WorldWideScience

Sample records for gigantes del extremo

  1. Funciones sociales del consumo: un caso extremo

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ CASTILLO CASTILLO

    1994-01-01

    El consumo religioso de reliquías de santos durante la edad media cumple semejantes funciones sociales para su época que el consumo economico de objetos para la nuestra: El de reforzar real y simbólicamente las estructuras de prestigio, riqueza y poder de sus respectivas sociedades. El ámbito de la sociología del consumo no se circunscribe a los estrechos límites de las llamadas sociedades de consumo de masas. en el presente caso, el estudio del pasado ilumina procesos sociales propios de nue...

  2. Funciones sociales del consumo: un caso extremo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ CASTILLO CASTILLO

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo religioso de reliquías de santos durante la edad media cumple semejantes funciones sociales para su época que el consumo economico de objetos para la nuestra: El de reforzar real y simbólicamente las estructuras de prestigio, riqueza y poder de sus respectivas sociedades. El ámbito de la sociología del consumo no se circunscribe a los estrechos límites de las llamadas sociedades de consumo de masas. en el presente caso, el estudio del pasado ilumina procesos sociales propios de nuestros días.

  3. Infraestructura y significado en la dominiación Inka del centro oeste argentino (Coa extremo austral Oriental del Tawantinsuyu

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    J. Roberto Bárcena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el apoyo de la ANPCyT (SECYT y del CONICET mediante subsidios, desarrollamos investigaciones arqueológicas y etnohistóricas sobre la dominación inka en el Centro oeste argentino, extremo austral oriental del Tawantinsuyu. En la actualidad trabajamos en las provincias de La Rioja (Famatina, Laguna Brava, Guandacol, entre otras áreas, San Juan (Reserva de la Biosfera de San Guillermo, Valle Fértil, Paso del Lámar —Jáchal—, entre otros sectores y Mendoza (Valle de Uspallata, Valle de Uco, entre otras zonas, estudiando la vialidad y los sitios relacionados, excavando varios de éstos. Un abordaje de tal envergadura implica, entre otras, la posibilidad de contrastar semejanzas y diferencias en la implantación territorial, diversidad en las relaciones con las poblaciones locales y sumanifestación en los indicadores arqueológicos y etnohistóricos y permite contrastar los modelos de dominación regional. En este contexto nos referimos, desde la perspectiva del significado, al registro de bienes inka como ser, entre otros, la propia arquitectura o los relacionados con los sitios ceremoniales de alturaWith the support of the ANPCyT (SECYT and of the CONICET we have undertaken archaeological and ethnohistorical research on the Inka domination in the Argentine centralwest, at the oriental austral extreme of the Tawantinsuyu. Our team is presently working in the provinces of: La Rioja (at Famatina, Laguna Brava,Guandacol, among other areas, San Juan (at the Reserva de la Biosfera de San Guillermo, Valle Fértil and Paso del Lámar -Jáchal-, among other sectors and,Mendoza (at the Valle deUspallata, Valle deUco, among other zones, studying the net of roads and other related sites, excavating several of the later ones. Such an approach implies, between others, the possibility of contrasting similarities and differences in the territorial implantation, the diversity in relations with the local inhabitants and its manifestation in the

  4. Los españoles en los caminos del extremo norte del Perú en 1532

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    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available LES ESPAGNOLS SUR LES CHEMINS DE L'EXTRÊME NORD DU PÉROU EN 1532. À partir des relations des chroniqueurs qui ont accompagné Pizarro de Tumbes à Cajamarca, de la liste des tambos de 1543, des informations sur les caciques de 1548 et de la prospection des sites le long des chemins muletiers de l’extrême nord du Pérou, les routes incas de la côte et de la sierra par lesquelles sont passés les espagnols en 1532 ont été identifiées. On a repéré les centres administratifs et cérémoniels depuis lesquels les incas controlaient les caciques locaux des versants nord-ouest et sud-est des monts Amotape, des vallées du Chira et du Piura, sur la côte, et des hautes terres de Caxas et Huancabamba, ainsi que les tambos situés le long de ces routes. On a pu retrouver les maisons fortifiées et les villages des caciques de Pabur et Serrán dans la vallée du Piura. Finalement on a tenté de délimiter les terres et les canaux d’irrigation qui permettaient la produccion des differents cacicazgos. A partir de las relaciones de los cronistas que acompañaron a Pizarro de Tumbes a Cajamarca, de la lista de los tambos de 1543, de las informaciones sobre los caciques de 1548 y de la prospección de los sitios a lo largo de los caminos de herradura del extremo norte del Perú, se identificaron las rutas incaicas de la costa y de la sierra por las cuales pasaron los españoles en 1532. Se ubicaron los centros administrativos y ceremoniales desde los cuales los incas controlaban los caciques locales de las vertientes noroeste y sureste de los cerros de Amotape, de los valles de los ríos Chira y Piura, en la costa, y los de las serranías de Caxas y Huancabamba, así como los tambos ubicados a lo largo de estas rutas. Se logró encontrar las casas cercadas y los pueblos de los caciques de Pabur y Serrán en el valle del río Piura. Finalmente se intentó deslindar las tierras y los canales de irrigación que permitían la producción de los

  5. Frontera entre 'áreas culturales' nor y centroandinas en los valles y la costa del extremo norte peruano

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    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available FRONTIÈRE ENTRE LES 'AIRES CULTURELLES' NORD ET CENTRE ANDINES DANS LES VALLÉES ET SUR LA CÔTE DE L'EXTRÊME NORD DU PÉROU. Dans les pages suivantes les informations archéologiques qui traitent de la côte et des vallées de l'extrême nord du Pérou seront réunies, comparées et discutées, dans le but de reconstituer les déplacements de la frontière entre les 'aires culturelles' nord et centre andines. Cette frontière constitue la limite septentrionale de 'l'organisation andine' de la production et de 'l'ordre andin' qui permet d'assurer la reproduction sociale. En las páginas siguientes se tratará de reunir, comparar y discutir las informaciones arqueológicas sobre la costa y los valles del extremo norte del Perú, con el fin de rastrear los desplazamientos de la frontera entre las 'áreas culturales' norandina y centroandina. Esta frontera constituye el límite septentrional de la 'organización andina' de la producción y del 'orden andino' que permite asegurar la reproducción social. BORDERS SET AMONG VALLEYS OF THE NORTH AND CENTRAL HIGHLAND 'CULTURAL AREAS' AND THE COAST OF THE PERUVIAN EXTREME NORTH. An attempt to gather, compare and discuss archaeological information on the coast and valleys of the peruvian extreme north is going to be made through the following pages, in order to trace the displacements of borders among the north and central highland 'cultural areas'. This frontier constitutes a septentrional limit for the 'andean organization' and the 'andean order' of the production which allows to ensure social reproduction.

  6. Aneurisma gigante del apéndice auricular izquierdo

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Martínez,Francisco L; González Alfonso,Osvaldo; Lagomasino Hidalgo,Álvaro L; González Díaz,Alejandro; Oliva Céspedes,Carlos; López Bernal,Omaida J

    2006-01-01

    Los aneurismas de la aurícula izquierda son raros y pueden ser congénitos o adquiridos. Los que interesan la pared libre o el apéndice auricular son entidades más raras aún, hasta 2002 sólo existían 49 casos reportados en la aurícula izquierda y 8 en la derecha. La manifestación clínica más frecuente es la aparición de arritmias auriculares incesantes o recurrentes y pueden presentarse embolias sistémicas que pueden dar al traste con la vida del paciente. Presentamos el caso de una paciente a...

  7. La experiencia del padre durante la hospitalización de su hijo recién nacido Pretérmino extremo

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Melania Cañas-Lopera; Yanira Astrid Rodríguez-Holguín

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: identificar el significado que le asigna el padre a la hospitalización de su hijo recién nacido pretérmino extremo. Materiales y métodos: estudio cualitativo, con la metodología de etnoenfermería, realizado en Bogotá, en el que participaron ocho padres. Los datos fueron analizados teniendo en cuenta las cuatro fases para el análisis de la información según Leininger. Resultados y discusión: a la luz de la teoría del Sol Naciente de Leininger surgen dos temas y siete patrones contras...

  8. UNA CONCEPTUALIZACIÓN ACERCA DE LA CRONOLOGÍA DE LAS ESTACIONES ENTRE LOS TEHUELCHES DEL EXTREMO SUR DE PATAGONIA

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    Fabián Arias

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo intenta repasar un conjunto de categorías lingüísticas por medio de las cuales los tehuelches de la Patagonia austral significaron distintos ciclos cronológicos que se sucedían en el transcurso del año. Estos períodos remitían a fenómenos de índole natural que afectaron la cotidianeidad de las tolderías y determinaron, durante mucho tiempo, las condiciones en las que se organizó el poblamiento regional. Son justamente esas circunstancias las que se van a ver cada vez más intermediadas a partir de la incorporación del caballo, sucedida en el extremo sur, hacia la mitad del siglo XVIII.

  9. La Puerta del Perú: Paita y el extremo norte costeño, 1600-1615

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available LA PUERTA DEL PERÚ : PAITA ET L'EXTREME NORD COTIER, 1600-1615. Cet article fait parti d’un travail de recherche sur le port de Paita et son rôle dans l’histoire régionale de l’extrême nord du Pérou (Glave, 1991. On présente l’histoire du port, depuis sa fondation jusqu’au début du XVII siècle. Les sources principales sont les comptes de la Caja Real de Paita sur l’almojarifazgo (ancien droit de douane et comptes détaillés de 1600 à 1611. À partir de ces documents ainsi que d’autres informations directes, on analyse les réseaux d'échange et la circulation de biens qui transitaient par le port, le volume et la nature des revenus fiscaux et les dépenses qui se faisaient, en particulier pour approvisionner les premiers chantiers navals des Andes qui se trouvaient à Guayaquil. Parallèlement à cette histoire portuaire, d’économie maritime et régionale, l’intérêt de cet article est d’étudier le rôle joué par la société indienne dans le système économique maritime et régional. L’apport des indios balseros est mis en évidence, ainsi que le contrôle exercé par les personnes originaires de la région sur la pèche, ce qui permettait d’articuler l’économie locale aux réseaux d’échange régionaux. Este artículo es parte de una investigación mayor sobre el puerto de Paita y su papel en la historia regional del extremo norte peruano (Glave, 1991 trata de la época inicial del establecimiento del puerto, hasta inicios del siglo XVII. La documentación central corresponde a las cuentas de la Caja Real de Paita, entre 1600 y 1611. Se analiza, en base a esa documentación -almojarifazgo y cuentas por menudo- y otras informaciones de primera mano, las redes de intercambio y la circulación de bienes por el puerto, el volumen y naturaleza de los ingresos fiscales y los gastos que se hacían, fundamentalmente para el abasto de la fábrica de los primeros barcos andinos que se construyeron en Guayaquil. Junto con

  10. Análisis de la variabilidad y tendencias de eventos extremos de precipitación en el contexto del cambio climático: desarrollo de una herramienta de seguimiento dinámico de inundaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Osorio, Juan Diego

    2012-01-01

    [SPA] La región Sudano Saheliana en África Occidental, una de las más pobres del planeta, se caracteriza por una gran variabilidad de las precipitaciones y un rápido crecimiento demográfico. Dada su vulnerabilidad climática, en la región los eventos extremos (sequías e inundaciones), causan cuantiosos daños que con frecuencia involucran perjuicios a la propiedad y pérdida de vidas humanas. El conocimiento de las tendencias plausibles de los eventos extremos de precipitación es crucial desde ...

  11. Análisis de la variabilidad y tendencias de eventos extremos de precipitación en el contexto del cambio climático: desarrollo de una herramienta de seguimiento dinámico de inundaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Osorio, Juan Diego

    2011-01-01

    [SPA] La región Sudano Saheliana en África Occidental, una de las más pobres del planeta, se caracteriza por una gran variabilidad de las precipitaciones y un rápido crecimiento demográfico. Dada su vulnerabilidad climática, en la región los eventos extremos (sequías e inundaciones), causan cuantiosos daños que con frecuencia involucran perjuicios a la propiedad y pérdida de vidas humanas. El conocimiento de las tendencias plausibles de los eventos extremos de precipitación es crucial desde ...

  12. Producción y uso de ornamentos en las tierras bajas de Sudamérica: el caso de las poblaciones humanas prehispánicas del extremo meridional de la cuenca del Plata (Argentina

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    Acosta, A.A., Buc, N., Davrieux, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los conjuntos ornamentales generados por las poblaciones humanas prehispánicas que ocuparon el extremo meridional de la cuenca del Plata. Se describen las piezas recuperadas en diversos sitios arqueológicos teniendo en cuenta las materias primas empleadas, sus mecanismos de obtención y otros aspectos relacionados con la manufactura. Posteriormente se evalúa y discute su potencial uso como medios de transmisión de información. Para ello se consideran diferentes factores vinculados con los sistemas de intercambio y la extensión de las redes sociales en el marco del crecimiento demográfico y del grado de complejidad social que alcanzaron dichas poblaciones durante la fase final del Holoceno tardío.

  13. Utilização de métodos contraceptivos por adolescentes do sexo feminino da Comunidade Restinga e Extremo Sul Utilización de métodos contraceptivos por adolescentes del sexo femenino de la comunidad Restinga y extremo sur Use of contraceptive methods by female adolescents in Restinga and Extremo Sul communities in Southern Brazil

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    Heloisa Helena S Duarte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Estimar a prevalência de uso de métodos contraceptivos entre as adolescentes do sexo feminino e descrever as características demográficas e socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado na Comunidade Gerência Distrital Restinga/Extremo Sul, em Porto Alegre (RS, de julho a dezembro de 2009. Foram entrevistadas 487 adolescentes de dez a 19 anos, moradoras dessa comunidade. O desfecho em estudo foi o uso de método contraceptivo utilizado isoladamente ou em associação com outro método. As variáveis independentes foram: idade, cor da pele, classe social, estado civil, escolaridade em anos de estudo, situação conjugal, atividade remunerada, religião, gravidez não planejada e aborto. RESULTADOS: Das adolescentes entrevistadas, 51% tinham entre 15 e 19 anos, 67% eram brancas, 29% pertenciam às classes A e B e 59%, à classe C. A sexarca ocorreu, em média, aos 15 anos. O uso de algum método contraceptivo foi referido por 75% das adolescentes sexualmente ativas. A pílula foi o método mais referido (62%, seguido do preservativo masculino (38% e do anticoncepcional hormonal não oral (injetável ou implante, 16%. Não houve associação significante entre o uso de método contraceptivo e as variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas analisadas. CONCLUSÕES: O número de adolescentes sexualmente ativas sem uso de contracepção eficaz (25% é preocupante.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de uso de métodos contraceptivos entre las adolescentes del sexo femenino y describir las características demográficas y socioeconómicas. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en la Comunidad Gerencia Distrital Restinga/Extremo Sur, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, de julio a diciembre de 2009. Se entrevistó a 487 adolescentes de 10 a 19 años, que viven en esa comunidad. El desenlace en estudio fue el uso de método contraceptivo utilizado aisladamente o en asociación con otro método, las variables independientes fueron: edad, color

  14. Prevalência de extremos antropométricos em crianças do estado de Alagoas Prevalencia de extremos antropométricos en niños del estado de Alagoas, Noreste de Brasil Prevalence of extreme anthropometric measurements in children from Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil

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    Haroldo da Silva Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo foi estimar a prevalência de extremos antropométricos indicativos do estado nutricional de crianças. Realizou-se estudo transversal com amostra probabilística de 1.386 crianças menores de cinco anos do estado de Alagoas. As prevalências de déficits (z El objetivo del artículo fue estimar la prevalencia de extremos antropométricos indicativos del estado nutricional de niños. Se realizó estudio transversal con muestra probabilística de 1.386 niños menores de cinco años del estado de Alagoas. Las prevalencias de déficit (zThe objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of extreme anthropometric measurements in children indicative of their nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 1,386 children under five in the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of deficits (z <-2; WHO-2006 standard for weight-for-age (underweight, weight-for-height (wasting and height-for-age (stunting were 2.9% (n = 40, 1.2% (n = 17, and 10.3% (n = 144, respectively. Excess of weight-for-height (overweight was seen in 135 children (9.7%. In conclusion, the prevalences of underweight and wasting are epidemiologically irrelevant and stunting and overweight have a similar prevalence.

  15. Un nuevo ejemplar de tortuga gigante del Mioceno de Arévalo (Ávila)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Fuentes, Emiliano; Acosta, Pilar; Fincias San Martín, Benito

    1986-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe un nuevo ejemplar de tortuga gigante, encontrado en el Mioceno (Vallesiense-Inferior) de Arévalo (Ávila), clasificado como un macho adulto de Cheirogaster (s.l.) richardi (Bergounioux 1938; emend. Jiménez 1984).

  16. Etnobotánica del "coro" (Nicotiana paa, Solanaceae: Un tabaco silvestre poco conocido del extremo sur de Sudamérica

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    Gustavo F. Scarpa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El "coro" es un tabaco silvestre de Argentina y Chile cuyas raíces son empleadas como fumatorio y mascatorio desde tiempos inmemoriales por grupos indígenas. Si bien existen noticias sobre su empleo desde la época colonial, en la actualidad no hay consenso sobre su identidad botánica a la par que sus modalidades de obtención, procesado y consumo han sido escasamente descriptas. Se efectuaron campañas etnobotánicas al sudoeste de la provincia del Chaco donde se colectaron ejemplares que responden a dicho nombre vernáculo en compañía de indígenas y se analizaron fuentes bibliográficas históricas disponibles. Se comprobó in situ que los mocovíes actualmente fuman sus raíces mezcladas con tabaco tanto en contextos ceremoniales como extra-ceremoniales. Como resultado del análisis bibliográfico se infiere que también lo emplearon en el pasado de manera homóloga indígenas vilelas, qom (tobas; wichi y abipones. Se descarta la correspondencia del "coro" con especies de Trichocline por la inexistencia de registros etnobotánicos al respecto. Se confirma que este fumatorio corresponde a Nicotiana paa Mart. rov. y se presentan y discuten nuevos datos sobre su obtención, procesamiento y consumo.

  17. O risco do uso de drogas no trabalho portuário: estudo no extremo sul do Brasil El riesgo del uso de drogas en el trabajo portuario: estudio en el extremo sur del Brasil The risk of the use of drugs in the harbour work: study in the southern extreme of Brazil

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    Jorgana Fernanda de Souza Soares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este é um estudo quantitativo, exploratório e descritivo. Objetivou identificar a realidade do uso de drogas entre os trabalhadores portuários avulsos no microambiente portuário, no extremo sul do Brasil. A amostra constituiu-se de 306 trabalhadores. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista estruturada e individual e analisados quantitativamente. Dos participantes, 43,14% responderam que seus colegas já trabalharam sob o efeito de drogas, e as mais utilizadas foram o álcool (94,70% e a maconha (77,27%. O motivo apontado com maior freqüência para o uso foi a dependência (40,15%. O conhecimento da realidade do usuário de drogas e a preocupação com o uso em ambientes de trabalho tornam-se ferramentas importantes para o enfermeiro, posicionando-o como colaborador e parceiro na sensibilização dos indivíduos para a diminuição dos riscos decorrentes do uso de drogas na vida do trabalhador e no ambiente de trabalho.Esto es un estudio cuantitativo, exploratorio y descriptivo. Objetiva identificar la realidad del uso de drogas entre los trabajadores portuarios autónomos en el micro ambiente portuario, en la extremidad del sur del Brasil. La muestra consistió en 306 trabajadores. Los datos fueran recogidos a través de entrevista estructurada, individual y analizada de modo cuantitativo. De los participantes, 43.14% habían contestado a que sus colegas habían trabajado sobre el efecto de drogas y las más utilizadas fueron el alcohol (94.70% y la marihuana (77.27%. La razón apuntada con mayor frecuencia fue la dependencia (40.15%. El conocimiento de la realidad del usuario de drogas y la preocupación con el uso en ambientes de trabajo, se convierten en herramientas importantes para el enfermero, localizando lo como colaborador y compañero en la sensibilización de los individuos para la reducción de los riesgos consecuentes del uso de drogas en la vida del trabajador y en el ambiente de trabajo.This is a quantitative

  18. Pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P W; Silink, M; Johnston, I; Cowell, C T; Jimenez, M

    1992-01-01

    A case of pituitary gigantism resulting from a pituitary adenoma which secreted growth hormone is described. The patient was successfully treated by surgery, which led to the normalisation of endogenous growth hormone secretion. An acceptable final height was achieved with high dose intramuscular testosterone treatment. Images Figure 1 PMID:1520009

  19. Pituitary gigantism.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, P W; Silink, M; Johnston, I; Cowell, C T; Jimenez, M

    1992-01-01

    A case of pituitary gigantism resulting from a pituitary adenoma which secreted growth hormone is described. The patient was successfully treated by surgery, which led to the normalisation of endogenous growth hormone secretion. An acceptable final height was achieved with high dose intramuscular testosterone treatment.

  20. Partial gigantism

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    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  1. Determinación parcial del mapa de restricción del DNA mitocondrial de la nutria gigante de río Pteronura brasiliensis y comparación con otros mustélidos colombianos en cautiverio

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    Bernal J.; Hernández J.; Samper M.

    2001-01-01

    La nutria gigante de río Pteronura brasiliensises un mamífero carnívoro de la familia Mustelidae, ala cual pertenecen también las tairas y los hurones. La nutria es considerada por el CITES comouna especie vulnerable y por la IUCN como especie en peligro de extinción. Por esta razón, elCentro de Biología Molecular del Gimnasio Campestre inicio un proyecto de genética conser-vacionista que pretende proveer información utilizable para el análisis, tanto de la especieP. brasiliensiscomo de sus f...

  2. Éxito reproductivo y calidad de los frutos en poblaciones del extremo sur de la distribución de Ipomoea purpurea (Convolvulaceae

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    Leonardo Galetto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de frutos y semillas en Ipomea purpurea en relación con diferentes tratamientos de polinización (autopolinización espontánea, autopolinización manual y polinización cruzada, durante dos temporadas reproductivas. La masa de los frutos, de las semillas y el número de semillas por fruto, se compararon entre tratamientos y entre años, a fin de detectar diferencias en la calidad de los frutos. Los resultados para las poblaciones estudiadas en el centro de Argentina confirman que se trata de una especie autocompatible y con la capacidad de producir frutos por autogamia espontánea. Los valores de éxito reproductivo mediados por polinización natural fueron altos (> 50%. Un fruto maduro pesa 0,1 g y contiene 4-6 semillas; la masa del total de semillas producidas por un fruto representa alrededor del 60% de la masa total del fruto. Los caracteres de los frutos y las semillas no presentaron diferencias significativas entre años o tratamientos. Asimismo, se compararon los frutos provenientes de polinización natural entre los individuos con distinto color de flor. En general, tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas. Sólo los frutos provenientes de flores rosa presentaron un número significativamente menor de semillas que los frutos de los otros morfotipos florales (blanco o púrpura. El grupo principal de visitantes florales fue el de los Himenópteros, que pueden ser considerados polinizadores. Se registraron otros grupos de visitantes florales que no tendrían un papel preponderante en la transferencia de polen

  3. Mortalidad en recién nacidos de extremo bajo peso al nacer en la unidad de neonatología del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia entre enero 2000 y diciembre 2004.: January 2000 to December 2004

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    Pablo Lohmann Gandini-Billinghurst

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores demográficos y clínicos más frecuentes en recién nacidos con peso menor a 1 000g al nacimiento (extremo bajo peso fallecidos en la unidad de neonatología del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Material y métodos: El estudio diseñado es una serie de casos. Se evaluaron las epicrisis y la base de datos NEOCOSUR de los pacientes con estas características, fallecidos durante la hospitalización, de enero 2000 a diciembre 2004. Resultados: Se encontraron 99 pacientes, con registros completos en 87 de ellos (88% de la muestra. La mortalidad en esta población fluctuó entre 70 y 85%, siendo las siguientes condiciones clínicas más frecuentes: control prenatal inadecuado, edad gestacional menor a 27 semanas, uso de corticoides prenatales, empleo de surfactante, enfermedad de membrana hialina-síndrome de distrés respiratorio y hemorragia intraventricular. Conclusiones: Los cuidados prenatales, el uso de corticoides prenatales y surfactante son factores modificables que tendrían impacto en la mortalidad. Síndrome de Distrés Respiratorio-membrana hialina, sepsis y hemorragia intraventricular, constituyen las entidades de morbilidad más frecuentes. El alcance de este estudio permite formular estas hipótesis. La evaluación de las mismas requiere estudios tipo observacionales y analíticos posteriores. (Rev Med Hered 2006;17:141-147.

  4. Pescadores-recolectores arcaicos del extremo sur peruano. Excavaciones en La Quebrada de los burros (Tacna, Perú. Primeros resultados 1995-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available PÊCHEURS-COLLECTEURS ARCHAÏQUES DE L’EXTRÊME SUD PÉRUVIEN. LES FOUILLES DE LA QUEBRADA DE LOS BURROS (TACNA, PEROU. PREMIERS RESULTATS, 1995-1997. Au début de l´Archaïque, des groupes humains vivant des ressources marines et, en moindre mesure, de chasse terrestre, s’installent régulièrement sur la côte sud du Pérou. Dans la Quebrada de los Burros, les datations 14C situent ces occupations entre 9800 et 3200 BP, durant une période climatique calme et relativement humide la formation, dans la vallée, entre 120 et 200 m d’altitude, de lagunes d’eau douce ou de marécages constitue alors un facteur très favorable à une implantation humaine (voir Usselmann et al., ce volume. Les niveaux d’occupation exploités sur de larges surfaces ont livré des foyers, un abondant matériel lithique taillé, des accumulations de coquilles (Concholepas concholepas, Mesodesma donacium, Fissurella sp., Choromytilus chorus etc. et de nombreux restes de poissons très diversifiés, impliquant diverses techniques halieutiques. Sont également attestés quelques restes de mammifères terrestres et d’oiseaux. Diverses analyses en cours sur les coquilles détermineront s’il s’agissait d’installations saisonnières ou permanentes. Al inicio del Arcaico, grupos humanos que viven de los recursos del medio marítimo y, en escala menor, de la caza terrestre (camélidos, aves, están instalados en la costa sur del Perú. En la Quebrada de los Burros, fechados 14C sitúan estas ocupaciones entre 9800 y 3200 BP, durante un período climático tranquilo y relativamente húmedo en el fondo del valle, entre 120 y 200 msnm, la formación de lagunas de agua dulce o de pantanos constituye entonces un elemento muy favorable para una implantación humana (véase Usselmann et al., este volumen. Los niveles de ocupación excavados en un área extensa contenían fogones, un abundante material lítico tallado, acumulaciones de conchas marinas (Concholepas concholepas

  5. Condiloma gigante del pene (Tumor de Buschke-Lowenstein: Presentación de un caso Peneal Buschke-Lowenstein tumor: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Núñez Serrano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El condiloma gigante del pene o tumor de Buschke- Lowenstein, es un tumor epitelial benigno de origen viral y sexualmente transmisible, que en raros casos puede malignizar. Presentamos un paciente en el que el condiloma de localización peneana, creció rápidamente y destruyó estructuras. Su histología se caracteriza por papilomatosis y acantosis endo y exofítica. Existen diferentes tratamientos del tumor, pero el más efectivo es la extirpación quirúrgica radical para evitar recidivas y malignización.Buschke-Lowenstein tumour is an epithelial benign tumour sexually transmitted with a viral origin. We present a case of peneal localization with exofitic growth, compression and displacement of the deeper tissues, ulceration and urethral fistulae. Histology is characterized by papillomatosis and endo or exophytic acantosis. Local malignancy is still discussed. There are many possible treatments, but radical excision is the best to avoid malignant transformation and recurrences.

  6. Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

    2005-09-01

    assisted to a considerable extent by the prevailing West Wind Drift which strongly operates in the Subantarctic ZoneLos moluscos del extremo sur de Sudamérica son desde un punto de vista taxonómico moderadamente bien conocidos. Sin embargo, la literatura está dispersa, hay poca información sobre sus hábitat y son muy pocos los registros distribucionales, particularmente en el área de los fiordos comprendidos entre la Isla de Chiloé (42° S y Tierra del Fuego (55° S. Aunque se sabe bastante acerca de la biología y ecología de algunas especies de Nacellidae, la taxonomía del grupo ha sido relativamente poco estudiada, particularmente en áreas remotas del planeta, como es el caso de los fiordos chilenos. El interés del presente estudio ha sido clarificar el estatus nomenclatural y describir las características morfológicas y distribuciones de los Nacellidae chilenos. En particular, se plantearon los siguientes objetivos: (i clarificar la identidad de las especies descritas, (ii descripción de detalles morfológicos, destacando los caracteres diagnósticos de cada especie, y (iii delimitación y discusión de sus rangos geográficos. El análisis de los Nacellidae de los fiordos chilenos ha permitido el reconocimiento de una especie de Nacella (Nacella y siete de N. (Patinigera, cuyas principales diferencias a nivel de especie radican en la concha (forma, espesor y color y en la morfología de la dentición radular. El género Nacella y su subgénero Patinigera son habitantes exclusivos de aguas antárticas y subantárticas. Estos organismos son lapas de aguas frías fundamentalmente subantárticas, pero que también se extienden hacia la Antártica por el área del Arco de Escocia, y hacia el norte a lo largo de la costa chilena, hasta el área de Valparaíso a 33° S (N. (P. clypeater. Aparentemente este género tiene su centro de distribución en la Provincia magallánica en el sur de Sudamérica, correspondiendo a un área de elevada diversidad de especies

  7. Índice de mortalidad en cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en estanques seminaturales en Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arana Flores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el índice de mortalidad en un cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii; para ello se acondicionaron 1000 post larvas con peso y longitud promedio de 0,2 g y 2 cm, respectivamente, en un estanque de tierra de 200m2 de espejo de agua, a una densidad de siembra de 5 ind/m2, el alimento suministrado fue de tipo extruzado con 35% PB para el primer mes; posteriormente se suministró una ración con 32% PB hasta el final, la frecuencia alimenticia fue de 3 veces/día los dos primeros meses, reajustándose a 2 veces/día los dos siguientes meses; la tasa alimenticia varió entre 13 y 3,5%; las evaluaciones biométricas se realizaron cada 10 días. Los parámetros limnológicos como temperatura, transparencia, OD, pH, CO2 y dureza se registraron cada 15 días. Los índices de crecimiento aplicados fueron ganancia de peso, ganancia de longitud, ICAA, TCE y supervivencia. Los resultados registran una ganancia en peso y longitud de 27,24 g y 12,37 cm; el incremento de peso y longitud diario en promedio fue de 0,23 g y 0,12cm; ICAA 3,30, TCE 3,59%; sobrevivencia 95%, índice de mortalidad 5%. El análisis limnológico registró variaciones mínimas que no influenciaron negativamente sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los camarones; la correlación entre el peso y longitud registra una relación positiva, con un nivel de correlación muy buena.

  8. Índice de mortalidad en cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en estanques seminaturales en Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arana Flores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el índice de mortalidad en un cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii; para ello se acondicionaron 1000 post larvas con peso y longitud promedio de 0,2 g y 2 cm, respectivamente, en un estanque de tierra de 200m2 de espejo de agua, a una densidad de siembra de 5 ind/m2, el alimento suministrado fue de tipo extruzado con 35% PB para el primer mes; posteriormente se suministró una ración con 32% PB hasta el final, la frecuencia alimenticia fue de 3 veces/día los dos primeros meses, reajustándose a 2 veces/día los dos siguientes meses; la tasa alimenticia varió entre 13 y 3,5%; las evaluaciones biométricas se realizaron cada 10 días. Los parámetros limnológicos como temperatura, transparencia, OD, pH, CO2 y dureza se registraron cada 15 días. Los índices de crecimiento aplicados fueron ganancia de peso, ganancia de longitud, ICAA, TCE y supervivencia. Los resultados registran una ganancia en peso y longitud de 27,24 g y 12,37 cm; el incremento de peso y longitud diario en promedio fue de 0,23 g y 0,12cm; ICAA 3,30, TCE 3,59%; sobrevivencia 95%, índice de mortalidad  5%. El análisis limnológico registró variaciones mínimas que no influenciaron negativamente sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los camarones; la correlación entre el peso y longitud registra una relación positiva, con un nivel de correlación muy buena.

  9. Determinación parcial del mapa de restricción del DNA mitocondrial de la nutria gigante de río Pteronura brasiliensis y comparación con otros mustélidos colombianos en cautiverio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samper

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La nutria gigante de río Pteronura brasiliensises un mamífero carnívoro de la familia Mustelidae, ala cual pertenecen también las tairas y los hurones. La nutria es considerada por el CITES comouna especie vulnerable y por la IUCN como especie en peligro de extinción. Por esta razón, elCentro de Biología Molecular del Gimnasio Campestre inicio un proyecto de genética conser-vacionista que pretende proveer información utilizable para el análisis, tanto de la especieP. brasiliensiscomo de sus familiares mas cercanos, y de esta forma, proponer planes de manejode la especie y su hábitat previniendo su extinción.

  10. Nos extremos do direito (Schmitt e Pachukanis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascaro Alysson Leandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois livros que tratam de figuras situadas em pontos extremos do pensamento jurídico no século XX (Carl Schmitt e a fundamentação do direito, de Ronaldo Porto Macedo Jr. e Marxismo e direito - um estudo sobre Pachukanis, de Márcio Bilharinho Naves são examinados.

  11. Análisis de los polimorfismos de longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP) del gen ribosómico 18S RNA de nutria gigante de río Pteronura brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hernández; A. Acosta; A. Gutiérrez; M. Hoyos; A. Esguerra; D. Merizalde; J. Bernal; Genética Molecular Grupo de Investigación en

    2001-01-01

    La nutria gigante de río Pteronura brasiliensises un mamífero carnívoro de la familia Mustelidae, ala cual pertenecen también las tairas, las martas y los hurones. La nutria es considerada por elCITES como una especie vulnerable y por la IUCN como especie en peligro de extinción. Por estarazón, el Centro de Biología Molecular del Gimnasio Campestre inicio un proyecto de genética conservacionista que pretende proveer información utilizable para el análisis, tanto de la especieP. brasiliensisco...

  12. Variación del volumen espiratorio forzado y presión de oxígeno en reducción del volumen pulmonar en bullas gigantes unilaterales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes N Mederos Curbelo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 15 enfermos con bullas enfisematosas gigantes, tratados mediante lobectomía reglada en el Hospital Universitario "Comandante Manuel Fajardo", en el período de 1995 a 2000; todos estos pacientes se abordaron mediante incisiones axilares y en el 100 % eran del sexo masculino fumadores de 2 cajetillas de cigarros diarios. La mortalidad quirúrgica fue del 6,6 % a causa de que uno de los pacientes falleció por trombolismo pulmonar. En los 14 enfermos restantes se valoraron las pruebas funcionales respiratorias y se observó un cambio del volumen espiratorio forzado de disminución del volumen residual. En la gasometría arterial, la presión de oxígeno (PO2 aumentó en todos los enfermos hasta valores entre 80 y 85 lo que les permitió incorporarse a su vida laboral activa15 patients with giant emphysematous bullas treated by ruled lobectomy at Comandante Manuel Fajardo Teaching Hospital, from 1995 to 2000, were presented. All these patients were approached by axillary incisions. 100 % were males who smoked 2 packages of cigarettes daily. Surgical mortality was 6.6 % due to the fact that one of the patients died from pulmonary trombolism. In the other 14 patients the functional respiratory tests were made and it was observed a change of the forced expiratory volume in the reduction of the residual volume. In the arterial gasometry, the oxygen pressure (02P increased in all patients, reaching values between 80 and 85, which allowed them to incorporate to their active working life

  13. Arteritis de células gigantes (Arteritis temporal Utilidad del Eco-Doppler Color en el diagnóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Tarigo

    2016-09-01

    El objetivo de la presente comunicación es reafirmar la utilidad y valor de este método diagnóstico, subutilizado en nuestra práctica clínica, en pacientes con planteo de arteritis de células gigantes.

  14. AIP mutations and gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Potorac, Iulia; Beckers, Pablo; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2017-06-01

    AIP mutations are rare in sporadic acromegaly but they are seen at a higher frequency among certain specific populations of pituitary adenoma patients (pituitary gigantism cases, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindreds, and patients with macroadenomas who are diagnosed ≤30 years). AIP mutations are most prevalent in patients with pituitary gigantism (29% of this group were found to have mutations in AIP gene). These data support targeted genetic screening for AIP mutations/deletions in these groups of pituitary adenoma patients. Earlier diagnosis of AIP-related acromegaly-gigantism cases enables timely clinical evaluation and treatment, thereby improving outcomes in terms of excessive linear growth and acromegaly comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Análisis de los polimorfismos de longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP del gen ribosómico 18S RNA de nutria gigante de río Pteronura brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernández

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La nutria gigante de río Pteronura brasiliensises un mamífero carnívoro de la familia Mustelidae, ala cual pertenecen también las tairas, las martas y los hurones. La nutria es considerada por elCITES como una especie vulnerable y por la IUCN como especie en peligro de extinción. Por estarazón, el Centro de Biología Molecular del Gimnasio Campestre inicio un proyecto de genética conservacionista que pretende proveer información utilizable para el análisis, tanto de la especieP. brasiliensiscomo de sus familiares mas cercanos, y de esta forma, proponer planes de manejo dela especie y su hábitat previniendo su extinción.

  16. Pulsars: gigantic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Renxin

    2011-01-01

    What is the real nature of pulsars? This is essentially a question of the fundamental strong interaction between quarks at low-energy scale and hence of the non-perturbative quantum chromo-dynamics, the solution of which would certainly be meaningful for us to understand one of the seven millennium prize problems (i.e., "Yang-Mills Theory") named by the Clay Mathematical Institute. After a historical note, it is argued here that a pulsar is very similar to an extremely big nucleus, but is a little bit different from the gigantic nucleus speculated 80 years ago by L. Landau. The paper demonstrates the similarity between pulsars and gigantic nuclei from both points of view: the different manifestations of compact stars and the general behavior of the strong interaction. (author)

  17. Hidrocele gigante en paciente anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Arleny Pérez Mayo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 87 años, intervenido por primera vez en el Hospital Nacional “San Pedro Necta” del Departamento de Huehuetenango en Guatemala, por presentar hidrocele gigante de más de veinte años de evolución. El examen físico mostró tumoración translúcida dolorosa en la bolsa escrotal izquierda, con el posible diagnóstico de hidrocele tabicado o no comunicante. El preoperatorio consistió en la canalización de vena periférica, administración de profilaxis antibiótica con ceftriaxona y rasurado de la piel. Durante el acto operatorio se constató hidrocele izquierdo, con acumulación de líquido acuoso de la túnica vaginal que rodeaba el testículo, cuantificable alrededor de los 500 ml. La técnica quirúrgica consistió en la eversión o plicatura de la vaginal. No se presentaron entidades asociadas, como quiste del cordón, hernia inguinal o fimosis. No existieron complicaciones. Se reportó una estadía hospitalaria de cuatro días y el paciente evolucionó favorablemente. No ocurrió recidiva durante el año de seguimiento

  18. Caracterización de la circulación atmosférica y la temperatura superficial del mar asociadas a extremos de caudal de ríos andinos y su variabilidad en baja frecuencia

    OpenAIRE

    Araneo, Diego C.

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo principal del presente trabajo se centra en determinar los mecanismos asociados a la variabilidad de los caudales de los ríos andinos en relación con la circulación atmosférica y la Temperatura Superficial del Mar (TSM) como forzante del sistema climático. Para la circulación atmosférica el estudio se extiende desde la escala sinóptica a la climática. A lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes se identifican dos zonas en las cuales el comportamiento de los caudales de los ríos muest...

  19. 1er. Taller internacional sobre oso hormiguero gigante (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Guillermo Pérez Jimeno

    2008-01-01

    ResumenLos pasados días 2 y 3 de noviembre se llevó a cabo el 1er. Taller internacional sobre oso hormiguero gigante (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), en instalaciones del Zoológico de Florencio Varela. Participaron activamente representantes de Brasil, Colombia, Holanda, Alemania y Argentina.

  20. Magmatismo alcalino del Triásico Superior (Noriense) en el extremo NO de la Rama Aragonesa de la Cordillera Ibérica: Modelo de emplazamiento en relación con fallas sin-sedimentarias

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Tomás; Lago San José, Marceliano; Gil Imaz, Andrés; Pocoví Juan, Andrés; Galé, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    A través de un estudio lito-estratigráfico y tectónico se pretende deducir el contexto estructural en el que se desarrolló el magmatismo alcalino del Triásico Superior, para el margen nor-occidental de la Rama Aragonesa de la Cordillera Ibérica (Sierra del Moncayo). La reactivación del rift Ibérico y el emplazamiento de al menos dos sills en área estudiada, pudo tener lugar a través de la apertura de un número reducido de fallas normales, con orientación actual Ibérica (NO-S...

  1. Hamartoma mamario gigante: dos casos de una entidad rara

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Gomes-Rodrigues; A. López-Ojeda; J. Muñoz i Vidal; M.T. Soler-Monsó; J.M. Serra-Payro; A. Guma-Martínez; F. Chavarría-Marín; M. Dewever

    2014-01-01

    El hamartoma gigante de la mama es una entidad clínico-patológica inusual que tiende a confundirse con otros tumores. A pesar del avance en las técnicas diagnósticas, su diagnóstico clínico es difícil y normalmente solo se confirma cuando se analiza toda la pieza de resección. El diagnóstico diferencial debe incluir entidades como el fibroadenoma, lipoma, tumor phyllodes y diversos tipos de carcinomas. Presentamos 2 casos de hamartoma gigante de mama en mujeres de edad media, de los cuales un...

  2. Genetics of Gigantism and Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah-Shmouni, Fady; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly are rare disorders that are caused by excessive GH secretion and/or high levels of its mediator, IGF-1. Gigantism occurs when excess GH or IGF-1 lead to increased linear growth, before the end of puberty and epiphyseal closure. The majority of cases arise from a benign GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, with an incidence of pituitary gigantism and acromegaly of approximately 8 and 11 per million person-years, respectively. Over the past two decades, our increasing unders...

  3. Iniciativa STROBE: subsídios para a comunicação de estudos observacionais Prevalencia de extremos antropométricos en niños del estado de Alagoas, Noreste de Brasil STROBE initiative: guidelines on reporting observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Malta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Freqüentemente, a descrição de pesquisas de natureza observacional é inadequada, dificultando a avaliação de seus pontos fracos e fortes e, em conseqüência, a generalização de seus resultados. A iniciativa denominada Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE, formulou uma lista de verificação que contém 22 itens, denominada STROBE Statement ("Declaração STROBE", com recomendações sobre o que deveria ser incluído em uma descrição mais precisa e completa de estudos observacionais. Entre junho e dezembro de 2008, um grupo de pesquisadores brasileiros dedicou-se à tradução e adaptação da "Declaração STROBE" para o português. O objetivo do estudo foi apresentar a tradução para o português, bem como introduzir a discussão sobre o contexto de utilização, as potencialidades e limitações da Iniciativa STROBE.El objetivo del artículo fue estimar la prevalencia de extremos antropométricos indicativos del estado nutricional de niños. Se realizó estudio transversal con muestra probabilística de 1.386 niños menores de cinco años del estado de Alagoas. Las prevalencias de déficit (zReporting of observational studies is often inadequate, hampering the assessment of their strengths and weaknesses and, consequently, the generalization of study results. The initiative named Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE developed a checklist of 22 items, the STROBE Statement, with recommendations about what should be included in a more accurate and complete description of observational studies. Between June and December 2008, a group of Brazilian researchers was dedicated to the translation and adaptation of the STROBE Statement into Portuguese. The present study aimed to show the translation into Portuguese, introduce the discussion on the context of use, the potential and limitations of the STROBE initiative.

  4. Genetics of Gigantism and Acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah-Shmouni, Fady; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly are rare disorders that are caused by excessive GH secretion and/or high levels of its mediator, IGF-1. Gigantism occurs when excess GH or IGF-1 lead to increased linear growth, before the end of puberty and epiphyseal closure. The majority of cases arise from a benign GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, with an incidence of pituitary gigantism and acromegaly of approximately 8 and 11 per million person-years, respectively. Over the past two decades, our increasing understanding of the molecular and genetic etiologies of pituitary gigantism and acromegaly yielded several genetic causes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and 4, McCune-Albright syndrome, Carney complex, familial isolated pituitary adenoma, pituitary adenoma association due to defects in familial succinate dehydrogenase genes, and the recently identified X-linked acrogigantism. The early diagnosis of these conditions helps guide early intervention, screening, and genetic counseling of patients and their family members. In this review, we provide a concise and up-to-date discussion on the genetics of gigantism and acromegaly. PMID:27657986

  5. Genetics of gigantism and acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah-Shmouni, Fady; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A

    Gigantism and acromegaly are rare disorders that are caused by excessive GH secretion and/or high levels of its mediator, IGF-1. Gigantism occurs when excess GH or IGF-1 lead to increased linear growth, before the end of puberty and epiphyseal closure. The majority of cases arise from a benign GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, with an incidence of pituitary gigantism and acromegaly of approximately 8 and 11 per million person-years, respectively. Over the past two decades, our increasing understanding of the molecular and genetic etiologies of pituitary gigantism and acromegaly yielded several genetic causes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and 4, McCune-Albright syndrome, Carney complex, familial isolated pituitary adenoma, pituitary adenoma association due to defects in familial succinate dehydrogenase genes, and the recently identified X-linked acrogigantism. The early diagnosis of these conditions helps guide early intervention, screening, and genetic counseling of patients and their family members. In this review, we provide a concise and up-to-date discussion on the genetics of gigantism and acromegaly. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Ondas T negativas gigantes de origen indeterminado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Eyheremendy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se define onda T negativa gigante o inversión masiva de la onda T a la aparición de ondas T negativas con una amplitud = 1 mV en por lo menos dos derivaciones contiguas del ECG. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 66 años con antecedentes de dislipidemia tipo IV e hipertensión arterial leve, a la que en buen estado de salud y totalmente asintomática en un examen de rutina se le detecta en el ECG de superficie un hemibloqueo anterior y ondas T negativas gigantes en las derivaciones I, II, aVL, aVF y de V1 a V6. La paciente fue internada en la UCI, donde se descartó que fueran de origen coronario. Durante el seguimiento, las ondas T se tornaron menos negativas hasta que al cabo de un tiempo (45 días aproximadamente se normalizaron. A pesar de los estudios cardiológicos y no cardiológicos realizados, no se pudo establecer su origen.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2009;77:131-134.

  7. Cerebral gigantism with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, P; Bhalla, A K; Singhi, P D

    2003-07-01

    A case of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) with West syndrome in a one-year-old male child is reported. The case had a large stature, typical facies and neurodevelopmental delay along with infantile spasms, which were refractory to treatment with valproate and clonazepam.

  8. Cerebral gigantism of hypothalamic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, M B; Bierich, J R

    1983-04-01

    In five cases of Sotos Syndrome serum somatomedin activities were measured. In two of these cases elevated levels and an increased secretion of growth hormone was observed. In one case (index case) a suspected hypothalamic tumor mass could be excluded, but hydrocephalus with increased intracranial pressure was present. The pathogenesis of gigantism in this syndrome is discussed.

  9. Gigantic oocytes in the deep sea black coral Dendrobathypathes grandis (Antipatharia) from the Mar del Plata submarine canyon area (southwestern Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, Daniel; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.

    2017-10-01

    The black coral Dendrobathypathes grandis (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) is studied for the first time in the southwestern Atlantic off Argentina. This is the only antipatharian reported from the Atlantic between 35°S and 54°S. Eleven specimens were collected at depths of 819-2204 m during three expeditions to the Mar del Plata submarine canyon (2012-2013); seven were females. The species is gonochoric, and the polyps in female colonies contain up to nine oocytes per polyp, which can reach 1500 μm in diameter. In contrast, the largest oocyte currently reported for antipatharians is 500 μm, and usual diameters do not exceed 200 μm. These large oocytes have over 20 times more volume than the biggest oocyte reported, but over 800 times more volume when compared with the common oocyte size of the group. Sperm size and morphology is similar to previous data from other species. As in previous studies, neither embryos nor larvae were found in any specimens. This species was previously only reported from waters off South Georgia Island, and so these specimens expand the known distribution north by 1800 km.

  10. Preoperative embolization of gigantic meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongsheng; Chen Huaqun; Dong Congsong; Li Wenhui; Dai Zhenyu; Chen Guozhi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of preoperative embolization in treatment of patients with gigantic meningioma. Methods: Fourteen cases of gigantic meningioma diameter from 6 to 11 cm were measured by CT and MRI scan. DSA manifested that they are vascularizd meningioma and showed the mainly feeding arteries. We used getation sponge to superselectively embilized the feeding arteries. All tumors were performed surgical excision 3-7 days after the embolization. Results: DSA showed the blood supplies in the tumors in 9 cases were completely blocked, and that in 5 cases were dramatically eliminated. All patients were operated 3-7 days after the embolization. During the operations the bleeding were dramatically decreased and the operation time was shortened compared with those in unembolized cases. It helps us remove the tumors easy and quickly from the attachments. No complication occurred during and after the operations. Conclusion: Preoperative embolization of gigantic meningioma is a useful and relatively safe method in helping surgicaly and completely excised of tumor with significant reduction of blood loss and operation time. (authors)

  11. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cerebral gigantism (Sotos' syndrome) and cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H; Price, R L; Lonsdale, D

    1978-01-01

    A five-year-old girl with cerebral gigantism (Sotos' syndrome) and cataracts is described. Sotos' syndrome, characterized by generalized gigantism with normal endocrine studies has rarely been reported with ocular abnormalities and never with cataracts. It is important to study any child with cataracts for systemic disease.

  13. Dominant inheritance of cerebral gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonana, J; Sotos, J F; Romshe, C A; Fisher, D A; Elders, M J; Rimoin, D L

    1977-08-01

    Cerebral gigantism is a syndrome consisting of characteristic dysmorphic features, accelerated growth in early childhood, and variable degrees of mental retardation. Its etiology and pathogenesis have not been defined. Three families are presented with multiple affected members. The vertical transmission of the trait and equal expression in both sexes in these families indicates a genetic etiology with a dominant pattern of inheritance, probably autosomal. As in previously reported cases, extensive endocrine evaluation failed to define the pathogenesis of the accelerated growth present in this disorder.

  14. Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Bhattacharjee; Ajitesh Roy; Soumik Goswami; Chitra Selvan; Partha P Chakraborty; Sujoy Ghosh; Dibakar Biswas; Ranen Dasgupta; Satinath Mukhopadhyay; Subhankar Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years. She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no si...

  15. Thunderstorm Charge Structures Producing Negative Gigantic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, L.; Liu, N.; Riousset, J. A.; Shi, F.; Rassoul, H.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present observational and modeling results that provide insight into thunderstorm charge structures that produce gigantic jet discharges. The observational results include data from four different thunderstorms producing 9 negative gigantic jets from 2010 to 2014. We used radar, very high frequency (VHF) and low frequency (LF) lightning data to analyze the storm characteristics, charge structures, and lightning activity when the gigantic jets emerged from the parent thunderstorms. A detailed investigation of the evolution of one of the charge structures by analyzing the VHF data is also presented. The newly found charge structure obtained from the observations was analyzed with fractal modeling and compared with previous fractal modeling studies [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233-237, 2008; Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] of gigantic jet discharges. Our work finds that for normal polarity thunderstorms, gigantic jet charge structures feature a narrow upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region. There also likely exists a `ring' of negative screening charge located around the perimeter of the upper positive charge. This is different from previously thought charge structures of the storms producing gigantic jets, which had a very wide upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region, with a very small negative screening layer covering the cloud top. The newly found charge structure results in leader discharge trees in the fractal simulations that closely match the parent flashes of gigantic jets inside and outside the thundercloud. The previously used charge structures, while vital to the understanding of gigantic jet initiation and the role of charge imbalances inside the cloud, do not produce leader discharge trees that agree with observed gigantic jet discharges.Finally, the newly discovered gigantic jet charge structures are formed near the end of a convective pulse [Meyer et al., JGR, 118

  16. Vientos extremos en la provincia de Neuquén Extreme winds in the province of Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Lassig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular los valores extremos de la velocidad del viento con distintos modelos propuestos en normas internacionales que son utilizadas tanto en el diseño de parques eólicos como en el de obras civiles. Se describen los modelos empleados y se realizan los cálculos en 5 lugares de la Provincia de Neuquén, utilizando datos de vientos medidos cuyas series tienen entre 8 meses y 5 años de longitud. Los valores extremos se obtienen con una recurrencia media de 50 años, y corresponden a la velocidad del viento media en intervalos de 10 minutos y de 3 segundos. Los valores encontrados se analizan y se los compara entre sí, con mediciones y con valores propuestos en la norma argentina de seguridad de obras civiles. Los valores extremos estimados según la European Wind Turbine Standards II no subestiman las mediciones disponibles, y comparados con los obtenidos por los otros modelos, se observa que las menores diferencias corresponden a las estaciones con series de mayor longitud. El parámetro de forma de Weibull y la longitud de los registros serían los factores más importantes en las estimaciones de los valores extremos de la velocidad del viento.The objective of this work is to calculate the extreme values of wind speed with different models proposed in international standards that are utilized so much in the design of wind farms as in civil structures. The employed models are described and the calculations are carried out in 5 places of the Neuquén Province, utilizing data of winds measured whose series have between 8 months and 5 years of length. The extreme values are obtained with a return period of 50 years and they correspond to the extreme of the 10-minute and 3-second average wind speed. The found values are analysed and it are compared among them, with measurements and with values proposed in the standard of security of civil structures of Argentina. The extremes values that were estimated according

  17. Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years.She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory.Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg,body mass index (BMI28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1 was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GHvalues of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH, follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH were normal.Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment.

  18. Pituitary gigantism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Rana; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Selvan, Chitra; Chakraborty, Partha P; Ghosh, Sujoy; Biswas, Dibakar; Dasgupta, Ranen; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-12-01

    To present a rare case of gigantism. A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years. She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory. Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg, body mass index (BMI)28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1) was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GH)values of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH), follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were normal. Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment.

  19. Differential diagnosis of gigantic pulmonary abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.; Khachatryan, M.A.; Abelyan, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper is concerned with an analysis of the clinical X-ray picture in 100 patients with gigantic pulmonary abscesses (the diameter over 6 cm) and in 102 patients with retrostenotic abscesses in central lung cancer, gigantic peripheral cancer with disintegration, tuberculous infiltrate with dissociation, an echinococcal cyst with suppuration and rupture in the bronchus. The reliable clinical differential diagnostic symptoms were not revealed. The chief method of X-ray examination is tomography. In addition to examination of the gigantic focus of lesion in the lung, tomography of the major bronchi should be also performed. The difference between a gigantic pulmonary abscess and peripheral lung cancer is in the nature of the walls and contours; of particular importance is the symptom of nodularity and radiance of the outlines of the pathological shadow which is more distinctive in peripheral cancer. Correct diagnosis was established in 96.6% of the patients

  20. Mammary gigantism and D-penicillamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, N; Emery, P; Hicks, B H

    1984-09-01

    Mammary gigantism is a rare complication of D-penicillamine treatment. We report a further case with pathological and endocrine details together with a review of the seven cases previously reported and possible mechanisms.

  1. ¿Garantismo extremo o mesurado? La legitimidad de la función jurisdiccional penal: construyendo el debate Ferrajoli-Laudan

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar R. Aguilera García

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo consiste en revisar dos versiones del argumento que concibe a la averiguación de la verdad como un factor que confiere legitimidad al ejercicio de la función jurisdiccional penal: la de Ferrajoli y la de Laudan. Se sostiene que su estudio minucioso puede proporcionar bases racionales (no meramente emotivas) para decidir sobre la conveniencia de suscribir un garantismo extremo (Ferrajoli) o uno de carácter más mesurado (Laudan). Esta decisión cobra relevancia en el cont...

  2. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, A

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and achondroplasia. Most of those with gigantism had pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. Brothers and sisters or parents and their children provided evidence of mendelian inheritance of some of these disorders. The cards suggest that being put on show provided, at least in some cases, social benefits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9764085

  3. CT diagnosis of retroperitoneal gigantic liposarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wei; Zheng Zhaohua; Liao Zuyuan; Hu Yinsong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT manifestation of retroperitoneal gigantic liposaxcoma and to improve the image understanding. Methods: Five cases of retroperitoneal gigantic liposarcoma confirmed by surgery and pathology in our hospital were collected. Plain and enhanced CT scan were performed. Results: Of five cases, one was substantive, two was pseudocyst and two was mixed tumor. Several patterns of enhancement such as strip, floccule, irregular patchy or nodular enhancement were revealed inside the lesions on enhanced CT scan. And strip-form of high density enhancement was a typical type. Conclusion: CT examination could determine the tumor's location, size and density, together with the relationship to adjacent organizations CT scan is an important method in diagnosing retroperitoneal gigantic liposarcoma. (authors)

  4. Mitigación de la cavitación de extremo de alabe mediante la implementación de inyección de aire en un modelo a escala reducida de turbina Kaplan

    OpenAIRE

    Rivetti, Arturo; Angulo, Mauricio Abel; Lucino, Cecilia Verónica; Liscia, Sergio Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Las Turbinas Kaplan que operan en condiciones de alta carga pueden estar sometidas a vibraciones excesivas, ruido y cavitación. En estos casos puede presentarse erosión por cavitación sobre el anillo de descarga asociada al desarrollo de cavitación de extremo de alabe. Este fenómeno involucra características de diseño tales como sobreapertura de los alabes del distribuidor; perfil de los alabes del rodete; el incremento del huelgo debido a la apertura del alabe; la altura neta de aspiración; ...

  5. Hepatocarcinoma gigante unifocal en mujer con ingesta prolongada de anticonceptivos hormonales: ¿casualidad o causalidad?

    OpenAIRE

    VICTOR MANUEL LOPEZ MOURIÑO; JOSÉ LOPEZ CASTRO; BENIGNO MONTEAGUDO SANCHEZ; ENRIQUE JESÚS ALVAREZ ASENSIO

    2016-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de una paciente de mediana edad con ingesta mantenida de anticonceptivos hormonales (AH) que desarrolla múltiples adenomas hepáticos (asociación bien documentada) y un carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) unifocal gigante sin encontrar otros factores de riesgo para el mismo (enolismo, tabaquismo, cirrosis, hemocromatosis,....). Si bien en la literatura no hay unanimidad respecto a la asociación del consumo de AH con el CHC, algunos autores ya contemplaron esa posibilidad, excluye...

  6. Condiloma acuminado gigante (tumor de Buschke-Lowenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibis Beltrán Pérez

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente masculino de 72 años de edad de la raza blanca, que es remitido al Servicio de Coloproctología por presentar desde hace más de un año, aumento de volumen alrededor del ano que le dificulta la defecación y sentarse. Se han realizado múltiples tratamientos tópicos con resultados no satisfactorios por el servicio de dermatología. Se le realiza estudio histopatológico de la lesión y se obtuvo un condiloma acuminado gigante (tumor de Buschke-Lowenstein. Se ha dado seguimiento sin presentarse hasta el momento recurrencia. El tumor de Buschke-Lowenstein es una entidad rara, considerada una lesión premaligna provocada por el papiloma virus humano. Hasta el momento no se ha podido encontrar el tratamiento ideal y continúa presentando una alta tasa de recurrencia.

  7. Neurofibromatosis with unilateral lower limb gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, Giacomo; Rani, Nicola; Devescovi, Valentina

    2010-05-01

    The case of a 3-year-old child diagnosed with Type 1 neurofibromatosis is presented, showing pigmented birthmarks and gigantism of the left lower limb associated with the presence of multiple neurofibromas. Increased bone growth appears to be the direct or indirect consequence of a still undefined paracrine effect of nerve tumor cells.

  8. Pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. Redondo Gigante with graphite for germination under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobel Penteado Freitas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water stress on germination of radish seeds is dependent on the presence of light. The effect of pelletization of radish seeds with powdered graphite on the tolerance to water stress under light was analysed. White light and far-red lights were filtered by graphite increasing slightly the tolerance of pelleted seeds to water stress of -0.77MPa. Although red light also inhibited seed germination the graphite had no effect. We propose the pelletization of seeds of Raphanus sativus, at least in cv redondo gigante with graphite as a pratice before planting to increase the tolerance to water stress.O efeito do estresse hídrico é dependente da presença de luz em sementes de rabanete. O efeito da peletização com grafite em pó foi analisado. Luz branca e vermelho-extremo são filtradas pelo grafite aumentando parcialmente a tolerância ao estresse hídrico de -0,77MPa em sementes peletizadas. Embora a luz vermelha também iniba a germinação em condições de estresse a peletização não teve efeito. Nós propomos a peletização de sementes de Raphanus saivus L. cv. redondo gigante como uma prática antes do plantio para aumentar a tolerância ao estresse hídrico.

  9. Formación y evolución de planetas gigantes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Brunini, A.

    Presentamos el estado actual del trabajo que estamos realizando en el estudio de la formación de planetas gigantes. Detallamos los algoritmos numéricos necesarios para realizar este tipo de cálculo. Presentamos algunos resultados de la formación de objetos con masas de hasta una docena de veces la del planeta Júpiter, resaltando las principales caracteríticas. Finalmente detallamos los problemas que pensamos abordar en un futuro cercano en este tema de investigación.

  10. Familial occurrence of cerebral gigantism, Sotos' syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F J; Friis, B

    1976-05-01

    Since the original description of cerebral gigantism, about 85 cases have been reported. Four papers comment on familial occurrence but never in parents and their children. This paper describes the syndrome in a mother and her child, which, together with facts pointing towards prenatal etiology, such as excessive birthweight, striking mutual resemblance and abnormal dermatoglyphics, points to a genetic defect. Previous endocrine studies are enlarged by the findings of normal serum somatomedin and serum prolactin.

  11. Evolution of gigantism in amphiumid salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Bonett

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amphiumidae contains three species of elongate, permanently aquatic salamanders with four diminutive limbs that append one, two, or three toes. Two of the species, Amphiuma means and A. tridactylum, are among the largest salamanders in the world, reaching lengths of more than one meter, whereas the third species (A. pholeter, extinct amphiumids, and closely related salamander families are relatively small. Amphiuma means and A. tridactylum are widespread species and live in a wide range of lowland aquatic habitats on the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States, whereas A. pholeter is restricted to very specialized organic muck habitats and is syntopic with A. means. Here we present analyses of sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci from across the distribution of the three taxa to assess lineage diversity, relationships, and relative timing of divergence in amphiumid salamanders. In addition we analyze the evolution of gigantism in the clade. Our analyses indicate three lineages that have diverged since the late Miocene, that correspond to the three currently recognized species, but the two gigantic species are not each other's closest relatives. Given that the most closely related salamander families and fossil amphiumids from the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene are relatively small, our results suggest at least two extreme changes in body size within the Amphuimidae. Gigantic body size either evolved once as the ancestral condition of modern amphiumas, with a subsequent strong size reduction in A. pholeter, or gigantism independently evolved twice in the modern species, A. means and A. tridactylum. These patterns are concordant with differences in habitat breadth and range size among lineages, and have implications for reproductive isolation and diversification of amphiumid salamanders.

  12. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    OpenAIRE

    Enderle, A

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and...

  13. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Tanhaeivash

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg. Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases.

  14. Flexión de Una Barra Delgada Empotrada en un Extremo: Aproximación para Pequeñas Pendientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beléndez Tarsicio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En los cursos de Física y Mecánica para estudiantes universitarios de Ciencias e Ingeniería, y dentro del tema dedicado a la elasticidad, se estudian los sólidos deformables, asícomo los fenómenos de tracción, compresión, cizalladura, torsión, exión y pandeo. En el caso de la exión uno de los ejemplos que suele analizarse es el de una barra delgada empotrada en un extremo sobre la que actúa una fuerza concentrada vertical en el extremo libre. El estudio se hace para pequeños desplazamientos o pequeñas pendientes de la barra, lo que permite integrar fácilmente la ecuación diferencial de la barra exionada y calcular la elástica y la echa o desplazamiento vertical del extremo libre. Sin embargo, la aproximación para pequeñas pendientes que se hace en la bibliografía es incompatible con otra consideración que siempre se tiene en cuenta y es que la longitud de la fibra neutra de la barra no cambia cuando la barra exiona. En este trabajo se presenta, para al problema de la exión de una barra delgada en voladizo, una aproximación para pequeños desplazamientos o pequeñas pendientes de la barra menos aproximada de lo común". Para ello se introduce como hipótesis la constancia de la longitud de la fibra neutra de la barra lo que permite obtener unas ecuaciones más precisas que las que aparecen en la bibliografía. Los resultados obtenidos se han comparado con los exactos asícomo con las medidas experimentales realizadas en el laboratorio con una regla de acero empotrada en un extremo. Las ecuaciones de la elástica se obtienen siguiendo un tratamiento análogo al desarrollado por Feynman cuando estudia la viga exionada en su libro de Física, por lo que el desarrollo aquípresentado puede ser seguido sin muchos problemas por cualquier estudiante de Física o Mecánica de los primeros cursos universitarios.

  15. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  16. Gigantism of the foot: our experience in seven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, S; Santini, S; Cagnoni, G; Jacopetti, T

    1998-01-01

    We report our experience in seven patients with congenital gigantism of the foot with the following diagnoses: neurofibromatosis (two), fibrolipomatosis (two), Proteus syndrome (two), and idiopathic localized gigantism (one). Our purpose is to introduce a new classification of foot gigantism, based on the concept of "neuroinduction." In our experience, intraoperative examination and subsequent histologic examination show consistently pathologic findings in the plantar nerve and its terminal branches in the foot affected by gigantism. Limited surgical treatment was used in five patients. To prevent forefoot enlargement and recurrence of deformity, we suggest complete ray resection. We evaluated our results using radiographs, functional status, and cosmetic considerations.

  17. Operation of arc heating furnace on manufacturing gigantic ingots and segregation of gigantic ingots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Takayasu; Okamura, Masayoshi

    1976-01-01

    The techniques and procedure for manufacturing gigantic ingots heavier than 200 t are described. Especially, practical results of an arc heating furnace which plays an important role in the procedure and segregation of gigantic ingots are discussed in detail. By appropriate operations of the arc heating furnance, hydrogen and phosphorus are kept unchanged, and oxygen and sulphur decrease to very low levels. Furthermore, the temperature can be accurately controlled. The application of multipour technique reduces segregation and its degree is dependent on kinds of steel. V-segregation and inverted V-segregation in steel deoxidized with carbon in vacuum seem to be very slight. (auth.)

  18. Eventos climáticos extremos y migración interna en Guatemala, un análisis basado en percepciones de expertos

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    Deicy Carolina Lozano Sivisaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se contribuye a comprender la migración interna en Guatemala frente a los eventos climáticos extremos (ece en el marco del cambio climático. Este análisis se hizo con base en los medios de vida de la comunidad. La información se obtuvo de entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a expertos y de revisión bibliográfica. Los resultados encontrados revelan que la migración está estrechamente ligada a los medios de vida de las comunidades porque los ece cambian las condiciones de un territorio. Sin embargo, la decisión de migrar se ve influida por las condiciones socioeconómicas de las personas. También se encontró que la seguridad alimentaria es un canal a través del cual los ece tienen impacto en la migración.

  19. Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Geerat J

    2016-01-01

    Gigantism-very large body size-is an ecologically important trait associated with competitive superiority. Although it has been studied in particular cases, the general conditions for the evolution and maintenance of gigantism remain obscure. I compiled sizes and dates for the largest species in 3 terrestrial and 7 marine trophic and habitat categories of animals from throughout the Phanerozoic. The largest species (global giants) in all categories are of post-Paleozoic age. Gigantism at this level appeared tens to hundreds of millions of years after mass extinctions and long after the origins of clades in which it evolved. Marine gigantism correlates with high planktic or seafloor productivity, but on land the correspondence between productivity and gigantism is weak at best. All global giants are aerobically active animals, not gentle giants with low metabolic demands. Oxygen concentration in the atmosphere correlates with gigantism in the Paleozoic but not thereafter, likely because of the elaboration of efficient gas-exchange systems in clades containing giants. Although temperature and habitat size are important in the evolution of very large size in some cases, the most important (and rare) enabling circumstance is a highly developed ecological infrastructure in which essential resources are abundant and effectively recycled and reused, permitting activity levels to increase and setting the stage for gigantic animals to evolve. Gigantism as a hallmark of competitive superiority appears to have lost its luster on land after the Mesozoic in favor of alternative means of achieving dominance, especially including social organization and coordinated food-gathering.

  20. Aphanes arvensis (Rosaceae) en el extremo nordeste de la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Hildt; Héctor A. Keller

    2017-01-01

    Se menciona por primera vez para el nordeste argentino a una hierba adventicia en el nuevomundo. La especie es ilustrada mediante fotografías Fil: Hildt, Gustavo. Universidad Nacional de Misiones; Argentina Fil: Keller, Hector Alejandro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Nordeste. Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste (i); Argentina

  1. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

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    Oscar Zaragoza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  2. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Rodas, Rocío; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-06-17

    The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  3. Sotos syndrome: An interesting disorder with gigantism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, A.; Biswas, Arundhati

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old boy diagnosed to have Sotos syndrome, with rare association of bilateral primary optic atrophy and epilepsy. He presented with accelerated linear growth, facial gestalt, distinctive facial features, seizures and progressive diminution of vision in both eyes. He had features of gigantism from early childhood. An MRI showed that brain and endocrine functions were normal. This case is of interest, as we have to be aware of this not so rare disorder. In addition to the classic features, there were two unusual associations with Sotos syndrome in the patient. PMID:19893668

  4. Sotos syndrome: An interesting disorder with gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, A; Biswas, Arundhati

    2008-07-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old boy diagnosed to have Sotos syndrome, with rare association of bilateral primary optic atrophy and epilepsy. He presented with accelerated linear growth, facial gestalt, distinctive facial features, seizures and progressive diminution of vision in both eyes. He had features of gigantism from early childhood. An MRI showed that brain and endocrine functions were normal. This case is of interest, as we have to be aware of this not so rare disorder. In addition to the classic features, there were two unusual associations with Sotos syndrome in the patient.

  5. Sotos syndrome: An interesting disorder with gigantism

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    Nalini A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 16-year-old boy diagnosed to have Sotos syndrome, with rare association of bilateral primary optic atrophy and epilepsy. He presented with accelerated linear growth, facial gestalt, distinctive facial features, seizures and progressive diminution of vision in both eyes. He had features of gigantism from early childhood. An MRI showed that brain and endocrine functions were normal. This case is of interest, as we have to be aware of this not so rare disorder. In addition to the classic features, there were two unusual associations with Sotos syndrome in the patient.

  6. Central neurocytoma presenting with gigantism: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Y; Sakai, N; Andoh, T; Yoshimura, S; Yamada, H

    1992-08-01

    We report a case of central neurocytoma presenting with gigantism. The patient was a 19-year-old man with a 2-year history of rapid growth. Computed tomography revealed a round, slightly enhancing calcified tumor in the septal region. This lesion was resected, and postoperative radiotherapy was given. The preoperative serum growth hormone level was 20.7 ng/mL, and postoperatively this fell to 0.9 ng/mL. Pituitary dysfunction was not noted either before or after the operation. A low level of production of growth hormone releasing factor was detected when tumor cells obtained during surgery were cultured.

  7. Gigantic subcutaneous lipoma – A case report

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    Christian Lyngsaa Lang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal tumour. The solitary subcutaneous lipoma accounts for approximately one-quarter to one-half of all soft tissue tumours. The preferred locations include the trunk, shoulder, upper arm, and the neck. In this case report, we present a gigantic axillary lipoma weighing 23.35 kg. Due to the tumour mass and its long-term presence, the lipoma caused anatomical changes in the axilla making its removal challenging and difficult.

  8. Análisis socioeconómico de la pesquería de calamar gigante en Guaymas, Sonora

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    Francisco Javier de la Cruz-González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo hacemos un análisis socioeconómico de la pesquería de calamar gigante en Guaymas, Sonora. Se generó una base de datos con información pesquera y se aplicó una encuesta a pescadores y a trabajadores de la industria del calamar para determinar sus principales características socioeconómicas. Los resultados muestran que esta pesquería ha tenido una participación importante en la estructura productiva del sector pesquero de la región; sin embargo, el repunte en las capturas de calamar gigante en los últimos años ha permitido el crecimiento de esta pesquería, pero no su desarrollo. El documento resalta la necesidad de orientar las políticas de manejo al aprovechamiento integral de este recurso.

  9. Hereditary pituitary hyperplasia with infantile gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläsker, Sven; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Lafferty, Antony R A; Hofman, Paul L; Li, Jie; Weil, Robert J; Zhuang, Zhengping; Oldfield, Edward H

    2011-12-01

    We report hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. The objective of the study was to describe the results of the clinical and laboratory analysis of this rare instance of hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. The study is a retrospective analysis of three cases from one family. The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health, a tertiary referral center. A mother and both her sons had very early-onset gigantism associated with high levels of serum GH and prolactin. The condition was treated by total hypophysectomy. We performed clinical, pathological, and molecular evaluations, including evaluation basal and provocative endocrine testing, neuroradiological assessment, and assessment of the pituitary tissue by microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. All three family members had very early onset of gigantism associated with abnormally high serum levels of GH and prolactin. Serum GHRH levels were not elevated in either of the boys. The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and histological findings indicated mammosomatotroph hyperplasia. The pituitary gland of both boys revealed diffuse mammosomatotroph hyperplasia of the entire pituitary gland without evidence of adenoma. Prolactin and GH were secreted by the same cells within the same secretory granules. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of GHRH in clusters of cells distributed throughout the hyperplastic pituitary of both boys. This hereditary condition seems to be a result of embryonic pituitary maldevelopment with retention and expansion of the mammosomatotrophs. The findings suggest that it is caused by paracrine or autocrine pituitary GHRH secretion during pituitary development.

  10. The role of the seed coat in the light sensivity in Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante seeds O papel do tegumento na sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante

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    Maura Lúcia Costa Gonçalves

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of the seed coat in the light sensitivity of seeds of Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante was analysed by germination tests of intact and naked seeds. Far-red light caused high inhibition of seed germination, while under white and red lights low inhibition was found. Naked seeds presented no light sensitivity with high percentage germination under light and darkness. However, incubation of naked seeds in -0.6MPa polyethylene glycol solution resulted in light inhibition as observed in intact seeds. The analysis of the seed coat transmitted light indicated that the filtered light presented the same photoequilibrium of phytochrome when compared to the white light, with a decrease of only 33% in the light irradiance which reaches the embryo.O papel do tegumento sobre a sensibilidade à luz em sementes de Raphanus sativus L. cv. redondo gigante foi analisado por testes de germinação de sementes intactas e nuas. A luz vermelho-extremo inibiu fortemente a germinação, enquanto as luzes branca e vermelha apresentaram baixa inibição. Por outro lado, sementes nuas não apresentaram sensibilidade à luz, com alta porcentagem de germinação tanto na luz como no escuro. Entretanto, a incubação das sementes nuas em condições de estresse em solução de polietilenoglicol a -0,6MPa, resultou em inibição na luz, como observadas em sementes intactas. A análise da luz transmitida pelo tegumento das sementes indicou que a luz filtrada apresenta o mesmo fotoequilíbrio teórico do fitocromo obtido na luz branca, com um decréscimo em apenas 33% da irradiância que atinge o embrião.

  11. Ecología microbiana en ambientes extremos

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera Bazán, María de los Angeles

    2015-01-01

    La Astrobiología es una nueva disciplina dedicada al estudio los orígenes de la vida en la Tierra y en cualquier lugar del universo, así como de su evolución, distribución y futuro. Esta nueva área de estudio multidisciplinario unifica las ciencias físicas y biológicas dirigiéndose a algunas de las preguntas más fundamentales de la naturaleza, entre las que se encuentran las relacionadas con el origen la vida, como se produjo y cuáles son sus mecanismos de evolución. Uno de los aspectos e...

  12. Esplenomegalia gigante en la leucemia linfocítica crónica

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    José Luis González González

    Full Text Available La leucemia linfocítica crónica constituye la forma de leucemia más frecuente en el mundo occidental; sus síntomas más frecuentes son la aparición de adenopatías, el cansancio, la pérdida de peso y aquellos derivados de las infecciones y del síndrome anémico. Aunque es una de las enfermedades que rara vez son tributarias de una esplenectomía por hiperesplenismo, es una entidad frecuente en hematología y debe ser del dominio y conocimiento del cirujano general. Presentamos un paciente con una esplenomegalia de proporciones gigantes, de inusual aparición.

  13. Problemas de la historia fenicia en el extremo occidente

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    Pedro BOSCH GIMPERA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los principios de la colonización fenicia son difíciles de fechar tanto en Africa como en España. Para España se ha creído generalmente en el sincronismo establecido por Veleio Patérculo 1, 2, 4, que haría remontar la fundación del templo de Melkarth en Cádiz a 1100 a. de J. C. Hace tiempo que hemos insistido en las dificultades que se oponen a esta fecha y más recientemente Albright y Cintas parecen tender también a una fecha más reciente, aunque piensan que la fundación de Cádiz pudo ser precedida de una etapa de relaciones con los pueblos de la región, en lo que también nosotros estaríamos de acuerdo. Lo difícil sigue siendo hacer remontar incluso estas relaciones previas a una fecha tan antigua.

  14. MEDICIÓN DE CONTAGIO E INTERDEPENDENCIA FINANCIEROS MEDIANTE CÓPULAS Y EVENTOS EXTREMOS EN LOS PAÍSES DE LA AMÉRICA LATINA

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    Miguel Chirinos G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se mide la interrelación y trasmisión de choques que existe entre los mercados financieros de la América Latina. El indicador más utilizado ha sido el coeficiente de correlación; el principal problema de éste es que no es robusto a la heteroscedasticidad. En el trabajo empírico, muchos autores definen la mutua de-pendencia según el indicador y los objetivos que esperan alcanzar. Nuestro trabajo propone las cópulas y los eventos extremos como mediciones de la mutua (inter dependencia de los mercados; estos indicadores presentan ventajas, tanto para la diversificación como del valor en riesgo (VR de la cartera, frente al coeficiente de correlación cuando es utilizado para los fines mencionados.

  15. Unilateral glaucoma in Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, M T; Gedde, S J; Flynn, J T

    2000-12-01

    To report a patient with unilateral glaucoma associated with Sotos syndrome. Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a disorder of growth and development with characteristic facial changes and normal endocrine function. Ocular manifestations may also include megalocornea, iris hypoplasia, cataracts, megalophthalmos, strabismus, nystagmus, and retinal dystrophy. Case report. A 50 year-old man with the clinical features of Sotos syndrome presented with complaints of decreased vision in the left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral megalocornea, megalophthalmos, iris hypoplasia and transillumination defects, cataracts, and unilateral glaucoma. Intraocular pressure was lowered, and visual field loss was stabilized with topical medications. Sotos syndrome patients should be examined routinely to allow for early detection and treatment of potential ocular problems, including glaucoma.

  16. Miectomía con cauterización de los extremos versus visualización directa Myectomy with cauterization of the extremitates versus direct visualization

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    Rosa M. Naranjo Fernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de 71 pacientes con hiperfunción de oblicuo inferior bilateral que acudieron al Servicio de Oftalmología Pediátrica y Estrabismo del Hospital Oftalmológico Docente "Ramón Pando Ferrer", de ellos 26 intervenidos con la técnica quirúrgica de miectomía con cauterización de los extremos y un segundo grupo donde se aplicó la técnica de miectomía bajo visualización directa con 45 pacientes, que fueron operados desde enero de 1998 hasta enero de 2003. A todos se les realizó una valoración preoperatoria y posoperatoria de la hiperfunción del oblicuo inferior. El 72 % se agrupó en un rango de edad de 1 a 10 años, el 55 % tenía diagnóstico de esotropía con hipertopía; no hubo recidiva en los pacientes intervenidos de miectomía con cauterización de los extremos bajo visualización directa.A descriptive and retrospective study of 71 patients with hyperfunction of the bilateral inferior oblique that received attention at the Service of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus of "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Ophthalmological Hospital was conducted. 26 of them underwent myectomy with cauterization of the extremitates, whereas in the other 45 myectomy under direct visualization was performed. They were operated on from January 1998 to January 2003. A preoperative and postoperative assessment of the hyperfunction of the inferior oblique was made. 72 % were grouped in an age range from 1 to 10 years old, and 55 % had a diagnosis of esotropia with hypertropia. No relapse was observed in the patients that underwent myectomy with cauterization of the extremitates under direct visualization.

  17. Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life.

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    Geerat J Vermeij

    Full Text Available Gigantism-very large body size-is an ecologically important trait associated with competitive superiority. Although it has been studied in particular cases, the general conditions for the evolution and maintenance of gigantism remain obscure. I compiled sizes and dates for the largest species in 3 terrestrial and 7 marine trophic and habitat categories of animals from throughout the Phanerozoic. The largest species (global giants in all categories are of post-Paleozoic age. Gigantism at this level appeared tens to hundreds of millions of years after mass extinctions and long after the origins of clades in which it evolved. Marine gigantism correlates with high planktic or seafloor productivity, but on land the correspondence between productivity and gigantism is weak at best. All global giants are aerobically active animals, not gentle giants with low metabolic demands. Oxygen concentration in the atmosphere correlates with gigantism in the Paleozoic but not thereafter, likely because of the elaboration of efficient gas-exchange systems in clades containing giants. Although temperature and habitat size are important in the evolution of very large size in some cases, the most important (and rare enabling circumstance is a highly developed ecological infrastructure in which essential resources are abundant and effectively recycled and reused, permitting activity levels to increase and setting the stage for gigantic animals to evolve. Gigantism as a hallmark of competitive superiority appears to have lost its luster on land after the Mesozoic in favor of alternative means of achieving dominance, especially including social organization and coordinated food-gathering.

  18. Etiologies and clinical presentation of gigantism in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Haddam, Ali El Mahdi; Chaouki, Dalal; Meskine, Djamila; Chaouki, Mohamed Lamine

    2012-01-01

    True gigantism is an exceptional and fascinating pediatric disease. Our aim in this study was to describe the different etiologies of a large group of children with gigantism and the natural history of their growth. In this multicenter study, we considered as giant children, adolescents and adults whose heights were ≥3 SD compared to their target stature or to our population average lengths. Isolated hypogonadism and Klinefelter syndrome were excluded from this series. All underwent clinical exam, and hormonal and neurological investigations. From 1980 to 2010, we observed 30 giants: 26 males (86.6%) and 4 females (mean age 19.8 ± 11 years). Among the 13 patients (40.3%) who consulted before the age of 16 years, 9 had acromegaly and 6 had mental retardation and body malformations. Based on growth hormone (GH) secretion evaluation, 2 groups were observed: pituitary gigantism (n = 16): GH = 150 ± 252 ng/ml (n ≤ 5), and other causes with normal GH (0.7 ± 0.6 ng/ml): 6 Sotos syndrome and 8 idiopathic cases. Only the first group had neurological, ophthalmological, metabolic and cardiovascular complications and received treatment. The result was not optimal as GH normalization was not observed. Reduction of tumor size and decreased GH plasma values were not observed. Gigantism predominates in males. The main cause is GH excess. The diagnosis was very late except for cerebral gigantism. Complications were observed in pituitary gigantism only. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Tratamiento quirúrgico del granuloma central de células gigantes: estudio y seguimiento de 10 casos. Revisión de la literatura Surgical treatment of central giant-cell granuloma: Study and follow-up of 10 cases. Literature review

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    M. Fernández Ferro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: El granuloma central de células gigantes (GCCG es una lesión benigna, no odontogénica, de origen incierto y con unas características epidemiológicas, clínicas y radiológicas bien conocidas. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es recoger, describir y evaluar nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento quirúrgico de este tipo de lesiones y su seguimiento, haciendo especial hincapié en los datos clínicos y radiológicos así como en las complicaciones y recidivas tras el mismo. Se realiza, además, una revisión de la literatura científica. Material y métodos: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo de 10 casos intervenidos en nuestro centro entre los años 1998 y 2008. La edad media fue de 35 años. Se describen las características clínicas y radiológicas de cada caso, así como la mejor opción de tratamiento quirúrgico, evaluación del mismo, complicaciones y recidivas. Resultados: Se realiza tratamiento quirúrgico en los 10 casos, de los cuales 4 presentan características clínicas y radiológicas de agresividad. El tratamiento de elección es la escisión y curetaje hasta hueso sano en el 60%, y en el resto resección amplia con márgenes. El periodo de seguimiento medio es de 6,7 años, con una tasa de recidiva del 1%. Conclusión: En nuestra experiencia coincidimos con la mayoría de los autores al considerar el tratamiento quirúrgico de elección en el momento actual, señalando la importancia de realizar un adecuado diagnóstico y una clara diferenciación entre lesiones agresivas y no agresivas para determinar la radicalidad de la intervención.Objectives: Central giant-cell granuloma (CGCG is a benign, non-odontogenic lesion of uncertain origin and well-known epidemiologic, clinical and radiologic characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile, describe and evaluate the authors' experience with the surgical treatment of CGCG and its follow-up, with special emphasis on clinical and radiologic data, complications and

  20. Sacrificio de cuyes en el Yaral, comunidad prehispánica del extremo sur peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available L’étude de 112 cobayes momifiés de façon naturelle et trouvés enterrés sous le sol de quatre demeures du site El Yaral, village préhispanique de l’extrême sud du Pérou, a permis de reconstruire les pratiques rituelles relatives au sacrifice de ces animaux. Des preuves de l’utilisation des cobayes, avant comme après la conquête espagnole, sont présentées et démontrent la continuité des pratiques rituelles et croyances attachées à cet animal jusqu’à nos jours. LE SACRIFICE DE COBAYES SUR LE SITE DE EL YARAL, COMMUNAUTÉ PRÉHISPANIQUE DE L’EXTRÊME SUD DU PÉROU. L’étude de 112 cobayes momifiés de façon naturelle et trouvés enterrés sous le sol de quatre demeures du site El Yaral, village préhispanique de l’extrême sud du Pérou, a permis de reconstruire les pratiques rituelles relatives au sacrifice de ces animaux. Des preuves de l’utilisation des cobayes, avant comme après la conquête espagnole, sont présentées et démontrent la continuité des pratiques rituelles et croyances attachées à cet animal jusqu’à nos jours. GUINEA PIG SACRIFICES AT EL YARAL, A PREHISPANIC VILLAGE IN THE EXTREME SOUTH OF PERU. The study of 112 naturally mummified guinea pigs found buried beneath the floors of four residences at El Yaral, a preHispanic village located in southern Peru, has documented ritual practices involving the sacrifice of these animals. Evidence concerning pre- and post-Conquest guinea pig utilization is presented which demonstrates the continuity of ritual practices and beliefs about this animal up to the present day.

  1. Corticoides intralesionales en lesiones a células gigantes

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    J.P. Crestanello Nese

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde su descripción original, las lesiones de células gigantes (LCG han sido entidades controvertidas, desde el punto de vista de su origen, de su comportamiento clínico, de sus características radiográficas e histológicas, así como de su tratamiento. Para su tratamiento se han considerado alternativas quirúrgicas y no quirúrgicas. En este trabajo, se presentan tres nuevos casos de LCG, en los cuales se realizó infiltración intralesional con corticoides como una maniobra previa y complementaria a la quirúrgica. Luego de la infiltración, se observó una disminución del tamaño de las lesiones y un cambio en sus características macroscópicas, se trato por enucleación un caso y por remodelación quirúrgica los dos restantes.Giant cell lesions (GCL have been controversial entities since its original description. Its origin, clinical behavior, radiographic and histological features and also its treatment are polemical. The therapeutic possibilities are surgical or non surgical. In this paper, the intralesional infiltration with steroids is presented like a previous and complementary therapy to surgery alone. Three new cases of GCL are presented. All of them were first treated with intralesional infiltration with steroids. After that,a partial remission and a change of the macroscopic characteristics were observed and one of the lesion was then enucleated while for the others two surgical remodelation were necessary to do.

  2. Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2016-01-01

    Gigantism—very large body size—is an ecologically important trait associated with competitive superiority. Although it has been studied in particular cases, the general conditions for the evolution and maintenance of gigantism remain obscure. I compiled sizes and dates for the largest species in 3 terrestrial and 7 marine trophic and habitat categories of animals from throughout the Phanerozoic. The largest species (global giants) in all categories are of post-Paleozoic age. Gigantism at this level appeared tens to hundreds of millions of years after mass extinctions and long after the origins of clades in which it evolved. Marine gigantism correlates with high planktic or seafloor productivity, but on land the correspondence between productivity and gigantism is weak at best. All global giants are aerobically active animals, not gentle giants with low metabolic demands. Oxygen concentration in the atmosphere correlates with gigantism in the Paleozoic but not thereafter, likely because of the elaboration of efficient gas-exchange systems in clades containing giants. Although temperature and habitat size are important in the evolution of very large size in some cases, the most important (and rare) enabling circumstance is a highly developed ecological infrastructure in which essential resources are abundant and effectively recycled and reused, permitting activity levels to increase and setting the stage for gigantic animals to evolve. Gigantism as a hallmark of competitive superiority appears to have lost its luster on land after the Mesozoic in favor of alternative means of achieving dominance, especially including social organization and coordinated food-gathering. PMID:26771527

  3. Pituitary gigantism: a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creo, Ana L; Lteif, Aida N

    2016-05-01

    Pituitary gigantism (PG) is a rare pediatric disease with poorly defined long-term outcomes. Our aim is to describe the longitudinal clinical course in PG patients using a single-center, retrospective cohort study. Patients younger than 19 years diagnosed with PG were identified. Thirteen cases were confirmed based on histopathology of a GH secreting adenoma or hyperplasia and a height >2 SD for age and gender. Laboratory studies, initial pathology, and imaging were abstracted. Average age at diagnosis was 13 years with an average initial tumor size of 7.4×3.8 mm. Initial transsphenoidal surgery was curative in 3/12 patients. Four of the nine patients who failed the initial surgery required a repeat procedure. Octreotide successfully normalized GH levels in 1/6 patients with disease refractory to surgery (1/6). Two out of five patients received pegvisomant after failing octreotide but only one patient responded to treatment. Five patients were ultimately treated with radiosurgery or radiation patients were followed for an average of 10 years. PG is difficult to treat. In most patients, the initial transsphenoidal surgery failed to normalize GH levels. If the initial surgery was unsuccessful, repeat surgery was unlikely to control GH secretion. Treatment with octreotide or pegvisomant was successful in less than half the patients failing surgery. Radiosurgery was curative, but is not an optimal treatment for pediatric patients. Despite the small sample, our study suggests that the treatment outcome of pediatric PG may be different than adults.

  4. Pituitary gigantism: update on molecular biology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-02-01

    To provide an update on the mechanisms leading to pituitary gigantism, as well as to familiarize the practitioner with the implication of these genetic findings on treatment decisions. Prior studies have identified gigantism as a feature of a number of monogenic disorders, including mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene, multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 4, McCune Albright syndrome, Carney complex, and the paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, and pituitary adenoma association because of succinate dehydrogenase defects. We recently described a previously uncharacterized form of early-onset pediatric gigantism caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 and we termed it X-LAG (X-linked acrogigantism). The age of onset of increased growth in X-LAG is significantly younger than other pituitary gigantism cases, and control of growth hormone excess is particularly challenging. Knowledge of the molecular defects that underlie pituitary tumorigenesis is crucial for patient care as they guide early intervention, screening for associated conditions, genetic counseling, surgical approach, and choice of medical management. Recently described microduplications of Xq26.3 account for more than 80% of the cases of early-onset pediatric gigantism. Early recognition of X-LAG may improve outcomes, as successful control of growth hormone excess requires extensive anterior pituitary resection and are difficult to manage with medical therapy alone.

  5. Late paleozoic fusulinoidean gigantism driven by atmospheric hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan L; Groves, John R; Jost, Adam B; Nguyen, Thienan; Moffitt, Sarah E; Hill, Tessa M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric hyperoxia, with pO(2) in excess of 30%, has long been hypothesized to account for late Paleozoic (360-250 million years ago) gigantism in numerous higher taxa. However, this hypothesis has not been evaluated statistically because comprehensive size data have not been compiled previously at sufficient temporal resolution to permit quantitative analysis. In this study, we test the hyperoxia-gigantism hypothesis by examining the fossil record of fusulinoidean foraminifers, a dramatic example of protistan gigantism with some individuals exceeding 10 cm in length and exceeding their relatives by six orders of magnitude in biovolume. We assembled and examined comprehensive regional and global, species-level datasets containing 270 and 1823 species, respectively. A statistical model of size evolution forced by atmospheric pO(2) is conclusively favored over alternative models based on random walks or a constant tendency toward size increase. Moreover, the ratios of volume to surface area in the largest fusulinoideans are consistent in magnitude and trend with a mathematical model based on oxygen transport limitation. We further validate the hyperoxia-gigantism model through an examination of modern foraminiferal species living along a measured gradient in oxygen concentration. These findings provide the first quantitative confirmation of a direct connection between Paleozoic gigantism and atmospheric hyperoxia. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. O EXTREMO SUL DA BAHIA QUE NÃO PERTENCE A BAHIA

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    Sebastião Pinheiro Gonçalves de Cerqueira Neto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de alguns elementos culturais na análise espacial é mais um caminho dentro das ramificações da geografia que busca a compreensão da dinâmica que o homem impõe ao espaço nos diferentes momentos da história. Em certos casos de estudos regionais o mapeamento cultural é utilizado como método para organizar um Estado, como por exemplo, os territórios de identidade da Bahia. Mas, atualmente, a maior mobilidade das pessoas tem causado dificuldade da manutenção da cultura e dessa forma a sua aplicabilidade é limitada em determinados territórios. A trajetória geográfica do Extremo Sul da Bahia mostra que a ausência de uma identidade cultural regional produziu um cenário de autonomia fazendo com que essa região não mantenha ligações com os vetores que caracterizam a cultura baiana. Palavras chave: espaço, cultura, Extremo Sul da Bahia, região.

  7. Constitutional chromosome anomalies in patients with cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, G; Guchev, Z; Köhler, I; Schober, E; Haas, O; Frisch, H

    1993-01-01

    Two boys are presented with the clinical features of cerebral gigantism and chromosomal variants which have not been described so far in this syndrome. In the first boy a de novo pericentric inversion of chromosome Y was found, the karyotypes of all other investigated family members were normal. The patient had an obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrial septal defect type II. The second boy had inherited pericentric inversion of the heterochromatic region of chromosome 9 from his mother. This chromosome 9 variant was also found in his sister who had a similar phenotype but without gigantism. Endocrine evaluation demonstrated normal results in both boys. The intellectual achievement in both cases was average.

  8. [Cerebral gigantism. Review of the literature apropos of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, B; Caron, J; Couchot, J; Gross, A; Leutenegger, M

    The authors report a case of cerebral gigantism and review 83 cases found in the world literature. The diagnosis depends on the association of several factors, none of which alone are specific but which, on the whole, form a fairly characteristic picture. Large size at birth, leading only rarely to gigantism at adult age. Facial dysmorphia of acromegaloid type. Ecephalopathy with mental deficiency without any neuroradiological abnormality. Finally, endocrine investigations and somatotropic function were normal. No etiology has been found up to now. The most satisfactory theory is that of a hypothalamopituitary disturbance. Treatment may simple avoid excess height at adult age and is based on sex hormone therapy to accelerate bony maturation.

  9. Macrodystrophia Lipomatosa: An Unusual Cause of Localized Gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S Uma; Sampath, V; Ramesh, A; Manoharan, K

    2016-01-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL) is a rare congenital form of localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in fibro adipose tissue. Here we report a case of 20 years old male who presented with history of painless gradual enlargement of entire left upper limb since childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of macrodystrophia lipomatosa. This condition has to be differentiated from other causes of localized gigantism, since these conditions differ in their course, prognosis, complications and treatment.

  10. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa: An unusual cause of localized gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Uma Maheswari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL is a rare congenital form of localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in fibro adipose tissue. Here we report a case of 20 years old male who presented with history of painless gradual enlargement of entire left upper limb since childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of macrodystrophia lipomatosa. This condition has to be differentiated from other causes of localized gigantism, since these conditions differ in their course, prognosis, complications and treatment.

  11. Evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance in cerebral gigantism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, S.; Zeltzer, M.; Benderly, A.; Levy, J.

    1974-01-01

    Three cases of cerebral gigantism, two sibs and their double first cousin, are described in a large inbred family from Israel. Two of the three were observed and diagnosed at birth and two were followed for two years. They all presented the signs and symptoms considered typical of this syndrome, as well as some of the less frequent findings. Generalized oedema and flexion contractures of the feet were observed in two of the three at birth. This has not hitherto been reported in cases of cerebral gigantism, of whom only a few have been observed and diagnosed at birth. Autosomal recessive inheritance is clearly implied in this family. Images PMID:4841084

  12. Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and gigantism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllouriotis, M L; Marx, M; Bittner, R E; Skyllouriotis, P; Gross, M; Wimmer, M

    1997-07-01

    We report a 20-year-old man with gigantism syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and severe psychomotor retardation since childhood. Histochemical and biochemical analysis of skeletal muscle biopsy revealed myoadenylate deaminase deficiency; molecular genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of primary (inherited) myoadenylate deaminase deficiency. Plasma, urine, and muscle carnitine concentrations were reduced. L-Carnitine treatment led to gradual improvement in exercise tolerance and cognitive performance; plasma and tissue carnitine levels returned to normal, and echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy disappeared. The combination of inherited myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, gigantism syndrome and carnitine deficiency has not previously been described.

  13. Escleritis nodular posterior gigante compatible con sarcoidosis ocular simulando un melanoma de la coroides

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Campagne, E.; Guex-Crosier, Y.; Schalenbourg, A.; Uffer, S.; Zografos, L.

    2007-01-01

    Caso clínico: Un paciente de 30 años fue enviado a nuestro servicio oncológico de referencia con el diagnóstico de melanoma amelanótico de la coroides del ojo izquierdo. Se hicieron los siguientes exámenes: oftalmoscopía, angiografía fluoresceínica, angiografía con verde de indocianina, ecografía, resonancia magnética y biopsia. Discusión: El diagnóstico de escleritis nodular posterior gigante basado en la ecografía se confirmó mediante una biopsia. Se realizó un examen médico completo buscán...

  14. Hepatocarcinoma gigante unifocal en mujer con ingesta prolongada de anticonceptivos hormonales: ¿casualidad o causalidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR MANUEL LOPEZ MOURIÑO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de una paciente de mediana edad con ingesta mantenida de anticonceptivos hormonales (AH que desarrolla múltiples adenomas hepáticos (asociación bien documentada y un carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC unifocal gigante sin encontrar otros factores de riesgo para el mismo (enolismo, tabaquismo, cirrosis, hemocromatosis,..... Si bien en la literatura no hay unanimidad respecto a la asociación del consumo de AH con el CHC, algunos autores ya contemplaron esa posibilidad, excluyendo también otras etiologías reconocidas de CHC, por lo que debería reevaluarse si su asociación es aleatoria o por el contrario existe nexo causal.

  15. Granuloma central de células gigantes Giant cells central granuloma

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    Ayelén María Portelles Massó

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El granuloma reparativo central de células gigantes es una lesión proliferativa no neoplásica de etiología desconocida. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 40 años de edad, portador de prótesis parcial superior. Fue remitido al Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital "V. I. Lenin" por presentar aumento de volumen en reborde alveolar superior, de color rojo grisáceo y que provocaba expansión de corticales óseas. Una vez analizados los exámenes clínicos, radiográficos e histopatológicos se diagnosticó un granuloma reparativo central de células gigantes Se realizó exéresis quirúrgica de la lesión y extracción de dientes adyacentes con una evolución satisfactoria sin señales de recidivas luego de tres años del tratamiento. El granuloma reparativo central de células gigantes se presentó como respuesta a un trauma. La correcta interpretación de los datos clínicos, radiográficos e histopatológicos nos permitió llegar al correcto diagnóstico y plan de tratamiento.Giant-cell central reparative granuloma is non neoplastic proliferative lesion of unknown etiology. We report a 40 years old male patient who was admitted at the Maxillofacial Service of the "V. I. Lenin" Hospital. The patient had partial upper prosthesis and was complaining of red-grey volume increase lesion in upper alveolar ridge which led to the expansion of cortical bone. Having analyzed clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings the case was concluded as a giant-cell central reparative granuloma. Surgical exeresis and adjunct tooth extraction were done. After three years of treatment, satisfactory follow up without recurrence is reported.

  16. Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism: analysis of 8 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Débora Gusmão

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sotos syndrome or cerebral gigantism is characterized by macrocephaly, overgrowth, mental retardation and central nervous system abnormalities. Congenital heart defects may be present. We report 8 patients with this syndrome and relate their clinical features, neuroimaging and echocardiographic findings.

  17. A rare association of localized gigantism with tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B S; Sheriff, M O; Garg, B R; Ratnakar, C

    1992-10-01

    An unusual association of localized gigantism with hypertrophy of the long bones and soft tissues in the left lower limb in an 18-year-old male with tuberous sclerosis (TS) is reported. The significance of this association is discussed from the point of view of its common neural crest origin during embryogenesis.

  18. First observations of Gigantic Jets from Monsoon Thunderstorms over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh; Maurya, Ajeet; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten; Cummer, Steven; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Bór, József; Siingh, Devendraa; Cohen, Morris; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-04-01

    Gigantic Jets are electric discharges from thunderstorm cloud tops to the bottom of the ionosphere at ~80 km altitude. After their first discovery in 2001, relatively few observations have been reported. Most of these are from satellites at large distances and a few tens from the ground at higher spatial resolution. Here we report the first Gigantic Jets observed in India from two thunderstorm systems that developed over the land surface from monsoon activity, each storm producing two Gigantic Jets. The jets were recorded by a video camera system at standard video rate (20 ms exposure) at a few hundred km distance. ELF measurements suggest that the jets are of the usual negative polarity and that they develop in less than 40 ms, which is faster than most jets reported in the past. The jets originate from the leading edge of a slowly drifting convective cloud complex close to the highest regions of the clouds and carry ~25 Coulomb of charge to the ionosphere. One jet has a markedly horizontal displacement that we suggest is caused by a combination of close-range cloud electric fields at inception, and longer-range cloud fields at larger distances during full development. The Gigantic Jets are amongst the few that have been observed over land.

  19. Gigantism in sibling unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, A; Teramoto, A; Yamada, S; Kitanaka, S; Tanaka, T; Sanno, N; Osamura, R Y; Kirino, T

    1994-11-01

    The cases of gigantism sisters with somatotroph adenomas unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) Type 1 are reported. The sisters grew rapidly since they were 5 or 6 years old and were diagnosed to have gigantism with pituitary adenoma by computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging. A serum endocrinological examination showed the elevated growth hormone values. After thyroxine-releasing hormone stimulation, growth hormone values exhibited a paradoxical rise. They were supposed to be unrelated to MEN Type 1, because analysis of the 11th chromosomes and the other endocrine functions were normal. They were operated on by the transphenoidal method. Immunohistochemical staining of both tumor specimens confirmed somatotroph adenomas. Pituitary adenoma associated with MEN Type 1 is a well-recognized entity. However, the sporadic occurrence of pituitary adenoma unrelated to MEN Type 1, especially in siblings, is extremely rare. Fifteen cases of pituitary adenomas in siblings were described in the literature. As for gigantism, only two brothers were reported. Our case of gigantism sisters is the second sporadic case. In our review of the isolated cases of pituitary adenoma in siblings described in the literature, 12 (70%) of 17 cases including ours are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than that of MEN Type 1 patients with pituitary adenomas. The cause of the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas is still unclear, although autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested. It has been stated that point mutations in codon 201 or 227 of the Gs alpha gene located in chromosome 20 were found in about 35 to 40% of somatotroph adenomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. La impronta del nuevo mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lagos Vergara

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuando nos aprontamos a conmemorar el quinto centenario del Nuevo Mundo, cabe hacer algunas reflexiones acerca de nuestro continente a la luz del lenguaje propio de las artes y la arquitectura a través del tiempo. Hablamos del Nuevo Mundo en la medida que aceptamos, por una parte, la concepción del nuevo espacio generado a partir del encuentro de dos culturas, la precolombina americana y la propiamente europea llegada principalmente a través de España, y, por otra parte, aceptando también que el nuevo continente resulta ser la pieza clave que ayuda definitivamente a configurar un nuevo cosmos que revela al mundo su otro extremo y aquella parte que manifiesta la totalidad en la certeza de que la tierra es un planeta.

  1. Defects in codoped NiO with gigantic dielectric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Ligatchev, Valeri; Yu, Zhi Gen; Zheng, Jianwei; Sullivan, Michael B.; Zeng, Yingzhi

    2009-06-01

    We combine first-principles, statistical, and phenomenological methods to investigate the electronic and dielectric properties of NiO and clarify the nature of the gigantic dielectric response in codoped NiO. Unlike previous models which are dependent on grain-boundary effects, our model based on small polaron hopping in homogeneous material predicts the dielectric permittivity (104-5) for heavily Li- and MD -codoped NiO (MD=Ti,Al,Si) . Furthermore, we reproduce the experimental trends in dielectric properties as a function of the dopants nature and their concentrations, as well as the reported activation energies for the relaxation in Li- and Ti-codoped NiO (0.308 eV or 0.153 eV depending on the Fermi-level position). In this study, we demonstrate that small polaron hopping on dopant levels is the dominant mechanism for the gigantic dielectric response in these codoped NiO.

  2. Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Phil R; Campione, Nicolás E; Persons, W Scott; Currie, Philip J; Larson, Peter L; Tanke, Darren H; Bakker, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence for feathers in theropods has led to speculations that the largest tyrannosaurids, including Tyrannosaurus rex , were extensively feathered. We describe fossil integument from Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids ( Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, Gorgosaurus and Tarbosaurus ), confirming that these large-bodied forms possessed scaly, reptilian-like skin. Body size evolution in tyrannosauroids reveals two independent occurrences of gigantism; specifically, the large sizes in Yutyrannus and tyrannosaurids were independently derived. These new findings demonstrate that extensive feather coverings observed in some early tyrannosauroids were lost by the Albian, basal to Tyrannosauridae. This loss is unrelated to palaeoclimate but possibly tied to the evolution of gigantism, although other mechanisms exist. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar; Banerjee, Swati; Kelly, Daniel F; Lee, Phillip D K

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism, a condition of endogenous growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion prior to epiphyseal closure, is a rare condition. In the adult condition of GH excess, acromegaly, the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) have been reported, with resolution following normalization of GH levels. We report the case of a 16-year-old male with pituitary gigantism due to a large invasive suprasellar adenoma who presented with T2DM and DKA. Despite surgical de-bulking, radiotherapy and medical treatment with cabergoline and pegvisomant, GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels remained elevated. However, the T2DM and recurrent DKA were successfully managed with metformin and low-dose glargine insulin, respectively. We review the pathophysiology of T2DM and DKA in growth hormone excess and available treatment options.

  4. Multiple origins of gigantism in stem baleen whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Kohno, Naoki

    2016-12-01

    Living baleen whales (Mysticeti) include the world's largest animals to have ever lived—blue whales ( Balaenoptera musculus) can reach more than 30 m. However, the gigantism in baleen whales remains little explored. Here, we compiled all published stem mysticetes from the Eocene and Oligocene and then mapped the estimated body size onto different phylogenies that suggest distinct evolutionary histories of baleen whales. By assembling all known stem baleen whales, we present three novel findings in early mysticete evolution. Results show that, regardless of different phylogenetic scenarios, large body size (more than 5-m long) evolved multiple times independently in their early evolutionary history. For example, the earliest known aetiocetid ( Fucaia buelli, 33-31 Ma) was small in size, about 2 m, and a later aetiocetid ( Morawanocetus-like animal, 26-23 Ma) can reach 8-m long—almost four times the size of Fucaia buelli—suggesting an independent gigantism in the aetiocetid lineage. In addition, our reconstruction of ancestral state demonstrates that the baleen whales originated from small body size (less than 5 m) rather than large body size as previously acknowledged. Moreover, reconstructing the evolution of body size in stem baleen whales suggests that the initial pulse of mysticete gigantism started at least back to the Paleogene and in turn should help to understand the origin, pattern, and process of the extreme gigantism in the crown baleen whales. This study illustrates that Cope's rule is insufficient to explain the evolution of body size in a group that comprises the largest animals in the history of life, although currently the lack of exact ancestor-descendant relationships remains to fully reveal the evolutionary history of body size.

  5. Breast gigantism induced by D-penicillamine: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Hak Hee; Kim, Sun Mi; Seo, Myung Hee; Yoon, Hoi Soo

    2004-01-01

    D-penicillamine, a chelating agent of copper, is the drug of choice for the treatment of Wilson's disease. Breast enlargement is a rare complication arising from its use, and we report a case of breast gigantism which developed after it had been used for ten months to treat this condition. Mammography demonstrated bilaterally enlarged dense breasts; ultrasonography, similarly, demonstrated enlargement, revealing the presence of a mass, shown at biopsy to be benign, in the left one

  6. Breast gigantism induced by D-penicillamine: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Hak Hee; Kim, Sun Mi; Seo, Myung Hee; Yoon, Hoi Soo [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-01

    D-penicillamine, a chelating agent of copper, is the drug of choice for the treatment of Wilson's disease. Breast enlargement is a rare complication arising from its use, and we report a case of breast gigantism which developed after it had been used for ten months to treat this condition. Mammography demonstrated bilaterally enlarged dense breasts; ultrasonography, similarly, demonstrated enlargement, revealing the presence of a mass, shown at biopsy to be benign, in the left one.

  7. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb

    OpenAIRE

    Nandini Chakrabarti; Chandan Chattopadhyay; Majhi Bhuban; Salil Kumar Pal

    2014-01-01

    A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, spl...

  8. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa: An unusual cause of localized gigantism

    OpenAIRE

    S Uma Maheswari; V Sampath; A Ramesh; K Manoharan

    2016-01-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL) is a rare congenital form of localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in fibro adipose tissue. Here we report a case of 20 years old male who presented with history of painless gradual enlargement of entire left upper limb since childhood. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of macrodystrophia lipomatosa. This condition has to be differentiated fro...

  9. Liderazgo, la competencia esencial que transformó una empresa colombiana en un gigante internacional : el caso de Cementos Argos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ochoa Díaz, Ph.D.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cementos Argos ha sido catalogado como uno de los gigantes de la industria cementera colombiana por su gran capacidad de consolidación en el mercado nacional y sus estrategias de internacionalización poco convencionales. Esta investigación documenta la experiencia internacional de Argos bajo la perspectiva de las teorías de internacionalización de mayor aceptación en la literatura internacional, haciendo uso del enfoque metodológico de los estudios de caso. Como resultado se encontró que las estrategias de fidelización, aunadas al rediseño organizacional resultado del liderazgo de la alta gerencia, han sido herramientas vitales para asegurar el crecimiento de la compañía en los mercados local y externo.

  10. LIDERAZGO, LA COMPETENCIA ESENCIAL QUE TRANSFORMÓ UNA EMPRESA COLOMBIANA EN UN GIGANTE INTERNACIONAL: EL CASO DE CEMENTOS ARGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR OCHOA DÍAZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cementos Argos ha sido catalogado como uno de los gigantes de la industria cementera colombiana por su gran capacidad de consolidación en el mercado nacional y sus estrategias de internacionalización poco convencionales. Esta investigación documenta la experiencia internacional de Argos bajo la perspectiva de las teorías de internacionalización de mayor aceptación en laliteratura internacional, haciendo uso del enfoque metodológico de los estudios de caso. Como resultado se encontró que las estrategias de fidelización,aunadas al rediseño organizacional resultado del liderazgo de la alta gerencia, han sido herramientas vitales para asegurar el crecimiento de la compañía en los mercados local y externo.

  11. Liposarcoma gigante de mediastino Giant mediastinal liposarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel César Fontes Maestri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El liposarcoma es, entre los sarcomas, el tumor maligno de los tejidos blandos más frecuente en el adulto. Se presenta un caso de liposarcoma situado en el mediastino, localización infrecuente, y que resultó ser un liposarcoma bien diferenciado. El paciente fue un hombre de 48 años de edad que ingresa en la Sala de Neumotisiología con disnea y una masa mediastínica situada hacia el hemitórax izquierdo. Se estudió con radiografía de tórax anteroposterior y lateral y, además, con tomografía axial computadorizada. Fue necesaria una toracotomía con urgencia relativa por la agudización del cuadro clínico mediastínico compresivo. La evolución fue buena durante la intervención quirúrgica y después de ella y actualmente ha concluido su tratamiento adyuvante (radioterapia y quimioterapia y se siente bienLiposarcoma is the most frequent malignant soft tissue tumor. This article presented a case of well-differentiated liposarcoma located in the mediastinum, which is a rare location. The patient was a 48 years-old man that was admitted to the pneumothysiology service because he was short of breath and had a mediastinal mass located near left hemithorax. He was studied using anteroposterior and lateral thoracic radiography in addition to computerized tomography. It was necessary to urgently perform thorachotomy due to his acute clinical picture with mediastinal compression. The patient evolved positively during surgery and afterwards; at present, he has finished his adjuvant treatment based on radiotherapy and chemotherapy and he feels good

  12. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-01-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was...

  13. Spontaneous endocrine cure of gigantism due to pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, O; Hall, R; Hughes, I A

    1983-10-08

    An 11 year old, tall boy presented with symptoms typical of pituitary apoplexy. A large necrotic and haemorrhagic tumour was removed, which was shown to be an adenoma secreting growth hormone and prolactin. Subsequent treatment comprised cranial irradiation and hormone replacement. Eighteen months after operation growth was static and plasma growth hormone and prolactin concentrations were undetectable. Treatment of pituitary apoplexy should comprise excision of the tumour and postoperative irradiation; such treatment after early recognition of the condition offers the best chance of preserving normal pituitary function in children with gigantism.

  14. Gigantic Jet Environments: A Meteorological Evaluation Using Reanalysis Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, M. E.; Lazarus, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The meteorological conditions of gigantic jet (GJ) producing thunderstorms tend to be connected to maritime tropical environments. In particular, they have an affinity toward tropical disturbances including those with moderate values of upper tropospheric environmental wind shear. Wind shear related effects (including turbulence) in association with deep convection in these environments have been proposed as mechanisms for the arrangement of GJ favorable charge structures. This study focuses on a climatological evaluation in an effort to assess whether the proposed ingredients are consistent with observed GJ event regions. The Climate System Forecast System - Version 2 (CFSR V2) is used here to test for the proposed GJ conditions.

  15. Hereditary Gigantism-the biblical giant Goliath and his brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Deirdre E; Morrison, Patrick J

    2014-05-01

    The biblical giant Goliath has an identifiable family tree suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. We suggest that he had a hereditary pituitary disorder possibly due to the AIP gene, causing early onset and familial acromegaly or gigantism. We comment on the evidence within the scriptures for his other relatives including a relative with six digits and speculate on possible causes of the six digits. Recognition of a hereditary pituitary disorder in the biblical Goliath and his family sheds additional information on his and other family members' battles with David and his relatives.

  16. The Oldest Recorded Case of Acromegaly and Gigantism in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjari, Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    Here we commemorate the character and academic authority of Prof. Zabiholah Gorban (1903-2006), the founder of Shiraz medical school. No doubt, in the scope of history of contemporary medicine, he has been efficient and effective. With respect to this fact, his article on a rare case described in Acta anatomica published in Iran in 1966, entitled (Observations on a giant skeleton) is browsed and reviewed. A case named Siah Khan with combined acromegaly and gigantism that appears to have letters to say still after nearly half a century.

  17. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa: a reconstructive approach to gigantism of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Andrew J; Chung, Kevin C

    2004-01-01

    Localized gigantism poses a challenging surgical dilemma, and it may be treated with amputation. This case report documents the application of a reconstructive approach to a severe case of pedal macrodystrophia lipomatosa in a 1-year-old girl. A series of 3 surgeries were designed to reduce the length, width, height, and overall bulk of the congenitally enlarged foot. The 3 procedures debulked the foot for normal ambulation and same-size shoe wear for both feet. The resulting functional and aesthetic improvements achieved through reconstructive treatment provided a desirable alternative to amputation.

  18. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Chakrabarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome.

  19. Spontaneous endocrine cure of gigantism due to pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, O; Hall, R; Hughes, I A

    1983-01-01

    An 11 year old, tall boy presented with symptoms typical of pituitary apoplexy. A large necrotic and haemorrhagic tumour was removed, which was shown to be an adenoma secreting growth hormone and prolactin. Subsequent treatment comprised cranial irradiation and hormone replacement. Eighteen months after operation growth was static and plasma growth hormone and prolactin concentrations were undetectable. Treatment of pituitary apoplexy should comprise excision of the tumour and postoperative irradiation; such treatment after early recognition of the condition offers the best chance of preserving normal pituitary function in children with gigantism. PMID:6311318

  20. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Chattopadhyay, Chandan; Bhuban, Majhi; Pal, Salil Kumar

    2014-04-01

    A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome.

  1. Dynamics in systems of pipes with different movements in its ends Dinámica en sistemas de tuberías con movimientos diferentes en sus extremos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Luévanos-Rojas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this document a method of dynamic analysis of systems of pipes with different movements in the ends sets out. This methodology takes the response spectrum corresponding to each one of the supports, and to compare it with the method of simple answer, that it uses a surrounding one in the response spectrum of the different supports is the classic one, in this last one they are not preservative, as it is possible to be noticed in the table of results of the considered problem. Therefore, the usual practice to consider the surrounding one of spectrum will not be a recommendable solution. Also the use of the consistent masses or distributed, and not discreet or concentrated them, as normally it is made, and in addition it is become attached but to the reality.En este documento se propone un método de análisis dinámico de sistemas de tuberías con movimientos diferentes en los extremos. Esta metodología toma el espectro de respuesta correspondiente a cada uno de los apoyos, y comparado con el método de respuesta simple, que utiliza una envolvente en los espectros de respuesta de los diferentes apoyos que es el clásico, en este último no son conservadores, como se puede notar en la tabla de resultados del problema considerado. Por lo tanto, la práctica usual de considerar la envolvente de espectros no será una solución recomendable. También se propone el empleo de las masas consistentes o distribuidas, y no las discretas o concentradas, como normalmente se hace, y además se apega más a la realidad.

  2. Validación de una escala de afrontamiento frente a riesgos extremos Validation of a scale measuring coping with extreme risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza López-Vázquez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar, en población mexicana, una escala de afrontamiento, adaptada de la escala francesa "Echèlle Toulousaine de Coping". MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el otoño de 2001 la escala se aplicó a 209 sujetos que habitaban en diversas zonas de México, expuestos a cinco diferentes tipos de riesgo extremo, entre los cuales se distinguen riesgos naturales y riesgos industriales. Se analizó la capacidad discriminatoria de los reactivos, así como la estructura factorial y la consistencia interna de la prueba. Se emplearon los métodos U de Mann-Whitney, análisis factorial de componentes principales y alpha de Cronbach. RESULTADOS: La escala final es de 26 reactivos que se agruparon en dos factores: afrontamiento activo y afrontamiento pasivo. La consistencia interna del instrumento es muy alta, tanto en la muestra total como en la submuestra de riesgos naturales y riesgos industriales. CONCLUSIONES: La escala de afrontamiento que proponemos es confiable y válida para la población mexicanaOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to validate, in Mexico, the French coping scale "Échelle Toulousaine de Coping". MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the fall of 2001, the scale questionnaire was applied to 209 subjects living in different areas of Mexico, exposed to five different types of extreme natural or industrial risks. The discriminatory capacity of the items, as well as the factorial structure and internal consistency of the scale, were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's U test, principal components factorial analysis, and Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: The final scale was composed of 26 items forming two groups: active coping and passive coping. Internal consistency of the instrument was high, both in the total sample and in the subsample of natural and industrial risks. CONCLUSIONS: The coping scale is reliable and valid for the Mexican population

  3. Transsphenoidal microsurgery in the treatment of acromegaly and gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafah, B U; Brodkey, J S; Kaufman, B; Velasco, M; Manni, A; Pearson, O H

    1980-03-01

    Twenty-five patients with acromegaly and 3 patients with gigantism underwent transsphenoidal microsurgery in an attempt to remove the tumor and preserve normal pituitary function whenever possible. An adenoma was identified and removed in 27 of 28 patients. Evaluation 3--6 months postoperatively revealed a GH level less than 5 ng/ml in 29 patients, 5--10 ng/ml in 4 patients and 11--29 ng/ml in 4 other patients. Dynamics of GH secretion were normal in 11 patients who had normal pituitary function and are considered cured. Two patients with low or undetectable GH levels are also considered cured at the expense of being hypopituitary. Three of 7 patients with normal basal GH levels but abnormal dynamics of GH secretion relapsed within 1 yr. Eleven of the 13 patients considered cured did not have extrasellar extension, while 14 of the 15 patients not cured had extrasellar extension. Five patients who were not cured with surgery received radiation therapy. Three patients were treated with an ergot derivative, Lergotrile mesylate, after surgery and radiation therapy failed to normalize GH levels. Transsphenoidal microsurgery is an optimal form of therapy for patients with acromegaly or gigantism, especially those with no extrasellar extension. Dynamics of GH secretion are very useful in evaluating the completeness of adenoma removal.

  4. Evolution of gigantism in nine-spined sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, Gábor; Gonda, Abigél; Merilä, Juha

    2009-12-01

    The relaxation of predation and interspecific competition are hypothesized to allow evolution toward "optimal" body size in island environments, resulting in the gigantism of small organisms. We tested this hypothesis by studying a small teleost (nine-spined stickleback, Pungitius pungitius) from four marine and five lake (diverse fish community) and nine pond (impoverished fish community) populations. In line with theory, pond fish tended to be larger than their marine or lake conspecifics, sometimes reaching giant sizes. In two geographically independent cases when predatory fish had been introduced into ponds, fish were smaller than those in nearby ponds lacking predators. Pond fish were also smaller when found in sympatry with three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) than those in ponds lacking competitors. Size-at-age analyses demonstrated that larger size in ponds was achieved by both increased growth rates and extended longevity of pond fish. Results from a common garden experiment indicate that the growth differences had a genetic basis: pond fish developed two to three times higher body mass than marine fish during 36 weeks of growth under similar conditions. Hence, reduced risk of predation and interspecific competition appear to be chief forces driving insular body size evolution toward gigantism.

  5. Variação morfológica e populacional de Trachemys dorbigni (Testudines, Emydidae) no extremo sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Melise Lucas

    2014-01-01

    A presente dissertação, intitulada “Variação Morfológica e populacional de Trachemys dorbigni (Testudines, Emydidae) no extremo sul do Brasil”, encontra-se organizada em dois artigos. O primeiro artigo, intitulado “Variação geográfica na morfologia e estrutura populacional de Trachemys dorbigni (Testudines, Emydidae) no extremo sul do Brasil” e o segundo artigo, com o título: “Irregularidades no padrão de escudos de Trachemys dorbigni (Testudines, Emydidae): ontogenia e variação espacial”. Es...

  6. Genética de la conservación del endemismo extremo pirenaico Glandora oleifolia (Boraginaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    López i Pujol, Jordi; Hoyo, Alberto del; Lasso de la Vega, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Glandora oleifolia (Lapeyr.) D.C.Thomas [= Lithodora oleifolia (Lapeyr.) Griseb.] constituye uno de los endemismos más restringidos de la península Ibérica, puesto que cuenta con una única población (dividida en dos núcleos separados por apenas 5 km) localizada en la Alta Garrotxa, en el Pirineo gerundense. Glandora oleifolia está catalogada como VU en la Lista Roja 2008 de la Flora Vascular Española y goza de protección legal en Cataluña (está incluida en el reciente Catálogo de flora amenaz...

  7. Gigantic Jets and the Tropical Paradigm: A Satellite Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, S. M.; Splitt, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    While not exclusively oceanic, gigantic jets (GJ) appear to have a preference for the tropical environment. In particular, a number of GJs have been observed in conjunction with tropical disturbances (i.e., weak tropical storms, depressions, and remnant lows). Given the remote aspect of TC convection and general lack of radar coverage, we explore this subset of events via analysis of their infrared and water vapor satellite presentations. The satellite perspective is relevant given that storm top mixing (dilution) of charge associated with storm-scale turbulence in this portion of the storm is thought to be connected to GJs. The thunderstorm overshoot, upper level divergence / outflow are examined in an effort to better understand the tropical paradigm. Specifically, an analysis of cloud top temperature, anvil expansion rates and asymmetries as well as placement of the GJ events with respect to the large (storm) scale circulation will be conducted.

  8. Model of UV flashes due to gigantic blue jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milikh, G M; Shneider, M N

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of UV flashes observed by the UV detector on board the 'Tatiana' microsatellite suggests, based on their location, pulse width and energy of the source of the photons, that the flashes were generated by gigantic blue jets (GBJs). Presented in this paper is a numerical model of UV flashes due to a bunch of long streamers which form a leader, a prong such as that observed in a GBJ. Using a previously developed model of upward propagation of a long streamer in the exponential atmosphere the paper describes temporal evolution of the UV flux generated by a bunch of long streamers, in the given spectral range 300-400 nm used by the UV detector on board 'Tatiana'. The model is in agreement with the observations.

  9. Gate-tunable gigantic lattice deformation in VO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, D.; Hatano, T.; Nakano, M.; Takeshita, S.; Ohsumi, H.; Tardif, S.; Shibuya, K.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Ohashi, H.; Takata, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.; Iwasa, Y.; Arima, T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of electric field on crystal lattice of vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) in a field-effect transistor geometry by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. Whereas the c-axis lattice parameter of VO 2 decreases through the thermally induced insulator-to-metal phase transition, the gate-induced metallization was found to result in a significant increase of the c-axis length by almost 1% from that of the thermally stabilized insulating state. We also found that this gate-induced gigantic lattice deformation occurs even at the thermally stabilized metallic state, enabling dynamic control of c-axis lattice parameter by more than 1% at room temperature

  10. Gigantism Precedes Filter Feeding in Baleen Whale Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, R Ewan; Marx, Felix G

    2018-05-21

    Baleen whales (Mysticeti) are the largest animals on Earth, thanks to their ability to filter huge volumes of small prey from seawater. Mysticetes appeared during the Late Eocene, but evidence of their early evolution remains both sparse and controversial [1, 2], with several models competing to explain the origin of baleen-based bulk feeding [3-6]. Here, we describe a virtually complete skull of Llanocetus denticrenatus, the second-oldest (ca. 34 Ma) mysticete known. The new material represents the same individual as the type and only specimen, a fragmentary mandible. Phylogenetic analysis groups Llanocetus with the oldest mysticete, Mystacodon selenensis [2], into the basal family Llanocetidae. Llanocetus is gigantic (body length ∼8 m) compared to other early mysticetes [7-9]. The broad rostrum has sharp, widely spaced teeth with marked dental abrasion and attrition, suggesting biting and occlusal shearing. As in extant mysticetes, the palate bears many sulci, commonly interpreted as osteological correlates of baleen [3]. Unexpectedly, these sulci converge on the upper alveoli, suggesting a peri-dental blood supply to well-developed gums, rather than to inter-alveolar racks of baleen. We interpret Llanocetus as a raptorial or suction feeder, revealing that whales evolved gigantism well before the emergence of filter feeding. Rather than driving the origin of mysticetes, baleen and filtering most likely only arose after an initial phase of suction-assisted raptorial feeding [2, 4, 5]. This scenario differs strikingly from that proposed for odontocetes, whose defining adaptation-echolocation-was present even in their earliest representatives [10]. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-06-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  12. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorisaem Rhee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  13. High-detail snapshots of rare gigantic jet lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In the ionosphere, more than 80 kilometers above Earth's surface, incoming radiation reacts with the thin air to produce highly charged ions, inducing an electric potential between the ionosphere and the surface. This charge difference is dissipated by a slow leak from the ionosphere during calm weather and reinvigorated by a charge built up near the surface during a thunderstorm. In 2001, however, researchers discovered gigantic jets (GJs), powerful lightning that arcs from tropospheric clouds up to the ionosphere, suggesting there may be an alternate path by which charge is redistributed. GJs are transient species, and little is known about how much charge they can carry, how they form, or how common they are. In a step toward answering these questions, Lu et al. report on two GJs that occurred near very high frequency (VHF) lightning detection systems, which track the development of lightning in three spatial dimensions, giving an indication of the generation mechanism. The researchers also measured the charge transfer in the two GJs through remote sensing of magnetic fields. They found that both jets originated from the development of otherwise normal intracloud lightning. The dissipation of the cloud's positively charged upper layer allowed the negative lightning channel to break through and travel up out of the top of the cloud to the ionosphere. The first jet, which occurred off the coast of Florida, leapt up to 80 kilometers, depositing 110 coulombs of negative charge in 370 milliseconds. The second jet, observed in Oklahoma, traveled up to 90 kilometers, raising only 10-20 coulombs in 300 milliseconds. Each new observation of gigantic jets such as these can provide valuable information toward understanding this novel atmospheric behavior. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047662, 2011)

  14. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi

    2014-01-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings. PMID:25077093

  15. El psicoanálisis a la Neurociencia : de extremo a extremo culpabilidad de la Doctrina Ibérica - Una Mirada Crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebástian Borges de Albuquerque Mello

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Los recientes estudios neurocientificos identifican la conciencia como un conjunto de complejas reacciones neuronales procesadas en el sistema límbico. Eso cambia los criterios de adjudicación de la responsabilidad penal a la persona concreta, sobre todo la culpabilidad, sufriendo las consecuencias de esta nueva teoría, ya que la responsabilidad individual será basada en otros medios, distintos de la idea de libertad. Por tanto, este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar el impacto de los hallazgos neurocientificos dentro de un sistema de responsabilidades establecidas en la idea de que el comportamiento humano se basa en la libertad individual. Para ello, será cubierto en el primer capítulo el concepto de material de culpabilidad, basado en el “poder para actuar de otra manera” y la crítica de la finalidad a que la teoría, seguida de una aproximación en torno a la supuesta insostenibilidad de un derecho penal basado en la culpa, sostenida por Gimbernat Ordeig. En seguida, se discute la posibilidad de cambio de paradigma para la imposición de una pena, cambiando de la idea de culpabilidad pela prevención a partir de criterios neurológicos. Al final, se abordan las características de la nueva teoría de la neurociencia sobre el proceso de toma de decisiones del hombre y su posible interferencia en la actual culpabilidad material de formulación

  16. Reconstrucción cervical tras resección de neurofibroma solitario gigante con colgajo anterolateral de muslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Mendieta-Espinosa

    Full Text Available Los tumores de cabeza y cuello son un grupo heterogéneo; los neurofibromas pueden originarse de cualquier nervio independientemente de su localización, incluyendo nervios periféricos o intracraneales y se dividen en 4 tipos. Los solitarios son tumores confinados, espontáneos y prácticamente sin ninguna manifestación. Anatómicamente, los neurofibromas del cuello son relativamente raros, con un crecimiento lento e indoloro. Presentamos el caso de un paciente varón de 41 años de edad, remitido a nuestra consulta por presentar neurofibroma solitario gigante en la base del lado izquierdo del cuello, de 10 cm de diámetro, con zona central ulcerada y sangrados intermitentes, adherido a planos profundos, de 30 años de evolución y que había sido tratado en 3 ocasiones con resecciones parciales y cubertura con colgajo acromial. Practicamos resección completa de la tumoración y reconstrucción inmediata con colgajo anterolateral de muslo, logrando la mejoría estético-funcional de la zona cervical y sin complicaciones.

  17. A propósito del límite septentrional del imperio Incáico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Ortíz

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Puesta nuevamente sobre el tapete de la discusión, por algunos americanistas, la cuestión de los límites extremos, hacia el Norte, de la expansión incaica, creemos del caso revisar las opiniones que se expusieron hace algunos años, cuando se suscitó el estudio del problema, Con motivo del trabajo de Monseñor Federico Lunardi, antiguo Auditor de la Nunciatura Apostólica en Colombia intitulado: "O Angasmayo ou os verdadeiros limites septentrionales do Imperio Incaico" (Río de Janeiro, 1935.

  18. Análise da distribuição temporal das chuvas em eventos hidrológicos extremos

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Fernando Girardi de; Sobrinha, Lôide Angelini; Brandão, João Luiz Boccia

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO: O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar a influência da distribuição temporal das chuvas em eventos hidrológicos extremos na bacia do Córrego do Gregório (São Carlos, São Paulo). Foram aplicadas duas metodologias de distribuição temporal das chuvas e adotados períodos de retorno de 25, 50 e 100 anos: o método de Huff 1º quartil e o método dos blocos alternados; e simularam-se as manchas de inundação com o software HEC-GeoRAS. A alteração do método de distribuição temporal das chuvas resul...

  19. Degradación de Marismas Costera: el Impacto de la Eutrofización en la Supervivencia del las Marismas Costeras en New England y Central California, USA. (Salt Marsh Deterioration in New England and Central California: Impacts of Eutrophication on Salt Marsh Survival.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las marismas costeras proporcionan numerosos beneficios a los ecosistemas, incluyendo la proporción del hábitat de la flora y fauna, la protección de las zonas costeras contra inundaciones durante eventos extremos, mejoran la calidad del agua para las almejas y ostras a través de...

  20. La retórica de lo extremo en la ultraderecha chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio González de Requena Farré

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende caracterizar la ideología de la extrema de - recha chilena a través de su historia. Se realizó un análisis del discurso de los manifiestos y declaraciones de principios de cua - tro formaciones de ultraderecha de distintos momentos de la his- toria de Chile: el Movimiento Nacional Socialista, el Movimien - to Revolucionario Nacional Sindicalista, el Frente Nacionalista Patria y Libertad, así como Patria Nueva Sociedad. El enfoque retórico de la ideología ultraderechista permite reconstruir las autodescripciones ideológicas, las articulaciones del autoritaris- mo, los marcos figurativos y las principales construcciones argu - mentativas de la extrema derecha chilena.

  1. Reparación de hernias inguinoescrotales gigantes bilaterales con realización preoperatoria de neumoperitoneo Repair of bilateral giant inguinoscrotal hernias with preoperative pneumoperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Vicario Benito del Valle

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el manejo preoperatorio y quirúrgico de un paciente con hernia inguinoescrotal gigante “con pérdida del derecho de asilo” mediante neumoperitoneo preoperatorio, con el fin de facilitar su reducción y evitar la tensión y la insuficiencia respiratoria que conllevaría. Para realizar el neumoperitoneo se utilizó el aparato de laparoscopia a través de un drenaje peritoneal colocado percutaneamente con ayuda del radiólogo intervencionistaThe preoperative and surgical management of a patient with giant inguinoscrotal hernia with “loss of the asylum right” by preoperative pneumoperitoneum in order to facilitate its reduction and prevent the tension and respiratory failure it would lead to, is described. The pneumoperitoneum was performed by using the laparoscopy apparatus through a peritoneal drainage percutaneously placed with the help of the interventionist radiologist

  2. PREVENCIÓN PRENATAL DE DAÑO NEUROLÓGICO EN PREMATURO EXTREMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Lorena Quiroz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La prevención del parto prematuro es uno de los desafíos de la obstetricia en el siglo XXI. Los prematuros tienen riesgo de morbimortalidad perinatal, sobre todos los nacidos antes de las 30 semanas, tienen mayor riesgo de lesiones neurológicas generalmente secundarias a isquemia o infección intrauterina ascendente. Existen estrategias para prevenir el daño neurológico fetal en el trabajo de parto prematuro. La administración de sulfato de magnesio endovenoso reduce en forma significativa la probabilidad de desarrollar parálisis cerebral y disfunciones motoras. También se ha mostrado la utilidad del pinzamiento tardío del cordón umbilical y la administración antenatal y postnatal de N-acetilcisteína. En estudios animales se ha observado un potencial efecto neuroprotector de stem cells mesenquimáticas, estradiol y progesterona, melatonina y creatina.

  3. Sopapo Poético: sarau de poesia negra no extremo sul do Brasil

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    Pâmela Amaro Fontoura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el Sopapo Poético, sarau de poesía negra que se celebra en Porto Alegre desde 2012. Entendemos que en este evento se da el encuentro de dos tendencias: por un lado la reciente difusión de los saraus periféricos en São Paulo y otras ciudades de Brasil, y por el otro la tradición de la poesía negra brasileña, especialmente la producida desde la década de 1970. Este encuentro ocurre en un contexto específico que condiciona la actuación del movimiento negro gaúcho: Porto Alegre, significativa “ciudad letrada” y capital de Rio Grande do Sul, un estado marcado por una identidad regional racializada en el mito del gaucho europeizado. Describimos el sarau, que se desarrolla en tres momentos: la rueda de poesía, con la participación espontánea de la audiencia; la presentación del Sopapinho, en el que los niños y niñas son llevados al centro del círculo; y el homenajeado de la noche, que combina el relato de trayectoria personal con el performance artístico. Entre los homenajeados, destacamos dos figuras relevantes para la estética del sarau: el poeta Oliveira Silveira y el sopapeiro Giba Giba. Analizando las intervenciones poéticas en sus dimensiones textual y performática, pensamos en la íntima relación entre lo estético y lo político que se construye en el sarau. Las ideas de Paul Gilroy sobre la política cultural diaspórica en el Atlántico Negro nos sirven para comprender el contexto de conflicto y las formas de elaboración de la identidad cultural afro-gaucha.

  4. Management of pituitary gigantism. The role of bromocriptine and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzén, E M; Wettrell, G; Davies, G; Grant, D B

    1985-09-01

    True gigantism with overproduction of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) was diagnosed in two boys, aged 13 years (case I) and 7 1/2 years (case II). Both had shown increased growth rates since early childhood (from 4 years and 1 1/2 years, respectively), but no skeletal acromegalic features were noted. However, both showed increased sweating and both had advanced pubic hair relative to testis volume. No other pituitary dysfunction was recorded. Case I underwent transsphenoidal surgery with only incomplete and temporary suppression of GH and PRL levels. However, in both patients bromocriptine administration promptly suppressed PRL levels. Following combined irradiation and bromocriptine treatment, GH also gradually normalized over a period of 2 years. Both boys are still on treatment, and both showed an increase in plasma GH concentrations when the dose of bromocriptine was reduced or discontinued, indicating that even 3 1/2-5 years after irradiation therapy (and during continuous treatment with bromocriptine) the disease was controlled but not cured. However, in these two boys bromocriptine has proved effective in controlling the PRL/GH oversecretion.

  5. The clinical presentation and biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly and gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialal, I; Nathoo, B C; Joubert, S; Asmal, A C; Pillay, N L

    1982-04-24

    Over a 5-year period 14 patients with acromegaly and gigantism were seen at the endocrine clinic of King Edward VIII Hospital: 9 were Blacks and 5 Indians; 8 of the patients were women. The mean age of the patients was 46 years. Surprisingly, only 2 patients complained of acral overgrowth. Symptomatology was varied and not characteristic of the condition. On examination all patients had unequivocal signs of soft-tissue and bony overgrowth, 64% had visual abnormalities and 50% hypertension. Radiologically, 88% showed an enlarged pituitary fossa. On biochemical investigation, the fasting levels of growth hormone (GH) were increased in 12 patients and during oral glucose tolerance tests, the GH levels in these 12 patients were not suppressed. One patient in whom the fasting GH level was not increased had progressed to the stage of panhypopituitarism, in the remaining patient challenge with thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) led to increased GH levels and L-dopa challenge resulted in a paradoxical decrease in GH levels. Seven patients with increased GH levels who were challenged with L-dopa showed the typical decrease in GH levels found in this condition; in 5 of these patients, challenged with TRH, GH levels increased. The findings emphasize that despite the ease of clinical diagnosis, appropriate biochemical investigations are necessary to confirm the exact status of the disease, which is rare in the population studied.

  6. Pituitary tumour causing gigantism. Morphology and in vitro hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniko, M; Ritzén, E M

    1986-01-01

    True gigantism with overproduction of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) was diagnosed in a 13-year-old boy. The clinical history indicated that the tumour had caused an oversecretion of GH since the age of 4-5 years. At diagnosis, the sella turcica was markedly enlarged. No infiltrative growth was noted at surgery. Endocrine investigations showed elevated GH and PRL secretion. Light and electron microscopy of tumour tissue revealed densely packed pleomorphic cells of both GH and PRL type. In addition, oncocyte-like cells were observed. Organ culture of pieces of tumour tissue demonstrated continued secretion of GH and PRL into the medium for more than 5 days in vitro. Addition of bromocriptine to the medium caused a rapid decline in PRL secretion while GH secretion remained the same. X-ray irradiation in vitro also caused a decrease in PRL secretion. These effects of bromocriptine and X-ray on hormone secretion in vitro mirrored the corresponding effect of treatment, when the patient showed signs of tumour recurrence after pituitary surgery. It is concluded that also in childhood, the in vitro response of tumour tissue to various treatments may be explored as a possible way to predict the efficacy of pharmacological or irradiation treatment of pituitary tumours.

  7. Controlled Growth of Gigantic Swirls in a Laboratory Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worstell, M. W.; Mauel, M. E.; Roberts, T. M.

    2012-10-01

    Space and laboratory plasma confined by a strong magnetic field have remarkable properties. Low frequency mixing of the plasma occurs through the interchange of long plasma-filled tubes aligned with the magnetic field. The plasma dynamics becomes two-dimensional because these tubes can only move radially or circulate around the poles of the magnetic dipole. Studies of turbulent interchange dynamics made using the Collisionless Terella Experiment (CTX) show that turbulence appears as chaotic time-varying modes with broad global mode structures that interact nonlinearly and form an inverse cascade.footnotetextB.A. Grierson, M.W. Worstell, M.E. Mauel, Phys. Plasmas 16 055902 (2009) When we drive vortex mixing through the application of electrostatic bias to multiple probes, we break the rotational symmetry of the plasma and small vortex tubes are seen to drive larger ``gigantic'' swirls. Statistical analysis of the time-evolving spectra and measurement of the bicoherence of the turbulence show an increase of three wave coupling during non-axisymmetric electrostatic drive of the probe array.

  8. Characteristics and generation of secondary jets and secondary gigantic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Jou; Huang, Sung-Ming; Chou, Jung-Kung; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Chen, Alfred B.; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Rou; Frey, Harald U.; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    2012-06-01

    Secondary transient luminous events (TLEs) recorded by the ISUAL-FORMOSAT2 mission can either be secondary jets or secondary gigantic jets (GJs), depending on their terminal altitudes. The secondary jets emerge from the cloud top beneath the preceding sprites and extend upward to the base of the sprites at ˜50 km. The secondary jets likely are negative electric discharges with vertically straight luminous columns, morphologically resembling the trailing jet of the type-I GJs. The number of luminous columns in a secondary jet seems to be affected by the size of the effective capacitor plate formed near the base of the preceding sprites and the charge distribution left behind by the sprite-inducing positive cloud-to-ground discharges. The secondary GJs originate from the cloud top under the shielding area of the preceding sprites, and develop upward to reach the lower ionosphere at ˜90 km. The observed morphology of the secondary GJs can either be the curvy shifted secondary GJs extending outside the region occupied by the preceding sprites or the straight pop-through secondary GJs developing through the center of the preceding circular sprites. A key factor in determining the terminal height of the secondary TLEs appears to be the local ionosphere boundary height that established by the preceding sprites. The abundance and the distribution of the negative charge in the thundercloud following the sprite-inducing positive cloud-to-ground discharges may play important role in the generation of the secondary TLEs.

  9. Why might they be giants? Towards an understanding of polar gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Amy L; Woods, H Arthur

    2012-06-15

    Beginning with the earliest expeditions to the poles, over 100 years ago, scientists have compiled an impressive list of polar taxa whose body sizes are unusually large. This phenomenon has become known as 'polar gigantism'. In the intervening years, biologists have proposed a multitude of hypotheses to explain polar gigantism. These hypotheses run the gamut from invoking release from physical and physiological constraints, to systematic changes in developmental trajectories, to community-level outcomes of broader ecological and evolutionary processes. Here we review polar gigantism and emphasize two main problems. The first is to determine the true strength and generality of this pattern: how prevalent is polar gigantism across taxonomic units? Despite many published descriptions of polar giants, we still have a poor grasp of whether these species are unusual outliers or represent more systematic shifts in distributions of body size. Indeed, current data indicate that some groups show gigantism at the poles whereas others show nanism. The second problem is to identify underlying mechanisms or processes that could drive taxa, or even just allow them, to evolve especially large body size. The contenders are diverse and no clear winner has yet emerged. Distinguishing among the contenders will require better sampling of taxa in both temperate and polar waters and sustained efforts by comparative physiologists and evolutionary ecologists in a strongly comparative framework.

  10. Postioplastia en toros cebuínos del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Martínez, Mastoby Miguel; Cardona-Álvarez, Tosé Alberto; Pérez-Berrío, Diana Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Resumen La postitis es una patología que afecta a la mucosa parietal y extremo anterior de las vainas conjuntivales del prepucio, con afectación de la porción tegumentaria o sin esta, y que puede incapacitar la protrusión del pene. Dentro de las causas predisponentes en toros están las particularidades morfogenéticas, traumáticas, infecciosas pruriginosas, y en el caso del contexto del presente estudio una de las más frecuentes es la falta de higiene. Los signos más evidentes son: dificultad ...

  11. Comparación de Demandas Energéticas en Viviendas Unifamiliares en Climas Extremos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Reyes Morales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En Chile se están definiendo metas en el ámbito del uso de la energía, que acercan cada vez más la construcción al tipo sustentable. Esto queda evidenciado con el Código de Construcción Sustentable, donde además de establecerse nuevas exigencias con lo que respecta a las transmitancias térmicas de los parámetros opacos y acristalados, se presentan límites en las demandas máximas para climatización. Pese a que para la Región de Magallanes la construcción sustentable es un gran desafío, dadas las extremas condiciones climáticas a las que está sometida y la gran lejanía existente con las principales empresas del rubro, lo cual eleva considerablemente los costos, en los últimos años se han buscado alternativas que permitan mejorar los estándares constructivos y cumplir con las nuevas metas país. Este artículo presenta el trabajo desarrollado para establecer la línea base energética en el sector residencial privado de la Región de Magallanes en Chile, con el fin de conocer el estándar actual de construcción, a través del estudio de las especificaciones técnicas de los proyectos y mediciones de temperatura, humedad e infiltraciones. La metodología utilizada fue trabajar mediante simulación, con el software Design Builder v.4, todos los parámetros mencionados, para veinte modelos de viviendas del sector privado de la región, lo que ha permitido establecer diferencias entre los requerimientos energéticos para mantener el confort 24/7 y las demandas existentes en ellas establecidas por los sistemas de calefacción reales y los horarios de uso. Los primeros resultados muestran que en la Región de Magallanes las demandas requeridas para un confort 24/7 son en promedio 550 [kWh/m2] y si bien para las demandas existentes los resultados son similares, no se alcanzan temperaturas óptimas dada la alta cantidad de pérdidas energéticas producto de infiltraciones y un sistema de calefacción inapropiado. Esta situación que

  12. Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P Martin; Christian, Andreas; Clauss, Marcus; Fechner, Regina; Gee, Carole T; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Hummel, Jürgen; Mallison, Heinrich; Perry, Steven F; Preuschoft, Holger; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Tütken, Thomas; Wings, Oliver; Witzel, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were the largest terrestrial animals ever, surpassing the largest herbivorous mammals by an order of magnitude in body mass. Several evolutionary lineages among Sauropoda produced giants with body masses in excess of 50 metric tonnes by conservative estimates. With body mass increase driven by the selective advantages of large body size, animal lineages will increase in body size until they reach the limit determined by the interplay of bauplan, biology, and resource availability. There is no evidence, however, that resource availability and global physicochemical parameters were different enough in the Mesozoic to have led to sauropod gigantism. We review the biology of sauropod dinosaurs in detail and posit that sauropod gigantism was made possible by a specific combination of plesiomorphic characters (phylogenetic heritage) and evolutionary innovations at different levels which triggered a remarkable evolutionary cascade. Of these key innovations, the most important probably was the very long neck, the most conspicuous feature of the sauropod bauplan. Compared to other herbivores, the long neck allowed more efficient food uptake than in other large herbivores by covering a much larger feeding envelope and making food accessible that was out of the reach of other herbivores. Sauropods thus must have been able to take up more energy from their environment than other herbivores. The long neck, in turn, could only evolve because of the small head and the extensive pneumatization of the sauropod axial skeleton, lightening the neck. The small head was possible because food was ingested without mastication. Both mastication and a gastric mill would have limited food uptake rate. Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates. The

  13. Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P Martin; Christian, Andreas; Clauss, Marcus; Fechner, Regina; Gee, Carole T; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Hummel, Jürgen; Mallison, Heinrich; Perry, Steven F; Preuschoft, Holger; Rauhut, Oliver W M; Remes, Kristian; Tütken, Thomas; Wings, Oliver; Witzel, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were the largest terrestrial animals ever, surpassing the largest herbivorous mammals by an order of magnitude in body mass. Several evolutionary lineages among Sauropoda produced giants with body masses in excess of 50 metric tonnes by conservative estimates. With body mass increase driven by the selective advantages of large body size, animal lineages will increase in body size until they reach the limit determined by the interplay of bauplan, biology, and resource availability. There is no evidence, however, that resource availability and global physicochemical parameters were different enough in the Mesozoic to have led to sauropod gigantism. We review the biology of sauropod dinosaurs in detail and posit that sauropod gigantism was made possible by a specific combination of plesiomorphic characters (phylogenetic heritage) and evolutionary innovations at different levels which triggered a remarkable evolutionary cascade. Of these key innovations, the most important probably was the very long neck, the most conspicuous feature of the sauropod bauplan. Compared to other herbivores, the long neck allowed more efficient food uptake than in other large herbivores by covering a much larger feeding envelope and making food accessible that was out of the reach of other herbivores. Sauropods thus must have been able to take up more energy from their environment than other herbivores. The long neck, in turn, could only evolve because of the small head and the extensive pneumatization of the sauropod axial skeleton, lightening the neck. The small head was possible because food was ingested without mastication. Both mastication and a gastric mill would have limited food uptake rate. Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates. The

  14. Cisto gigante de colédoco Giant choledochal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olival Cirilo Lucena da Fonseca-Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A doença cística das vias biliares é anomalia congênita que pode acometer as vias biliares intra e/ou extra-hepáticas. A extra-hepática inclui os cistos de colédoco e a intra-hepática é conhecida por Doença de Caroli. Os cistos de colédoco de tamanho gigante são muito raros. OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de um cisto de colédoco de tamanho gigante em uma paciente feminina. RELATO DE CASO: Mulher de 19 anos foi admitida com história de icterícia e acolia fecal há sete dias. Referia dor epigástrica associada com ingestão de dieta rica em gordura. Nos antecedentes pessoais relatou dois episódios de icterícia, aos 8 e 14 anos, que progrediram espontaneamente. No exame físico apresentava icterícia (+3/+4 e uma massa palpável indolor em mesogástrio foram os únicos achados. A ultrassonografia demonstrou grande formação cística de paredes finas adjacente ao hepatocolédoco, pâncreas e rim direito que media 18,5 x 10,2 cm. A colangioressonância confirmou o grande cisto de colédoco e hepatojejunoanastomose em "Y" de Roux após excisão do cisto e colecistectomia foi realizada. A formação cística media 20 x 15,5 x 12,5 cm e com um volume médio de 1000 mL. A paciente encontra-se em acompanhamento ambulatorial sem alterações hepatobiliares após o sétimo mês da operação. CONCLUSÃO: O cisto de colédoco deve fazer parte do diagnóstico diferencial em pacientes adultos jovens com icterícia e massa palpável; no entanto, a diferenciação entre ele e neoplasia maligna deve ser pesquisada.BACKGROUND: Choledochal cyst represents a rare congenital anomaly, eventually associated with intra and extrahepatic biliary tract disorders. Extrahepatic diseases include choledochal cysts and congenital dilation of the lower intrahepatic bile duct is known as Caroli's disease. Giant choledochal cyst constitutes a very rare abnormality. AIM:To report a giant choledochal cyst in a female patient. CASE REPORT: A 19-year

  15. Aneurisma gigante parasselar simulando tumor de hipófise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Casulari Roxo da Motta

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisamos 7 pacientes com comprometimento da sela turca ao raio X do crânio que apresentavam aneurisma gigante da porção intracavernosa da artéria carótida (6 casos e aneurisma da artéria comunicante anterior (1 caso. As alterações encontradas foram: cefaléia (7/7, oftalmoplegia complexa interessando III, IV e VI nervos cranianos (5/7 e comprometimento do V nervo (4/7, dor ocular (4/7. Outras alterações encontradas foram: sinais meníngeos (2/7, cegueira unilateral (1/7, hemiparesia (1/7 cacosmia (1/7 e quadrantanopsia bitemporal inferior (1/7. Cinco pacientes com aneurisma da porção intracavernosa da artéria carótida beneficiaram-se com a ligadura progressiva da artéria carótida interna a nível cervical; o outro paciente faleceu antes da realização da operação. O paciente com aneurisma da artéria comunicante anterior foi submetido a clipagem do aneurisma, tendo boa evolução. Baseados neste estudo e em concordância com a literatura, concluímos que o diagnóstico diferencial entre aneurisma localizado na região parasselar e outras patologias dessa área freqüentemente apresenta dificuldade. O diagnóstico definitivo requer a realização de angiografia cerebral. O tratamento cirúrgico, por ligadura da carótida interna na região cervical, é benéfico e quase desprovido de complicações.

  16. Genomic gigantism: DNA loss is slow in mountain grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensasson, D; Petrov, D A; Zhang, D X; Hartl, D L; Hewitt, G M

    2001-02-01

    Several studies have shown DNA loss to be inversely correlated with genome size in animals. These studies include a comparison between Drosophila and the cricket, Laupala, but there has been no assessment of DNA loss in insects with very large genomes. Podisma pedestris, the brown mountain grasshopper, has a genome over 100 times as large as that of Drosophila and 10 times as large as that of Laupala. We used 58 paralogous nuclear pseudogenes of mitochondrial origin to study the characteristics of insertion, deletion, and point substitution in P. pedestris and Italopodisma. In animals, these pseudogenes are "dead on arrival"; they are abundant in many different eukaryotes, and their mitochondrial origin simplifies the identification of point substitutions accumulated in nuclear pseudogene lineages. There appears to be a mononucleotide repeat within the 643-bp pseudogene sequence studied that acts as a strong hot spot for insertions or deletions (indels). Because the data for other insect species did not contain such an unusual region, hot spots were excluded from species comparisons. The rate of DNA loss relative to point substitution appears to be considerably and significantly lower in the grasshoppers studied than in Drosophila or Laupala. This suggests that the inverse correlation between genome size and the rate of DNA loss can be extended to comparisons between insects with large or gigantic genomes (i.e., Laupala and Podisma). The low rate of DNA loss implies that in grasshoppers, the accumulation of point mutations is a more potent force for obscuring ancient pseudogenes than their loss through indel accumulation, whereas the reverse is true for Drosophila. The main factor contributing to the difference in the rates of DNA loss estimated for grasshoppers, crickets, and Drosophila appears to be deletion size. Large deletions are relatively rare in Podisma and Italopodisma.

  17. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Martin Sander

    Full Text Available Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM. This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism". Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size.

  18. An Evolutionary Cascade Model for Sauropod Dinosaur Gigantism - Overview, Update and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades (“Reproduction”, “Feeding”, “Head and neck”, “Avian-style lung”, and “Metabolism”). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait “Very high body mass”. Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size. PMID:24205267

  19. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism"). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size.

  20. Gigantism and acromegaly due to Xq26 microduplications and GPR101 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellin, Giampaolo; Daly, Adrian F; Faucz, Fabio R; Yuan, Bo; Rostomyan, Liliya; Larco, Darwin O; Schernthaner-Reiter, Marie Helene; Szarek, Eva; Leal, Letícia F; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Castermans, Emilie; Villa, Chiara; Dimopoulos, Aggeliki; Chittiboina, Prashant; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Shah, Nalini; Metzger, Daniel; Lysy, Philippe A; Ferrante, Emanuele; Strebkova, Natalia; Mazerkina, Nadia; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Lodish, Maya; Horvath, Anelia; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Manning, Allison D; Levy, Isaac; Keil, Margaret F; Sierra, Maria de la Luz; Palmeira, Leonor; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Naves, Luciana A; Jamar, Mauricette; Bours, Vincent; Wu, T John; Choong, Catherine S; Bertherat, Jerome; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter; Farrell, William E; Barlier, Anne; Quezado, Martha; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Stojilkovic, Stanko S; Wess, Jurgen; Costanzi, Stefano; Liu, Pengfei; Lupski, James R; Beckers, Albert; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-12-18

    Increased secretion of growth hormone leads to gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults; the genetic causes of gigantism and acromegaly are poorly understood. We performed clinical and genetic studies of samples obtained from 43 patients with gigantism and then sequenced an implicated gene in samples from 248 patients with acromegaly. We observed microduplication on chromosome Xq26.3 in samples from 13 patients with gigantism; of these samples, 4 were obtained from members of two unrelated kindreds, and 9 were from patients with sporadic cases. All the patients had disease onset during early childhood. Of the patients with gigantism who did not carry an Xq26.3 microduplication, none presented before the age of 5 years. Genomic characterization of the Xq26.3 region suggests that the microduplications are generated during chromosome replication and that they contain four protein-coding genes. Only one of these genes, GPR101, which encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor, was overexpressed in patients' pituitary lesions. We identified a recurrent GPR101 mutation (p.E308D) in 11 of 248 patients with acromegaly, with the mutation found mostly in tumors. When the mutation was transfected into rat GH3 cells, it led to increased release of growth hormone and proliferation of growth hormone-producing cells. We describe a pediatric disorder (which we have termed X-linked acrogigantism [X-LAG]) that is caused by an Xq26.3 genomic duplication and is characterized by early-onset gigantism resulting from an excess of growth hormone. Duplication of GPR101 probably causes X-LAG. We also found a recurrent mutation in GPR101 in some adults with acromegaly. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others.).

  1. Diversidad de sistemas planetarios sin gigantes gaseosos en discos de baja masa

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco, María Paula

    2013-01-01

    Como indica el título de esta tesis, el objetivo general de nuestro trabajo es poder analizar la diversidad de sistemas planetarios que podrían formarse alrededor de estrellas de tipo solar y sin gigantes gaseosos. Nuestro interés particular es estudiar estos sistemas en discos de baja masa, pues podemos asegurar que en ellos no hay posibilidad de formar planetas gigantes gaseosos. Para poder lograr este análisis desarrollamos simulaciones de N-cuerpos orientadas a estudiar el proceso de form...

  2. Ensayo del lisado de amebocitos del Limulus (LAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Perdomo Morales

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, los principales organismos reguladores de productos farmacéuticos (Farmacopeas exigen cada vez más en sus monografías la aplicación del método del lisado de amebocitos de Limulus (LAL para la liberación de pirógenos en productos terminados parenterales. El análisis de pirógenos constituye uno de los principales ensayos en el control de calidad de la fabricación de inyectables por su repercusión en la salud humana, puesto que la presencia y administración de los mismos, es capaz de provocar una serie de respuestas fisiológicas, en su mayoría de carácter perjudicial y en casos extremos, la muerte del paciente. Por las razones anteriores, existe un creciente interés en el conocimiento y dominio de estos métodos. El presente trabajo muestra una revisión bibliográfica del método del LAL, se tratan aspectos como su descubrimiento y estandarización, aparición en la industria farmacéutica y razones para su triunfo, y los basamentos de los principales métodos o variaciones comerciales del LAL (gelificación, turbidimétricos y cromogénicos que se describen en las Farmacopeas.

  3. Ensayo del lisado de amebocitos del Limulus (LAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Perdomo Morales

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, los principales organismos reguladores de productos farmacéuticos (Farmacopeas exigen cada vez más en sus monografías la aplicación del método del lisado de amebocitos de Limulus (LAL para la liberación de pirógenos en productos terminados parenterales. El análisis de pirógenos constituye uno de los principales ensayos en el control de calidad de la fabricación de inyectables por su repercusión en la salud humana, puesto que la presencia y administración de los mismos, es capaz de provocar una serie de respuestas fisiológicas, en su mayoría de carácter perjudicial y en casos extremos, la muerte del paciente. Por las razones anteriores, existe un creciente interés en el conocimiento y dominio de estos métodos. El presente trabajo muestra una revisión bibliográfica del método del LAL, se tratan aspectos como su descubrimiento y estandarización, aparición en la industria farmacéutica y razones para su triunfo, y los basamentos de los principales métodos o variaciones comerciales del LAL (gelificación, turbidimétricos y cromogénicos que se describen en las Farmacopeas.

  4. The Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism and multiple congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, G; Martini-Neri, M E; Katz, B E; Opitz, J M

    1984-09-01

    We describe a familial syndrome of renal dysplasia, Wilms tumor, hyperplasia of the endocrine pancreas, fetal gigantism, multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. This condition was previously described by Perlman et al [1973, 1975] and we propose to call it the "Perlman syndrome." It appears to be transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The possible relationships between dysplasia, neoplasia and malformation are discussed.

  5. Assessment of Unusual Gigantic Jets observed during the Monsoon season: First observations from Indian Subcontinent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Rajesh; Maurya, Ajeet K.; Chanrion, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    observations. Here we report first observations of Gigantic Jets in Indian subcontinent over the Indo-Gangetic plains during the monsoon season. Two storms each produced two jets with characteristics not documented so far. Jets propagated similar to 37 km up remarkably in similar to 5 ms with velocity...

  6. Oxygen hypothesis of polar gigantism not supported by performance of Antarctic pycnogonids in hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, H. Arthur; Moran, Amy L.; Arango, Claudia P.; Mullen, Lindy; Shields, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Compared to temperate and tropical relatives, some high-latitude marine species are large-bodied, a phenomenon known as polar gigantism. A leading hypothesis on the physiological basis of gigantism posits that, in polar water, high oxygen availability coupled to low metabolic rates relieves constraints on oxygen transport and allows the evolution of large body size. Here, we test the oxygen hypothesis using Antarctic pycnogonids, which have been evolving in very cold conditions (−1.8–0°C) for several million years and contain spectacular examples of gigantism. Pycnogonids from 12 species, spanning three orders of magnitude in body mass, were collected from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Individual sea spiders were forced into activity and their performance was measured at different experimental levels of dissolved oxygen (DO). The oxygen hypothesis predicts that, all else being equal, large pycnogonids should perform disproportionately poorly in hypoxia, an outcome that would appear as a statistically significant interaction between body size and oxygen level. In fact, although we found large effects of DO on performance, and substantial interspecific variability in oxygen sensitivity, there was no evidence for size×DO interactions. These data do not support the oxygen hypothesis of Antarctic pycnogonid gigantism and suggest that explanations must be sought in other ecological or evolutionary processes. PMID:19129117

  7. Treatment of pituitary gigantism with the growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Naila; Racine, Michael S; Thomas, Pamela; Degnan, Bernard; Chandler, William; Barkan, Ariel

    2008-08-01

    Treatment of pituitary gigantism is complex and the results are usually unsatisfactory. The objective of the study was to describe the results of therapy of three children with pituitary gigantism by a GH receptor antagonist, pegvisomant. This was a descriptive case series of up to 3.5 yr duration. The study was conducted at a university hospital. Patients included three children (one female, two males) with pituitary gigantism whose GH hypersecretion was incompletely controlled by surgery, somatostatin analog, and dopamine agonist. The intervention was administration of pegvisomant. Plasma IGF-I and growth velocity were measured. In all three children, pegvisomant rapidly decreased plasma IGF-I concentrations. Growth velocity declined to subnormal or normal values. Statural growth fell into lower growth percentiles and acromegalic features resolved. Pituitary tumor size did not change in two children but increased in one boy despite concomitant therapy with a somatostatin analog. Pegvisomant may be an effective modality for the therapy of pituitary gigantism in children. Titration of the dose is necessary for optimal efficacy, and regular surveillance of tumor size is mandatory.

  8. Spontaneous remission of acromegaly or gigantism due to subclinical apoplexy of pituitary growth hormone adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Ling; Dou, Jing-Tao; Lü, Zhao-Hui; Zhong, Wen-Wen; Ba, Jian-Ming; Jin, Du; Lu, Ju-Ming; Pan, Chang-Yu; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2011-11-01

    Subclinical apoplexy of pituitary functional adenoma can cause spontaneous remission of hormone hypersecretion. The typical presence of pituitary growth hormone (GH) adenoma is gigantism and/or acromegaly. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous partial remission of acromegaly or gigantism due to subclinical apoplexy of GH adenoma. Six patients with spontaneous remission of acromegaly or gigantism were enrolled. The clinical characteristics, endocrinological evaluation and imageological characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. In these cases, the initial clinical presences were diabetes mellitus or hypogonadism. No abrupt headache, vomiting, visual function impairment, or conscious disturbance had ever been complained of. The base levels of GH and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were normal or higher, but nadir GH levels were all still > 1 µg/L in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Magnetic resonance imaging detected enlarged sella, partial empty sella and compressed pituitary. The transsphenoidal surgery was performed in 2 cases, and the other patients were conservatively managed. All the patients were in clinical remission. When the clinical presences, endocrine evaluation, biochemical examination and imageology indicate spontaneous remission of GH hypersecretion in patients with gigantism or acromegaly, the diagnosis of subclinical apoplexy of pituitary GH adenoma should be presumed. To these patients, conservative therapy may be appropriate.

  9. Video, LMA and ULF observations of a negative gigantic jet in North Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, E. C.; Cummer, S.; Palivec, K.; Lyons, W. A.; Chmielewski, V.; MacGorman, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    On 8 September 2016 at 0125:38 UTC video of a negative gigantic jet was captured from Hawley, TX. VHF Lightning Mapping Arrays in West Texas and Oklahoma also observed the parent flash (duration of about 1 s) and, for the first time, mapped dozens of points along ascending negative leaders, lasting about 50 ms, which extended well above cloud top to about 35 km MSL altitude. A few well-located VHF sources were also detected near 50 km. Together, the video and VHF observations provide additional confirmation of the altitude at which the leader-to-streamer transition takes place in gigantic jet discharges. ULF magnetic field data from the Duke iCMC network show a current excursion associated with the onset of the upward movement of negative charge and leaders in the VHF. As the gigantic jet reached its full height, current spiked to 80 kA, followed by several hundred milliseconds of continuing current of 10-20 kA. Total charge moment change was about 6000 C km. The storm complex produced predominantly negative large charge moment change events, which is characteristic of storms that produce negative gigantic jets.

  10. Von recklinghausen neurofibromatosis-pachydermatocele causing lower limb gigantism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, Arcot; Gopalan, T R

    2006-03-01

    Gigantism of the lower limb can occur because of plexiform neurofibromas. This condition is seen with café au lait patches and multiple neurofibromatosis in this case of von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. We report our patient and review literature of this uncommon condition.

  11. Increased Population Risk of AIP‐Related Acromegaly and Gigantism in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radian, Serban; Diekmann, Yoan; Gabrovska, Plamena; Holland, Brendan; Bradley, Lisa; Wallace, Helen; Stals, Karen; Bussell, Anna‐Marie; McGurren, Karen; Cuesta, Martin; Ryan, Anthony W.; Herincs, Maria; Hernández‐Ramírez, Laura C.; Holland, Aidan; Samuels, Jade; Aflorei, Elena Daniela; Barry, Sayka; Dénes, Judit; Pernicova, Ida; Stiles, Craig E.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; McCloskey, Ronan; Ajzensztejn, Michal; Abid, Noina; Akker, Scott A.; Mercado, Moises; Cohen, Mark; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Baldeweg, Stephanie; Barkan, Ariel; Musat, Madalina; Levy, Miles; Orme, Stephen M.; Unterländer, Martina; Burger, Joachim; Kumar, Ajith V.; Ellard, Sian; McPartlin, Joseph; McManus, Ross; Linden, Gerard J.; Atkinson, Brew; Balding, David J.; Agha, Amar; Thompson, Chris J.; Hunter, Steven J.; Thomas, Mark G.; Morrison, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) founder mutation R304* (or p.R304*; NM_003977.3:c.910C>T, p.Arg304Ter) identified in Northern Ireland (NI) predisposes to acromegaly/gigantism; its population health impact remains unexplored. We measured R304* carrier frequency in 936 Mid Ulster, 1,000 Greater Belfast (both in NI) and 2,094 Republic of Ireland (ROI) volunteers and in 116 NI or ROI acromegaly/gigantism patients. Carrier frequencies were 0.0064 in Mid Ulster (95%CI = 0.0027–0.013; P = 0.0005 vs. ROI), 0.001 in Greater Belfast (0.00011–0.0047) and zero in ROI (0–0.0014). R304* prevalence was elevated in acromegaly/gigantism patients in NI (11/87, 12.6%, P gigantism cases. tMRCA is consistent with historical/folklore accounts of Irish giants. Forward simulations predict many undetected carriers; geographically targeted population screening improves asymptomatic carrier identification, complementing clinical testing of patients/relatives. We generated disease awareness locally, necessary for early diagnosis and improved outcomes of AIP‐related disease. PMID:27650164

  12. Increased Population Risk of AIP-Related Acromegaly and Gigantism in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radian, Serban; Diekmann, Yoan; Gabrovska, Plamena; Holland, Brendan; Bradley, Lisa; Wallace, Helen; Stals, Karen; Bussell, Anna-Marie; McGurren, Karen; Cuesta, Martin; Ryan, Anthony W; Herincs, Maria; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Holland, Aidan; Samuels, Jade; Aflorei, Elena Daniela; Barry, Sayka; Dénes, Judit; Pernicova, Ida; Stiles, Craig E; Trivellin, Giampaolo; McCloskey, Ronan; Ajzensztejn, Michal; Abid, Noina; Akker, Scott A; Mercado, Moises; Cohen, Mark; Thakker, Rajesh V; Baldeweg, Stephanie; Barkan, Ariel; Musat, Madalina; Levy, Miles; Orme, Stephen M; Unterländer, Martina; Burger, Joachim; Kumar, Ajith V; Ellard, Sian; McPartlin, Joseph; McManus, Ross; Linden, Gerard J; Atkinson, Brew; Balding, David J; Agha, Amar; Thompson, Chris J; Hunter, Steven J; Thomas, Mark G; Morrison, Patrick J; Korbonits, Márta

    2017-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) founder mutation R304 * (or p.R304 * ; NM_003977.3:c.910C>T, p.Arg304Ter) identified in Northern Ireland (NI) predisposes to acromegaly/gigantism; its population health impact remains unexplored. We measured R304 * carrier frequency in 936 Mid Ulster, 1,000 Greater Belfast (both in NI) and 2,094 Republic of Ireland (ROI) volunteers and in 116 NI or ROI acromegaly/gigantism patients. Carrier frequencies were 0.0064 in Mid Ulster (95%CI = 0.0027-0.013; P = 0.0005 vs. ROI), 0.001 in Greater Belfast (0.00011-0.0047) and zero in ROI (0-0.0014). R304 * prevalence was elevated in acromegaly/gigantism patients in NI (11/87, 12.6%, P acromegaly/gigantism cases. tMRCA is consistent with historical/folklore accounts of Irish giants. Forward simulations predict many undetected carriers; geographically targeted population screening improves asymptomatic carrier identification, complementing clinical testing of patients/relatives. We generated disease awareness locally, necessary for early diagnosis and improved outcomes of AIP-related disease. © 2016 The Authors. **Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. PULSOS EROSIVOS E RESPOSTA MORFODINÂMICA ASSOCIADA A EVENTOS EXTREMOS NA COSTA LESTE DO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Carl Ernst Heino Muehe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O litoral do Rio de Janeiro foi atingido, nos últimos 15 anos, por duas tempestades excepcionais. A primeira em Maio de 2001 e a segunda em Abril de 2010. A primeira provocou erosão pronunciada na orla costeira voltada para o sul, isto é entre o Cabo Frio e a Marambaia, enquanto a segunda teve esse efeito no litoral leste do estado a norte do Cabo Frio devido à direção de incidência das ondas que em vez de sul sul-sudeste, mais comum, vieram de sudeste. No presente trabalho é apresentada uma análise do comportamento morfodinâmico da orla costeira a norte dos cabos Frio e Búzios, mais especificamente das praias do Peró, Tucuns, Barra de São João e Rio das Ostras (Abricó, antes e após a tempestade de abril de 2010 abrangendo períodos de até 17 anos em Barra de São João (1996 a 2013 a um mínimo de 7 anos (2007 a 2014 na praia do Peró. O clima de ondas de sudeste, para os últimos 30 anos (1981 a 2011, foi obtido por meio de reanálise dos ventos com filtragem posterior para ondas com altura superior a 3 m e 3,5 m consideradas, neste trabalho, como representativas de ressacas excepcionais. Os resultados mostram que esses eventos extremos correspondem efetivamente aos eventos erosivos encontrados, cuja ocorrência se dá numa frequência muito baixa, permitindo a recuperação do estoque de sedimentos da praia e da base das dunas frontais, com exceção da Praia do Abricó em Rio das Ostras, que apresenta uma tendência histórica de déficit no balanço sedimentar. Para o período do clima de ondas analisado não foi identificada uma tendência de aumento da recorrência, principalmente para ondas de altura superior a 3,5 m. A menor frequência de ocorrência de eventos extremos, quando comparado com outros segmentos, mais expostos, do litoral do Rio de Janeiro, se deve à proteção às ondas de sul e sul-sudoeste exercido pela orientação da linha de costa e da sombra exercida pelo Cabo Frio e Cabo Búzios. Isto resulta num

  14. Sedimentos marinos superficiales del litoral de Tacna, Perú, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Velazco Castillo, Federico; Solís Acosta, Juana; Cárdenas, Fredy

    2011-01-01

    Los sedimentos submarinos colectados a fines de setiembre 2004 a profundidades 60%). El mayor contenido de la fracción fina, de limo y arcilla (±35%), se ubicó en las zonas más profundas del área en estudio y en los extremos norte (frente a Cerro Cortado) y al sur (Los Palos), que incluyen también zonas de menor profundidad. En la zona central, la pendiente tiene la mayor inclinación de toda la zona estudiada, y el tamaño promedio del grano del sedimento es más grande; estas condiciones const...

  15. Lei de Acesso à Informação nos Municípios do Extremo Oeste de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deneide Teresinha de Carli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Lei de Acesso à Informação (LAI, nº 12.527, de 18/11/2011, regula o acesso a informações públicas em todos os âmbitos do Poder Público. Objetivou investigar de que forma a LAI é disponibilizada nas prefeituras catarinenses integrantes da Associação dos Municípios do Extremo Oeste de Santa Catarina (AMEOSC. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, documental e quantitativa. Utilizou checklist e questionário aplicado às 13 prefeituras da AMEOSC, que formaram o universo desta pesquisa. Fundamentou-se a revisão de literatura abordando sobre a LAI, a gestão documental arquivística e os ciclos de vida dos documentos. Dos 13 questionários aplicados, responderam seis prefeituras, (três possuem população acima de dez mil, obrigadas a disponibilizar o acesso à LAI e três abaixo de dez mil. Conclui-se que é cedo para fazer uma ampla avaliação da disponibilização da LAI nos municípios pesquisados, visto que a mesma foi aprovada em 2011. As prefeituras estão se estruturando para atender as demandas. Considerou-se como obstáculos a insuficiência de recursos humanos, inadequada divulgação e conscientização dos servidores e da população em geral.

  16. Discharge processes, electric field, and electron energy in ISUAL-recorded gigantic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Chou, J. K.; Tsai, L. Y.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.; Cummer, S. A.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L. C.

    2009-04-01

    This article reports the first high time resolution measurements of gigantic jets from the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) experiment. The velocity of the upward propagating fully developed jet stage of the gigantic jets was ˜107 m s-1, which is similar to that observed for downward sprite streamers. Analysis of spectral ratios for the fully developed jet emissions gives a reduced E field of 400-655 Td and average electron energy of 8.5-12.3 eV. These values are higher than those in the sprites but are similar to those predicted by streamer models, which implies the existence of streamer tips in fully developed jets. The gigantic jets studied here all contained two distinct photometric peaks. The first peak is from the fully developed jet, which steadily propagates from the cloud top (˜20 km) to the lower ionosphere at ˜90 km. We suggest that the second photometric peak, which occurs ˜1 ms after the first peak, is from a current wave or potential wave-enhanced emissions that originate at an altitude of ˜50 km and extend toward the cloud top. We propose that the fully developed jet serves as an extension of the local ionosphere and produces a lowered ionosphere boundary. As the attachment processes remove the charges, the boundary of the local ionosphere moves up. The current in the channel persists and its contact point with the ionosphere moves upward, which produces the upward surging trailing jets. Imager and photometer data indicate that the lightning activity associated with the gigantic jets likely is in-cloud, and thus the initiation of the gigantic jets is not directly associated with cloud-to-ground discharges.

  17. Carta del Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eladio Proaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La publicación se centra en temas como: Procesos electorales en México e Italia, se analizan los procesos comunicacionales y sus efectos; las infiltraciones de las agencias de seguridad en la actividad periodística en Europa; la radio y la televisión pública en los EE.UU. Para conocer cómo la prensa enfrenta los problemas críticos entre países, esta el caso de Uruguay y Argentina (discrepancia por la planta de procesamiento de papel y la contaminación del Río de La Plata. Otro artículo refiere la difícil relación entre los medios de comunicación y el gobierno de Chávez en Venezuela. Se aborda el caso brasileño para entender el crecimiento de los Observatorios de Medios; otro sobre el crecimiento del "periodismo confidencial" en la web y la prensa gratuita. Se estudia el impacto de la telenovela "pasión de gavilanes". Para quienes interese la penetración del Internet está: "Usos y competencias del weblog en las corporaciones" más otro sobre la lucha sorda que mantienen los gigantes de la autopista de la información Google y Yahoo.

  18. Observations of Seven Blue/Gigantic Jets above One Storm over the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Spiva, N.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H.; Free, D. L.; Cummer, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Blue/gigantic jets are electrical discharges developing from thundercloud tops and propagating to the upper atmosphere [e.g., Pasko et al., Nature, 416, 152, 2002; Su et al., Nature, 423, 973, 2003]. Not just producing an impressive display, gigantic jets establish a direct path of electrical contact between the upper troposphere and the lower ionosphere, capable of transferring a large amount of charge between them [Cummer et al., Nat. Geosci., 2, 617, 2009]. It has been suggested that they may play an important role in the earth's electrical environment [e. g., Pasko, Nature, 423, 927, 2003]. Upward discharges from thunderstorms like blue/gigantic jets are believed to originate from lightning leaders escaping from thunderclouds when the cloud's charges of different polarities are not balanced [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233, 2008; Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010]. On the evening of August 2, 2013, 4 gigantic jets, 2 blue jets and 1 blue starter were recorded within 26 min above a storm over the Atlantic Ocean by a low light level camera from the campus of Florida Institute of Technology. The events were also captured by two all-sky cameras: one again from the Florida Tech campus and the other from a nearby location. According to the NLDN data, positive intra-cloud flashes preceded all events except one gigantic jet. The distance between the observation site to the locations of the NLDN lightning discharges varies from 77 to 82 km. Optical signatures of intra-cloud discharge activities accompanied the events are clearly visible in the videos. The duration of each jet varies from about 300 ms to 1.2 s, and the 1.2 s duration is probably the longest that has been reported to date for jets. Rebrightening of gigantic jet structures occurs for at least two of the events. The upper terminal altitude of the 4 gigantic jets is greater than 76-81 km, the 2 blue jets reach about 48 and 51 km altitude, respectively, and the blue starter reaches 24 km altitude

  19. Formación de los planetas gigantes del Sistema Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Guilera, Octavio Miguel

    2014-01-01

    El estudio de los sistemas planetarios es uno de los temas fundamentales de las ciencias astronómicas. El interés en nuestro Sistema Solar surgió en tiempos remotos. Hace casi dos décadas, Mayor y Queloz (1995) detectaron el primer planeta extrasolar en órbita alrededor de una estrella de tipo solar. Este notable descubrimiento ha hecho surgir desde entonces un enorme interés en el estudio de sistemas planetarios en general. Esta Tesis es una continuación natural de un proyecto de i...

  20. A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Hu, Shi-Xue; Rieppel, Olivier; Jiang, Da-Yong; Benton, Michael J.; Kelley, Neil P.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Zhou, Chang-Yong; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-Yuan; Xie, Tao; Lv, Tao

    2014-11-01

    The presence of gigantic apex predators in the eastern Panthalassic and western Tethyan oceans suggests that complex ecosystems in the sea had become re-established in these regions at least by the early Middle Triassic, after the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (PTME). However, it is not clear whether oceanic ecosystem recovery from the PTME was globally synchronous because of the apparent lack of such predators in the eastern Tethyan/western Panthalassic region prior to the Late Triassic. Here we report a gigantic nothosaur from the lower Middle Triassic of Luoping in southwest China (eastern Tethyan ocean), which possesses the largest known lower jaw among Triassic sauropterygians. Phylogenetic analysis suggests parallel evolution of gigantism in Triassic sauropterygians. Discovery of this gigantic apex predator, together with associated diverse marine reptiles and the complex food web, indicates global recovery of shallow marine ecosystems from PTME by the early Middle Triassic.

  1. Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sustained-release lanreotide (lanreotide Autogel) in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, Akira; Teramoto, Akira; Hizuka, Naomi; Kitai, Kazuo; Ramis, Joaquim; Chihara, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The somatostatin analog lanreotide Autogel has proven to be efficacious for treating acromegaly in international studies and in clinical practices around the world. However, its efficacy in Japanese patients has not been extensively evaluated. We examined the dose-response relationship and long-term efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism. In an open-label, parallel-group, dose-response study, 32 patients (29 with acromegaly, 3 with pituitary gigantism) received 5 injections of 60, 90, or 120 mg of lanreotide Autogel over 24 weeks. Four weeks after the first injection, 41% of patients achieved serum GH level of gigantism) received lanreotide Autogel once every 4 weeks for a total of 13 injections. Dosing was initiated with 90 mg and adjusted according to clinical responses at Weeks 16 and/or 32. At Week 52, 47% of patients had serum GH levels of gigantism.

  2. Células de Circulação Meridional Durante os Eventos Extremos de Gelo Marinho Antártico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bertoletti Carpenedo

    Full Text Available Resumo Como a borda do gelo marinho antártico está localizada em uma região muito sensível, sob a Frente Polar Antártica, existe um grande potencial da variabilidade do gelo marinho afetar a circulação atmosférica. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as possíveis relações entre os eventos extremos de gelo marinho antártico e as células de circulação meridional no Pacífico Sudeste, região onde há intensa variabilidade em várias escalas de tempo. Os resultados mostram que quando há eventos extremos de expansão de gelo marinho no setor do mar de Ross, existe um resfriamento da TSM, que resulta em uma atmosfera adjacente fria, aumentando os gradientes térmicos entre a borda do gelo marinho e a região de mar aberto. Os gradientes de pressão são fortalecidos, fortalecendo o cinturão circumpolar de baixas pressões e o jato polar. Assim, existe um fortalecimento do ramo ascendente da célula de Ferrel sobre o Oceano Austral, enquanto há enfraquecimento nas latitudes médias, por conservação de massa. Observamos o padrão oposto em eventos extremos de retração de gelo marinho no setor do mar de Ross e expansão no setor do mar de Weddell.

  3. Miocarditis de células gigantes con bloqueo AV completo persistente: respuesta al tratamiento con resincronizador cardiaco Giant cell myocarditis with complete persistent A-V block: treatment response with cardiac resynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Aristizábal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La miocarditis de células gigantes es una enfermedad grave y poco frecuente, cuya etiología, posiblemente autoinmune, se caracteriza por la presencia de células gigantes multinucleadas con infiltrado inflamatorio y necrosis extensa en la biopsia endomiocárdica. Es común su asociación con taquicardias ventriculares y con alteraciones de la conducción aurículo-ventricular, lo cual se resuelve algunas veces con tratamiento inmunosupresor. Dada la complejidad del pronóstico de esta entidad, el papel de los dispositivos de resincronización después de la estabilización de la falla cardíaca, no está claro. Aquí se reporta un caso en el cual el implante de uno de estos dispositivos fue parte fundamental de la terapia y recuperación del paciente.Giant cell myocarditis is an infrequent and serious illness, possibly of autoimmune etiology, characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells with inflammatory infiltrate and extensive necrosis in the endomyocardial biopsy. Its association with ventricular tachycardia is common and alterations in atrioventricular conduction are frequently solved through immunosuppressive treatment. Given the generally complex prognosis of this entity, the role of the resynchronization devices after the heart failure stabilization, is unclear. We reported a case in which the implant of one of these devices was a fundamental part of the therapy and patient recovery.

  4. Gigantic Cosmic Corkscrew Reveals New Details About Mysterious Microquasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Making an extra effort to image a faint, gigantic corkscrew traced by fast protons and electrons shot out from a mysterious microquasar paid off for a pair of astrophysicists who gained new insights into the beast's inner workings and also resolved a longstanding dispute over the object's distance. Microquasar SS 433 VLA Image of Microquasar SS 433 CREDIT: Blundell & Bowler, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) The astrophysicists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to capture the faintest details yet seen in the plasma jets emerging from the microquasar SS 433, an object once dubbed the "enigma of the century." As a result, they have changed scientists' understanding of the jets and settled the controversy over its distance "beyond all reasonable doubt," they said. SS 433 is a neutron star or black hole orbited by a "normal" companion star. The powerful gravity of the neutron star or black hole draws material from the stellar wind of its companion into an accretion disk of material tightly circling the dense central object prior to being pulled onto it. This disk propels jets of fast protons and electrons outward from its poles at about a quarter of the speed of light. The disk in SS 433 wobbles like a child's top, causing its jets to trace a corkscrew in the sky every 162 days. The new VLA study indicates that the speed of the ejected particles varies over time, contrary to the traditional model for SS 433. "We found that the actual speed varies between 24 percent to 28 percent of light speed, as opposed to staying constant," said Katherine Blundell, of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. "Amazingly, the jets going in both directions change their speeds simultaneously, producing identical speeds in both directions at any given time," Blundell added. Blundell worked with Michael Bowler, also of Oxford. The scientists' findings have been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. SS 433 New VLA

  5. Pituitary gigantism in a 31 month old girl: endocrine studies and successful response to hypophysectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiner, E A; Carter, T A; Abbott, G D; Wrightson, P

    1981-01-01

    A case of pituitary gigantism occurring in a 31 month old female child is reported. Growth records indicate that the disorder began early in the second yr of life. Apart from her size and history of excessive sweating, there were no characteristic clinical features of endocrinopathy. Elevated and autonomous secretion of GH (60-109 microgram/l) and prolactin were corrected by the removal of an eosinophilic pituitary adenoma. In the subsequent 6 yr, despite the presence of immunoreactive GH (4.6-17.3 microgram/l), plasma somatomedin was subnormal and the patient showed growth failure which responded normally to exogenous GH therapy. This case, which appears to be the youngest example of verified pituitary gigantism on record, illustrates that a successful outcome can be achieved by surgical ablative therapy.

  6. Blue jets and gigantic jets: transient luminous events between thunderstorm tops and the lower ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasko, V P

    2008-01-01

    An overview of general phenomenology and proposed physical mechanisms of large scale electrical discharges termed 'blue jets' and 'gigantic jets' observed at high altitude in the Earth's atmosphere above thunderstorms is presented. The primary emphasis is placed on summarizing available experimental data on the observed morphological features of upward jet discharges and on the discussion of recently advanced theories describing electrodynamic conditions, which facilitate escape of conventional lightning leaders from thundercloud tops and their upward propagation toward the ionosphere. It is argued that the filamentary plasma structures observed in blue jet and gigantic jet discharges are directly linked to the processes in streamer zones of lightning leaders, scaled by a significant reduction of air pressure at high altitudes.

  7. Cope's Rule and Romer's theory: patterns of diversity and gigantism in eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsdell, James C.; Braddy, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Gigantism is widespread among Palaeozoic arthropods, yet causal mechanisms, particularly the role of (abiotic) environmental factors versus (biotic) competition, remain unknown. The eurypterids (Arthropoda: Chelicerata) include the largest arthropods; gigantic predatory pterygotids (Eurypterina) during the Siluro-Devonian and bizarre sweep-feeding hibbertopterids (Stylonurina) from the Carboniferous to end-Permian. Analysis of family-level originations and extinctions among eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates show that the diversity of Eurypterina waned during the Devonian, while the Placodermi radiated, yet Stylonurina remained relatively unaffected; adopting a sweep-feeding strategy they maintained their large body size by avoiding competition, and persisted throughout the Late Palaeozoic while the predatory nektonic Eurypterina (including the giant pterygotids) declined during the Devonian, possibly out-competed by other predators including jawed vertebrates. PMID:19828493

  8. Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a man with gigantism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peillon, F; Philippon, J; Brandi, A M; Fohanno, D; Laplane, D; Dubois, M P; Decourt, J

    1979-12-01

    A prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma was removed trans-sphenoidally from a 37 years old man with gigantism (218 cm). Serum levels of prolactin (PRL) were elevated pre-operatively and decreased after administration of L-Dopa with no increase after TRH as is usually observed in PRL-secreting adenomas. Growth hormone (GH) and somatomedin serum levels were normal with no modification of GH after insulin hypoglycemia, oral glucose loading or L-Dopa. Morphological examination of the tumour demonstrated the presence of lactotrophs by light and electron microscopy and by immunofluorescense staining. No somatotrophs were found. In this unique case, the relationship between a PRL-secreting adenoma and gigantism is discussed.

  9. An Evolutionary Cascade Model for Sauropod Dinosaur Gigantism - Overview, Update and Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutiona...

  10. CT of the "Tegernsee Giant": juvenile gigantism and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, T J; Nerlich, A; Dresel, S H; Bergman, C

    1994-01-01

    We report the radiological findings in the unusual case of the Bavarian "Tegernsee Giant." With conventional radiography, CT, and histologic examination, we succeeded in diagnosing two disorders: The Tegernsee Giant suffered from (a) juvenile gigantism caused by a growth hormone-secreting tumor of the pituitary gland and (b) a polyostotic form of fibrous dysplasia of the skull and multiple bones particularly on the left side of the body.

  11. Unilateral delayed opercularization in a case of Sotos' syndrome (cerebral gigantism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, P.G.; Vlasveld, L.; Valk, J.

    1980-08-01

    A case of Sotos' syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is described. Pneumencephalography, performed at the age of 15 days, revealed abnormal separation of the opercula on the right. By comparing the contours with developmental anatomical features of this area it agreed with a foetal development of 24 weeks gestational age. Bilateral carotid angiography was normal. CT showed normal development of the Sylvian area at the age of 27 months.

  12. Breast vasculitis in association with breast gigantism in a pregnant patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, D J; Reid, D M; Stankler, L; Eastmond, C J

    1991-01-01

    A 24 year old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed widespread necrotic skin ulceration and gigantism of both breasts during an exacerbation of SLE in the last trimester of her second pregnancy. Over the remainder of the pregnancy the ulceration was only controlled by high dose corticosteroids. After parturition, however, it was possible to reduce the steroid dose without recurrence of the ulceration. Images PMID:1888201

  13. Unilateral delayed opercularization in a case of Sotos' syndrome (cerebral gigantism)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, P.G.; Vlasveld, L.; Valk, J.

    1980-01-01

    A case of Sotos' syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is described. Pneumencephalography, performed at the age of 15 days, revealed abnormal separation of the opercula on the right. By comparing the contours with developmental anatomical features of this area it agreed with a foetal development of 24 weeks gestational age. Bilateral carotid angiography was normal. CT showed normal development of the Sylvian area at the age of 27 months. (orig.)

  14. PITUITARY GIGANTISM--EXPERIENCE OF A SINGLE CENTER FROM WESTERN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Hiren P; Bothra, Nikita; Goel, Atul H; Kasaliwal, Rajeev; Lila, Anurag R; Bandgar, Tushar R; Shah, Nalini S

    2015-06-01

    Limited data are available on pituitary gigantism, as it is a rare disorder. This study was carried out to assess the clinical, hormonal, and radiologic profiles and management outcomes of patients with pituitary gigantism. We conduced a retrospective analysis of 14 patients with pituitary gigantism who presented to a single tertiary care institute from 1990 to 2014. Thirteen patients were male, and 1 was female. The mean age at diagnosis was 21.9 ± 6.1 years, with a mean lag period of 6.5 ± 5.6 years. The mean height SD score at the time of diagnosis was 3.2 ± 0.6. Symptoms of tumor mass effect were the chief presenting complaint in the majority (50%) of patients, while 2 patients were asymptomatic. Six patients had hyperprolactinemia. At presentation, the nadir PGGH (postglucose GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF 1)-ULN (× upper limit of normal) were 63.2 ± 94.9 ng/mL and 1.98 ± 0.5, respectively. All (except 1 with mild pituitary hyperplasia) had pituitary macroadenoma. Six patients had invasive pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was the primary modality of treatment in 13/14 patients, and it achieved remission in 4/13 (30.76%) patients without recurrence over a median follow-up of 7 years. Post-TSS radiotherapy (RT) achieved remission in 3/5 (60%) patients over a median follow-up of 3.5 years. None of the patients received medical management at any point of time. Gigantism is more common in males, and remission can be achieved in the majority of the patients with the help of multimodality treatment (TSS and RT).

  15. Underground cosmic-ray measurement for morphological reconstruction of the ''Grotta Gigante'' natural cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffau, E.; Coren, F.; Giannini, G.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of the muon flux as a function of direction inside the Grotta Gigante natural cave near Trieste (Italy) was carried out using a tracking apparatus. The measured flux, depending in a well established way on the zenith angle and the rock mass crossed by the muons, allowed the determination of the shape of the cave vault which could be compared with that known from topography and related to the available microgravimetric data of the area. (orig.)

  16. Change in the immunophenotype of a somatotroph adenoma resulting in gigantism

    OpenAIRE

    Thawani, Jayesh P.; Bailey, Robert L.; Burns, Carrie M.; Lee, John Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Examining the pathologic progression of a pituitary adenoma from the point of a prepubescent child to an adult with gigantism affords us an opportunity to consider why patients may develop secretory or functioning tumors and raises questions about whether therapeutic interventions and surveillance strategies could be made to avoid irreversible phenotypic changes. Case Description: A patient underwent a sublabial transsphenoidal resection for a clinically non-functioning macroa...

  17. Starvation reveals the cause of infection-induced castration and gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressler, Clayton E; Nelson, William A; Day, Troy; McCauley, Edward

    2014-10-07

    Parasites often induce life-history changes in their hosts. In many cases, these infection-induced life-history changes are driven by changes in the pattern of energy allocation and utilization within the host. Because these processes will affect both host and parasite fitness, it can be challenging to determine who benefits from them. Determining the causes and consequences of infection-induced life-history changes requires the ability to experimentally manipulate life history and a framework for connecting life history to host and parasite fitness. Here, we combine a novel starvation manipulation with energy budget models to provide new insights into castration and gigantism in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. Our results show that starvation primarily affects investment in reproduction, and increasing starvation stress reduces gigantism and parasite fitness without affecting castration. These results are consistent with an energetic structure where the parasite uses growth energy as a resource. This finding gives us new understanding of the role of castration and gigantism in this system, and how life-history variation will affect infection outcome and epidemiological dynamics. The approach of combining targeted life-history manipulations with energy budget models can be adapted to understand life-history changes in other disease systems.

  18. Starvation reveals the cause of infection-induced castration and gigantism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressler, Clayton E.; Nelson, William A.; Day, Troy; McCauley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Parasites often induce life-history changes in their hosts. In many cases, these infection-induced life-history changes are driven by changes in the pattern of energy allocation and utilization within the host. Because these processes will affect both host and parasite fitness, it can be challenging to determine who benefits from them. Determining the causes and consequences of infection-induced life-history changes requires the ability to experimentally manipulate life history and a framework for connecting life history to host and parasite fitness. Here, we combine a novel starvation manipulation with energy budget models to provide new insights into castration and gigantism in the Daphnia magna–Pasteuria ramosa host–parasite system. Our results show that starvation primarily affects investment in reproduction, and increasing starvation stress reduces gigantism and parasite fitness without affecting castration. These results are consistent with an energetic structure where the parasite uses growth energy as a resource. This finding gives us new understanding of the role of castration and gigantism in this system, and how life-history variation will affect infection outcome and epidemiological dynamics. The approach of combining targeted life-history manipulations with energy budget models can be adapted to understand life-history changes in other disease systems. PMID:25143034

  19. Independent evolution of baleen whale gigantism linked to Plio-Pleistocene ocean dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Graham J; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Pyenson, Nicholas D

    2017-05-31

    Vertebrates have evolved to gigantic sizes repeatedly over the past 250 Myr, reaching their extreme in today's baleen whales (Mysticeti). Hypotheses for the evolution of exceptionally large size in mysticetes range from niche partitioning to predator avoidance, but there has been no quantitative examination of body size evolutionary dynamics in this clade and it remains unclear when, why or how gigantism evolved. By fitting phylogenetic macroevolutionary models to a dataset consisting of living and extinct species, we show that mysticetes underwent a clade-wide shift in their mode of body size evolution during the Plio-Pleistocene. This transition, from Brownian motion-like dynamics to a trended random walk towards larger size, is temporally linked to the onset of seasonally intensified upwelling along coastal ecosystems. High prey densities resulting from wind-driven upwelling, rather than abundant resources alone, are the primary determinant of efficient foraging in extant mysticetes and Late Pliocene changes in ocean dynamics may have provided an ecological pathway to gigantism in multiple independent lineages. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Ecological explanations to island gigantism: dietary niche divergence, predation, and size in an endemic lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runemark, Anna; Sagonas, Kostas; Svensson, Erik I

    2015-08-01

    Although rapid evolution of body size on islands has long been known, the ecological mechanisms behind this island phenomenon remain poorly understood. Diet is an important selective pressure for morphological divergence. Here we investigate if selection for novel diets has contributed to the multiple independent cases of island gigantism in the Skyros wall lizard (Podarcis gaigeae) and if diet, predation, or both factors best explain island gigantism. We combined data on body size, shape, bite force, and realized and available diets to address this. Several lines of evidence suggest that diet has contributed to the island gigantism. The larger islet lizards have relatively wider heads and higher bite performance in relation to mainland lizards than would be expected from size differences alone. The proportions of consumed and available hard prey are higher on islets than mainland localities, and lizard body size is significantly correlated with the proportion of hard prey. Furthermore, the main axis of divergence in head shape is significantly correlated with dietary divergence. Finally, a model with only diet and one including diet and predation regime explain body size divergence equally well. Our results suggest that diet is an important ecological factor behind insular body size divergence, but could be consistent with an additional role for predation.

  1. Regional endothermy as a trigger for gigantism in some extinct macropredatory sharks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto G Ferrón

    Full Text Available Otodontids include some of the largest macropredatory sharks that ever lived, the most extreme case being Otodus (Megaselachus megalodon. The reasons underlying their gigantism, distribution patterns and extinction have been classically linked with climatic factors and the evolution, radiation and migrations of cetaceans during the Paleogene. However, most of these previous proposals are based on the idea of otodontids as ectothermic sharks regardless of the ecological, energetic and body size constraints that this implies. Interestingly, a few recent studies have suggested the possible existence of endothermy in these sharks thus opening the door to a series of new interpretations. Accordingly, this work proposes that regional endothermy was present in otodontids and some closely related taxa (cretoxyrhinids, playing an important role in the evolution of gigantism and in allowing an active mode of live. The existence of regional endothermy in these groups is supported here by three different approaches including isotopic-based approximations, swimming speed inferences and the application of a novel methodology for assessing energetic budget and cost of swimming in extinct taxa. In addition, this finding has wider implications. It calls into question some previous paleotemperature estimates based partially on these taxa, suggests that the existing hypothesis about the evolution of regional endothermy in fishes requires modification, and provides key evidence for understanding the evolution of gigantism in active macropredators.

  2. Regional endothermy as a trigger for gigantism in some extinct macropredatory sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrón, Humberto G

    2017-01-01

    Otodontids include some of the largest macropredatory sharks that ever lived, the most extreme case being Otodus (Megaselachus) megalodon. The reasons underlying their gigantism, distribution patterns and extinction have been classically linked with climatic factors and the evolution, radiation and migrations of cetaceans during the Paleogene. However, most of these previous proposals are based on the idea of otodontids as ectothermic sharks regardless of the ecological, energetic and body size constraints that this implies. Interestingly, a few recent studies have suggested the possible existence of endothermy in these sharks thus opening the door to a series of new interpretations. Accordingly, this work proposes that regional endothermy was present in otodontids and some closely related taxa (cretoxyrhinids), playing an important role in the evolution of gigantism and in allowing an active mode of live. The existence of regional endothermy in these groups is supported here by three different approaches including isotopic-based approximations, swimming speed inferences and the application of a novel methodology for assessing energetic budget and cost of swimming in extinct taxa. In addition, this finding has wider implications. It calls into question some previous paleotemperature estimates based partially on these taxa, suggests that the existing hypothesis about the evolution of regional endothermy in fishes requires modification, and provides key evidence for understanding the evolution of gigantism in active macropredators.

  3. [Digital gigantism of the foot: a clinical study of 12 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-hua; Tian, Guang-lei; Zhu, Yin; Zhang, You-le; Zhao, Jun-hui; Tian, Wen

    2008-03-15

    To summarize the clinical characteristic and outcome of digital gigantism of the foot. Retrospectively analyze the clinical documents of cases of digital gigantism of the foot. Twelve 12 cases with 13 feet in this study included 8 male and 4 female with an average 4.6-years-old. All the deformities were found at birth. Multiple toes involved were more than single toe, and tibial toe involved more than fibular. Forefoot was enlarged. All the phalanges involved and partial metatarsal bones were enlarged. Marked increase in subcutaneous fat was found in all cases in the operation which infiltrated interossei and articular capsules. The appearance of the nerves and its branches in the foot were normal and fat infiltrating was not discovered. The operation types included debulking, epiphyseal arrest, amputation, nerve stripping and anastomosis. Seven cases were followed up with mean periods 25.6 months. Functional evaluation according to a criterion formulated by author revealed a result of 2 excellent, 2 good and 3 fair. Digital gigantism of the foot is an uncommon congenital deformity of the foot characterized by overgrowth of both the soft-tissue and the osseous elements of the enlarged toe and forefoot. Surgical treatment is the unique method, and the goal is to reduce the size of the foot to allow fitting regular shoes and walking readily. There are several types of operations which to be chosen. The indication, the timing of operative intervention and the selection of operation type should be paid more attention.

  4. Caracterización del tipo de recubrimiento en sustratos de material compuesto

    OpenAIRE

    Medel Rejas, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de los diferentes factores agresivos (lluvia, frío extremo, niebla salina, tormentas de arena) que ponen en serio peligro el correcto funcionamiento de una pala, y en su defecto del aerogenerador, dependiendo de las condiciones climatológicas del emplazamiento eólico dónde se sitúen. Para llevar a cabo este estudio se han desarrollado pruebas de laboratorio en las que se simulan los diferentes factores agresivos mencionados co...

  5. Sarcoma de estroma prostático gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis González González

    Full Text Available Los tumores de próstata representan la neoplasia maligna más frecuente en el varón. Mientras que las lesiones epiteliales son frecuentes, las neoplasias de origen mesenquimal representan entre 1 y 2 % de las neoplasias malignas prostáticas. Son poco conocidas, sobre todo las de origen estromal. Se presenta el caso de un varón de 77 años de edad, con un sarcoma del estroma prostático al que se le realiza una exéresis parcial. El tumor ocupa prácticamente la totalidad de la cavidad pélvico-abdominal, con un diámetro de 35 cm y un peso de 3 800 g. Histológicamente se concluyó, como sarcoma prostático aunque en el transoperatorio no se encontró un nexo evidente con este órgano. El comportamiento clínico de estos tumores, basado en los escasos casos descritos en la literatura, es prácticamente desconocido y su diagnóstico preoperatorio difícil. Este paciente se presentó con pérdida de peso, sin dolor, hematuria, ni síntomas obstructivos.

  6. Quiste gigante de ovario en una adolescente: presentación de un caso Giant ovarian cyst in an adolescent: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Contreras Leal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de una adolescente de 13 años de edad con antecedentes de salud con menarquía a los 11 años y metrorragias frecuentes que acudió a consulta de Pediatría del Hospital Regional de Bata Litoral en la República de Guinea Ecuatorial por aumento de volumen del abdomen, específicamente del hemiabdomen derecho, es ínter consultada con Ginecología por sospecha de tumor de ovario, lo cual se corroboró por ultrasonografía. Se realiza intervención quirúrgica encontrándose quiste gigante de ovario derecho que pesó 6 kg del cual no tuvimos el diagnóstico histológico por no disponer de laboratorio de Anatomía Patológica, pero por las características macroscópicas se trató como un Quiste Seroso Simple, La paciente tuvo una evolución favorable.A 13- year-old girl is presented, having undergone a good health and menarche at 11 years old, she has had vaginal bleeding frequently, and came to Pediatrics Clinics at Bata Littoral Provincial Hospital in Equatorial Guinea with the Pediatrician. The main symptoms were abdominal volume increase, more specifically at right hemiabdomen and pain to deep palpation. This case was sent to the Gynecologist and an ovarian tumor was suspected, afterwards verified by the ultrasonographic study. The patients was referred to surgery, the final clinical diagnosis was Right Ovary Giant Cyst, weighing 6 kg. The histological diagnosis was not assessed because the lack of pathology lab in this country. Following the macroscopic features the tumor was treated as a Simple Serous Cyst. The patient had a favorable evolution.

  7. Tendências observadas em indicadores de extremos climáticos de temperatura e precipitação no estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Luiz Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma análise das tendências de extremos climáticos baseada em indicadores calculados a partir de séries de dados observacionais diários de temperatura e de precipitação durante 35 anos em 20 estações meteorológicas do IAPAR, no Estado do Paraná. O objetivo é contribuir para estudos sobre avaliação de impactos e vulnerabilidade climática, requeridos para elaborar estratégias de adaptação às mudanças climáticas. Inicialmente as climatologias de temperatura do ar e de precipitação no Estado são revisitas. Com relação às tendências de extremos climáticos, os resultados dos indicadores associados à temperatura apontam para um padrão de aquecimento generalizado estatisticamente significativo em grande parte do Paraná. A porcentagem de dias e noites quentes no Estado aumentou consideravelmente a uma taxa de 0,1 a 0,4 %/ano entre 1976 e 2010. As médias anuais das temperaturas mínimas e máximas indicam uma elevação em quase todo o Paraná em torno de +0,02°C/ano no mesmo período. Os indicadores de temperatura mínima apresentam tendências de aumento mais significativas que os de temperatura máxima. Por outro lado, a maior parte dos indicadores de extremos climáticos associados à precipitação não apresenta significância estatística, com exceção de alguns poucos em distintas regiões do Estado. Destes, destacam-se apenas as tendências de elevação nos períodos secos (+0,25 mm/ano em Pato Branco e Planalto no sudoeste do Paraná e de redução das chuvas fortes (-0,5 mm/ano em Cambará, Ibiporã e Umuarama no norte do Estado.

  8. Combined treatment with octreotide LAR and pegvisomant in patients with pituitary gigantism: clinical evaluation and genetic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangupli, Ruth; Rostomyan, Liliya; Castermans, Emilie; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Camperos, Paul; Krivoy, Jaime; Cuauro, Elvia; Bours, Vincent; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare condition caused by growth hormone secreting hypersecretion, usually by a pituitary tumor. Acromegaly and gigantism cases that have a genetic cause are challenging to treat, due to large tumor size and poor responses to some medical therapies (e.g. AIP mutation affected cases and those with X-linked acrogigantism syndrome). We performed a retrospective study to identify gigantism cases among 160 somatotropinoma patients treated between 1985 and 2015 at the University Hospital of Caracas, Venezuela. We studied clinical details at diagnosis, hormonal responses to therapy and undertook targeted genetic testing. Among the 160 cases, eight patients (six males; 75 %) were diagnosed with pituitary gigantism and underwent genetic analysis that included array comparative genome hybridization for Xq26.3 duplications. All patients had GH secreting pituitary macroadenomas that were difficult to control with conventional treatment options, such as surgery or primary somatostatin receptor ligand (SRL) therapy. Combined therapy (long-acting SRL and pegvisomant) as primary treatment or after pituitary surgery and radiotherapy permitted the normalization of IGF-1 levels and clinical improvement. Novel AIP mutations were the found in three patients. None of the patients had Xq26.3 microduplications. Treatment of pituitary gigantism is frequently challenging; delayed control increases the harmful effects of GH excess, such as, excessive stature and symptom burden, so early diagnosis and effective treatment are particularly important in these cases.

  9. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity “Pituitary gigantism: Update on Molecular Biology and Management”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an update on the mechanisms leading to pituitary gigantism, as well as to familiarize the practitioner with the implication of these genetic findings on treatment decisions. Recent findings Prior studies have identified gigantism as a feature of a number of monogenic disorders, including mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene, multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 4, McCune Albright Syndrome, Carney Complex, and the paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma and pituitary adenoma association (3PA) due to succinate dehydrogenase defects. We recently described a previously uncharacterized form of early-onset pediatric gigantism caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 and we termed it X-LAG (X-linked acrogigantism). The age of onset of increased growth in X-LAG is significantly younger than other pituitary gigantism cases, and control of growth hormone excess is particularly challenging. Summary Knowledge of the molecular defects that underlie pituitary tumorigenesis is crucial for patient care as they guide early intervention, screening for associated conditions, genetic counseling, surgical approach (partial or total hypophysectomy), and choice of medical management. Recently described microduplications of Xq26.3 account for more than 80% of the cases of early-onset pediatric gigantism. Early recognition of X-LAG may improve outcomes, as successful control of growth hormone excess requires extensive anterior pituitary resection and are difficult to manage with medical therapy alone. PMID:26574647

  10. VICHADA: LA HOSPITALIDAD DEL ORINOCO. Pag. 150-157

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmer Velandia

    2013-01-01

    Donde el cielo y la sabana se unen en el infinito, se vislumbra una sola montaña en la lejanía, parece un gigante, antiguo y oscuro al final de la inmensidad un “Tepuye”, después de unas cuantas horas de camino se acerca este gran anciano que data del precámbrico, pero no está solo. Se observan algunos compañeros iguales a él, se podrían considerar como los guardianes del imponente y hermoso Orinoko, considerado en lengua Sikuani como la gran serpiente enroscada acompañada de una gran riqueza...

  11. Coexisting diseases modifying each other’s presentation - lack of growth failure in Turner syndrome due to the associated pituitary gigantism

    OpenAIRE

    Dragović Tamara; Đuran Zorana; Jelić Svetlana; Marinković Dejan; Kiković Saša; Kuzmić-Janković Snežana; Hajduković Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Turner syndrome presents with one of the most frequent chromosomal aberrations in female, typically presented with growth retardation, ovarian insufficiency, facial dysmorphism, and numerous other somatic stigmata. Gigantism is an extremely rare condition resulting from an excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion that occurs during childhood before the fusion of epiphyseal growth plates. The major clinical feature of gigantism is growth acceler...

  12. Células de Circulação Meridional Durante os Eventos Extremos de Gelo Marinho Antártico

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenedo, Camila Bertoletti; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2016-01-01

    Resumo Como a borda do gelo marinho antártico está localizada em uma região muito sensível, sob a Frente Polar Antártica, existe um grande potencial da variabilidade do gelo marinho afetar a circulação atmosférica. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as possíveis relações entre os eventos extremos de gelo marinho antártico e as células de circulação meridional no Pacífico Sudeste, região onde há intensa variabilidade em várias escalas de tempo. Os resultados mostram que quando há ev...

  13. O RESGATE HISTÓRICO NA GASTRONOMIA: Um Elemento de Contribuição ao Fomento Turístico no Extremo Sul Catarinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Ervin Eltermann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende desenvolver a discussão em torno do resgate gastronômico como inspiração para o desenvolvimento da formação cultural. Pretende-se, a partir do olhar histórico, resgatar a cultura de alimentos do Extremo Sul Catarinense, como a minestra, a galinha com polenta, a solda de ovos e o pirão de peixe, essenciais na sobrevivência de algumas famílias e ligados emocionalmente aos cidadãos mais antigos do município. Procurou-se, portanto, a partir de entrevistas, perceber quais os pratos mais importantes da cultura gastronômica local e, promover o debate em torno da necessidade de empreendedores do ramo da gastronomia voltar a oferta-los na região.

  14. Integração de modelos espaciais e temporais para predições de níveis freáticos extremos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lilla Manzione

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar cenários de níveis freáticos extremos, em bacia hidrográfica, por meio de métodos de análise espacial de dados geográficos. Avaliou-se a dinâmica espaço‑temporal dos recursos hídricos subterrâneos em área de afloramento do Sistema Aquífero Guarani. As alturas do lençol freático foram estimadas por meio do monitoramento de níveis em 23 piezômetros e da modelagem das séries temporais disponíveis de abril de 2004 a abril de 2011. Para a geração de cenários espaciais, foram utilizadas técnicas geoestatísticas que incorporaram informações auxiliares relativas a padrões geomorfológicos da bacia, por meio de modelo digital de terreno. Esse procedimento melhorou as estimativas, em razão da alta correlação entre altura do lençol e elevação, e agregou sentido físico às predições. Os cenários apresentaram diferenças quanto aos níveis considerados extremos - muito profundos ou muito superficiais - e podem subsidiar o planejamento, o uso eficiente da água e a gestão sustentável dos recursos hídricos na bacia.

  15. Confiabilidade da análise qualitativa da ressonância magnética do encéfalo em prematuros extremos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Dietz Furtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade da análise visual qualitativa dos achados de imagem de ressonância magnética (RM em recém-nascidos prematuros extremos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de 45 recém-nascidos de idade gestacional de 30 semanas ou menos foram inseridos neste estudo. Dois neurorradiologistas, cegos quanto aos dados clínicos, avaliaram de forma independente as RMs de crânio em relação aos seguintes achados: presença de hipersinal difuso e excessivo (DEHSI, dilatação dos ventrículos laterais, hemorragia intracraniana, áreas de sinal anormal em núcleos da base e córtex, áreas de aspecto cístico, deformidades ventriculares, dilatação do espaço subaracnóideo, leucoencefalomalácia precoce e anormalidades corticais. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e um pacientes (91,1% apresentaram exame de RM anormal. Os achados mais comuns foram DEHSI (75,6% e dilatação dos ventrículos (42,2%. A concordância interobservadores entre os dois experientes neurorradiologistas foi alta (κ > 0,60 para a maioria das alterações detectadas pela RM. O valor de kappa foi moderado (κ = 0,52 para alargamento do espaço subaracnoide e fraco (κ = 0,39 para DEHSI na substância branca. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação qualitativa da maioria dos achados de imagem por RM de neonatos prematuros extremos foi considerada confiável, entretanto, a presença de DEHSI na substância branca demonstrou um grau de confiabilidade menor

  16. Tendências anuais e sazonais nos extremos de temperatura do ar e precipitação em campina grande - pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydson Galvíncio Dantas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Devido à rápida expansão urbana e potencial turístico da região, o objetivo deste estudo foi a obtenção da distribuição temporal dos índices de extremos climáticos dependentes de dados diários de temperatura e precipitação, definido pela OMM, para o período de 1975 a 2011, e utilizando os testes estatísticos não paramétricos obter a magnitude das tendências dos referidos índices para a cidade de Campina Grande - PB. Os resultados mostram que as temperaturas mínimas e máxima diárias têm aumentado gradativamente ao longo das últimas décadas, apresentando tendências sazonais crescentes ao longo dos anos e que as temperaturas mínimas tiveram maior aumento. O número de dias e noites quentes por ano tem aumentado, proporcionando assim uma redução significativa dos dias e noites frias. Foi observado que as temperaturas mínimas e máximas apresentam maiores tendências de aumento nas estações do outono e primavera, respectivamente. Baseado nos índices extremos de precipitação, mesmo sem significância estatística, foi observado que as chuvas intensas tendem a aumentar, ocorrendo em um período menor de tempo.

  17. The effect on infection of irradiated fasciola gigantic (liver flukes) on goats (Capra hircus linn) blood values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuasikal, BJ.; M-Arifin; Yusneti; Dinardi; Suhardono

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of infection Fasciola gigantic irradiated by using 60 Co to goat’s blood values. Twenty local male goats, ten to twelve old months, 115-20 kg of body weight were used for this study. The animals were divided into 5 groups consisting of four replications. Three groups received irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantic a using 45, 55 and 65 Gy respectively. One group in the positive control and another one is the negative control. Each goat received 350 metacercariae. The study in was undertaken for 25 weeks. Body weight, Eosinofil, PCV and Hb were measured. These indicated that infectivity reduced on irradiated Fasciola gigantic. In all parameters, among negative control group and three irradiation-groups showed non significant (p>0,05). (author)

  18. Immune response of cattle against fasciolopsis induced by inoculation of irradiated metacercariae of fasciola gigantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M-Arifin

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the immune response of cattle against fasciolopsis induced by inoculation of irradiated metacercariae of F. gigantic. Four groups of experimental cattle were used e.g: the first group (Vp) were inoculated by the unirradiated metacercariae as a positive control, the second group (Vi) were once inoculated with irradiated metacercariae and then challenged with the infected metacercariae three weeks later, the third group (Vii) were twice inoculated with irradiated metacercariae and then challenged with the infected metacercariae three weeks later, while the forth group (Vn), the negative control without any inoculation of metacercariae. Irradiation dose of 45 Gy was used, and each experimental animal received 700 live’s metacercariae of F. gigantic. The immune response towards fasciolopsis in cattle has been observed in the development of body weight, the number of red blood cells (RBC), the number of white blood cells (WBC), level of haemoglobin (Hb), percentages of Packed cell volume (PCV), the number of eosinophil cells, serological test by ELISA, pathology anatomic inspection and evaluation of the development of worm.The average every measurement of body weight development are Vp = 6 kg, Vi = 9 kg, Vii = 9 kg and Vn = 10 kg. The group of Vi, Vii and Vn were normal of their heart, but the group of Vp was disorder. The group of Vi, Vii and Vn were negative of adult worm’s, while the group of Vp was positive of adult worm’s. These results showed that inoculation of irradiated metacercariae F. gigantic could stimulate good immune response which was able to protect against the infectivity of the challenge in cattle. (author)

  19. Clinical and genetic characterization of pituitary gigantism: an international collaborative study in 208 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Petrossians, Patrick; Nachev, Emil; Lila, Anurag R; Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Lecumberri, Beatriz; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Salvatori, Roberto; Moraitis, Andreas G; Holdaway, Ian; Kranenburg-van Klaveren, Dianne J; Chiara Zatelli, Maria; Palacios, Nuria; Nozieres, Cecile; Zacharin, Margaret; Ebeling, Tapani; Ojaniemi, Marja; Rozhinskaya, Liudmila; Verrua, Elisa; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Filipponi, Silvia; Gusakova, Daria; Pronin, Vyacheslav; Bertherat, Jerome; Belaya, Zhanna; Ilovayskaya, Irena; Sahnoun-Fathallah, Mona; Sievers, Caroline; Stalla, Gunter K; Castermans, Emilie; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Sorkina, Ekaterina; Auriemma, Renata Simona; Mittal, Sachin; Kareva, Maria; Lysy, Philippe A; Emy, Philippe; De Menis, Ernesto; Choong, Catherine S; Mantovani, Giovanna; Bours, Vincent; De Herder, Wouter; Brue, Thierry; Barlier, Anne; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M; Zacharieva, Sabina; Chanson, Philippe; Shah, Nalini Samir; Stratakis, Constantine A; Naves, Luciana A; Beckers, Albert

    2015-10-01

    Despite being a classical growth disorder, pituitary gigantism has not been studied previously in a standardized way. We performed a retrospective, multicenter, international study to characterize a large series of pituitary gigantism patients. We included 208 patients (163 males; 78.4%) with growth hormone excess and a current/previous abnormal growth velocity for age or final height >2 s.d. above country normal means. The median onset of rapid growth was 13 years and occurred significantly earlier in females than in males; pituitary adenomas were diagnosed earlier in females than males (15.8 vs 21.5 years respectively). Adenomas were ≥10 mm (i.e., macroadenomas) in 84%, of which extrasellar extension occurred in 77% and invasion in 54%. GH/IGF1 control was achieved in 39% during long-term follow-up. Final height was greater in younger onset patients, with larger tumors and higher GH levels. Later disease control was associated with a greater difference from mid-parental height (r=0.23, P=0.02). AIP mutations occurred in 29%; microduplication at Xq26.3 - X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) - occurred in two familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds and in ten sporadic patients. Tumor size was not different in X-LAG, AIP mutated and genetically negative patient groups. AIP-mutated and X-LAG patients were significantly younger at onset and diagnosis, but disease control was worse in genetically negative cases. Pituitary gigantism patients are characterized by male predominance and large tumors that are difficult to control. Treatment delay increases final height and symptom burden. AIP mutations and X-LAG explain many cases, but no genetic etiology is seen in >50% of cases. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. The parasitic castration and gigantism of Lymnaea truncatula infected with the larval stages of Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R A; Denison, J

    1980-01-01

    The shells of Lymnaea truncatula infected with the larval stages of Fasciola hepatica were significantly longer than those of comparable uninfected controls. The dry mass (tissue, shell + parasite) of the same infected snails, 56 days after infection, was approximately twice that of the controls (tissue + shell). The increased mass of infected snails was not due to a disproportionate increase in shell weight relative to tissues. Infected snails maintained at 20 degrees C had virtually ceased egg production by 21 days post-infection whereas control snails continued to lay eggs steadily for the duration of the experiment. The dry mass of snail tissue plus the cumulative dry weight of eggs produced was taken as an indication of the ability of control snails to generate biomass. Similarly the tissue mass plus cumulative egg weight and parasite weight was taken as an indication of the ability of the infected snails to generate biomass. The control and infected snails were not significantly different in this respect indicating that the gigantism of infected snails could be the result of a switch in nutrient supply from reproduction to somatic tissue growth and parasite growth. Castration was brought about 17-21 days after infection as a result of the direct consumption of the ovotestis by a proportion of the redial population. In a separate experiment it was demonstrated that a population of infected snails maintained at 20 degrees C survived as long as a similar group of control snails. The findings with this host-parasite system are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms causing castration and gigantism in other digene-snail interactions, and in relation to parasitic castration in other groups. It is concluded that the observed gigantism of infected snails is more likely to have a nutritional rather than endocrine origin.

  1. Unusual AIP mutation and phenocopy in the family of a young patient with acromegalic gigantism

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ali Imran; Khaled A Aldahmani; Lynette Penney; Sidney E Croul; David B Clarke; Donato Iacovazzo; Márta Korbonits

    2018-01-01

    Summary Early-onset acromegaly causing gigantism is often associated with aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting receptor protein (AIP) mutation, especially if there is a positive family history. A15y male presented with tiredness and visual problems. He was 201 cm tall with a span of 217 cm. He had typical facial features of acromegaly, elevated IGF-1, secondary hypogonadism and a large macroadenoma. His paternal aunt had a history of acromegaly presenting at the age of 35 years. Following transspheno...

  2. Bariones y gravitones gigantes en el marco de la correspondencia AdS/CFT

    OpenAIRE

    Picos Sol, Marco Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Se construyen y analizan dos tipos de configuraciones que pueden construirse en el espacio dual a la teoría ABJM (en la dualidad AdS_4/CFT_3): gravitones gigantes y vértices bariónicos. Ambas configuraciones hacen uso de la posibilidad de enrrollar branas en ciclos topológicamente no triviales en el lado gravitatorio de la dualidad. Los vértices bariónicos están formados por branas enrrolladas atadas a cuerdas que se extienden hasta la frontera de AdS, y son vistos desde el lado gauge com...

  3. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  4. Gigantic uniaxial pressure effect in single crystals of iron-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Yui, H.; Sasagawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    In order to elucidate the anisotropic pressure effect on superconductivity in an iron-based superconductor, magnetization measurements have been performed in Ba(Fe 0.92 Co 0.08 ) 2 As 2 single crystals under uniaxial pressures applied along the c-axis. Gigantic T c suppression, dT c /dP //c = -15 K/GPa, was observed when the anisotropic deformation with the a-expansion and c-compression was induced by the c-pressure, which should be compared with dT c /dP c .

  5. Gigantic uphill drift of vacancies and self-interstitials in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronkov, V.V.; Falster, R.

    2009-01-01

    Point defect transport in a growing crystal includes a drift along the temperature gradient, G, at a velocity αG. It was not clear if the drift is negligible or strong in silicon crystal growth. It is now found that reported microdefect patterns in crystals grown with a temporarily halt provide a clear evidence in favour of a strong (even gigantic) drift of both kinds of intrinsic point defects. The drift coefficients α V (for vacancies) and α I (for self-interstitials) are deduced by fitting the simulating defect profiles to the observed location of halt-induced interstitial region immersed into a vacancy-type crystal.

  6. Relación del burnout y el engagement con depresión, ansiedad y rendimiento académico en estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Caballero Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar las relaciones entre burnout y engagement con ansiedad, depresión y rendimiento académico en estudiantes universitarios de programas de salud. Materiales y métodos: El diseño fue observacional, correlacional, multivariado; la muestra, aleatoria y estratificada, de 802 estudiantes de programas de salud de universidades de Barranquilla. Instrumentos: MBISS, UWES-S, STAI e Inventario de Depresión de Beck. Resultados: El análisis de las correspondencias múltiples entre las variables evidenció un factor conformado principalmente por las dimensiones de Vigor, Absorción, Dedicación e Ineficacia Académica, cuyo extremo negativo se relacionaba con bajo engagement y altos niveles de burnout, ineficacia académica, depresión y de ansiedad de rasgo y de estado; el extremo positivo, con alto engagement, buen rendimiento académico y baja ineficacia, depresión y ansiedad de rasgo y de estado. Conclusiones: En la muestra estudiada, el burnout y el engagement académicos se identificaron relacionados como polos extremos y opuestos de un mismo continuo multidimensional, en el que tanto el polo del burnout como el del engagement se configuran por valores esperados de las variables estudiadas pero opuestos al del polo contrario.

  7. Extreme Value Theory: An Application to the Peruvian Stock Market Returns || Teoría de valores extremos: una aplicación a los retornos bursátiles peruanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using daily observations of the index and stock market returns for the Peruvian case from January 3, 1990 to May 31, 2013, this paper models the distribution of daily loss probability, estimates maximum quantiles and tail probabilities of this distribution, and models the extremes through a maximum threshold. This is used to obtain the better measurements of the Value at Risk (VaR and the Expected Short-Fall (ES at 95% and 99%. One of the results on calculating the maximum annual block of the negative stock market returns is the observation that the largest negative stock market return (daily is 12.44% in 2011. The shape parameter is equal to -0.020 and 0.268 for the annual and quarterly block, respectively. Then, in the first case we have that the non-degenerate distribution function is Gumbel-type. In the other case, we have a thick-tailed distribution (Fréchet. Estimated values of the VaR and the ES are higher using the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD in comparison with the Normal distribution and the differences at 99.0% are notable. Finally, the non-parametric estimation of the Hill tail-index and the quantile for negative stock market returns shows quite instability. || Usando observaciones diarias del índice y los retornos bursátiles para el caso Peruano desde el 3 de enero de 1990 hasta el 31 de mayo de 2013, este documento modela la distribución de las probabilidades de pérdidas diarias, estima los cuantiles máximos y las colas de la distribución y finalmente, modela los valores extremos usando un umbral máximo. Todo esto es usado para obtener una mejor medida del valor en riesgo (VaR y de la pérdida esperada (ES al 95% y 99% de confianza. Uno de los resultados de calcular el bloque máximo anual de los retornos bursátiles negativos es la observación que el retorno bursátil más negativo (diario es 12.44% en el 2011. El parámetro de forma es igual a -0.020 y 0.268 para los bloques anuales y trimestrales

  8. Influencia de variables organizacionales en la calidad de vida laboral de funcionarios del sector público de salud en el extremo norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Zapata, Daniel; Universidad de Tarapaca-Chile; Peralta Montecinos, Jennifer; Universidad de Tarapacá; Fernández-Davila Jara, Paula; Universidad de Tarapacá

    2013-01-01

    En el presente estudio se describe la calidad de vida laboral y su relación con el clima organizacional, la satisfacción laboral y el engagement en funcionarios de organizaciones públicas de salud de la ciudad de Arica, Chile. Participaron 142 sujetos de ambos sexos. Se utilizaron el Inventario de Calidad de Vida Laboral, el Inventario de Clima Organizacional, el Cuestionario de Satisfacción Laboral S21/26 y el Cuestionario de Engagement. Los resultados muestran una relación significativa ent...

  9. Avance de la interpretación Geotectónica del emplazamiento del plutón granítico de Madridejos (Toledo, basada en determinaciones gravimétricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berjamín, J. F.

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available The outcrops and subsurface geometry of Madridejos granitic body, has been studied using gravimetric and geological methods.
    This pluton is emplaced in a border of Urda-Consuegra antiform, this structure is high modification in the border where the pluton is emplaced.

    En función de datos gravimétricos y geológicos se establecen los límites del plutón granítico de Madridejos, tanto superficialmente como en profundidad.
    Este plutón se aloja en un extremo del domo de Urda-Consuegra, estructura a la que modifica sustancialmente.

  10. Caracterización estructural de anticlinales en el extremo sur de la Cordillera Oriental, provincia de Salta, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    El estudio de las características mesoestructurales presentes en anticlinales y sinclinales que conforman grandes sistemas fallados y plegados, permite entender los procesos de deformación que tuvieron lugar durante la evolución de la estructura en particular, y a una escala mayor, clarificar la historia cinemática del sistema fallado y plegado, siendo esta información sumamente importante ya que éstas estructuras sirven como análogos de reservorios de hidrocarburos en subsuelo. En ...

  11. A novel neonatal Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome with craniosynostosis and gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižbrahim Akalin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome is a rare congenital disorder and characterized clinically well defined multiple ring shaped skin creases. Our patient was born to onconsanguineous healthy parents as the third child of the family at 40 weeks of uneventful gestation with distinctive skin creases and gigantism. He was 4,950 g in weight (>90 percentile, 57.5 cm in length (>90 percentile, and had a head circumferences of 39.5 cm (>90 percentile at birth. The physical examination showed a rough face, brachicephaly and craniosynostosis. His vital and laboratory findings were within normal limits at birth. Cranial and renal ultrasonograms, Xray graphics and cytogenetic analyses were normal. Echocardiography revealed small patent ductus arteriosis and patent foramen ovale. In this report, we present a new case of Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome who is the first neonate associated with severe gigantism and craniosynostosis, in the literature. A review of the related literature has also been presented.

  12. Pegvisomant treatment in gigantism caused by a growth hormone-secreting giant pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssig, K; Gallwitz, B; Honegger, J; Strasburger, C J; Bidlingmaier, M; Machicao, F; Bornemann, A; Ranke, M B; Häring, H-U; Petersenn, S

    2007-03-01

    Gigantism is rare with the majority of cases caused by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. Treatment options for GH-secreting pituitary adenomas have been widened with the availability of long-acting dopamine agonists, depot preparations of somatostatin analogues, and recently the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant. A 23-year-old male patient presented with continuous increase in height during the past 6 years due to a GH-secreting giant pituitary adenoma. Because of major intracranial extension and failure of octreotide treatment to shrink the tumour, the tumour was partially resected by a trans-frontal surgical approach. At immunohistochemistry, the tumour showed a marked expression of GH and a sparsely focal expression of prolactin. Somatostatin receptors (sst) 1-5 were not detected. Tumour tissue weakly expressed dopamine receptor type 2. The Gs alpha subunit was intact. Conversion from somatostatin analogue to pegvisomant normalized insulin-like-growth-factor-I (IGF-I) levels and markedly improved glucose tolerance. Pegvisomant is a potent treatment option in patients with pituitary gigantism. In patients who do not respond to somatostatin analogues, knowledge of the SST receptor status may shorten the time to initiation of pegvisomant treatment.

  13. Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Ng, Sohching; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chen-Nen; Chou, Chi-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Chih-Hua; Lin, Jen-Der

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is seldom described in young patients with pituitary gigantism. Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old Taiwanese boy who developed depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the presentation of pituitary gigantism. The boy complained of lethargy and dysphoric mood in June 2008. He presented at the emergency department with epigastralgia and dyspnea in January 2009. Results of laboratory tests suggested type 1 diabetes mellitus with DKA. However, serum C-peptide level was normal on follow-up. Although he had no obvious features of acral enlargement, a high level of insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected, and a 75 g oral glucose suppression test showed no suppression of serum growth hormone levels. A pituitary macroadenoma was found on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging. The pituitary adenoma was surgically removed, followed by gamma-knife radiosurgery, and Sandostatin long-acting release treatment. He was then administered metformin, 500 mg twice daily, and to date, his serum glycohemoglobin has been <7%.

  14. Long-term effects of octreotide on pituitary gigantism: its analgesic action on cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Fumio; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Ogura, Toshio; Sato, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masataka; Makino, Hirofumi

    2004-10-01

    We report the case of 19-year-old man with pituitary gigantism due to growth hormone-producing pituitary macroadenoma. The patient complained of recurrent headache and excessive growth spurt since age 15. Octreotide administration was initiated following transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy. Octreotide injection for 4 years efficaciously reduced the size of remnant adenoma as well as serum growth hormone levels. Notably, octreotide exhibited a potent analgesic effect on his intractable cluster headache that has continued even after reduction of the adenoma volume. The analgesic effect lasted 2 to 6 hours after each injection and no tachyphylaxis to octreotide appeared during 4-year treatment. To characterize the headache and the pain intensity, analgesic drugs including octreotide, lidocaine, morphine and thiopental were tested using a visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluation, with the result that octreotide exhibited a prompt and complete disappearance of the headache. Headache relief was in part reproduced by morphine injection (56% reduction) but not by lidocaine or thiopental. The present case suggests that the intractable headache associated with pituitary gigantism is possibly related to the endogenous opioid system. Thus, the headache control by octreotide is clinically helpful for continuation of the self-injection regimen.

  15. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

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    Otto Seppälä

    Full Text Available Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability. We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability.

  16. Gigantic negative magnetoresistance in the bulk of a disordered topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Oliver; Wang, Zhiwei; Taskin, A. A.; Lux, Jonathan; Rosch, Achim; Ando, Yoichi

    2017-05-01

    With the recent discovery of Weyl semimetals, the phenomenon of negative magnetoresistance (MR) is attracting renewed interest. Large negative MR is usually related to magnetism, but the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals is a rare exception. Here we report a mechanism for large negative MR which is also unrelated to magnetism but is related to disorder. In the nearly bulk-insulating topological insulator TlBi0.15Sb0.85Te2, we observed gigantic negative MR reaching 98% in 14 T at 10 K, which is unprecedented in a nonmagnetic system. Supported by numerical simulations, we argue that this phenomenon is likely due to the Zeeman effect on a barely percolating current path formed in the disordered bulk. Since disorder can also lead to non-saturating linear MR in Ag2+δSe, the present finding suggests that disorder engineering in narrow-gap systems is useful for realizing gigantic MR in both positive and negative directions.

  17. Gigantic negative magnetoresistance in the bulk of a disordered topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Oliver; Wang, Zhiwei; Taskin, A A; Lux, Jonathan; Rosch, Achim; Ando, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    With the recent discovery of Weyl semimetals, the phenomenon of negative magnetoresistance (MR) is attracting renewed interest. Large negative MR is usually related to magnetism, but the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals is a rare exception. Here we report a mechanism for large negative MR which is also unrelated to magnetism but is related to disorder. In the nearly bulk-insulating topological insulator TlBi0.15Sb0.85Te2, we observed gigantic negative MR reaching 98% in 14 T at 10 K, which is unprecedented in a nonmagnetic system. Supported by numerical simulations, we argue that this phenomenon is likely due to the Zeeman effect on a barely percolating current path formed in the disordered bulk. Since disorder can also lead to non-saturating linear MR in Ag2+δSe, the present finding suggests that disorder engineering in narrow-gap systems is useful for realizing gigantic MR in both positive and negative directions. PMID:28541291

  18. Nevus melanocítico intradérmico congénito gigante. "El niño tortuga (testudines": Caso clínico Giant congenital melanocytic nevus. "Turtle boy": Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Arango Ospina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 2 años de edad, conocido en su pueblo, como "el niño tortuga (testudines" debido a la gran similitud con dicho reptil. Desde su nacimiento presentó nevus melanocítico gigante localizado en región torácica posterior, región lumbosacra y lesiones satélites en extremidades y abdomen, de 50 por 40cm de diámetro y color café oscuro; la piel en las zonas afectadas es gruesa con grandes surcos de aspecto corrugado (cerebriforme. El nombre dado al niño se basa en la similitud de sus lesiones con la morfología de una tortuga, ya que el caparazón cubre la zona superior, inferior y lateral del cuerpo de este animal, de la misma forma que el nevus gigante lo hacía en el caso de nuestro paciente. Este caparazón está formado por placas óseas revestidas de placas corneas, que se asemejan a los surcos de aspecto corrugado que conforman el nevus melanocítico gigante. Los estudios clínicos practicados revelaron compromiso cardiovascular, hepático y esplénico, así como una desfavorable evolución y pronostico del cuadro clínico, por lo que esta patología, específicamente para este niño y de acuerdo a la junta Médico-Quirúrgica y valoraciones, fue considerada inoperable.We present the case of a 2 years-old patient, known in his town as "turtle boy"(testudines due to his great simility with this reptile because of his giant congenital melanocytic nevus, located in the posterior and lateral aspect of the chest and in smaller proportion in abdomen and extremities, of 50 by 40cm and dark brown colour. The skin in this zone is thick with great furrows and corrugated aspect. He was called "turtle boy" based on the morphology of the turtle, its shell covers the superior, inferior and lateral zone like in our patient's case. It is formed by bone layers covered by cornea layers, which resemble the furrows and corrugated aspect of the giant congenital melanocytic nevus. Medical investigation reveals

  19. Cardiac and metabolic effects of chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in young adults with pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondanelli, Marta; Bonadonna, Stefania; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Doga, Mauro; Gola, Monica; Onofri, Alessandro; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Giustina, Andrea; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2005-09-01

    Chronic growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) excess is associated with considerable mortality in acromegaly, but no data are available in pituitary gigantism. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effects of early exposure to GH and IGF-I excess on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in adult patients with pituitary gigantism. Six adult male patients with newly diagnosed gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary adenoma were studied and compared with 6 age- and sex-matched patients with acromegaly and 10 healthy subjects. Morphologic and functional cardiac parameters were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Glucose metabolism was assessed by evaluating glucose tolerance and homeostasis model assessment index. Disease duration was significantly longer (Pgigantism than in patients with acromegaly, whereas GH and IGF-I concentrations were comparable. Left ventricular mass was increased both in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, as compared with controls. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 2 of 6 of both patients with gigantism and patients with acromegaly, and isolated intraventricular septum thickening in 1 patient with gigantism. Inadequate diastolic filling (ratio between early and late transmitral flow velocitygigantism and 1 of 6 patients with acromegaly. Impaired glucose metabolism occurrence was higher in patients with acromegaly (66%) compared with patients with gigantism (16%). Concentrations of IGF-I were significantly (Pgigantism who have cardiac abnormalities than in those without cardiac abnormalities. In conclusion, our data suggest that GH/IGF-I excess in young adult patients is associated with morphologic and functional cardiac abnormalities that are similar in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, whereas occurrence of impaired glucose metabolism appears to be higher in patients with acromegaly, although patients with gigantism are exposed to GH excess for a

  20. Calibração do modelo regional BRAMS para a previsão de eventos climáticos extremos

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    Julliana Larise M. Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As previsões climáticas sazonais têm contribuído efetivamente para o planejamento de atividades de diversos setores da sociedade, tais como, energia, agricultura e saúde. A necessidade de um maior detalhamento das previsões, através da diminuição da escala espacial da informação climática, tem concentrado nos últimos anos esforços científicos em várias regiões do globo. A aplicação da técnica de redução de escala através da modelagem dinâmica regional, conhecida como downscaling dinâmico, vem sendo utilizada com esse objetivo. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo calibrar e avaliar o modelo regional BRAMS, aninhado unidirecionalmente ao modelo global MCGA/CPTEC, em prever os eventos climáticos extremos de 1983 (El Niño e 1989 (La Niña sobre a América do Sul (AS, para o trimestre março-abril-maio (MAM. As previsões com o BRAMS foram produzidas na resolução espacial de 30 km, tendo como condições de contorno a temperatura da superfície do mar persistida e a umidade do solo climatológica. Após o processo de calibração, o modelo BRAMS conseguiu capturar o padrão de precipitação associada aos eventos climáticos extremos, como a redução (aumento da precipitação principalmente no leste da região Norte e Nordeste do Brasil e o aumento (redução de precipitação na região Sul para o ano e 1983 (1989.

  1. Evento extremo de chuva-vazão na bacia hidrográfica do rio Araguari, Amapá, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cavalcanti da Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da investigação foi analisar vazões extremas ocorridas entre 9 e 14 de abril de 2011 na bacia do Rio Araguari-AP. A metodologia consistiu de três etapas principais: 1 re-análise da precipitação estimada pelo Modelo BRAMS (Brazilian in Development Regional Atmospheric Model System,utilizando como suporte a sinótica do mesmo período; 2 análise de vazão nas seções de monitoramento hidrológico em Porto Platon, Capivara e Serra do Navio (ADCP-Accustic Doppler Profiller Current; 3 análise estatística da série histórica de vazões máximas em Porto Platon utilizando distribuição de Gumbel. Observou-se que o modelo BRAMS capturou parcialmente o padrão do sistema de precipitação quando comparado com a análise sinótica e com os dados da literatura, mas demandando ainda otimização na representação de respostas hidrológicas extremas. Em Porto Platon foi registrada uma vazão recorde de 4036 m3/s, cujo comportamento foi analisado sob a ótica dos mecanismos disponíveis de monitoramento no Estado. Concluiu-se que tais eventos extremos são pouco detectáveis e oferecem riscos consideráveis aos usuários da bacia. A previsão de vazão, baseada na série hidrológica disponível, era de 100 anos de retorno, mas as análises revelaram que este período seria de 360 anos, indicando significativa fragilidade do sistema de previsão de eventos extremos no Estado.

  2. Como minimizar a lesão pulmonar no prematuro extremo: propostas Strategies to minimize lung injury in extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Suguihara

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão das principais causas da nova displasia broncopulmonar e as estratégias utilizadas para diminuir sua incidência nos prematuros extremos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Para essa revisão, pesquisas foram feitas na MEDLINE (1996 a outubro de 2004, no Cochrane Database, em resumos da Society for Pediatric Research e recentes conferências sobre o tema. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A tecnologia e os novos conhecimentos científicos têm aumentado significantemente a sobrevida de prematuros extremos. Esse aumento da sobrevida resultou em aumento da incidência de displasia broncopulmonar. Atualmente, a displasia broncopulmonar é mais freqüentemente observada em recém-nascidos OBJECTIVE: To review the main causes of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the strategies utilized to decrease its incidence in extremely low birth weight infants. DATA SOURCES: For this review a MEDLINE search from 1966 to October 2004, the Cochrane Database, abstracts from the Society for Pediatric Research and recent meetings on the topic were used. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The survival of extremely low birth weight infants has increased significantly due to improvement in both scientific knowledge and technology. This improvement in survival has therefore resulted in an increased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants, the so called "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia are quite different from the classic bronchopulmonary dysplasia described by Northway. This new bronchopulmonary dysplasia has a multifactorial etiology, which includes volutrauma, atelectrauma, oxygen toxicity and lung inflammation. Therapy such as prenatal corticosteroids, exogenous surfactant, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, new mechanical ventilation modalities and gentle ventilation have been used in attempts to decrease lung injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent lung injury in

  3. Familial gigantism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. de Herder (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFamilial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  4. Familial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter W. de Herder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  5. Evaluación, optimización y mejoramiento del sistema operativo de lagunas de estabilización de Ciudad de Dios-San Jose en el departamento de Lambayeque

    OpenAIRE

    Muñico Osorio, Edgard Ruben; Muñico Osorio, Edgard Ruben; Muñico Osorio, Edgard Ruben

    1997-01-01

    El presente Informe de Ingeniería ha sido elaborado para obtener el título de Ingeniero Sanitario, el mismo que está basado en una experiencia real, efectuada desde Febrero de 1996 hasta mediados del año en curso, en la Ciudad de Chiclayo - Dpto. de Lambayeque. Durante el año de 1995, paralelamente a la exitosa gestión de concertación del financiamiento extremo y nacional por la ejecución del estudio definitivo para la ampliación y mejoramiento de los servicios de Agua Potable y Alcantaril...

  6. A Gigantic, Exceptionally Complete Titanosaurian Sauropod Dinosaur from Southern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacovara, Kenneth J.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Ibiricu, Lucio M.; Poole, Jason C.; Schroeter, Elena R.; Ullmann, Paul V.; Voegele, Kristyn K.; Boles, Zachary M.; Carter, Aja M.; Fowler, Emma K.; Egerton, Victoria M.; Moyer, Alison E.; Coughenour, Christopher L.; Schein, Jason P.; Harris, Jerald D.; Martínez, Rubén D.; Novas, Fernando E.

    2014-01-01

    Titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs were the most diverse and abundant large-bodied herbivores in the southern continents during the final 30 million years of the Mesozoic Era. Several titanosaur species are regarded as the most massive land-living animals yet discovered; nevertheless, nearly all of these giant titanosaurs are known only from very incomplete fossils, hindering a detailed understanding of their anatomy. Here we describe a new and gigantic titanosaur, Dreadnoughtus schrani, from Upper Cretaceous sediments in southern Patagonia, Argentina. Represented by approximately 70% of the postcranial skeleton, plus craniodental remains, Dreadnoughtus is the most complete giant titanosaur yet discovered, and provides new insight into the morphology and evolutionary history of these colossal animals. Furthermore, despite its estimated mass of about 59.3 metric tons, the bone histology of the Dreadnoughtus type specimen reveals that this individual was still growing at the time of death. PMID:25186586

  7. Gate-tunable gigantic lattice deformation in VO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, D., E-mail: okuyama@riken.jp, E-mail: nakano@imr.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: iwasa@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hatano, T. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Nakano, M., E-mail: okuyama@riken.jp, E-mail: nakano@imr.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: iwasa@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Takeshita, S.; Ohsumi, H.; Tardif, S. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shibuya, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8562 (Japan); Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Ohashi, H. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takata, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.; Iwasa, Y., E-mail: okuyama@riken.jp, E-mail: nakano@imr.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: iwasa@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Quantum-Phase Electronics Center and Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Arima, T. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    We examined the impact of electric field on crystal lattice of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) in a field-effect transistor geometry by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. Whereas the c-axis lattice parameter of VO{sub 2} decreases through the thermally induced insulator-to-metal phase transition, the gate-induced metallization was found to result in a significant increase of the c-axis length by almost 1% from that of the thermally stabilized insulating state. We also found that this gate-induced gigantic lattice deformation occurs even at the thermally stabilized metallic state, enabling dynamic control of c-axis lattice parameter by more than 1% at room temperature.

  8. Gigantism due to growth hormone excess in a boy with optic glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimmie, F M; MacLennan, A C; Nicoll, J A; Simpson, E; McNeill, E; Donaldson, M D

    2000-10-01

    True gigantism is rare in early childhood and is usually due to excess GH secretion from a pituitary adenoma. We report a case in which the endocrine abnormality is secondary to an optic glioma. Careful endocrine evaluation has shown that GH peak amplitude was not increased but rather there was failure of GH levels to suppress to baseline and a lack of pulsatility. There is no evidence of a direct secretory role for the tumour and we postulate that the tumour is affecting GH secretion through an effect on somatostatin tone. Specific tumour therapy is not indicated for this patient in the absence of mass effect or visual disturbance. The GH excess is being treated with somatostatin analogue (Octreotide) and as he has developed precocious puberty he is also receiving long acting GnRH analogue (Zoladex). This boy appears likely to have neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) which raises the question of subtle GH excess in NF1 patients with tall stature.

  9. The Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism and multiple congenital anomalies. 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Giovanni; Martini-Neri, Maria Enrica; Katz, Ben E; Opitz, John M

    2013-11-01

    The ensuing paper by Professor Giovanni Neri and colleagues was originally published in 1984, American Journal of Medical Genetics 19:195–207. The original article described a new family with a condition that the authors designated as the Perlman syndrome. This disorder, while uncommon, is an important multiple congenital anomaly and dysplasia syndrome; the causative gene was recently identified. This paper is a seminal work and is graciously republished by Wiley-Blackwell in the Special Festschrift issue honoring Professor Neri. We describe a familial syndrome of renal dysplasia, Wilms tumor, hyperplasia of the endocrine pancreas, fetal gigantism, multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. This condition was previously described by Perlman et al. [1973, 1975] and we propose to call it the "Perlman syndrome." It appears to be transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The possible relationships between dysplasia, neoplasia and malformation are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Molecular design of TiO2 for gigantic red shift via sublattice substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guosheng; Deng, Quanrong; Wan, Lin; Guo, Meilan; Xia, Xiaohong; Gao, Yun

    2010-11-01

    The effects of 3d transition metal doping in TiO2 phases have been simulated in detail. The results of modelling indicate that Mn has the biggest potential among 3d transition metals, for the reduction of energy gap and the introduction of effective intermediate bands to allow multi-band optical absorption. On the basis of theoretical formulation, we have incorporated considerable amount of Mn in nano-crystalline TiO2 materials. Mn doped samples demonstrate significant red shift in the optical absorption edge, with a secondary absorption edge corresponding to theoretically predicted intermediate bands/states. The gigantic red shift achievable in Mn-doped TiO2 is expected to extend the useful TiO2 functionalities well beyond the UV threshold via the optical absorption of both visible and infrared photon irradiance.

  11. Cordoma Sacrococcígeo gigante: relato de caso Giant Sacrococcygeal chordoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Leal Ghezzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordoma sacrococcígeo é uma neoplasia maligna rara que se origina de remanescentes da notocorda. A localização crítica, comportamento localmente agressivo, reconhecida resistência à radioterapia, significativa morbimortalidade cirúrgica e elevada taxa de recidiva tornam seu tratamento um desafio. Descrevemos um caso de cordoma sacrococcígeo gigante.Sacrococcygeal chordoma is a rare malignant neoplasm arised from the remmants of the notochord. The critical localization, locally aggressive behavior, well-known resistance to radiation therapy, meaningful surgical morbimortality and increased recurrence rate become its treatment a challenge. We describe a case of a giant unresectable sacrococcygeal chordoma.

  12. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards (Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  13. Gigantic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in the MnBi ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie-Xiang; Zang, Jiadong; Zang's Team

    The magnetic skyrmion, a swirling-like spin texture with nontrivial topology, is driven by strong Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction originated from the spin-orbit coupling in inversion symmetry breaking systems. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we predict a new material, MnBi ultrathin film, with gigantic DM interactions. The ratio of the DM interaction to the Heisenberg exchange is about 0.3, exceeding any values reported so far. Its high Curie temperature, high coercivity, and large perpendicular magnetoanisotropy make MnBi a good candidate for future spintronics studies. Topologically nontrivial spin textures are emergent in this system. We expect further experimental efforts will be devoted into this systems.

  14. Unusual AIP mutation and phenocopy in the family of a young patient with acromegalic gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Imran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-onset acromegaly causing gigantism is often associated with aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting receptor protein (AIP mutation, especially if there is a positive family history. A15y male presented with tiredness and visual problems. He was 201 cm tall with a span of 217 cm. He had typical facial features of acromegaly, elevated IGF-1, secondary hypogonadism and a large macroadenoma. His paternal aunt had a history of acromegaly presenting at the age of 35 years. Following transsphenoidal surgery, his IGF-1 normalized and clinical symptoms improved. He was found to have a novel AIP mutation destroying the stop codon c.991T>C; p.*331R. Unexpectedly, his father and paternal aunt were negative for this mutation while his mother and older sister were unaffected carriers, suggesting that his aunt represents a phenocopy.

  15. Pituitary tumor with gigantism, acromegaly and preclinical Cushing's disease diagnosed from the 10th row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtelot, John B; Vesely, David L

    2013-08-01

    A 7'3" basketball player was noted to have 2 to 3 times thicker tissue in his hands than 6'10" players by an endocrinologist sitting 10 rows above the player in a basketball arena. This led to the diagnosis of pituitary gigantism where the history revealed that he was 7'3" at 15 years of age. At age 19 when the acryl enlargement was noted, a diagnostic workup revealed elevated growth hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) with a 2 × 1.3 cm pituitary tumor. His history suggested that his epiphyseal plates had closed at age 15, and because he continued to produce IGF-1, he now has acromegaly. His elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) before surgery suggests that he also had preclinical Cushing's disease. After pituitary transsphenoidal surgery, all acryl enlargement in hands and ligaments disappeared. His growth hormone, IGF-1 and ACTH returned to normal 2 weeks after surgery.

  16. Early descriptions of acromegaly and gigantism and their historical evolution as clinical entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammis, Antonios; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Liu, James K

    2010-10-01

    Giants have been a subject of fascination throughout history. Whereas descriptions of giants have existed in the lay literature for millennia, the first attempt at a medical description was published by Johannes Wier in 1567. However, it was Pierre Marie, in 1886, who established the term "acromegaly" for the first time and established a distinct clinical diagnosis with clear clinical descriptions in 2 patients with the characteristic presentation. Multiple autopsy findings revealed a consistent correlation between acromegaly and pituitary enlargement. In 1909, Harvey Cushing postulated a “hormone of growth" as the underlying pathophysiological trigger involved in pituitary hypersecretion in patients with acromegaly. This theory was supported by his observations of clinical remission in patients with acromegaly in whom he had performed hypophysectomy. In this paper, the authors present some of the early accounts of acromegaly and gigantism, and describe its historical evolution as a medical and surgical entity.

  17. Deep Invasive Fungal Infection of the Hand in a Child Mimicking a Local Gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Chatterjee, Shamita

    2018-04-01

    Subcutaneous and deep fungal infections in the hand are rare among children. These are usually found in immunocompromised adults or in persons engaged in soil handling activities, due to direct exposure, especially in the tropics. Delay in diagnosis is usual because pyogenic and other granulomatous infections are considered first. The authors present the case of a healthy, immunocompetent 2½-year-old child who presented with progressive swelling of the right hand mimicking a localized gigantism of the entire hand. Multiple operative drainage procedures done previously had failed to resolve the condition. A biopsy established the presence of fungal hyphae, thus confirming the diagnosis of deep fungal infection of the hand and guided proper therapeutic intervention. A strong index of suspicion needs to be maintained in cases not responding to conventional antibacterial therapy, and both microbiologic and histopathologic samples need to be obtained to establish the diagnosis.

  18. Gigantic optical magnetoelectric effect in CuB2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Taniguchi, Kouji; Arima, Taka-hisa

    2008-01-01

    Although it has been well known that materials in which both space inversion and time reversal symmetries are broken can host optical magneto-electric effect, i.e., change in optical constants with the reversal of propagating direction of light, the largest change in absorption ever reported on this effect was 0.2%. Here we show that optical absorption in noncentrosymmetric weak ferromagnetic material CuB 2 O 4 changes by more than 100% with reversal of a low magnetic field of 300 Oe. The gigantic optical magneto-electric effect is ascribed to the canted antiferromagnetic spin ordering of square-coordinated Cu 2+ sites, where the local inversion is slightly broken. (author)

  19. Gigantic spin splitting of exciton states in CdSe:Mn hexagonal crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, A.V.; Ryabchenko, S.M.; Semenov, Yu.G.; Shanina, B.D.; Vitrikhovskij, N.I.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Poluprovodnikov)

    1980-01-01

    Gigantic spin splitting of exciton states in magneto-doped semiconductors is observed for the first time in the CdSe: Mn hexagonal crystal. A theoretical interpretation of some features of the effect due to the anisotropy of the crystal is presented. The parameters of the band structure are determined by comparing with the experiments: Δ 1 =46+-3, Δ 2 =137+-1, Δ 3 =140.6+-0.3 meV. It is shown that in CdSe:Mn just as in cubic semiconductors, exchange interaction with magnetic impurities is ferromagnetic for electrons of the conductivity band and antiferromagnetic for electrons of the valence band. The exchange constants are of the same order of magnetude as those for the CdTe:Mn, ZnTe:Mn and ZnSe:Mn crystals

  20. Origin of gigantic magnetostriction and crystal field effects in terbium dititanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, I.V.; Lidskij, B.V.; Mamsurova, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature and magnetic field dependences of the magnetostriction and magnetization and the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and lattice parameter are investigated experimentally in a broad range of temperature and field strength for polycrystalline and single crystal Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7 . A conclusion is drawn regarding the structure of the energy levels of Tb 3+ in Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7 . A qualitative and quantitative explanation of all observed magnetic effects, and in particular of gigantic magnetostriction in Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7 , is presented which is based on the crystal field theory. It is shown that the huge magnitude of the magnetostriction in terbium dititanate is due to the specificity of the energy spectrum of Tb 3+ in Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7

  1. Giants among larges: how gigantism impacts giant virus entry into amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2016-06-01

    The proposed order Megavirales comprises the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), infecting a wide range of hosts. Over time, they co-evolved with different host cells, developing various strategies to penetrate them. Mimiviruses and other giant viruses enter cells through phagocytosis, while Marseillevirus and other large viruses explore endocytosis and macropinocytosis. These differing strategies might reflect the evolution of those viruses. Various scenarios have been proposed for the origin and evolution of these viruses, presenting one of the most enigmatic issues to surround these microorganisms. In this context, we believe that giant viruses evolved independently by massive gene/size gain, exploring the phagocytic pathway of entry into amoebas. In response to gigantism, hosts developed mechanisms to evade these parasites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Importância dos minerais na alimentação do pré-termo extremo Minerals in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide E. P. Trindade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão crítica da literatura sobre os minerais cálcio, fósforo e microelementos na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando a importância no crescimento, mineralização óssea e como componente de dietas. FONTES DOS DADOS: Utilizamos o banco de dados MEDLINE e o Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, de 1994 a 2004. Selecionamos artigos com enfoques originais, artigos de revisão e livros específicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As dificuldades na nutrição de prematuros extremos aumentam a freqüência de prematuros com restrição de crescimento, cujas conseqüências futuras estão para serem determinadas. Todavia, há pouca literatura sobre minerais, especialmente sobre micronutrientes na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando-se o deficiente armazenamento e a importância destes em nutrição. O principal enfoque desta revisão foi sobre o cálcio e o fósforo na mineralização óssea e na suplementação em nutrição parenteral e enteral, bem como a avaliação crítica da nutrição pós-alta sobre a mineralização óssea. São abordadas as necessidades de micronutrientes, principalmente selênio e zinco, e a função antioxidante do selênio na provável prevenção de doenças do prematuro com atuação de radicais livres. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando os baixos estoques de minerais em prematuros extremos, há necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre minerais na nutrição destes prematuros para definir suas reais necessidades, os aspectos metabólicos, bem como aplicar os conhecimentos na formulação de dietas que permitam prevenir quadros de deficiência e conseqüências a longo prazo. Ainda há controvérsias sobre a influência de fórmulas pós-alta sobre a evolução da doença óssea da prematuridade.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the role of calcium, phosphorus and trace elements in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants, considering their importance for metabolism, bone mineralization

  3. Planejamento Sustentável da expansão do extremo sul do campus da Universidade de Brasí ilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Adriana Bustos Romero

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho mostra os princípios de sustentabilidade adotados no desenho urbano da expansão do extremo sul do campus da UnB que abrigará o Parque Científico e Tecnológico. Partindo da análise de um conjunto de condicionantes ambientais o núcleo estruturador do desenho foi um fragmento de Cerrado almejando a conectividade entre fragmentos maiores, bem como técnicas de infraestrutura verde visando recuperar a ideia original de implantação de Brasília. Lembramos que o projeto original previa o acondicionamento da ocupação à topografia bem como às linhas de drenagem dentro da bacia do Lago Paranoá, distante do lago, para não comprometer a sustentabilidade hídrica da região. A configuração proposta utiliza técnicas de infraestrutura verde e pequenas praças tratadas bioclimaticamente ao longo dos canais de infiltração para reforçar o sentido de vizinhança, ciclovias, adensamento para diminuir os deslocamentos e localização de tipologias altas nas cotas superiores do terreno para não criar barreriras aos ventos predominantes.

  4. Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa) and hyperoxia (36 kPa). We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. Conclusions/Significance These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods. PMID:21818347

  5. Pegvisomant therapy in pituitary gigantism: successful treatment in a 12-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, M; Laurberg, P; Hoejberg, A S; Brock-Jacobsen, B

    2005-08-01

    The use of a growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist, pegvisomant has shown great promise in adults with acromegaly, but experience in paediatric patients is lacking. We aimed to describe the results of pegvisomant therapy in a 12-year-old girl with an aggressive GH-secreting pituitary tumour. To evaluate the ability of pegvisomant therapy to control the effects of peripheral GH excess in a case of pituitary gigantism. Pegvisomant was introduced at 10 mg/day, given subcutaneously, and gradually increased to 20 mg/day until serum IGF-I was normal for age. A large pituitary adenoma with suprasellar extension was diagnosed in a 12-year-old girl with progressive tall stature (178 cm), GH hypersecretion without suppression during oral glucose loading (nadir serum GH, 90 mU/l), high serum IGF-I and serum prolactin levels. Surgical extirpation was not possible because tumour tissue was fibrous and adherent to the optical nerves. Histological examination showed a mixed GH- and prolactin-secreting adenoma with lymphocytic infiltration of B and T cells. Treatment with a dopamine agonist, cabergoline, normalized serum prolactin, but GH secretion was resistant to both somatostatin analogue, octreotide and cabergoline. Radiation followed by pegvisomant therapy titrated up in dose to 20 mg/day led to a marked reduction in GH secretion and normalization of IGF-I, and to growth arrest and improvement of well-being. We suggest that treatment in pituitary gigantism with pegvisomant is safe and may normalize IGF-I levels and effectively stop growing.

  6. Can oxygen set thermal limits in an insect and drive gigantism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilco C E P Verberk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa and hyperoxia (36 kPa. We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods.

  7. El mito de pristinidad y los usos efectivos del territorio de la región de Magallanes, Patagonia Chilena: Forestal, minería y acuicultura

    OpenAIRE

    Inostroza, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Los métodos de clasificación de usos del suelo en regiones remotas presentan dos serias limitaciones. La primera es la mixtura conceptual de usos con coberturas que no refleja el uso efectivo del territorio. Una segunda limitación es la ausencia de usos importantes como turismo, acuicultura y minería, que imponen importantes presiones sobre territorios frágiles. Este trabajo presenta un método para determinar los usos territoriales en la región de Magallanes en el extremo austral de Chile. Se...

  8. Análisis estacional de la frecuencia diaria y la intensidad de los extremos de precipitación sobre el sudeste de Sudamérica Seasonal analysis of daily frequency and extreme intensity of precipitation in the Southeast of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico A. Robledo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se profundiza en el conocimiento de la variabilidad espacial de la precipitación, estudiando la cantidad de días con precipitación y la intensidad media diaria (en milímetros por día, con énfasis en los extremos, definidos a partir de diferentes umbrales. La base de datos utilizada en este trabajo consta de 58 estaciones pluviométricas ubicadas al sudeste de Sudamérica, para la segunda mitad del siglo XX. De noviembre a marzo, dos áreas núcleos centradas en 68º O - 25º S y 45º O - 22º S, presentan más de 50% de días de precipitación por encima de 0,1 mm, mientras que para el resto de la región no se supera el 32%. El patrón de extremos de precipitación, por encima del percentil 75, no muestra grandes diferencias espaciales y estacionales con respecto a los del umbral 0,1mm. Sin embargo la intensidad media diaria de precipitación extrema se incrementa considerablemente con respecto al umbral 0,1mm. En el área núcleo centrada en 45º O - 22º S, la intensidad es de 36 mm/día en verano, y de 20 mm/día en invierno. Mientras que sobre el noroeste de Argentina, supera 38mm/día (8 mm/día en verano (invierno. En la provincia de Buenos Aires la intensidad media diaria extrema de precipitación es de 32mm/día (20mm/día en verano (invierno.In this paper the climatology of the different components that composed the monthly rainfall was actualized and extended. For this purpose, we calculated the frequency of daily rainfall and the mean daily intensity for the second half of the century. 58 stations were used for this study. In addition we calculated the climatology for the daily extreme rainfall and its intensity, defining different thresholds according to the regions. Between November and March, we observed two centers (65º W -25º S and 45º W - 22º S with more than 50% of days with daily rainfall above 0.1 millimeters (mm , and lower values in the rest of the region. Spatial patterns and seasonal variation

  9. A Gray-purple Mass on the Floor of the Mouth: Gigantic Mucogingival Pyogenic Granuloma in a Teenage Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet-LLobet, Lluís; Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Mrina, Ombeni; Nadal, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is defined as a benign neoplasm of vascular phenotype. This case describes the clinical and histopathological features of a gigantic mucogingival pyogenic granuloma, in a 14-year-old healthy black boy. This exophytic gray-purple mass, related to a toothpick injury, had more than twelve-month evolution on the anterior mandible involving lingual area besides to the floor of the mouth pressing the right salivary duct. Conservative excision was performed, followed by uncomplicated healing with no recurrence in two years. The histopathological examination reported a pyogenic granuloma (lobular capillary haemangioma). The authors provide a discussion of the presurgical differential diagnosis of the lesion. This case report presents an extremely uncommon location of a gigantic pyogenic granuloma, involving mucogingival complex and affecting the salivary outflow. This clinical manuscript may shed light on the controversies about possible mechanisms inducing oral pyogenic granuloma.

  10. Cuando los extremos no se encuentran: un análisis de la movilidad social e igualdad de oportunidades en el Perú contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available DES EXTRÊMES QUI NE SE REJOIGNENT PAS : UNE ANALYSE DE LA MOVILITÉ SOCIALE ET DE L'ÉGALITÉ DES CHANCES DANS LE PÉROU D'AUJOURD'HUI. Cet article analyse la mobilité sociale et l’égalité des chances au Pérou. Un schéma empirique des classes est d’abord présenté, puis des modèles logarithmiques linéaires et multiplicatifs sont appliqués à un échantillon de travailleurs urbains. Ceci nous a permis de constater que les processus de mobilité relative entre groupes et l’amélioration de l’égalité des chances ont été neutralisés tant par la croissance économique négative que par l’absence de changements importants dans les relations économiques et culturelles. La structure de classes qui en résulte aujourd’hui au Pérou implique donc d’importants processus de mobilité sociale de courte distance et une mobilité relative limitée entre classes socialement éloignées. En ce sens, on peut dire qu’un “élargissement” des classes moyennes a eu lieu et, qu’au même moment, les classes socialement éloignées formant partie de la structure sociale péruvienne ont continué à se polariser. CUANDO LOS EXTREMOS NO SE ENCUENTRAN: UN ANÁLISIS DE LA MOVILIDAD SOCIAL E IGUALDAD DE OPORTUNIDADES EN EL PERÚ CONTEMPORÁNEO. Este trabajo analiza la movilidad social y la igualdad de oportunidades en el Perú contemporáneo. Usando un esquema empírico de clases, se aplican modelos logarítmicos lineales y multiplicativos a una muestra de trabajadores urbanos. Se concluye que los procesos de movilidad relativa entre grupos y el mejoramiento de la igualdad de oportunidades han sido neutralizados tanto por las tendencias negativas de crecimiento como por la falta de cambios importantes en las relaciones económicas y culturales. La estructura de clases resultante en el Perú es una que combina importantes procesos de movilidad social de corta distancia con una limitada movilidad relativa entre clases socialmente distantes. De esa

  11. Caracterização Climatológica e Tendências Observadas em Extremos Climáticos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Luiz Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho elabora-se uma climatologia da temperatura do ar e da precipitação e uma análise das tendências nos extremos climáticos de tais variáveis para o estado do Rio de Janeiro, a partir de dados observacionais entre 1961 e 2012. Os resultados da climatologia mostram temperaturas mínimas médias oscilando entre 9,5 e 11°C (15,5 e 17°C no inverno (verão na região Serrana. Valores mais elevados ocorrem principalmente no litoral, onde as médias de temperatura mínima variam entre 17 e 18,5°C (21,5 e 23°C no inverno (verão. As menores temperaturas máximas médias oscilam entre 21,5 e 23°C (26 e 27,5°C no inverno (verão na região Serrana e os valores mais elevados encontram-se na região Metropolitana e no Norte/Noroeste Fluminense, oscilando entre 26 e 27,5°C (32 e 33,5°C no inverno (verão. A precipitação anual apresenta máximos em áreas elevadas (cerca de 2500 a 2800 mm ao ano e mínimos sobre as regiões de baixada e de costa (entre 700 e 1300 mm ao ano. Para as tendências observadas nos extremos climáticos de temperatura, a região Metropolitana e a região Norte e Noroeste do estado apontam para aumentos estatisticamente significativos da temperatura máxima média (entre +0,01 e +0,08°C/ano. Notam-se também tendências estatisticamente significativas de elevação na porcentagem de noites e de dias quentes em quase todo o estado (entre +0,1 e +0,6 %dias/ano. Quanto à chuva, observa-se que há uma tendência estatisticamente significativa de aumento dos totais pluviométricos anuais nas Baixadas Litorâneas (entre +4,0 e +32,0 mm/ano. Também verifica-se uma elevação significativa dos totais pluviométricos das chuvas mais fortes do ano nas Baixadas Litorâneas e em parte da região Metropolitana, com magnitudes entre +2,0 e +20,0 mm/ano.

  12. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with gigantism and huge pelvic tumor: a rare case of McCune-Albright syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakayama, Kenshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kidani, Teruki; Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Kito, Katsumi; Tanji, Nozomu; Nakamura, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    We report a rare case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia on endocrine hyperfunction with elevated human growth hormone and normal serum level of prolactin. There were some differential points of gender, gigantism, endocrine function, and GNAS gene from McCune-Albright syndrome. Malignant transformation was suspected in the pelvic tumor from imaging because rapid growth of the tumor by imaging was observed; however, no malignant change occurred in this case.

  13. Utilização de serviços de saúde por menores de cinco anos no extremo Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Juraci A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar os principais determinantes da utilização de serviços de saúde por menores de cinco anos, um estudo de base populacional por amostragem sistemática foi realizado no extremo sul do Brasil. Doze entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionários padronizados às mães sobre variáveis demográficas, sócio-econômicas e ambientais da família e padrão de morbidade e utilização de serviços de saúde entre estas criancas. Dentre os 514 menores de cinco anos estudados, metade foi levado à consulta médica nos últimos três meses e 11,5% foram hospitalizados nos útimos 12 meses. As infecções respiratórias responderam por cerca de dois terços das consultas médicas e praticamente metade das hospitalizações. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, os principais determinantes da utilização de serviços de saúde foram: idade da criança, escolaridade do pai e tipo de moradia. A identificação desses determinantes e das principais características dos seus usuários podem auxiliar no planejamento de futuras ações em saúde e no alcance daquelas crianças que necessitam de cuidados em saúde, mas que não fazem uso dele.

  14. ESTRATEGIA PARA EL PRONÓSTICO DEL RTO DE FAST TCP, MEDIANTE LÓGICA DIFUSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Peña

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el diseño y la simulación de una estrategia para el pronóstico del temporizador de retransmisión del algoritmo de control de la congestión FAST TCP. La estrategia utiliza la técnica de inteligencia computacional denominada lógica difusa. Los resultados de la simulación demuestran que a través de esta nueva forma de pronóstico del RTO, FAST TCP hace un mejor seguimiento a la situación real de congestión de la red, en el marco de una conexión entre dos extremos de la misma.

  15. An orphan G-protein-coupled receptor causes human gigantism and/or acromegaly: Molecular biology and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellin, Giampaolo; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Swan, Jeremy; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2018-04-01

    X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) is a recently described form of familial or sporadic pituitary gigantism characterized by very early onset GH and IGF-1 excess, accelerated growth velocity, gigantism and/or acromegaloid features. Germline or somatic microduplications of the Xq26.3 chromosomal region, invariably involving the GPR101 gene, constitute the genetic defect leading to X-LAG. GPR101 encodes a class A G protein-coupled receptor that activates the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathway. Highly expressed in the central nervous system, the main physiological function and ligand of GPR101 remain unknown, but it seems to play a role in the normal development of the GHRH-GH axis. Early recognition of X-LAG cases is imperative because these patients require clinical management that differs from that of other patients with acromegaly or gigantism. Medical treatment with pegvisomant seems to be the best approach, since X-LAG tumors are resistant to the treatment with somatostatin analogues and dopamine agonists; surgical cure requires near-total hypophysectomy. Currently, the efforts of our research focus on the identification of GPR101 ligands; in addition, the long-term follow-up of X-LAG patients is of extreme interest as this is expected to lead to better understanding of GPR101 effects on human pathophysiology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Reconstrucción en linfedema peneano y escrotal secundario a hernia inguinal bilateral gigante Reconstruction in penile and scrotal lymphedema secondary to billateral giant inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El linfedema peneano y escrotal tiene consecuencias funcionales, estéticas, sociales y psicológicas significativas para el paciente que lo padece. Es una enfermedad infrecuente en los países desarrollados, aunque relativamente prevalente en los países tropicales. Su causa más común es la filariasis, aunque en nuestra práctica diaria se asocia más frecuentemente a cirugía, radioterapia, procesos inflamatorios y neoplásicos. Presentamos un caso singular de linfedema penoescrotal secundario a cirugía por hernia inguinal gigante bilateral que persistía un año después de la intervención. El tratamiento quirúrgico consistió en la exéresis de toda la piel linfedematosa del escroto involucrada y el uso de colgajos de piel escrotal posterior para la cobertura testicular. En un segundo tiempo quirúrgico se llevó a cabo una extirpación total de la piel del pene y del tejido subcutáneo superficial a la fascia de Buck. Empleamos injertos de piel de grosor parcial para cubrir el pene denudado. El resultado estético postoperatorio fue aceptable y los resultados funcionales y psicológicos son satisfactorios para el paciente 3 años después de la cirugía.Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum has important functional, cosmetic, social, psychological consequences for the affected patient. It is a rare disease in the developed countries, although it is relatively frequent in tropical countries. Globally, the most common cause is filariasis, although in our practice it is most frecuently associated to surgery, radiotherapy, inflammatory and neoplasic diseases. We report one rare case of penoscrotal lymphedema due to billateral giant inguinal hernia reconstrction. The lymphedema was persistent one year after the repair of the billateral hernia. The technique of reconstruction consisted of excision of all involved lymphedematous skin of the scrotum, and use of posterior scrotal flaps for testicular coverage. In a second surgical time, a total

  17. Estudio de la estructura cortical en la Isla de Tierra del Fuego a partir de datos sismológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Buffoni, C.; Schimmel, Martin; Sabbione, N.C.; Rosa, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    La Isla de Tierra del Fuego (TdF) se encuentra ubicada en el extremo sur de la Cuenca de Magallanes, donde el borde transformante entre la Placa de Scotia y la Sudamericana define el Sistema de Fallas Magallanes-Fagnano (MFS), cuya falla principal tiene un movimiento sinestral. Con el fin de obtener información de la corteza, se realizó un análisis de funciones receptoras (FR) a partir de datos registrados en cinco estaciones sismológicas instaladas en la Isla. Una FR es el resultado de un pr...

  18. Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) del quiróptero Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis (Phyllostomidae) en Tumbes, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Marina; Martínez, Rosa; Tantaleán, Manuel; Cadenillas, Richard; Pacheco, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, se describe a Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae) en base a 25 especímenes colectados del intestino de 5 murciélagos de la especie Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis de la localidad de Angostura, distrito Pampas de Hospital, departamento de Tumbes, Perú. La nueva especie se caracteriza por la morfología de la vesícula cefálica en forma de capuchón con escotaduras, por el tamaño y forma de las espículas cuyo extremo distal de la rama externa se divide...

  19. Futures, fakes and discourses of the gigantic and miniature in ‘The World’ islands, Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamila Gupta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article takes the “island” as a key trope in tourism studies, exploring how ideas of culture and nature, as well as those of paradise (lost are central to its interpretation for tourists and tourist industries alike. Increasingly, however, island tourism is blurring the line between geographies of land and water, continent and archipelago, and private and public property. The case of ‘The World’ islands mega project off the coast of Dubai (UAE is used to chart the changing face and future of island tourism, exploring how spectacle, branding and discourses of the gigantic, miniature, and fake, particularly alongside technological mediations on a large-scale, reflect the postmodern neoliberal world of tourism and the liquid times in which we live. Artificial island complexes such as this one function as cosmopolitan ‘non-places’ at the same time that they reflect a resurgence in (British nascent nationalism and colonial nostalgia, all the whilst operating in a sea of ‘junkspace’. The shifting cartography of ‘the island’ is thus mapped out to suggest new forms of place-making and tourism’s evolving relationship to these floating islandscapes.

  20. Evolución de planetas gigantes y posibilidades de su detección directa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde la reciente detección de planetas gigantes orbitando estrellas cercanas de tipo solar por medio de efecto Doppler, uno de los principales problemas, en cuanto al estudio de los sistemas planetarios extrasolares, se refiere a la posibilidad de obtener evidencia directa de su existencia. Esto parece ser factible gracias a que en un futuro cercano entrarán en operación algunos telescopios especialmente adecuados a estos propósitos. Por tal motivo, hemos comenzado desde hace un tiempo un esfuerzo en cuanto al estudio de la evolución planetaria. A tales efectos hemos adaptado el código de evolución estelar de nuestro Observatorio al caso planetario. Las principales diferencias entre el caso estelar y el planetario se encuentran en la ecuación de estado. A tales fines hemos incluído la reciente ecuación de estado de Saumon, Chabrier y Van Horn, las opacidades radiativas de Guillot et al., procesos de quema de Deuterio, etc. También se ha considerado la posible existencia de fases de hielo y roca en el interior planetario. Por el momento hemos despreciado los efectos de la rotación planetaria. Con este código hemos computado la evolución de planetas con masas desde 10 hasta 0.3 masas de Júpiter. Utilizando nuestros resultados numéricos discutimos la detectabilidad de estos objetos en condiciones realistas.

  1. Discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures using a flow reaction array as a search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Hong-Ying; de la Oliva, Andreu Ruiz; Miras, Haralampos N; Long, De-Liang; McBurney, Roy T; Cronin, Leroy

    2014-04-28

    The discovery of gigantic molecular nanostructures like coordination and polyoxometalate clusters is extremely time-consuming since a vast combinatorial space needs to be searched, and even a systematic and exhaustive exploration of the available synthetic parameters relies on a great deal of serendipity. Here we present a synthetic methodology that combines a flow reaction array and algorithmic control to give a chemical 'real-space' search engine leading to the discovery and isolation of a range of new molecular nanoclusters based on [Mo(2)O(2)S(2)](2+)-based building blocks with either fourfold (C4) or fivefold (C5) symmetry templates and linkers. This engine leads us to isolate six new nanoscale cluster compounds: 1, {Mo(10)(C5)}; 2, {Mo(14)(C4)4(C5)2}; 3, {Mo(60)(C4)10}; 4, {Mo(48)(C4)6}; 5, {Mo(34)(C4)4}; 6, {Mo(18)(C4)9}; in only 200 automated experiments from a parameter space spanning ~5 million possible combinations.

  2. A Thermodynamic, kinematic and microphysical analysis of a jet and gigantic jet-producing Florida thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, S. M.; Splitt, M. E.; Brownlee, James; Spiva, Nicholas; Liu, Ningyu

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a meteorological analysis of a storm that produced two jets, four gigantic jets (GJ), and a starter, which were observed by two radars as well as the Kennedy Space Center 4-Dimensional Lightning Surveillance System on 3 August 2013 in Central Florida. The work is the first application of dual polarization data to a jet-producing storm and is the fifth case related to a tropical disturbance. The storm environment is consistent with the moist tropical paradigm that characterizes about three quarters of the surface and aircraft observed jet and GJ events. The most unstable (MU) convective available potential energy is not unusual for Florida summer convection and is below the climatological mean for these events. An unusual speed shear layer is located near the storm equilibrium level (EL) and the storm exhibits a tilted structure with CGs displaced upshear. The turbulence, as measured by the eddy dissipation rate, is extreme near the storm top during the event window, consistent with the GJ mixing hypothesis. The individual events are collocated with, and track along, the center axis of the divergent outflow at the EL and occur within the region of the coldest GOES IR temperatures—placing the events within the overshoot. The dual polarization data indicate a deep graupel column, extending above the mixed phase layer, to a 13 km altitude.

  3. Multiple organ gigantism caused by mutation in VmPPD gene in blackgram (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Chaitieng, Bubpa; Hirano, Kumi; Kaga, Akito; Takagi, Kyoko; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Thavarasook, Charaspon; Ishimoto, Masao; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2017-03-01

    Seed size is one of the most important traits in leguminous crops. We obtained a recessive mutant of blackgram that had greatly enlarged leaves, stems and seeds. The mutant produced 100% bigger leaves, 50% more biomass and 70% larger seeds though it produced 40% less number of seeds. We designated the mutant as multiple-organ-gigantism ( mog ) and found the mog phenotype was due to increase in cell numbers but not in cell size. We also found the mog mutant showed a rippled leaf ( rl ) phenotype, which was probably caused by a pleiotropic effect of the mutation. We performed a map-based cloning and successfully identified an 8 bp deletion in the coding sequence of VmPPD gene, an orthologue of Arabidopsis PEAPOD ( PPD ) that regulates arrest of cell divisions in meristematic cells . We found no other mutations in the neighboring genes between the mutant and the wild type. We also knocked down GmPPD genes and reproduced both the mog and rl phenotypes in soybean. Controlling PPD genes to produce the mog phenotype is highly valuable for breeding since larger seed size could directly increase the commercial values of grain legumes.

  4. Technical treatment options for the mill effluents of the Los Gigantes Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Mining/Milling Los Gigantes Complex is located in Cordoba Province, about 100 km to the West of the capital city. The uranium mining and milling activities have been carried out during the period between 1980 and 1990. As result of those activities, mine wastes, low grade ore, sludge, heap leach wastes and liquid effluents have been accumulated in the site. At present, the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina is developing the Remediation Project of the site. Within the frame of this Project it is necessary to define the liquid effluent treatment methodology of the liquids accumulated in a pond in order to achieve the proper quality to be released to the environment, according with the national and provincial regulations. In this paper several liquid treatment methods are described. These methods were also developed at the lab scale. Among these we can mention hot and cool alcalinization with barium chloride addition and ion exchange resins treatments. Also a pilot scale assay has been done in the site (about 450 m 3 ) in order to verify the obtained lab scale results. Nevertheless that other assays are yet under developing, the obtained results are reported. (author)

  5. Endochondral gigantism: a newly recognized skeletal dysplasia with pre- and postnatal overgrowth and endocrine abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Heinrich; Kammer, Birgit; Grasser, Monika; Enders, Angelika; Rost, Imma; Kiess, Wieland

    2007-08-15

    We report on a 3-year-old male, born at 34 weeks of gestation, with marked pre- and postnatal overgrowth, birth weight of 6,600 g, length of 61 cm, and head circumference of 38.5 cm. A striking phenotype was recorded at birth, which became more evident during the follow-up period. He had macrobrachycephaly, facial abnormalities, small thoracic cage, long trunk, deformed spine, rhizomelia, large hands and feets, absent subcutaneous fat, small umbilical hernia, inguinal hernias, and large joints with mild contractures. Hypoglycemic episodes and obstructive apnea complicated the neonatal period. During follow-up, overgrowth continued with a height of 146 cm (+11.65 SDS) and a weight of 39 kg (BMI 18.3 kg/m(2)) at 3.5 years. Endocrinological work-up disclosed extremely low levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, and insulin. What makes our patient unique is the association of marked prenatal overgrowth; unusual phenotype; skeletal dysplasia caused by accelerated endochondral ossification resulting in cartilage hyperplasia of the skull base and spine, and postnatal gigantism; and complete absence of subcutaneous fat. Other well-known overgrowth syndromes were excluded. We hypothesize that autocrine/paracrine growth factors could be the cause of excessive endochondral ossification. Alternately, activating mutations in transcription factors involved in both growth and endocrine/metabolic homeostasis could be responsible for this unusual phenotype. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. A Gigantic Jet Observed Over an Mesoscale Convective System in Midlatitude Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Sato, Mitsuteru; Liu, Ningyu; Lu, Gaopeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhichao

    2018-01-01

    Gigantic jets (GJs) are mostly observed over summer tropical or tropical-like thunderstorms. This study reports observation of a GJ over a mesoscale convective system (MCS) in the midlatitude region in eastern China. The GJ is observed over a relatively weak radar reflectivity region ahead of the leading line, and the maximum radar echo top along the GJ azimuth was lower than the tropopause in the same region, significantly different from past studies that indicate summer GJs are usually associated with convective surges or overshooting tops. Also different from most of previous observations showing GJ-producing summer thunderstorms only produced GJ type of transient luminous events during their life cycles, two sprites were also captured in a time window of 15 min containing the GJ, indicating that the MCS provides favorable conditions not only for the GJ but also for the sprites. The balloon-borne soundings of the MCS show that there were large wind shears in the middle and upper levels of the thundercloud, which may have played important roles for the GJ production.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Vertebrate Dystrophin Loci Indicate Intron Gigantism as a Common Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Uberto; Elgar, Greg; Cagliani, Rachele; Riva, Laura; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bresolin, Nereo; Bardoni, Alessandra; Sironi, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    The human DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning > 2000 kb on the X chromosome. The gene size is mainly accounted for by huge intronic regions. We sequenced 190 kb of Fugu rubripes (pufferfish) genomic DNA corresponding to the complete dystrophin gene (FrDMD) and provide the first report of gene structure and sequence comparison among dystrophin genomic sequences from different vertebrate organisms. Almost all intron positions and phases are conserved between FrDMD and its mammalian counterparts, and the predicted protein product of the Fugu gene displays 55% identity and 71% similarity to human dystrophin. In analogy to the human gene, FrDMD presents several-fold longer than average intronic regions. Analysis of intron sequences of the human and murine genes revealed that they are extremely conserved in size and that a similar fraction of total intron length is represented by repetitive elements; moreover, our data indicate that intron expansion through repeat accumulation in the two orthologs is the result of independent insertional events. The hypothesis that intron length might be functionally relevant to the DMD gene regulation is proposed and substantiated by the finding that dystrophin intron gigantism is common to the three vertebrate genes. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org.] PMID:12727896

  8. Sex Determination and Polyploid Gigantism in the Dwarf Surfclam (Mulinia Lateralis Say)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Allen-Jr., S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Mulinia lateralis, the dwarf surfclam, is a suitable model for bivalve genetics because it is hardy and has a short generation time. In this study, gynogenetic and triploid. M. lateralis were successfully induced. For gynogenesis, eggs were fertilized with sperm irradiated with ultraviolet light and subsequently treated with cytochalasin B to block the release of the second polar body (PB2). Triploidy was induced by blocking PB2 in normally fertilized eggs. The survival of gynogenetic diploids was very low, only 0.7% to 8 days post-fertilization (PF), compared with 15.2% in the triploid groups and 27.5% in the normal diploid control. Larvae in all groups metamorphosed at 8-10 days PF, and there was no significant post-larval mortality. At sexual maturation (2-3 months PF), all gynogenetic diploids were female, and there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in sex ratio between diploids and triploids. These results suggested that the dwarf surfclam may have an XX-female, XY-male sex determination with Y-domination. Compared with diploids, triploids had a relative fecundity of 59% for females and 80% for males. Eggs produced by triploid females were 53% larger (P 0.33) different from normal diploid females, suggesting that inbreeding depression was minimal in meiosis II gynogens. Triploid clams were significantly larger (P gigantism due to the increased cell volume and a lack of cell-number compensation. PMID:7896101

  9. Lower limb gigantism, lymphedema, and painful varicosities following a thigh vascular access graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Mathuram Thiyagarajan, Umasankar; Akoh, Jacob A

    2014-07-01

    Prosthetic arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are associated with greater morbidity than autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), but their use is indicated when AVF formation is not possible. This report adds to the literature a case of lower limb gigantism, painful varicosities, and lymphedema following long-term use of AVG in the upper thigh. The patient's past medical history included renal transplantation on the same side well before the AVG was inserted and right leg deep vein thrombosis. Suspicion of AVG thrombosis was excluded by Doppler ultrasound, which demonstrated an access flow of 1700 mL/min. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis did not identify the cause of her symptoms. Whereas functional incompetence of the iliac vein valve might be responsible for the varicosities, the extent of hypertrophy in this case raises the suspicion of lymphatic blockage possibly secondary to groin dissection undertaken at the time of graft insertion, in addition to the previous dissection at the time of transplantation. This case highlights the need for minimal groin dissection during AVG insertion, particularly in patients with a history of previous abdominopelvic surgery. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; Scofield, R Paul; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Tennyson, Alan J D

    2017-12-12

    One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n. gen. et sp. is larger than all other fossil penguins that have substantial skeletal portions preserved. Several plesiomorphic features place the new species outside a clade including all post-Paleocene giant penguins. It is phylogenetically separated from giant Eocene and Oligocene penguin species by various smaller taxa, which indicates multiple origins of giant size in penguin evolution. That a penguin rivaling the largest previously known species existed in the Paleocene suggests that gigantism in penguins arose shortly after these birds became flightless divers. Our study therefore strengthens previous suggestions that the absence of very large penguins today is likely due to the Oligo-Miocene radiation of marine mammals.

  11. Change in the immunophenotype of a somatotroph adenoma resulting in gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawani, Jayesh P; Bailey, Robert L; Burns, Carrie M; Lee, John Y K

    2014-01-01

    Examining the pathologic progression of a pituitary adenoma from the point of a prepubescent child to an adult with gigantism affords us an opportunity to consider why patients may develop secretory or functioning tumors and raises questions about whether therapeutic interventions and surveillance strategies could be made to avoid irreversible phenotypic changes. A patient underwent a sublabial transsphenoidal resection for a clinically non-functioning macroadenoma in 1999. He underwent radiation treatment and was transiently given growth hormone (GH) supplementation as an adolescent. His growth rapidly traversed several percentiles and he was found to have elevated GH levels. The patient became symptomatic and was taken for a second neurosurgical procedure. Pathology and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of somatotroph cells and dense granularity; he was diagnosed with a functional somatotroph adenoma. While it is likely that the described observations reflect the manifestations of a functional somatotroph adenoma in development, it is possible that pubertal growth, GH supplementation, its removal, or radiation therapy contributed to the described endocrine and pathologic changes.

  12. Respiratory evolution facilitated the origin of pterosaur flight and aerial gigantism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon P A M Claessens

    Full Text Available Pterosaurs, enigmatic extinct Mesozoic reptiles, were the first vertebrates to achieve true flapping flight. Various lines of evidence provide strong support for highly efficient wing design, control, and flight capabilities. However, little is known of the pulmonary system that powered flight in pterosaurs. We investigated the structure and function of the pterosaurian breathing apparatus through a broad scale comparative study of respiratory structure and function in living and extinct archosaurs, using computer-assisted tomographic (CT scanning of pterosaur and bird skeletal remains, cineradiographic (X-ray film studies of the skeletal breathing pump in extant birds and alligators, and study of skeletal structure in historic fossil specimens. In this report we present various lines of skeletal evidence that indicate that pterosaurs had a highly effective flow-through respiratory system, capable of sustaining powered flight, predating the appearance of an analogous breathing system in birds by approximately seventy million years. Convergent evolution of gigantism in several Cretaceous pterosaur lineages was made possible through body density reduction by expansion of the pulmonary air sac system throughout the trunk and the distal limb girdle skeleton, highlighting the importance of respiratory adaptations in pterosaur evolution, and the dramatic effect of the release of physical constraints on morphological diversification and evolutionary radiation.

  13. Earth’s oldest ‘Bobbit worm’ – gigantism in a Devonian eunicidan polychaete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mats E.; Parry, Luke A.; Rudkin, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Whilst the fossil record of polychaete worms extends to the early Cambrian, much data on this group derive from microfossils known as scolecodonts. These are sclerotized jaw elements, which generally range from 0.1–2 mm in size, and which, in contrast to the soft-body anatomy, have good preservation potential and a continuous fossil record. Here we describe a new eunicidan polychaete, Websteroprion armstrongi gen. et sp. nov., based primarily on monospecific bedding plane assemblages from the Lower-Middle Devonian Kwataboahegan Formation of Ontario, Canada. The specimens are preserved mainly as three-dimensional moulds in the calcareous host rock, with only parts of the original sclerotized jaw walls occasionally present. This new taxon has a unique morphology and is characterized by an unexpected combination of features seen in several different Palaeozoic polychaete families. Websteroprion armstrongi was a raptorial feeder and possessed the largest jaws recorded in polychaetes from the fossil record, with maxillae reaching over one centimetre in length. Total body length of the species is estimated to have reached over one metre, which is comparable to that of extant ‘giant eunicid’ species colloquially referred to as ‘Bobbit worms’. This demonstrates that polychaete gigantism was already a phenomenon in the Palaeozoic, some 400 million years ago. PMID:28220886

  14. Unusual AIP mutation and phenocopy in the family of a young patient with acromegalic gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Syed Ali; Aldahmani, Khaled A; Penney, Lynette; Croul, Sidney E; Clarke, David B; Collier, David M; Iacovazzo, Donato; Korbonits, Márta

    2018-01-01

    Early-onset acromegaly causing gigantism is often associated with aryl-hydrocarbon-interacting receptor protein ( AIP ) mutation, especially if there is a positive family history. A15y male presented with tiredness and visual problems. He was 201 cm tall with a span of 217 cm. He had typical facial features of acromegaly, elevated IGF-1, secondary hypogonadism and a large macroadenoma. His paternal aunt had a history of acromegaly presenting at the age of 35 years. Following transsphenoidal surgery, his IGF-1 normalized and clinical symptoms improved. He was found to have a novel AIP mutation destroying the stop codon c.991T>C; p.*331R. Unexpectedly, his father and paternal aunt were negative for this mutation while his mother and older sister were unaffected carriers, suggesting that his aunt represents a phenocopy. Typical presentation for a patient with AIP mutation with excess growth and eunuchoid proportions.Unusual, previously not described AIP variant with loss of the stop codon.Phenocopy may occur in families with a disease-causing germline mutation.

  15. Surgical trauma induces overgrowth in lower limb gigantism: regulation with use of rapamycin is promising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rohan Sebastian; Harrison, William David; Graham, Kenneth; Nayagam, Durai

    2018-01-04

    We describe an unclassified overgrowth syndrome characterised by unregulated growth of dermal fibroblasts in the lower limbs of a 35-year-old woman. A PIK3CA gene mutation resulted in lower limb gigantism. Below the waist, she weighed 117 kg with each leg measuring over 100 cm in circumference. Her total adiposity was 50% accounted for by her legs mainly. Liposuction and surgical debulking were performed to reduce the size of the limbs but had exacerbated the overgrowth in her lower limbs. Systemic sepsis from an infected foot ulcer necessitated treatment by an above-knee amputation. Postoperatively, the stump increased in size by 19 kg. A trial of rapamycin to reverse the growth of the stump has shown promise. We discuss the clinical and genetic features of this previously unclassified disorder and the orthopaedic considerations involved. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Multi-instrumental observations of a positive gigantic jet produced by a winter thunderstorm in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Oscar A.; Bór, József; Li, Jingbo; Cummer, Steven A.; Arnone, Enrico; Zanotti, Ferruccio; Füllekrug, Martin; Haldoupis, Christos; Naitamor, Samir; Farges, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    At 2336:56 UTC on 12 December 2009, a bright gigantic jet (GJ) was recorded by an observer in Italy. Forty-nine additional sprites, elves, halos and two cases of upward lightning were observed that night. The location of the GJ corresponded to a distinct cloud top (-34°C) west of Ajaccio, Corsica. The GJ reached approximately 91 km altitude, with a "trailing jet" reaching 49-59 km, matching with earlier reported GJs. The duration was short at 120-160 ms. This is the first documented GJ which emerged from a maritime winter thunderstorm only 6.5 km tall, showing high cloud tops are not required for initiation of GJs. In the presence of strong vertical wind shear, the meteorological situation was different from typical outbreaks of fall and winter thunderstorms in the Mediterranean. During the trailing jet phase of the GJ, a sprite with halo triggered by a nearby cloud-to-ground lightning flash occurred at a relatively low altitude (origins in the cloud (i.e., a positive cloud-to-ionosphere discharge, +CI), with a large total charge moment change of 11600 C km and a maximum current of 3.3 kA. Early VLF transmitter amplitude perturbations detected concurrently with the GJ confirm the production of large conductivity changes due to electron density enhancements in the D-region of the ionosphere.

  17. Respiratory evolution facilitated the origin of pterosaur flight and aerial gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Leon P A M; O'Connor, Patrick M; Unwin, David M

    2009-01-01

    Pterosaurs, enigmatic extinct Mesozoic reptiles, were the first vertebrates to achieve true flapping flight. Various lines of evidence provide strong support for highly efficient wing design, control, and flight capabilities. However, little is known of the pulmonary system that powered flight in pterosaurs. We investigated the structure and function of the pterosaurian breathing apparatus through a broad scale comparative study of respiratory structure and function in living and extinct archosaurs, using computer-assisted tomographic (CT) scanning of pterosaur and bird skeletal remains, cineradiographic (X-ray film) studies of the skeletal breathing pump in extant birds and alligators, and study of skeletal structure in historic fossil specimens. In this report we present various lines of skeletal evidence that indicate that pterosaurs had a highly effective flow-through respiratory system, capable of sustaining powered flight, predating the appearance of an analogous breathing system in birds by approximately seventy million years. Convergent evolution of gigantism in several Cretaceous pterosaur lineages was made possible through body density reduction by expansion of the pulmonary air sac system throughout the trunk and the distal limb girdle skeleton, highlighting the importance of respiratory adaptations in pterosaur evolution, and the dramatic effect of the release of physical constraints on morphological diversification and evolutionary radiation.

  18. A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Riga, Bernardo J; Lamanna, Matthew C; Ortiz David, Leonardo D; Calvo, Jorge O; Coria, Juan P

    2016-01-18

    Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group. Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus--seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight--and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods.

  19. Importância das condições termodinâmicas nos eventos extremos de precipitação na cidade de Belém e região metropolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe do Souto de Sá Gille

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a importância dos fatores termodinâmicos na ocorrência de eventos extremos de precipitação em Belém (PA e região metropolitana, no período de agosto de 2008 a dezembro de 2009. O estudo da termodinâmica da atmosfera foi realizado a luz das teorias da Energia Potencial Disponível para a Convecção (CAPE e, da Energia de Inibição da Convecção (CINE. Para classificar os eventos extremos de precipitação foi utilizado o método dos decis, a fim de associá-los aos valores da CAPE e da CINE. Observou-se que a região estudada possui forte atividade convectiva durante todo o ano, e que nem sempre CAPE alta e CINE baixa produz precipitação. Esta situação determina convecção profunda, mas para haver precipitação existe a necessidade da forçante dinâmica, inclusive para a ocorrência de eventos extremos de precipitação no período chuvoso a forçante dinâmica é a ITCZ, e no período seco o que contribui é a Linha de Instabilidade (LI. Então quando o processo de precipitação dependeu, exclusivamente, da CAPE, foi necessário um valor alto para gerar convecção profunda e por consequência precipitação, enquanto, que no processo de precipitação com contribuição dinâmica não foi necessário um valor tão significativo da CAPE.

  20. Identificación de un epítope conformacional en el extremo carboxilo de la proteína MSP-1 de P. Falciparum

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    Julio C. Calvo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El fragmento carboxilo terminal, rico en cisteínas, de la proteína 1 de superficie del merozoito (MSP-1 desempeña un papel importante en la invasión del merozoito de la malaria al eritrocito. Anticuerpos contra esta región de MSP-l inhiben la invasión.

  1. Conservação, diversidade e distribuição de variedades locais de milho e seus parentes silvestres no extremo oeste de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Natália Carolina de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais, Florianópolis, 2015. As informações sobre a atual diversidade de milho do Brasil são escassas e a maior parte dos estudos tem se destinado a caracterizar e analisar a diversidade conservada ex situ. Pesquisas antecedentes têm demonstrado que a microrregião Extremo Oeste do estado de Santa Catarina possui uma importante riqueza de variedades locai...

  2. SISTEMA DE ESTIMACION DE EVENTOS EXTREMOS DE LLUVIA, PARA LA PREVENCION Y MITIGACION DE LOS RIESGOS DE AVENIDAS Y CAUDALES CIRCULANTES, EN UN CONTEXTO DE VARIABILIDAD Y CAMBIO CLIMATICO

    OpenAIRE

    PIZARRO TAPIA, MANUEL ROBERTO

    2013-01-01

    Las principales causas de los impactos de los eventos extremos de lluvia están referidas a la carencia de un conocimiento básico acerca de cómo funcionan los ecosistemas urbanos y rurales y el cómo se comportan las precipitaciones de alta intensidad, además de la baja disponibilidad de información hidrológica. Con el fin revertir esta situación, el Centro Tecnológico de Hidrología Ambiental de la Universidad de Talca desarrolló el proyecto denominado “Sistema de Estimación de Even...

  3. Hipótesis de progresión del conocimiento biológico y del conocimiento didáctico del contenido biológico. Parte I: referentes teóricos

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    Édgar Orlay Valbuena Ussa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, constituye el primero de una serie de dos, consistentes en el abordaje de dos constituyentes fundamentales del conocimiento profesional del profesor de Biología. Primero se presenta la perspectiva del autor sobre el conocimiento profesional del profesor de Biología, y el conocimiento didáctico del contenido biológico (CDCB; luego, a partir de la revisión de antecedentes y de referentes teóricos, se propone una hipótesis de progresión tanto para el conocimiento biológico (estructuras sintáctica y sustantiva como para el CDCB. Para el caso del primer conocimiento, la hipótesis plantea dos extremos: la perspectiva fisicalista y la visión estructural-sistémica; en cuanto al CDCB, la hipótesis plantea dos polos: el reduccionismo biológico y la perspectiva integradora-transformadora. Posteriormente, en el segundo artículo se presentarán los resultados de investigación, a partir del análisis de datos de estudios obtenidos con futuros profesores de Biología.

  4. UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE PEZ DEL GÉNERO HEMIBRYCON (CHARACIFORMES: CHARACIDAE DEL ALTO RÍO ATRATO, NOROCCIDENTE DE COLOMBIA

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    ROMÁN-VALENCIA CÉSAR

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hemibrycon para la cuenca alta del río Atrato,al noroccidente de Colombia. La especie se distingue de sus congéneres por supequeño tamaño (de las órbitas y la parte ventral de la mandíbula superior planos, las mandíbulas noson iguales: la mandíbula superior sobresale con relación a la inferior, aleta pélvicalarga y su extremo alcanza el origen de la aleta anal, bajo número de vértebras yde radios ramifi cados en la aleta anal. Se incluyen datos ecológicos propios delambiente acuático del nuevo taxón y una clave para las especies de Hemibrycon deColombia.

  5. Aplicación de terapia de vacío en el tratamiento de nevus pigmentario gigante en la infancia Negative pressure therapy in the treatment of a giant melanocytic nevus in chilhood

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    J. Fregenal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los nevus melanocíticos gigantes congénitos son muy infrecuentes. Su incidencia de malignización varía según las series clínicas entre el 2 y el 45%. Este riesgo de malignización y los problemas de adaptación psicosocial que suelen acarrear hacen recomendable el inicio del tratamiento quirúrgico de este tipo de lesiones antes de la edad escolar. Presentamos el caso de un niño de 7 años de edad con nevus melanocítico congénito gigante que afectaba a la espalda y al flanco derecho, de 30 x 19 cm de diámetro. Desarrollamos un protocolo terapéutico mediante programación de intervenciones quirúrgicas seriadas de mínima morbilidad, con postoperatorio simple y poco doloroso. En un primer tiempo realizamos extirpación de la lesión con bisturí ultrasónico y cobertura temporal del defecto creado con dermis artificial. En un segundo tiempo intentamos cobertura definitiva con piel cultivada autóloga, siendo necesario un tercer tiempo de cobertura con autoinjerto de espesor ultrafino. En este caso, el sistema de terapia de presión negativa VAC® mostró su eficacia para inmovilizar los apósitos de forma segura, indolora y en régimen ambulatorio.Giant congenital melanocytic nevi are very uncommon. Malignization incidence varies according to clinical series between 2 and 45%. This risk of malignization and psychosocial adaptation problems make necessary to begin the surgical treatment before school age. We present a 7-year-old child with a giant melanocytic nevus in the back and right flank, 30 x 19 cm in size. A therapeutic protocol using serial surgical interventions with minimal morbidity and an easy and painless postoperative care were developed. In the first surgery we removed the nevus with ultrasonic scalpel and used artificial dermis as a temporary coverage. In the second time we tried to complete the definitive coverage with autologous cultured skin, but we needed a third time to apply definitive ultrathin skin autograft. In

  6. Acromegaly and gigantism in the medical literature. Case descriptions in the era before and the early years after the initial publication of Pierre Marie (1886).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2009-01-01

    In 1886 Pierre Marie used the term "acromegaly" for the first time and gave a full description of the characteristic clinical picture. However several others had already given clear clinical descriptions before him and sometimes had given the disease other names. After 1886, it gradually became clear that pituitary enlargement (caused by a pituitary adenoma) was the cause and not the consequence of acromegaly, as initially thought. Pituitary adenomas could be found in the great majority of cases. It also became clear that acromegaly and gigantism were the same disease but occurring at different stages of life and not different diseases as initially thought. At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century most information was derived from case descriptions and post-mortem examinations of patients with acromegaly or (famous) patients with gigantism. The stage was set for further research into the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of acromegaly and gigantism.

  7. Efficacy and safety of long-acting pasireotide in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism: results from a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Shigeyuki; Murakami, Mami; Kaneko, Tomomi; Shimatsu, Akira

    2017-07-28

    A multicenter, open-label, phase 2 study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of long-acting pasireotide formulation in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism. Medically naïve or inadequately controlled patients (on somatostatin analogues or dopamine agonists) were included. Primary end point was the proportion of all patients who achieved biochemical control (mean growth hormone [GH] levelsacromegaly, n=32; pituitary gigantism, n=1) were enrolled and randomized 1:1:1 to receive open-label pasireotide 20mg, 40mg, or 60mg. The median age was 52 years (range, 31-79) and 20 patients were males. At month 3, 18.2% of patients (6/33; 90% confidence interval: 8.2%, 32.8%) had biochemical control (21.2% [7/33] when including a patient with mean GHacromegaly or pituitary gigantism.

  8. Composición proximal y propiedades funcionales del surimi liofilizado de Dosidicus gigas “ calamar gigante”

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    Armando Solari - Godiño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la investigación fue determinar la composición proximal y propiedades funcionales del surimi liofilizado de calamar gigante ( Dosidicus gigas . Se elaboró surimi a partir de calamar gigante y fue liofilizado hasta obtener surimi en polvo para evaluar sus características y prop iedades funcionales. El contenido de proteínas fue 58,7% y carbohidratos 30,5%. La solubilidad proteica en agua y sal (3% fueron 21,1% y 40,6% respectivamente, siendo estos valores superiores a surimi en polvo de especies comerciales. La capacidad de geli ficación fue 2,4% y la capacidad emulsificante fue 79,9% a una concentración del 1,0%. El color en la escala de Hunter fue L*: 91,5; a*: 0,5; b*:7,0. El surimi en polvo de calamar gigante fue considerado como un polvo proteico funcional debido a su conteni do porcentual proteico, y tuvieron buenas características tecnológicas y de gran potencial en la industria alimentaria .

  9. Gigantic Circular Shock Acoustic Waves in the Ionosphere Triggered by the Launch of FORMOSAT-5 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Min-Yang; Shen, Ming-Hsueh; Lin, Charles C. H.; Yue, Jia; Chen, Chia-Hung; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Lin, Jia-Ting

    2018-02-01

    The launch of SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket delivered Taiwan's FORMOSAT-5 satellite to orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 18:51:00 UT on 24 August 2017. To facilitate the delivery of FORMOSAT-5 to its mission orbit altitude of 720 km, the Falcon 9 made a steep initial ascent. During the launch, the supersonic rocket induced gigantic circular shock acoustic waves (SAWs) in total electron content (TEC) over the western United States beginning approximately 5 min after the liftoff. The circular SAWs emanated outward with 20 min duration, horizontal phase velocities of 629-726 m/s, horizontal wavelengths of 390-450 km, and period of 10.28 ± 1 min. This is the largest rocket-induced circular SAWs on record, extending approximately 114-128°W in longitude and 26-39°N in latitude ( 1,500 km in diameter), and was due to the unique, nearly vertical attitude of the rocket during orbit insertion. The rocket-exhaust plume subsequently created a large-scale ionospheric plasma hole ( 900 km in diameter) with 10-70% TEC depletions in comparison with the reference days. While the circular SAWs, with a relatively small amplitude of TEC fluctuations, likely did not introduce range errors into the Global Navigation Satellite Systems navigation and positioning system, the subsequent ionospheric plasma hole, on the other hand, could have caused spatial gradients in the ionospheric plasma potentially leading to a range error of 1 m.

  10. Parâmetros astrofísicos de estrelas gigantes do aglomerado globular 47 Tucanae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Brito, A.; Barbuy, B.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados globulares são considerados laboratórios astrofísicos para a verificação da teoria de evolução estelar, bem como a trajetória químio-dinâmica das galáxias hospedeiras. Em particular, 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) configura-se como um dos mais extensivamente estudados aglomerados globulares da Galáxia devido a relativa proximidade ao Sol (R¤ = 4.5 kpc) e alta latitute galáctica (b = -44°,89). Neste trabalho, apresentamos a velocidade radial heliocêntrica e os parâmetros atmosféricos (Teff, logg, [Fe/H]) de 5 estrelas gigantes do aglomerado globular 47 Tucanae. Os espectros foram obtidos pelo espectrógrafo UVES (Ultaviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph) de alta resolução (R = 60000) e alta razão sinal-ruído (S/N > 200), acoplado ao telescópio de 8,2m Kueyen do VLT (Very Large Telescope). Nós encontramos = -22,43 +/- 3,97 km/s, [Fe/H] ~ -0.7, 1,2 estrelas cobrem um intervalo de magnitude 12,2 < V < 14,2. Os parâmetros atmosféricos são fundamentais para a construção de espectros sintéticos de outros aglomerados globulares ricos em metais. Trabalho financiado pela FAPESP e pelo CNPq.

  11. Giant retroperitoneal lipoma: a case report Lipoma gigante do retroperitônio: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal lipoma is an extremely rare neoplasm. AIMS: The authors report a case of giant retroperitoneal lipoma in a 32-year-old white female, with a history of pain and an abdominal mass over a 2-year period. Total abdominal ultrasonography and barium enema showed a large mass located in the retroperitoneal space behind the ascending colon. Laparotomy showed a large encapsulated tumor measuring 20 x 13 x 10 cm and weighing 3.400 g. The histological study revealed a benign neoplasm of fatty cells. CONCLUSION: The patient remains well 17 years after surgery, without recurrentce of the disease.RACIONAL: O lipoma é a neoplasia mesenquimal mais freqüente, raramente localizada no retroperitônio. Na maioria das vezes, o diagnóstico diferencial pré-operatório com os lipossarcomas de baixo grau de malignidade é difícil de ser estabelecido. OBJETIVO: Apresentar um caso de lipoma gigante retroperitoneal em mulher de 32 anos que há 2 anos apresentava história de dor e tumor abdominal palpável. A ultra-sonografia abdominal e o enema opaco mostraram grande massa localizada no retroperitônio, que deslocava o ceco e o cólon ascendente. A laparotomia mostrou tumor encapsulado com 20 x 13 x 10 cm e 3.400 g de peso. O estudo histopatológico mostrou presença de lipoma retroperitonial. A paciente encontra-se bem, sem recidiva da doença, 17 anos após a cirurgia.

  12. Increase in tracheal investment with beetle size supports hypothesis of oxygen limitation on insect gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Alexander; Klok, C Jaco; Socha, John J; Lee, Wah-Keat; Quinlan, Michael C; Harrison, Jon F

    2007-08-07

    Recent studies have suggested that Paleozoic hyperoxia enabled animal gigantism, and the subsequent hypoxia drove a reduction in animal size. This evolutionary hypothesis depends on the argument that gas exchange in many invertebrates and skin-breathing vertebrates becomes compromised at large sizes because of distance effects on diffusion. In contrast to vertebrates, which use respiratory and circulatory systems in series, gas exchange in insects is almost exclusively determined by the tracheal system, providing a particularly suitable model to investigate possible limitations of oxygen delivery on size. In this study, we used synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging to visualize the tracheal system and quantify its dimensions in four species of darkling beetles varying in mass by 3 orders of magnitude. We document that, in striking contrast to the pattern observed in vertebrates, larger insects devote a greater fraction of their body to the respiratory system, as tracheal volume scaled with mass1.29. The trend is greatest in the legs; the cross-sectional area of the trachea penetrating the leg orifice scaled with mass1.02, whereas the cross-sectional area of the leg orifice scaled with mass0.77. These trends suggest the space available for tracheae within the leg may ultimately limit the maximum size of extant beetles. Because the size of the tracheal system can be reduced when oxygen supply is increased, hyperoxia, as occurred during late Carboniferous and early Permian, may have facilitated the evolution of giant insects by allowing limbs to reach larger sizes before the tracheal system became limited by spatial constraints.

  13. Gigantic jets produced by an isolated tropical thunderstorm near Réunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, Serge; van der Velde, Oscar; Montanya, Joan; Huet, Patrice; Barthe, Christelle; Bór, József

    2011-10-01

    Five gigantic jets (GJs) have been recorded with video and photograph cameras on 7 March 2010 above an isolated tropical storm east of Réunion Island. Three of them were produced before the storm reached its coldest cloud top temperature (approximately -81°C), and two others occurred during the cloud extension. Thanks to the close distance of observation (˜50 km), the luminosity within the cloud was recorded, and the events are analyzed in unprecedented detail. The tops of the GJs are estimated between 80 and 90 km. All these GJs are accompanied by long, continuous cloud illumination, and they are preceded and followed by intermittent optical flashes from the cloud, most of time without any cloud-to-ground (CG) flash simultaneously detected, which suggests they originated mainly as intracloud discharges and without any charge transfer to Earth. The CG lightning activity is observed to cease a few tens of seconds before the jets. According to ELF data recorded at Nagycenk, Hungary, the five GJs serve to raise negative charge. Their duration ranges from 333 to 850 ms. The leading jet has the most variable duration (33-167 ms) and propagates faster at higher altitudes. The trailing jet exhibits a continuous decrease of luminosity in different parts of the jet (lower channel, transition zone and, for most events, carrot sprite-like top) and in the cloud, with possible rebrightening. The lower channels (˜20-40 km altitude) produce blue luminosity which decreases with altitude and become more and more diffuse with time. The transition zone (around 40-65 km) consists of bright red, luminous beads slowly going up (˜104 m s-1), retracing the initial leading jet channels.

  14. High-precision chronology for Central American maize diversification from El Gigante rockshelter, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J; Thakar, Heather B; VanDerwarker, Amber M; Webster, David L; Culleton, Brendan J; Harper, Thomas K; Kistler, Logan; Scheffler, Timothy E; Hirth, Kenneth

    2017-08-22

    The first steps toward maize ( Zea mays subspecies mays ) domestication occurred in the Balsas region of Mexico by ∼9,000 calendar years B.P. (cal B.P.), but it remains unclear when maize was productive enough to be a staple grain in the Americas. Molecular and microbotanical data provide a partial picture of the timing and nature of morphological change, with genetic data indicating that alleles for some domestication traits were not yet fixed by 5,300 cal B.P. in the highlands of Mexico. Here, we report 88 radiocarbon dates on the botanical remains from El Gigante rockshelter (Honduras) to establish a Bayesian chronology over the past ∼11,000 y spanning the transition to maize-based food production. Botanical remains are remarkably well preserved and include over 10,000 maize macrofossils. We directly dated 37 maize cobs to establish the appearance and local change of maize at the site. Cobs are common in deposits dating between 4,340 and 4,020 cal B.P., and again between 2,350 and 980 cal B.P. The earliest cobs appear robustly domesticated, having 10-14 rows, suggesting strong selection for increased yield. The later cobs are comparable to these earliest ones, but show clear emergence of diverse traits, including increased cob width, rachis segment length, and cupule width. Our results indicate that domesticated landraces of maize productive enough to be a staple grain existed in Central America by 4,300 cal B.P.

  15. Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary gigantism and galactorrhea in a 3.5 year old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitsch, J; Lüdecke, D K; Stahnke, N; Wiebel, J; Saeger, W

    2000-05-01

    The management of pituitary macroadenomas which lead to gigantism may require multiple therapeutical approaches, including medical treatment, surgery, and radiation therapy. Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) during early childhood that achieves total removal of a growth hormone (GH) secreting tumor is rarely reported. The surgeon is confronted with special problems regarding the infantile anatomy. In this case, a 3.5 year old child, the youngest successfully treated by TSS so far, suffered from a GH- and prolactin (PRL) secreting macroadenoma of the pituitary gland. The girl initially presented with an increasing growth rate, later with breast development, and finally, at the age of 2.8 years, with galactorrhea and secretion of blood from the nipples. Increased levels of GH [122 micrograms/l], insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) [830 micrograms/l], insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) [8.6 mg/l] and PRL [590 micrograms/l] were found. MRI scans revealed a macroadenoma of 2.7 cm diameter. An eight-week trial of relatively low dose dopamine agonists led to a reduction of PRL, while the GH- and IGF-1 levels remained unchanged; the tumor showed only little shrinkage. Since there was chiasma compression, we opted for early TSS. A complete tumor removal was achieved despite the difficulties of a narrow approach. After TSS, low levels of GH, IGF-1, and PRL documented a complete tumor removal, but persistent diabetes insipidus and anterior lobe deficits resulted from surgery. In summary, if primary medical therapy alone is unable to adequately reduce hormone hypersecretion and tumor size in early childhood, TSS is recommended. Thus, radiation therapy may be reserved for surgical failure.

  16. Trends in indices for extremes in daily air temperature over Utah, USA Tendências de indices de extremos para temperatura do ar diária sobre Utah, EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to obtain analysis of the trends in eleven annual extreme indices of temperature for Utah, United State of America (USA. The analyses have been obtained for 28 meteorological stations, in general, for the period of 1930 to 2006, characterizing a long-term period and with high quality data. The software used to process the data was the RClimdex 1.0. The analysis has identified that the temperature increased in Utah during the last century, evidencing the importance of the ongoing research on climate change in many parts of the world.O principal objetivo desse estudo foi analisar as tendências de onze indices de extremos climáticos baseados em dados diários de temperatura do ar, obtidos a partir de 28 estações meteorológicas localizadas em Utah, Estados Unidos da America (EUA. Em geral, os dados foram coletados entre 1930 e 2006, apresentando coerente resolução temporal e espacial. O software utilizado no processamento dos dados foi o RClimdex 1.0. As análises dos índices extremos mostraram que a temperatura aumentou em Utah durante o último século, evidenciando a importância das pesquisas sobre mudanças climáticas em diferentes partes do mundo.

  17. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  18. Gigantic transverse voltage induced via off-diagonal thermoelectric effect in CaxCoO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kouhei; Kanno, Tsutomu; Sakai, Akihiro; Adachi, Hideaki; Yamada, Yuka

    2010-07-01

    Gigantic transverse voltages exceeding several tens volt have been observed in CaxCoO2 thin films with tilted c-axis orientation upon illumination of nanosecond laser pulses. The voltage signals were highly anisotropic within the film surface showing close relation with the c-axis tilt direction. The magnitude and the decay time of the voltage strongly depended on the film thickness. These results confirm that the large laser-induced voltage originates from a phenomenon termed the off-diagonal thermoelectric effect, by which a film out-of-plane temperature gradient leads to generation of a film in-plane voltage.

  19. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Naves, Luciana A.; Daly, Adrian Francis; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Junior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florencio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm,...

  20. Peces del Noroeste del Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Ramiro

    1994-01-01

    La ictiofauna del occidente del Ecuador es poco conocida. Los peces del noroccidente son diferentes a los del suroccidente del Ecuador. 34 familias y 82 especies fueron colectadas que equivale al 11 % de las especies de peces continentales registradas en el Ecuador. Icteogeográficamente se sabe que la costa ecuatoriana posee dos provincias: la del Pacifico Norte y la del Guayas, se determinó que el límite de las dos provincias es el río Santiago ya que las especies del mencionado río so...

  1. Análise de eventos hidrológicos extremos, usando-se a distribuição GEV e momentos LH Analysis of extreme hydrological events using GEV distribution and LH moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel M. F. de Queiroz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição de probabilidade generalizada de valores extremos (GEV, tem facilitado muitas aplicações em hidrologia, utilizada na modelação de eventos extremos naturais. Estudos sobre o assunto mostram que estimadores de máxima verossimilhança dos parâmetros da GEV são instáveis em pequenas amostras, podendo fornecer valores absurdos do parâmetro de forma, quando então são recomendados estimadores de momentos LH, baseados na combinação linear de estatísticas de altas ordens, introduzidas para caracterizar a parte mais alta da distribuição e os valores extremos dos dados; contudo, não se dispõe de programas computacionais para PC, que modelem eventos extremos via momentos LH. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, apresentar a modelação de eventos hidrológicos extremos através da distribuição GEV, utilizando-se momentos LH para estimar seus parâmetros e o teste estatístico proposto por Wang (1998 para verificação da qualidade dos ajustes desenvolvidos no ambiente Matlab. Como resultados, são apresentados as estimativas dos parâmetros da GEV, os valores das taxas de momentos LH: coeficientes de variação, assimetria e curtose, e os valores do teste de qualidade de ajuste, em aplicações com dados de vazão de rios do Paraná.The generalized extreme-value (GEV distribution has facilitated many applications in hydrology, used to model a wide variety of natural extreme events. Previous studies show that small-sample maximum-likelihood estimators parameters are unstable and demonstrates that absurd values of the GEV shape parameter can be generated. It is recommended that LH moments estimators, based on linear combinations of higher-order statistics, should be introduced for characterizing the upper part of distributions and larger events in data. However, there have been no computer packages for PC that model extreme events by LH moments. The objective of this paper was to present the modeling of hydrological extreme

  2. Controles y guías en la Exploración de cuerpos Argentíferos en Skarn del yacimiento de Uchucchacua Cajatambo-Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Rosales, Pascual; Martinez Rosales, Pascual; Martinez Rosales, Pascual

    1986-01-01

    El Yacimiento de Ag-Mn (Pb-Zn) de Uchucchacua está ubicado en el extremo sur de la Cordillera Raura, Provincia de Cajatambo, Departamento de Lima. Consiste principalmente en una serie de filones tales como las vetas Luz, Socorro, Camucha, Rosa, Casualidad, Plomopampa, Huantajalla, Mercedes y Candelaria. También se conocen cuerpos de reemplazamiento adyacentes a las vetas corno son Rosa Norte, Viviana e Irma; emplazadas en calizas y margas de la Formación Jumasha del Cretáceo Superior. L...

  3. A novel germline mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene in an Italian family with gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, C; Russo, D; Raggi, F; Lombardi, M; Sardella, C; Scattina, I; Lupi, I; Manetti, L; Tomisti, L; Marcocci, C; Martino, E; Bogazzi, F

    2014-10-01

    Acromegaly usually occurs as a sporadic disease, but it may be a part of familial pituitary tumor syndromes in rare cases. Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene have been associated with a predisposition to familial isolated pituitary adenoma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the AIP gene in a patient with gigantism and in her relatives. Direct sequencing of AIP gene was performed in fourteen members of the family, spanning among three generations. The index case was an 18-year-old woman with gigantism due to an invasive GH-secreting pituitary adenoma and a concomitant tall-cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. A novel germline mutation in the AIP gene (c.685C>T, p.Q229X) was identified in the proband and in two members of her family, who did not present clinical features of acromegaly or other pituitary disorders. Eleven subjects had no mutation in the AIP gene. Two members of the family with clinical features of acromegaly refused either the genetic or the biochemical evaluation. The Q229X mutation was predicted to generate a truncated AIP protein, lacking the last two tetratricopeptide repeat domains and the final C-terminal α-7 helix. We identified a new AIP germline mutation predicted to produce a truncated AIP protein, lacking its biological properties due to the disruption of the C-terminus binding sites for both the chaperones and the client proteins of AIP.

  4. Razanandrongobe sakalavae, a gigantic mesoeucrocodylian from the Middle Jurassic of Madagascar, is the oldest known notosuchian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Dal Sasso

    2017-07-01

    this gigantic predator is also attempted here. The very robust jaw bones of R. sakalavae, coupled with its peculiar dentition, strongly suggest a diet that included hard tissue such as bone and tendon.

  5. Paraganglioma pré-aórtico gigante Giant preaortic paraganglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O paraganglioma é um tumor neuroendócrino raro que ocorre mais frequentemente em adultos jovens. Geralmente produz catecolaminas acarretando síndrome adrenérgica. No entanto, muito raramente, quando não-funcionante seus sintomas são mais frequentemente associados à massa abdominal ou mesmo dor. Nessas circunstâncias costumam representar diagnóstico difícil sendo confundidos com os sarcomas de retroperitônio. RELATO DO CASO: Paraganglioma pré-aórtico gigante não-funcionante em paciente com níveis baixos de catecolaminas (sérico e urinário. O diagnóstico pré-operatório foi dado por tomografia computadorizada, onde foi observada massa sólida, hipervascular com calcificações e área cística central. O paciente foi submetido à ressecção cirúrgica da massa com boa evolução pós-operatória. Um ano após a operação, o doente encontra-se vivo sem recidiva tumoral. CONCLUSÃO: Em que pese a raridade o paraganglioma pré-aortico não-funcionante deve ser lembrado com diagnóstico diferencial com os sarcomas de retroperitônio. Seu tratamento é cirúrgico e apresenta bom prognóstico.RACIONAL: Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor which often diagnosed in the young adult. Generally, paraganglioma produces catecholamines causing adrenergic syndrome. However, more rarely when tumor is nonfunctioning, their symptoms are more associated with an abdominal mass or even pain. In these circumstances, paraganglioma present a difficult diagnosis confounding with retroperitoneal sarcomas. CASE REPORT: The authors present a case of nonfunctioning giant preaortic paraganglioma. This patient had low levels of catecholamines (both seric and urinary. The preoperative diagnosis was done by means computed tomography. This lesion presented as well-vascularized tumor with calcifications and necrotic central area. The patient underwent a surgical resection with good postoperative outcome. To date, one year after surgical

  6. Climatic control on the growth of gigantic gypsum crystals within hypogenic caves (Naica mine, Mexico)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Paolo S.; Fricker, Mattias B.; Günther, Detlef; Forti, Paolo; Mercuri, Anna-Maria; Loreti, Mara; Capaccioni, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Three hypogenic caves within the Naica mine of Mexico ( Cueva de los Cristales — CLC, Ojo de la Reina — OR, and Cueva de las Velas — CLV) host spectacular gypsum crystals up to 11 m in length. These caves are close to another shallow cave of the area ( Cueva de las Espadas — CLE), with which they cover a 160 m-deep vertical section of the local drainage basin. Similar to other hypogenic caves, all these caves lack a direct connection with the land surface and should be unrelated with climate. A record of multi-technique fluid inclusion data and pollen spectra from cave and mine gypsum indicates surprisingly that climatic changes occurring at Naica could have controlled fluid composition in these caves, and hence crystal growth. Microthermometry and LA-ICP-Mass Spectrometry of fluid inclusions indicate that the shallow, chemically peculiar, saline fluid (up to 7.7 eq. wt.%NaCl) of CLE could have formed from evaporation, during a dry and hot climatic period. The fluid of the deep caves was instead of low salinity (˜ 3.5 eq. wt.% NaCl) and chemically homogeneous, and was poorly affected by evaporation. We propose that mixing of these two fluids, generated at different depths of the Naica drainage basin, determined the stable supersaturation conditions for the gigantic gypsum crystals to grow. Fluid mixing was controlled by the hydraulic communication between CLE and the other deep caves, and must have taken place during cycles of warm-dry and fresh-wet climatic periods, which are known to have occurred in the region. Pollen grains from a 35 ka-old gypsum crystal of CLC corresponds to a fairly homogenous catchment basin made of a mixed broadleaf wet forest, which suggests precipitation during a fresh-wet climatic period and confirms our interpretation of the fluid inclusion data. The unusual combination of geological and geochemical factors of Naica suggests that other hypogenic caves found elsewhere may not host similar crystals. However, this work shows that

  7. Rapid and repeated origin of insular gigantism and dwarfism in Australian tiger snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, J Scott; Scott, Ian A W; Hayes, Christine

    2005-01-01

    It is a well-known phenomenon that islands can support populations of gigantic or dwarf forms of mainland conspecifics, but the variety of explanatory hypotheses for this phenomenon have been difficult to disentangle. The highly venomous Australian tiger snakes (genus Notechis) represent a well-known and extreme example of insular body size variation. They are of special interest because there are multiple populations of dwarfs and giants and the age of the islands and thus the age of the tiger snake populations are known from detailed sea level studies. Most are 5000-7000 years old and all are less than 10,000 years old. Here we discriminate between two competing hypotheses with a molecular phylogeography dataset comprising approximately 4800 bp of mtDNA and demonstrate that populations of island dwarfs and giants have evolved five times independently. In each case the closest relatives of the giant or dwarf populations are mainland tiger snakes, and in four of the five cases, the closest relatives are also the most geographically proximate mainland tiger snakes. Moreover, these body size shifts have evolved extremely rapidly and this is reflected in the genetic divergence between island body size variants and mainland snakes. Within south eastern Australia, where populations of island giants, populations of island dwarfs, and mainland tiger snakes all occur, the maximum genetic divergence is only 0.38%. Dwarf tiger snakes are restricted to prey items that are much smaller than the prey items of mainland tiger snakes and giant tiger snakes are restricted to seasonally available prey items that are up three times larger than the prey items of mainland tiger snakes. We support the hypotheses that these body size shifts are due to strong selection imposed by the size of available prey items, rather than shared evolutionary history, and our results are consistent with the notion that adaptive plasticity also has played an important role in body size shifts. We suggest

  8. Gigantic landslides versus glacial deposits: on origin of large hummock deposits in Alai Valley, Northern Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznichenko, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    As glaciers are sensitive to local climate, their moraines position and ages are used to infer past climates and glacier dynamics. These chronologies are only valid if all dated moraines are formed as the result of climatically driven advance and subsequent retreat. Hence, any accurate palaeoenvironmental reconstruction requires thorough identification of the landform genesis by complex approach including geomorphological, sedimentological and structural landform investigation. Here are presented the implication of such approach for the reconstruction of the mega-hummocky deposits formation both of glacial and landslide origin in the glaciated Alai Valley of the Northern Pamir with further discussion on these and similar deposits validity for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The Tibetan Plateau valleys are the largest glaciated regions beyond the ice sheets with high potential to provide the best geological record of glacial chronologies and, however, with higher probabilities of the numerous rock avalanche deposits including those that were initially considered of glacial origin (Hewitt, 1999). The Alai Valley is the largest intermountain depression in the upper reaches of the Amudarja River basin that has captured numerous unidentified extensive hummocky deposits descending from the Zaalai Range of Northern Pamir, covering area in more than 800 km2. Such vast hummocky deposits are usually could be formed either: 1) glacially by rapid glacial retreat due to the climate signal or triggered a-climatically glacial changes, such as glacial surge or landslide impact, or 2) during the landslide emplacement. Combination of sediment tests on agglomerates forming only in rock avalanche material (Reznichenko et al., 2012) and detailed geomorphological and sedimentological descriptions of these deposits allowed reconstructing the glacial deposition in the Koman and Lenin glacial catchments with identification of two gigantic rock avalanches and their relation to this glacial

  9. BIORREGULADORES NA MORFOLOGIA E NA PRODUTIVIDADE DE FRUTOS DE TOMATEIRO CULTIVAR ÂNGELA GIGANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS MARIA BERNARDETE GONÇALVES

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como finalidade observar aspectos morfológicos dos frutos de tomateiro, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ângela Gigante, submetidos à ação de biorreguladores, com ou sem adubação adicional, e determinar as possíveis alterações na produtividade. Foram desenvolvidos, em casa de vegetação, em épocas distintas, dois ensaios. As mudas foram selecionadas e transplantadas para vasos com capacidade de 12 L de terra, contendo uma mistura de solo argiloso, areia, matéria orgânica e uma adubação mineral complementar de N, P, K. No segundo ensaio, após o transplante das mudas, além da adubação mineral complementar de N, P, K, efetuaram-se adubações adicionais (fertirrigação. Em ambos os ensaios, quando as plantas atingiram quatro folhas definitivas, realizaram-se as pulverizações com GA3 50 mg/L; NAA 100 mg/L; CCC 1.500 mg/L e SADH 3.000 mg/L. Realizaram-se, nos dois ensaios, quatro coletas de frutos maduros por planta. De modo geral, para o primeiro, o tratamento com CCC mostrou tendência em aumentar o número e a massa total de frutos por planta em relação à testemunha e aos demais tratamentos, enquanto o tratamento com NAA obteve efeito contrário. O ensaio com fertirrigação adicional não provocou alterações significativas na produção de frutos; no entanto, no tratamento com SADH, ocorreu maior incidência de anomalias. O tratamento com GA3 ocasionou, em alguns frutos, a maturação precoce da placenta em relação ao pericarpo e eventuais formações de frutos geminados. Não se observaram diferenças morfológicas significativas em relação ao comprimento e ao diâmetro médio de frutos provenientes do primeiro ensaio, porém frutos de plantas tratadas com CCC e de plantas testemunha, provindos do segundo ensaio, mostraram maior diâmetro.

  10. Tetralogía de Fallot asociada a duplicación distal del brazo largo del cromosoma 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodia Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La tetralogía de Fallot es una cardiopatía frecuente y puede representar hasta el 11 al 13% de todas las cardiopatías congénitas clínicas, se presenta en 1 de cada 8.500 nacidos vivos. En la mayoría de los casos, se asocia a una microdeleción del cromosoma 22 y con menor frecuencia al síndrome de Down. El síndrome de la dup 11q es una anomalía cromosómica causada por la duplicación de la porción distal del extremo del brazo largo del cromosoma 11, ocasionando una trisomía parcial del mismo, producto de un desbalance cromosómico, con disfunción de los genes involucrados en este material genético adicional que ocasiona anormalidades tanto físicas como mentales en un recién nacido. Se presenta el caso de un niño de 3 meses de vida que es derivado a la consulta genética por fenotipo sindromático, Tetralogía de Fallot y retraso del crecimiento. El estudio citogenético se realizó en sangre periférica, los cromosomas fueron procesados con técnicas de tinción convencional, bandas de alta resolución y centroméricas, observándose una duplicación 11q. Cariotipo: 46, XY, dup11 (q23àqter. Se enfatiza la importancia del estudio cromosómico en recién nacidos con malformaciones congénitas mayores para el diagnóstico de certeza y posterior asesoramiento genético a los progenitores.

  11. The lower Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) at the northern extreme of the Mendoza Precordillera, Argentina: stratigraphic and biostratigraphic implications; El Darriwiliense inferior (Ordovícico Medio) en el extremo norte de la Precordillera de Mendoza, Argentina: implicaciones estratigráficas y bioestratigráficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresi, M.S.; Bordonaro, O.L.; Heredia, S.E.; Mestre, A.; Toro, B.A.

    2017-09-01

    regions at the Precordillera, northwestern Argentina and worldwide, as well as some paleoenvironmental considerations, are additionally discussed. [Spanish] En esta contribución se da a conocer una nueva localidad fosilífera en la Cantera Los Guanacos del extremo norte de la sierra de Las Higueras, a 10.5 km de la localidad de Salagasta, Precordillera de Mendoza, oeste de Argentina. Se trata de un nivel carbonático lenticular fosilífero intercalado entre la unidad mixta pelítica/ carbonática (transfacies) correlacionable con la base de la Formación Los Azules. Éste se caracteriza por un límite erosional de espesor milimétrico y por una distribución mecánica de bioclastos e intraclastos, por encima del mudstone basal oscuro. La capa bioclástica se interpreta como el depósito de un evento tempestítico acaecido en la plataforma carbonática. Se determinan las microfacies carbonáticas y las asociaciones de macro y microfauna. Se registran y describen los trilobites Mendolaspis salagastensis y especies indeterminadas de Agnostidae, Illaenidae, Leiostegiidae, Encrinuridae, Telephinidae y Trinucleidae. Se reconocieron braquiópodos indeterminados de la familia Obolidae. Los graptolitos son comparables con Levisograptus cf. austrodentatus y en base a la fauna de conodontos se reconoce la Zona de Yangtzeplacognathus crassus de edad darriwiliense temprana (Ordovícico Medio). Se discuten las implicaciones bioestratigráficas de estos registros, que permiten la correlación de estos niveles de la Precordillera de Mendoza con otras regiones de la Precordillera de San Juan, del Noroeste argentino y del mundo. Se brindan además algunas consideraciones paleoambientales surgidas del análisis de estos registros faunísticos y de las microfacies carbonáticas.

  12. Tratamiento quirúrgico del aneurisma de arteria circunfleja con fístula a seno coronario e insuficiencia aórtica

    OpenAIRE

    Valera, Francisco J.; Doñate, Lucía; Hernández, Carlos E.; Schuler, Mona; Bel, Ana; Montero, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Presentamos el manejo quirúrgico para la corrección de un aneurisma gigante de arteria circunfleja con fístula al seno coronario e insuficiencia valvular aórtica, una combinación muy infrecuente. El procedimiento consistió en el cierre epicárdico de la fístula, la resección del aneurisma y plicatura del seno coronario, junto con reemplazo valvular aórtico. Se discuten otras modalidades de manejo quirúrgico.

  13. Transición en la concepción de la viabilidad de prematuros extremos: análisis sociodiscursivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. García Selgas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar cómo en nuestro país se está transitando hacia una nueva concepción de la viabilidad de la prematuridad extrema (recién nacidos con menos de 28 semanas de gestación, caracterizarla y contextualizarla.Para ello, se utilizan datos procedentes de una investigación (P.N. I+D+i, CSO2011-24294 que ha obtenido resultados válidos sobre el desarrollo de 1200 nacidos con 1500 gramos (g o menos de peso, mediante encuesta poblacional multimétodo, y producido cuatro grupos de discusión y 25 entrevistas abiertas con agentes cualificados. Se recogen aquí los resultados del análisis sociodiscursivo del material cualitativo centrado en esta cuestión y del estudio de diversos documentos sobre viabilidad en la prematuridad extrema.En cuanto a los resultados, en España se viene transitando de manera más práctica que consciente desde una concepción reduccionista de la prematuridad extrema, ligada al normativismo de la bioética y al aislamiento del recién nacido, a una mirada más ensamblada, compleja y heterogénea, acorde con la vigente renovación de la cultura, la práctica y la política biosanitaria en nuestro país.

  14. Imágenes del Estrecho de Gibraltar desde la literatura de viajes: un paisaje dominado por el viento y la frontera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César López Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontera entre dos continentes y límite durante varios siglos del Mundo Antiguo frente al desconocido y temido Atlántico, el Estrecho de Gibraltar constituye un enclave geoestratégico de primer orden recorrido por numerosos viajeros desde la Antigüedad. De la lectura de la literatura de viajes, especialmente prolífica desde que Gibraltar en 1704 se convierte en puerto británico y puerta de entrada en la península Ibérica para los viajeros ilustrados, se obtienen imágenes de un territorio en el que las construcciones castrenses y las diversas huellas del viento constituyen los rasgos más sobresalientes de un paisaje singular situado en el extremo sur del continente europeo.

  15. O modelo da vigilância à saúde: um estudo exploratório no extremo sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele da Rocha Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esto estudio fue analizar el modelo de organización tecnológica de la Vigilancia a la Salud, en los 22 municipios que componen la 3ª Coordinadoría Regional de Salud/RS, analisando los elementos de su proceso de trabajo, el perfil dos trabajadores atuantes en los diferentes servicios/ambientes de la Vigilancia a la Salud. Refierese a un estudio contitativo que utilisó un abordaje exploratório, descriptivo y analítico. Los datos fueron obtenidos através de una encuesta estructurada con 82 trabajadores y analisados estatísticamente, através del calculo de media, desvío padrón, siendo utilizado el teste de post hoc de la Diferencia Media Significativa. La Vigilancia a la Salud posee trabajadores em las mas diversas areas del saber, 66% del sexo femenino con idades entre 31 y 50 anõs, atuando em su maioria en el ambiente de la Vigilância Epidemiológica. Con su organización tecnológica pautada em la promoción de la salud la Vigilancia a la Salud busca la construcción de un nuevo modelo de atención que reoriente las práticas de salud en el Sistema Único de la Salud.

  16. Gigantes da internet e práticas fiscais desleais / Internet Giants and Unfair Tax Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Ayrault

    2018-05-01

    analisa o problema com base na legislação tributária francesa, em contraste com fontes internacionais da OCDE – Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico – e de outros países, como Estados Unidos da América e Irlanda. Além da apreciação jurídica, são analisados relatórios e casos. Resultados – No que se refere às falhas de legislação, mostra-se a “relação territorial” e o “preço de transferência” como os principais elementos para o debate sobre a elisão fiscal. Em relação às formas de enfrentamento de práticas desleais, encontram-se a luta contra jurisdições fiscais complacentes bem como a exigência de transparência sobre as empresas, com obrigações de informação. Implicações práticas – Permite-se esclarecer, assim, o comportamento fiscal adotado pelas empresas gigantes da Internet, bem como as possíveis formas de enfrentamento dessas práticas desleais, com base no contexto europeu. Originalidade – A originalidade se dá justamente em problematizar o comportamento fiscal de grandes corporações da Internet e elucidar os meios possíveis para tentar coibir as práticas desleais.

  17. Gigantic transverse x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in ultrathin Co in Au/Co/Au(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, T; Mamiya, K; Asakura, D; Osatune, Y; Fujimori, A; Suzuki, Y; Katayama, T; Yuasa, S

    2014-01-01

    Transverse-geometry x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (TXMCD) measurements on Au/Co-staircase/Au(001) reveal the orbital origin of intrinsic in-plane magnetic anisotropy A gigantic TXMCD was successfully observed at the Co L 3,2 edges for Co thickness (t C0 ) in the 2-monolayer regime. A TXMCD-sum-rule analysis shows a remarkable enhancement of an orbital-moment anisotropy (Δm orb ) and of an in-plane magnetic dipole moment (m || T ). Both Δm orb and m || T exhibit close similarity in t Co dependence, reflecting the in-plane magnetic anisotropy These observations evidence that extremely strong, intrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy originates from the anisotropic orbital part of the wave function, dominating the dipole-dipole-interaction-derived, extrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy.

  18. Gigantic transverse x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in ultrathin Co in Au/Co/Au(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, T.; Mamiya, K.; Asakura, D.; Osatune, Y.; Fujimori, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Katayama, T.; Yuasa, S.

    2014-04-01

    Transverse-geometry x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (TXMCD) measurements on Au/Co-staircase/Au(001) reveal the orbital origin of intrinsic in-plane magnetic anisotropy A gigantic TXMCD was successfully observed at the Co L3,2 edges for Co thickness (tC0) in the 2-monolayer regime. A TXMCD-sum-rule analysis shows a remarkable enhancement of an orbital-moment anisotropy (Δmorb) and of an in-plane magnetic dipole moment (m||T). Both Δmorb and m||T exhibit close similarity in tCo dependence, reflecting the in-plane magnetic anisotropy These observations evidence that extremely strong, intrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy originates from the anisotropic orbital part of the wave function, dominating the dipole-dipole-interaction-derived, extrinsic, in-plane magnetic anisotropy.

  19. Gigantic terahertz magnetochromism via electromagnons in the hexaferrite magnet Ba2Mg2Fe12O22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, N.; Kumakura, S.; Ishiwata, S.; Taguchi, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Effects of temperature (6-225 K) and magnetic field (0-7 T) on the low-energy (1.2-5 meV) electrodynamics of the electromagnon, the magnetic resonance driven by the light electric field, have been investigated for a hexaferrite magnet Ba2Mg2Fe12O22 by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We find the gigantic terahertz magnetochromism via electromagnons; the magnetochromic change, as defined by the difference of the absorption intensity with and without magnetic field, exceeds 500% even at 0.6 T. The results arise from the fact that the spectral intensity of the electromagnon critically depends on the magnetic structure. With changing the conical spin structures in terms of the conical angle θ from the proper screw (θ=0°) to the ferrimagnetic (θ=90°) through the conical spin-ordered phases (0°origin of this electromagnon is argued in terms of the exchange-striction mechanism.

  20. On the shoulders of giants: Harvey Cushing's experience with acromegaly and gigantism at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1896-1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Courtney; Adams, Hadie; Salvatori, Roberto; Wand, Gary; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2011-03-01

    A review of Dr. Cushing's surgical cases at Johns Hopkins Hospital revealed new information about his early operative experience with acromegaly. Although in 1912 Cushing published selective case studies regarding this work, a review of all his operations for acromegaly during his early years has never been reported. We uncovered 37 patients who Cushing treated with surgical intervention directed at the pituitary gland. Of these, nine patients who presented with symptoms of acromegaly, and one with symptoms of gigantism were selected for further review. Two patients underwent transfrontal 'omega incision' approaches, and the remaining eight underwent transsphenoidal approaches. Of the 10 patients, 6 were male. The mean age was 38.0 years. The mean hospital stay was 39.4 days. There was one inpatient death during primary interventions (10%) and three patients were deceased at the time of last follow-up (33%). The mean time to death, calculated from the date of the primary surgical intervention, and including inpatient and outpatient deaths, was 11.3 months. The mean time to last follow-up, calculated from the day of discharge, was 59.3 months. At the time of last follow-up, two patients reported resolution of headache; four patients reported continued visual deficits, and two patients reported ongoing changes in mental status. This review analyzes the outcomes for 10 patients who underwent surgical intervention for acromegaly or gigantism, and offers an explanation for Cushing's transition from the transfrontal "omega incision" to the transsphenoidal approach while practicing at the Johns Hopkins Hospital.

  1. Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Luciana A; Daly, Adrian F; Dias, Luiz Augusto; Yuan, Bo; Zakir, Juliano Coelho Oliveira; Barra, Gustavo Barcellos; Palmeira, Leonor; Villa, Chiara; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Júnior, Armindo Jreige; Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante; Liu, Pengfei; Pellegata, Natalia S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Lupski, James R; Beckers, Albert

    2016-02-01

    X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 × 23.9 × 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 × 58.1 × 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome.

  2. Hipernefroma gigante: a propósito de un caso Giant hypernephroma: apropos of a case

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    Rafael Pinilla González

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El hipernefroma constituye el 3 % de todos los tumores malignos y es el tumor renal más frecuente del adulto. Se sospechaba la existencia de un carcinoma renal ante la presencia de hematuria, lumbalgia y tumor abdominal palpable. En la actualidad, el empleo sistemático de la ultrasonografía y la tomografía axial computarizada ha posibilitado la detección de masas renales incidentales y mejorado el pronóstico de estos pacientes. Se describe el caso de un paciente del sexo masculino, de 45 años de edad, con dolor en el lado izquierdo del abdomen y tumoración de crecimiento rápido, que se hizo muy dolorosa en los dos días previos a la operación. Por incremento notable del dolor y por no tener la posibilidad de realizar estudios imaginológicos, se decide operar de urgencia. Se diagnosticó un hipernefroma izquierdo con sangrado intratumoral y se realizó nefrectomía izquierda. El informe histológico confirmó un carcinoma de células renales del tipo de células claras. El paciente fue valorado antes del alta por el oncólogo, quien propuso seguimiento solamenteThe hypernephroma accounts for 3 % of all the malignant tumors and it is the most frequent renal tumor in adults. It was suspected the existence of a renal carcinoma in the presence of haematuria, low back pain and palpable abdominal tumor. Nowadays, the systematic use of ultrasonography and computerized axial tomography has made possible the detection of incidental renal masses, and has improved the prognosis of these patients. The case of a 45-year-old patient with pain on the left side of the abdomen and tumor of fast growth that became very painful 2 days before the operation was described. Due to a marked increase of pain and to the impossibility of carrying out imaging studies, it was decided to perform emergency surgery. A left hypernephroma with intratumoral bleeding was diagnosed and left nephrectomy was performed. The histological report confirmed a clear-cell renal

  3. Estudio de una estructura sísmica con perspectivas gasopretolíferas en la cuenca del Cauto, Cuba

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    Margarita Juara-Zulueta

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La Cuenca del Cauto se encuentra ubicada en el extremo sudoriental de Cuba, y constituye una de las regiones naturales más extensas del país. Este territorio presenta algunas premisas geológicas interesantes para la exploración petrolera, lo que unido al hecho objetivo de que fueron detectadas diversas manifestaciones de hidrocarburos en varios pozos profundos perforados, le confieren al mismo un significativo interés. En el presente trabajo se exponen los aspectos relacionados con la detección de una anomalía sísmica de tipo "flat spot" en la estructura Caoba ubicada en la Cuenca del Cauto. Esta anomalía fue identificada mediante el Método del Punto Común de Profundidad y pudiera constituir un indicio directo sobre la presencia de hidrocarburos en la misma. Esta evaluación se fundamenta, además, en el análisis del comportamiento observado de la Velocidad de Intervalo en sus proximidades, así como también atendiendo a los datos de los pozos profundos perforados en las inmediaciones del sector investigado. Como conclusión del trabajo, se formulan algunas recomendaciones para el ulterior desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones en el área, a fin de confirmar su posible interés petrolero

  4. Compactación potencial en dos suelos de la parte plana del Valle del Cauca

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    Edgar Madero-Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Muestras de los primeros 20 cm de la superficie de dos suelos en CIAT-Palmira (Calciustol y Haplustol, vérticos mezclados francos isohipertérmicos con pendiente 0.5%, utilizados en coberturas tanto de bosque secundario como de cultivos diversos por más de cincuenta años consecutivos, fueron compactados en el aparato de Richards bajo dos condiciones de humedad (0.1 y 0.5 bar para comparar el punto de máxima compactación, y su influencia en la variación de la densidad aparente, la tasa de difusión de oxígeno, la porosidad de aireación, la conductividad hidráulica saturada y el módulo de ruptura. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial (dos suelos, por dos usos, por dos humedades con tres repeticiones. Para la separación de medias se utilizó la prueba de Duncan (P < 0.05. El estudio concluye que los altos contenidos de M.O. no siempre evitan la degradación del suelo por efecto del tráfico de maquinaria en contenidos de humedad altos; independientemente del uso, el Calciustol más limoso tuvo ligeramente mayor potencial a la compactación que el Haplustol; y el cultivo continuado de los dos suelos los ha hecho más susceptibles al daño físico, ya que en estado muy húmedo, se compactaron al extremo y mostraron el deterioro físico que en la práctica puede acarrear el tráfico de maquinaria sobre el suelo, y en estado húmedo se compactaron moderadamente.

  5. Compte rendu de l'ouvrage de Jean de Marignolli, Au jardin d’Éden, traducido del latín y presentado por Christine Gadrat, Toulouse, Anacharsis, 2009, 93 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    toro de , José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    National audience; De los viajeros medievales al extremo oriente, Juan de Marignolli (c.1290-1358/9) no es de los más conocidos. La razón sea probablemente el hecho de que este franciscano no dejó una relación de sus viajes en forma independiente, como hicieran sus compañeros de orden Guillermo de Rubruck y Odorico de Pordenone. Prefirió contar sus vivencias, lo que vio y sintió en esas tierras lejanas, en el marco de una gran crónica universal desde la creación del mundo hasta su época. Este...

  6. La rodilla: una articulación que se adecúa a la geografía y el clima extremo de la montaña

    OpenAIRE

    Loughlin, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    El tratamiento de la temática a desarrollar, cumple con el objetivo de revalorizar y examinar aquellos aspectos anatómicos-funcionales y biomecánicos de la articulación de la rodilla, necesarios para el correcto funcionamiento del miembro inferior en la maniobra de caminar en superficies altamente complejas, como los ascensos de montañas y el transitar por superficies heladas o nevadas con crampones. No necesariamente hay que conocer específicamente la anatomía descriptiva de la rodilla en...

  7. La batalla global por el alma del capitalismo

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    Luis Esteban G. Manrique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El gigante informático norteamericano Apple vale hoy en bolsa unos 350.000 millones de dólares, 20.000 millones más que la segunda compañía del país, ExxonMobil, y también más que los 32 mayores bancos de la zona euro juntos. Sin embargo, Apple apenas tiene 47.000 empleados en todo el mundo, 30.000 de los cuales trabajan en EE.UU., pero ninguno de ellos en plantas de ensamblaje. Todos sus famosos productos -los iMac, iPod, iPad, iPhone- son fabricados en China por la contratista taiwanesa Foxconn, para la que trabajan casi un millón de personas, 250.000 de ellas dedicadas en exclusiva a los artilugios electrónicos de la compañía de la manzana.

  8. Jorge Oteiza como paradigma. Desilusión y crisis del arte abstracto

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    Miguel Anxo Rodríguez González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1958 y 1959, poco después de haber ganado el Premio de Escultura de la Bienal de Sâo Paulo, Oteiza decide abandonar su actividad escultórica. Según sus palabras, esto fue consecuencia de los desarrollos extremos de su «Propósito experimental», intenso trabajo de investigación sobre el espacio en la escultura, que le llevó inevitablemente al descubrimiento de la nada. Este abandono puede servir de síntoma de la crisis del arte abstracto y a la vez, que Oteiza estaba anticipando nuevos modos de entender el hecho artístico, más interesados en reintegrar el hecho social y asumir estrategias de investigación de otras disciplinas.

  9. Una tumba tardo-romana con ajuar en Valverde del Fresno (Cáceres

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    Miguel GARCÍA DE FIGUEROLA PANIAGUA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available nicho excavado en la tierra, de 0,70 m. de profundidad y de forma trapezoidal, se dispuso la arquitectura de la sepultura. Esta consta de dos grandes lajas de pizarra —de unos 5 cms. de espesor— que constituyen sus laterales y un paramento a base de cascotes en el extremo más ancho, cuya finalidad se nos escapa. La cubierta era también de pizarra y debió romperse bajo la acción del tractor. Mide 1,90 mts. de longitud ? 0,74 mts. de ancho mayor, en la parte que consideramos la cabecera. Su orientación es N.S.

  10. EVALUACIÓN DEL ÍNDICE DE PERÓXIDO DEL AJO FRITO DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO

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    Patricia Prati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar la alteración oxidativa del ajo (Allium sativum L. frito durante seis meses de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente mediante la determinación del índice de peróxido de la fracción lipídica. Fueron procesados cinco cultivares de ajo: roxinho, santa catarina roxo, gigante de curitibanos y assaí, uno importado de China de cultivar desconocido. Los ajos fueron procesados de dos formas, picados y laminados, luego fritos por inmersión en grasa pastosa de origen vegetal marca mazola chef a 180°C por 3 minutos. Después de enfriados fueron envasados en potes plásticos de polietileno de alta densidad (PEAD con tapa del mismo material. La determinación del índice de peróxido se llevó a cabo en el tiempo cero y cada 45 días, hasta los 180 días de almacenamiento. A lo largo del almacenamiento, se observó un aumento del índice de peróxido, para todos los cultivares, sin embargo al final de los 180 días todos llos valores aún estaban debajo de los límites citados por la literatura. El mayor valor de 5.4 ± 0.1 meq O2/kg se obtuvo para el cultivar conocido comercialmente como Chinês laminado y frito. La mayoría de las muestras de ajos fritos laminados mostró valores de peróxidos superiores a las de ajos frito picados, con excepción de los cultivares santa catarina roxo y gigante de curitibanos, en el tiempo cero. Los valores de índice de peróxido encontrados indican que los productos se mantuvieron estables en relación a la reacción de oxidación,durante el período de almacenamiento.

  11. Lepra histioide con lesiones gigantes de los dedos de manos y pies

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    Gerzaín Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    La paciente recibió quimioterapia antileprosa (Organización Mundial de la Salud con resultados excelentes. Se concluyó que un infiltrado dérmico difuso con histiocitos fusiformes y algunos vacuolados, que sugiere un tumor fusocelular, cuya inmunohistoquímica sea particularmente rica en células positivas para CD68, debe teñirse con Ziehl-Neelsen, lo que revelará abundantes bacilos si la lesión es de lepra. La adecuada correlación clínico-patológica es necesaria para establecer el diagnóstico y el manejo preciso del paciente.

  12. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

    2006-02-01

    Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  13. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil

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    M. V. Urso-Guimarães

    Full Text Available Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera. This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae, Distictela (Bignoniaceae, Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae, Ouratea (Ochnaceae, and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae. The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  14. Espeletia pycnophylla subsp. angelensis, el ángel del norte

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    Rodríguez Rebeca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Espeletia pycnophylla subsp. angelensis es una subespecie del género Espeletia, comúnmente conocido como frailejón, nativo de Ecuador y Colombia. Uno de sus asentamientos primarios es la Reserva Ecológica El Ángel. Al ser miembro de los frailejones domina el páramo de la reserva, y ayuda a cumplir su función esencial: captar y distribuir el agua hacia tierras bajas. Además, posee ventajas adaptativas que le permiten soportar los climas extremos del páramo, así como una alta especificidad en la altura en donde crece. Los estudios realizados sobre esta especie muestran que los frailejones son un ecosistema en sí mismos. En especial, recientes investigaciones los identifican como hogar de varias especies de artrópodos. Espeletia pycnophylla subsp. angelensis sufre varias amenazas relacionados con alteraciones en el clima de su hábitat, y es de vital importancia un plan de acción para protegerlo, así como también a su hábitat.

  15. La evolución del mapa social del Gran San Miguel de Tucumán. Un estudio del periodo 1991 a 2010 a través del análisis factorial

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    Ana Ester Batista Zamora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El aglomerado del Gran San Miguel de Tucumán, capital de la Región Noroeste de la República Argentina, ha experimentado un notable aumento de población desde 1991. Dicha población dista de ser homogénea en lo relativo a sus niveles de instrucción, estructura por edad o características de sus viviendas, entre otras, al tiempo que el aumento del parque habitacional ha tenido lugar entre dos extremos: urbanizaciones cerradas y barrios de habitat popular, en muchas ocasiones con problemas dominiales. En este contexto, y aplicando análisis factoriales de componentes principales a 13 variables censales, correspondientes a los Censos de población de 1991, 2001 y 2010, mostramos cómo las causas subyacentes a la distribución espacial de la población se han mantenido muy estables durante el periodo analizado, al tiempo que su distribución espacial refleja un proceso de progresiva polarización y problemas habitacionales no resueltos.

  16. A reanimação do prematuro extremo em sala de parto: controvérsias Controversies about the resuscitation of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room

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    Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar as principais controvérsias quanto aos procedimentos atualmente realizados na reanimação de recém-nascidos de extremo baixo peso na sala de parto. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão sistemática dos artigos incluídos em MEDLINE, SciELO e Cochrane Library e dos temas livres publicados em congressos internacionais e nacionais, utilizando-se as palavras-chave reanimação, asfixia e recém-nascido. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As principais controvérsias incluem aspectos relacionados à oxigenação e à ventilação do prematuro de extremo baixo peso ao nascimento. Os efeitos da administração de oxigênio em concentrações entre 21% e 100% precisam ser investigados. Os parâmetros adequados de pressão inspiratória, volume pulmonar e pressão expiratória final positiva necessitam ser estabelecidos com a finalidade de minimizar o barotrauma e o volutrauma. Os benefícios da aplicação da pressão positiva contínua de vias aéreas por via nasal também precisam ser bem determinados através de ensaios clínicos randomizados. Além disso, reanimadores manuais devem ser desenvolvidos para otimizar a administração desses parâmetros e minimizar a lesão pulmonar no início da vida extra-uterina. Estudos clínicos sobre a administração ao nascimento de adrenalina, expansores de volume e bicarbonato de sódio são inexistentes em prematuros de muito baixo peso. Adicionalmente, o principal dilema ético envolve a decisão conjunta entre os profissionais e os pais de não iniciar a reanimação na dependência da idade gestacional. CONCLUSÕES: A conduta atualmente vigente poderá ser modificada a partir dos resultados de ensaios clínicos randomizados e controlados, em conjunto com a avaliação do desenvolvimento, realizados em recém-nascidos de extremo baixo peso submetidos à reanimação na sala de parto.OBJECTIVE: To describe the main controversies about resuscitation procedures performed in extremely low birth weight infants in

  17. Suicide of Women: an Extreme Condition? Suicidio de mujeres: ¿un caso extremo? Suicídio de Mulheres: uma Situação Limite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Meneghel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Suicide, understood as a social fact, can be considered an extreme situation that represents a way out of an intense and unbearable suffering. This text reflects on the fragility of gender present in the life stories of women who committed suicide in cities in southern Brazil. Qualitative study that is part of a larger study entitled "It's possible to prevent the advance of the end? elderly suicide in Brazil and possibilities of health sector". The data were constructed using the technique of psychosocial autopsy trying to understand the life histories and factors related to suicide. The main themes present in the life stories of suicide women were classified as gender vulnerability and suicide as an extreme situation. We believe that gender norms, interpersonal conflicts and economic problems arising from work and illness were present in the lives of these women.  El suicidio, entendido como un hecho social, puede considerarse una situación extrema, ya que representa una forma de salir de un sufrimiento intenso e insoportable. Este texto tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre la fragilidad de género que se encuentra en las historias de vida de las mujeres que se suicidaron en los municipios del sur de Brasil. Este estudio cualitativo es parte de un proyecto de investigación titulado "¿Es posible prevenir el avance del final? El suicidio de adultos mayores en Brasil y posibilidades del Sector de Salud". Los datos fueron construidos mediante la técnica de la autopsia psicológica, tratando de entender las historias de vida y los factores de riesgo relacionados con el suicidio. Los principales temas presentes en las historias de vida de las mujeres que se suicidaron fueron clasificadas como debilidades de género y el suicidio como una situación límite. Creemos que las normas de género y los conflictos interpersonales, así como problemas económicos que surgen del trabajo y las enfermedades estaban presentes en la vida de estas mujeres

  18. In-frame seven amino-acid duplication in AIP arose over the last 3000 years, disrupts protein interaction & stability and is associated with gigantism.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatori, R.; Radian, S.; Diekmann, Y.; Iacovazzo, D.; David, A.; Grabovska, P.; Grassi, G.; Bussell, A-M; Stals, K.; Weber, A.; Quinton, R.; Crowne, E.; Corazzini, V.; Metherell, L. A.; Kearney, T.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenoma, acromegaly and gigantism. Identical alleles in unrelated pedigrees could be inherited from a common ancestor or result from recurrent mutation events. DESIGN & METHODS: Observational, inferential and experimental study, including: AIP mutation testing; reconstruction of 14 AIP-region (8.3 Mbp) haplotypes; coalescent-based approximate Bayesian estimation of the time to mo...

  19. In-frame seven amino-acid duplication in AIP arose over the last 3000 years, disrupts protein interaction and stability and is associated with gigantism

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatori, Roberto; Radian, Serban; Diekmann, Yoan; Iacovazzo, Donato; David, Alessia; Gabrovska, Plamena; Grassi, Giorgia; Bussell, Anna-Marie; Stals, Karen; Weber, Astrid; Quinton, Richard; Crowne, Elizabeth C; Corazzini, Valentina; Metherell, Lou; Kearney, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Objective Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenoma, acromegaly and gigantism. Identical alleles in unrelated pedigrees could be inherited from a common ancestor or result from recurrent mutation events. Design and methods Observational, inferential and experimental study, including: AIP mutation testing; reconstruction of 14 AIP-region (8.3?Mbp) haplotypes; coalescent-based approximate Bayesian estimation of the time to mo...

  20. Simulación computacional del crecimiento de huesos largos: un modelo de osificación endocondral

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    Diego Alexander Garzón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Casi todos los huesos del cuerpo se forman a partir de soportes cartilaginosos en los que se produce un crecimiento del mismo combinado con un proceso de osificación que se extiende desde el centro del hueso hasta sus extremos, en un proceso denominado osificación endocondral. En este período de la morfogénesis del tejido óseo los principales factores que controlan el proceso son bioquímicos, siendo la influencia mecánica mucho menor. En este trabajo se presenta un modelo que permite simular este proceso de crecimiento y osificación del hueso prenatal controlado fundamentalmente por un bucle interactivo inhibidor-activador, en el que se han identificado la hormona paratiroidea (PTHrP y el Indian Hedgehog (Ihh, mediante la utilización de ecuaciones de reacción-difusión. La utilización de estas ecuaciones en combinación con la simulación del proceso proliferativo y de crecimiento de las células de cartílago (condrocitos permiten simular con bastante exactitud el proceso de crecimiento de un hueso largo, prediciendo incluso la aparición de los centros secundarios de osificación en la epífisis.

  1. Coexisting diseases modifying each other’s presentation - lack of growth failure in Turner syndrome due to the associated pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragović, Tamara; Đuran, Zorana; Jelić, Svetlana; Marinković, Dejan; Kiković, Saša; Kuzmić-Janković, Snežana; Hajduković, Zoran

    2016-10-01

    Turner syndrome presents with one of the most frequent chromosomal aberrations in female, typically presented with growth retardation, ovarian insufficiency, facial dysmorphism, and numerous other somatic stigmata. Gigantism is an extremely rare condition resulting from an excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion that occurs during childhood before the fusion of epiphyseal growth plates. The major clinical feature of gigantism is growth acceleration, although these patients also suffer from hypogonadism and soft tissue hypertrophy. We presented a girl with mosaic Turner syndrome, delayed puberty and normal linear growth for the sex and age, due to the simultaneous GH hypersecretion by pituitary tumor. In the presented case all the typical phenotypic stigmata related to Turner syndrome were missing. Due to excessive pituitary GH secretion during the period while the epiphyseal growth plates of the long bones are still open, characteristic stagnation in longitudinal growth has not been demonstrated. The patient presented with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea along with a sudden appearance of clinical signs of hypersomatotropinism, which were the reasons for seeking medical help at the age of 16. Physical examination of children presenting with delayed puberty but without growth arrest must include an overall hormonal and genetic testing even in the cases when typical clinical presentations of genetic disorder are absent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of simultaneous presence of Turner syndrome and gigantism in the literature.

  2. Coexisting diseases modifying each other’s presentation - lack of growth failure in Turner syndrome due to the associated pituitary gigantism

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    Dragović Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Turner syndrome presents with one of the most frequent chromosomal aberrations in female, typically presented with growth retardation, ovarian insufficiency, facial dysmorphism, and numerous other somatic stigmata. Gigantism is an extremely rare condition resulting from an excessive growth hormone (GH secretion that occurs during childhood before the fusion of epiphyseal growth plates. The major clinical feature of gigantism is growth acceleration, although these patients also suffer from hypogonadism and soft tissue hypertrophy. Case report. We presented a girl with mosaic Turner syndrome, delayed puberty and normal linear growth for the sex and age, due to the simultaneous GH hypersecretion by pituitary tumor. In the presented case all the typical phenotypic stigmata related to Turner syndrome were missing. Due to excessive pituitary GH secretion during the period while the epiphyseal growth plates of the long bones are still open, characteristic stagnation in longitudinal growth has not been demonstrated. The patient presented with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea along with a sudden appearance of clinical signs of hypersomatotropinism, which were the reasons for seeking medical help at the age of 16. Conclusion. Physical examination of children presenting with delayed puberty but without growth arrest must include an overall hormonal and genetic testing even in the cases when typical clinical presentations of genetic disorder are absent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of simultaneous presence of Turner syndrome and gigantism in the literature.

  3. South Pacific quasi-stationary waves and anomalously cold summers in the northernmost Antarctic Peninsula Ondas cuasi-estacionarias en el Pacífico sur y veranos fríos anómalos en el extremo norte de la Península Antártica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J Costa

    2012-12-01

    presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la circulación troposférica en el Hemisferio Sur (HS asociada a veranos (Dic-Feb anómalamente fríos (VAF en el período 1981-2010 sobre el extremo norte de la Península Antártica (PA mostrando que el verano de 2010 es singularmente frío, razón por la cual este verano es estudiado por separado. De ahí que el verano de 2010 es comparado con la composición de los VAFs previos a 2010. Se utiliza el criterio del cuartil para identificar VAFs y un flujo de actividad de onda para perturbaciones estacionarias cuasi-geostróficas (CG embebidas en un flujo básico que varía zonalmente como herramienta de diagnóstico para estudiar la propagación de trenes de ondas desde el Pacífico. Los VAFs previos a 2010 se caracterizan por un tren de ondas cuasi-estacionarias (OCE - del tipo patrón PSA (Pacífico-Sudamericano - extendido barotrópicamente en tropósfera hasta baja estratósfera, propagándose sobre el Pacífico Sur desde una región de convección anómala sobre Nueva Zelanda. Este tren de ondas da lugar a un centro ciclónico estacionario anómalo al noroeste de la PA. La componente anómala inducida de viento del Este junto a anomalías de alta nubosidad se encuentran asociadas a los VAFs sobre el norte de la PA. El singular verano de 2010 no sólo muestra un centro ciclónico estacionario anómalo al noroeste de la PA sino que también muestra uno anticiclónico en latitudes medias sobre el sudeste del Pacífico Sur. Desde ahí, hay propagación de OCE, localizada regionalmente, atravesando el sur de Sudamérica ya que no se observa una estructura de onda del tipo PSA sobre el Pacífico Sur. La propagación emana desde una zona de anomalías positivas de latemperatura de superficie del mar (TSM en el Pacífico Sur a través de la generación local de baroclinicidad del flujo medio. De ahí que esta propagación de OCE está asociada a actividad transiente anómala. A su vez, estas anomalías en la TSM podrían estar

  4. Análise química do bambu-gigante (Dendrocalamus giganteus Wall. ex Munro em diferentes idades

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    Nelson Potenciano Marinho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985749O bambu é uma planta monocotiledônea de origem tropical, de rápido crescimento, sendo considerado um importante regenerador ambiental devido ao seu sistema radicular. O Dendrocalamus giganteus é popularmente conhecido por bambu-gigante, sendo uma espécie entouceirante de grande porte, cujos colmos podem variar de 24 a 40 metros de altura, com diâmetros entre 10 e 20 cm. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo analisar quimicamente os colmos do bambu-gigante visando fornecer informações sobre a sua composição química nas idades de 2 a 6 anos. Os colmos do bambu foram coletados na área Experimental Agrícola do Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica da UNESP-Bauru, onde é realizado o manejo sistemático de diversas espécies de bambu para fins de pesquisas e divulgação dessa planta. Foram retiradas amostras da base entre bambus com idade de 2 a 6 anos de uma mesma touceira, totalizando 5 amostras, com 2 metros de altura cada, colhidas na lua minguante no mês de março. As análises químicas foram feitas com os entrenós, utilizando as normas e procedimentos da TAPPI. A porcentagem média de extrativos em água quente, extrativos em água fria, extrativos totais e teor de cinzas não apresentaram relação direta com a idade. A maior porcentagem de extrativos em água quente, com valor de 12,04%, extrativos em água fria, com 10,25%, e extrativos totais, com 12,91%, foi observada aos 2 anos de idade. A maior porcentagem de cinzas foi obtida aos três anos, com valores de 1,09%. O teor médio de extrativos em NaOH diminui de 25,72% aos dois anos para 20,17% aos seis anos de idade. O mesmo comportamento foi observado para os extrativos em etanol tolueno, diminuindo de 10,91% para 4,61%. O teor médio de lignina não sofreu influência da idade, variando de 22,66 a 24,11%.

  5. Reducción del riesgo sísmico para el patrimonio arquitectónico. Una comparación entre experiencias de Colombia y Japón

    OpenAIRE

    Niglio, Olimpia; Valencia Mina, William

    2014-01-01

    El riesgo sísmico es una problemática en muchos países, sobre todo de América Latina, del Medio Oriente y del extremo Oriente, y en particular Japón. A partir del análisis de la sismicidad y el patrimonio construido en Japón y Colombia, este artículo presenta el primer resultado de una investigación comparativa entre los dos países, las diferentes metodologías de intervención y de gestión para la protección el patrimonio arquitectónico, lo cual es importante para reducir su vulnerabilidad. Es...

  6. Almacenes y dinámica del carbono orgánico en ecosistemas forestales tropicales de México

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    Julio Campo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El efecto del régimen de precipitación en la dinámica del carbono en los bosques tropicales es poco conocido a pesar de su importante papel en el ciclo global del C. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar si existe un efecto de la lluvia y del uso de la tierra en el ciclo del C. También se analizó la recuperación de los almacenes del C luego del abandono del pastoreo por ganado en regiones tropicales forestales distribuidas en un amplio rango de precipitación media anual. Se analizaron datos publicados de ocho bosques tropicales mexicanos, que incluyó un intervalo de precipitación media anual entre 642 y 4725 mm. El análisis indicó que el C en la biomasa aumentó con la precipitación media anual. La concentración de C en los primeros 20 cm del suelo tendió a aumentar con la precipitación media anual, pero presentó un pico también en el extremo más seco del gradiente, probablemente debido a su limitada descomposición. El almacén total de C en el suelo aumentó con la precipitación y, en particular, en el subsuelo (>30 cm, donde se acumuló del 49 al 60% del total. Los efectos del uso del suelo en el C parecen depender del régimen de precipitación. En contraste, el C del suelo durante la sucesión secundaria no varió con la intensidad de la sequía, aun cuando el número de estudios fue muy limitado. El análisis sugiere que el régimen de precipitación juega un papel central en la dinámica del ciclo del C en los bosques tropicales.

  7. Un diálogo con Verena Stolcke “La naturaleza y la cultura no son los extremos de un continuum”

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    Montserrat Ventura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Verena Stolcke es catedrática emérita de antropología en la Universitat Autònomade Barcelona y presidenta del Institut català d’antropologia. Nació enDessau, Alemania, en 1938. Su familia emigró a Argentina, donde vivió porvarios años. Se doctoró en Oxford en 1970, con una tesis sobre sexualidad y racismo en la Cuba colonial. Más tarde realizó trabajo de campo con mujeres jornaleras en una plantación de café de Sao Paulo, mientras cofundaba el Departamento de Antropología social en la Universidad de Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brasil. Finalmente se instalóen Catalunya, donde obtuvo una plaza en la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (1984. Antropóloga comprometida, pionera en los estudios de raza y género y firme defensora de la antropología histórica, su investigación gira en torno a la crítica al dualismo cartesiano que contrasta naturaleza y cultura, en sus múltiples dimensiones.

  8. Potencial del Agua del suelo

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    Bustamante Heliodoro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es importante por sí misma, sino por su relación con la energía en diferentes lugares dentro del suelo. El concepto Potencial de agua del suelo es un criterio para esta energía.

  9. Entre a Especialização Produtiva e a Agroecologia: Estratégias de Reprodução Social de Agricultores familiares da Região Extremo Oeste Catarinense

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    Adinor José Capellesso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as estratégias de reprodução social de estabelecimentos familiares com o objetivo de avaliar suas formas de inserção nos mercados e possíveis implicações socioambientais. O estudo de caso contou com 37 entrevistas com produtores convencionais e orgânicos no Extremo Oeste Catarinense. Enquanto as criações integradas demandam especialização, a agroecologia orienta-se pela diversificação produtiva. Entre esses polos, a atividade leiteira apresenta elevada expressão social, mas com reconfigurações importantes em curso na sua relação com os mercados. A demanda por maior escala, necessária para manter-se nessa cadeia e obter melhores preços, expande o modelo produtivista de elevado uso de insumos, o qual subjuga a preservação ambiental e reduz a margem de manobra frente às oscilações de mercado e aos possíveis problemas sanitários. Nesse contexto, o Estado e as organizações representativas do setor podem: a assumir papel ativo, disputando a construção dos mercados; ou b aceitar o fatalismo da concentração excludente em curso.

  10. As ferramentas da gestão social utilizada pelas organizações que prestam serviços sociais à comunidade e pertencem à microrregião do extremo Oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina

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    Wieczynski, Marineide

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda resultados de uma pesquisa de iniciação científica que teve como objetivo identificar e relatar quais são as ferramentas da gestão social utilizada pelas organizações que prestam serviços sociais e pertencem à microrregião do extremo oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina. O tipo de pesquisa foi de natureza quali-quantitativa, com o uso de questionários semi-estrutrados, amostragem por acessibilidade e um universo de 30 ONGs, cujos sujeitos foram os gestores dessas organizações. Constatou-se que nenhuma das organizações pesquisada utiliza plenamente as ferramentas da gestão social. O não uso das ferramentas – planejamento, organização, direção e controle/avaliação – comprometem a eficiência, a eficácia e a efetividade dos programas e projetos que vem sendo desenvolvidos por elas. Sugere-se a elaboração de um projeto de extensão e/ou de filantropia, no qual o Curso de Serviço Social da UNOESC – São Miguel do Oeste possa prestar assessoria e consultoria no que tange à gestão social de ONGs

  11. Eventos extremos e risco de inundação: uma análise do comportamento evolutivo dos Distúrbios Ondulatórios de Leste em junho de 2010 sobre a bacia do rio Una - Pernambuco

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    Keyla Manuela Alencar da Silva Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os Distúrbios Ondulatórios de Leste (DOL’s são perturbações dos ventos alísios que, no Nordeste do Brasil, geralmente se associam a eventos extremos de precipitação. Este trabalho analisa o comportamento evolutivo de um DOL que atingiu o Estado de Pernambuco em junho de 2010, provocando inundações e grandes prejuízos humanos e econômicos. O recorte escolhido para análise foi a bacia hidrográfica do rio Una, que teve 11 municípios afetados. A análise do evento baseou-se na interpretação de imagens GOES-12 realçadas e TRMM. Constatou-se que a análise de imagens GOES-12 isoladas não produz uma resposta eficaz, no entanto, quando associada a mais informações, chega a uma resposta concisa e de extrema importância para os estudos relacionados a eventos climáticos. Para avaliação da vulnerabilidade à inundação das diversas sedes municipais da bacia do Una, utilizou-se um estimador de densidade Kernel baseado nos valores de magnitude da rede de drenagem. Os resultados indicaram que mesmo áreas naturalmente menos vulneráveis podem ser seriamente afetadas em função do montante precipitado.

  12. Aplicación del modelo DRASTIC en la cuenca del arroyo Las Conchas, Entre Ríos

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    SASAL, M.C.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La demanda de la sociedad respecto al cuidado de la salud y del ambiente es cada vez mayor, requiriéndose la evaluación de potenciales impactos negativos producidos por las prácticas agropecuarias, entre ellos la contaminación de los recursos naturales por el uso de agroquímicos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluarla vulnerabilidad general a la contaminación de un acuífero libre localizado en la cuenca agrícola del Arroyo Las Conchas (Entre Ríos, que posee una superficie de 2.156,6 Km2 y alta densidad poblacional. Se utilizó el índice DRASTIC que se basa en la aplicación de siete parámetros hidrogeológicos, desarrollándose mapas para cada uno de ellos a partir del análisis de 82 fuentes de agua existentes en la cuenca y de la selección de 39 ubicadas en el acuífero libre. El acuífero libre se localiza superficialmente entre los 0,39 m y los 12 m y en presencia de suelos con buena capacidad de drenaje. La vulnerabilidad general a la contaminación fue moderada y presenta homogeneidad en la totalidad de la cuenca. La zona más vulnerable está situada en el extremo NE (próximo a María Grande, coincidente con zonas planas en el paisaje y de acumulación de agua, mientras que el área centro–sur presenta menor vulnerabilidad, coincidiendo con una zona de mayor profundidad del acuífero y de baja recarga. La información generada constituye una base para la gestión ambientaly el desarrollo de buenas prácticas agropecuarias.

  13. Pteropoda, Cladocera, and Chaetognatha associations as hydrological indicators in the southern Brazilian Shelf Asociaciones de Pteropoda, Cladocera y Chaetognatha como indicadores hidrológicos de la plataforma del extremo sur de Brasil

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    Charrid Resgalla Jr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations of pteropod, cladoceran, and chaetognath species were analyzed for the southern coast of Brazil in order to present a biological diagnosis of the oceanographic conditions in winter and summer. The density data from the different species were analyzed using nodal and ordination cluster techniques, linking the species associations with salinity and temperature and, consequently, with the water masses occurring in each period. Sagitta tennis and Pleopsis polyphemoides were found to characterize the coastal water and, when associated with Evadne nordmanni and Pleopsis schmackeri, differentiated between the thermal characteristics of winter and summer, respectively. The Sub-Antarctic Shelf Water was characterized by the association of Sagitta tasmanica and Limacina retroversa in winter. The Tropical Water of the Brazil current presented several different associations, with Penilia avirostris, Sagitta enflata, and Creseis virgula dominating the shelf Tropical Water and Sagitta serratodentata, Limacina trochiformis, and Evadne spinifera characterizing the oceanic Tropical Water. The Sub-tropical Water, typical of upwelling processes, was characterized by the association of the chaetognaths Sagitta decipiens and Krohnitta subtilis, both in winter and summer. The species associations defined in this study agree with others carried out in neighboring areas and in previous sampling periods, characterizing the región as the southern transition zone.Se analizó las asociaciones de especies de Pteropoda, Cladocera y Chaetognatha en la costa sur de Brasil, para presentar un diagnóstico biológico de las condiciones oceanógraficas de invierno y verano. Los datos de densidad de las diferentes especies fueron analizados por técnicas de agrupamiento nodal y de ordenación, relacionando las asociaciones con la salinidad, temperatura y, consecuentemente, con las masas de agua presentes en cada período. Se observó que Sagitta tennis, Pleopsis polyphemoides caracterizan el agua costera, que asociada a Evadne nordmanni y Pleopsis schmackeri diferencian las características térmicas de invierno y verano, respectivamente. El Agua Subantártica de Plataforma fue caracterizada por la asociación de Sagitta tasmanica y Limacina retroversa en invierno. El Agua Tropical de la corriente de Brasil presentó una diversidad de asociaciones, pudiendo ser de plataforma con la dominancia de Penilia avirostris, Sagitta enflata y Creseis virgula, así como el Agua Tropical oceánica caracterizada por Sagitta serratodentata, Limacina trochiformis y Evadne spinifera. El Agua Subtropical, típica de procesos de surgencias, estuvo caracterizada por la asociación de los quetognatos Sagitta decipiens y Krohnitta subtilis en invierno y en verano. Las asociaciones de especies definidas en este estudio están de acuerdo con otros realizados en areas vecinas y en períodos anteriores, caracterizando la región como zona de transición sur.

  14. Influencia de la variabilidad climática en la modelación estadística de extremos hidrológicos en el Valle Alto del río Cauca, Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    SEDANO CRUZ, RUTH KARIME

    2017-01-01

    Climatic variability associated to the ENSO has profound socio-economic impact on the northwestern of South America. In Colombia, the ENSO warm phase, El Niño, decreases precipitation, is associated with droughts and low river flows. In contrast, the cold phase of the ENSO, La Niña, generates the opposite side effect including water overflowing emergencies at the local and the regional scale. In the country every 2 or 4 years, floods can directly affect over 500,000 people. In contrast to the...

  15. Herbivory and body size: allometries of diet quality and gastrointestinal physiology, and implications for herbivore ecology and dinosaur gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Marcus; Steuer, Patrick; Müller, Dennis W H; Codron, Daryl; Hummel, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM) with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively) allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM.

  16. Herbivory and body size: allometries of diet quality and gastrointestinal physiology, and implications for herbivore ecology and dinosaur gigantism.

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    Marcus Clauss

    Full Text Available Digestive physiology has played a prominent role in explanations for terrestrial herbivore body size evolution and size-driven diversification and niche differentiation. This is based on the association of increasing body mass (BM with diets of lower quality, and with putative mechanisms by which a higher BM could translate into a higher digestive efficiency. Such concepts, however, often do not match empirical data. Here, we review concepts and data on terrestrial herbivore BM, diet quality, digestive physiology and metabolism, and in doing so give examples for problems in using allometric analyses and extrapolations. A digestive advantage of larger BM is not corroborated by conceptual or empirical approaches. We suggest that explanatory models should shift from physiological to ecological scenarios based on the association of forage quality and biomass availability, and the association between BM and feeding selectivity. These associations mostly (but not exclusively allow large herbivores to use low quality forage only, whereas they allow small herbivores the use of any forage they can physically manage. Examples of small herbivores able to subsist on lower quality diets are rare but exist. We speculate that this could be explained by evolutionary adaptations to the ecological opportunity of selective feeding in smaller animals, rather than by a physiologic or metabolic necessity linked to BM. For gigantic herbivores such as sauropod dinosaurs, other factors than digestive physiology appear more promising candidates to explain evolutionary drives towards extreme BM.

  17. Dorsal resection of a thoracic hemivertebra in a 4-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghooni, Kourosh; Sobotrke, Rolf; Schmidt, Heinrich; Rollinghoff, Marc; Siewe, Jan; Eysel, Peer

    2010-10-01

    The authors present what appears to be the first case of congenital kyphosis due to a T12 hemivertebra in a four-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism syndrome of unknown origin. Because of his overgrowth, the patient had severe medical and orthopaedic problems and was almost immobile. Prior to surgery, he experienced a rapidly progressive thoracolumbar kyphosis to 600 (T10-L2). MRI of the brain and spine showed critical protraction of the spinal cord and myelopathy from compression at T12. Single-stage posterior resection of the hemivertebra with spinal shortening and dorsal transpedicular instrumentation of T10-L2 was performed. Although the bone tissue was cartilaginous and dysplastic, 420 (30%) correction was achieved along with decompression of the spinal canal. The patient experienced no neurological impairment post-operatively. At follow-up examination 1.5 year after surgery, the patient's movement disorder had improved markedly and he was able to stand and walk. This very rare case demonstrates that single-stage posterior hemivertebra resection and transpedicular instrumentation for correction of congenital kyphosis can be a safe and effective procedure even in a very challenging case.

  18. Predation as the primary selective force in recurrent evolution of gigantism in Poecilozonites land snails in Quaternary Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Storrs L.; Hearty, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators that created selection pressure for large size and rapid growth in the snails. Extreme reduction in land area from rising seas, along with changes in ecological conditions at the onset of interglacial episodes, marked extinction events for large predators, after which snails reverted to much smaller size. The giant snails were identical in morphology during the last two glacials when the predators included a large flightless rail Rallus recessus (marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2) and a crane Grus latipes and a duck Anas pachysceles (MIS 6). In a preceding glacial period (MIS 10), when the fauna also included the tortoise Hesperotestudo bermudae, the snails were not only large, but the shells were much thicker, presumably to prevent crushing by tortoises. Evolution of Poecilozonites provides an outstanding example of dramatic morphological change in response to environmental pressures in the absence of cladogenesis. PMID:20554560

  19. Gigantic perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of heavy transition metal cappings on Fe/MgO(0 0 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taivansaikhan, P.; Odkhuu, D.; Rhim, S. H.; Hong, S. C.

    2017-11-01

    Effects of capping layer by 5d transition metals (TM = Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au) on Fe/MgO(0 0 1), a typical magnetic tunneling junction, are systematically investigated using first-principles calculation for magnetism and magnetocrystalline-anisotropy (MCA). The early TMs having less than half-filled d bands favor magnetization antiparallel to Fe, whereas the late TMs having more than half-filled d bands favor parallel, which is explained in the framework of kinetic exchange energy. The Os capping, isovalent to Fe, enhances MCA significantly to gigantic energy of +11.31 meV/cell, where positive contribution is mostly from the partially filled majority d bands of magnetic quantum number of |m| = 1 along with stronger spin-orbit coupling of Os than Fe. Different TM cappings give different MCA energies as the Fermi level shifts according to the valence of TM: Re and Ir, just one valence more or less than Os, have still large PMCA but smaller than the Os. In the W and Pt cappings, valence difference by two, PMCA are further reduced; MCAs are lowered compared to Fe/MgO(0 0 1) by the cappings of the very early TMs (Hf and Ta), while the very late TM (Au) switches sign to in-plane MCA.

  20. Evisceración en estafiloma escleral anterior gigante Evisceration of the giant anterior scleral staphyloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rojas Rondón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La evisceración es la técnica quirúrgica seleccionada para el tratamiento de muchas afecciones oculares graves como: endoftalmitis, ojo ciego doloroso por trauma crónico, glaucoma absoluto, desprendimiento de retina crónico, uveítis crónica, pthisis bulbi, buftalmos y por razones estéticas. Paciente de 21 años de edad que acude a consulta solicitando mejoría de su apariencia facial. Al examen ocular encontramos aumento de volumen localizado en toda la zona superior del globo ocular desde hora 9 hasta hora 3 del ojo derecho, donde se observaba adelgazamiento escleral con extensas zonas de coroides expuesta, leucoma corneal que ocupaba eje visual y exotropia 30° x Hirshberg, como secuela de trauma ocular. El diagnóstico fue estafiloma escleral anterior en el ojo derecho con riesgo de perforación escleral. La evisceración fue el proceder quirúrgico de elección en este tipo de afección, se colocó implante orbitario, sin complicaciones. Inmediatamente después de la cirugía se coloca conformador en la cavidad y luego de un mes se coloca prótesis ocular. De esta forma se logra mejorar el componente estético así como una adecuada rehabilitación y por ello la calidad de vida de nuestro paciente.Evisceration is the surgical technique selected for the treatment of many serious ocular illnesses such as endophthalmitis, painful blind eye due to chronic trauma, absolute glaucoma, chronic retinal detachment, chronic uveitis, pthisis bulbi, buphthalmos and for aesthetic reasons. A 21 years-old patient went to the doctor's office to request some assistance to improve her facial look. On ocular exam, increased volume located in the upper area of the eyeball from hour 9 to hour 3 of the right eye was observed; also scleral thinning with extensive areas of exposed choroid, corneal leukoma occupying the visual axis and 30° exotropia x Hirshberg, as ocular trauma sequel. The diagnosis was anterior scleral staphyloma with risk of scleral

  1. Investigación, Planificación y Estudio del Potencial Turístico del Parque Nacional Bernardo O’Higgins, Patagonia Chilena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germaynee Vela-Ruiz Figueroa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Bernardo O’Higgins (PNBO, ubicado en el extremo austral de Chile, protege 3,5 millones de hectáreas caracterizadas por una geomorfología de fiordos, archipiélagos, islas y glaciares del Campo de Hielo Sur. Este Parque Nacional resalta además por ser el territorio ancestral de los últimos habitantes que mantienen la lengua y el acervo cultural del pueblo indígena Kawésqar. El presente artículo muestra el proceso de investigación ecológica y cultural realizado en el PNBO, así como el proceso de planificación participativa y la elaboración de una propuesta de potencial turístico de dicho territorio. Proyecto que ha sido innovador en la planificación de áreas protegidas en Chile, ya que ha incorporado directamente a una comunidad kawésqar como equipo técnico del proyecto, así como ha permitido levantar información de base de una zona de relevancia mundial escasamente conocida hasta antes de este estudio.

  2. Modelacion del Efecto del Día de la Semana para los Indices Accionarios de Colombia mediante un Modelo STAR GARCH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mauricio Rivera Palacio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de los retornos de los tres principales índices bursátiles de Colombia: el IBB de la Bolsa de Bogotá, el IBOMED de la Bolsa de Medellin, y el IGBC de Bolsa de Valores de Colombia. A través de un modelo STAR GARCH se identifican dos estados o regiones extremos; mientras en el primero los rendimientos de los índices son, en términos absolutos, bajos y los procesos son estacionarios, en el segundo se tienen grandes pérdidas o ganancias, donde los efectos de los choques son permanentes. Aunque en cada uno de los regímenes el efecto del día de la semana es diferente, los resultados indican que para los tres índices existe un efecto del día de la semana en la media, y un efecto del día en la varianza para la Bolsa de Bogotá y Bolsa de Valores de Colombia. Los resultados contradicen la hipótesis de un mercado de acciones efciente en información.

  3. Meningiomas del foramen magno: Reporte de 12 casos y revisión de la literatura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campero, Álvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Roman, Guillermo; Rivadeneira, Conrado

    2017-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 12 pacientes con diagnóstico de meningiomas del foramen magno (MFM), de localización anterior o lateral, operados con técnicas microquirúrgicas. Método: Desde Junio de 2005 a Diciembre de 2016, 12 pacientes con diagnóstico de MFM fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Se evaluó: edad, sexo, localización de la lesión (anterior o lateral), sintomatología, tipo de abordaje utilizado y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los pacientes intervenidos, 8 fueron mujeres y 4 varones. La edad promedio fue de 47 años. La localización fue anterior en 8 casos y lateral en 4 casos. La sintomatología más frecuente fue dolor occipito-cervical (8 casos), seguido de tetraparesia (3 casos). En los pacientes con MFM de localización anterior se realizó un abordaje extremo-lateral transcondilar (ELTC), mientras que en los tumores laterales el abordaje fue extremo-lateral retrocondilar (ELRC). En 10 casos la resección fue completa. En dos pacientes fue necesario dejar una pequeña lámina de meningioma sobre la arteria vertebral y a nivel del foramen yugular. Como complicaciones postoperatorias, 3 pacientes presentaron una paresia del XII nervio craneano y 2 pacientes paresia del XI nervio craneano; además, 1 paciente presentó una fístula de LCR. Conclusión: La cirugía de los MFM de localización anterior y lateral puede ser realizada de forma segura y efectiva. Es necesario: a) buen conocimiento anatómico de la región; b) disecar los músculos de la nuca en 2 planos, exponiendo el triángulo suboccipital y la arteria vertebral (AV); 3) realizar un abordaje ELRC en los tumores laterales, y ELTC en los tumores anteriores; y 4) buena técnica microquirúrgica. PMID:29142778

  4. Impacto ambiental en áreas marginales del río Colorado, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Scherger

    2014-01-01

    climáticos extremos- actúan como catalizador en el proceso de desertificación. El desarrollo sostenible es definido como aquel que satisface las necesidades del presente sin comprometer las necesidades de las futuras generaciones, esto implica la relación inseparable entre la sostenibilidad de un recurso y su contexto económico y social. En el presente trabajo se reconocen las transformaciones espaciales en el Valle Bonaerense del río Colorado a partir de la puesta en valor del río Colorado como recurso y se identifican y seleccionan los componentes ambientales impactados por las actividades agropecuarias. El agua, recurso natural que ofrece el río, ha sido el elemento organizador de este espacio que se caracteriza por la producción agrícola. En las últimas décadas las oportunidades económicas internacionales del mercado, han favorecido el incremento de superficies para tal fin. En consecuencia, el uso intensivo del suelo y la falta de adecuadas políticas de planificación impactan negativamente generando procesos de degradación de suelos que atentan el desarrollo sostenible de la región.

  5. Pteridófitas do Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro (SP, Brasil. Gleba Pé-de-Gigante. Pteridophytes from Vassununga State Park, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil. Gleba Pé-de-Gigante.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Maria Therezinha COLLI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamentode pteridófitas na Gleba Pé-de-Gigante do ParqueEstadual de Vassununga, localizado no municípiode Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, sob as coordenadas21º36’39,01054’’S e 47º37’03,46727’’W. As coletasforam realizadas em três trilhas, denominadasTrilha do Meliponário, Trilha do Córrego Paulicéiae Trilha da Torre. Foram reconhecidas 15 espéciesde pteridófitas pertencentes a 7 famílias. Dessas,as mais representativas foram Polypodiaceae eThelypteridaceae com quatro espécies cada,e Pteridaceae e Schizaeaceae que apresentaramduas espécies cada. Das 15 espécies registradas9 apresentam distribuição bastante restrita, ocorrendoapenas na Trilha do Córrego Paulicéia. Por outrolado, Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf. de laSota, Pleopeltis angusta Willd e Polypodiumpolypodioides (L. Watt são as espécies deocorrência mais ampla. Em todas as trilhas hápteridófitas, sendo que a Trilha do CórregoPaulicéia é a mais rica, e a Trilha da Torre a maispobre em número de espécies. As pteridófitasocorrem no cerrado “sensu stricto”, cerradão e nafloresta de galeria. A maior diversidade de espéciesfoi encontrada na floresta de galeria.This work presents a pteridophyticalsurvey carried out at the Gleba Pé-de-Gigante ofthe Vassununga State Park, in the municipality ofSanta Rita do Passa Quatro (21º36’39.01054’’Sand 47º37’03.46727’’W. Collections wereaccomplished at three trails called “Trilha doMeliponário, Trilha do Córrego Paulicéia andTrilha da Torre ”. Fifteen species of pteridophytespertaining to 7 families were recognized. From these,the most representative ones were Polypodiaceaeand Thelypteridaceae, with 4 species each, andPteridaceae and Schizaeaceae, with two specieseach. From the 15 species registered, nine present avery restricted distribution occurring only in the“Trilha do Córrego Paulic��ia”, Microgrammasquamulosa, Pleopeltis angusta and

  6. del alcoholismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arias Duque

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista farmacológico, es importante comprender qué es el alcohol y cómo actúa en el organismo. No existe una causa simple, sino una interacción complicada de factores neuroquímicos, fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociales que originan y desarrollan esta grave enfermedad fármaco-dependiente. La acción psicofisiológica y farmacodinámica del alcohol es fundamentalmente depresiva, por la reducción de la transmisión sináptica en el sistema nervioso humano. Es un hecho conocido que el consumo excesivo de alcohol causa una disfunción aguda y crónica del cerebro, produciendo trastornos en el sistema nervioso central, presentando alteraciones en la memoria y en las funciones intelectuales como cálculo, comprensión y aprendizaje. A nivel hepático tiene lugar, en su mayoría, el metabolismo del alcohol, produciéndose un hígado graso alcohólico, aumentando el tamaño, terminando en necrosis e inflamación grave del hígado; esto se llama hepatitis alcohólica, y si se sigue consumiendo alcohol se desarrollará la cirrosis. El alcohol también ha estado relacionado con alteraciones del miocardio; se ha constatado en animales de experimentación sanos que tanto la velocidad de contracción del músculo cardiaco y su máxima tensión disminuyen en presencia del alcohol, como consecuencia, la fuerza de cada contracción y el aumento de presión en el ventrículo izquierdo son menores, perdiendo eficacia el corazón como bomba.

  7. Tendências de índices de extremos climáticos para a região de Manaus-AM Trends of extreme climatic indices for Manaus - AM region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas tendências nos índices de extremos climáticos baseados em dados de precipitação para três estações localizadas em Manaus e na região circunvizinha para o período de 1971-2007. Baseado nos resultados obtidos pode ser observado que houve aumento da precipitação total anual sobre a região estudada. A estação localizada na zona urbana de Manaus (INMET teve aumento, com significância estatística, dos eventos de precipitação iguais ou superiores a 50 mm (R50mm, na precipitação máxima acumulada em cinco dias consecutivos (Rx5day e nos dias úmidos (R95p, indicando que Manaus poderá sofrer com o aumento das chuvas extremas. Aumento das anomalias positivas de TSM no Oceano Pacífico Equatorial leva a um aumento dos dias consecutivos secos e diminuição dos eventos extremos de chuva e da precipitação total sobre a bacia amazônica. As anomalias positivas de TSM no Oceano Atlântico Sul induz o deslocamento da ZCIT mais ao sul do Equador levando a um aumento da precipitação sobre a região de Manaus. Os resultados obtidos aqui têm potencial para possíveis previsões das características da precipitação em Manaus.Trends in the extreme climate indices based on precipitation data at three stations in and around the city of Manaus for the period 1971-2007 are studied. Based on the results obtained it can be observed that there was an increase of the annual total precipitation in the area studied. At the station located in the city of Manaus (INMET, the frequency of precipitation events with 50 mm (R50mm or more, the amount precipitation in five consecutive days (Rx5day and the number of wet days (R95p, showed an increase, with statistical significance, indicating that Manaus may suffer with the increase of the extreme rainfall events. An increase in the positive SST anomalies in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean induce an increase of the consecutive dry days and decrease of the extreme rainfall events and

  8. Síndromes de dispersão de sementes em estágios sucessionais de mata ciliar, no extremo sul da Mata Atlântica, Arroio do Padre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Schuch Venzke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de dispersão de sementes está relacionada à migração das espécies e colonização de novos locais adequados para sobrevivência e reprodução. Foram estudados três estágios sucessionais de mata ciliar no domínio da Mata Atlântica (capoeira = cinco anos de regeneração; secundária = 45 anos de regeneração; e floresta madura = sem intervenção há 35 anos. As espécies foram classificadas nas síndromes de zoocoria, anemocoria e autocoria. A zoocoria predominou nos três estágios da sucessão da mata ciliar, com percentuais variáveis de 82% até 93% das espécies e 47% até 92% dos indivíduos. A segunda síndrome de dispersão mais comum foi a anemocoria, prevalecendo com elevada abundância relativa na capoeira (25% dos indivíduos. A autocoria ocorreu no sub-bosque da floresta madura com indivíduos da espécie Gymnanthes concolor. Aparticipação da zoocoria nos três estágios da sucessão demonstra que a relação planta-animal tem elevada importância para a sucessão florestal em ambiente ciliar na região do extremo sul da Mata Atlântica.

  9. NOVOS LETRAMENTOS NA CULTURA DIGITAL: O REMIX VEM PRA RUA - O GIGANTE ACORDOU COMO UM HÍBRIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosivaldo Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da internet, das mídias e redes sociais digitais e de celulares se constituiu como um diferencial importantíssimo no grande movimento social que mexeu com o País e com as visões sobre ele nas manifestações ocorridas em junho de 2013. Essas mídias e redes sociais digitais (YouTube, Flickr, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc. se constituíram como canais de informação, ambientes comunicacionais, pontos de encontro, enfim, em redes e, às vezes, até em comunidades que facilitaram os relacionamentos entre os que estavam conectados e dispostos a se manifestarem de algum modo. Nessa direção, os novos letramentos digitais e o novo ethos como defendido por Lankshear e Knobel (2007 proporcionaram contribuições significativas para o uso das tecnologias digitais de informação e comunicação na propagação dessas manifestações, e, buscando compreender o modo como esses novos letramentos favoreceram isso, neste artigo buscamos, a partir das noções de hibridismo e intercalação (GARCÍA CANCLINI, 2008 [1989]; BAKHTIN, 2002 [1934-5] e  nas discussões de Lankshear e Knobel (2007; 2008 sobre remix e sobre linguagens hipermidiática e híbrido digital (SANTAELLA, 2003; 2004, realizar uma análise qualitativa do remix digita Vem pra rua - O gigante acordou,  no que diz respeito as técnicas de produção e constituição desse gênero na construção de novos significado, considerando o horizonte espacial e temporal (VOLOCHINOV/BAKHTIN, [1926]1976 nos quais foi produzido

  10. What lies beneath: sub-articular long bone shape scaling in eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs suggests different locomotor adaptations for gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnan, Matthew F; Wilhite, D Ray; Masters, Simon L; Yates, Adam M; Gardner, Christine K; Aguiar, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load.

  11. What lies beneath: sub-articular long bone shape scaling in eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs suggests different locomotor adaptations for gigantism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Bonnan

    Full Text Available Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators, showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load.

  12. In-frame seven amino-acid duplication in AIP arose over the last 3000 years, disrupts protein interaction and stability and is associated with gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Roberto; Radian, Serban; Diekmann, Yoan; Iacovazzo, Donato; David, Alessia; Gabrovska, Plamena; Grassi, Giorgia; Bussell, Anna-Marie; Stals, Karen; Weber, Astrid; Quinton, Richard; Crowne, Elizabeth C; Corazzini, Valentina; Metherell, Lou; Kearney, Tara; Du Plessis, Daniel; Sinha, Ajay Kumar; Baborie, Atik; Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Chanson, Philippe; Ansorge, Olaf; Ellard, Sian; Trainer, Peter J; Balding, David; Thomas, Mark G; Korbonits, Márta

    2017-09-01

    Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein ( AIP ) gene are associated with pituitary adenoma, acromegaly and gigantism. Identical alleles in unrelated pedigrees could be inherited from a common ancestor or result from recurrent mutation events. Observational, inferential and experimental study, including: AIP mutation testing; reconstruction of 14 AIP -region (8.3 Mbp) haplotypes; coalescent-based approximate Bayesian estimation of the time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of the derived allele; forward population simulations to estimate current number of allele carriers; proposal of mutation mechanism; protein structure predictions; co-immunoprecipitation and cycloheximide chase experiments. Nine European-origin, unrelated c.805_825dup-positive pedigrees (four familial, five sporadic from the UK, USA and France) included 16 affected (nine gigantism/four acromegaly/two non-functioning pituitary adenoma patients and one prospectively diagnosed acromegaly patient) and nine unaffected carriers. All pedigrees shared a 2.79 Mbp haploblock around AIP with additional haploblocks privately shared between subsets of the pedigrees, indicating the existence of an evolutionarily recent common ancestor, the 'English founder', with an estimated median tMRCA of 47 generations (corresponding to 1175 years) with a confidence interval (9-113 generations, equivalent to 225-2825 years). The mutation occurred in a small tandem repeat region predisposed to slipped strand mispairing. The resulting seven amino-acid duplication disrupts interaction with HSP90 and leads to a marked reduction in protein stability. The c.805_825dup allele, originating from a common ancestor, associates with a severe clinical phenotype and a high frequency of gigantism. The mutation is likely to be the result of slipped strand mispairing and affects protein-protein interactions and AIP protein stability. © 2017 The authors.

  13. La validez jurídica y el problema del seguimiento de reglas en el positivismo excluyente: Regla de reconocimiento y comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianella Bardazano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Planteo del problema : el derecho como juego de lenguaje. Importancia del problema en la teoría del derecho: el razonamiento judicial. Las reglas juridicas como razones excluyentes para la acción. Las practicas de la comunidadUno de los ejes temáticos que tradicionalmente se han señalado como casos de rupturas entre el Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP y las Investigaciones Filosóficas (IF ha sido oponer la facticidad del significado sostenida en el primero al convencionalismo extremo atribuido a las segundas. En efecto, el TLP es contrario al convencionalismo (y eso es compatible con la facticidad del significado. Ahora bien, es posible sostener que en las IF hay una radicalización de lo anterior, y que la comunidad de hablantes es el factum en cuestión. Sería la facticidad del significado, entonces, un caso de continuidad entre el TLP y las IF. Lo que cambia es la caracterización de ese factum: el significado está dado y su fuente es trascendental (TLP; o bien, el significado viene dado por las prácticas lingüísticas (IF.

  14. Astrocitoma subependimario de células gigantes asociado a complejo de esclerosis tuberosa: recomendaciones para el diagnóstico oportuno y tratamiento.

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde Ruiz; Sandra Sánchez; Alejandro Rea; Roberto Sanromán; Joao García; Antonio Bravo; Infante Cantú; Hugo Ceja; Ariadna González; María del Mar Sáez

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN El complejo de esclerosis tuberosa es una enfermedad genética poco frecuente, autosómica dominante con fenotipo y expresión clínica muy variables. Se caracteriza por alteraciones en la migración, diferenciación y proliferación celulares con formación de múltiples tumores benignos llamados hamartomas, las cuales afectan principalmente piel, encéfalo, riñón, ojo, corazón y pulmón. Los astrocitomas subependimarios de células gigantes son tumores benignos de crecimien...

  15. Florística em um hectare de cerrado stricto sensu na ARIE - cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

    OpenAIRE

    Weiser, Veridiana de Lara; Godoy, Silvana Aparecida Pires de

    2001-01-01

    Foi realizado um levantamento florístico em um ha de cerrado stricto sensu, na parte norte da ARIE - Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo. Foram coletados 428 espécimes em fase reprodutiva, em vinte e cinco excursões de coleta, durante o período de novembro de 1996 a abril de 1998. A listagem florística obtida apresenta 141 espécies, distribuídas em 109 gêneros e 49 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Malpighiaceae e Myrtaceae. A ...

  16. 'Gigantic' increase of AFMR frequencies induced by nonmagnetic impurity ions in orthoferrites RFe1-xAlxO3 (R=Gd,Tb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhin, A.A.; Parsegov, I.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    We observed a 'gigantic' increase (up to three times) of the AFMR frequencies ν 1,2 with decreasing temperature in GdFe 0.9 Al 0.1 O 3 and TbFe 0.925 Al 0.075 O 3 in contrast to pure GdFeO 3 and TbFeO 3 . The effects observed are explained by the appearance of an additional exchange field H mv ∼20 -36 kOe on rare-earth ions due to decompensation of the surrounding antiferromagnetically ordered Fe ions near nonmagnetic impurity ions. (orig.)

  17. Neurofibromatosis, gigantism, elephantiasis neuromatosa and recurrent massive subperiosteal hematoma: a new case report and review of 7 case reports from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbrugge, F; Poffyn, B; Uyttendaele, D; Verdonk, R; Verstraete, K

    2001-04-01

    The authors report the case of a 13-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis (NF-I), who suffered blunt trauma to the left tibia in 1993. The diagnosis of subperiosteal hematoma was made. Treatment consisted of temporary rest. There was a recurrence in 1996, and the subperiosteal hematoma was drained. In 1997, a shortening osteotomy of the left tibia was performed. However, massive gigantism with elephantiasis of the left leg remained, causing a serious functional and cosmetic problem. In 1999, the leg was amputated above the knee. The literature is reviewed and 7 case reports are compared. The pathogenesis of subperiosteal hematoma is discussed.

  18. Culturas del Mundo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger; Costa, Alberto; Waehle, Espen

    2006-01-01

    ’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39......’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39...

  19. La construcción social del peligro y el género en los jornaleros agrícolas del poblado Miguel Alemán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Calvario Parra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar los discursos y prácticas de jornaleros agrícolas de una localidad en Sonora, el poblado Miguel Alemán, en torno a la construcción social del peligro y el género. Por medio de un estudio de corte cualitativo, se analizan y discuten los relatos de los entrevistados respecto a las actividades de trabajo, sus definiciones sobre el peligro y sus prácticas de cuidado. Se advierten diferencias en la división del trabajo entre varones y mujeres, y con ello las prácticas y discursos sobre el peligro. Se conjugan normativas de género y condiciones laborales (deficiencia en la organización, presencia de fauna nociva y exposición a clima extremo para la construcción social del peligro. Se concluye que existen atisbos de modelos de género que estarían influyendo en la percepción del peligro, ya sea para prevenir o realizar acciones osadas.

  20. Determinación del desgaste del componente acetabular en prótesis totales de cadera. // Wear determination of acetabular component in total hip prosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. García del Pino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza un estudio a través del Método de los Elementos Finitos “MEF” sobre el desgaste del componenteacetabular durante el ciclo de marcha y considerando algunos casos extremos de cargas como subir y bajar escaleras,levantarse de una silla, etc. Utilizando el MEF fueron modelados independientemente los componentes acetabular yfemoral de la prótesis total de cadera y puestos en contacto posteriormente. Fueron estudiadas varias posiciones delacetábulo así como diferentes casos de carga simulando pacientes con diferente peso corporal y actividades físicas. Paraevaluar los resultados se crearon rutinas en lenguaje C que organizaron los mismos para un tratamiento estadísticoposterior.Palabras claves: biomecánica, ortopedia, elementos finitos, modelación, desgaste, prótesis de cadera.___________________________________________________________________________Abstract.A wear study of acetabular component during the marching cycle, considering some extreme loads cases as: ascend anddescend stairways, get up from a seat, etc , by means of Finite Elements Method ( FEM , is carried out. The acetabular andfemoral component of the total hip prosthesis were independently modeled and placed in contact lastly. Several acetabulpositions were studied as well as different load cases, simulating patients with different body weight and different physicalactivities. To evaluate the results routines in C language were created in order to organized the same ones for a laterstatistical treatment.Key words. biomechanics, ortophedy, finite elements, modelation, wear, hip bone prosthesis.

  1. Compactación potencial en dos suelos de la parte plana del Valle del Cauca

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    Madero Morales Edgar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Muestras de los  primeros 20 cm de la superficie de dos suelos en CIAT -Palmira (Calciustol y Haplustol% vérticos mezclados francos isohipertérmicos con pendiente 0.5%, utilizados en coberturas tanto de bosque secundario como de cultivos diversos por más de cincuenta años consecutivos, fueron com- pactados en el aparato de Richards bajo dos condiciones de humedad (0.1 y 0.5 bar para comparar el punto de  mãxima compactación% y su in3uencia en la 4ariación de la densidad aparente% la tasa  de difusión de oxígeno, la porosidad de aireación, la conductividad hidráulica saturada y el  módulo de ruptura. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial (dos suelos, por dos usos, por dos humedades con tres repeticiones. Para la separación de medias se utilizó la prueba de Duncan (P < 0.05. El  estudio concluye que los altos contenidos de M.O. no siempre evitan la degradación del suelo por e6ecto del  trãfico de maquinaria en contenidos de 9umedad altos= independientemente del uso, el Calciustol más limoso tuvo ligeramente mayor potencial a la compactación que el Haplustol; y el cultivo continuado de los dos suelos los ha hecho más susceptibles al daño físico, ya que en esta- do  muy húmedo, se compactaron al extremo y mostraron el deterioro físico que en la práctica puede acarrear el trãfico de maquinaria so>re el suelo% y en estado 9ümedo se compactaron moderadamente.

  2. Bocio multinodular gigante deformante. Presentación de un caso sin síntomas obstructivos

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    Paul Bogucki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 50 años, con una tumoración en la parte anterior de cuello de 25 años de evolución, sin síntomas de compresión. Al examen físico se aprecia una glándula tiroides de gran tamaño que deforma el cuello, de superficie lisa y nodular, de aproximadamente 16x12cm. Los estudios de imágenes y de laboratorio confirmaron el diagnóstico. Se practicó una tiroidectomía total, obteniéndose una glándula de 17x12cm. Se identificaron y preservaron ambos nervios laríngeos recurrentes y las glándulas paratiroides. No hubo complicaciones postoperatorias y el resultado estético fue satisfactorio. En conclusión el bocio es una patología común en las zonas con insuficiente aporte de Yodo, donde tiene una incidencia aproximada de 11%. Las estadísticas obtenidas en nuestro hospital se corresponden con lo publicado en la literatura internacional. La variedad gigante es infrecuente, constituyendo una causa de síntomas compresivos y disconformidad estética, por lo que la cirugía es la indicación terapéutica. Abstract Giant multinodular goiter. A case report with no obstructive symptoms In this report we show a 50 years male patient with a tumor in the anterior part of neck of 25 years of evolution, without symptoms of compression. Physical examination shows a large thyroid gland, which deforms the neck, smooth and nodular, painless to palpation, approximately 16x12cm. Imaging studies and laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of multinodular goiter. A total thyroidectomy was performed, with a gland 17x12cm. Were identified and preserved both recurrent laryngeal nerves and parathyroid glands. There were no postoperative complications and the aesthetic result was satisfactory. In conclusion the goiter is a condition common in areas with insufficient supply of iodine, which has an incidence of approximately 11%. The statistics obtained in our hospital are as published in the international literature to endemic

  3. Caracterização de eventos extremos do nível do mar em Santos e sua correspondência com as reanálises do modelo do NCEP no sudoeste do Atlântico Sul Characterization of extreme sea level events in Santos and their correspondence with the NCEP model reanalysis in the southwest of the South Atlantic

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    Ricardo Martins Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar a influência atmosférica em escala sinótica sobre o oceano, para eventos extremos de maré meteorológica na costa sudeste brasileira. Para isso foram utilizados dados de elevação do nível do mar do Porto de Santos-SP, campos de vento e pressão em superfície das reanálises do modelo do NCEP abrangendo o Atlântico Sul, no período de 1951 a 1990. Foi possível identificar a variabilidade sazonal e o padrão de evolução dos sistemas atmosféricos associados aos eventos extremos, de grande relevância para aplicações em prognósticos e alertas a autoridades. O outono e inverno apresentaram a maior ocorrência de extremos positivos (40,2 % e 30,8 % respectivamente, enquanto a primavera e o inverno foram as estações com maior número de extremos negativos (47,2 % e 32,3 % respectivamente. Os resultados mostram que os casos mais importantes de sobre-elevação do nível do mar ocorrem com a evolução e persistência de sistemas de baixa pressão sobre o oceano, com ventos de sudoeste acima de 8 m/s, juntamente com o anticiclone da retaguarda posicionado sobre o continente.This work aims to identify the synoptic scale atmospheric influence over the ocean for extreme events of storm surges events in the Southeastern Brazilian coast. Time series of sea surface height at the Port of Santos as well as wind and surface pressure from the NCEP reanalysis model enclosing the South Atlantic, for period 1951-1990, were used. Seasonal variability and typical evolution of atmospheric systems were found to be associated with extreme events, very relevant for applications on prognostics and warnings to authorities. Autumn and winter are seasons with the highest occurrence of positive extreme events (40.2 % and 30.8 % respectively and the spring and winter are the ones with negative extreme events (47.2 % and 32.3 % respectively. The results show that the storm surges events depend on low pressure systems

  4. Relación entre los factores de circulación atmosférica regional y de la cupla océano - atmósfera con los derrames extremos de los ríos San Juan y Mendoza

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    Poblete, Arnobio G.; Aguiar, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Dada la crisis hídrica que soporta Cuyo en la actualidad, agudizada desde 2010, resulta fundamental investigar la variabilidad temporal de los derrames anuales de los ríos de los Andes Áridos, que dependen esencialmente de la provisión de agua proveniente de un régimen nival de alta montaña, con el fin de identificar sus tendencias decrecientes y caracterizar sus periodos extremos; por ser los más perjudiciales para las actividades socioeconómicas. Los autores estudiaron la estructu...

  5. Variability of extreme climate indices at Rio claro, São Paulo, Brazil Variabilidade dos índices de extremos climáticos em Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear trends in climate extreme indices derived from precipitation and temperature data at the Rio Claro station, São Paulo-Brazil, are examined for the 40-year period 1966-2005 and the dataset is available at the Instituto de Pesquisas Meteorológicas (IPMET of the State University of São Paulo (UNESP. The precipitation based climate indices did not show statistically significant trends. When correlated with the SST related indices in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, the analysis shows some weak but positive influence of El Niño and the TNAI (Tropical North Atlantic Index over the rainfall behavior of the Rio Claro region. Overall, the temperatures are rising in the last 40 years with an indication of increasing the diurnal temperature range, especially in the recent past due to an increase in the maximum temperature.Foram examinadas tendências lineares nos índices de extremos climáticos derivados de dados de precipitação e temperatura para a estação meteorológica de Rio Claro, São Paulo - Brasil, para o período de 1966 - 2005, correspondente a 40 anos e os dados estão disponíveis no Instituto de Pesquisas Meteorológicas (IPMET da Universidade do Estado de São Paulo (UNESP. Os índices climáticos baseados na precipitação não mostraram tendências com significância estatística. Quando correlacionados com os índices relacionados à TSM dos Oceanos Pacífico e Atlântico, as análises mostram influência fraca, mas positiva do El Niño e TNAI (Tropical North Atlantic Index sobre o comportamento das chuvas sobre a região de Rio Claro. De forma geral, as temperaturas estão aumentando nos últimos 40 anos com um sinal de aumento na amplitude térmica diária, especialmente nos últimos anos devido ao aumento das temperaturas máximas.

  6. Predação de ninhos de Trachemys dorbigni (Duméril & Bibron (Testudines, Emydidae no extremo sul do Brasil Nest predation of Trachemys dorbigni (Duméril & Bibron (Testudines, Emydidae in Southern Brazil

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    Fernanda A. Gonçalves

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ninhos da tartaruga tigre-d'água, Trachemys dorbigni, foram monitorados durante a estação reprodutiva de 2005/2006 para avaliar as taxas de predação e a variação temporal destas; identificar as espécies predadoras, sua importância na destruição dos ninhos e determinar a influência da dispersão dos ninhos sobre a predação, no extremo sul do Brasil. Dos 58 ninhos monitorados, 98% (n = 57 foram destruídos por predadores. Eventos de predação ocorreram predominantemente nas primeiras 48 horas após a oviposição e não houve variação temporal nas taxas de predação. Através de armadilhas fotográficas e observações diretas foram identificadas seis espécies predadoras dos ninhos, não havendo prevalência de nenhuma das espécies. A densidade de ninhos não influenciou as taxas de predação, mas houve correlação negativa entre densidade e tempo decorrido entre a desova e a predação.Nests of the D'Orbigny's slider, Trachemys dorbigni, were monitored during the nesting season of 2005/2006 to evaluate predation rates; time variation on these rates; to identify predator species and their importance on nest destruction and the influence of nest dispersion on predation rates in Southern Brazil. Of the 58 monitored nests, 98% (n = 57 were destroyed by predators. Predation events occurred primarily during the first 48 hours after oviposition and there was no time variation on predation rates. Using camera traps and direct observations we could identify six species of nest predators. There was not prevalence of any predator. Nest density did not influence predation rates, but there was a negative correlation between time after egg laying and predation.

  7. Comparação de ibuprofeno via oral e indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer

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    Eun Mi Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existem poucos relatórios publicados com relação à eficácia do ibuprofeno via oral no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial (PCA em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer (EBPN. Comparamos o ibuprofeno via oral à indometacina intravenosa no que diz respeito à eficácia e segurança no tratamento de PCA em neonatos com peso inferior a 1.000 g ao nascer. MÉTODO: Este foi um estudo retrospectivo em um único centro. Coletamos dados de neonatos com EBPN que tiveram PCA ecocardiograficamente confirmada. Os neonatos foram tratados tanto com indometacina intravenosa quanto com ibuprofeno via oral. A taxa de fechamento do canal, a necessidade de tratamentos adicionais, os efeitos colaterais ou as complicações relacionadas ao medicamento e a mortalidade foram comparados entre os dois grupos de tratamento. RESULTADO: Examinamos 26 neonatos que receberam indometacina e 22 que receberam ibuprofeno. A taxa geral de fechamento do canal foi semelhante nos dois tratamentos: o fechamento do canal ocorreu em 23 dos 26 neonatos (88,5% no grupo indometacina, e em 18 dos 22 neonatos (81,8% no grupo ibuprofeno (p = 0,40. A taxa de ligadura cirúrgica (11,5% em comparação a 18,2%; p = 0,40 não diferiu de forma significativa entre os dois grupos de tratamento. Após o tratamento, não foi encontrada nenhuma diferença significativa nas concentrações de creatinina sérica entre os dois grupos. Não houve diferenças significativas com relação a efeitos colaterais ou complicações adicionais. CONCLUSÃO: Em neonatos com EBPN, o ibuprofeno via oral é tão eficaz quanto a indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da PCA. Não há diferenças entre os medicamentos no que diz respeito à segurança. O ibuprofeno via oral poderia ser usado como um agente alternativo no tratamento da PCA em neonatos com EBPN.

  8. Necesidades de aprendizaje de los especialistas de Medicina General Integral sobre los trastornos del espectro autista

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    Víctor Tadeo Pérez Martínez

    Full Text Available Introducción: las necesidades de aprendizaje resultan de contrastar un desempeño ideal o propuesto con el real, bien sea para un individuo o un grupo determinado. Constituyen el punto de partida para la búsqueda de una solución pedagógica, capacitante, a fin de contribuir a la transformación cualitativa de los servicios de salud, y su oportuna identificación una trascendental herramienta de la educación permanente. Objetivo: identificar las necesidades de aprendizaje que sobre los trastornos del espectro autista, tienen los médicos que laboran en los Equipos de Atención Primaria de Salud, del municipio Playa. Método: se aplicó un cuestionario con carácter anónimo, en forma de examen escrito, a 20 especialistas de MGI seleccionados al azar, que laboran en tres policlínicas del extremo Este, del municipio Playa. Resultados: se puntualizaron las deficiencias e insuficiencias de los conocimientos y habilidades profesionales sobre los trastorno del espectro autista, fundamentalmente en lo que respecta a su detección temprana, diagnóstico precoz y escalas de evaluación psicoevolutiva. Conclusiones: a pesar de que los principales problemas de salud de nuestros niños y adolescentes constituyen, en el primer nivel de atención, programas priorizados, sobre todo los que a salud mental infanto-juvenil se refieren, la mayoría de los especialistas exhibió dificultades en el tratamiento integral de estos pacientes, persistiendo el espectro autista como un desorden habitualmente mal explorado y tardíamente diagnosticado, cuya evaluación adolece, en ocasiones, de elementos de obligatoria indagación y conocimiento, lo que afecta el adecuado seguimiento de los menores y su calidad de vida.

  9. Uso del suelo como tratamiento secundario de aguas residuales domésticas

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    Wilber J. Perez-FLores

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio es evaluar la eficiencia de remoción de contaminantes de aguas residuales domésticas (ARD usando el suelo como tratamiento, para utilizarlo como una alternativa al alcance de poblaciones sin acceso a sistemas de alcantarillado y tratamiento de ARD. Se construyó un sistema piloto de tratamiento de ARD compuesto por una fosa séptica y zanjas de infiltración, el cual funciona por percolación en el subsuelo, donde el agua atraviesa una capa de piedrín y luego se percola en el suelo. El estudio se realizó en la planta experimental de tratamiento de ARD en la ciudad de Guatemala, durante octubre 2014 a mayo del 2015. Se tomaron como parámetros los indicados en el Reglamento de descargas y reúsos de las aguas residuales y la disposición de lodos. Los análisis se realizaron en el Laboratorio Unificado de Química y Microbiología Sanitaria, a excepción de los metales pesados, aceites y grasas. La evaluación del rendimiento del sistema piloto de tratamiento de ARD demostró una eficiente remoción de contaminantes, con resultados en sólidos suspendidos de 99%, color 95%, DBO5de 99%, DQO de 98%, fósforo de 87% y coliformes fecales de 93%. Respecto al nitrógeno se eliminaron los resultados extremos, obteniéndose una eficiencia de remoción de 23%. Se comprobó que el suelo es capaz de remover con eficacia la mayoría de contaminantes de las ARD a excepción del nitrógeno, el cual requiere un estudio más detallado para entender su comportamiento en el proceso.

  10. Los dueños del rebaño. Origen étnico y capacidad ovina en Chubut

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    Fernando Coronato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuando la línea de investigación inaugurada por Elsa Barbería en “Los dueños de la tierra” en Santa Cruz, avanzamos sobre la distribución de las diferentes comunidades étnicas y su parte en el poblamiento patagónico a partir del análisis cartográfico diacrónico. Para el último período del proceso utilizamos la base de datos del catastro del Chubut (2006 para evaluar « la capacidad ganadera» (entendida como la acumulación de hectáreas y ovinos de cada comunidad étnica. Estas fueron asociadas a los grupos patronímicos identificados previamente, a saber: alemán, bóer, británico (inglés y escocés, español, francés, galés, italiano, mapuche, polaco, tehuelche y vasco. Las Sociedades Anónimas se consideraron como un grupo aparte. Del tratamiento estadístico de los datos se obtuvo la superficie media de las (más de 2000 propiedades, la talla media del rebaño y la cosecha de lana de cada grupo, detectándose diferencias significativas entre algunos de ellos. Las Sociedades Anónimas se despegan solitarias hacia los latifundios, mientras que en el extremo opuesto se ubican los grupos aborígenes, arrinconados en los minifundios y la subsistencia. Estos datos relativamente actuales muestran la continuidad de los procesos identificados en el análisis catastral de etapas previas del poblamiento que se remontan a más de un siglo.

  11. ASPECTOS MORFOANATÔMICOS DE FRUTOS DE TOMATEIRO CULTIVAR ÂNGELA GIGANTE, SUBMETIDOS A TRATAMENTOS COM REGULADORES VEGETAIS

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    MARIA BERNARDETE GONÇALVES MARTINS

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como finalidade obter dados morfológicos de frutos de tomateiro, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Ângela Gigante', submetidos à ação de reguladores vegetais, em dois ensaios que ocorreram em épocas distintas, em casa de vegetação. As mudas foram selecionadas e transplantadas para vasos com capacidade de 12 L de terra, contendo uma mistura de solo argiloso, areia, matéria orgânica e uma adubação mineral complementar de N, P, K. No segundo ensaio, após o transplante das mudas, além da adubação mineral complementar de N, P, K, efetuaram-se adubações adicionais (fertirrigação. Em ambos os ensaios, quando as plantas atingiram quatro folhas definitivas, realizaram-se as pulverizações com giberelina, GA3 50 mg/L; ácido naftalenacético, NAA 100 mg/L; cloreto (2-cloroetil trimetilamônio, CCC 1.500 mg/L e ácido succínico -2,2 dimetil-hidrazida, SADH 3.000 mg/L. Em relação aos estudos anatômicos, observou-se que os tratamentos com retardadores vegetais (CCC e SADH produziram frutos firmes, com formato tipo barril e ombros salientes; entretanto, em seção transversal, notou-se perda de viscosidade e atrofia de sementes, principalmente nos frutos de plantas tratadas com SADH. Os tratamentos com NAA e GA3 causaram eventual formação de frutos geminados. O tratamento com GA3 apresentou o parênquima do pericarpo com grãos de amido em processo de fragmentação, provavelmente em virtude de o GA3 acelerar a atividade da amilase, afetando o processo de maturação dos frutos e transformando o amido em açúcares. Notaram-se no mesocarpo células com grande quantidade de cristais de oxalato de cálcio sob a forma de areia cristalina. Do tratamento com CCC resultaram frutos suculentos com células da placenta degeneradas, deixando livre grande quantidade de mucilagem. O pericarpo apresentou grande quantidade de grãos de amido composto em toda a extensão, provavelmente por haver um atraso no processo de

  12. Estudio colorimétrico de los azulejos del Patio de las Doncellas del Real Alcázar de Sevilla (España*

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    Manuel Melgosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se han realizado medidas colorimétricas y goniocolorimétricas de 187 azulejos de la galería baja del Patio de las Doncellas (S. xiv, que pueden agruparse en torno a 5 tonos principales: blanco, negro, azul, verde y melado. Las medidas goniocolorimétricas se muestran necesarias para caracterizar correctamente la mayoría de estas muestras, siendo insuficientes las medidas colorimétricas convencionales. Los principales cambios de color se dan al movernos desde el ángulo de –15° (próximo a la dirección de reflexión especular hasta el de +45° (dirección perpendicular a la muestra, consistiendo en un descenso de claridad (L* y un aumento de croma (C*ab. Para las muestras negras se observa además un acusado descenso del ángulo de tono (hab, así como un valor alto de 16,0 para el índice de flop en claridad. Las muestras negras y meladas tienen apariencia metalizada, con valores del índice de metalizado superiores a 5,0. Las diferencias de color entre los ángulos extremos de –15° y +110° son bastante elevadas, oscilando sus valores medios entre 4,1 (blancos y 31,2 (melados unidades CIELAB. La presente caracterización goniocolorimétrica de los azulejos del Patio de las Doncellas aporta una metodología y resultados que pueden ser útiles para los trabajos de conservadores y restauradores.

  13. Tumor marrón del hiperparatiroidismo: A propósito de un caso

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    Miguel Arredondo López

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El tumor marrón del hiperparatiroidismo en los maxilares es poco frecuente. Se reporta 1 caso de una paciente tratada quirúrgicamente por lesión osteolítica maxilar. Se describen los antecedentes, la clínica y diferentes exámenes de valor diagnóstico. Se realizó diagnóstico diferencial con el tumor central de células gigantes. Se revisó el tema y se brindaron algunas consideraciones reportadas en la literatura.The maroon tumor of hyperparathyroidism is a rare tumor. The case of a female patient surgically treated due a maxillary osteolytic lesion was reported. The history, clinic and different examinations of diagnostic value are described.. A differential diagnosis was made with the central tumor of giant cells. The topic was reviewed and some considerations reported in literature were made.

  14. La reacción del poder ante los estímulos informativos: el síndrome B y el efecto I

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    Dr. José Manuel de Pablos Coello - jpablos@ull.es

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Vamos a plantear aquí la hipótesis según la cual el poder, cuando le afecta, reacciona a las críticas y comentarios peyorativos o simplemente noticias aparecidas en prensa. Responde así al contenido de textos que ponen en duda la capacidad del poder cuestionado, cuya imagen sale deteriorada o, más sencillo aún, da a entender a sus fieles o seguidores que su condición de hegemón empieza a dejar de ser tal; este extremo invitaría a otros a situarse en la posición de autoridad ocupada hasta entonces por el poder debilitado desde los textos críticos. * Conferencia de clausura de la II Bienal de la Comunicación - Universidad de Cartagena (Colombia, mayo de 1999.

  15. Contínuo pendular de la investigación en la administración internacional de las organizaciones: del positivismo funcionalista a la investigación cualitativa y etnográfica

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    Jose G. Vargas-Hernandez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la construcción teórico metodológico de explicaciones de la realidad de los fenómenos de la administración internacional de las organizaciones. Se parte del supuesto de que las teorías clásicas de la administración internacional de las organizaciones han evolucionado en forma paralela a los paradigmas de la ciencia que prevalece en la misma época. En este trabajo se demuestra que los desarrollos teóricos metodológicos han fluctuado en un continuo pendular que va en un extremo de las concepciones epistemológicas positivistas de la ciencia, pasando por el funcionalismo, el estructuralismo, el institucionalismo, el neoinstitucionalismo, el constructivismo social y la perspectiva crítica interpretativa hasta alcanzar el extremo opuesto con los enfoques de la investigación cualitativa y etnográfica.

  16. Tratamento de hemangioma gigante com interferon alfa: relato de dois casos Treatment of giant hemangioma with interferon-alpha: report of two cases

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    Ana Julia Balau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é descrever o uso de interferon alfa no tratamento de pacientes com hemangioma gigante. Os autores relatam e analisam dois casos de hemangioma gigante em tratamento com interferon alfa. IBS, 3 anos, em acompanhamento no Ambulatório de Hematologia desde um ano de idade com quadro de lesão angiomatosa em praticamente toda hemiface direita, acompanhada de sangramentos gengivais importantes. Após a realização de exames complementares (Angiorressonância magnética e feito o diagnóstico de hemangioma gigante em face, foi iniciado tratamento com prednisona e, posteriormente, associação com interferon alfa e observada importante melhora do quadro, resultando na diminuição dos episódios de sangramento e no tamanho do tumor. C.N.P., 12 anos, apresentando nódulo em região lateral de joelho esquerdo há 2 anos, com aumento progressivo do tamanho e dor local. Fez uso de prednisona e, sem melhora do quadro, introduzido interferon alfa com regressão importante do tamanho do tumor. O tratamento com interferon alfa deve ser considerado no tratamento de hemangiomas, pois apresenta bons resultados em relação à diminuição do tamanho do tumor e, conseqüentemente, reduz as intercorrências clínicas associadas à sua presença, principalmente os sangramentos.The aim of this study is to describe the treatment using interferon-alpha of giant hemangiomas in children. The authors report two cases of children presenting with giant hemangiomas treated using interferon-alpha and analyze the results. IBS, 3 years-old, has been followed up in Famema Hemathology Service since she was 1 year-old with a tumor on the face and persistent bleeding. After clinical and radiologic evaluations and suggested the diagnosis of giant hemangioma, she started treatment with interferon-alpha. A great clinical improvement was observed a reducing of the number of episodes of bleedings and a decrease in of the tumor size. CNP, 12 years-old, came to

  17. Mejoramiento continuo en la gestión del ciclo de acarreo de camiones en minería a tajo abierto en Antamina, Cerro Verde, Toquepala, Cuajone, Yanacocha, Alto Chicama, Las Bambas, Cerro Corona, Antapacay y Pucamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Quiquia, Gerardo William; Mauricio Quiquia, Gerardo William

    2015-01-01

    En la actualidad se esta llevando acabo una revolución de la forma de hacer minería, en la cultura minera misma, y esto se debe básicamente al avance tecnológico que nos permite disponer de sistemas altamente desarrollados para el control de los procesos. Actualmente el costo más alto en operaciones mina a Tajo abierto, es el costo de acarreo de los camiones gigantes ya sea en combustible, llantas y repuestos, este costo representa casi el 45 % del costo de minado, es por eso que se plantea ...

  18. Litotripsia Mecánica Intrapancreática en un paciente con pancreatitis crónica y litiasis del Conducto de Wirsung: reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Yriberry Ureña, Simón; Monge Zapata, Victor; Salazar Muente, Fernando; Targarona Modena, Javier; Salzar Cabrera, Fernando; Barriga Calle, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de una paciente mujer de 34 años con litiasis múltiple del Wirsung sometida a cirugía modificada de Puestow. Dos meses después de la cirugía la paciente ingresa con cuadro de dolor severo compatible con pancreatitis aguda sobrepuesta en pancreatitis crónica. Se observa litiasis gigante de cabeza de páncreas. Se realiza procedimiento terapéutico esfinterotomía de páncreas y litotripsia mecánica. Se describe el procedimiento y se revisa la literatura. The case of a 34 yea...

  19. No More Gigantism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, B. B.

    1975-01-01

    The food situation in India is critical. It requires the development of both land and water resources, both of which are largely untapped. Ground water is one undeveloped resource that can help alleviate the irrigation problems facing agriculture. More efficient utilization could free millions of hectares of land for cultivation. (MA)

  20. Gigantic environmental profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The article presents studies on possible profits and advantages by converting vehicles such as buses and taxis from diesel to gas fuel engines for the environment and human beings in Norway. Some applications for automobiles are mentioned

  1. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  2. De Palacio a Monasterio. Génesis y transformación del Real Monasterio de Santa Clara de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Muñoz, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The convent of Santa Clara is one of the largest religious buildings in Seville. Founded in 1289, it became the oldest second one in the city after that of San Clemente, which is located in the same northwestern area of the old Almohad wall. The comprehensive study of the building, as part of the rehabilitation project, has allowed knowing its evolution and the survival of structures previous to the granting of the land where it is sited.El convento de Santa Clara es uno de los edificios de carácter religioso más grandes de Sevilla. Fundado en 1289 se convierte en el segundo más antiguo de la ciudad tan sólo precedido por el de San Clemente que se ubica en el mismo sector del extremo Noroeste de la antigua cerca almohade. El estudio integral del edificio como parte del proyecto de rehabilitación nos ha permitido conocer su evolución y la pervivencia de estructuras heredadas previas a la concesión de los terrenos que ahora ocupa.

  3. Iris en sayuela signo clínico nuevo asociado al síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior: a new clinical sign associated to the anterior segment toxic syndrome Iris in underskirt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Hernández López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Presentar un nuevo signo clínico como resultado del desprendimiento gigante del epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris en el curso de un síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior tras una cirugía de catarata. MÉTODOS: Presentamos un paciente intervenido de catarata mediante facoemulsificación con implante de lente intraocular de cámara posterior plegable, sin incidencias ni complicaciones transoperatorias. Se le realizó evaluación biomicroscópica en el posoperatorio inmediato diagnosticándosele un síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior asociado a un desprendimiento gigante del epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris. Se tomaron fotos durante la evolución del paciente para documentar este raro signo clínico. RESULTADOS: Al provocar la dilatación pupilar farmacológica nos encontramos con la retracción de todas las capas anteriores del iris, mostrando por debajo al epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris sinequiado al lente intraocular y tan extensamente desprendido que simulaba un segundo iris. No encontramos este hallazgo clínico reportado en la literatura revisada. Denominamos este signo como iris en sayuela. CONCLUSIONES: El desprendimiento del epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris constituye un hallazgo clínico que puede aparecer raramente asociado al síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior y cuando es muy extenso puede presentarse de forma insólita como el signo del iris en sayuela.OBJECTIVE: To present a new clinical sign as a result of a huge posterior pigmented epithelium detachment of the iris in the course of at toxic anterior segment syndrome after a successful cataract surgery. METHOD: A patient who had undergone a cataract surgery by phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation, without any incidence or transoperative complication. He was evaluated through biomicroscopy in the immediate postoperative period where a huge posterior pigmented epithelium detachment of the iris

  4. Teleconexiones atmosféricas-oceánicas (océanos Pacífico y Atlántico moduladoras de veranos húmedos y secos en el Núcleo del Monzón de Norte América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Llanes-Cárdenas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En décadas recientes, la irregularidad de las precipitaciones ha tenido diversos efectos ambientales y socioeconómicos adversos a nivel mundial. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la resolución de cuatro Modelos Climáticos Regionales (MCR’s forzados por ERA - Interim para capturar los monzones extremos húmedos y secos en el Núcleo del Monzón de Norte América (NMNA, considerando los mecanismos oceánicos del Pacífico y del Atlántico. De las bases de datos disponibles en la red y para el período 1990 - 2008, se obtuvo: (1 promedio de las observaciones (obs media después de haber obtenido 4 conjuntos de datos de precipitación observados: UDel, CLICOM, GPCP y CRU, (2 d el Experimento Regional Coordinado de Reducción de Escala (COR DEX - de Norte América (NA se obtuvieron cuatro MCR’s forzados por ERA - Interim : RegCM4 ( Reg1 y Reg2, HadGEM3 - RA, RCA3.5 y REMO, (3 número e intensidad de los huracanes del Pacífico y (4 cálculo de las anomalías del Jet de Niveles Bajos del Caribe (CLLJ , Varianza Filtrada (VF, Oscilación Decadal del Pacífico (PDO y Oscilación Multidecadal del Atlántico (AMO. Se seleccionaron dos monzones extremos: uno húmedo (1990 y otro seco (2005. Se aplicó una prueba de normalidad de Shapiro Wilk a los datos a es tudiar. Se calculó una correlación de Pearson y una prueba de hipótesis con nivel de confianza de 95 % (P < 0.05 y 99 % (P < 0.01 entre los modelos, Era - Interim, las observaciones y los índices oceánicos. Sin considerar los índices oceánicos, HadGEM3 - RA y ERA - Interim capturan de mejor manera la precipitación en los monzones húmedos, en tanto que ERA - Interim y Reg1 resultaron ser mejores para capturar la precipitación para monzones secos. El monzón de 1990 presentó casi el doble de precipitación que el 200 5. Esta anomalía húmeda al parecer se asocia con la ocurrencia de 16 huracanes cerca del Golfo de California en 1990, lo que contrasta con el 2005, cuando solo se

  5. Aspectos radiológicos e epidemiológicos do granuloma central de células gigantes Radiological and epidemiological aspects of central giant cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wilson Noleto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os principais aspectos radiográficos e epidemiológicos das lesões de células gigantes (granulomas centrais de células gigantes e tumores marrons do hiperparatireoidismo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A amostra consistiu de 26 lesões de células gigantes diagnosticadas em 22 pacientes divididos em dois grupos, um deles composto por 17 pacientes que não tinham hiperparatireoidismo (grupo A e o outro formado por cinco pacientes portadores de tal distúrbio (grupo B. RESULTADOS: O sexo feminino (72,7% foi o mais acometido. As lesões ocorreram mais freqüentemente na segunda década de vida, com média de idade de 27 anos. A mandíbula (61,5% foi o arco mais envolvido. Radiograficamente, 57,7% das lesões eram multiloculares e 42,3% eram uniloculares com limites definidos. Todas as 26 lesões provocaram expansão óssea, 15,4% produziram reabsorção radicular, 50% causaram deslocamento dentário e 11,5% produziram dor. Na mandíbula, 18,7% das lesões cruzavam a linha média. O grupo A apresentou 66,7% das lesões na mandíbula e o grupo B mostrou igualdade na distribuição das lesões entre os arcos. O grupo A apresentou 66,7% das lesões multiloculares e 33,3%, uniloculares. O grupo B apresentou 62,5% das lesões uniloculares e 37,5%, multiloculares. CONCLUSÃO: As lesões de células gigantes podem manifestar-se, radiograficamente, com um amplo espectro, desde pequenas lesões uniloculares de crescimento lento até extensas lesões multiloculares. Elas apresentam características de benignidade, embora algumas lesões possam demonstrar um comportamento localmente agressivo.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at evaluating main radiological and epidemiological aspects of giant cell lesions (central giant cell granuloma and brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 26 giant cell lesions diagnosed in 22 patients divided into two groups, one of them

  6. La fauna béntica del Estero de Sabancuy, Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia González Solis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La estructura comunitaria de peces e invertebrados en el estero de Sabancuy fue analizada en dos temporadas y 14 estaciones de muestreo (13 a lo largo del estero y una en la costa marina adyacente. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las temporadas. El marco ambiental define dos zonas dentro del estero, la primera va de la carretera de acceso al pueblo de Sabancuy hasta la boca del Pujo en el oeste; la segunda del puente a la cabeza del estero en el este. Los invertebrados más abundantes fueron los moluscos (51.8 % del total y en la biomasa los crustáceos. Los peces registraron 21 familias y 33 especies. Las familias más abundantes fueron Gerridae, Scianidae, Sparidae, Lutjanidae y Cipinodontidae. Las diversidades más altas de ambas comunidades corresponden a la parte central del estero. Estas comunidades presentaron tres agrupaciones con diferencias notables en la distribución de la fauna: una influenciada por la salida hacia la laguna de Términos, la segunda en la cabecera del estuario y la tercera es una zona de transición definida por la cercanía al puente de acceso del poblado. La organización ecológica implica una fuerte división debida al puente; ambos extremos presentan escasez de hábitats y recursos alimenticios, lo que se refleja en la pobreza de especies en esas áreas.The fish and invertebrates community structure in the Sabancuy estuary was analyzed in two seasons and 14 sampling stations (13 along the estuary and one in the marine adjacent coast. No significant differences were found between seasons. The environmental frame defines two zones within the estuary, the first extends from the access highway to Sabancuy town until the Pujo mouth in the west; the second from the bridge to the estuary head in the east. The most abundant invertebrates were mollusks (51.8% of the total, in biomass the crustaceans dominated. The fish included 21 families and 33 species; the most abundant were Gerridae, Scianidae

  7. Five-year follow-up of a 13-year-old boy with a pituitary adenoma causing gigantism--effect of octreotide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Ellen; Dörr, Helmuth G; Kiess, Wieland; Lüdecke, Dieter K; Freitag, Eduard; Zindel, Volker; Rascher, Wolfgang; Dötsch, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    In children, there is little experience with octreotide therapy for pituitary tumors, especially growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas. We report on a 13-year-old boy with gigantism due to a GH-producing pituitary adenoma caused by a Gsalpha mutation on the basis of McCune-Albright syndrome. At the age of 6.5 years a GH- and prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma was diagnosed. The adenoma was surgically removed. Immediately thereafter, the small adenoma residuum was treated with octreotide (2 x 100 microg/day s.c.). During therapy with octreotide, the growth rate dropped to normal values; however, rose again after 2 years of treatment. The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels remained above the 95th percentile, the GH level mostly >2 microg/l. After 5 years of octreotide therapy, GH (6.9 microg/l), IGF-I (620 microg/l), IGF-binding protein 3 (5.4 mg/l), and prolactin (17.0 ng/ml) levels were still elevated. The growth velocity was +2.4 SDS (standard deviation score), the pubertal status was mature, and the bone age was 14.3 years (prospective final height 208 cm). A magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an unchanged residual 4-mm rim of adenoma at the pituitary site. Side effects from octreotide therapy were not reported by the patient or his family. The therapy was changed to the long-acting release octreotide analog octreotide-LAR. After 1 year of treatment with octreotide-LAR, the GH level was 1.0 microg/l, and the prospective final height dropped by 10 cm. This case demonstrates that combined surgical and medical treatment can influence the prognosis of childhood gigantism; however, the prognosis of this rare condition remains uncertain. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Growth-hormone-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 signaling causes gigantism, inflammation, and premature death but protects mice from aggressive liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedbichler, Katrin; Themanns, Madeleine; Mueller, Kristina M; Schlederer, Michaela; Kornfeld, Jan-Wilhelm; Terracciano, Luigi M; Kozlov, Andrey V; Haindl, Susanne; Kenner, Lukas; Kolbe, Thomas; Mueller, Mathias; Snibson, Kenneth J; Heim, Markus H; Moriggl, Richard

    2012-03-01

    Persistently high levels of growth hormone (GH) can cause liver cancer. GH activates multiple signal-transduction pathways, among them janus kinase (JAK) 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5). Both hyperactivation and deletion of STAT5 in hepatocytes have been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); nevertheless, the role of STAT5 in the development of HCC as a result of high GH levels remains enigmatic. Thus, we crossed a mouse model of gigantism and inflammatory liver cancer caused by hyperactivated GH signaling (GH(tg) ) to mice with hepatic deletion of STAT5 (STAT5(Δhep) ). Unlike GH(tg) mice, GH(tg) STAT5(Δhep) animals did not display gigantism. Moreover, the premature mortality, which was associated with chronic inflammation, as well as the pathologic alterations of hepatocytes observed in GH(tg) mice, were not observed in GH(tg) animals lacking STAT5. Strikingly, loss of hepatic STAT5 proteins led to enhanced HCC development in GH(tg) mice. Despite reduced chronic inflammation, GH(tg) STAT5(Δhep) mice displayed earlier and more advanced HCC than GH(tg) animals. This may be attributed to the combination of increased peripheral lipolysis, hepatic lipid synthesis, loss of hepatoprotective mediators accompanied by aberrant activation of tumor-promoting c-JUN and STAT3 signaling cascades, and accumulation of DNA damage secondary to loss of cell-cycle control. Thus, HCC was never observed in STAT5(Δhep) mice. As a result of their hepatoprotective functions, STAT5 proteins prevent progressive fatty liver disease and the formation of aggressive HCC in the setting of hyperactivated GH signaling. At the same time, they play a key role in controlling systemic inflammation and regulating organ and body size. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Modelo de análisis de cargas máximas en aerogeneradores producidas por vientos extremos // Model of analysis of maximum loads in wind generators produced by extreme winds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Herrera - Sánchez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa utilización de la energía eólica mediante los aerogeneradores en zonas de alto riesgo deocurrencia de Huracanes viene siendo un reto importante para los diseñadores de parques eólicos anivel mundial desde hace algunos años. Los aerogeneradores no están diseñados normalmente parasoportar este tipo de fenómenos y es por esto que se marginan las zonas de alta incidencia deciclones tropicales de la planificación, lo cual, en ocasiones, imposibilita totalmente la utilización deesta fuente renovable de energía, ya sea porque el país es muy pequeño, o porque coincidaplenamente la zona de mayor potencial con la de alto riesgo. Para contrarrestar esto se ha elaboradoun modelo de análisis de cargas máximas producidas por los vientos extremos en aerogeneradores.Este modelo tiene la ventaja de determinar en un sitio escogido para la instalación en un parqueeólico las micro-zonas con mayor riesgo de presentar cargas de vientos por encima de lasadmisibles por las clases estándares de aerogeneradores.Suponemos además que modelo es una fuerte herramienta en la planificación de parques eólicos,los cuales en la actualidad son destinados a zonas de baja incidencia de huracanes o tormentastropicales, factores que para algunos países son realmente muy problemáticos por la alta incidenciaque presentan de estos fenómenos extremadamente destructivos.Palabras claves: Aerogeneradores, cargas de viento máximas, modelado de parques eólicos.__________________________________________________________________________-AbstractThe use of the wind energy by means of the wind turbines in areas of high risk of occurrence ofHurricanes comes being an important challenge for the designers of wind farm at world for someyears. The wind generator is not usually designed to support this type of phenomena, for this reasonthe areas of high incidence of tropical hurricanes of the planning are excluded, that which, inoccasions disables the use of this

  10. Tratamento do câncer colorretal em idosos extremos: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Treatment of colorectal cancer in extremely eldelry: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maciel da Fonseca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o envelhecimento da população brasileira, cada vez mais o cirurgião colorretal se defrontará com pacientes chamados de idosos extremos, com idade superior a 75 ou 85 anos e apresentando diagnóstico de câncer colorretal (CaCR. A conduta é controversa diante desses casos. Este trabalho relata a abordagem de uma paciente de 97 anos com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma de reto alto e faz uma revisão da literatura sobre o assunto. Esta paciente foi submetida à retossigmoidectomia paliativa vídeo-assistida, com incisão suprapúbica transversa para confecção da anastomose colorretal primária e retirada do espécime cirúrgico. Foi incluída no programa de reabilitação multimodal pós-operatória (fast-trac para cirurgia colorretal, apresentou boa evolução e recebeu alta hospitalar no terceiro dia de pós-operatório. O estudo anatomopatológico da peça mostrou tratar-se de adenocarcinoma moderadamente diferenciado, invasor até a muscular própria e metastático em 2 de 12 linfonodos dissecados. De acordo com a literatura, em pacientes selecionados com mais de 75 anos, a cirurgia colorretal eletiva para CaCR pode ser realizada com taxa de morbimortalidade semelhante àquela de pacientes jovens, obtendo-se sobrevidas geral e livre de doença favoráveis. Comorbidades não definem isoladamente o prognóstico e nem contraindicam o procedimento.Because the elderly population in Brasil is rapidly increasing, the colorectal surgeron will always manage extremely old patients, aged 75 or 85 years or older, with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The management of such cases is controversial. This paper reports the treatment of a 97-year-old patient with diagnosis of rectum adenocarcinoma, and presents a literature review on the best approach for old-age patients with colorectal cancer. The patient underwent a palliative laparoscopic retossigmoidectomy and colorectal anastomosis, as the specimen was resected through supra-pubic transverse

  11. del cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las propuestas y los compromisos en materia de cobertura y de financiamiento en el periodo 2000-2006. En particular, revisa las modificaciones y los ajustes de los tres principales documentos en los que se expresaron las iniciativas: el de la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior, el del equipo de la transición y el programa sectorial. Los resultados muestran que las cifras de atención a la demanda educativa e inversión quedaron lejos de las metas autoimpuestas por el gobierno federal y que será necesario realizar mayores esfuerzos para atender tales desafíos.

  12. NF90 una proteína celular que se une a RNAds inhibe la transactivación del LTR del HIV-1 mediada por TAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Urcuqui Inchima

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La transactivación del LTR de HIV-1 requiere la interacción de la proteína Tat ( trans-activation transcription con la estructura TAR ( trans-activation response, que se encuentra localizada en el extremo 5’ de todos los transcriptos virales. La interacción de la proteína Tat con TAR forma un precomplejo transcripcional indispensable para la eficiente transcripción del genoma viral.
    La interacción de diferentes factores celulares (cdk9 y ciclina T, entre otros con el precomplejo Tat-TAR, constituye un complejo estable que facilita la fosforilación de la subunidad mayor de la RNA polimerasa II, asegurando una eficiente elongación de los transcriptos virales. No se han descripto proteínas capaces de regular negativamente la función de Tat con resultados nefastos para la replicación viral. También se ha descrito otro tipo de proteínas celulares con capacidad de interactuar con TAR. El ejemplo mejor caracterizado es la proteína-kinasa dependiente de RNA (PKR, se autofosforila y mediante fosforilación del factor eIF2, inhibe la síntesis de proteínas. Con el presente trabajo se
    pretendió aislar y caracterizar otras proteínas celulares capaces de interactuar con la estructura TAR y estudiar su efecto en la función de Tat.

     

  13. La superaci??n del modelo del ??ngel del hogar:

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Mu??oz, M??nica

    2012-01-01

    La Tesis Doctoral titulada "La superaci??n del modelo del "??ngel del hogar". Recuperaci??n de la escritora Leonor Canalejas y Fustegueras (1869-1945)" aborda, en primer lugar, un an??lisis sociol??gico de las circunstancias que rodearon a la mujer espa??ola en el cambio de siglo en el ??mbito social y educativo, en un intento de esclarecer las caracter??sticas propias del contexto en el que la mujer accede a la intelectualidad en general y a la literatura en particular. Esta parte concluye q...

  14. Aquellos Tiempos del Cólera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Serpa Florez

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La última novela de Gabriel García Márquez ha puesto sobre el tapete la historia de la epidemia de cólera que asoló a nuestro país en los años de 1849 y 1850.

    Como se sabe, el cólera es una gravísima enfermedad que puede producir la muerte en pocas horas. Se caracteriza por diarrea y vómito que llevan a una pronta deshidratación. En su período álgido, que es patognomónica del mal, el paciente es presa de un frío extremo, como la palabra lo indica. La mortalidad puede alcanzar hasta a un cincuenta por ciento de las personas afectadas que son, principalmente, las de menores recursos económicos.

    En Cartagena, según los datos que en sus Memorias consigna don Salvador Camacho Roldán, quien fue contemporáneo de los sucesos, murió una cuarta parte de la población por esta causa: de sus diez mil habitantes de entonces, fallecieron dos mil cuatrocientos afectados por el cólera morbo (1.

    En esa época no se conocía el origen ni el modo de contagiarse el mal. Se aceptaba que, llevados “por las altas regiones de la atmósfera” los miasmas, transmitidos por los malos olores, eran su causa. El descubrimiento en 1884 por Roberto Koch del Vibrio cholera, la bacteria productora de la enfermedad, que se adquiere al tomar agua contaminada con las heces de quien padece el mal, permitió saber su patogenia, que John Snow había intuído en Londres al observar que el cólera era contraído por los usuarios de la bomba de agua de Broad Street, tal como lo publicó en 1854 en su estudio titulado “On the mode of Communication of Cholera “. (2.

    A mediados del siglo pasado el cólera morbo se extendió por el mundo en forma de una pandemia. Parece que de Bengala pasó a la India y atacó después a Europa y los Estados Unidos.

    A nuestro país vino en enero de 1849 por el puerto de Colón, en Panamá. Nos lo informa el doctor Domingo Arosemena, testigo de excepción, quien atendió el primer caso en la ciudad

  15. Eventos extremos de precipitação no estado do Ceará e suas relações com a temperatura dos oceanos tropicais Extreme rainfall events in Ceará state and its relationship with tropical oceans temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho é prover informações sobre as tendências recentes dos eventos extremos de precipitação sobre o Estado do Ceará, associando esses eventos extremos às anomalias de Temperatura da Superfície do Mar (TSM nos Oceanos Pacífico e Atlântico. Foram utilizados dados pluviométricos de 18 postos de 1971 a 2006 e o método de Mann-Kendall foi utilizado na obtenção das tendências. Os resultados mostram que existem características de aumento nas intensidades das secas e diminuição dos eventos de precipitação forte, e que o aumento nas anomalias de TSM no Pacífico e ao norte do equador, no Oceano Atlântico, acarreta em um aumento do número de dias consecutivos secos no norte do Ceará. Os índices extremos de precipitação mostraram correlações negativas com as anomalias de TSM nas regiões do Pacífico do Atlântico Tropical Norte e positivas com a região do Atlântico Tropical Sul. Entretanto, para a região sul do Ceará, o comportamento dos dias consecutivos chuvosos indica que o período chuvoso é governado por outros sistemas atmosféricos, necessitando assim, ser melhor estudado para o entendimento desse comportamento.The main objective of this study is to provide information about recent trends of extreme rainfall over Ceará State, associating these extreme events with Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Mann-Kendall method is applied to rainfall data of 18 rain gauges from 1971 to 2006 to obtain the trends. The results show that the drought intensity is increasing and the heavy precipitation events are decreasing and that the increase in the Pacific and north of equator Atlantic Ocean SST anomalies lead to an increase in the number of consecutive dry days in northern Ceará. Rainfall extreme indices have shown negative correlations with SST anomalies on Pacific and Tropical North Atlantic regions and positive with Tropical South Atlantic region

  16. Desempenho de crianças pré-termo com muito baixo peso e extremo baixo peso segundo o teste Denver-II The performance of pre-term children with very and extreme low weight according to the Denver-II test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Castro Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar o desempenho de crianças da região metropolitana Belo Horizonte/MG nascidas pré-termo com muito e extremo baixo peso nos itens do teste Denver II. MÉTODOS: as crianças foram selecionadas em um programa de acompanhamento do desenvolvimento de crianças de risco. A amostra incluiu 177 crianças, nas quais o Teste de Denver II foi aplicado nas idades corrigidas de 4, 8, 12, 18 e 24 meses. As respostas foram comparadas (χ2 aos dados da amostra normativa do instrumento. RESULTADOS: crianças pré-termo de muito e extremo baixo peso apresentaram desempenho superior no primeiro ano de vida com desvantagem a partir dos 12 meses em relação à amostra normativa do Denver II. O grupo de extremo baixo peso foi o que apresentou pior desempenho. CONCLUSÕES: houve diferenças no padrão de respostas das crianças examinadas em relação à amostra normativa do Denver II, sendo importante fazer mais estudos acerca da validade do teste para a população brasileira.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the performance on the Denver II test of preterm children with very and extreme low weight from the Belo Horizonte/MG metropolitan region. METHODS: the children were selected as part of a program to monitor the development of children at risk. The sample included 177 children, to whom the Denver II Test was applied at corrected ages of 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The responses were compared (χ2 to data from a normative sample. RESULTS: preterm children with very or extremely low weight showed improved performance in the first year of life, although disadvantages began to emerge after twelve months in relation to the normative Denver II sample. The extremely low weight group performed the worst. CONCLUSIONS: there were differences in the pattern of children's responses compared to those of the normative Denver II sample, and it is important to carry out further studies of the validity of this test for the Brazilian population.

  17. Estenosis Hipertrófica del Píloro

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    Hernando Forero Caballero

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Consiste en engrosamiento de la musculatura del píloro, el cual produce disminución de la luz del conducto pilórico que impide el paso del alimento y causa vómito en el primer mes de edad.

    Patología
    Las fibras musculares del píloro especialmente las circulares se encuentran hipertrofiadas lo mismo que el tejido elástico, con compresión de la mucosa, sin inflamación en un principio. El extremo distal del píloro se proyecta como un cérvix hacia el duodeno, mientras que el engrosamiento del antro gástrico es progresivo y gradual. El canal pilórico es estrecho y alargado.

    El peritoneo que cubre el píloro se observa tenso, blando y con cierta palidez. La musculatura está engrosada especialmente en la parte anterior y superior. La mucosa es moderadamente engrosada y con el tiempo edematoso, lo cual reduce la luz del canal pilórico.

    El estómago está dilatado y la musculatura del antro hipertrofiada, con peristaltismo vigoroso e irregular. La mucosa gástrica inflamada y hasta ulcerada en los casos de prolongado efecto de los ácidos gástricos. Los estudios con microscopio electrónico de luz han demostrado reducción de los neurofilamentos, degeneración del axón y neuronal inervación pobre en el músculo pilórico hipertrofiado.

    Se ha encontrado ausencia o notoria reducción de las fibras nerviosas positivas y de las fibras inmunorreactivas, que actúan como factores neurotróficos, en las capas musculares del músculo pilórico hipertrofiado. También se ha observado ausencia de las células ganglionares de los nervios peptidérgicos, de los nervios que contienen la sintasa del óxido nítrico y de las células intersticiales de cajal.

    Etiología
    La etiología de la estenosis hipertrófica del píloro no está completamente definida, aunque existen varias teorías que contribuyen a su explicación.

    Se ha expuesto que la hipertrofia del m

  18. Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae del quiróptero Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis (Phyllostomidae en Tumbes, Perú

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    Marina Vargas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se describe a Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae en base a 25 especímenes colectados del intestino de 5 murciélagos de la especie Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis de la localidad de Angostura, distrito Pampas de Hospital, departamento de Tumbes, Perú. La nueva especie se caracteriza por la morfología de la vesícula cefálica en forma de capuchón con escotaduras, por el tamaño y forma de las espículas cuyo extremo distal de la rama externa se divide en dos, de las cuales la rama interna sufre una nueva división; por la disposición de las costillas de la bolsa copulatríz donde, entre otros detalles, las antero y postero-ventrales están separadas y las externo-dorsales nacen cerca de la parte media del tronco dorsal y son gruesas.

  19. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 in two families with acromegaly/gigantism is independent of mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, M R; Prezant, T R; Une, K N; Glick, R P; Moskal, S F; Vaisman, M; Melmed, S; Kineman, R D; Frohman, L A

    1999-01-01

    Familial acromegaly/gigantism occurring in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-1) or the Carney complex has been reported in 18 families since the biochemical diagnosis of GH excess became available, and the genetic defect is unknown. In the present study we examined 2 unrelated families with isolated acromegaly/gigantism. In family A, 3 of 4 siblings were affected, with ages at diagnosis of 19, 21, and 23 yr. In family B, 5 of 13 siblings exhibited the phenotype and were diagnosed at 13, 15, 17, 17, and 24 yr of age. All 8 affected patients had elevated basal GH levels associated with high insulin-like growth factor I levels and/or nonsuppressible serum GH levels during an oral glucose tolerance test. GHRH levels were normal in affected members of family A. An invasive macroadenoma was found in 6 subjects, and a microadenoma was found in 1 subject from family B. The sequence of the GHRH receptor complementary DNA in 1 tumor from family A was normal. There was no history of consanguinity in either family, and the past medical history and laboratory results excluded MEN-1 and the Carney complex in all affected and unaffected screened subjects. Five of 8 subjects have undergone pituitary surgery to date, and paraffin-embedded pituitary blocks were available for analysis. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 was studied by comparing microsatellite polymorphisms of leukocyte and tumor DNA using PYGM (centromeric) and D11S527 (telomeric), markers closely linked to the MEN-1 tumor suppressor gene. All tumors exhibited a loss of heterozygosity at both markers. Sequencing of the MEN-1 gene revealed no germline mutations in either family, nor was a somatic mutation found in tumor DNA from one subject in family A. The integrity of the MEN-1 gene in this subject was further supported by demonstration of the presence of MEN-1 messenger ribonucleic acid, as assessed by RT-PCR. These data indicate that loss of heterozygosity in these affected family

  20. Quemaduras accidentales en niños y niñas remitidos del nivel primario de atención

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    Raúl Ricardo Rizo González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 58 pacientes con quemaduras, ingresados en el Servicio de Caumatología del Hospital Infantil Norte Docente "Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira" de Santiago de Cuba, remitidos del nivel primario de atención, desde enero de 2009 hasta diciembre de 2010, con el objetivo de investigar los factores más frecuentes que ocasionaron estos accidentes. En la serie predominaron el sexo masculino, los líquidos hirvientes como agente causal más frecuente, además de la baja percepción del riesgo, las malas condiciones de vida y la procedencia rural como factores socioeconómicos desfavorables. La atención médica se consideró satisfactoria ya que más de 50 % de los pacientes ingresaron entre graves y críticos extremos y solo dos 2 fallecieron

  1. VICHADA: LA HOSPITALIDAD DEL ORINOCO. Pag. 150-157

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    Wilmer Velandia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Donde el cielo y la sabana se unen en el infinito, se vislumbra una sola montaña en la lejanía, parece un gigante, antiguo y oscuro al final de la inmensidad un “Tepuye”, después de unas cuantas horas de camino se acerca este gran anciano que data del precámbrico, pero no está solo. Se observan algunos compañeros iguales a él, se podrían considerar como los guardianes del imponente y hermoso Orinoko, considerado en lengua Sikuani como la gran serpiente enroscada acompañada de una gran riqueza paisajística cultural y biodiversa; bosques de galería, diferentes tipos de sabana, esteros, lagunas, morichales, bosques inundables, las que recorren aguas blancas, negras y mixtas, rodeadas por diferentes etnias y grupos indígenas como Piaroas, Sikuanis – Guahibos, Cuibas y Amoruas, que viven en forma pacífica con llaneros y colonos, orgullosos de estas tierras, amables y hospitalarios que desde hace muchos años comparten este paraíso con: bagres, pirañas, anguilas, rayas, arawanas, anacondas, ranas, sapos, caimanes, babos, iguanas, tortugas, loros, búhos, guacamayas, azucareros, pavones, paujiles, águilas, zamuros, aulladores, armadillos, ocarros, chigüiros, osos hormigueros, ocelotes, jaguares, nutrias, murciélagos, cuerpo espines, zorros, venados y delfines, que pasan sus días entre; cedros, moriches, saladillos, caraños, yarumos, laureles, caimos, guaduas, guamos, alcornoques, chaparros, arepillos, palmiches y gualtes.

  2. Efectos negativos del cambio climático aceleran la extinción de la principal población de la náyade Margaritifera margaritifera L., 1758 en la cuenca del Duero

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    Morales, J., Lizana, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El río Negro alberga una metapoblación de la náyade Margaritifera margaritifera L. 1758 que no es demográficamente funcional. Su estructura poblacional está desequilibrada hacia tallas muy grandes y no se han detectado juveniles en más de una década de estudio. En el río existen graves problemas de conservación derivados del aterramiento, extensibles a la trucha Salmo trutta L. 1758, único hospedador de sus larvas. Entre 2002 y 2009 sucedieron de forma consecutiva graves riadas y la mayor sequía registrada en la cuenca. La mayor avenida en 100 años del año 2006 produjo el movimiento de gran parte de la población de náyades, con un impacto mortal que según tramos afectó entre el 5 y el 34% de los efectivos. Se comprobó una mortandad diferencial en relación con la topografía local y composición granulométrica del lecho, pero independiente de la densidad y la talla de los individuos. La sequía afectó al tercio final del cauce y supuso la pérdida del 37% de ejemplares del tramo. La aplicación de modelos poblacionales permite estimar que estos eventos estocásticos agravan significativamente el proceso de extinción, anticipando el presumible colapso demográfico teóricamente esperable para 2027-2032, provocado por la actuación continuada del resto de problemas. La aplicación de un plan de restauración del cauce, enfocado a las náyades y sus hospedadores, así como el rescate de adultos tras los eventos extremos, su asentamiento temporal en zonas favorables y la propagación de la especie sobre alevines de trucha son medidas urgentes que deberían desarrollarse antes de poder afrontar un programa de cría en cautividad que evite la extinción de la especie en la Cuenca del Duero.

  3. Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores 2004 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: An extreme case to preserve Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores 2004 (Coleóptera: Tenebrionidae: Un caso extremo a conservar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME PIZARRO-ARAYA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Choros Archipelago includes three islands: Choros, Damas and Gaviota and it is part of The Pingüino de Humboldt National Reserve. These insular ecosystems are within the Chilean transitional coastal (25°-32° S. Prior researches in the archipelago reported a species of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera endemic to Choros island (29°15' S, 71°32' W described as Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerability of this species in the archipelago through Conservation Priority Index (CPI, Environmental Ministery of Chile (MMA and Red List of IUCN. We concluded that G. granulipennis is Endangered by CPI index, and Vulnerable by MMA of Chile. Additionally, this species can be classiffied with Deficient Data (DD by IUCN because many of data are impossible or difficult to obtain for insects and can overestimate or underestimate the risk of extinction of this species. We consider important to monitoring the continuity of this species and the protection of habitat, for which we propose not allow access the tourists and eradication of European rabbit.El archipiélago de Los Choros, conformado por las islas Choros, Damas y Gaviota forma parte de la Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt y está situado dentro del desierto costero transicional de Chile (25°-32° S. Estudios recientes realizados en el archipiélago dan cuenta de una especie endémica de Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera de la isla Choros (29°15' S, 71°32' O descripta como Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la prioridad de conservación de esta especie en el archipiélago mediante el análisis del Índice de Prioridad de Conservación (CPI, clasificación del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (MMA de Chile y lista roja de la IUCN. Nuestros resultados sostienen que esta especie puede ser catalogada en categoría En peligro por el índice CPI y Vulnerable según el MMA. Según criterios

  4. Enfermedades Metabólicas del Hueso

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    Efraim Otero Ruiz

    1993-08-01

    musculatura y a las vísceras; el mismo nombre deriva de un vocablo griego que significa blanquecino o calcinado y hace referencia a lo que queda de los organismos después de que la carne ha desaparecido. Los esqueletos de gigantes, de enanos acondroplásicos o de seres deformes se comenzaron a coleccionar en los museos anatómicos post-renacentistas pero como meras curiosidades o aberraciones de la naturaleza.

    Sólo con el surgimiento de la histología, a mediados del siglo XIX, vino a llamar la atención la continuidad entre el cartílago y el hueso, observable en las epífisis en crecimiento o en el callo de las fracturas, y por primera vez comenzó a describirse el proceso de osificación endocondral y de formación ósea. Sin embargo, habría que llegar a los grandes avances de la endocrinología y la bioquímica del presente siglo para que se pudiera ir armando este formidable rompecabezas que incluye el cristal óseo y su matriz orgánica y celular, por un lado, y por el otro la innumerable cantidad de hormonas, subproductos bioquímicos y mensajeros inmunológicos e intercelulares que intervienen en el metabolismo óseo y que los autores describen con lujo de detalles en los primeros capítulos de la obra.

    Aunque ello no es todo. Por el lado de la biofísica, la cristalografía y el intercambio de radioisótopos también se avanzó, al tiempo, con los estudios mineralógicos para mostrarnos cómo el cristal óseo está formado por la hidroxiapatita, fosfato hidroxilado de calcio emparentado de cerca con dos piedras preciosas, la olivina y la aguamarina. Y que posee características vitales esenciales, como son la de la sustitución isomórfica de sus componentes y el poder ofrecer, ya integrado al tejido óseo y mediante sus caras en contacto con los fluidos extracelulares, una superficie de intercambio iónico que se ha calculado en varios kilómetros cuadrados para cada individuo.

    Quizás la primera síntesis consagratoria del título

  5. Estimadores del índice de cola y el valor en riesgo

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    Andrés Mora Valencia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta algunas metodologías para cuantificar riesgo cuando la distribución de pérdidas presenta eventos extremos, debido a que los activos financieros generalmente presentan alta curtosis. De esta manera, el principal concepto utilizado en el documento es el valor en riesgo (VaR, por sus siglas en inglés, medida introducida por J. P. Morgan en 1995. Desde el punto de vista estadístico, VaR es un cuantil de una función de distribución; sin embargo, su valor dependerá de la forma de la distribución que se utilice para ajustar los datos de pérdida. Por tal razón, al estimar de manera confiable el parámetro de forma de la distribución de pérdidas, se obtiene un estimador confiable de medida de riesgo. La teoría del valor extremo (EVT, por sus siglas en inglés es una técnica estadística que ha sido empleada para tal fin. En este documento se utiliza la metodología de EVT, denominada picos sobre el umbral (POT, por sus siglas en inglés, en el cual, se estima el parámetro de forma de la distribución de excesos mediante máxima verosimilitud. Este método de estimación se revisa brevemente en el documento junto con el método de mínimos cuadrados ponderados. Este último se utiliza para cuantificar el estimador de Hill y con este valor se calcula el VaR para distribuciones con colas pesadas. Finalmente, se comparan las metodologías propuestas en el artículo para cuantificar VaR con otras dos metodologías que son simulación histórica y bajo el supuesto de normalidad mediante pruebas de desempeño a dos casos

  6. Análisis de mejora en la productividad del proceso de fabricación de rosquitas empleando un prototipo de formado de masa

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    Alvaro Humberto Velásquez Dávila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Implementación de mejoras en la productividad del proceso de fabricación de rosquitas mediante el uso de un prototipo de máquina electromecánica de formado de tiras trenzadas para producir rosquitas. Métodos: En el proceso de fabricación del prototipo los diferentes componentes, como el largo y grosor del sin fin, la potencia de los moto reductores, la velocidad rotacional del tornillo y diferentes variables de operación, como temperatura de extrusión, humedad y temperatura inicial de la masas de rosquita, se modificaron a fin de encontrar las condiciones óptimas de operación para que la rosquita sea de excelente calidad y no varíe sus condiciones de sabor, forma y estructura reconocidas en el mercado. Resultados: Se diseñó un prototipo con un mecanismo de extrusión compuesto por un tornillo sin fin situado en una carcasa. En un extremo de dicha carcasa se ubica una tolva de alimentación de la masa de rosquita y por el otro se extruiría tiras por boquillas que al girarlas darían el trenzado de tiras requerido para el formado de la masa de rosquita. Se llevaron a cabo pruebas variando la humedad de la masa en 37, 30 y 26%, variando la temperatura de la masa y las revoluciones del tornillo sin fin. Conclusiones: Luego de las pruebas de humedad, temperatura y calidad, el mejor producto se obtuvo al utilizar una velocidad rotacional de 56 rpm, 26% de humedad y utilizando masa a 25° de temperatura. Asimismo, en términos económicos se ha logrado incrementar la productividad del negocio de rosquitas. Los costos de producción se han reducido en un 21% y el proyecto arroja un VAN positivo de S/. 7M.

  7. Evaluación de la presencia del gen mer A implicado en la detoxificación de mercurio a partir de actinomicetos nativos del humedal de La Conejera

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    Rueda Carolina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron diez cepas de actinomicetos nativos del humedal La Conejera a partir de muestras de sedimento y agua, con el fin de determinar la capacidad de resistencia y detoxificación de mercurio, evaluando la presencia del gen mer A involucrado en el proceso. La prueba de resistencia fue realizada mediante un test de sensibilidad tomando concentraciones desde 3,68x10-3 mM hasta 10 mM de HgCl2. Se realizaron curvas de crecimiento de 192 h para las cepas resistentes al mercurio, en un medio suplementado con 0,01 mM y 0,05 mM de HgCl2, realizando una fermentación discontinua y midiendo el crecimiento por la técnica de peso seco. A partir de estos resultados se determinó un tiempo de adaptación de 24 h y una producción máxima de biomasa de 2,72 g·L-1 a la hora 72. Paralelamente, se realizó la secuenciación de los genes de resistencia al mercurio de Streptomyces lividans 1326, por medio del diseño de los oligonucleótidos capaces de amplificar el extremos 3’ del gen mer A, codificador de la enzima mercurio reductasa. Se optimizaron las condiciones de amplificación por PCR para obtener un producto amplificado de 686 pb aproximadamente. Finalmente, se realizó una electroforesis en campo pulsado comprobando la presencia de plásmidos en la cepa KH7 con tamaños aproximados de 50, 90 y 300 Kb, no integrados al cromosoma y posiblemente asociados a la resistencia presentada frente al metal.

  8. Acerca del moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  9. Del bit al qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Torras Font, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Aquest document pretén donar una visió del desenvolupament dels computadors electrònics i dels components que els han fet possibles. Dintre de les opcions de futur en computació, també intenta donar una visió de les bases en que es fonamenta la computació quàntica.

  10. Tumor de células gigantes de bainha de tendão no LCA Tendon sheath giant cells tumor in ACL

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    André Pedrinelli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um relato de caso de tumor de células gigantes de bainha do ligamento cruzado anterior, uma localização extremamente rara para esse tipo de lesão. O paciente do sexo feminino apresentava dor no joelho, sem relato de trauma anterior. Foi submetido ao exame clínico, ao estudo radiográfico e de ressonância magnética da região. Feita a hipótese diagnóstica de TGC de Bainha, o paciente foi então tratado com ressecção artroscópica do tumor. O diagnóstico foi confirmado com exame anátomo-patológico. O paciente evoluiu bem, com melhora dos sintomas referidos no pré-operatório.The author presents a case report of Tumor Giant Cells (TGC localized on the anterior cruciate ligament sheath, an extremely rare site for this kind of lesion. A 37 y-o female patient presented with knee pain, with no history of previous trauma. She underwent clinical examination, X-ray study and magnetic resonance of the region. The diagnostic hypothesis of Sheath TGC was provided, and the patient was treated with tumor arthroscopy resection. Diagnosis was confirmed by anatomicopathological examination. By the end point assessment, none of the pre-operative symptoms were reported.

  11. Florística em um hectare de cerrado stricto sensu na ARIE - cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiser Veridiana de Lara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento florístico em um ha de cerrado stricto sensu, na parte norte da ARIE - Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo. Foram coletados 428 espécimes em fase reprodutiva, em vinte e cinco excursões de coleta, durante o período de novembro de 1996 a abril de 1998. A listagem florística obtida apresenta 141 espécies, distribuídas em 109 gêneros e 49 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Malpighiaceae e Myrtaceae. A floração e frutificação das espécies foram maiores no período chuvoso. Espécies zoocóricas (61 predominaram, seguidas pelas anemocóricas (46 e autocóricas (34. Analisou-se a flora como um todo e seus componentes herbáceo-subarbustivo e arbustivo-arbóreo, separadamente.

  12. Electromagnetic-ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the production of gigantic galactic jets and cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.

    1985-01-01

    A recent paper suggests that the electromagnetic-ram action of the plasma focus is trying to tell us how cosmic rays acquire their energy. It will be only natural for those theoretical astrophysicists who are steeped in statistical mechanics and turbulent processes, and who are now having a love affair with the black hole, to scoff at such a suggestion. But this author, undaunted, plunges even further into this cosmical question: he has the audacity to suggest further that the gigantic galactic jets in the active galaxies such as are now being observed by the computer-synthesized data of the radio signals at a number of wavelengths with the Very Large Array radio telescope in New Mexico, from radio galaxies like Cygnus A and Centaurus A (NGC 5128), are being produced by an electromagnetic-ram action similar to that of the plasma focus; and further, that this action is producing not only these spectacular jets, but also the acceleration of the cosmic ray at the same time in the same accelerating gap

  13. Impacto da participação especial em campos gigantes offshore de petróleo Impact of special participation tax in offshore petroleum giant fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mendes Gandra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando um cenário como estudo de caso, objetiva-se explorar o impacto econômico da Lei que rege a cobrança da Participação Especial (PE pela Agência Nacional do Petróleo (ANP sobre a decisão de investimento em projetos situados exclusivamente em campos gigantes de petróleo no Brasil. Embora este seja um exercício indutivo sem maiores pretensões, ele pode ser tomado como representativo para retratar a realidade das grandes empresas que têm em seu portfolio oportunidades de desenvolvimento de concessões com grande potencial petrolífero. Subsidiariamente, propõe-se uma alternativa ao modelo de tributação vigente.The main objective of this technical study is to show the economic impact of Special Participation Tax on decisions at projects of investments at Brazilian offshore fields with high production of petroleum. An alternative estimation approach is proposed in this paper for Special Participation Tax to facilitate the economic viability of offshore projects. This technical study is only a exercise of a real situation which big companies face when it have the opportunity to develop concessions with high potential of petroleum. Above all, we propose an alternative way to calculate the assessment.

  14. TROMBO GIGANTE DE AURÍCULA DERECHA COMO CAUSA DE ANGINA Y SÍNCOPE / Giant thrombus in right atrium as a cause of angina and syncope

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    José L. Aparicio Suárez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas tumoraciones intracardíacas son poco frecuentes, y pueden ser de tipo neoplásicas y no neoplásicas. De estas últimas, los trombos, constituyen las masas más frecuentes. Se presenta un paciente joven, operado en el Cardiocentro "Ernesto Che Guevara" de Villa Clara, Cuba, con antecedentes de trastornos hematológicos desde la infancia, que comienza con episodios de disnea progresiva, angina y síncope; con diagnóstico preoperatorio de tumoración gigante en aurícula derecha que resultó ser un trombo intracardíaco, y se demostró la presencia de un agujero oval permeable. / AbstractIntracardiac tumors are rare, and may be of neoplastic and non-neoplastic types. In the latter, the thrombi are the most frequent masses. This is the case of a young patient operated at the Cardiocentro "Ernesto Che Guevara" of Villa Clara, Cuba, with a history of blood disorders since childhood, starting with episodes of progressive dyspnea, angina and syncope, with pre-operative diagnosis of giant tumor in right atrium which turned out to be an intracardiac thrombus, and the presence of a patent foramen ovale was shown.

  15. Theory of super-para-electric large polaron for gigantic photo-enhancements of dielectric constant and electronic conductivity in SrTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qiu; Nasu, Keiichiro

    2005-01-01

    In connection with the recent experimental discoveries on gigantic photoenhancements of the electronic conductivity and the quasi-static dielectric susceptibility in SrTiO 3 , we theoretically study a photo-generation mechanism of a charged ferroelectric domain in this quantum dielectric. The photo-generated electron, being quite itinerant in the 3d band of Ti 4+ , is assumed to couple weakly but quadratically with soft-anharmonic T 1u phonons in this quantum dielectric. The photo-generated electron is also assumed to couple strongly but linearly with the breathing type high energy phonons. Using a tight binding model for electron, we will show that these two types of electron-phonon couplings result in two types of polarons, a 'super-para-electric (SPE) large polaron' with a quasi-global parity violation, and an 'off-centre type self-trapped polaron' with only a local parity violation. We will also show that this SPE large polaron is nothing else but a singly charged (e - ) and conductive ferroelectric (or SPE) domain with a quasi macroscopic size. This polaron or domain is also shown to have a high mobility and a large quasi-static dielectric susceptibility

  16. Gigantism treated by pure endoscopic endonasal approach in a case of McCune-Albright syndrome with sphenoid fibrous dysplasia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Guive; Jalessi, Maryam; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is an uncommon polyostotic manifestation of fibrous dysplasia in association with at least one endocrinopathy that is mostly associated with precocious puberty and hyperpigmented skin macules named café-au-lait spots. We present an atypical manifestation of McCune-Albright syndrome in a 19-year-old man with the uncommon association of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and gigantism in the absence of café-au-lait spots and precocious puberty. He presented with a height increase to 202 cm in the previous 3 years, which had become more progressive in the few months prior. Physical examination revealed only a mild facial asymmetry; however, a computed tomography (CT) scan discovered vast areas of voluminous bones with ground-glass density and thickening involving the craniofacial bones and skull base. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) found a right stalk shift of the pituitary with a 20 mm pituitary adenoma. We describe the diagnostic and endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for excision of the tumor. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Gigantic Cavernous Hemangioma of the Liver Treated by Intra-Arterial Embolization with Pingyangmycin-Lipiodol Emulsion: A Multi-Center Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingle; Li Yanhao; Chen Yong; Ouyang Yong; He Xiang; Zhang Heping

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) intra-arterial embolization for treating gigantic cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL).Methods: Three hospitals (Nanfang Hospital, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital and Huai He Hospital) participated in the study during 1997-2001. A total of 98 patients with CHL were embolized with PLE via the hepatic artery. The therapeutic effects including changes in tumor diameter, symptomatic improvement and occurrence of complications were evaluated for a period of 12 months after the procedure.Results: The tumor diameters decreased significantly from 9.7 ± 2.3 cm to 5.6 ± 1.6 cm 6 months after the treatment (P < 0.01), and then to 3.0 ± 1.2 cm at 12 months (P < 0.01). Transient impairment of liver function was found in 77 cases after embolization, 69 cases of which returned to normal in 2 weeks, and the other eight cases of which recovered 1 month later. The clinical symptoms were significantly relieved in all 53 symptomatic patients. Persistent pain in the hepatic region was found in two cases, and these two patients resorted to surgery eventually.Conclusion: Intra-arterial PLE embolization proves to be effective and safe in treating patients with CHL

  18. A probable case of gigantism/acromegaly in skeletal remains from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" (Lucena, Córdoba, Spain; VIII-XII centuries CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viciano, Joan; De Luca, Stefano; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Botella, Daniel; Diéguez-Ramírez, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare endocrine disorder caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone during growing period. Individuals with this disorder have an enormous growth in height and associated degenerative changes. The continued hypersecretion of growth hormone during adulthood leads to acromegaly, a condition related to the disproportionate bone growth of the skull, hands and feet. The skeletal remains studied belong to a young adult male from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" in Lucena (Córdoba, Spain, VIII-XII centuries CE). The individual shows a very large and thick neurocranium, pronounced supraorbital ridges, an extremely prominent occipital protuberance, and an extremely large and massive mandible. Additional pathologies include enlargement of the vertebral bodies with degenerative changes, thickened ribs, and a slight increased length of the diaphysis with an increased cortical bone thickness of lower limbs. Comparative metric analysis of the mandible with other individuals from the same population and a contemporary Mediterranean population shows a trend toward acromegalic morphology. This case is an important contribution in paleopathological literature because it is a rare condition that has not been widely documented in ancient skeletal remains.

  19. Erosion processes of the collapsed mass of the gigantic landslide of Mt. Bawakaraeng, Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2004 revealed by multi-temporal satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Osanai, N.; Sasahara, K.; Tamura, K.; Doshida, S.; Tsutsui, K.

    2009-04-01

    On March 26, 2006, a gigantic landslide occurred on the caldera wall of Mt. Bawakaraeng, Indonesia. This paper quantitatively shows the temporal change in gully erosion and sediment yield from the huge amount of the deposit of the landslide by analyzing satellite images. Firstly, the landslide buried the original river channel completely. In the next year, gully erosion dominated the entire landslide deposit, and parts of the gully bed were found to have eroded by up to 60 m. The total amount of sediment discharged from the landslide deposit was estimated to be 36 million m3. In the second year after the landslide, the severe widespread degradation almost ceased and river bed aggradation started to occur in some places. The total amount of discharged sediment drastically decreased and was estimated to be 8.3 million m3. In the third year, the total amount of sediment discharge declined further. On the other hand, satellite-derived DEMs showed that the width of gullies has increased. The drastic decrease in sediment discharge might have occurred because of the reduction in the erosive force applied by water flow whose depth was inevitably reduced as a result of the widening of gully channels.

  20. Mucoceles gigantes: visão neurocirúrgica. Relato de dois casos Giant mucoceles: neurosurgical view. Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirto N. Prandini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dois casos de mucocele gigante do seio frontal submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico. A manifestação clínica foi cefaléia de evolução prolongada, associada com protrusão unilateral do globo ocular de curta duração. Em ambos os casos foi realizada craniotomia frontal com remoção completa da lesão, reparação do soalho frontal com retalho pediculado de gálea e cranialização do seio frontal. No segundo caso, uma abordagem endoscópica intranasal foi combinada à abordagem externa no mesmo ato cirúrgico. Alguns aspectos abordando a etiologia, associação com outras afecções e tratamento cirúrgico são discutidos.Two patients harboring giant frontal mucoceles are reported. In both cases complaints of chronic headaches and progressive unilateral proptosis were preponderant. Surgical treatment included a frontal craniotomy with excision of the lesion, skull base reinforcement with pedicled galea and wide opening of the frontal sinuses. In the second case an intranasal endoscopic approach was combined with craniotomy at the same surgical operative time. Some aspects regarding etiology, association with other diseases and some surgical aspects are discussed.

  1. Formación y consolidación de las morfoestructuras septentrionales de la región central del archipiélago cubano y su geodinámica reciente

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    Antonio Rafael Magaz García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La región septentrional del territorio central cubano constituye un prisma acrecionario del Cretácico Cenomaniense-Eoceno superior temprano, compuesto por la imbricación del margen continental de Bahamas, de fragmentos de corteza oceánica antigua y de restos del arco volcánico cretácico. La formación y consolidación morfoestructural del relieve actual responde a dos etapas principales del desarrollo geotectónico, una de compresión tangencial, laramídico, de grandes desplazamientos horizontales, y otra de reordenación neotectónica de la estructura y del paleorrelieve alpino, con predominio de movimientos verticales oscilatorios, a partir del Eoceno superior temprano. Esto generó en el relieve, morfoestructuras de horst escalonados en mantos de sobrecorrimientos verticalizados y cuñas tectónicas, de zócalo plegado en bloques, de bloques escalonados en monoclinales, y otros tipos. Los movimientos tectónicos recientes de estas morfoestructuras, según las nivelaciones reiteradas, indican una estructura en bloques y muestran un carácter diferenciado, con gradientes generalmente suaves entre los mismos, aunque fuertes en ocasiones, a lo largo de las líneas geodésicas de precisión Remedios-Holguín y Minas-Camagüey, con valores extremos de sus velocidades relativas anuales de +3.5 mm/año (bloque de llanuras bajas Esmeralda-Jaronú y de -10.0 mm/año (graben San Miguel de Baga.

  2. Determinación numérica con hoja de cálculo del área de influencia de empresas comerciales diametrialmente enfrentadas en un espacio periurbano circular

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    Fernando Javier Díaz Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos empresas comerciales están situadas en la periferia de una ciudad. Las ciudades suelen presentar un perímetro amorfo en torno al centro histórico; sin embargo, para simplificar los cálculos, en este estudio consideramos a ambas empresas ubicadas en los extremos del diámetro de un espacio periurbano circular. Estimamos que el gasto realizado por un consumidor, al adquirir un bien en una empresa comercial, es la suma del precio de dicho bien adquirido más el coste de transporte del consumidor desde su domicilio hasta el establecimiento y viceversa. Dicho coste de transporte se calculará en base a la distancia en línea recta entre el domicilio del consumidor y la empresa comercial, siendo el coste de transporte por unidad de longitud recorrida constante. Bajo estos supuestos, el trabajo se centra en calcular numéricamente, para un determinado bien, con ayuda de la hoja de cálculo, cuál es el área de influencia de cada empresa comercial, en función de la diferencia entre los precios de dicho bien en ambos establecimientos, entendiendo por área de influencia de una empresa para un bien, el lugar geométrico de todos los puntos de la ciudad en los que, al ser menor el gasto, un consumidor opta por dicha empresa para adquirir el bien.

  3. Dos casos extremos : tragedia y amoralidad Comentarios a «De individuos y emociones. Algunas reflexiones sobre el papel de las emociones en la vida moral», de Rocío Orsi Portalo

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Barranco, Matilde

    2007-01-01

    Este texto comenta «De individuos y emociones. Algunas reflexiones sobre el papel de las emociones en la vida moral», de Rocío Orsi, en el que la autora se vale de los ejemplos del Edipo de Sófocles y el asesino de American Psycho para argumentar el papel crucial que desempeñan las emociones en la motivación y la existencia de una comunidad moral. Por otro lado, también mostrarían que el ámbito de lo moral rebasa la adscripción de responsabilidad. No obstante, las emociones a veces resultan i...

  4. Topografía superficial y subglaciar de un sector aledaño a la Base O'Higgins, ubicada en el extremo norte de la Península Antártica

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas M,Carlos; Johnson G,Erling; Carvallo B,Rubén

    2011-01-01

    En enero de 2009, durante una campaña al sector norte de la Península Antártica específicamente en los alrededores de la Base Chilena Bernardo O´Higgins, ubicada en el islote Isabel Riquelme de la rada Covadonga en el cabo Legoupi (63° 19’ S; 57° 53’ W), se realizaron mediciones de espesor del hielo utilizando un sistema de radar de impulso que consta de tres componentes principales: Transmisor, Receptor y un Sistema de Adquisición de Datos. El transmisor genera una señal de radio...

  5. ANÁLISIS HIDROLÓGICO E HIDRÁULICO DE LA CUENCA DEL RÍO FRÍO, MUNICIPIOS DE CIÉNAGA Y ZONA BANANERA, DEPARTAMENTO DEL MAGDALENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ramos Moreno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos hidrológicos e hidráulicos han permitido grandes avances en los estudios de las cuencas hidrográficas, la utilización de modelos como HEC RAS y HEC HMS los cuales han recibido una gran acogida por la comunidad mundial de ingenieros que se desempeñan en el área de la meteorología, hidrología, hidráulica y otras áreas relacionadas con el manejo del recurso hídrico. Gracias a sus grandes aproximaciones los modelos de HEC RAS y HEC HMS fueron seleccionados para realizar las modelaciones para determinar el comportamiento hidrológico e hidráulico de la cuenca del río Frío ubicada en el municipio de Zona Bananera, departamento del Magdalena como producto de las inundaciones que se han presentado en los últimos años. En este artículo se expone una cantidad de análisis cuantitativos y cualitativos que posibilitan la obtención de la información de entrada de los modelos de simulación, posteriormente, dicha información fue introducida a los modelos para lograr determinar el comportamiento bajo escenarios extremos a los que la cuenca del río Frío puede ser sometida. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos las áreas donde se presentan los principales inconvenientes de carácter hidráulico e hidrológico, se deben principalmente a la configuración geométrica de la batimetría del río y al desarrollo de actividades agrícolas y ganaderas que han generado cambios en el uso del suelo, modificando los números de curva y aumentando la escorrentía hacia los afluentes y finalmente hacia el río principal. Frente a esta situación se relacionan una serie de recomendaciones que buscan corregir el régimen hidrológico y comportamiento hidrodinámico para evitar nuevas inundaciones que pongan en riesgo a la población que se encuentra en las inmediaciones del río Frío en el municipio de la Zona Bananera Departamento del Magdalena.

  6. Motivaciones, cualidades y valores del empresario fundador colombiano

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    Ernesto Barrera Duque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación, de carácter cualitativo, se establece una tipología de fundadores empresarios. Emergió de la iteración entre el marco conceptual y el dominio empírico, basado en entrevistas semi-estructuradas. De la integración de una teoría de las motivaciones (extrínsecas, intrínsecas y contributivas con trabajos previos de tipologías en el campo del emprendimiento, se desarrollan tres categorías de fundadores: el “rico”, el “rey” y el “monje”. Esta última es la contribución principal de este artículo. Se postula la hipótesis de que los  fundadores empresarios no se perfilan en los extremos de esta clasificación. Por el contrario, incorporan características de los tres tipos, en diferentes intensidades, y además, pueden cambiar de categoría predominante durante su ciclo de vida. En este artículo también se desarrollan algunas cualidades diferenciales del fundador emprendedor, así como sus valores más importantes.Palabras Clave: Fundador; emprendimiento; motivaciones; valores; Colombia.Colombian founder entrepreneur motivations, qualities and valuesAbstractIn this qualitative type of research is established a typology of business founders. It emerged from the iteration between the conceptual framework and the empirical domain, based on semistructured interviews. From the integration of a theory of motivation (extrinsic, intrinsic and contributory with previous typology works in the field of entrepreneurship, is developed three categories of founders: the “rich”, the “king” and the “Monk”. The latter is the main contribution of this article. It´s proposed the hypothesis that business founders are not outlined in the ends of this classification. Instead, they incorporate features of the three types, at different intensities, and also they may change the predominant category during their life cycle. This article also develops some entrepreneurial founder differential qualities as well as

  7. Estudio preliminar del esqueleto postcraneal del Muscardinus cyclopeus Agustí, Moyà-Solà & Pons-Moyà, 1982 (Mammalia, Rodentia, Myoxidae

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    Quintana Cardona, J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the partial skeleton of the Pliocene Muscardinus cyclopeus is described from Punta Nati-3, located in the northwest of the municipality of Ciutadella de Menorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Based on bone parameters it is shown that the size of Muscardinus cyclopeus is on overage 69% higher than that of Muscardinus avellanarius. The main features that distinguish M. cyclopeus from M. avellanarius are, among others: the relatively wider diameter of the proximal epiphysis of the ulna; the relatively shorter olecranon; the less marked concavity in the fovea of the proximal epiphysis of the radius; the relatively shorter ilium; the more symmetrical epicondyles of the distal femoral epiphysis; the relatively higher lateral epicondyle dorsoventrally, with a very flat ventral surface; and the relatively narrower tibia transversely. As a species evolved in an insular context, it is still very difficult to discern which of these characters are primitive and which are derived.Se describe, por primera vez, parte del esqueleto del muscardino gigante del Plioceno de Menorca, procedente del yacimiento 3 de Punta Nati, situado al noroeste del término municipal de Ciutadella de Menorca (Islas Baleares, Mediterráneo occidental. A partir de los parámetros óseos se ha podido constatar que Muscardinus cyclopeus muestra, de media, un tamaño un 69% superior al de Muscardinus avellanarius (Linnaeus, 1758. Entre las principales características óseas que diferencian M. cyclopeus de M. avellanarius cabe destacar, entre otras, el diámetro proporcionalmente más ancho de la epífisis proximal de la ulna, el olecranon proporcionalmente más corto, la fóvea de la epífisis proximal del radio con una concavidad menos marcada, el ilium proporcionalmente más corto, los epicóndilos de la epífisis distal del fémur más simétricos, el epicóndilo lateral proporcionalmente más alto en sentido dorso-ventral, con la superficie ventral

  8. Mortalidad diaria en la comunidad de Madrid (1986-1991 para el grupo de 45 a 64 años: su relación con la temperatura del aire

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    Pajares Ortíz Mª Sierra

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Existen numerosos trabajos que relacionan la mortalidad con diferentes factores ambientales. Éstos se centran en la población general o en el grupo de personas mayores de 65 años, pero son escasos los que se refieren al grupo de 45 a 64 años, en el que la mortalidad tiene gran repercusión económica y social. El objeto del presente artículo es analizar la asociación existente entre la mortalidad diaria, tanto total como por diversas causas específicas, con la temperatura del aire en este grupo etario en la Comunidad de Madrid, de la cual las características climáticas extremas hacen especialmente interesante el trabajo. MÉTODOS: Se utiliza la modelización ARIMA según la metodología Box-Jenkins para el filtrado de las series de mortalidad diaria y de temperaturas. Entre los residuales se establecen funciones de correlación cruzada que permiten establecer una asociación entre las series eliminando los factores estacionales comunes, así como determinar el tiempo de desfase entre los extremos térmicos y los excesos de mortalidad. RESULTADOS: Existe una relación en forma de "V" entre la mortalidad diaria total y la temperatura. La mínima mortalidad se establece en una temperatura máxima diaria de 33ºC. La sobremortalidad por cada grado por debajo de 33ºC es del 0,8 %, mientras que por encima es del 3,0 %. Las funciones de correlación cruzada indican que esta asociación se da en los varones tanto por mortalidad total como por enfermedades circulatorias. En el caso de los altas temperaturas el efecto es inmediato, mientras que para las bajas hay que añadir otro efecto a los 10-13 días. CONCLUSIÓN: Existe una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la mortalidad y los extremos térmicos en los varones de este grupo de edad. Los años potenciales de vida perdidos indican la magnitud del problema y la necesidad de articular medidas de prevención.

  9. Algunas aclaraciones acerca del conocimiento del singular.

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    Carlos Llano Cifuentes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Llano tries to explain the main purpose of El Conocimiento del Singular, showing how the individuals about which the book is concerned are basically human individuals: people as decision makers.

  10. La cultura del horror en las sociedades avanzadas: de la sociedad centrípeta a la sociedad centrífuga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO BERICAT ALASTUEY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone los principales resultados de una investigación realizada con el objeto de analizar el papel que cumplen las emociones colectivas en el mantenimiento del orden social. En concreto, trata de explicar el hecho de que las noticias más importantes que aparecen en los medios de comunicación sean noticias de horror, es decir, noticias en las que la muerte siempre aparece en el primer plano de la escena. Los informativos de los medios de comunicación expresan y fomentan la cultura del horror característica de nuestras sociedades avanzadas. Ahora bien, para entender esta cultura es preciso determinar previamente la naturaleza emocional del horror, así como establecer una definición sociológica de este sentimiento. El horror es una emoción compleja compuesta por sentimientos de terror, de asco y de conmoción. El horror, sociológicamente, puede entenderse como "la emoción mediante la que un orden social señala sus límites más extremos". El estudio concluye señalando que existen dos modos alternativos de mantener el orden y la cohesión en el seno de un sistema social. El primer modo de legitimación, característico de las sociedades centrípetas, funciona mediante la gran potencia atractiva que ejerce sobre el campo social un núcleo central de valores sociales positivos. El segundo, característico de las sociedades centrífugas, funciona mediante la gran potencia repulsiva que ejercen sobre el campo social las transgresiones flagrantes del orden moral. El modo típico en el que las sociedades centrífugas regulan el orden social explica la cultura del horror característica de nuestras sociedades avanzadas.

  11. Del Macroscopio al Microscopio. Historia de la Medicina Científica (Epílogo

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    Alberto Gómez Gutierrez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Parte de su libro presentado para ingresar como Miembro Asociado de la Academia Nacional de Medicina.


    “La mente, y no el espacio, es la última frontera de la ciencia”.

    John Horgan
    El fin de la ciencia, 1998

    El siglo XX, último siglo completo de nuestra cronología, ha sido llamado, con toda propiedad, el siglo de la ciencia. Nunca antes se hizo tal énfasis en el conocimiento analítico y la racionalidad como ejes de la cultura. Sin embargo, la racionalidad, entendida como la posibilidad de describir razones o causas para todos los eventos de la naturaleza, se encontró con la oposición de filósofos como sir Karl Popper, quien planteaba un indeterminismo general y, en especial, un indeterminismo en el ser humano. Esta postura, que exaltó el azar en la naturaleza y que parecía tener su principal sustento en la mecánica cuántica, se encontró a su vez con contradictores tan ilustres como el mismo Albert Einstein, quien al respecto acuñó su hermosa frase de estirpe vitalista cuando dijo: “Dios no juega a los dados”.

    Este contrapunto entre científicos y filósofos, ha sido el telón de fondo de lo que podríamos llamar el acto central de la trama de la medicina científica en su edad madura. En un extremo, el determinismo resultante de las leyes de la física ha influido en el pensamiento de biólogos y médicos, hasta el punto de considerar que el organismo vivo no es más que la suma de sus funciones celulares y moleculares. Este extremo corresponde a los preceptos de la escuela mecanicista que tuvo su anterior apogeo en el siglo XVIII, cuando los iatrofísicos, iatroquímicos y iatromecánicos dejaron una visión consolidada de su percepción reduccionista en la citada obra de Julien Offray de la Mettrie titulada L´homme machine. Hoy en día siguen publicándose obras mecanicistas como La fabrique de l´homme (1997 del profesor Jean-Paul Lévy, en

  12. La complejidad de la marginalidad y sus derivaciones en el marco de las economías regionales. El caso de la producción caprina en el extremo sur de Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Cepparo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la producción caprina en el departamento de Malargüe, sur de Mendoza, sus vinculaciones con el contexto local y en el marco de las transformaciones y perspectivas de los territorios rurales marginales de nuestras economías regionales. Nos referiremos a la situación actual y a la posibilidad de producción y faenamiento de carne caprina en el departamento. El estudio se enriquece, por una parte, con los aportes del marco conceptual de los procesos derivados de la marginalidad, y por la otra con las dinámicas y contextos de las economías regionales, y dentro de ellas, la de los sistemas productivos marginales que acompañan a las producciones extrapampeanas más tradicionales y destacadas.

  13. La Frontera como Recurso Turístico. Posibilidades del Bajo/Baixo Guadiana

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    José Manuel Jurado-Almonte

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available En el espacio de integración de la Unión Europea persisten las fronteras, ya sin las dificultades y barreras de antaño, pero manteniendo numerosos símbolos y elementos del patrimonio cultural que siguen marcando una diferencia. Son líneas divisorias y, a la vez, franjas de territorios de transición con un importante patrimonio natural y cultural que se convierten ahora en recursos de atracción para novedosas demandas turísticas. Por ello, se estudia ya el turismo de frontera como un nuevo producto donde el recurso de la frontera y la historia es el principal atractivo y destino, aunque de forma complementaria a otros recursos y productos turísticos. Al margen de otros territorios y destinos fronterizos de Europa o del mundo, nuestra preocupación investigadora se centra en la Raya luso-española, en su extremo sur, en el Bajo Guadiana, en espacios que participan del Algarve, Baixo Alentejo y Huelva. En este territorio se conjugan destinos turísticos consolidados (Algarve y Costa Occidental de Huelva con un interior muy próximo e ignoto para la mayor parte de los turistas alojados en ese borde costero, a apenas unas decenas de kilómetros. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, un incipiente espacio turístico parece abrirse tierras adentro (y aguas desde la costa. El estuario del Guadiana actúa de puerta de entradahacia un interior rico en recursos y patrimonios histórico-artísticos y naturales y que podría favorecerse de un turismo de frontera. Nuestra hipótesis principal es que el desarrollo del turismo de frontera podría ser una oportunidad para este territorio transfronterizo. En este trabajo tratamos, por tanto, de: -\tAnalizar el marco geográfico y el patrimonio natural y cultural de este ámbito transfronterizo, con una breve semblanza a su población y políticas de cooperación en materia de infraestructuras de accesibilidad y de turismo. -\tdiagnosticar este novedoso producto turístico y para este territorio en

  14. Actividad "in vivo" del cloruro de berberina frente a una leishmaniasis cutánea causada por la especie Leishmania mexicana mexicana 856/INS

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    Amador Avila T.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En una leishmaniasis experimental inducida con Leishmania mexicana mexicana en hocico de hamsters dorados Mesocricetus auratus, después de 30 días post infección tomando como criterio la reducción del área de lesión, dosis de 100 mg/kg. de Cloruro de Berberina intralesionales en los días 30, 33 y 36 tuvieron el mismo efecto antileishmaniásico que el Antimonial Pentavalente "Glucantime", el cual fue administrado de igual modo en dosis de 20 mg/kg/día entre los días 30 a 38. El análisis histopatológico, demostró una proliferación de células gigantes de Langhans en las pápulas tratadas con Cloruro de Berberina.

  15. ACTIVIDAD "In Vivo" DEL CLORURO DE BERBERINA FRENTE A UNA LEISHMANIASIS CUTÁNEA CAUSADA POR LA ESPECIE Leishmania mexicana mexicana 856/INS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Acero M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En una leishmaniasis experimental inducida con Leishmania mexicana mexicana en hocico de hamsters dorados Mesocricetus auratus, después de 30 días post infección tomando como criterio la reducción del área de lesión, dosis de 100 mg/kg. de Cloruro de Berberina intralesionales en los días 30, 33 y 36 tuvieron el mismo efecto antileishmaniásico que el Antimonial Pentavalente "Glucantime", el cual fue administrado de igual modo en dosis de 20 mg/kg/día entre los días 30 a 38. El análisis histopatológico, demostró una proliferación de células gigantes de Langhans en las pápulas tratadas con Cloruro de Berberina.

  16. Psicodrama del duelo.

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Espina Barrio; Marisol Filgueira Bouza

    1997-01-01

    La pérdida de rituales agrava y alarga la reacción del duelo. Se define el Psicodrama Antropológico y su intervención en el proceso del duelo. El Psicodrama Focal del Duelo es una psicoterapia breve centrada en el proceso de Duelo. Se comentan varios casos y resultados. Se concluye con un programa sencillo para el duelo en Atención Primaria.

  17. Fractura triple del complejo suspensorio del hombro

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    Eraclio Delgado Rifá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El complejo suspensorio del hombro es una estructura sumamente importante, compuesta por un anillo de huesos y tejidos blandos. Las lesiones aisladas de este complejo anatómico son frecuentes y no afectan su estabilidad. La interrupción doble conduce a la inestabilidad de esta estructura y usualmente requiere tratamiento quirúrgico. La triple interrupción, por su parte, es sumamente rara y es encontrada en casos de trauma de alta energía a menudo en asociación con otras lesiones. Se presenta una triple lesión del complejo suspensorio del hombro en un paciente de 46 años de edad, con una fractura de la glenoides, del acromion tipo III de Kuhn y de la coracoides tipo II de Ogawa. En este caso, la fractura del acromion fue tratada con fijación percutánea con alambres de Kirschner, por tener asociado lesiones de partes blandas que contraindicaron la reducción abierta. La fractura de la glenoides y de la apófisis coracoides fueron tratadas conservadoramente. Después de 6 meses de evolución, el paciente tuvo un resultado funcional aceptable, con una abducción de 90 grados, los 30 grados de rotación externa y 70 de rotación interna, además asintomático y consolidación de todas las fracturas. A pesar de ser catalogada de una lesión grave del cinturón escapular y estar asociada a otras lesiones se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio al final del tratamiento.

  18. Vigencia del Darwinismo

    OpenAIRE

    Lessa, Enrique P

    2009-01-01

    En este ensayo se presenta una revisión histórica del signifcado y legado del darwinismo, con énfasis en el último siglo. La principal conclusión es que la visión darwiniana de la evolución, con las modifcaciones requeridas para dar cuenta de los grandes desarrollos de la disciplina, se ha impuesto y mantiene vigencia en nuestros días. En particular, el papel del azar, la evolución como proceso de “descendencia con modifcación” a lo largo de diversas ramas del árbol de la vida, el pensamiento...

  19. Evaluación del comportamiento de un algoritmo para la secuenciación en un taller de flujo con tiempos dependientes de la secuencia

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    Adriano da Silva-Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se realiza la evaluación del comportamiento de un algoritmo propuesto para la secuenciación en un taller de flujo con tiempos dependientes de la secuencia, utilizando un método híbrido basado en el Algoritmo de Búsqueda del Extremo de una Función de un Código Variable y la metaheurística de Búsqueda Dispersa. Asimismo, se analizan casos obtenidos de la aplicación en un taller mecánico de una industria nacional.In this paper the evaluation of the behaviour of a proposed algorithm is made for the sequence of events in a stream flow in a workshop with dependent moments of the sequence using a hybrid method based on the SEARCH OF THE EXTREME OF A FUNTION OF A VARIABLE CODE ALGORITHM AND THE DISPERSED SEARCH METHOD ALGORITHM In the same way, cases obtained from the application in a workshop of the national mechanical industry are analysed.

  20. Escrituras anárquicas: prácticas textuales del anarquismo literario en el Río de la Plata

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    Leandro Delgado Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la escritura anárquica en cuatro autores rioplatenses vinculados de manera distinta con el anarquismo. Primero, se señala la intervención anárquica en los registros del argentino Alberto Ghiraldo, escritos en su reclusión a bordo de un barco esperando su deportación. Segundo, se observa la “incorrección” sintáctica y gramatical en un texto de su compatriota Alejandro Sux, escrito a consecuencia de su reclusión en una cárcel de Mendoza. Tercero, se analiza el carácter de “deriva” en la escritura de los borradores del uruguayo Julio Herrera y Reissig. Por último, se presenta al dandi Roberto de las Carreras como ejemplo extremo de acción anárquica por la forma en que puso en la escena pública de Montevideo los detalles de su vida privada y por la práctica de una escritura donde logró alterar los límites entre ficción y realidad.