detected after 3 minutes. Yields of benzene soluble oily fractions (Y{sub oil}) were as follows; Y{sub oil} (H{sub 2}) was 6.0%, Y{sub oil} (He) was 3.4% and Y{sub oil} (Ar) was 8.7% at 1 minute, while at 3 minutes Y{sub oil} (H{sub 2}) was 4.9%, Y{sub oil} (He) was 4.1% and Y{sub oil} (Ar) was 7.7%. In addition at 1 minute, no difference of molecular weight distribution measured by MALDI-TOFMS spectra and GC was observed, while the polymerization of oily products under argon or hydrogen system was occurred after 3 minutes. Yields of gaseous components (Y{sub gas}) were as follows; Y{sub gas} (H{sub 2}) was 48.1%, Y{sub gas} (He) was 50.9% and Y{sub gas} (Ar) was 46.6% at 3 minutes. Typical patterns of time change in molar fraction of gaseous components by GC were shown on each plasma source gas. (author)

  18. Fast convergence ambiguity resolution on-the-fly for dual frequency GPS receivers and the flight evaluation; Nishuha GPS jushinki ni taisuru kosokuka OTF ( On-the-Fly ) arugorizumu to hiko jikken ni yoru hyoka

    Tsujii, T.; Murata, M.; Harigae, M. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)


    Recently, GPS has been used widely in airlines and space vehicles along with the land and sea as a simple, precise and cheap navigation method and positioning system. Normally, they use observed data of GPS called pseudorange. On the other hand, highly precise positioning by phase interference method using carrier phase data has been used for observing crustal deformation in the field of geodetic survey. This phase interference method can also be applied to the precise positioning (kinematic GPS) of movable body. Ambiguity (integer bias) in the carrier phase has to be solved in order to realize the kinematic GPS. Recently, analysis algorithm called Ambiguity Resolution On-The-Fly (OTF) has been studied rapidly and high speed solution of ambiguity while moving is going to be possible. In this report, firstly, this algorithm is described and secondly, evaluation results using real flight test data are reported. 9 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Softening and hardening by. gamma. yields. epsilon. martensitic transformation during deformation in high Mn steels. Ko Mn tetsu gokin ni okeru. gamma. yields. epsilon. martensite hentai ni yoru nanka to koka

    Tomota, Y.; Ryufuku, S.; Piao, M. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    In high Mn steel, martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon occurs under the ordinary pressure. Its application comprises utilization of its configuration memory properties and high work hardening characteristics. The present report studied, by using Fe-Mn type alloy, added with Si or Co, the influence of martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon on the deformation behavior. Tensile test, 2mm/min in speed, being made on molten/cast alloy ingot, thermally treated as specified, epsilon was quantitatively analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The above test/analysis pointed out many notes in result and knowledge, as follows among others: The addition with Si or Co, lowering the Neel temperature, quantitatively increases the epsilon martensite, produced by the processing. The produced quantity of epsilon martensite in case of addition with Si is small, as compared with that in case of two-element Fe-Mn type alloy without addition and in case of addition with Co. All the tested alloys give the softening phenomenon by the martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon. The pre-existing epsilon plate is a strong barrier for the further plastic flow, which accordingly accelerates the work hardening. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Study of promotion of CO2 fixation by the environmental improvement in the coral reef area; Kansho chitai ni okeru kankyo kaizen ni yoru CO2 kotei sokushin no kenkyu

    Maruoka, T.; Ishitani, H.; Matsuhashi, R.; Yamada, K.; Komiyama, H.; Kraines, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A study was conducted on how to fix CO2 in the ocean using coral reefs. Coral reefs have extremely high primary productivity ( production quantity of organic matters by photosynthesis) and are expected to be resources to fix CO2 when the quantity of photosynthesis exceeds the quantity of CO2 emitted in association with formation of calcium carbonate skeleton. If organic substances produced in coral reefs are well carried into the open sea, those are settled down on deep beds, which enables the storage into the ocean. At the coral reef floating in the ocean, it is not very deep inside and the seawater stays there, but it has a steep depth outside. By the numerical calculation, an examination was made on how the waterflow changes when making the flow path of seawater between the inland sea and open sea. From the actual calculation of an atoll, it was found that seawater comes in and out from the open sea to the inland sea near the opening of the atoll in accordance with the high tide and ebb tide, but the water stays at the deep bottom of the atoll. When installing a channel with a 10m depth at the portion where the water flows softly, the seawater was actively exchanged. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Impingement of a radial jet with an annular jet. 3rd Report. Curved properties of main jet with pressure field; Hoshajo funryu to kanjo funryu no shototsu ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Atsuryokuba ni yoru shufunryu no wankyoku tokusei

    Tanaka, T.; Kozato, Y.; Tanaka, E. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kariya, M. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Annular jets (control flows) flowing out from a columnar nozzle and a concentrically circular annular nozzle were impinged perpendicularly to a main jet flowing radially from the columnar nozzle. Then, an investigation was given on pressure in a recirculation flow region, bending of the main jet, and reattachment characteristics of the main jet onto a side wall face when the deflection of the main jet and its reattachment phenomenon onto the side wall face are controlled. The experiment was performed under the conditions of a nozzle width of 6 mm, an inter-nozzle distance of 4, a control flow rate (a ratio of a flow-out rate of the control flow to that of the main jet) from 0 to 0.6, with the step height varied. Investigations were made on change of static pressure distribution in jets in the downstream direction, change of static pressure on the side wall face in the downstream direction, and the relationship between the reattachment position on the side wall and the average static pressure in the recirculation flow region. The relationship of the reattachment position of the main jet on the side wall with the average side wall static pressure and the average static pressure in the recirculation flow region is expressed by one curve. The reattachment position gets closer to the nozzle outlet as the pressure decreases in the recirculation flow region. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  2. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Yago, K.; Endo, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Pretreatment of fermentation feed for lactic acid production. Liquefaction of potato starch in lactic acid solution; Nyusan hakko genryo no maeshori ni kansuru kenkyu. Nyusan ni yoru bareisho denpunshitsu no ekika

    Morita, M.; Yokota, Y. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)


    The liquefaction of potato starchy catalyzed by lactic acid produced in a fermentation process, was carried out as a means for pretreating lactic acid fermentation feed. Liquefaction yield and molecular weight distribution of liquefied starch fractions were largely dependent on pH values of solution. The feed was effectively liquefied in lactic acid solution, of which pH value was less than 3.5, under sterilization conditions of 388 K and 30 min. Starch in potato or its waste was also hydrolyzed into smaller molecular weight fractions, compared to soluble starch commercially available. The potato starch liquefaction proposed is considered to be a useful method for pretreatment of lactic acid fermentation feed. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Survey of oven during dry distillation by quenching coke oven. Part 3. ; Consideration concerning density distribution in coke mass. Cokes ro kyurei ni yoru kanryu tochu ronai chosa. Dai sanpo. ; Cokes kainai no mitsudo bunpu ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Nishimura, M.; Asada, S.; Kamimura, N. (The Kansai Coke and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))


    Recently, in order to probe the coal carbonization mechanism, many companies are carrying out surveys of the inside of an oven by quenching the same which is in dry distillation by employing an actual oven or a test one, and the following are reported; the dry distillating progress are varied at respective positions inside the oven, the portion where dry distillation is greatly delayed is caused by virtue of the action of steam generated from the non-distillated coal layer existing near the coal core rather than the plastic layer, and so forth. The writer and others have already reported that, from the results of the quenching tests carried on actual ovens, the existence of variation of dry distillation, the state of uncarbonized part of coal, the existence of temperature distribution inside coal mass showing that steam was gushing toward the wall of the oven, making it clear that steam generated from the coal layer has great effect on the progress of dry distillation. This paper gives a consideration on the relationship between the pressure exerted on the resetting surface of the plastic substance and the flow of steam inside the oven based on the densness distribution in coal mass. 7refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Absorption and release of lanthanoid lons during the germination and growing period of radish in culture solution; Suiko saibaiho ni yoru kaiwaredaikon no hatsuga {center_dot} seichoji ni okeru rantanoido ion no kyushu, hoshutsu oyobi kakubui eno chikuseki

    Fujino, O.; Katsube, H. [Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan). Research Inst. for Science and Tech.


    The radish (Kaiware daikon) was grown in the culture solution containing lanthanoid ions at 20 degree C. The absorption and release behavior of hydrogen, potassium and lanthanoid ions were examined during the germination and growing period of the radish. During the germination period (ca. 30 h) from the seed in the culture solution of pH 5 at 20 degree C, the concentration of potassium in increased, and hydrogen and lanthanoid ions decreased. On the other hand, in the growing period (ca. 1 week), almost all potassium ion which liberated from the seed to the culture solution in the germination period was absorbed to the radish, and hydrogen and lanthanoid ions were released to the solution. The correlation coefficients of correlation between the concentration of potassium and lanthanoid ions were -0.96- -0.99, -0.77- -1.0 in the germination and growing period, respectively, and a good negative correlation was observed between them. Furthermore, it was examined about the influence of the concentration of lanthanoid ions and the accumulation. As for the lower concentration than 1 ppm, it did not have an influence at all against the germination of radish and the growth. And these ions showed that it was often accumulated in comparison with the stem and the leaf of by a root. On the other hand, at concentration higher than 3 ppm of lanthanoid ions in the culture solution the radish germinated poorly and did not completely mature. When the concentration of lanthanoid ions were more than 10 ppm, a seed germinated a little, but did not grow at all. From the above results, the positive effect of the lanthanoid ions on the growth of radish could not be admitted. (author)

  6. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Yago, K.; Endo, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis on effect of steel fiber addition on corrosion of steel rod in mortar; Morutaruchu no tekkin no fushoku ni oyobosu suchiru fuaiba tenka no eikyo no denki kagaku inpidansu supekutorosukopi ni yoru kaiseki

    Sakashita, S.; Nakayama, T.; Hamasaki, Y.; Sugii, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Sugimoto, K. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Department of Metallurgy


    The effect of steel fiber (SF) addition to concrete on the corrosion behavior of steel reinforcement was studied by immersion corrosion tests in a 3 mass % NaCl solution for 363 day. The tests were conducted on steel rod/mortar specimens with different SF content (0-2 vol %), and corrosion potentials and electrochemical impedance of the specimens were measured during the tests. Corrosion potentials of the specimens were not so changed by the SF content. Electrochemical impedance measured at corrosion potentials was analyzed to get charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) using an equivalent electrical circuit with the R{sub ct}, Warburg impedance and a constant-phase element. The corrosion rate of steel rod in mortar estimated from the reciprocal of the R{sub ct} decreased with increasing of SF content in mortar, and correlated well with the rust area of steel rod measured after immersion corrosion tests. This shows that the electrochemical impedance measurement is the useful diagnosis method of corrosion of steel in concrete. The corrosion inhibition of steel rod in mortar by the SF addition was thought to be attributed to the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the corrosion of SF in mortar. (author)

  8. Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash; Sekitanbai wo riyoshita FGC shinso kongo shori koho ni yoru kairyodo no kogakuteki seishitsu to kongo no tenbo ni tsuite

    Watanabe, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Azuma, K.; Watanabe, M. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Japan currently produces about six million tons of coal ash annually, whose effective bulk utilization to earth engineering materials is an important issue of technological development. A slurry may be made by mixing the following three kinds of materials: fly ash discharged from power plants exclusively burning dust coal (F), gypsum generated as a by-product in a stack gas desulfurizing process (G), and commercially available cement (C). The slurry would be called an FGC slurry taking the first letters of the materials. This paper presents the results of laboratory tests, in-situ execution tests and centrifuge model testing on engineering characteristics of soils improved by the FGC slurry when the slurry is applied to implementing the deep mixing method. As a result, a large number of findings were obtained including the following matters: the FGC deep mixing method makes it possible to improve ground beds having small deformation coefficient with the same accuracy as in the cement-based deep mixing (CDM) method at strengths lower than 5 kg/cm {sup 2} which is difficult with the CDM method, not to speak of strengths equivalent to that is possible with the normal CDM method; and development of a ground bed with improved strength is possible without being governed by quality and kinds of the fly ash. 1 ref., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 8. Study on periodic steady state of the annual cycle energy system at a practical operation; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 8

    Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)


    A study was made of the periodic steady state of the annual cycle solar energy system with seasonal heat storage at a practical operation. Cold heat in winter and warm heat in summer are stored in the seasonal storage tank, and these are each used in shift until when demand for cold/warm heat appears. Moreover, gap in quantity of cold/warm heat going in/out of the heat storage tank during a year is filled by natural energy such as solar energy, so that the system can be operated in annual cycles. Studies were conducted of the periodic unsteady term and the problem on lowering of performance during the term such as the periodic unsteady term of water temperature inside the seasonal heat storage tank and temperature of the soil around the storage tank, and the level of lowering of performance during the term, necessity of additional operation/control at the start of operation and aged deterioration of the system. Within the assumption, even if starting operation in any time of the year, the system could show the performance almost expected from the first operation year with no additional system operation and control required only at the start of operation. It is thought that the heat source selection control of heat pump largely contributes to this. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Improvement of sound qualities using simulated car interior noise. Part 2. ; Estimation by semantic differentials. Jinko AM on wo mochiita joyosha shanaion no onshitsu kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. ; SD ho ni yoru onshitsu hyoka

    Hashimoto, T.; Hatano, S. (Seikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Takao, H. (Maruyasu Industries Ltd., Aichi (Japan))


    In the present report, a method to quantitatively evaluate the roughness was proposed by using artificially prepared sound and multi-dimensionally investigating the influence of roughness, as felt, generated from amplitude-modulated sound components, on the sound quality. While evaluation method was also studied of loudness of sound, having many vectorial components in the low region, like that, used in the present experiment. The existence of amplitude-modulated sound components in the complex sound is connected to subjective feeling of uncomfort. Even without change in physical sound energy, the roughness can be lowered if amplitude-modulated sounds in two band zones are made antiphasic in phase to be synthesized. In order to measure, with a good correspondence to the loudness, complicated sound, like that, inside the car, in sound pressure level, simulation head is effectively utilized. As a physical quantity, good in correspondence to the roughness, as felt, of timewise fluctuant sound, the total of components, read in value, is so regarded in 5 to 50Hz upon a 1/3 octave analysis of effective sound pressure in timewise fluctuant component. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Computation accuracy of flow conditions around a very large floating structure using a multi-layer model. Comparison with experimental results; Taso model ni yoru choogata futai mawari no ryukyo keisan seido ni tsuite. Jikken tono hikaku

    Kyotsuka, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Omori, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Kobayashi, M. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    As one of the environmental problems in sea areas surrounding a very large floating structure (VLFS), change in flow condition is important, and it is one of the factors dominating the prediction of succeeding diffusion and ecosystems. Although a multi-layer model is in wide use for computation of flow condition and diffusion in one inner bay, its applicability should be reexamined because of no consideration of VLFSs. In this study, flow velocity profiles around a barge were then measured through the towing test of a barge in shallow water, and compared with computation results using a multi-layer model. The multi-layer model computed the flow velocity profiles by dividing the flow region to be computed into normal one and that under VLFS, and determined pressures under VLFS by 2-D Poisson`s equation. Slip condition was used as boundary condition at the bottom considering the number of layers under VLFS. Further numerical computation was conducted by 2-D MAC method, in particular, to compare flow around the wake of VLFS with experimental one. Both computation results well agreed with experimental one. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Estimation of shallow ground structure using short-period microtremors array observation. Results in Morioka area; Tanshuki bido no array kansoku ni yoru senbu chika kozo no suitei. Moriokashiiki ni okeru kekka

    Yamamoto, H.; Obuchi, T.; Saito, T.; Iwamoto, K. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yoshida, Y. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The velocity structure in the shallow ground structure was evaluated by observing microtremors of 1-10Hz in the Morioka City area. Plural wave sections free of vehicle noises or the like were selected out of the collected microtremor records, and the Fourier spectrum and coherence were calculated. Records sufficiently supporting the correlation between seismographs were chosen for the analysis. The phase velocity was calculated for each observation spot from plural array records by use of the F-K spectrum. The underground velocity structure was estimated by the inversion process using the matrix method. In this method, an early model was built on the basis of the observed phase velocity and the optimum underground velocity structure was determined by alternately performing two inversion processes: one for the case wherein the S-wave velocity is the sole parameter and the other for the case wherein the layer thickness is the sole parameter. As the result, a shallow underground velocity structure, which has good agreement with the available boring data in the Morioka City area, was successfully estimated, verifying the validity of this method. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Outline of investigation on restraint of carbon dioxide generation by green chemistry. 1999.1-1999.3; 1998 nendo green chemistry ni yoru CO2 hassei yokusei ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu chosa hokokusho



    Investigations were conducted into the above in some leading OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member states. Green chemistry is a new concept in which clean technology, environment-friendly chemistry, and the like are combined, and is a chemical solution for reducing or stopping the use or generation of materials, products, by-products, solvents, reagents, etc., which are dangerous to health and environments, throughout the whole life cycle of chemicals covering the processes of their designing, manufacturing, dumping, and recycling. In this fiscal year, the actual state of the generation of biomass, regarded as representative of reproducible materials, and its feasibility as chemical resources were investigated. In an effort at finding out chemical reactions safer to health and causing less environmental impact, investigations were also conducted into the recent trends of catalysts, novel reactions for organic syntheses, use of supercritical fluids, photocatalysts, biomimetic processes, etc. The development of substitutes for plastic additives was also studied. Since acceptance by the citizenry is quite important for green chemistry to take effect, educating and enlightening activities in the U.S., Britain, France, and Germany were inquired into. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Part 2. Research study on restraint of carbon dioxide generation by green chemistry; 1999 nendo green chemistry ni yoru CO{sub 2} hassei yokusei ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu. 2



    In connection with green chemistry, a concept of bringing paradigm shift to chemical technologies as something that makes reduction in environmental load compatible with economic activities; surveys were made this year on the developments of fine chemicals from renewable resources such as cellulose among the cases of developing chemical substances/products to be called 'green chemicals' reducing environmental load; developments of surfactants produced by certain microorganism, plastic additives with reduced pollutant loads, particularly fire retardants and environmentally benign reactant solvents; concept of green chemistry in the development of chlorofluorocarbon-alternatives; and up-to-date technological level concerning a design method of chemical materials and an estimation method for chemical safety using quantum chemistry calculation. In regard to the chemical materials and products intrinsically containing a certain level of risk, R and D should be reinforced and accelerated in the future on the alternative materials/products reducing their toxicity. In this case, along with the importance of discussing compatibility of technological possibility with economical adaptability, sociological study seems to be necessary in incorporating environmental load reduction into economic evaluation. (NEDO)

  15. Calculation of oil production performance of the large giant oil fields in the world: based upon oil fields depletion model; Yuden gentai model ni yoru sekai no ogata kyodai yuden no seisan kyodo ni kansuru ichishisan

    Nomoto, S. [Japan Oil Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Data for large giant oil fields with minable reserves of one billion barrels or more were accumulated to structure a new oil field depletion model and estimate production in each oil field. As a result of analyzing events recognized in large giant oil fields, necessity was made clear to correct the conventional oil depletion model. The newly proposed model changes definitions on the depletion period of time, depletion rate, build-up production (during a time period in which production rate increases) and production in a plateau (a time period in which production becomes constant). Two hundred and twenty-five large giant oil fields were classified into those in a depletion period, an initial development phase, and a plateau period. The following findings were obtained as a result of trial calculations using the new model: under an assumption of demand growth rate of 1.5%, oil field groups in the initial development phase will reach the plateau production in the year 2002, and oil fields in the depletion period will continue production decline, hence the production amount after that year will slow down. Because the oil field groups in the plateau period will shift into decline in 2014, the overall production will decrease. The year 2014 is about ten years later than the estimation given recently by Campbell. Undiscovered resources are outside these discussions. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Researches regarding a constructing problem of a PV system. Part 1. Conscious investigation by means of a questionnaire survey; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru kenchikuteki shomondai no kenkyu. 1. Anketo chosa ni yoru ishiki chosa

    Nakajima, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; Kuroki, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)


    The installation and introduction of photovoltaic power generation systems (PVS) in buildings are growingly expected in the construction field from now, coupled with the marketing of a solar cell module as a product for a construction material in the form of an external wall or a roof material for example. For this purpose, it is necessary at first to summarize problems that may arise at the time of or after the installation of PVS as a product. This paper examines an opinion poll, degree of recognition, current problems, etc., of PVS as a result of a questionnaire survey given to engineers and architects engaged in the actual construction business. The degree of recognition and interest was very high. Consultation or request for PVS installation was much more than predicted in numbers. Roughly 50% of the respondents reacted positively for the future installation request of PVS and, combined with the respondents who answered to look into the installation tentatively, not less than 90% were of a forward-looking opinion. The 85% of the respondents was not aware of the monitor business system for residential PVS. Further, the survey clearly brought out the importance of cost problems. 1 ref., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Borehole geophysics for delineating the geological structure in the Sakonishi prospect, the Hida area, Japan; Hida chiiki Sako nishi chiku ni okeru boring ko riyo butsuri tansa ni yoru chishitsu kozo kaiseki

    Katayama, H.; Hishida, H.; Yoshioka, K. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to discuss effectiveness of physical exploration in the Sakonishi prospect in the Hida area, physical exploration was carried out by utilizing bored wells. This area contains the Kamioka mine, one of the major base metal mines in Japan, where electrical exploration has been attempted several times in the past. No effective results have been obtained, however, because specific resistance contrast between mine beds and base rocks is too small, and the topography is too steep making site workability inferior. As part of the investigations on geological structures over wide areas, electrical logging (specific resistance and natural potential) was performed in fiscal 1995 and 1996 by utilizing the boreholes. Induced polarization logging was also conducted on the same boreholes. A traverse line on the ground with a length of 600 m and boreholes were used to execute specific resistance tomography. Clear extraction was possible on a fault structure which is thought related with limestone distribution and mine bed creation. However, it was not possible to identify upward continuity of zinc ores expected in the exploration. Because of not large a specific resistance contrast between zinc ores and base rocks, it is difficult to find mine bed locations only from the information on the specific resistance. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Model experiment on change of seismic properties of a fracture caused by injecting/draining water; Chusui/haisui ni yoru kison kiretsu no dansei denpa tokusei no henka ni kansuru model jikken

    Watanabe, T.; Koizumi, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Effect of water injection/draining on elastic waves penetrating through cracks is examined by measuring elastic waves before, during, and after the injection/draining of water into/from cracks in presence in granite. Two blocks of rock, with their crack-containing surfaces in contact with each other, are placed in a vessel, and water injection/draining is done through a hole on a vessel bottom side so that water will penetrate into the cracks. When the blocks are dry, there is almost no contact between the cracks, and so no crack penetrating waves are observed. Crack penetrating waves are produced when water is injected, and the position of the receiver sensing the penetrating waves changes as the water level rises. When the water level is lowered from the high water level, the waveform changes again as the level changes. The change in waveform is not so remarkable, however, as that observed during water injection thanks to the water residual in the cracks. It is now inferred that crack investigation is more effective when it is carried out with water being injected into dry cracks. The difference produced between the dry state and wet state when water is injected into dry cracks is used to detect the presence of cracks in this experiment, and this may be applied also to the investigation of cracks in the shallow part of the ground. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  19. OpenNI cookbook

    Falahati, Soroush


    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  20. Survey report for fiscal 1997 on the survey report on the actual state of technical cooperation on industrial technologies by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiiki ni okeru Obei shokoku no sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru gijutsu kyoryoku jittai chosa hokokusho



    The actual state was surveyed on the technical cooperation by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region. The U.S.A. is making research cooperation with Thailand on ethylene molecule structures to enhance productivity in rubber production, France on molecule markers for high production rubber clone selection, and Australia on grain storing and drying methods. For the Philippines, America is giving assistance on management of reproducible resources, France on climate information communications systems for local areas, Australia on grain storing and drying methods, and Germany on waste oil recovery and reutilization, and development of pollution-free energy resources. For Malaysia, the Great Britain is cooperating on building engineering research centers, Australia on search for plant patheology genetic organics available in the Pacific region, and Germany on investigative researches on pollution prevention for tin mines and processing areas, and forestry and plant information systems. With respect to the ASEAN, this paper reports its activities placing importance on biology and electronics engineering, while the organization is taking actions in the areas of foodstuffs, animals, electronics, information and material science, energy exploration, marine and earth physics, and resource development. (NEDO)

  1. Magnetic Properties of Ni Nanoparticles and Ni(C) Nanocapsules


    Structure and magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles and Ni(C) nanocapsules were studied. The carbon atoms hardly affect the lattice of Ni to form Ni-C solid solution or nickel carbides. The large thermal irreversibility in zerofield-cooled and zero-field magnetization curves indicates magnetic blocking with a wide energy barrier. Saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity of Ni(C) nanocapsules decrease with increasing temperature.

  2. FY 1999 New Sunshine Project survey research project - Survey on the long-term energy technology strategy, etc. Fundamental survey to decide on the industrial technology strategy - Technology strategy by field (Electronic information technology field - Human process ware technology field of the computer relation field); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa (bun'yabetsu gijutsu senryaku (denshi joho gijutsu bun'ya (computer kanren bun'ya no uchi, human process ware gijutsu bun'ya)))



    The survey/study were conducted to contribute to proposing technology strategies such as the analysis of the present state of technical competitive force and the forecast in the human process ware industry technology field of the computer relation field. The human process ware is a system aimed at fermenting human power for thinking, problem solution and creation. Its main subjects are the following three: close society technology for will communication by automatically learning backgrounds of people joining the community; topics community technology for community formation for the appropriate people/organizations by grasping true topics/purposes from conversation; active interaction technology for supporting creative activities of users/community and making conversation with users. Further, in the region of the technology to meet the requests/restrictions from the society, the following are expected: energy/resource conservation; realization of the life with ease/safety and of high quality in the aged society; realization of the advanced information network society which becomes the basis of a new economic society. (NEDO)

  3. Technologies adopted in the lean-burn GA15DE engine for improving combustion and controlling the air-fuel ratio; Kogata 4 kito lean burn engine (GA15DE) ni okeru nensho kaizen oyobi seigyo gijutsu ni tsuite

    Saito, K.; Matsumura, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper summarizes an automotive engine with improved fuel consumption, having realized lean combustion. The lean-burn engine is such an engine that can be operated in an air-fuel ratio compatible in the combustion stability limit and the NOx emission limit by means of combustion improvement, and achieved improvement in fuel consumption as the result. The engine can be expected of higher fuel consumption improving effect than the EGR of the conventional engines because of the lean-burn mechanism. The newly developed lean-burn engine is characterized by less change in its specifications from the basic specifications. Lean fuel burning requires creating a gas mixture condition that is easy to ignite and acquiring a gas flowing field which spreads quickly upon ignition. To achieve these goals, swirl control valves and phase difference cams were disposed. Further, long-discharge coils are used to improve the ignitability. In order to operate the tertiary catalyst more effectively, an A/F sensor that operates in the catalytic area was adopted for the air-fuel ratio feedback control in place of an O2 sensor. The mileage of a vehicle equipped with the lean-burn engine was increased by 17.8% to 20.5 km/l. 2 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho



    Russia having natural gas resources largest in the world is actively promoting the basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic catalyst, and its research potential is extremely high. This 3-year research project surveys the R and D trends of catalyst technology for liquefaction of natural gas, and fabricates the prototype FT synthetic catalyst based on the idea of Russian researchers to evaluate its feasibility experimentally. This report summarizes the following to clarify the research background: (1) The technology system for liquefaction of natural gas, and its future R and D trend, (2) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in the world, (3) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in Russia, (4) The research system of catalyses in Russia, (5) The activities of Russian catalysis research institutes, (6) The fuel liquefaction technologies of Russian major research institutes, and (7) The proposals from Russian research institutes. (NEDO)

  5. Research and survey report of FY 1997 on the CO2 balance for high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)



    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application condition and effectiveness of high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology. To evaluate the present process, it was compared with others, such as separation using a polymer membrane, physico-chemical absorption process, adsorption process, hydrogen contact reduction process, and biological fixation. The development trends of absorption, membrane, adsorption, and cryogenic separation were investigated. The questionnaire was carried out about the separation technologies which are in the stage of performance test using actual gas, to arrange and compare the data and information. The current trends of chemical and biological CO2 fixation and utilization technology were also investigated for arranging the subjects. High-temperature CO2 disposal by the carbonation in concrete waste has been studied, to clarify its application conditions and effectiveness. In order to compare the separation technologies, treatment processes of CO2 in the exhaust gas from boilers of LNG power generation and coal fired power generation were simulated. These processes were simulated by ASPEN PLUS for the modeling. Trends of application of ASPEN PLUS and collection of information were surveyed by participating in the ASPEN WORLD. 103 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  6. Research report of fiscal 1997. Survey on creation of high-efficiency renewable resources, and bioconversion technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu saisei kano shigen no sosei narabi ni bioconversion gijutsu ni kansuru chosa



    Survey was made on material production technology using creation technology of high-efficiency renewable resources (photosynthesis reaction of plants). Industrially usable plant resources in overseas countries and Japan were arranged, and plant resources unused for food were also surveyed. The present state of genetic engineering necessary for metabolic engineering of higher plants such as fit and high-expression technology of genes, plant cell cultivation, and control technology of plant cell multiplication is described, and elementary technologies required for future gene-recombined plants are predicted. Survey was also made on the trend of creation technology of industrial plants for fat and oil, biodegradable polyester, amino acid, cellulose, fiber (cotton) and forest wood. A patent list on plant biotechnology was prepared, and study on bioconversion of plant resources was also surveyed. Overseas R & D trends on conversion and effective use technologies of renewable bio- resources are reported, and process design and its profitability were evaluated through a case study. 414 refs., 87 figs., 55 tabs.

  7. Report on surveys and researches in fiscal 2000 for directionality of technological needs and seeds in IT zone; IT ryoiki ni okeru gijutsu needs to seeds no hokosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokoku



    In order to put the assignments in the electronics and information technology fields into order, and to search elementary technologies and system technologies to become the focus of the future research and development, an IT workshop was held where researchers in the industrial, academic and governmental areas can meet together in one room. The social needs toward IT may include, as the correspondence to families with smaller number of children and greater number of persons of advanced age, the correspondence to digital devices, assurance of openness of information contents, enhancement of levels in medical technologies, enhancement of levels in medical services using remote medical systems, enhancement of welfare services, efficiency improvement in welfare services, and reduction of burdens therein. Enumerated in the use of educational information are the enlightenment and proliferation of IT literacy, development of user-friendly information terminals, education open to everybody, enhancement of the education contents, and enhancement of research activities. With regard to elimination of concentration into large urban areas, activation of local economies, homogenization of living environments, dissolution of traffic congestion, and strengthening of disaster preventing functions were pointed out. Also indicated is the assurance of security including the electronic trading, unjust invasion, and privacy protection. (NEDO)

  8. Surface Tension of Molten Ni and Ni-Co Alloys

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG; Kiyoshi NOGI


    Surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys was measured at the temperature range of 1773~1873 K using an improved sessile drop method with an alumina substrate in an Ar+3%H2 atmosphere. The error of the data obtained was analyzed. The surface tension of molten Ni and Ni-Co (5 and 10 mass fraction) alloys decreases with increasing temperature. The influence of Co on the surface tension of Ni-Co alloys is little in the studied Co concentration range.

  9. Report of high efficiency waste power generation technology development in 1995; Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu (1995 nendo hokokusho)



    High temperature and high pressure steam has been investigated for the high efficiency waste power generation technology development. The steam temperature below 300 centigrade is currently employed to avoid the corrosion of superheater, and the generating efficiency is less than 15%. Practical application of 500 centigrade and 100 kg/cm{sup 2} is planned by developing corrosion resistance materials. Environmental load reduction technology has been also developed. For the external circulation type fluidized bed furnace combustion tests using dummy waste in fiscal 1995, the temperature control at bag filter was effective for suppressing the dioxins. When using waste plastics, HCl could be reduced by blowing Ca compounds. Various Cr-Ni-Mo-based alloys have been developed as a corrosion resistance superheater tube material, and are currently tested. For the environmental load reduction technology, the development of pulse plasma exhaust gas treatment method has been continued from fiscal 1993. In fiscal 1995, this method was confirmed using a small-scale test unit, and also tested using a 5000 Nm{sup 3}/h bench-scale unit. The removal rates of dioxins at the outlet of bag filter were 99.8% and 99.3%, respectively. They were found to be affected greatly by the pulse waveform. 13 refs., 107 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Room temperature ferromagnetism of Ni, (Ni, Li), (Ni, N)-doped ZnO thin films

    AU; ChakTong


    Ni-doped ZnO thin films (Ni concentration up to 10 mol%) were generated on Si (100) substrates by a sol-gel technique. The films showed wurtzite structure and no other phase was found. The chemical state of Ni was found to be bivalent by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated that the films were ferromagnetic, and magnetic moment decreased with rise of Ni concentration. The magnetization of Ni (10 mol%)-doped ZnO film annealed in nitrogen was lower than that annealed in argon, suggesting that the density of defects had an effect on ferromagnetism.

  11. Assessment of fatigue life for a crack emanated from a notch. ; Algorithm of fatigue life assessment by [delta]K[sub RP] approach without distinguishing between the crack Initiaion and the propagation. Kirikakitei kara hasseisuru bishi bisho kiretsu no hiro kiretsu jumyo hyokaho ni tsuite. ; Hassei to denpa no toitsu riron ni yoru jumyo yosoku no algorithm (RPG kijun ni yoru hiro kiretsu denpa kyodo no kenkyu)

    Toyosada, M.; Niwa, T. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Fatigue life has been estimated as a sum of crack initiation life and crack propagation life, by using a fracture dynamical method. In order to make the method more reliable, a method is being discussed to estimate a growth curve for fatigue cracks from notch bottom under a unified theoretical system without a need of introducing the presence of initial cracks. Subsequently to the previous report, this paper describes a fatigue test that uses CT test pieces with the notch bottom finished in arc, an investigation on initiation and propagation behaviors of micro cracks, and discussions on their possibilities. From a large number of findings obtained, an algorithm was proposed to estimate the crack growth curve in approximation. The proposal was made by introducing a hypothesis that the growth of compressed plastic region is restricted by such a barrier as crystal particle boundaries until a developed crack can reach the first crystal particle boundary when the effective loading is maintained constant. The estimated curves and the experimental results have agreed well with each other. Stagnating crack phenomenon at a notch bottom and coaxing effect were explained qualitatively. 30 refs., 24 figs.

  12. `Technology for Advanced Treatment of High Melting Point Metal-Based Material,` local research and development of important technology for fiscal 1997. Development of materials creation technology for high efficiency power generator components; 1997 nendo juyo chiiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. `Koyuten kinzokukei buzai no kodo kako gijutsu` (kokoritsu hatsuden`yo buzai sosei gijutsu kaihatsu)



    Efforts are made for the creation of high melting point metal-base materials to replace the currently-used Ni-base superalloys for the turbine to withstand higher operating temperatures. The main efforts made in fiscal 1997 are outlined. As in fiscal 1996, Nb-base solution alloys, in which solution reinforcement elements such as Mo and W are alloyed, are manufactured by button arc melting and tested for mechanical properties and texture/characteristics. In the designing and evaluation for a strongest Nb-base composite material, Nb-base composite materials are manufactured by use of particle dispersion-strengthening attained by addition of intermetallic compounds or elements to contribute to the formation of oxides, carbides, or nitrides. Nb-base composite materials may also be manufactured by use of eutectic-strengthening attained by utilizing crystallization in the process of coagulation. The resultant Nb-base composite materials are evaluated for their dynamic characteristics at high temperatures. In the development and evaluation of technologies for creating Nb-base materials for high-temperature components, larger specimens as heavy as several kg are tested in line with small specimens for basic studies, and the results are utilized for alloy designing for high-temperature materials. 50 refs., 97 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules (production technology for amorphous silicon solar cell modules); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Daimenseki module no tei cost seizo gijutsu (amorphous taiyo denchi module seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of amorphous Si solar cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On process technology for prototype film substrate solar cells, an advanced preprocessing equipment for film substrates, stepping roll type film forming technology, and prototype submodules were studied. A conversion efficiency of 7.2% was achieved by use of the submodule formed in an effective region of 40 {times} 40cm{sup 2}. (2) On efficiency improvement technology for film substrate solar cells, p/i and n/i interfaces, forming condition for Ag film electrodes, film thickness of transparent electrode ITO, and optimum transmissivity were studied. (3) On technology for advanced solar cells, high-quality a-SiGe: H film, ion control in plasma CVD, and a-Si film formation by plasma CVD using SiH2Cl2 were studied as production technology of narrow gap materials. (4) On advanced two-layer tandem solar cells, the defect density in optical degradation of a-Si cells by reverse bias dark current was evaluated, and outdoor exposure data were analyzed. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. ZnNi data

    2014-11-01 Teaming website: Other data .. •• • Zinc - nickel alloy coatings r~.., ataTECH Corrosion...cathodic corrosion protection with y- zinc - nickel alloy! () ToTAL ----------------- · ---------------- . A ~ESTCP ~§g.~J?.P Keith Legg 847-680...2009 Boeing. All rights reserved. Fatigue Test Results (Alkaline Zinc - Nickel , Phase IV) • Nickel Alloy 718 Bolts – 3/8” diameter Cd or Zn-Ni

  15. Ni landsbyer i Danmark

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Denne rapport beskriver en evaluering af statsstøttede forsøg med at styrke og udvikle mindre lokalsamfund. Forsøgene er gennemført i ni kommuner. Da der i disse år er stor opmærksomhed om de små byers og samfunds udviklingsmuligheder, har erfaringerne fra forsøgsprojekterne bred interesse. Forsø...

  16. Preparation of nanoporous Ni and Ni-Cu by dealloying of rolled Ni-Mn and Ni-Cu-Mn alloys

    Hakamada, Masataka, E-mail: masataka-hakamada@aist.go.j [Materials Research Institute for Sustainable Development, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimosihidami, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Mabuchi, Mamoru [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)


    Nanoporous Ni, Ni-Cu and Cu with ligament sizes of 10-20 nm were fabricated by dealloying rolled Ni-Mn, Cu-Ni-Mn and Cu-Mn alloys, respectively. Unlike conventional Raney nickel composed of brittle Ni-Al intermetallic compounds, the initial alloys had good workability. Ni and Cu atoms formed a homogeneous solid solution in the nanoporous architecture. The ligament sizes of nanoporous Ni and Ni-Cu were smaller than that of nanoporous Cu, reflecting the difference between the surface diffusivities of Ni and Cu.

  17. Analytical study on aseismic base isolation in new offshore location. For practical location for thermal power plants by soft-landing artificial ground construction method; Atarashii kaijo ricchi ni okeru menshinsei ni kansuru kaisekiteki kento. Nanchaku jinko jiban koho ni yoru karyoku hatsuden setsubi ricchi jitsuyoka ni mukete

    Kawamura, T.; Sakakibara, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, M. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    Assuming offshore location of thermal power plants by soft-landing artificial ground construction method, its effect on uneven settlement of facility unit group and its seismic behavior were studied. In soft-landing artificial ground, the total weight and buoyancy of a caisson body with interior space are balanced by controlling water level in a tank to reduce landing pressure. Artificial ground resists lateral seismic external force by friction with submarine bedrock. Settlement analysis and seismic behavior analysis were conducted by 2-D FEM. As a result, bottom RC honeycomb structure was sufficient to resist uneven settlement during construction even under fixed junction condition between units. In soft-landing artificial ground, the maximum acceleration was reduced to nearly 70% by aseismic base isolation as compared with conventional methods. In addition, its sliding manner in earthquake was different from that of rigid bodies, and the maximum stress acceleration transmitted to the bottom of artificial ground changed even under the same waveform. 4 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 2. Research on promotion of international cooperation (research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)



    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on the basic research on standardization of hydrogen energy technologies, and ISO/TC197. As for the standardization, in relation to the hydrogen station in the WE-NET second phase research, the laws related to handling of gaseous hydrogen, and the basic issues on facility and safe handling were studied. As for ISO/TC197, the following draft standards were examined: Fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, fuel tank for liquid hydrogen vehicles, container for liquid hydrogen transport, specification of hydrogen fuel, hydrogen fuel supply facility for air ports, gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen mixture fuel system for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel connector for vehicles, gaseous hydrogen fuel tank for vehicles, and basic items for hydrogen system safety. Final examination of the fuel supply system interface for liquid hydrogen vehicles, and the specification of hydrogen fuel was finished, and these are scheduled to be registered for ISO. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1999 development of a technology to recycle fabric products. Development of a technology to recover 'waste selvages' generated from weaving process and recycle them as fabric products; 1999 nendo sen'i seihin recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seishoku no sai ni hasseisuru 'sutemimi' wo sairiyo shita orimono seihin gijutsu kaihatsu



    The development was made of technology to recover 'waste selvages' generated from the weaving process and recycle them as weaving yarn for bath/toiletry products such as bath mats and toilet mats. The FY 1999 results were summarized. Based on the results of the study made in the previous year, research was conducted using a rapier loom made by Saurer Co. to study the effect of change in selvage fabric on the tangling condition of waste yarn. As a result, it was confirmed that 'waste selvage standard' and 'tangling yarn threading chart' were the most suitable. As to the development of technique for winding 'waste selvages,' safety, operability and efficiency were confirmed of the exclusive winding device which moves associated with the waste selvage roller on the yarn supply side. As to the development of technique for sizing, twisting and heat-processing of 'waste selvages,' favorable results were obtained in the test on the sizing of 'waste selvage' in the dyeing process and the heating processing technique using fused yarn. Good results were also obtained in the test using an exclusive double twister on the twisting condition, strength and uniformity of 'waste selvages.' Also in the development of the winding machine corresponding to coarse yarn and the weaving technique corresponding to coarse yarn, the results obtained were favorable. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the cooperative research project under consignment from NEDO on technology for simply setting-up of the molding conditions of engineering plastics; 1997 nendo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku (Engineering plastic no seikei joken kan`i settei gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo seika hokokusho)



    A cooperative research project was carried out between Japan and Thailand with the aim of developing a system which can simply set up molding conditions using as elements the technology on mold design and injection molding in plastic parts production and the experiment/evaluation technology for making sure of the quality of molded products. In fiscal 1997, based on the basic plan worked out in the previous fiscal year, molding equipment, auxiliary equipment, mold, experimental equipment, injection molding CEA system, etc. were installed at Thailand`s BSID (Bureau of Supporting Industries Development). Supported by equipment manufacturers, the technical guidance was given for operation/maintenance/control of all equipment. At the same time, researchers were sent from Japan, and the joint research was started. Japan received three researchers from BSID for training of molding technology, injection molding CEA program use technology, and experimental evaluation technology. The engineering plastics used for study are polyacetal, polyamide and polycarbonate. 17 refs., 68 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Development of fiber product recycling technology in fiscal 1998. Achievement report on 'technological development in relation with regeneration and utilization of wool fibers'; 1998 nendo sen'i seihin recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Wool sen'i no saisei oyobi riyo ni kansuru gijutsu kaihatsu



    With an objective to develop products of regenerated wool made by utilizing used clothes, and enhance the added value thereon, research and development has been made. In using the recovered suits as the regenerated resources, discussions were given on performing primary mechanical classification before carrying out rag opening and crushing. As a result, it was discovered that the classification is possible if such facilities as electrostatic devices and air-blowing separators are used. However, the secondary classification was difficult either by manual or mechanical means because the opened and crushed materials must be divided according to the original materials. In the research of the re-commercialization technology, discussions were given on developing the applications of felt products (non-woven fabrics) occupying the majority of consumption of wool materials recovered from suits, and of spun yarns utilized in cotton fabrics. As a result, it was discovered that the recovered wool materials can be made into products having features not available in conventional mops, if their feature of oil absorbing performance is made of the best use. Furthermore, researches were made on wool as a synthetic leather material that utilizes the protein constituent being the wool constituting substance. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1999 development of a technology to recycle fabric products. Development of recycle technology for wool products and use of reclaimed fiber; 1999 nendo sen'i seihin recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Wool sen'i no saisei oyobi riyo ni kansuru gijutsu kaihatsu



    Experimental equipment was fabricated and an experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of recycle wool heat insulating materials. In the test on the performance of ordinal housing use heat insulating materials, used was JIS A 1420 'heat insulation measuring method for architectural use structural materials.' The heat insulating material of 910 x 1,820mm in size was used according to the size of the construction material. The experimental equipment was fabricated with the 'method of calibration heat box with a small heating area' described in JIS A 1420 Attachment B as reference, and the size is 300 x 300mm. In the experiment, the following results were obtained. Even in the case of using a specimen smaller in size than 900 x 900mm, it is possible to make the relative insulation evaluation. The recycle wool heat insulating materials have the heat insulation equivalent to or more than the glass wool heat insulating materials. Further, even if they are equal in weight, the thicker the material is, the higher the heat insulating performance becomes. The recycle wool heat insulating material has moisture absorption/release against the environmental humidity the same as wool does. Changes in environmental humidity have effects on the performance of heat insulating materials. How influential the environmental humidity is depends on characteristics of material. (NEDO)

  3. Technology research and development, and project finding of alternative energies. Part 3. Up-grading technology of middle and low class coal; Sekiyu daitai energy shigen ni kakawaru gijutsu kaihatsu to project finding. 3. Chutei hin`itan katsuyo no tame no kaishitsu gijutsu

    Takemoto, K.


    The up-grading technology of middle and low class coal is outlined reviewing its future. The up-grading process composed of a main fluidized-bed drying furnace removes water content from coal by heating rapidly at more than 300{degree}C, and transforms decomposed carboxyl group and phenolic hydroxyl group into hydrophobic ether group. It also prevents coal from reabsorption of water by hydrophobic coal surface covered with generated tar, and from spontaneous ignition through deactivation of coal by removing lower volatile oils. The fundamental design data for commercial plants were obtained by fabricating a mini-pilot plant of 1 t/h. The production cost of the up-graded coal was estimated to be 16.7 $/t in 1986, and as the result of a feasibility study, such a cost was reasonable enough in specific consuming regions even if a transportation cost was added. However, construction of the demonstration plant whose fundamental design was completed in 1989 remains stopping unfortunately today because of a sluggish coal market. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 7 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study on the hydrogen utilization technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 7 suiso riyo gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kento



    The paper described the 1997 results of the survey/study of the hydrogen utilization technology. As to the power generation system, trially calculated were effects of oxygen purity on efficiency of the argon circulating hydrogen diesel cogeneration, and the power generating efficiency in case of considering power separating oxygen from air. It was found that the power generating efficiency equal to or more than that of the existing diesel can be expected. In relation to means of transportation, the introduction was studied of hydrogen engine family cars and hybrid fuel cell micro-buses. Concerning oxygen/hydrogen use fuel cells, discussed was the power generation using fuel cells by night power use electrolytic hydrogen/oxygen production as well as fixed 200kw and 5000kw class fuel cells and three automobile use polymer fuel cells. As to the hydrogen supply system in model cities, studied were the control of boil-off gas generation and the effective use of the gas, the hydrogen receiving base, and a scenario for shifting to hydrogen energy systems. For a realistic shift to the hydrogen energy society, discussed was a standalone hydrogen supply station. 24 refs., 130 figs., 57 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1997 report on the model project for the effective energy consumption in developing countries. Survey of changes of energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the oil refining industry in Japan; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo (Nippon sekiyu seiseigyo ni okeru sho energy gijutsu to kankyo taisaku gijutsu no hensen chosa hokokusho)



    For global scale measures to be taken for environmental protection, it becomes more and more important in the future to positively transfer and spread energy conservation technologies of Japan to overseas countries. Especially, it is effective for both economic growth in the Asian region and global environmental protection to transfer technologies which the oil refining industry has been developing and accumulating. Energy conservation in the oil refining industry means the energy conservation by strengthening the operational control at the first and second oil crises in the first stage, the energy conservation in the second stage which was accompanied by small and medium scale plant/equipment investments during several years after the first stage, and the energy conservation in the third stage which was accompanied by large scale investments from the first half of the 1980s to the present, resulting in improvement of 40% over before the first oil crisis. As to environmental protection measures, measures to reduce waste from oil refinery against air pollution and water pollution were prepared by the first half of the 1970s, and technologies were established of waste water treatment, flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. A lot of facilities for improvement of product quality and for low pollution were installed. In addition to environmental technologies, also in other industries, there were seen the heightening of thermal efficiency of kiln and thermal efficiency of cooling technique of clinker cooler in the cement industry and the improvement of productivity in the paper/pulp industry. 360 figs., 62 tabs.

  6. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 9 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (survey/study on the innovative and leading technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 9 kakushinteki, sendoteki gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu



    For the purpose of giving useful suggestions/proposals to the course of WE-NET and contributing to the R and D, conducted were survey/collection/evaluation of new technologies. The paper described the fiscal 1997 results. The number of the proposals of new technology accumulated during fiscal 1993 to 1997 is 28. The proposals of new technology made in fiscal 1997 are hydrogen production effectively using solar energy by wavelength zone, hydrogen storage using fullerene, and the methanol power generation turbine system. Four technologies proposed in fiscal 1996 and 1997 were evaluated. The evaluation method requires two steps of the marking using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the adjustment by the committee. The highly evaluated proposals out of those having been made were analysis/evaluation of hydrogen-oxygen internal-combustion Stirling engine, hydrogen production effectively using solar energy by wavelength zone, hydrogen production by solid oxide electrolysis, magnetic refrigeration method for hydrogen liquefaction, hydrogen production technology using photocatalyst, etc. The paper also stated the result of studying concepts of innovative/leading technologies in fiscal 1996. 4 figs., 29 tabs.

  7. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 2. Research study on promotion of international cooperation (standardization of hydrogen energy technology); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 2. Kokusai kyoryoku suishin no tame no chosa kento (suiso energy gijutsu hyojunka ni kansuru chosa kento)



    This paper describes the basic study on standardization of hydrogen energy technology, and the research study on ISO/TC197 in fiscal 1996. As a part of the WE-NET project, the subtask 2 aims at preparation of standards necessary for practical use and promotion. Developmental states in every field of hydrogen energy technologies, current states of domestic/overseas related standards and laws, and needs and issues of standardization were surveyed. In particular, the needs and issues were clarified in relation to existing standards and laws from the viewpoint of specific hydrogen property. ISO/TC197 was established in 1989 for standardization of the systems and equipment for production, storage, transport, measurement and utilization of hydrogen energy. Four working groups are in action for the supply system and tank of liquid hydrogen fuel for automobiles, the container and ship for complex transport of liquid hydrogen, the specifications of hydrogen products for energy, and the hydrogen supply facility for airports. The draft international standards were proposed to the international conference in 1996. 16 refs., 21 figs., 41 tabs.

  8. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Research and development of solar system (research for solar/energy-conservation technology retrofitted to existing buildings); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (solar toshi muke gijutsu ni kansuru chosa)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)


    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for solar/energy-conversion technologies retrofitted to existing buildings. The estimated effects and economic viability of retrofitting technologies show that they bring very high energy-saving effects when applied to heating and hot water supply, which consume a large portion of energy, but relatively low energy-saving effects when applied to cooling, solar walls, glazed balconies and transparent insulators. The study on applicability of these technologies in Japan indicates that the technologies which can recover cost within an average life time are those applied to windows, solar collector systems for hot water supply and heating, and transparent insulators. Although these technologies are low in applicability to cooling viewed from the angle of cost recovery, retrofitted radiation type cooling systems improve not only cooling and energy-saving effects but also comfortableness.

  9. Niños investigadores

    Manfred Liebel


    Full Text Available EN LA SOCIOLOGÍA INFANTIL, EL PRINCIPIO DE HACER PARTICIPAR A NIÑAS Y NIÑOS en los procesos de investigación está ampliamente reconocido. Tomando como punto de partida ese principio de participación, el presente aporte analiza la pregunta de en qué medida y de qué manera los niños mismos pueden actuar como investigadores. A fin de apreciar en lo justo la perspectiva de los niños, el presente trabajo aboga por que –con el debido acompañamiento de personas adultas– la investigación esté en manos de los niños. Por medio de varios ejemplos de países del Sur, se muestra cómo poner en práctica esta forma de investigación encabezada por niños. Tomando en cuenta la desigualdad en las relaciones entre niñas, niños y personas adultas, el trabajo hace referencia a problemas de ética y práctica investigativa que surgen en el proceso de investigación y también en el tema del uso de los resultados. Finalmente, se explican los beneficios que niñas y niños pueden obtener de sus propias investigaciones.

  10. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  11. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    Aoi, N; Takeuchi, S; Suzuki, H; Bazin, D; Bowen, M D; Campbell, C M; Cook, J M; Dinca, D -C; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Iwasaki, H; Kubo, T; Kurita, K; Motobayashi, T; Mueller, W F; Nakamura, T; Sakurai, H; Takashina, M; Terry, J R; Yoneda, K; Zwahlen, H


    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen targetat a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation gamma-rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of delta = 1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z = 28 or N = 50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  12. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    Aoi, N.; Kanno, S.; Takeuchi, S.; Suzuki, H.; Bazin, D.; Bowen, M. D.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Iwasaki, H.; Kubo, T.; Kurita, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Mueller, W. F.; Nakamura, T.; Sakurai, H.; Takashina, M.; Terry, J. R.; Yoneda, K.; Zwahlen, H.


    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target at a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation γ rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of δ=1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z=28 or N=50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  13. Estimation of real ship propelling performance by the surface velocity lattice method using model ship flow field data; Mokeisen ryujo data wo mochiita hyomen uzu koshiho ni yoru jissen suishin seino no suitei

    Kai, H.; Ikehata, M.; Sakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This is basically a technique wherein the wing element method is replaced by a surface vortex lattice method. A horseshoe vortex of unknown intensity and source surface of known intensity are distributed on the wing surface and, under conditions that the fluid will not cross the boundary, the intensity of horseshoe vortex circulation is calculated for the solution of the fluid field. For the simulation of a real ship in navigation, the required propeller revolution thrust is determined using the real ship resistance value and real ship thrust reduction factor estimated from a model ship resistance test by extrapolation. The calculation of propeller performance is conducted in the quasi-steady condition using the force of fluid working on one wing for each wing angle (with the wing rotated at the increment of 6 degrees), and the thrust and torque are determined using the averages of values obtained in one cycle. It is found that the torque value is overestimated in a considerable degree in the wing element theory. In the surface vortex lattice method, both thrust and torque values agree with experimental values mostly, and this method is found to be accurate enough as a navigation element calculation tool when many panels are considered. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. FY1995 study on high speed manipulation of photons and electrons by nanostructures for photonic devices of next generation; 1995 nendo handotai nano kozo ni yoru chokosoku hikari denshi seigyo to jisedai hikari device no kenkyu



    In this project, we manipulate interaction between photons and electrons in semiconductor nanostructures to study fundamental understanding of electron-photon interaction in ultra-small space and Ultrafast time domain. In addition, on the basis of these results, we explore the optoelectronics nanostructure devices of the next generation. In this research project, we developed new techniques for fabricating quantum dot structures. First, quantum dots of 10nm were grown in two-dimensional V-grooved structures which were formed on SiO{sub 2} patterned substrates by MOCVD. In the same V-grooves, vertical quantum wires were also formed. As the second new technique, we developed self-assembling growth technique for the quantum dots utilizing Spinodal phase separation. In order to investigate the quantum dots using nano-scale characterization technique, we developed low-temperature scanning near-filed optical microscope. Luminescence from as single quantum dot and a single quantum wire were obtained. In addition, luminescence from a single quantum dot through tunneling current excitation by STM was also successfully obtained. Furthermore, micro-photoluminescence measurement achieved time and spatially resolved photoluminescence from a single quantum dot. This micro-photoluminescence also revealed electron dynamics in mesoscopic structures and point contact structures through carrier drag effect. Finally we have succeeded in fabricating vertical microcavity quantum dot lasers by MOCVD and obtained picosecond pulses form the devices. (NEDO)

  15. Measurement of excited oxygen (O2:[sup 1][Delta]g) concentration by spontaneous emission. Hakko kyodo ni yoru reiki sanso ([sup 1][Delta]g) nodo no sokutei

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    The concentration of excited oxygen ([sup 1][Delta]g), which was generated by microwave discharge in a pure oxygen flow, was measured from the intensity of spontaneous emission. The conversion factor to density was determined by spectroscopic analysis of the rotational structure and calibration of the emission intensity using a black-body furnace as light source. Consequently, a good agreement was found between the observed profiles and those calculated from spectroscopic data, and it was illustrated that the absolute concentration can be obtained by coupling band analysis and the calibration method. In addition, even when the concentration was low, it was shown that the excited oxygen concentration can be measured by considering the reflection at the cell wall. The excited oxygen concentration at the microwave discharge cavity was estimated to be around 1% under the pressure ranging from 0.5 torr to 2 torr. Furthermore, the comparison of the profiles calculated at different temperature provided that the band profile can be a good indicator of gas temperature when the signal-to-noise ratio is high. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Characteristics of the fluorescent substances in the Yodo River system by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy; Sanjigen reiki/keiko kodoho ni yoru yodogawa suikeichu no keiko busshitsu no tokucho

    Suzuki, Y.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kudo, M.; Kimura, M.; Nagao, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    Organic substances in the river water in Yodo River system were analyzed by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. Fluorescent substances were taken as an index of organic substances. The amount of fluorescent substances varied widely depending on the environment of river basin. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances are composed of organic substances which is not directly originated from biological activity. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances were produced by leaching of river bottom sediment. The fluorescent substances in Yodo River system consists of fulvic acid-like substances and protein. The analysis of fluorescent substances in river water by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy can be useful means for estimation of variation and origin of fluorescent substances. For better understanding of features of fluorescent substances in the surface water into which various kinds of substances enter, it is necessary to determine the exact sampling points based on the consideration of different sources and to make a database of peak positions for identification of fluorescent substances from fluorescence intensity peak. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Non-contact estimation of the bond quality in soldered thin laminate by laser generated lamb waves; Laser reiki ramuha ni yoru handazuke sekisohaku no setsugo seijo no hisesshoku hyoka

    Kasama, H.; Futatsugi, T.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama-Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering


    The bond quality of a solder-bonded copper laminated plate was modeled into rigid contact (rc) and slip contact (sc) to calculate the velocity dispersion of lamb waves. The velocity dispersion of laser generated lamb waves was measured, and the bond quality or the thickness of a solder layer was evaluated by non-contact. In the model whose bond surface is rc, the velocity dispersion of lamb waves can be calculated under conditions where the stress and displacement in an interface are continuous. In the model whose bond surface is sc, it can be calculated under conditions where an interface slips freely. Weak bond indicates the velocity dispersion between rc and sc. In this model, the velocity dispersion can also be calculated by a change in the thickness of a solder layer and used for quantitative evaluation of a bond interface. A three-layer solder bond manufactured for trial could be evaluated from the velocity dispersion of laser lamb waves. At the room temperature, the change in bond quality near the solder melting point of bond laminate that was judged as rc was investigated. When the solidus temperature is exceeded, the amplitude of lamb waves and the velocity dispersion changed largely. The amplitude of lamb waves increases as the liquid phase ratio increases. The bond quality near the solder melting point can be evaluated using lamb waves. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Acoustic excitation of diffusion flames with coherent structure in a plane shear layer.; Effects of acoustic excitation on combustion properties; Soshiki kozo wo tomonau sendan kakusan kaen no onkyo reiki.; Onkyo reiki ni yoru nensho tokusei no henka

    Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    This paper reports on experiments for acoustic excitation of plane shear structured flame. Flows of air separated into the higher velocity side and the lower velocity side by a partition on the center of a flow path merge at the measuring point to form a mixed layer with coherent structure. Fuel is supplied to this mixed layer with the flows so adjusted that the generated flame will attach to the partition on the lower velocity side. Acoustic excitation (at a sound pressure level of 100 dB to 120 dB) is performed in a speaker fitted on a wall on the higher velocity side. The paper mentions the results of the experiments as follows: the acoustic excitation produces such changes to diffusion flame in the plane shear layer as shorter flame and blue flame combustion and clarification of flame structures; as seen from spectral characteristics of temperature change in the flames, a flame acoustically excited strongly presents remarkable improvements in periodicity of the structure; as seen from sound pressure distribution in the flow direction at the measuring point, the flame zone of the flame acoustically excited strongly is positioned at the middle of the node and loop of a standing wave. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Amplification of picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers. Denshi beam reiki KrF laser zofukuki ni yoru piko byo pulse no zofuku

    Okuda, I.; Tomie, T.; Owadano, Y.; Yano, M. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Experiments on the amplification of a picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers were carried out for the purpose of its application to the field such as excitation light source for soft X-ray laser which requires large energy besides peak power. The picosecond pulse was amplified by a discharge pumped KrF amplifier and two electron-beam pumped KrF amplifiers(at the middle stage and the final stage). The energy of 4J, which was the largest energy for short pulse excimer laser so far, was obtained by these devices. About 90% of the window area of the final amplifier with 29cm diameter was filled by the input beam, and energy density of the picosecond beam reached 3.9 times saturation energy density. Measured energy of amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) showed good agreement with the theoretically estimated value. Most of ASE was derived from the discharge pumped laser as the first amplifier. As for the focused power density, the power density ratio of the picosecond pulse to ASE was estimated to be as large as 10{sup 5}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Effect of surface irradiation during the photo-CVD deposition of a-Si:H thin films. Hikari CVD ho ni yoru amorphous silicon sakuseiji no kiban hikari reiki koka

    Tasaka, K.; Doering, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Fujishima, A. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper shows the impact of the irradiation from an additional light source during the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by photo-CVD deposition. Using a mercury sensitized photo-CVD process from Disilan (Si {sub 2} H {sub 6}) and hydrogen, silicon was deposited. A 40W low pressure mercury lamp was applied as the light source. A portion of the substrate was in addition irradiated using an Xg-He lamp through a thermal filter. Irradiation of the substrate using only Xg-He lamp produced no deposition, since this light has a wavelength which is too long to produce the SiH {sub 3}-radicals needed for Si deposition. The additional Xg-He light source was discovered to cause an increased thickness of deposited a-Si:H film and a transmission of the band structure. The reasons of these are considered that the influence of irradiation is not limited to film thickness, but that irradiation also impacts the composition of the a-Si:H film so as to cause a reduction in the hydrogen content. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Low temperature formation of ferroelectric PbTiO3 films by laser ablation with 2nd laser irradiation; Reiki hikari laser heiyo laser ablation ho ni yoru kyoyudentai PbTiO3 usumaku no teion keisei

    Tabata, H.; Kawai, T. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)


    The unique advantage of the pulsed laser deposition is its ability to produce highly oriented stoichiometric films at a low substrate temperature. Ferroelectric PbTiO3 thin films have been formed using 2nd laser assisted laser ablaion technique at low temperature, i.e., 350degC, on Sr7iO3 single-crystal substrates and Pt/MgO electrodes. The second laser irradiation at the substrate surface is quite effective for crystallization of the films at low substrate temperature below 400degC. The suitable energy density (fluence) of the irradiation laser is in the range of 30-100 mJ/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction patterns of PbTiO3 thin films show c-axis orientation, with a rocking angle of 1.0 - 0.5deg. These films exhibit ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The dielectric constant and remanent polalyzation of the PbTiO3 films are in the range of 120-150 and 60-80 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, respectively. 31 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Excitation of tsunami by a pure strike-slip earthquake. ; Izu Oshima kinkai earthquake tsunami on Feb. 20, 1990. Yokozure danso jishin ni yoru tsunami no reiki. ; 1990 nen 2 gatsu 20 nichi Izu Oshima kinkai jishin tsunami

    Abe, K. (Nippon Dental University, Tokyo (Japan). Niigata Junior College); Okada, M. (Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan))


    A numerical experiment was performed to reproduce the tsunami from the Izu-Oshima Kinkai Earthquake which occurred on February 20, 1990, using a tsunami excited by a pure strike-slip fault. An existence of a vertical fault with a length of 15 km and a width of 12 km was hypothesized in the south-north direction on the ocean bottom around the focal region. Then, a tsunami was assumed to have been excited when the fault was given a side-slip movement to create discrepancies of 1 m in the fault. Water level change for one hour after onset of the tsunami was calculated in one-second interval in each unit square with a side length of 1 km over an ocean area of 200 km from east to west and 150 km from north to south centering on the wave source. The results obtained from the calculation were harmonious with tsunami waveforms observed at five stations in the subject region and their spectral analytic results. Reproduced were the two predominant frequencies commonly observed at more than two stations, and difference in predominant cycles that appear according to azimuths of the observation points to the epicenter. These facts endorse the reasonability of the above hypothesis. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Assessment of environment in the rural-urban fringe using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data and a personal computer. Jinko eisei deta no pasokon ni yoru toshi kinko noson no kankyo haaku

    Watanabe, K. (Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan). Graduate School); Kunitake, M. (Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)


    The purpose of this study was to examine the progress of development in the vicinity of Kibana district which was formerly surrounded by forests on the mountain and agricultural fields, but is currently a village in the rural-urban fringe transfigured by a large-scale educational city project after the removal of Miyazaki University. It was conducted by making a comparison with the relation between the development and the rise in land surface temperature. Changes in the environment were investigated using remote sensing technologies through preparation of a land classification map and a land surface temperature map by a utilization of a personal computer together with the obtained Landsat Thematic Mapper Data for the years of 1989 and 1990. As a result, it was found out that though the result of temperature comparison between 1989 and 1990 was 1.4[degree]C and 2.8[degree]C higher in 1990 at the lowest temperature and the average daytime temperature respectively, more difference was observed at land surface temperature in the land surface temperature map; and also, although evolution of mountainous areas to populated areas, overpopulation in residential quarters and expansion of populated areas, etc. were observed in the land classification map, agricultural and grass field areas augmented their image element number due to the unusual warm winter in 1990 and the inevitable rapid growth of grasses and flowers. 4 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Experimental conditions for the fabrication of multilayered metal base composite made by single-shot explosive welding technique; Bakuhatsu assetsuho ni yoru kinzokuki sekiso fukugo zairyo no seizo joken

    Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M.; Chiba, A.; Nishida, M. [Kumamoto Univ, Kumamoto (Japan)


    The explosion method presented in this report is a means for bonding multilayered metal plates at a stroke by single-shot explosion. Multilayered composites are fabricated by combining such light metals as aluminium and titanium with various kinds of steel. In particular, experimental conditions necessary for the fabrication of multilayered composites consisting of several layers are clarified. The explosive welding conditions for multilayered composites are obtained by analytical analysis using difference calculus to clarify its relation to the bonded conditions at the boundary. In the case of copper base composite, it is important to make uniform the collision speed of metal plate and the amount of energy dissipated by collision at every collision point as far as possible. In the fabrication of stainless steel/aluminium multilayered composite, it is difficult to fabricate composites using multilayered plates with the same thickness, and adjustment of the distance between metal plates is required to make {Delta}KE (the amount of energy dissipated by collision) within the range of good explosive conditions so as to achieve satisfactory bonding. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Planar contraction flow of diluted polymer solution. ; Experiment and numerical simulation considering inertia force. Kishaku kobunshi suiyoeki ni yoru kyu shukusho nagare. ; Kansei ko wo koryoshita suchi kaiseki to kashika jikken

    Kawabata, N.; Tachibana, M.; Yoshida, K. (Fukui Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Fujita, K. (Fukui National College of Technology, Fukui (Japan)); Kimura, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Graduate School)


    Studies on viscoelastic fluid flows have been carried out while focusing on cases of high viscosity fluid such as polymer solutions so as to meet industrial demand. In a viscoelastic fluid flow, inertia force, viscous force, and elastic force act on the flow field. As the velocity of the flow increases, the effects of the viscous force outgrow the others. The authors showed that stable calculations are possible even in a region where the inertia and elastic forces become important by applying Lax method to solving the constitutive equation. However, the Lax method has a drawback in that numerical viscosity is high. In this study, the CIP method is applied to solving the constitutive equation, and a comparison with respect to the two-dimensional planar contraction flow was made between the results from numerical calculation by means of this method and the results of visualizing experimentations using polymer solutions of relatively low concentration. As a result, it was confirmed by the visualizing experimentations that a flow pattern which is inherent in the viscoelastic fluid and which does not appear in the case of high viscosity fluid. Furthermore this characteristic pattern was also obtained by numerical calculations by this method. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Separation of ethylene glycol and sodium salt of serine by use of a simulated moving-bed adsorber; Giji idoso ni yoru ethylene glycol to serine no Na en no bunri

    Seto, T.; Hirata, K.; Odagiri, M.; Imanari, M. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Separation of ethylene glycol and sodium salt of serine is important in the processing of serine by the Strecker method using glycol aldehyde produced from ethylene glycol. The separations were successfully carried out using a simulated moving-bed four-zone type adsorber which was composed of a sodium salt of strongly acidic cation exchange resin. The moving-bed adsorber used was slightly different from a conventional one in the manner of setting up Raffinate 2. Separation of this type was simulated by calculations using an analytical solution of steady state rate equation concerning the adsorption and desorption of the ingredients and the moving bed. The condition needed for separation in the four-zone type with Raffinate 2 was discriminated, being generally coincident with the conventional condition of {beta} value. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Experiment for estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave from three component microtremor array observation in Morioka area; Moriokashiiki deno bido no sanseibun array kansoku ni yoru love ha no iso sokudo oyobi power hi suitei no kokoromi

    Yamamoto, H.; Yakuwa, A.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Three component microtremor array observations were carried out in two locations in the city of Morioka for an attempt of estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave by applying the expanded three component spatial self-correlation method. The microtremors were observed by using a seismograph with a natural period of one second. The arrays were so arranged as to form an equilateral triangle consisted of seven points. The maximum radii were 100 m, 50 m, 25 m and 12.5 m for vertical movements, and 100 m and 30 m for horizontal movements at the Iwate University, and 80 m, 40 m, 20 m and 10 m for vertical movements and 90 m for horizontal movements at the Morioka Technical Highschool. The analysis has used three sections, each with relatively steady state of about 40 seconds as selected from records of observations for about 30 minutes. The result of the discussions revealed that it is possible to derive phase velocity of not only Rayleigh waves but also Love waves by applying the expanded spatial self-correlation method to the observation record. Thus, estimation of underground structures with higher accuracy has become possible by using simultaneously the Rayleigh waves and Love waves. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Estimation of underground velocity structure using short-period microtremor array observation in Morioka area; Tanshuki bido no arei kansoku ni yoru Moriokashiiki no chika sokudo kozo no suitei

    Yamamoto, H.; Saito, T.; Iwamoto, K. [Iwate Univ., Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yoshida, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Obuchi, T. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering (Japan)


    Shallow underground velocity structure is important information on prediction of seismic characteristics of short-period component closely related to earthquake damages. Array observations of short-period microtremor were carried out at several sites in Morioka city area and the shallow underground velocity structures were estimated using frequency-wavenumber analysis and the inversion technique. At nine sites with different underground structure, the dispersion phenomena of phase velocities of Rayleigh wave with good continuity were observed and the shallow underground velocity structure were estimated from the phase velocities using two types of the inversion techniques, one for the case that unknown is S-wave velocity, and the other for the case that unknown is layer thickness. The results were consistent with those from the bore hole data. Short-period microtremor array observation has advantages of easy observation and no environmental problems and was shown to be effective for prospecting shallow underground structure beneath urban areas difficult with other geophysical prospecting techniques. 17 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Exploration of shallow subsurface resistivity structure using a portable TEM system: TEM-FAST prosystem; Kan`igata TEM ho sochi TEM-FAST prosystem ni yoru senbu hiteiko chosa

    Miura, Y.; Kumekawa, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given on effectiveness of the TEM-FAST ProSystem which is a portable TEM system developed recently for use in exploration of shallow subsurface resistivity. The system consists of a loop type antenna, the TEM-FAST as the main equipment, and a host computer, the host computer controlling the entire system. The system acquires transient response data in secondary induced magnetic fields lasting 4 {mu} sec to 1 m sec. The number of data is 5490 stacks in one measurement, and the data acquisition time is about three minutes. Measurements were carried out by using the TEM-FAST in the vicinity of a well, whose results were compared with those of electric logging, and discussions were given on them. Although the electric logging results had no data available for depths shallower than 35 m, the measurement results from the TEM-FAST were found highly harmonious with those of the electric logging. In addition, there were transmission and telephone lines in locations about 10 m away from the well during the measurement, but extremely high data quality was discovered. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Alkylation reaction by the 2-chloropropane of benzene on the hyper saline element processes alumina catalyst; Koenso shori arumina shokubaijo deno benzen no 2-kuroropuropan ni yoru arukiruka hanno

    Imanishi, Kazuhiro; Saeki, Takayuki; Sawada, Tetsuro; Shobu, Akinori


    The semibatch reactor was used at atmospheric pressure, 273K in respect of isopropyl reaction by 2-chloropropane (2CP) of benzene on aluminia catalyst (AmLSA) chlorinated in the high temperature. The AmLSA catalyst showed the activity, which was higher than the AlCl{sub 3} catalyst. Main products were isopropyl benzene (IPB) and para - diisopropyl benzene (dj-IPB) - 1,3,5-triisopropyl benzene (tri-IPB) and, and the generation of 4 substitutes was as a trace. Product composition at 2CP 100% conversion ratio is IPB 76%, di-IPB I9%, tri-IPB 5% Di-IPB in the isopropyl reaction of IPB be 82%, tri-IPB It was 18%. The catalyst was perfectly toxified, even if it is deaerated at the temperature of pyridine adsorption post 573K or less, and it began to recover in the de-aeration of 673K, and it recovered after the de-aeration at 873K to active 43% before the toxification. It was concluded, when the reaction perfectly stops, when the catalyst is removed from system of reaction, and when the elution of the active species has not been generated. In comparison with the result of result of the superscription and alkylation reaction by 1 - chloropropane (ICP) and isopropyl reaction by the aluminum chloride catalyst, the reaction on the AmLSA catalyst was explained with that it progressed by the mechanism of the Friedel-Crafts type. (translated by NEDO)

  11. FY 1998 annual report on the improvement of toughness of silicide-based intermetallic compounds by controlling their composite structures; 1998 nendo fukugo soshikika ni yoru shirisaidokei kinzokukan kagobutsu no kyojinsei kaizen chosa hokokusho



    Intermetallic compounds, although attracting much attention as most promising materials serviceable at superhigh temperature, are very fragile at normal temperature, which is one of their major disadvantages. Structures of these compounds prepared by the melting method are controlled to improve their toughness by, e.g., changing phase ratio of the initial crystal for the Mo-Si-Nb system to prevent cracking during the melting and casting stages, addition of a third element (e.g., Zr, Ti or Hf) or a mixed component of Nb and Zr to control the structure of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} considered to be a cause for the cracking, and controlling melting and solidification rates for the FZ melting method. The three-phase microstructures with added Hf or Zr show improved toughness, but need additional procedures for controlling solidification and cooling conditions. For the powder method, the MA conditions are investigated with a two-element system, and the effects of Al or Zr as the third element added to the base composition on the composite microstructures and constituent phases are also investigated. Unlike the melting method, the powder method causes no cracking problems during the stock preparation stage and hence is expected to be applicable to production of larger stocks. However, the products by this method are found to be insufficient both in toughness and high-temperature strength. It is necessary to develop methods for cutting down and controlling oxides in the grain boundaries, in order to prevent deterioration of their strength at high temperature. (NEDO)

  12. Improvement of life and NO{sub x} emission of radiant tube heating system by elastic-plastic creep analysis; Dansosei kuripu kaiseki ni yoru hosha dennetsukan kanetsu shisutemu no jumyo to NO{sub x} haishutsuryo no kaizen

    Nakagawa, Tsuguhiko; Nuta, Kunihiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Okayama, (Japan). Mizushima Warks


    The radiant tube heating system has been widely applied to the furnaces which require isolation of the heating atmosphere from the combustion atmosphere. However, the conventional system has a short life and it is difficult to reduce NO{sub x} emission when it is used at a high furnace temperature under high combustion load, because the fuel is burned in a small space. In order to solve this problem, we have studied the cause of radiant tube life depends on the uniformity of the temperature distribution along the radiant tube. We have developed a new burner using a two-stage combustion method with exhaust gas self-recirculation. As a result, the file of the new system has been increased by a factor of two or more, and NO{sub x} emission has been reduced by 20 % from previous levels. This paper presents an outline of the elastic-plastic creep analysis and the new burner, and describes the effect of its use on system life. (author)

  13. Numerical simulation on flow and density field in summer in Kagoshima bay by using a multi-layer model; Taso model ni yoru Kagoshimawan no kaki no ryudo to mitsudoba no suchi simulation

    Iwakiri, Y. [Water Works Bureau of Kagoshima City, Kagoshima (Japan); Kyozuka, Y. [Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan)


    Numerical simulation was performed on sea water circulation and density field in Kagoshima Bay by using a multi-layer model to verify a model by comparing the simulation result with observation values. The numerical computation model had the Coriolis parameters constant and used the Cartesian coordinates. Based on the fact that the scale in the perpendicular direction is very small as compared with that in the horizontal direction, a hydrostatic pressure approximation was used for the pressure, and an approximation that keeps density constant was used for all the other items than buoyancy. Processes for scales smaller than the lattice size were expressed by vortex viscosity terms and vortex diffusion terms. As a result of calculations, good agreement with observation values was derived in counterclockwise flow in the end of the bay and flow from the bay center to the entrance of the bay. The vertical distribution of density depicts well how density forming layers are created. In the calculation values of water temperature and salt content, good agreement with the observations was shown in the water temperature even in a quantitative aspect, but not as good agreement in the salt content as in the water temperature. In calculations that consider precipitation and evaporation, only the salt content showed values close to the observation values. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Development of membrane bioreactor system. 1. ; Selective permeation of protein solutions by electric microfiltrations. Mokei bioreactor system no kaihatsu. 1. ; Denki seimitsu roka ni yoru tanpakushitsu no sentaku toka

    Matsumoto, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Kuwahara, H. (Shizuoka Industrial Research Institute, Shizuoka (Japan))


    Investigation was carried out to apply electric microfiltration to the separation of fungus under fermentation from protein. A charged-type ultrafine filtration membrane was experimentally prepared to be combined with an electric field for the purpose of examining the permeation behaviour of membrane. First, a mixed suspension of bakers' yeast and bovine serum albumin was used as model ferment liquid so as to examine filtering conditions. In consequence, it was found that pH adjustment can control permeability; albumin content is increased as the electric field is strengthened; the current of less than 0.3A is practical in consideration of denaturation of protein and so forth. A ferment liquid yielding bacteriolytic enzyme was used as actual ferment liquid so as to confirm the above information. This method was judged to be effective for concentration and penetration of enzyme in bioreactors from the data on the relation between the blocking rate of enzyme and the change-over of polarity. It is considered possible from the investigation in which sulfonated polysulfon ultrafine filtering membrane as charge type membrane is combined with electric field to separate nucleic acids of similar molecular weight by their electric charge. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology


    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Analysis of the relationship between the coal properties and their liquefaction characteristics by using the coal data base; Tanshu data base ni yoru tanshitsu to ekika tokusei no kaiseki

    Kanbayashi, Y.; Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The relationship between coal properties and liquefaction or gasification characteristics was analyzed by using the analysis and test results and liquefaction characteristics in the coal data base. On liquefaction reaction, the close relation between an oil yield and coal constituent composition or a coal rank is well-known. Various multivariable regression analyses were conducted by using 6 factors as variables such as calorific value, volatile component, O/C and H/C atomic ratios, exinite+vitrinite content and vitrinite reflectance, and liquefaction characteristics as variate. On liquefaction characteristics, the oil yield of dehydrated and deashed coals, asphaltene yield, hydrogen consumption, produced water and gas quantities, and oil+asphaltene yield were predicted. The theoretical gasification efficiency of each specimen was calculated to evaluate the liquefaction reaction obtained. As a result, the oil yield increased with H/C atomic ratio, while the theoretical gasification efficiency increased with O/C atomic ratio. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Solubilization of meso-carbon microbeads by potassium- or dibutylzinc-promoted butylation and structural analysis of the butylated products; Mesocarbon microbeads no butyl ka ni yoru kayoka to erareta butyl kabutsu no kozo kaiseki

    Murata, S.; Zhang, Y.; Kidena, K.; Nomura, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility and structure of the butylated products of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) were studied experimentally. In experiment, MCMB-A and MCMB-B obtained from two kinds of coal-tar pitch were used as specimens. MCMBs were butylated by BZ method using dibutylzinc-butyl iodide and KT method using K-butyl iodide-THF, and the butylated products were successfully obtained. The butylated products were investigated through THF solubility test, {sup 13}C-NMR measurement and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurement. As the experimental result, a BZ method produced the butylated products at a yield of nearly 170%, while a KT method produced them at a yield of nearly 130%. The THF solubility was estimated to be 89-97%. As the study result of molecular weight distributions by GPC measurement of solvent solubles, the molecular weight of raw material MCMB was estimated to be 590-770 in terms of polystyrene. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Development of the EM tomography system. Part 2. Sensitivity studies of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. 2. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    A model analysis was used to investigate sensitivity of a two-dimensional structure on a resistivity anomalous body by using an electromagnetic tomography system. The resistivity model handled a three-dimensional structure. The model was prepared as a pseudo two-dimensional model in which a low resistivity anomalous body with 1 ohm-m was incorporated that has a basic length of 1000 m in the Y-direction in a homogenous medium having 100 ohm-m. As a result of the analysis, the following matters were elucidated: if a low resistivity anomalous body is present in a shallow subsurface, its impact starts appearing from lower frequencies than when the anomalous body exists only at a greater depth; if a high resistivity anomalous body exists, the detection sensitivity is lower than for the low resistivity anomalous body, but the analysis would be possible by using the phase because the phase has made a greater change; the source TxZ shows a change from lower frequencies than for the source TxX, and the amount of change is greater, hence the detection sensitivity on an anomalous body may be said higher with the source TxZ; however, for the anomalous body in shallow subsurface, the source TxX is more effective since it is not subjected to a too great impact at a greater depth. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Co-C binding cleavage by the hydrolysis reaction of the Vitamins B{sub 12} coenzyme; Bitamin B{sub 12} hokoso no kasui bunkai hanno ni yoru Co-C setsugo kairetsu

    Yonemura, T. [Kochi Univ., Kochi (Japan)


    Vitamin B{sub 12} isolated as antineoplastic anemia agent in 1948 were organometallic complex found in the nature at first, and it was noticed as a metal compound with the unique cobalt-carbon sigma (Co-C{sigma}) combination. Halpern et al. had estimated the dissociation energy to be 26-31kcal/mol when the Co-C combination of the segregated adenosylcobalamin clove in the homolysis, and Finke et al. reported that the cleavage speed is hastened over 10 {sup 10} times under the enzymatic reaction condition inside such a protein. Based on this important factor, the contribution of the electro-donicity of the shaft configuration base was indicated, and other factors to cause the Co-C binding cleavage were recently examined by Halpern and Finke et al. According to the research by Halpern, homolysis reaction and heterolysis reaction were competitively generated, and pH value, temperature, type of the alkyl ligand had a great influence. Especially, it has been clarified that the difference due to the substituent is remarkable. (NEDO)

  20. Discrimination of aromas from several kinds of alcohol using synthetic-resin-film-coated quartz resonator smell sensor; Gosei jushimaku wo tofushita suisho shindoshishiki nioi sensor ni yoru sake no shurui hanbetsu

    Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Morita, T. Dogami, N.; Nanto, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Doguchi, Y. [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa Prefecture, Ishikawa (Japan)


    Transient response curves for aromas from several kinds of alcohol such as Fruit Liquor (8%), Wine (14%), Japanese Sake (15%) and Whisky (43%) are observed using quartz-crystal-resonator gas sensor coated with synthetic-resin-film(acrylic resin, alkyd resin or urethane resin). The pattern recognition analysis using principal component analysis or neural network analysis is carried out using four parameters which characterize the transient response curves. The recognition probability of neural network for four kinds of alcohol is 100% for 20 trials. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Total eco-monitoring system 'EcoEASIEST' using a wireless network; Flexible musen network ni yoru 'sogo eko kanshi system' 'EcoEASIEST'

    Ando, N.; Fukuda, E.; Yamamo, H. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Fuji Electric's total eco-monitoring system mainly consists of analysis, computerization, and transmission. The design concept is 'consideration to the field,' 'a serviceable database,' and 'a flexible network.' This is an optimum system to minimize environmental degradation and reduce energy consumption stated in the ISO14001 and the amendment to the Energy Saving Act. (author)

  2. Investigation of phenomena of Southern Hyogo Earthquake, and observation of thunderbolts in winter using the integrated thunderbolt observation system; Hyogoken nanbu jishin no gensho no kaimei, sogo kaminari kansoku system ni yoru toki kaminari kansoku

    Kurihara, C.; Shindo, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    The focal region of this earthquake was in the upper part of crusher zone of granite, and the maximum horizontal acceleration was about 300 gal which was increased at the surface into two times. Energy input would be concentrated between the first and second waves, to act on the structures resulting in the immediate destruction. The non-linear analysis method based on the effective stress was applied. As a result, the damping of horizontal acceleration and enhancing of vertical acceleration accompanied with liquefaction, and the amount of ground subsidence at the foundation of main tower of Akashi Bridge on the sand/gravel ground could be well simulated. The position of the fault and deformation structure in the surface layer could be detected down to the depth of more than 10 m by means of high density electrical exploration and underground radar exploration. (2) To observe thunderbolt field at various points and collect these data effectively, a remote control thunderbolt observation system was constructed. Thunderbolts in winter at Fukui were observed by integrating this system with the conventional optical observation, observation of thunder current, and observation of thunder cloud using Doppler radar. About a half of thunderstrokes in winter were due to the straight polarity discharge. It was also confirmed that generation of upward thunderbolts relates closely to the electrical activities in the thunder cloud. 6 figs.

  3. Development of a working face condition detector utilizing electromagnetic wave and its application to sites. Denjiha ni yoru kiriha no jokyo tanchi sochi no kaihatsu to genba eno tekiyo

    Ito, Tatsuo; Murakawa, Tadao (Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This report outlines the development of a facing condition detector which detects the circumstances of faces in shield tunnelling utilizing electromagnetic wave and its application to sites. An underground radar which emits electromagnetic wave from the earth surface to the underground, receives the electric wave reflected from the surface of the target in the underground, and detects the existence or non-existence of and the position of the target is already put to practical use. Principle of this detector is the same as that of the underground radar. Difference is that it utilizes the dielectric constant of the reflected wave. The reflected wave comes back from the boundary of media of different dielectric constants such as the boundary of water and earth and the boundary of gravel and earch. Difference in time of emission and reception indicates the distance, and the strength of the reflected wave indicates the value of the dielectric constant. The distance and the dielectric constant help to judge the circumstances of the face. As a result of using this detector at sites, it was found out that this detector can be used satisfactorily at the present level as a digging administration equipment to detect abnormalities at the early stage although the indicated distance is quite ambiguous and experience is required to judge displays. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Development of buried cable location survey system by underground rader for power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka no tame no chika radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa system no kaihatsu

    Suzuki, K.; Kitano, K.


    To execute construction work for power distribution cables under pavements reasonably, it is important to develop a technology capable of non-destructive detection of the location of existing buried cables from the ground surface. This study is to clarify the principle, measurement method, effectiveness, and limitation of the underground radar system which is at present considered as the most effective survey method for buried cables. In this system, accuracy in measuring the depth of underground cable location by a separated type antenna has been improved, software to improve resolution by a migration process has been developed, and a compact survey system which can analyze the data on the site has been realized. As aresult of the survey at city areas, all pipes buried less than 1m in depth with the resistivity value of more than 100 {Omega} m were detected as well as those less than 2m in depth with more than some 100 {Omega} m. However, non-metal pipes buried deeper than 1m in the ground of less than 100 {Omega} m were not detected. Consequently, improvement of the system is necessary in future. 7 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Development of environmental assessment by tree ring (1). Characteristics of tree ring width in pine tree. Jumoku nenrin ni yoru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho no kaihatsu (1). Matsu no nenrin haba no jittai to kiso tokusei

    Shinada, Yasushi; Nashimoto, Makoto; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu.


    In order to investigate the causal relation of change in vegetation status with the power station after starting the operation, pine trees in the surrounding area were studied in tree ring characteristics. The sampling was made at six stands ranged from the Tohhoku district to the Chugoku district. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 0.1 to 16.2mm and 0.05 to 9.05mm, respectively, in tree ring width. They were, in frequency distribution, both a logarithmic normal distribution with 1.05 to 1.50mm in mode. Their frequency distribution being a logarithmic normal distribution, along with advance in years thereafter it transfers to a normal distribution, then to a logarithmic normal distribution, then to an L-shaped distribution. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 6.5+-3.5mm and 6.5+-2.5mm, respectively, in maximum tree ring width, of which the appearance ratio was high in trees, 4 to 12 years old. While the minimum tree ring width appears, when the tree is very young in age and in specific calendar years during its second half of life. As for the time series of tree ring width, it, small when one year old, continues to enlarge along with advance in years until about ten years old, attains the maximum and, after then, diminishes along with advance in years. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Manufacturing of semi-solid ferrous alloys. 3. ; Manufacturing of semi-solid metals by SCR (shear-cooling roll) process. Tetsukei gokin no hangyoko shorizai no seizo. 3. ; Sendan reikyaku roll ho ni yoru hangyoko shori kinzoku no seizo

    Sugiyama, S.; Kiuchi, M.; Yamamoto, J. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)


    This paper reports on devising a shear-cooling roll (SCR) process that differs from the rheocasting process, and on trial manufacturing of semi-solid metals using ferrous alloys. Test specimens were made from three kinds of graphite cast iron (FC30, one corresponding to FC20, and FCD40), stainless steel (SUS304), and carbon steel (S45C). The experimental result revealed the following matters: semi-solid metals can be manufactured in a wide range of states such as foil, high and low solid-phase slurries; preheating temperatures of the roll and fixed cooling shoe affect largely the appearance and internal structure of SCR-processed materials; and the internal structure of an SCR-processed material forms a uniform isometric system and progresses recrystallization if it is heated and retained above the solid phase line. These results indicate nearly the same phenomena as those presented by low melting point alloys including solder and aluminum alloys. The processing procedure consists of injection of molten test specimen of a predetermined weight (about 10 kg) into the roll and fixed cooling shoe in the SCR machine preheated to the same temperature as that of the melt, and air-cooling the discharged metal in a container having heat insulated inner face. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Heat and fluid flow properties of circular impinging jet with a low nozzle to plate spacing. Improvement by nothched nozzle; Nozzle heibankan kyori ga chiisai baai no enkei shototsu funryu no ryudo dennetsu tokusei. Kirikaki nozzle ni yoru kaizen kojo

    Shakouchih, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Matsumoto, A.; Watanabe, A.


    It is well known that as decreasing the nozzle to plate spacing considerably the heat transfer coefficient of circular impinging jet, which impinges to the plate normally, increases remarkably. At that time, the flow resistance of nozzle-plate system also increases rapidly. In this study, in order to reduce the flow resistance and to enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the circular impinging jet with a considerably low nozzle to plate spacing, a special nozzle with notches is proposed, and considerable improvement of the flow and heat transfer properties are shown. The mechanism of enhancement of the heat transfer properties is also discussed. (author)

  8. Critical heat flux in bottom heated two-phase thermosyphon. Improvement in critical heat flux due to concentric tube; Katan shuchu kanetsugata niso netsu syphon no genkai netsu ryusoku. Nijukan ni yoru genkai netsu ryusoku no kaizen

    Monde, M.; Mitsutake, Y. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering


    An experiment has been carried out to elucidate the critical heat flux (CHF) of an open two-phase thermosyphon with a bottom heated chamber in which heat is absorbed by evaporation of liquid. Another objective is to enhance the CHF using a concentric-tube by which counter-current flow of vapor and liquid in the throat of the chamber can be controlled well. The CHF data are measured for the saturated liquid of R 113 at a different pressure and different configuration of concentric tubes. The CHF data without the inner tube are in good agreement with the existing correlation and analytical result. The CHF increases by as much as several times of the CHF without the inner tube with an increase in the inner tube diameter up to a certain diameter of the inner tube and then decreases continuously as the inner tube diameter approaches the outer tube diameter. The optimum diameter of inner tube exists at which the CHF is maximum. (author)

  9. Improvement of the characteristics of a diagonal-flow fan in low flow range with casing-bleed-holes; Keshingu kiko ni yoru sharyu sofuki no teiryu ryoiki tokusei no kaizen

    Ando, Yoichi; Sasaki, Kazuto; Yamaguchi, Sumio; Yamashita, Shoji; Shimada, Taichiro


    Generally, a high specific speed diagonal flow fan with a small pressure rise coefficient has a slight positive gradient part of the pressure rise - flow rate characteristics. In addition, the pressure fall is small, between the flow rate at which the impeller stall in the throttle closer and the stalling flow rate. In the case, Kaneko et al. suggest a way of improvement on performance characteristics by an inlet annular wing which removes a low-momentum fluid from a rotor tip region. However, in case of a fan that has a sharp drop of pressure rise in the stall characteristics, it is not clear that the stall characteristics can be improved by this way. In this study, in order to improve the unstable characteristics of a high pressure rise coefficient diagonal flow fan, Tip clearance flow has been investigated on five rotor-casings with various holes to bleed low-momentum fluid in the range of flow rate from design point to stall point. (author)

  10. Improvement of low temperature oxidation resistance in MoSi{sub 2}-oxides composites; Sankabutsu no fukugoka ni yoru MoSi{sub 2} zairyo no teion sanka tokusei no kaizen

    Jiang, W.; Uchiyama, T. [Riken Corp., Saitama (Japan)


    MoSi{sub 2}-oxides composites using fine aluminosilicate powder (< 0.2{mu}m) have demonstrated excellent low temperature oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance. These properties strongly depend on microstructural morphology and are obtained in composites that network-structures of both phases of MoSi{sub 2} and oxides are developed, i.e., in composites with oxides of 20 {approx} 40 vol. %. When one phase is independently dispersed in the other phase, on the other hand, problems of low temperature oxidation and thermal shock occur. The low temperature oxidation problem occurs in the composites with oxides less than 15 vol. % and the thermal shock problem occurs in the composites with oxides more than 50 vol. %. These results will contribute to material design approaches for high temperature structural applications of MoSi{sub 2}. (author)

  11. Effects of Mie tip-vane on pressure distribution of rotor blade and power augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine; Yokutan shoyoku Mie ben ni yoru suiheijiku fusha yokumenjo no atsuryoku bunpu no kaizen to seino kojo tono kankei

    Shimizu, Y.; Maeda, T.; Kamada, Y. [Mie Univ., Mie (Japan); Seto, H. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    By recent developments of exclusive rotor blade, the efficiency of wind turbine is improved substantially. By measuring pressure on rotor blades of horizontal axis wind turbines rotating in wind tunnels, this report clarified relation between improvement of pressure distribution on main rotor blades by Mie vane and upgrade of wind turbine performance. The results under mentioned have been got by measuring pressure distribution on rotor blades, visualization by tuft, and measuring resistance of Mie vane. (1) The difference of pressure between suction surface and pressure surface on the end of rotor blade increase, and output power of wind turbine improves. (2) Vortex of blade end is inhibited by Mie vane. (3) The reason of reduction on wind turbine performance with Mie vane in aria of high rotating speed ratio is the increase of Mie vane flow resistance.(NEDO)

  12. Three-dimensional computer simulation at vehicle collision using dynamic model. Application to various collision types; Rikigaku model ni yoru jidosha shototsuji no sanjigen kyodo simulation. Shushu no shototsu keitai eno tekiyo

    Abe, M.; Morisawa, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, K. [Molex-Japan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The past study of safety at vehicle collision pays attention to phenomena within the short time from starting collision, and the behavior of rollover is studied separating from that at collision. Most simulations of traffic accident are two-dimensional simulations. Therefore, it is indispensable for vehicle design to the analyze three-dimensional and continuous behavior from crash till stopping. Accordingly, in this study, the three-dimensional behavior of two vehicles at collision was simulated by computer using dynamic models. Then, by comparison of the calculated results with real vehicles` collision test data, it was confirmed that dynamic model of this study was reliable. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Joint stiffness identification of body structure using neural network. Jointed part composed of 2 beams; Neural network ni yoru shatai kozo no ketsugo gosei dotei. Buzai 2 hon kara naru ketsugobu no baai

    Okabe, A.; Tomioka, N. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)


    The method to obtain a joint stiffness value from displacements of jointed part using hierarchical neural networks in case of a jointed part composed of two beams were proposed. First, the sample data of displacements of jointed part vs. joint stiffness are prepared as learned data. Second, the relations between displacements of jointed part and joint stiffness are constructed from these learned data using a hierarchical neural networks. It was found that the value of joint stiffness can be obtained from displacement of jointed part by the trained neural network. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Attempt of lean burn of a 4 cycle gasoline engine by the aid of low pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection; Tonai kuki nenryo funsha ni yoru lean burn no kokoromi

    Hatakeyama, S.; Kondo, M.; Sekiya, Y.; Murayama, T. [Hokkaido Automotive Engineering College, Hokkaido (Japan)


    Comparable performance and exhaust emission with conventional carburetor was obtained by a low Pressure air assisted in-cylinder injection system. And lean burn of idling and light load operation till A/F=70 was realized by installing a spark Plug and a reed type injection nozzle in a divided combustion chambaer of a 4 cycle gasoline engine. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Study of stratified charge wankel rotary engine. (Part 1). ; Summary of the combustion by pilot-burner flame ignition. Sojo kyuki nensho wankel gata kaiten pisuton kikan no kenkyu. (1). ; Pilot kaen chakka ni yoru nensho no gaiyo

    Muroki, T. (Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Morita, K. (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))


    In the U.S.A., the stratified charge wankel rotary engine (hereinafter referred to as DISC-RE) has been developed. This engine uses various kinds of fuel, has a low compression ratio, is equipped with a turbo supercharger, adopts the pilot flame forced ignition system and shows excellent performance. In order to elucidate the basic characteristics of this new internal combustion engine, an experiment was conducted using a single cylinder two cycle diesel engine as a rapid pressure device, to which a modelled combustion chamber was attached. This article is its first report. The main results of the experiment are as follows: It is considered that the combustion process in the modelled combustion chamber used in this study can be made almost similar to the combustion process in the experimental DISC-RE and is sufficient for understanding the basic characteristics of the combustiion. The form of the basic combustion of main fuel is that violent pre-mixed combustion occurs after ignition, then very slow combustion persists for a long time. In order to activate diffuse combustion, it is necessary to facilitate diffusion of the flame of pre-mixed combustion and mixing of fuel and air, and to raise wall temperature of the combustion chamber, etc. 3 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Design of low order controller using the loop shaping design procedure. Stabilizing control of a two-wheeled vehicle; Loop seikei sekkei shuho ni yoru teijigen seigyoki no sekkei

    Murata, T.; Kawatani, R. [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka (Japan)


    This paper proposes one design method of low order controllers using a loop shaping design procedure (LSDP). The order of a controller using the central solution of LSDP becomes the sum of the order of a design model and 2 times the order of a weight transfer function, while that using this method becomes the sum of 1 and the order of a weight transfer function. Since this method uses no approximation in order reduction, the proper shaping performance of LSDP is retained. This method was applied to the stabilizing control problem of a two-wheeled vehicle as typical unstable mechanical system to verify its effectiveness. Measured tilt angles to a floor and truck positions of a two-wheeled vehicle are inputted into a computer, and calculated control inputs are sent to the servo module of a speed control system through a D/A convertor. The DC motor-driven truck of a two- wheeled vehicle thus moves in a direction to stabilize a two- wheeled vehicle. A good agreement was obtained between the simulation and experimental results of this design. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Robust stabilization control of power system based on the direct control of generator power by series variable impedance unit; Chokuretsu kahen inpidansu wo mochiita hatsudenki denryoku no chokusetsu seigyo ni yoru robasuto keito anteika seigyo

    Hojo, M.; Mitani, Y.; Tuji, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)


    Advanced control system design method (whose application is believed to be difficult in practical use) with the advancement of technologies of power system stabilization controllers has received much attention. In particular, demand of stabilizing control system with high robustness is pointed out. Construction of linearization control system is proposed based on direct operating volume of electric output power`s generator using the series variable impedance unit in this paper. The results are summarized as follows. Based on direct control aim of a generator power out of system of controllers with reference to the swing characteristics of power generator under specification, a linearized control is manufactured. Proposed control based on simple construction using variable impedance unit which is connected continuously with transmission line is realized. Linear system which keeps eigen values pointed out by designers who predicts based on the use of proposed controller is obtained. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Stabilization of a large-capacity and long-distance transmission system by an adjustable speed flywheel generator; Kahensoku FWG ni yoru daiyoryo chokyori soden keito anteika no kento

    Takahashi, O; Sato, K.; Goto, K.; Sirosaki, T. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc, Miyagi (Japan); Sanekata, J.; Amano, M.; Endo, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    An adjustable speed flywheel generator (FWG) is composed of a dynamotor and a flywheel which can accumulate energy as rotational energy. Its adjustable device operates owing to exciting the rotors by three-phase current. When the rotational speed does not coincide with the synchronous one, difference between the two, namely the slipped frequency, excites the rotors. According to this principle, the flywheel can run synchronizing with the transmission system. Selection of the location for FWGs being important from the standpoint of large-capacity and long-distance transmission, a PQ-sensitivity method has been proposed as a new technique, which can estimate the effect of both FWG`s active and reactive power with ease. Besides, regarding an input signal for stabilizing control, new method has been developed which apply the frequency of the bus instead of the power flow. Owing to this method, conventional stepwise changes of the power flow at every opening three-phase single-circuit have disappeared. As for the capacity of the FWG, the fact that the capacity of the exciter depends on the slip investigated, a designing method has been proposed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Shape estimation of the buried body from the ground surface potential distributions generated by current injection; Tsuryu ni yoru chihyomen den`i bunpu wo riyoshita maizobutsu keijo no suitei

    Takahashi, Y.; Okamoto, Y. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Noguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y. [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Akabane, H.; Agu, M. [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Ground surface potential distribution generated by current injection was studied to estimate the shape of buried bodies. Since the uniform ground system including a homogeneous buried body is perfectly determined with the surface shape of a buried body and resistivities in/around a buried body, inversion is easy if the surface shape is described with some parameters. N electrodes are arranged in 2-D grid manner on the ground, and two electrodes among them are used for current injection, while the others for measurement of potentials. M times of measurements are repeated while changing combination of electrodes for current injection. The potential distribution measured by the mth electrode pair is represented by N-2 dimensional vectors. The square error between this distribution and calculated one is the function of k parameters on the surface shape and resistivities on a buried body. Both shape and resistivities can be estimated by solving an optimum value problem using the square error as evaluation function. Analysis is easy for a spherical body with 6 unknown parameters, however, it is difficult for more complex bodies than elliptical one or more than two bodies. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Study of the development of high resolution sub-surface fluid monitoring system using Accurately Controlled Routine Operated Seismic Sources (ACROSS); Seimitsu seigyo shingen ni yoru chika ryutai koseido monitoring no kenkyu

    Kumazawa, M.; Ogawa, K.; Fujii, N.; Yamaoka, K.; Kumagai, H.; Takei, Y. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ishihara, K.; Nakaya, m. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)


    Fourier seismology capable of determining quantities related to elastic wave velocity dispersibility and non-elastic damping is under development, and studies are under way for the development of a sub-surface probing technology utilizing this seismology. It is deemed that the above-said quantities are related to the occurrence of earthquakes, behavior of sub-surface water, and migration of magma. In this method, precisely controlled sinusoidal waves are radiated and the received spectral data is subjected to cepstrum analysis, advantageous over other methods in that it achieves a high S/N ratio in a non-destructive way, facilitates deep structure analysis, and capable of monitoring changes with the elapse of time in such a structure. A newly-developed high-mobility transportable quake generator is described, which covers a wider frequency range and aims at the short-distance exploration of sub-surface conditions. Important components of the quake generator include an eccentric mass bearing capable of dealing with high-speed rotation enabling high frequency oscillation, variable mechanism for the primary moment of inertia, exciter and ground surface coupler allowing operations on a soft ground, and torque cancelling mechanism for the excitation of SH waves only. 3 figs.