WorldWideScience

Sample records for gif format 320x240

  1. Evaluation of Use of Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) Animations in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Esra; Iigun, Sukru; Kucuk, Soner

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates opinions of Grade 12 students about the use of Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) animations in mathematics lessons. It explores the ways of making mathematics easier and more understandable for students by demonstrating whether or not GIF animations that emerged from the integration of technology into mathematics education…

  2. TIFF, GIF, and PNG: get the picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    GIF, JPEG, and PNG are most likely the best formats to use for three reasons. First, they're standardized and open formats for anyone to use. In addition, JPEG is an ISO standard and PNG is an IETF RFC (Internet Engineering Task Force Request for Comments-www.ietf.org) and W3C recommendation (World Wide Web Consortium-www.w3.org). Second, they're compressible. GIF files are generally compressed at 5:1, JPEG at 10:1 or 20:1 and PNG at about 7:1. Finally, they're all supported by web browsers. Well, pretty much. Microsoft's Internet Explorer doesn't support the alpha channel transparency for PNG-but, on the other hand, GIF and JPEG don't have the alpha channel at all. Use TIFF to archive your original pictures as it is a lossless format. Check out the summary table and sidebar for more information regarding these picture file formats.

  3. Animated GIFs as vernacular graphic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Ödül Akyapi

    2016-01-01

    Online television audiences create a variety of digital content on the internet. Fans of television production design produce and share such content to express themselves and engage with the objects of their interest. These digital expressions, which exist in the form of graphics, text, videos...... as design, both in the sense that multimodal meaning making is an act of design and in the sense that web-based graphics are designed graphics that are created through a design process. She specifically focuses on the transmedia television production entitled Lost and analyzes the design of animated GIFs...... and often a mix of some of these modes, seem to enable participatory conversations by the audience communities that continue over a period of time. One example of such multimodal digital content is the graphic format called the animated GIF (graphics interchange format). This article focuses on content...

  4. Dark Current Measurements in GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Qahtani, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    This project revolved around creating a code that treats experiment files in order to fetch dark current measurements done for the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) exposed to long-term irradiation at Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) and plot the results as functions of the accumulated charge. This paper will discuss the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, the CSCs that we have looked at (specifically the muon detectors located at the CMS endcaps), longevity test at GIF++, and finally discuss the code and results obtained.

  5. Creating animated GIF files for electronic presentations using Photoshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Chun-Shan; Kruskal, Jonathan; Larson, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Our objective is to present a simple method for converting movie clips to animated GIFs (graphics interchange format) using Photoshop. Although animated GIF is a more reliable format than movie clips (e.g., AVI and QuickTime) for presenting dynamic data sets in PowerPoint presentations, this output format is not available on most radiology workstations. Therefore, many academic radiologists still experience the problem of incompatible codecs and missing file links when trying to show movie clips in their PowerPoint presentations. One way to resolve this issue is to convert the movie clips to animated GIFs. In this article, we provide a simple method for this conversion using Photoshop--a common software application used by radiologists.

  6. 10-Second Demos: Boiling Asynchronous Online Instruction down to the Essentials with GIF Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Karla J.; Porter, Toccara D.

    2016-01-01

    Connecting with text-weary students can be a challenge in the online instructional environment. Librarians have often developed screencast videos and integrated screenshots into online learning objects to teach students basic research skills. An alternative technology, graphical interchange format (GIF), may prove to be an excellent blend of the…

  7. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  8. Textural Poaching Twin Peaks: The Audrey Horne Sweater Girl GIFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gillan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to widen the lens of analysis of participatory culture inspired by long-arc serials like Twin Peaks. It considers GIF creation as a form of textural poaching, a new reception practice involving skimming off and repurposing top-of-the-mind content: the most arresting elements of costuming, set design, and dialogue. This behavior has become more popular as more series rely on textural storytelling and are filled with moments of excess that feel separate from the story. After an introduction to GIFs and GIF creation, it contrasts the impression of the character and series conveyed by Audrey Horne GIFs and the actual dynamics in the “Audrey’s Dance” scene. It establishes that Audrey’s look is most visually aligned with the Sweater Girl type, but as an allusive characterization it creates excess and calls attention to itself. Part of the “cool pop” reputation of the series may stem from the wider circulation of iconic moments of excess especially given that the GIFs detach the images from the series’ uneven storytelling and its challenging surrealist sensibility.

  9. Aging studies on the first resistive-micromegas quadruplet @ GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Aging studies of the first resistive-micromegas quadruplet at GIF++: preliminary results A resistive-micromegas quadruplet built at CERN, serving as prototype of the ATLAS micromegas, has been installed at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) with the aim of carrying out a long-term aging study. The detector has four active layers about 0.5 m2 each equipped with 1024 read-out strips and sputtered resistive layer for spark protection. It is exposed to an intense gamma irradiation (~50 MHz/cm2 provided by the 16.65 TBq 137Cs source of GIF++), corresponding to ~10 times more the expected counting rate at High-Luminosity LHC. Two smaller resistive bulk-micromegas produced at the CERN PCB workshop have also been installed at GIF++ in order to provide a comparison of the aging behavior with the micromegas quadruplet. We will give an overview of the aging properties of the resistive micromegas after few months of irradiation at GIF++. Detector aging evolution will be presented in terms of dark and amplifi...

  10. Developmental processes and responses to hormonal stimuli in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) leaves are controlled by GRF and GIF gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhuang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is an important leaf-type woody crop used for producing of non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. The GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) transcription factors cooperated with GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR (GIF) transcriptional coactivators positively regulate leaf development. In the present study, six GRF and two GIF genes were identified and characterized in the leaf transcriptome of C. sinensis, respectively. The alignment results showed that the feature structures of the predicted homologous GRF and GIF proteins of C. sinensis hold a high identity with Arabidopsis and rice. The presence of C. sinensis miR396 target sites suggested that these miR396 members are the potential post-transcriptional regulators of CsGRF genes. The expression profiles of CsGRF and CsGIF1 genes were higher in tender leaves and consistently downregulated during tea plant leaf development. Those results suggested that these genes may be actively involved in the early stage leaf tissue formation in tea plant. The divergence of CsGRF and CsGIF genes in response to different hormonal stimuli revealed the possible multiple functions of these genes in hormonal regulation. This study provided the potential molecular basis of the CsGRF and CsGIF family genes for future functional research on leaf development and hormonal stimuli in C. sinensis.

  11. Review on Korea Participation of Generation IV International Forum (GIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jewhan; Jeong, Ji-Young; Hahn, Dohee

    2015-01-01

    Generation IV International Forum (GIF) originates from US proposal of an initiative in 2000. The vision was to leapfrog LWR technology and collaborate with international partners to share R and D on advanced nuclear systems. Nine countries and EU joined the initiative and Gen IV concept was defined via technology goals and legal framework. Two years study with more than 100 experts worldwide has evaluated nearly 100 reactor designs and down selected six most promising concepts. In 2005, the first signatures on Framework Agreement were collected and the first research projects were defined in 2006. Korea is one of the founding members of GIF and actively participating in various areas. In 2013, TD was assigned to Korean expert and Korea is endeavoring to enhance the benefit of participation since this turning point. In this paper, pros and cons of engaging with GIF were briefly introduced and items to maximize the benefit were suggested

  12. Detector Control System for CMS RPC at GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Gul, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade program, the CMS muon groupbuilt several different RPC prototypes that are now under test at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). A dedicated Detector Control System has been developed using the WinCC-OA tool to control and monitor these prototype detectors and to store the measured parameters data.

  13. Gen IV International Forum - GIF, 2010 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF), created in 2000 to foster international collaboration at a detailed level of actual R and D, is a cooperative international endeavor, organized to develop the research necessary to test the feasibility and performance capabilities of fourth generation nuclear systems, with the goal of making such systems deployable in large numbers around 2030. Since its beginning, GIF members stated the following goals for the fourth generation of nuclear power plants when compared to previous generations: a) improve sustainability (including effective fuel utilization and minimization of waste); b) improve economics (competitiveness with respect to other energy sources); c) improve safety and reliability (e.g. no need for offsite emergency response); and d) improve proliferation resistance and physical protection. After an in-depth analysis of the different available concepts, whatever their level of development, the Forum selected six concepts as the most promising, and decided to focus R and D on these systems: - the very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR); - the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR); - the supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR); - the gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR); - the lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR); - the molten salt reactor (MSR). Active members of the GIF are Canada, Euratom, France, Japan, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea, Republic of South Africa, Russian Federation, Switzerland and the United States. Altogether, they represent around 90% of the world installed nuclear capacity for producing electricity, and all key technology holders. The forum is led by the policy group, where all members are represented, and currently chaired by Japan since December 2009, assisted by vice-chairs from France and United States. The year 2010 has seen some important achievements and decisions regarding these six systems. For example, two sodium-cooled fast reactors (re)started this year: Monju in Japan restarted after

  14. Gif 2011 school: neutrinos. Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Pascoli, S.; Piquemal, F.; Lasserre, T.; Kouchner, A.; Patzak, T.; Lavignac, S.; Volpe, C.; Katsanevas, S.; Rubbia, A.

    2012-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the lectures given at the GIF 2011 school. These lectures were pedagogical reviews of both theoretical and experimental physics around neutrino issues. There were 9 lectures: 1) the origin of the neutrino mass, 2) theory of neutrino oscillations, 3) measuring the neutrino mass, 4) measuring the neutrino oscillation parameters, 5) astronomy with neutrinos, 6) the story of the neutrino, 7) neutrinos beyond the standard model, 8) neutrinos in cosmology, and 9) future experiments. (A.C.)

  15. Generation 4 International Forum (GIF). 2015 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This ninth edition of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Annual Report highlights the main achievements of the Forum in 2015. On 26 February 2015, the Framework Agreement for International Collaboration on Research and Development of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems was extended for another ten years, thereby paving the way for continued collaboration among participating countries. GIF organised the 3. Symposium in Makuhari Messe, Japan in May 2015 to present progress made in the development of the six generation IV systems: the gas-cooled fast reactor, the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the supercritical-water-cooled reactor, the very-high-temperature reactor, the lead-cooled fast reactor and the molten salt reactor. The report gives a detailed description of progress made in the 11 existing project arrangements. It also describes the development of safety design criteria and guidelines for the sodium-cooled fast reactor, in addition to the outcome of GIF engagement with regulators on safety approaches for generation IV systems. (authors)

  16. Technical Safety Requirements for the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF)

    CERN Document Server

    Mahn, J A E M J G

    2003-01-01

    This document provides the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Sandia National Laboratories Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The TSR is a compilation of requirements that define the conditions, the safe boundaries, and the administrative controls necessary to ensure the safe operation of a nuclear facility and to reduce the potential risk to the public and facility workers from uncontrolled releases of radioactive or other hazardous materials. These requirements constitute an agreement between DOE and Sandia National Laboratories management regarding the safe operation of the Gamma Irradiation Facility.

  17. Ageing test of the ATLAS RPCs at X5-GIF

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Ammosov, V; Biglietti, M; Camarri, P; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Chiodini, G; Conventi, F; De Asmundis, R; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Di Stante, L; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Iengo, P; Liberti, B; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Pastori, E; Patricelli, S; Perrino, R; Primavera, M; Santonico, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Spagnolo, S; Sviridov, Yu; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Zaetz, V G

    2004-01-01

    An ageing test of three ATLAS production RFC stations is in course at X5-GIF, the CERN irradiation facility. The chamber efficiencies are monitored using cosmic rays triggered by a scintillator hodoscope. Higher statistics measurements are made when the X5 muon beam is available. We report here the measurements of the efficiency versus operating voltage at different source intensities, up to a maximum counting rate of about 700 Hz/cm**2. We describe the performance of the chambers during the test up to an overall ageing of 4 ATLAS equivalent years corresponding to an integrated charge of 0.12C/cm **2, including a safety factor of 5.

  18. Ageing Studies on the First Resistive-MicroMeGaS Quadruplet at GIF++ Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Gonzalez B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A resistive-MicroMeGaS quadruplet built at CERN has been installed at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++ with the aim of carrying out a long-term ageing study. Two smaller resistive bulk-MicroMeGaS produced at the CERN PCB workshop have also been installed at GIF++ in order to provide a comparison of the ageing behavior with the MicroMeGaS quadruplet. We give an overview of the ongoing tests at GIF++ in terms of particle rate, integrated charge and spatial resolution of the MicroMeGaS detectors.

  19. Aging Studies on the First Resistive-Micromegas Quadruplet at GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00022061; The ATLAS collaboration; Iengo, Paolo; Bianco, Michele; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Kuger, Fabian; Longo, Luigi; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Wotschack, Jorg

    2015-01-01

    A resistive-micromegas quadruplet built at CERN has been installed at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) with the aim of carrying out a long-term aging study. Two smaller resistive bulk-micromegas produced at the CERN PCB workshop have also been installed at GIF++ in order to provide a comparison of the aging behavior with the micromegas quadruplet. We give an overview of the ongoing tests at GIF++ in terms of particle rate, integrated charge and spatial resolution of the micromegas detectors.

  20. Ageing Studies on the First Resistive-MicroMeGaS Quadruplet at GIF++ Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Bianco, M.; Farina, E.; Iengo, P.; Kuger, F.; Lin, T.; Longo, L.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Schott, M.; Valderanis, C.; Wotschack, J.

    2018-02-01

    A resistive-MicroMeGaS quadruplet built at CERN has been installed at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) with the aim of carrying out a long-term ageing study. Two smaller resistive bulk-MicroMeGaS produced at the CERN PCB workshop have also been installed at GIF++ in order to provide a comparison of the ageing behavior with the MicroMeGaS quadruplet. We give an overview of the ongoing tests at GIF++ in terms of particle rate, integrated charge and spatial resolution of the MicroMeGaS detectors.

  1. Video (GIF) Sentiment Analysis using Large-Scale Mid-Level Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zheng; Cao, Donglin; Ji, Rongrong

    2015-01-01

    With faster connection speed, Internet users are now making social network a huge reservoir of texts, images and video clips (GIF). Sentiment analysis for such online platform can be used to predict political elections, evaluates economic indicators and so on. However, GIF sentiment analysis is quite challenging, not only because it hinges on spatio-temporal visual contentabstraction, but also for the relationship between such abstraction and final sentiment remains unknown.In this paper, we ...

  2. DIVA vaccine properties of the live chimeric pestivirus strain CP7_E2gif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, Tanya; Rangelova, Desislava; Nielsen, Jens; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse

    2014-06-04

    Live modified vaccines to protect against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), based on chimeric pestiviruses, have been developed to enable serological Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). In this context, the chimeric virus CP7_E2gif vaccine candidate is unique as it does not include any CSFV components. In the present study, the DIVA vaccine properties of CP7_E2gif were evaluated in comparison to the conventional live attenuated Riemser C-strain vaccine. Sera and tonsil samples obtained from pigs immunised with these two vaccines were analysed. No viral RNA was found in serum after vaccination with CP7_E2gif, whereas some serum samples from C-strain vaccinated animals were positive. In both vaccinated groups, individual viral RNA-positive tonsil samples were detected in animals euthanised between 7 and 21 days post vaccination. Furthermore, serum samples from these animals, together with archival samples from pigs vaccinated with CP7_E2gif and subsequently CSFV challenged, were analysed for specific antibodies using ELISAs and for homologous neutralising antibodies. In animals vaccinated with CP7_E2gif, neutralising antibodies were detected from day 10. However, the sera remained negative for anti-CSFV E2-specific antibodies whereas pigs vaccinated with C-strain seroconverted against CSFV by 14 days after vaccination, as determined by a CSFV-E2 specific blocking ELISA. One week after subsequent CSFV challenge, a strong anti-CSFV E2 reaction was detected in CP7_E2gif vaccinated pigs and anti-E(rns) antibodies were detected from 10 days after infection. In conclusion, CP7_E2gif has the potential to be used as a DIVA vaccine in combination with detection of anti-CSFV E2-specific antibodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. GIF priority objectives for the next five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The GIF (Generation IV International Forum) Symposium has the objective to give a global view on ongoing activities within the initiative and to define priority objectives. The overall plan for the VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) within Generation IV is to complete its viability phase by 2010, and to be well underway with the optimization of its design features and operating parameters within the next five years. The overall plan for the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is to be well underway with the optimization of its design features and operating parameters within the next five years, and possibly to complete its performance phase by 2015. The overall plan for the SCWR (Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor) is to complete its viability phase research by about 2010 and to operate a prototype fueled-loop by around 2015, thereby preparing for construction of a prototype reactor sometime after 2020. The GFR (Gas-cooled Fast Reactor) has a long-term vision for highly sustainable reactors that requires significant development in a number of technical areas. Unlike the SFR, the GFR does not benefit from operational experience worldwide and will require more time to develop. However, the GFR may benefit from its similarities with the VHTR, such as the use of helium coolant and refractory materials to access high temperatures and provide process heat. The overall plan for the GFR is to be well underway with the viability research within the next few years and to be completed by 2012. The LFR (Lead-cooled Fast Reactor) has development needs in the areas of fuels, material performance, and corrosion control. The overall plan for the LFR is to be well underway with the development of its materials, design features, and operating parameters within the next five years. The MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) has a long term vision for highly sustainable reactors that requires significant development in a number of technical areas. The overall plan for the MSR is to be underway

  4. Benchmarking of nuclear reactors selected in the frame of GIF project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azpitarte, O; Villanueva, A; Ramos, R; Ramilo, L; Alvarez, M; Yorio, D; Herrero, V

    2012-01-01

    In this article a comparative assessment of the six reactor concepts selected in the frame of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) project is presented. The assessment was carried out in the areas of Viability of the concept, Design and nuclear safety, Economics, Sustainability, Proliferation resistance, Nuclear fuel, Reprocessing, Materials and Balance of Plant, by means of qualification of chosen performance indicators (author)

  5. Detector Control System and Efficiency Performance for CMS RPC at GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Gul, Muhammad; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Fagot, A; Rios, A A O; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Aly, S; Assran, Y; Radi, A; Sayed, A; Singh, G; Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, M; Pugliese, G; Verwilligen, P; Doninck, W V; Colafranceschi, S; Sharma, A; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Bhatnagar, V; Kumari, R; Mehta, A; Singh, J; Ahmad, A; Asghar, M I; Muhammad, S; Awan, I A; Hoorani, H R; Ahmed, W; Shahzad, H; Shah, M A; Cho, S W; Choi, S Y; Hong, B; Kang, M H; Lee, K S; Lim, J H; Park, S K; Kim, M; Goutzvitz, M; Grenier, G; Lagarde, F; Estrada, C U; Pedraza, I; Severiano, C B; Carrillo Moreno, S; Vazquez Valencia, F; Pant, L M; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Esposito, M; Fabozzi, F; Lanza, G; Lista, L; Meola, S; Merola, M; Orso, I; Paolucci, P; Thyssen, F; Braghieri, A; Magnani, A; Montagna, P; Riccardi, C; Salvini, P; Vai, I; Vitulo, P; Ban, Y; Qian, S J; Choi, M; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Kim, D; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Lomidze, D; Bagaturia, I; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Sanabria, J C; Crotty, I; Vaitkus, J

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade program, the CMS muon group built several different RPC prototypes that are now under test at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). A dedicated Detector Control System has been developed using the WinCC-OA tool to control and monitor these prototype detectors and to store the measured parameters data.

  6. Preliminary Cluster Size and Efficiencies results of CMS RPC at GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Blanco Gonzalez, Genoveva

    2016-01-01

    A brief description and first preliminary results of the Efficiencies and Cluster Size measurements of the CMS Resistive Plate Chambers, will be presented inside the Gamma Irradiation Facility GIF++ at CERN. Preliminary studies that sets the base performance measurements of CMS RPC for starting aging studies.

  7. DIVA vaccine properties of the live chimeric pestivirus strain CP7_E2gif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Rosen, Tanya; Rangelova, Desislava Yordanova; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Live modified vaccines to protect against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), based on chimeric pestiviruses, have been developed to enable serological Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). In this context, the chimeric virus CP7_E2gif vaccine candidate is unique as it does...

  8. Structural basis of GM-CSF and IL-2 sequestration by the viral decoy receptor GIF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, Jan; Kandiah, Eaazhisai; De Munck, Steven; Bloch, Yehudi; Van Zundert, Gydo C P; Pauwels, Kris; Dansercoer, Ann; Novanska, Katka; Read, Randy J.; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Vergauwen, Bjorn; Verstraete, Kenneth; Gutsche, Irina; Savvides, Savvas N.

    2016-01-01

    Subversion of the host immune system by viruses is often mediated by molecular decoys that sequester host proteins pivotal to mounting effective immune responses. The widespread mammalian pathogen parapox Orf virus deploys GIF, a member of the poxvirus immune evasion superfamily, to antagonize

  9. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In this note, we present detailed simulation results for the trajectory of a muon beam, traversing beam zones PPE-134 and PPE-154, produced by a 150 GeV positive hadron beam incident on collimators 9 & 10 in the H4 beam line when these collimators are placed off-beam axis to stop all hadrons and electrons. Using G4Beamline, a GEANT-4 based Monte-Carlo program, the trajectory of the muon beam has been studied for several field strengths of the GOLIATH magnet, as well as for different polarities. The position of the beam at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), located downstream the PPE-144 area, is also presented. In addition, two configurations of the two XTDV’s present in the line (XTDV.022.520 and XTDV.022.610) have been studied, with the purpose to simulate the pion contamination of the beam both in PPE134 and GIF++.

  10. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In this report, I summarize my work of detailed study and optimization of the muon beam configuration of H4 beam line in SPS North Area. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, I studied the properties and behavior of the muon beam in combination with the field of the large, spectrometer “ GOLIATH” magnet at -1.5, -1.0, 0, 1.0 and 1.5 Tesla, which is shown to affect the central x position of the muon beam that is delivered to the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). I also studied the muon beam for different configurations of the two XTDV beam dumps upstream of GIF++ in the H4 beam line. I will also discuss my role in mapping the magnetic field of the GOLIATH magnet in the H4 beam line.

  11. The radiation field in the Gamma Irradiation Facility GIF++ at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Gorine, Georgi; Reithler, Hans; Biskup, Bartolomej; Day, Alasdair; Fabich, Adrian; Germa, Joffrey; Guida, Roberto; Jaekel, Martin; Ravotti, Federico

    2017-09-01

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting now a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a particle background in the gas-based muon detectors that is ten times higher than under conditions at the LHC. The detailed knowledge of the detector performance in the presence of such a high background is crucial for an optimized design and efficient operation after the HL-LHC upgrade. A precise understanding of possible aging effects of detector materials and gases is of extreme importance. To cope with these challenging requirements, a new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) was designed and built at the CERN SPS North Area as successor of the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) period. It features an intense source of 662 keV photons with adjustable intensity, to simulate continuous background over large areas, and, combined with a high energy muon beam, to measure detector performance in the presence of the background. The new GIF++ facility has been operational since spring 2015. In addition to describing the facility and its infrastructure, the goal of this work is to provide an extensive characterization of the GIF++ photon field with different configurations of the absorption filters in both the upstream and downstream irradiation areas. Moreover, the measured results are benchmarked with Geant4 simulations to enhance the knowledge of the radiation field. The absorbed dose in air in the facility may reach up to 2.2 Gy/h directly in front of the irradiator. Of special interest is the low-energy photon component that develops due to the multiple scattering of photons within the irradiator and from the concrete walls of the bunker.

  12. The radiation field in the New Gamma Irradiation Facility GIF++ at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea

    2017-09-11

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting now a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a particle background in the gas-based muon detectors that is ten times higher than under conditions at the LHC. The detailed knowledge of the detector performance in the presence of such a high background is crucial for an optimized design and efficient operation after the HL-LHC upgrade. A precise understanding of possible aging effects of detector materials and gases is of extreme importance. To cope with these challenging requirements, a new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) was designed and built at the CERN SPS North Area as successor of the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) period. It features an intense source of 662 keV photons with adjustable intensity, to simulate continuous background over large areas, and, combined with a high energy muon beam, to measure detector performance in the presence of the background. The new ...

  13. Generation 4 International Forum. 2009 GIF R and D outlook for generation 4 nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the state, at mid 2009, of research and development of the 6 reactor types that were selected in the framework of the GIF (Generation 4 International Forum): VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), SCWR (Super-Critical Water Reactor), GFR (Gas-cooled Fast Reactor), LFR (Lead-cooled reactor), and MSR (Molten Salt Reactor). Regarding each type of reactors, the state of advancement is reported for the reactor itself, its specific components and materials, its nuclear fuel, and its fuel cycle. The outlook of development and research work is also given for the next 5 years for the 6 types of reactors. (A.C.)

  14. GIF++: A new CERN Irradiation Facility to test large-area particle detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC program

    CERN Document Server

    Guida, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade is setting a new challenge for particle detector technologies. The increase in luminosity will produce a higher particle background with respect to present conditions. To study performance and stability of detectors at LHC and future HL-LHC upgrades, a new dedicated facility has been built at CERN: the new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). The GIF++ is a unique place where high energy charged particle beams (mainly muons) are combined with gammas from a 14 TBq 137Cesium source which simulates the background radiation expected at the LHC experiments. Several centralized services and infrastructures are made available to the LHC detector community to facilitate the different R&D; programs.

  15. Reaction intermediates in the catalytic Gif-type oxidation from nuclear inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, S., E-mail: rajagopalan78@hotmail.com [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Materials Science Group (India); Asthalter, T., E-mail: t.asthalter@web.de [Universität Stuttgart, Institute of Physical Chemistry (Germany); Rabe, V.; Laschat, S. [Universität Stuttgart, Institute of Organic Chemistry (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) of synchrotron radiation, also known as nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS), has been shown to provide valuable insights into metal-centered vibrations at Mössbauer-active nuclei. We present a study of the iron-centered vibrational density of states (VDOS) during the first step of the Gif-type oxidation of cyclohexene with a novel trinuclear Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O) complex as catalyst precursor. The experiments were carried out on shock-frozen solutions for different combinations of reactants: Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O) in pyridine solution, Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O) plus Zn/acetic acid in pyridine without and with addition of either oxygen or cyclohexene, and Fe{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-O)/Zn/acetic acid/pyridine/cyclohexene (reaction mixture) for reaction times of 1 min, 5 min, and 30 min. The projected VDOS of the Fe atoms was calculated on the basis of pseudopotential density functional calculations. Two possible reaction intermediates were identified as [Fe{sup (III)}(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N){sub 2}(O{sub 2}CCH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and Fe{sup (II)}(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N){sub 4}(O{sub 2}CCH{sub 3}){sub 2}, yielding evidence that NIS (NRVS) allows to identify the presence of iron-centered intermediates also in complex reaction mixtures.

  16. [Bacteriological evaluation of a procedure for disinfecting the Olympus GIF-D2 panendoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ramos, A; Domínguez, N; Makino, R; Barrera, C

    1980-01-01

    We have performed a total of 107 cultures from three critical areas of an Olympus Panendoscope Model GIF-D2 in order to evaluate bacteriologically cur system of desinfection of this endoscope. Samples were taken from the distal end, external surface and biopsy canal before and after an endoscopic examination was performed. The procedure of desinfection employed was as follows: washing of the distal end, external surface and biopsy canal with Hexaclorophel (Phisohex) diluted 50% with water and a second washing with tap water. In the middle of the study, we added a second washing of the biopsy canal with ten ml. of ether alcohol to allow for better drying. As a result of the present study we observed that in the distal end in 50% of the samples we encountered bacteria. Cultures of the external surface were positive in 20% of samples. The biopsy canal should be washed with ether alcohol to allow for complete drying, because when we did not use this method, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa was isolated. After this modification we did not isolate bacteria. The most frequent types of isolated bacteria were from the normal oropharyngeal flora. From the present study we can conclude that desinfection of the Panendespe with Hexaclorophen gives satisfactory results on the external surface of the endoscope. Biopsy canal requires additional washing with ether alcohol. However, both procedures do not assure a satisfactory desinfection of the distal end.

  17. Validation of the Read Out Electronics for the CMS Muon Drift Chambers at Tests Beam in CERN/GIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Oller, J.C.; Willmott, C.; Amigo, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Part of the readout system for the CMS muon drift chambers has been tested in test beams at CERN/GIF. Read Out Board (ROB) and HPTD have been validated with signals from a real muon beam, with an structure and flux similar to LHC operating conditions and using one of the chambers produced in CIEMAT already located in the test beam area under normal gas and voltage conditions. (Author) 5 refs

  18. Validation of the Read Out Electronics for the CMS Muon Drift Chambers at Tests Beam in CERN/GIF

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, C; Fouz-Iglesias, M C; Marin, J; Oller, J C; Willmott, C

    2002-01-01

    Part of the readout system for the CMS muon drift chambers has been tested in test beams at CERN/GIF. Read Out Board (ROB) and HPTD have been validated with signals from a real muon beam, with an structure and flux similar to LHC operating conditions and using one of the chambers produced in CIEMAT already located in the test beam area under normal gas and voltage conditions. (Author) 5 refs.

  19. Histoire d'une cité scientifique le campus du CNRS à Gif-sur-Yvette (1946-2016)

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    L'histoire du campus de Gif-sur-Yvette, cité scientifique de renommée internationale, commence en 1946, à l'heure de la reconstruction de la recherche française, ajuste après le deuxième conflit mondial. L'histoire du campus de Gif-sur-Yvette, cité scientifique de renommée internationale, commence en 1946, à l'heure de la reconstruction de la recherche française, ajuste après le deuxième conflit mondial. À cette époque, l'on cherche à favoriser l'émergence d'études nouvelles, à soutenir les travaux fondamentaux sans s'interdire de réfléchir à leurs applications, ou encore à stimuler l'interdisciplinarité. L'acquisition du domaine par le CNRS reflète alors l'ambition de son directeur, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, de refonder la Recherche scientifique et de restaurer son rayonnement. Depuis, le campus de Gif-sur-Yvette a connu une formidable aventure, aussi bien humaine que scientifique. Pionnier dans de nombreux domaines, en biologie, en chimie mais aussi en sciences du climat et de l'env...

  20. In vitro NMR proton http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/3/014/img1.gif"/> measurements in peritoneal ascites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, A.; Tez, M.; Göral, V.; Boylu, S.; Kaplan, A.; Kavak, G.

    1996-03-01

    The proton spin - lattice relaxation rate http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/3/014/img10.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> in malignant and non-malignant ascites was measured with an FT NMR spectrometer operating at 60 MHz. The mean relaxation rate in non-malignant ascites was significantly smaller than that of malignant ascites. However, the http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/3/014/img11.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> of malignant ascites overlaps with that of non-malignant ascites over all concentrations of total protein (TP) in samples. The http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/3/014/img11.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> in non-malignant ascites correlates strongly with TP, whilst the http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/3/014/img11.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> in malignant ascites shows only a moderate correlation. http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/3/014/img14.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> measurements before and after addition of ascorbic acid (reductant) suggest that there is a small paramagnetic contribution of ions to the http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/3/014/img11.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> in malignant ascites. The least-squares fitting of http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/3/014/img11.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> versus TP for non-malignant data gives a linear relationship, and suggests that the http://ej.iop.org/images/0031-9155/41/3/014/img14.gif" ALIGN="TOP"/> mechanism in non-malignant ascites is caused by a fast chemical exchange of water molecules between protein-bound water and free water.

  1. Duplication and independent selection of cell-wall invertase genes GIF1 and OsCIN1 during rice evolution and domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various evolutionary models have been proposed to interpret the fate of paralogous duplicates, which provides substrates on which evolution selection could act. In particular, domestication, as a special selection, has played important role in crop cultivation with divergence of many genes controlling important agronomic traits. Recent studies have indicated that a pair of duplicate genes was often sub-functionalized from their ancestral functions held by the parental genes. We previously demonstrated that the rice cell-wall invertase (CWI gene GIF1 that plays an important role in the grain-filling process was most likely subjected to domestication selection in the promoter region. Here, we report that GIF1 and another CWI gene OsCIN1 constitute a pair of duplicate genes with differentiated expression and function through independent selection. Results Through synteny analysis, we show that GIF1 and another cell-wall invertase gene OsCIN1 were paralogues derived from a segmental duplication originated during genome duplication of grasses. Results based on analyses of population genetics and gene phylogenetic tree of 25 cultivars and 25 wild rice sequences demonstrated that OsCIN1 was also artificially selected during rice domestication with a fixed mutation in the coding region, in contrast to GIF1 that was selected in the promoter region. GIF1 and OsCIN1 have evolved into different expression patterns and probable different kinetics parameters of enzymatic activity with the latter displaying less enzymatic activity. Overexpression of GIF1 and OsCIN1 also resulted in different phenotypes, suggesting that OsCIN1 might regulate other unrecognized biological process. Conclusion How gene duplication and divergence contribute to genetic novelty and morphological adaptation has been an interesting issue to geneticists and biologists. Our discovery that the duplicated pair of GIF1 and OsCIN1 has experienced sub

  2. Oncoidal granular iron formation in the Mesoarchaean Pongola Supergroup, southern Africa: Textural and geochemical evidence for biological activity during iron deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A J B; Beukes, N J; Gutzmer, J; Czaja, A D; Johnson, C M; Nhleko, N

    2017-11-01

    We document the discovery of the first granular iron formation (GIF) of Archaean age and present textural and geochemical results that suggest these formed through microbial iron oxidation. The GIF occurs in the Nconga Formation of the ca. 3.0-2.8 Ga Pongola Supergroup in South Africa and Swaziland. It is interbedded with oxide and silicate facies micritic iron formation (MIF). There is a strong textural control on iron mineralization in the GIF not observed in the associated MIF. The GIF is marked by oncoids with chert cores surrounded by magnetite and calcite rims. These rims show laminated domal textures, similar in appearance to microstromatolites. The GIF is enriched in silica and depleted in Fe relative to the interbedded MIF. Very low Al and trace element contents in the GIF indicate that chemically precipitated chert was reworked above wave base into granules in an environment devoid of siliciclastic input. Microbially mediated iron precipitation resulted in the formation of irregular, domal rims around the chert granules. During storm surges, oncoids were transported and deposited in deeper water environments. Textural features, along with positive δ 56 Fe values in magnetite, suggest that iron precipitation occurred through incomplete oxidation of hydrothermal Fe 2+ by iron-oxidizing bacteria. The initial Fe 3+ -oxyhydroxide precipitates were then post-depositionally transformed to magnetite. Comparison of the Fe isotope compositions of the oncoidal GIF with those reported for the interbedded deeper water iron formation (IF) illustrates that the Fe 2+ pathways and sources for these units were distinct. It is suggested that the deeper water IF was deposited from the evolved margin of a buoyant Fe 2+ aq -rich hydrothermal plume distal to its source. In contrast, oncolitic magnetite rims of chert granules were sourced from ambient Fe 2+ aq -depleted shallow ocean water beyond the plume. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Estimation of the collective sanitary impact of the land contamination by the radioactivity found at Gif sur Yvette; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire collectif de la contamination des terrains par la radioactivite presente a Gif sur Yvette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The company 'Societe Nouvelle du Radium' extracted radium and produced radium needles in Gif-sur-Yvette (Essonne) from 1904 to 1957. In 1959, this site was converted into a habitable zone. Since then, this district called the 'Petite Coudraie' has been going through several radioactivity measurements and decontamination works. In 2000, the detection of very high levels of radon above sanitary recommendations in one house encouraged the local authorities to launch a systematic investigation and risk analysis in order to take the necessary measures against radiological risks for the whole concerned district. The 'Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales' (D.D.A.S.S.), the French Institute of Public Health (InVS) and the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Security (I.P.S.N.) conducted a health impact assessment of the pollution in this area. The Office for the Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.) and the I.P.S.N. first measured the radioactivity found on the surface area. The I.P.S.N. then conducted a dosimetric study based on the measurement results and realistic exposure scenarios of adults and children present in the area. Finally, on the base of these results, the InVs did a quantitative risk assessment of cancer due to exposure to the radioactive residuals from the past industrial activities which is the subject of this report. This assessment allows to estimate the extent of this potential health impact due to the contamination of the area with the current scientific knowledge. It assesses the contribution of the various sources ways of exposure to risk and therefore directs the measures of management priority. Finally, it also allows to appreciate the relevance of an epidemiological study on the population who was present in this area. (author)

  4. Geographic Inventory Framework (GiF) for estimating N2O and CH4 emissions from agriculture in the province of Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, D. D.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    A Geographic Information Framework (GiF) has been created to estimate and map agricultural N2O and CH4 emissions of the province of Alberta, Canada. The GiF consists of a modelling component, a GIS component, and application software to communicate between the model, database and census data. For compatibility, GiF follows the IPCC Tier 1 method and contains census data for animal populations, crop areas, and farms for the main IPCC animal and plant types (dairy cows, cattle cows, pigs, sheep, poultry, other animals, grasses, legumes, other crops), and estimated N2O and CH4 emissions from manure management, enteric fermentation, direct soil emissions (with applied manure, synthetic fertilizer, crop residue degradation, biological fixation) and indirect soil emissions (with atmospheric deposition and leaching). Methane emissions from enteric fermentation (609.24 Gg) prevailed over those from manure (44.99 Gg), and nitrous oxide emission from manure (22.01 Gg) prevailed over those from soil (17.73 Gg), with cattle cows emitting most N2O and CH4, followed by plant N2O emissions, and pigs and dairy cows CH4 emissions. The GIS maps showed discernible pattern of N2O and CH4 emissions increasing from North and West to the central Alberta and then slightly declining to South and East, which could be useful to address various mitigation strategies. The framework allows easy replacement of Tier 1 emission factors by Tire 2 or 3 ones from process-based models. Future applying of the latter will allow accounting for CO2 source/sink strength of agricultural ecosystems, hence their complete GHG balance affected by soil, water, and climate.

  5. Validation of the Read Out Electronics for the CMS Muon Drift Chambers at Tests Beam in CERN/GIF; Validacion en el Test Beam del CERN/GIF de la electronica de Lectura de las Camaras de Muones del Experimento CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, C.; Fouz, M. c.; Marin, J.; Oller, J. C.; Willmott, C.; Amigo, L. J.

    2002-07-01

    Part of the readout system for the CMS muon drift chambers has been tested in test beams at CERN/GIF. Read Out Board (ROB) and HPTD have been validated with signals from a real muon beam, with an structure and flux similar to LHC operating conditions and using one of the chambers produced in CIEMAT already located in the test beam area under normal gas and voltage conditions. (Author) 5 refs.

  6. Application of the GIF PR and PP methodology to a commercial fast reactor system for a preliminary analysis of PR scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) Working Group has developed a methodology for the PR and PP evaluation of the next generation Nuclear Energy Systems (NESs). Following the methodology proposed by the working group, applicable to assessing the proliferation resistance of an NES and its individual elements, the main objective of this work is to apply the methodology to show an example of how its results could be used by designers to improve the PR of the system. In this study, the reactor site of a hypothetical and commercial sodium‑cooled fast neutron nuclear reactor system (SFR) was used as the target NES for the application of the methodology. The design of this SFR is based on the layout of the Japanese Sodium Fast Reactor (JSFR) with a safeguards design based on the safeguards approach of the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor Monju. The methodology is applied to all the PR scenarios described in the methodology: diversion, misuse and breakout. The methodology was first applied to the SFR to check if this system meets the target of PR as described in the GIF goal; secondly, a comparison between the SFR and a light water reactor (LWR) with an open fuel cycle was performed to evaluate if and how it would be possible to improve the PR and PP of the SFR. The LWR layout is based on the European Pressurized Water Reactor. The comparison was implemented according to the following example development target: achieving proliferation resistance to material diversion similar or superior to domestic and international advanced LWR. Three main actions were performed: implement the evaluation methodology based on its assumptions; characterize the PR and PP for the nuclear energy system applying the methodology to the SFR; and identify recommendations for system designers through comparing the SFR with the LWR.

  7. Proper use of common image file formats in handling radiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, N; Perandini, S; Comai, A; D'Onofrio, M; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    2009-04-01

    This paper highlights the differences among the most common file formats used for storing digital radiological images. It promotes the proper use of these formats to guarantee easy manipulation in handling the most typical practical applications in daily radiological practice. The authors provide a simple yet exhaustive introduction to the concept of "file format" and describe the algorithms and main features of the most common formats (BMP, JPEG, GIF, DICOM, TIF, PNG) and Portable Network Graphics (PNG).The different formats are compared in terms of dimension, quality, portability and with reference to the following specific needs: electronic communications, publication on the World Wide Web, presentation of electronic posters, video presentations for teaching and manuscript publishing. We also illustrate how to handle the various formats with the programmes supplied with standard software installations.The large number of digital applications of image file formats calls for a simplification in daily radiological practice. We recommend the use of JPEG and PNG for electronic communications; PNG and GIF for publication on the worldwide web; JPEG and PNG for electronic poster presentations; DICOM, PNG and JPEG for teaching presentations; TIF and PNG for printing on paper.

  8. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  9. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals,

  10. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  11. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  12. Star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-09-27

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references.

  13. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  14. Digtets formater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Kallesøe; Rasmussen, Krista Stinne Greve; Skriver, Svend

    2017-01-01

    definition of text and work can be supplemented by a hermeneutical dimension, thus taking various versions of works and the influence of their respective media (blog, book etc.) on the percipient into account. In connection with the theoretical considerations, a handful of recent works by Lea Marie...... Løppenthin, Olga Ravn, Mikkel Thykier, Caspar Eric, and Simon Grotrian are discussed. By using the format as a point of departure rather than applying a more conventional practice of close reading, the authors argue for a broad-spectred approach to literary analysis which focuses on aspects of the conception...

  15. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  16. TELLUS_OCEAN_GIF_GFZ_RL05:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The images were generated from the monthly ocean mass grids, which contain ocean water mass given as equivalent water thickness derived from the GFZ GRACE ocean...

  17. TELLUS_OCEAN_GIF_CSR_RL05:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The images were generated from the monthly ocean mass grids, which contain ocean water mass given as equivalent water thickness derived from the Center of Space...

  18. TELLUS_OCEANEOF_GIF_CSR_RL05:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The images were generated from the monthly ocean mass grids, which contain ocean water mass given as equivalent water thickness derived from the Center of Space...

  19. TELLUS_OCEANEOF_GIF_JPL_RL05:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The images were generated from the monthly ocean mass grids, which contain ocean water mass given as equivalent water thickness derived from the Jet Propulsion...

  20. Gif, bloedlink: Het verhaal dat niemand wil horen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; van den Berg, M.; de Boer, J.; Schoeters, G.; ten Tusscher, G.

    2004-01-01

    Meer dan 100.000 verschillende chemicaliën zijn inmiddels op de markt, die onder meer worden verwerkt in talloze consumentenproducten. In deze publicatie zet Greenpeace nog eens op een rij waarin schadelijke stoffen zijn aangetroffen en wat de mogelijke effecten zijn op mens, dier en milieu. Zeven

  1. Close Formation Flight Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proud, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    ... in the formation's drag is achieved. A controller, i.e., a formation-hold autopilot for the wing aircraft, is designed such that the formation's geometry is maintained in the face of lead aircraft maneuvers...

  2. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  3. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  4. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    OpenAIRE

    Crable, Bryan R.; Plugge, Caroline M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is...

  5. The Format Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2002-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of public libraries that investigated trends in audiovisual materials. Highlights include format issues; audiobooks; media budgets for various formats; video collections; DVDs; circulation; collection sizes; music CDs; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  6. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crable, B.R.; Plugge, C.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the

  7. [Study and analysis of light infrared detection system with dual spectrum and wide temperature range].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Man-De; Jiang, Qing-Xiu; Ren, Huan-Huan; Li, Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Because harmonic diffractive optics elements has special achromatism, athermalization and arbitrary phase modulation characteristics, an infrared detection system method with dual spectrum and wide temperature range was presented based on the most advanced infrared dual color detector which had a format of 320 X 240 and the pixel pitch of 30 microm. A hybrid refractive/ harmonic diffractive infrared detection system with dual spectrum and wide temperature range was designed. The working wavelength range was 3. 8 - 4. 2 and 8. 8 -11. 2 microm. The system was only consisted of three lenses, including one aspheric surfaces and a harmonic diffraction surface, which made the system have compact structure and light weight. In the temperature range -120 -200 degreesC, the RMS radius of spot diagram in 3. 8 approximately 4. 2 and 8. 8-11. 2 pm was 19. 07 and 17. 75 microm respectively, which is less than the pixel size of infrared detector with 30 m, the enclosed energy in 30 microm, the enclosed energy in 3. 8-4. 2 and 8. 8-11. 2 microm is 88. 7% and 82. 4% in two pixel size. The method and structure was convenient and predominant. It was proved that the design was feasible.

  8. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  9. From Sermon Formation to Preacher Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarden, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    today is less about exercising the authority of an office and more about embodying authenticity. I argue that traditional homiletic education can benefit from implementing a learner-centered approach to teaching moving from sermon formation towards preacher formation, in order to develop and train...... judged, evaluated, or critiqued. In this paper, I explain how a learner-centered approach to education works in practice and show how pastors experience the teaching method and the congregations’ positive response to their improvements. I shall present the results of a focus-group interview with pastors...

  10. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  11. Understanding Alliance Formation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    might take a different trend in different eras, in which it is either positive, leading to a bigger chance of alliance formation , or negative, leading...of war and peace with regard to systemic analysis. Therefore, it is reasonable that there is a deviation in the trends of alliance formation during...ALLIANCE FORMATION PATTERNS by Wael Abbas Zoltan Schneider December 2015 Thesis Advisor: William P. Fox Second Reader: Heather S. Gregg

  12. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    of how the opponent format and relationships impact a game are almost absent in current research. Thus, this paper aims to elucidate how the perception of a competition differs, depending on the opponent format, by presenting a game mechanic framework. The paper furthermore presents an interactive...... football-training platform, as well as games designed to explore the different opponent formats. The games are qualitatively evaluated to illuminate the qualities of and distinctions between different types of opponent formats, proposed by the framework terminology....

  13. ENDF/B format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-09-01

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B. This format, originally designed for the US Evaluated Nuclear Data File, is recommended for international use. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-NCS-50496 (ENDF 102) should be consulted. An Appendix to the present document gives a summary of the format differences between ENDF/B-4 and ENDF/B-5. (author)

  14. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  15. ENDF/B Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B, the evaluated neutron nuclear data library of the US National Nuclear Data Center. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-50274 (ENDF-102) should be consulted. (author)

  16. Diminutive formations in Xitsonga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Introduction. In Xitsonga diminutive formation, the juncture between the root and the suffix undergoes various phonological processes: glide formation, velarisation and vowel deletion. We argue that these seemingly disjointed processes are results of repair strategies that apply in order to avoid a sequence of labial sounds.

  17. Divisions-ST Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Henny, L

    2001-01-01

    Au CERN la formation est une partie intégrante des activités de l'Organisation. Mentionnée dans le Statut du Personnel depuis l'origine, elle figure au Règlement depuis 1981 et est largement explicitée dans la Circulaire Administrative N° 16. L'organe réglementaire est constitué par la Commission Paritaire de Formation (Joint Training Board dont le sigle est JTB) qui a pour but de conseiller le Directeur Général en matière de formation, de définir la politique de formation et d'en faire l'évaluation. Des organes spécifiques ont été mis en place pour organiser les différents programmes : le Groupe Formation et Développement, le Comité exécutif de formation (sigle TEC), le Comité d'enseignement académique. Des délégués divisionnaires à la formation (sigle DTO) servent de courroie de transmission entre ces organes, le personnel et le Service de l'Enseignement (Div. HR). La Division ST dont les activités présentent une grande variété se doit de poursuivre une politique de formation s...

  18. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  19. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Implications of the massive halos and ''missing mass'' for galaxy formation are addressed; it is suggested that this mass consists of ''Population III'' stars that formed before the galaxies did. 19 references

  20. PCF File Format.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoreson, Gregory G [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    PCF files are binary files designed to contain gamma spectra and neutron count rates from radiation sensors. It is the native format for the GAmma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) package [1]. It can contain multiple spectra and information about each spectrum such as energy calibration. This document outlines the format of the file that would allow one to write a computer program to parse and write such files.

  1. Autonomous Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  2. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated usi...

  3. Flexible AMOLED display with integrated gate driver operating at operation speed compatible with 4k2k

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steudel, S.; Cobb, B.; Nag, M.; Obata, K.; Murata, K.M.; Schols, S.; Vicca, P.; Ke, T.H.; Smout, S.; Willegems, M.; Ameys, M.; Bhoolakam, A.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, A.; Steen, J.L. van der; Genoe, J.; Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    We present a QVGA (320x240 with 3 sub-pixel) top-emitting AMOLED display with 250ppi resolution using a self-aligned (SA) IGZO TFT backplane on polyimide-foil with full barrier. The back plane process flow is based on a 7 layer photolithography process. The aperture ratio of the top-emitting OLEDs

  4. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  5. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  6. Formation of ball lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberg, P.A. (2833 Lawton Drive, Amarillo, Texas (USA))

    A plasma continuum model for the formation of ball lightning is developed based on a substantial number of reports that the ball is often in the discharge column of a previous lightning stroke. The usual method of setting up the plasma equation for a one-component electron plasma is used. An approximate equation for the plasma is derived from the describing equation which is then solved exactly in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions. The formation of the ball is based on a nonlinearity of the plasma equation which under certain circumstances permits the field to collapse into a small region. This collapse is interpreted to be ball lightning. The approximate equation derived for the plasma has the same form as a previous equation used to describe the formation of the fireball plasma.

  7. Tritiated ammonia formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    When nitrogen was selected as the glovebox atmosphere for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a concern was raised as to the possibility of tritiated ammonia formation in the gloveboxes. Experimental data were produced to study the tritiated ammonia formation rate in a tritium and nitrogen mixture. A rate equation that closely simulates the experimental data was developed. This rate equation can be used to calculate the formation of tritiated ammonia from different concentrations of tritium and nitrogen. The reaction of T 2 and N 2 to form NT 3 is a slow process, particularly when the tritium concentration is low. The reaction requires weeks or months to reach radiochemical equilibrium dependent on the concentrations of the reactants. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. Principles of star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bodenheimer, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Understanding star formation is one of the key fields in present-day astrophysics. This book treats a wide variety of the physical processes involved, as well as the main observational discoveries, with key points being discussed in detail. The current star formation in our galaxy is emphasized, because the most detailed observations are available for this case. The book presents a comparison of the various scenarios for star formation, discusses the basic physics underlying each one, and follows in detail the history of a star from its initial state in the interstellar gas to its becoming a condensed object in equilibrium. Both theoretical and observational evidence to support the validity of the general evolutionary path are presented, and methods for comparing the two are emphasized. The author is a recognized expert in calculations of the evolution of protostars, the structure and evolution of disks, and stellar evolution in general. This book will be of value to graduate students in astronomy and astroph...

  9. Double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.

    1982-01-01

    Results from several numerical simulations of the formation of double layers in plasmas with a constant potential drop across them are presented. Here the emphasis is mainly on plasma processes during the formation of double layers. The recurring formation of double layers, their propagation and associated current interruptions are observed when the electron current injected into the simulation region from the low potential side exceeds the electron thermal current. This recurring process is stopped (or delayed) when the electron current recuperation is inhibited by a small magnetic force on the electrons. The motion of double layers is examined and it is found that the motion is caused by the interruption of the ion current from the high potential side. The subsequent recovery of this current renders the double layer stationary. (author)

  10. Planetesimals and Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John

    The first step in the standard model for planet formation is the growth of gravitationally bound bodies called ``planetesimals'' from dust grains in a protoplanetary disk. Currently, we do not know how planetesimals form, how long they take to form, or what their sizes and mechanical properties are. The goal of this proposal is to assess how these uncertainties affect subsequent stages of planetary growth and the kind of planetary systems that form. The work will address three particular questions: (i) Can the properties of small body populations in the modern Solar System constrain the properties of planetesimals? (ii) How do the properties of planetesimals affect the formation of giant planets? (iii) How does the presence of a water ice condensation front (the ``snow line'') in a disk affect planetesimal formation and the later stages of planetary growth? These questions will be examined with computer simulations of planet formation using new computer codes to be developed as part of the proposal. The first question will be addressed using a statistical model for planetesimal coagulation and fragmentation. This code will be merged with the proposer's Mercury N-body integrator code to model the dynamics of large protoplanets in order to address the second question. Finally, a self- consistent model of disk evolution and the radial transport of water ice and vapour will be added to examine the third question. A theoretical understanding of how planets form is one of the key goals of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems programme. Researchers have carried out many studies designed to address this goal, but the questions of how planetesimals form and how their properties affect planet formation have received relatively little attention. The proposed work will help address these unsolved questions, and place other research in context by assessing the importance of planetesimal origins and properties for planet formation.

  11. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...... a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC...

  12. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  13. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  14. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  15. Temperature controlled 'void' formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, P.; Sharma, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of voids in structural materials during high temperature deformation or irradiation is essentially dependent upon the existence of 'vacancy supersaturation'. The role of temperature dependent diffusion processes in 'void' formation under varying conditions, and the mechanical property changes associated with this microstructure are briefly reviewed. (author)

  16. Formatting Design Dialogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Binder, Thomas; Messeter, Jörn

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses design games as a particular genre for formatting design dialogues. In the first part of the article we review the participatory design literature for game-oriented framings of co-design. We look at what constitutes game and play, we discuss other authors’ use of games...

  17. Triggered star formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2002), s. 35-36 ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003705; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : interstellar medium * star formation * HI shells Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. PAHs and star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Peeters, E; Bakes, ELO; Spoon, HWW; Hony, S; Johnstone, D; Adams, FC; Lin, DNC; Neufeld, DA; Ostriker, EC

    2004-01-01

    Strong IR emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 mum are a common characteristic of regions of massive star formation. These features are carried by large (similar to 50 C-atom) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules which are pumped by the strong FUV photon flux from these stars.

  19. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions has been ... A good deal of work has been reported on the preparation and structural investigation of. Schiff base ... Formation constants and thermodynamic parameters of Co, Ni, Cu and Zn complexes. Bull. Chem.

  20. COMPETENCYTHE FORMATION FOR LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Mederos-Piñeiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of life competences is the result of a quality education that prepares students to meet the challenges of a fast moving world where equality and equal opportunities should constitute premises of education; training them is a challenge teachers to assume new generations contribute actively to a better world. In Cuba are important research on the formation of communication competences and self-regulated learning in primary school. The paper shows the result of an investigation that provides a methodology for the formation of life competences in primary school education, used as an essential pathway research activity. The methodological approach of research has a quantitative approach and an explanatory scope to establish and make sense of understanding the causal relationship between the direction of research activity and training of life competences. Theoretical, empirical and mathematical-statistical, for characterizing the initial state, processing of results and analysis: research methods are used. The application of the methodology for the formation of life competences makes teachers lead the teaching-learning process with a research and transforming teaching concept, where the school is the protagonist of their learning and causes changes in their performances, which are evident in the formed competences related to effective and affective communication; the solution of problems related to life; the use of means in obtaining the knowledge and the expression of a behavior consistent with school and social demands. The effectiveness of the methodology confirms that there is a causal relationship between the direction of research activity by teachers and the formation of life competences in school.

  1. Plasma formation in TBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bosco, E.

    1981-01-01

    In this work are presented and discussed results of the formation and equilibrium of the plasma current in TBR, a small tokamak, designed and contructed at the Instituto de Fisica of Universidade de Sao Paulo. The measured breakdown curves for H 2 , A and He are compared with the predictions of a simple model with reasonable agreement. The influence of stray magnetic fields in the plasma formation is investigated and conditions are chosen to facilitate the breakdown. The time profile of loop voltage and plasma current for shots with plasma equilibrium are shown. A comparison is made between experimental results and analytical-numerical model for tokamaks discharges with ohmic heating. Reasonable agreement is obtained when Z, effective atomic number, is assumed as a parameter. (Author) [pt

  2. Mars’ peculiar formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Man Yin; Brasser, Ramon; Mojzsis, Stephen; Matsumura, Soko; Ida, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    The formation of the terrestrial planets is a long standing problem. Mars probably holds the key to solving this mystery because of the substantial amount of data gathered from space missions, martian meteorites and its obvious differences when compared to Earth. Recent elemental and isotopic abundances suggest that Mars’ composition is significantly different from that of Earth. Therefore, Mars should have accreted most of its mass in a region different from Earth’s, most likely further from the Sun. These compositional differences should be explained with planet formation models. We tested the probability of producing a Mars analogue that is compositionally different from Earth in two popular planet formation models: the Grand Tack model with tack locations of 1.5 or 2 AU for Jupiter; and the Classical model in which all the terrestrial planets formed near their current locations. We performed a high number of N-body simulations with initial conditions that are either equal-mass planetary embryos or a semi-analytical approach to oligarch growth. Our results show that the probability of producing a Mars analogue which matches the current mass and orbit of Mars is at most 9% but reduces to mostly about 1% when it mainly accretes its mass further than Mars’ current position of 1.5 AU. Strangely enough, in the Grand Tack model the number of Mars analogues produced is independent of the initial number of planet embryos. Hence, we conclude that both planet formation models have difficulties to explain the observed compositional differences between Earth and Mars.

  3. Alkali metal hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing alkali metal hydrides by absorbing hydrogen gas under pressure into a mixture of lower alkyl mono amines and alkali metal alkyl amides selected from sodium and potassium amides formed from said amines. The present invention also includes purification of a mixture of the amines and amides which contain impurities, such as is used as a catalytic exchange liquid in the enrichment of deuterium, involving the formation of the alkali metal hydride

  4. Isothermal Martensite Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo

    are chosen to investigate time dependent martensite formation. Among them, a Fe-11wt%Ni-0.6wt%C model alloy and Fe-1.6wt%Cr-1wt%C (AISI 52100), Fe-17wt%Cr-7wt%Ni (AISI 631) and Fe-16wt%Cr-5wt%Ni (AISI 630) commercial steels. The investigation was performed with in situ magnetometry, dilatometry, synchrotron...

  5. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...... the organismic-developmental approach to fields only touched in Symbol formation, such as magical practices, social structures, pictures and gesture....

  6. Formation of TRAPPIST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, C. W.; Liu, B.; Schoonenberg, D.

    2017-09-01

    We present a model for the formation of the recently-discovered TRAPPIST-1 planetary system. In our scenario planets form in the interior regions, by accretion of mm to cm-size particles (pebbles) that drifted from the outer disk. This scenario has several advantages: it connects to the observation that disks are made up of pebbles, it is efficient, it explains why the TRAPPIST-1 planets are ˜Earth mass, and it provides a rationale for the system's architecture.

  7. Methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Shinsaku; Ogata, Masana

    1982-01-01

    Paraquat is a broad spectrum herbicide known to be highly lethal to man and animals. Its toxicity is characterized by acute lung injury. Paraquat produces such toxic effects through the generation of the superoxide anion according to one proposed mechanism. The present experiment, methemoglobin formation was demonstrated after incubation of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat. The generation of the superoxide anion through the interaction of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat was suggested by chemiluminesce...

  8. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  9. THE ALLIANCE FORMATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Whipple, Judith M.; Frankel, Robert

    1998-01-01

    While interest in developing strategic alliances within the food system continues to increase, there remains considerable risk when firms adopt such a cooperative strategy. The risk is due in part to the lack of concrete guidelines that illustrate the steps or stages of alliance development and the important strategic and operational decisions required at each stage. The existence of such guidelines would facilitate alliance formation and enable managers and researchers to better understand a...

  10. Complexity and formative experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Strieder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporaneity is characterized by instability and diversity calling into question certainties and truths proposed in modernity. We recognize that the reality of things and phenomena become effective as a set of events, interactions, retroactions and chances. This different frame extends the need for revision of the epistemological foundations that sustain educational practices and give them sense. The complex thinking is an alternative option for acting as a counterpoint to classical science and its reductionist logic and knowledge compartmentalization, as well as to answer to contemporary epistemological and educational challenges. It aims to associate different areas and forms of knowledge, without, however merge them, distinguishing without separating the several disciplines and instances of the realities. This study, in theoretical references, highlights the relevance of complex approaches to support formative experiences because also able to produce complexities in reflections about educational issues. We conclude that formative possibilities from complexity potentialize the resignification of human’s conception and the understanding of its singularity in interdependence; The understanding that pedagogical and educational activities is a constant interrogation about the possibilities of knowing the knowledge and reframe learning, far beyond knowing its functions and utilitarian purposes; and, as a formative possibility, places us on the trail of responsibility, not as something eventual, but present and indicative of freedom to choose to stay or go beyond.

  11. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  12. Liposome formation in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, D. E.; Spooner, B. S.

    Liposomes are artificial vesicles with a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The formation of liposomes is a self-assembly process that is driven by the amphipathic nature of phospholipid molecules and can be observed during the removal of detergent from phospholipids dissolved in detergent micelles. As detergent concentration in the mixed micelles decreases, the non-polar tail regions of phospholipids produce a hydrophobic effect that drives the micelles to fuse and form planar bilayers in which phospholipids orient with tail regions to the center of the bilayer and polar head regions to the external surface. Remaining detergent molecules shield exposed edges of the bilayer sheet from the aqueous environment. Further removal of detergent leads to intramembrane folding and membrane vesiculation, forming liposomes. We have observed that the formation of liposomes is altered in microgravity. Liposomes that were formed at 1-g did not exceed 150 nm in diameter, whereas liposomes that were formed during spaceflight exhibited diameters up to 2000 nm. Using detergent-stabilized planar bilayers, we determined that the stage of liposome formation most influenced by gravity is membrane vesiculation. In addition, we found that small, equipment-induced fluid disturbances increased vesiculation and negated the size-enhancing effects of microgravity. However, these small disturbances had no effect on liposome size at 1-g, likely due to the presence of gravity-induced buoyancy-driven fluid flows (e.g., convection currents). Our results indicate that fluid disturbances, induced by gravity, influence the vesiculation of membranes and limit the diameter of forming liposomes.

  13. Formation control of AAUSHIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nick; Dam, Jeppe; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2015-01-01

    Many maritime mapping tasks are today carried out by large research ships, which are very costly to operate. As a way to overcome this, a number of small surveying vessels have been developed called AAUSHIP. In order to efficiently map the an area with such smaller vessels, it is important that s...... that several vessels are able to corporate on the task at hand. In this paper, the developed formation control strategy for the AAUSHIP series of vessels is presented, along with simulation results, which confirms, that the algorithm works as intended....

  14. Bouyei word formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attasith Boonsawasd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bouyei language is divided into three vernaculars, the southern vernacular, the central vernacular and the southwestern vernacular. This paper aims to describe the lexicology of the southern vernacular of the Bouyei language focusing on word formation process. Bouyei words are formed by affixing, compounding and reduplicating. First, the affixation consists of prefixing and suffixing. Infixing is not found in this language. Second, the compound is divided into the semantic and syntactic compound. Finally, the reduplication is divided into the simple and complex reduplication. The simple reduplication is normally used to emphasize the meaning of the root or to indicate plurality.

  15. Democracy and formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    to nature, Schlegel appeals to culture and political experience and political formation, in order to make the world more peaceful. He opposes with heavy arguments the Kantian distinction between republicanism and democracy. Instead he gives quite good reasons for a more important distinction between...... of the structure of political autonomy in a political social contract (Ingeborg Mauss). Against Kant, the thinker of political continuity, Schlegel presents historically well informed reflections on the beginning and the end of political legitimacy. Dictatorship can be legitimate, states of emergency are found...

  16. Modeling Chondrule Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhour, D. D.; Buseck, P. R.

    1995-09-01

    Over the last several decades considerable data on chondrule sizes, compositions, and textures has been collected [1]; experimental studies have greatly improved our understanding of the conditions required to produce chondrule compositions and textures [2]; and models of energetic nebular processes have provided insight into mechanisms by which chondrules may have formed [3]. While much work remains in each of these areas, the information presently available is sufficient to allow the construction of simple numerical models of chondrule formation. We have constructed a computer algorithm to investigate the consequences of forming chondrules under a variety of conditions. Variables that are considered include: 1) the mechanism of heating (e.g., EM radiation, aerodynamic drag, collisions with energetic particles), 2) peak chondrule temperature, 3) heat-source geometry, 4) pre-chondrule dust aggregate size distributions, 5) dust aggregate compositional distributions, 6) chondrule solidus and liquidus temperatures, 7) kinetic barriers to melting, and 8) the duration of heating. Output includes the size distributions and relative abundances of PO, PP, POP, BO, and NP chondrules. Given the uncertainties in the input variables, the primary purpose of the code is not to construct a single (and necessarily somewhat arbitrary) model of chondrule formation, but rather to elucidate the differences in chondrule properties associated with various sets of formation conditions. Results from a number of simulations using a variety of input parameters illustrate the importance of both composition and peak temperature on the proportion of porphyritic to non-porphyritic chondrules produced. Also apparent is the influence of the mechanism of heating on the relative size distributions of chondrule textural types. Results indicate that specific heating mechanisms require unique sets of associated conditions to account for the observed properties of chondrules. These unique sets of

  17. The Planet Formation Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S.; Buscher, D. F.; Monnier, J. D.; PFI Science, the; Technical Working Group

    2014-04-01

    Among the most fascinating and hotly-debated areas in contemporary astrophysics are the means by which planetary systems are assembled from the large rotating disks of gas and dust which attend a stellar birth. Although important work is being done both in theory and observation, a full understanding of the physics of planet formation can only be achieved by opening observational windows able to directly witness the process in action. The key requirement is then to probe planet-forming systems at the natural spatial scales over which material is being assembled. By definition, this is the so-called Hill Sphere which delineates the region of influence of a gravitating body within its surrounding environment. The Planet Formation Imager project has crystallized around this challenging goal: to deliver resolved images of Hill-Sphere-sized structures within candidate planet-hosting disks in the nearest star-forming regions. In this contribution we outline the primary science case of PFI and discuss how PFI could significantly advance our understanding of the architecture and potential habitability of planetary systems. We present radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from which we derive preliminary specifications that guide the design of the facility. Finally, we give an overview about the interferometric and non-interferometric technologies that we are investigating in order to meet the specifications.

  18. Urbanization and slum formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Giok Ling; Phua, Kai Hong

    2007-05-01

    The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution.

  19. Manganese-calcium intermixing facilitates heteroepitaxial growth at the gif' overflow='scroll'>101¯4 calcite-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Man; Riechers, Shawn L.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Du, Yingge; Kovarik, Libor; Varga, Tamas; Arey, Bruce W.; Qafoku, Odeta; Kerisit, Sebastien

    2017-10-01

    In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements were performed to probe surface precipitates that formed on the (10-14) surface of calcite (CaCO3) single crystals following reaction with Mn2+-bearing aqueous solutions with a range of initial concentrations. Three-dimensional epitaxial islands were observed to precipitate and grow on the surfaces and in situ time-sequenced measurements demonstrated that their growth rates were commensurate with those obtained for epitaxial islands formed on calcite crystals reacted with Cd2+-bearing aqueous solutions of the same range in supersaturation with respect to the pure metal carbonate phase. This finding was unexpected as rhodochrosite (MnCO3) and calcite display a 10% lattice mismatch, based on the area of their (10-14) surface unit cells, whereas the lattice mismatch is only 4% for otavite (CdCO3) and calcite. Coatings of varying thicknesses were therefore synthesized by reacting calcite single crystals with calcite-equilibrated aqueous solutions with concentrations of up to 250 µM MnCl2 and analyzed to determine the composition of the surface precipitates. Ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and AFM measurements of the reacted crystals demonstrated the formation of an epitaxial (Mn,Ca)CO3 solid solution with a spatially complex composition atop the calcite surface, whereby the first few nanometers were rich in Ca and the Mn content increased with distance from the original calcite surface, culminating in a topmost region of almost pure MnCO3 for the thickest coatings. These findings explain the measured growth rates (the effective lattice mismatch was much smaller than nominal mismatch) and highlight the strong influence played by the substrate on the composition of surface precipitates in aqueous conditions.

  20. The multifaceted planetesimal formation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Blum, Jürgen; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    -Neptunian objects and comets provide a unique record of the physical conditions in the solar nebula. Debris from planetesimal collisions around other stars signposts that the planetesimal formation process, and hence planet formation, is ubiquitous in the Galaxy. The planetesimal formation stage extends from...

  1. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  2. Restoring formation after leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A method of restoring a formation which had uranium and other mineral values extracted by an alkaline lixiviant comprises introducing a source of phosphate in an amount sufficient to lower the level of soluble uranium compounds below that previously existing in the formation by the formation of insoluble uranium phosphate compounds

  3. Recipes for planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    2009-11-01

    Anyone who has ever used baking soda instead of baking powder when trying to make a cake knows a simple truth: ingredients matter. The same is true for planet formation. Planets are made from the materials that coalesce in a rotating disk around young stars - essentially the "leftovers" from when the stars themselves formed through the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds of gas and dust. The planet-making disk should therefore initially have the same gas-to-dust ratio as the interstellar medium: about 100 to 1, by mass. Similarly, it seems logical that the elemental composition of the disk should match that of the star, reflecting the initial conditions at that particular spot in the galaxy.

  4. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...... on a prospective protocol, a systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all articles dealing with determinants of incident gallstones. Meta-analyses of comparable determinants were performed through fixed effect models. Results: Participants with no gallstones at baseline and with at least one...... re-examination were followed-up completely (mean 11.6 years, N = 2848). The overall cumulative incidence of gallstones was 0.60% per year. Independent positive determinants for incident gallstones were age, female sex, non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, and gallbladder polyps...

  5. Formation fracturing with foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blauer, R.E.; Kohlhaas, C.A.

    1974-01-01

    Over 60 wells have been treated with hydraulic fracturing techniques, with foam as the fracturing fluid. These foams contained as much as 95% gaseous phase; most treatments used foams with gas contents in the 65% to 85% range. Foam has several desirable properties for use as a fracturing fluid: high sand-carrying and sand-suspending capability, low fluid loss, low hydrostatic head, low pressure drops due to friction, quick fluid recovery, low formation damage, and no reduction of fracture conductivity due to fluid ingredients. Most applications of foam as a fracturing fluid have been in low permeability gas reservoirs. However, several oil reservoirs also have been successfully treated. Cost of the treatment is approx. the same or slightly less than a treatment with conventional fluids of comparable volume and rate. (25 refs.)

  6. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  7. Formation feedback control of UAV flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegall, Stephen

    This thesis is a study of formation control with autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles using the formation as feedback. There is also an investigation of formation methods presenting insight into different algorithms for formations. A rigid formation is achieved using a proportional-derivative virtual structure with a formation feedback controller. There is an emphasis on stick controlled aerodynamics. The rigid formation is verified by a simulation of a longitudinal model. Formation control ideas are presented for rigid formations.

  8. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  9. Continuing galactic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCanney, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A new theory for galactic arm formation shows the arms to be continually eminating from the galactic nucleus due to a continual influx of cosmic dust. In the neighborhood of the nucleus the problem is treated as a fluid flow and a simple solution is given using conservation of momentum. When rotational dynamics are included the spinning arm system is the result. This solution resolves the problem of the missing mass, accounts for warped disk galaxies and gives a probable source for the gravity waves measured by Weber which eminate from our galactic center. Reversal of arm direction is demonstrated and examples of such reversals are cited. An approximate theoretical estimate of the age of our Sun is found to be in good agreement with radio isotope dating. A general result shows why twin star systems are in such great abundance in a galaxy. It gives a model of galactic evolution which begins with only a single massive nucleus with the collapsing gas clouds forming the arms. (orig.)

  10. Habit Formation: Deep and Uncertain

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Choudhary; Young-Bae Kim

    2007-01-01

    We extend the Ravn, Schmitt-Grohe and Uribe (Review of Economic Studies, 2006) model of external deep-habits with the idea that some product varieties are more prone to habit formation than others. This s uncertainty in habit formation which affects firm's pricing. Provided that uncertainty is strong, a profound implication is that role of market frictions, such as habit formation, and its consequences for the dynamic variations in the markups can be reversed.

  11. Treatment of an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, P.E.; Braden, W.B. Jr.

    1974-03-12

    A method is described for treating underground formations, especially those containing clays or clay-like materials which are sensitive to fresh water. The treatment densensitizes the clays so they will not swell or disperse on contact with fresh water. The procedure consists of contacting the clay-containing formation with solutions which accomplish the electroless deposition of metal on the clay particles. Optionally, the formation can be resin coated prior to electroless plating. (9 claims)

  12. Satellite formation flying relative dynamics, formation design, fuel optimal maneuvers and formation maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Poh, Eng Kee

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically describes the concepts and principles for multi-satellite relative motion, passive and near passive formation designs, trajectory planning and control for fuel optimal formation maneuvers, and formation flying maintenance control design. As such, it provides a sound foundation for researchers and engineers in this field to develop further theories and pursue their implementations. Though satellite formation flying is widely considered to be a major advance in space technology, there are few systematic treatments of the topic in the literature. Addressing that gap, the book offers a valuable resource for academics, researchers, postgraduate students and practitioners in the field of satellite science and engineering.

  13. Current status of the laser diode array projector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, D. Brett; Saylor, Daniel A.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes recent developments and the current status of the Laser Diode Array Projector (LDAP) Technology. The LDAP is a state-of-the-art dynamic infrared scene projector system capable of generating high resolution in-band infrared imagery at high frame rates. Three LDAPs are now operational at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command's (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC). These projectors have been used to support multiple Hardware-in-the-Loop test entries of various seeker configurations. Seeker configurations tested include an InSb 256 X $256 focal-plane array (FPA), an InSb 512 X 512 FPA, a PtSi 640 X 480 FPA, a PtSi 256 X 256 FPA, an uncooled 320 X 240 microbolometer FPA, and two dual field- of-view (FOV) seekers. Several improvements in the projector technology have been made since we last reported in 1997. The format size has been increased to 544 X 544, and 672 X 512, and it has been proven that the LDAP can be synchronized without a signal from the unit-under test (UUT). The control software has been enhanced to provide 'point and click' control for setup, calibration, image display, image capture, and data analysis. In addition, the first long-wave infrared (LWIR) LDAP is now operational, as well as a dual field of view LDAP which can change its FOV within 0.25 seconds. The projector is interfaced to a Silicon Graphics scene generation computer which is capable of real-time 3-D scene generation. Sample images generated with the projector and captured by an InSb FPA sensor are included in the text.

  14. Uranium logging in earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique is provided for assaying the formations surrounding a borehole for uranium. A borehole logging tool cyclically irradiates the formations with neutrons and responds to neutron fluxes produced during the period of time that prompt neutrons are being produced by the neutron fission of uranium in the formations. A borehole calibration tool employs a steady-state (continuous output) neutron source, firstly, to produce a response to neutron fluxes in models having known concentrations of uranium and, secondly, to to produce a response to neutron fluxes in the formations surrounding the borehole. The neutron flux responses of the borehole calibration tool in both the model and the formations surrounding the borehole are utilized to correct the neutron flux response of the borehole logging tool for the effects of epithermal/thermal neutron moderation, scattering, and absorption within the borehole itself

  15. gif"/> Industrial psychology students’ attitudes towards statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Sanet Coetzee; Pieter Van der Merwe

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: The attitude of students toward statistics may influence their enrolment, achievement and motivation in the subject of research and Industrial Psychology.Research purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of the survey of attitudes toward statistics (SATS-36) for a South African sample and to determine whether biographical variables influence students’ attitudes.Motivation for study: Students could be better prepared for, and guided through, a...

  16. Vrou is Gif : The representation of violence against women in Margie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the methods of both discourse analysis and literary analysis of the crime fiction genre, the novels of Margie Orford, internationally acclaimed crime author and patron of Rape Crisis, are examined for their representations of violence against women, and the role played by these representations in Orford's overall ...

  17. BOREAS AFM-06 NOAA/ETL 35 GHz Cloud/Turbulence Radar GIF Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BOREAS AFM-06 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 35 GHz cloud-sensing radar...

  18. Age differences in concept formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Marilyn; Stratton-Salib, Brea C

    2007-02-01

    In order to identify the source of age-related deficits in concept formation, older and younger adults completed a new Concept Matching Test, tests of selective attention, and the Sorting Test, a standardized test of concept formation (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). Older adults showed intact concept identification, the ability to generate abstract concepts from stimulus features, but age differences were observed when irrelevant features were present. In addition, selective attention, but not concept identification ability, predicted age-related declines on the Sorting Test. Thus, reduced concept formation in older adults may stem from declines in abilities other than the capacity for abstraction.

  19. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  20. Dynamics of rock varnish formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Reneau, S.L.; Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Harrington, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Our studies of rock varnish from the southwestern United States suggest that the Mn-phase in rock varnish has neither the chemistry nor the crystal structure of birnessite. Rather, the Mn-rich phase is non-crystalline and contains Ba, Ca, Fe, Al, and P. Unknowns concerning the formation of this non-crystalline Mn phase must be resolved before researchers are able to define chemical parameters of rock varnish formation based upon conditions of formation of the Mn phase. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  2. Modularity in New Market Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Hang, Chang Chieh

    2017-01-01

    the formation of an industrial base of assemblers and component suppliers, assisting new firms in building customer relationships, enabling more geographically diffused economic development within countries, and facilitating development of export markets. We also suggest directions for further research......In this paper we appraise the ways in which use of closed-system proprietary product architectures versus open-system modular product architectures is likely to influence the dynamics and trajectory of new product market formation. We compare the evolutions of new markets in China for gas...... as the basis for new kinds of products may result in very different patterns and speeds of new market formation. We then suggest some key implications of the different dynamics of market formation associated with open-system modular architectures for both the competence-based strategic management (CBSM...

  3. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  4. The formate bio-economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yishai, Oren; Lindner, Steffen N; Gonzalez de la Cruz, Jorge; Tenenboim, Hezi; Bar-Even, Arren

    2016-12-01

    In this review we discuss the concept of the formate bio-economy: formate can be produced efficiently from various available resources and can be consumed by microbes as the sole carbon source for the production of value-added chemicals, directly addressing major challenges in energy storage and chemical production. We show that the formate assimilation pathways utilized by natural formatotrophs are either inefficient or are constrained to organisms that are difficult to cultivate and engineer. Instead, adapting model industrial organisms to formatotrophic growth using synthetic, specially tailored formate-assimilation routes could prove an advantageous strategy. Several studies have started to tackle this challenge, but a fully active synthetic pathway has yet to be established, leaving room for future undertakings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydroxyl radical formation by dithranol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K; Kappus, H

    1988-11-15

    Ethene formation from 2-keto-thiomethyl-butyric acid (KMBA) was used to measure hydroxyl radical generation from the antipsoriatic drug dithranol in phosphate buffer pH 7.8. Because the singlet oxygen (1O2) sensitizer, rose bengale, showed enlarged production of ethene when irradiated in the presence of KMBA, experiments were performed in the dark in order to avoid 1O2 production by dithranol. KMBA was converted to ethene by dithranol under aerobic conditions, whereas ethene formation was negligible in the absence of oxygen. Addition of catalytic amounts of FeCl3 resulted in increased ethene formation, indicating the catalysis of a superoxide-driven Fenton-reaction. O2- - and .OH-scavengers such as rutin, catechin, dimethyl sulfoxide, mannitol, ethanol, sodium salicylate and propyl gallate as well as catalase and superoxide dismutase inhibited ethene formation.

  6. Problem of professional personality formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryazhnikova E.Yu.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current approaches to the problem of professional personality formation. It ana-lyzes the impact of professional identity of students on the choice of the specialist field they make. The article highlights certain aspects of the educational environment which promote to formation of compe-tences in students, relating to their choice of professional occupations. The article presents the analysis of students’ internal and external strivings after graduation from the university and their fulfillment.

  7. Well stability in shale formations

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering Well instability in shale formations has been a very major problem due to physiochemical interactions between drilling fluid and formation. In this thesis, chemical, thermal and diffusion effects on the well collapse strength are evaluated in order to investigate the dominating driving forces. A case study on the designed Heidrun well program was also performed in order to study the dynamics of the collapse pressure during drilling phase due to vari...

  8. Chain formation of metal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of formation of single-atomic chains by manipulation of nanocontacts is studied for a selection of metals (Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au). Molecular dynamics simulations show that the tendency for chain formation is strongest for Au and Pt. Density functional theory calculations indicate...... that the metals which form chains exhibit pronounced many-atom interactions with strong bonding in low coordinated systems....

  9. An Adaptable Seismic Data Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Lion; Smith, James; Lei, Wenjie; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Ruan, Youyi; de Andrade, Elliott Sales; Podhorszki, Norbert; Bozdağ, Ebru; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-11-01

    We present ASDF, the Adaptable Seismic Data Format, a modern and practical data format for all branches of seismology and beyond. The growing volume of freely available data coupled with ever expanding computational power opens avenues to tackle larger and more complex problems. Current bottlenecks include inefficient resource usage and insufficient data organization. Properly scaling a problem requires the resolution of both these challenges, and existing data formats are no longer up to the task. ASDF stores any number of synthetic, processed or unaltered waveforms in a single file. A key improvement compared to existing formats is the inclusion of comprehensive meta information, such as event or station information, in the same file. Additionally, it is also usable for any non-waveform data, for example, cross-correlations, adjoint sources or receiver functions. Last but not least, full provenance information can be stored alongside each item of data, thereby enhancing reproducibility and accountability. Any data set in our proposed format is self-describing and can be readily exchanged with others, facilitating collaboration. The utilization of the HDF5 container format grants efficient and parallel I/O operations, integrated compression algorithms and check sums to guard against data corruption. To not reinvent the wheel and to build upon past developments, we use existing standards like QuakeML, StationXML, W3C PROV and HDF5 wherever feasible. Usability and tool support are crucial for any new format to gain acceptance. We developed mature C/Fortran and Python based APIs coupling ASDF to the widely used SPECFEM3D_GLOBE and ObsPy toolkits.

  10. The Physics of Planetesimal Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob; Armitage, Philip; Youdin, Andrew; Li, Rixin

    2015-12-01

    Planetesimals are the precursors to planets, and understanding their formation is an essential step towards developing a complete theory of planet formation. For small solid particles (e.g., dust grains) to coagulate into planetesimals, however, requires that these particles grow beyond centimeter sizes; with traditional coagulation physics, this is very difficult. The streaming instability, which is a clumping process akin to the pile-up of cars in a traffic jam, generates sufficiently high solid densities that the mutual gravity between the clumped particles eventually causes their collapse towards planetesimal mass and size scales. Exploring this transition from dust grains to planetesimals is still in its infancy but is extremely important if we want to understand the basics of planet formation. Here, I present a series of high resolution, first principles numerical simulations of potoplanetary disk gas and dust to study the clumping of particles via the streaming instability and the subsequent collapse towards planetesimals. These simulations have been employed to characterize the planetesimal population as a function of radius in protoplanetary disks. The results of these simulations will be crucial for planet formation models to correctly explain the formation and configuration of solar systems.

  11. The formation of cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancone, Conor L.

    2012-06-01

    In this work I sought to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies. Specifically, I studied three key aspects of galaxy formation: star formation, mass assembly, and structural evolution. Past research has shown that the formation of a galaxy is strongly coupled to its local environment (i.e. the local galaxy density). Therefore, I studied the evolution of cluster galaxies because clusters are the highest density environments that exist in the universe. In turn, the observational results found herein form a foundation upon which to test theories of galaxy formation in the densest environments. I used the latest sample of galaxy clusters from the Bootes region to measure the near-infrared luminosity function (NIR LF) of cluster galaxies from 0 1.3. I used deeper IRAC imaging to study the NIR LF of high redshift cluster galaxies (1 pulsating AGB stars, which are poorly understood observationally but contribute substantially to the NIR light of a stellar population. I also created the Python Galaxy Fitter (PyGFit), a program which measures PSF matched photometry from crowded imaging with disparate PSFs and resolutions. This enabled accurate measurement of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in crowded cluster fields.

  12. PODAAC-SEABY-ARBMF

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pre-plotted Sigma-0 browse images are provided in GIF format for the globe and various ocean regions. Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) files are also...

  13. Black holes and galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Propst, Raphael J

    2010-01-01

    Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.

  14. Exoplanets Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, John W

    2008-01-01

    This edited, multi-author volume will be an invaluable introduction and reference to all key aspects in the field of exoplanet research. The reviews cover: Detection methods and properties of known exoplanets, Detection of extrasolar planets by gravitational microlensing. The formation and evolution of terrestrial planets in protoplanetary and debris disks. The brown dwarf-exoplanet connection. Formation, migration mechanisms and properties of hot Jupiters. Dynamics of multiple exoplanet systems. Doppler exoplanet surveys. Searching for exoplanets in the stellar graveyard. Formation and habitability of extra solar planets in multiple star systems. Exoplanet habitats and the possibilities for life. Moons of exoplanets: habitats for life. Contributing authors: •Rory Barnes •David P. Bennett •Jian Ge •Nader Haghighipour •Patrick Irwin •Hugh Jones •Victoria Meadows •Stanimir Metchev •I. Neill Reid •George Rieke •Caleb Scharf •Steinn Sigurdsson

  15. Cosmic Star-Formation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madau, Piero; Dickinson, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Over the past two decades, an avalanche of new data from multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic surveys has revolutionized our view of galaxy formation and evolution. Here we review the range of complementary techniques and theoretical tools that allow astronomers to map the cosmic history of star formation, heavy element production, and reionization of the Universe from the cosmic “dark ages” to the present epoch. A consistent picture is emerging, whereby the star-formation rate density peaked approximately 3.5 Gyr after the Big Bang, at z≈1.9, and declined exponentially at later times, with an e-folding timescale of 3.9 Gyr. Half of the stellar mass observed today was formed before a redshift z = 1.3. About 25% formed before the peak of the cosmic star-formation rate density, and another 25% formed after z = 0.7. Less than ˜1% of today's stars formed during the epoch of reionization. Under the assumption of a universal initial mass function, the global stellar mass density inferred at any epoch matches reasonably well the time integral of all the preceding star-formation activity. The comoving rates of star formation and central black hole accretion follow a similar rise and fall, offering evidence for coevolution of black holes and their host galaxies. The rise of the mean metallicity of the Universe to about 0.001 solar by z = 6, one Gyr after the Big Bang, appears to have been accompanied by the production of fewer than ten hydrogen Lyman-continuum photons per baryon, a rather tight budget for cosmological reionization.

  16. Cementing of low pressure formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownlie, D. [Trican Well Service Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Coupland, M. [Baytex Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This paper proposed a solution to the notorious problem of squeeze cementing low pressure formations. It is a well known fact within the petroleum industry that it is difficult to squeeze cement low pressure formations in certain areas. Short of fracturing, most geological formations will not allow cement to penetrate the actual rock. In standard cement squeezing, cement slurries are placed across perforations and then pressure is applied to force the cement into perforation tunnels against the formation causing partial dehydration of the slurry. The cement left in the perforation tunnels makes a seal between the formation and the wellbore that has high compressive strength and low permeability. However, experience has shown that some wells are not capable of holding the hydrostatic pressure of a water column. This paper presented case studies that examined formations with modified geology, a highly unconsolidated sandstone where large volumes of sand were extracted during the production process. In particular, the paper refers to a low pressure field in Western Canada, the remedial cementing in Lloydminster. Within a 3 year period 18 zones were cement squeezed and drilled out. Nine of the zones were cement squeezed using a retainer with thixotropic cement followed by a 0:1:0 Class G cement. Only 11 per cent of the 9 zones was successful on the first attempt. The other 9 zones were cement squeezed using the bullhead technique in which a fluid is shot into the well casing before the downhole equipment. This latter technique proved to be more successful on the first attempt. 2 refs.

  17. Prediction of tar ball formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifa, A.; Gamble, L.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of small tar balls ranging in size from less than a millimetre to 60 centimetres have been observed during cleanup assessment operations following accidental oil spills on water. The tar balls are composed of heavy oil residues and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the water column. They can be found on shorelines, settled on the seafloor and floating at or near the water surface. Their abundance on the shorelines varies from site to site and depends on the conditions of the spill and mixing conditions. Aggregation between SPM and micro-sized oil droplets occurs naturally in coastal waters and enhances the dispersion of spilled oil. Although tar balls are among the important end states of spilled oil in the marine environment, no model exists to estimate the percentage of the spilled oil that becomes tar balls. This paper offered some insight into the modeling of tar ball formation. Current modeling understanding of oil-SPM aggregate formation was used to predict tar ball formation. The formation of oil droplets was examined with respect to a range of conditions under which the formation of large droplets is expected. The role of aggregation was then presented to demonstrate the effects of concentration and type of SPM on the buoyancy of tar balls. Good agreement was found between modeling results and field data reported in the literature regarding the size and density of tar balls. Oil viscosity and mixing energy were found to be the main factors controlling the formation of tar balls. The aggregation of tar balls with SPM and shoreline material results in significant increases or decreases in density, depending on the type and concentration of SPM. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Pattern formations and oscillatory phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Patterns and their formations appear throughout nature, and are studied to analyze different problems in science and make predictions across a wide range of disciplines including biology, physics, mathematics, chemistry, material science, and nanoscience. With the emergence of nanoscience and the ability for researchers and scientists to study living systems at the biological level, pattern formation research has become even more essential. This book is an accessible first of its kind guide for scientists, researchers, engineers, and students who require a general introduction to thi

  19. Star formation and gas supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinella, B.

    2016-06-01

    A detailed knowledge of how gas cycles in and around galaxies, and how it depends on galaxy properties such as stellar mass and star formation rate, is crucial to understand galaxy formation and evolution. We take advantage of the most sensitive surveys of cold gas in massive galaxies, GASS and COLD GASS, as well as of the state-of-the-art HI blind survey ALFALFA to investigate how molecular and atomic hydrogen reservoirs vary along and across the main sequence of star-forming galaxies.

  20. Fruiting Body Formation in Basidiomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelkmans, J.F.; Lugones, L.G.; Wosten, H.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of the dikaryotic mycelium and formation of fruiting bodies are highly complex developmental programmes that are activated by a combination of environmental cues. A wide variety of proteins are expected to regulate and coordinate these programmes or to fulfil enzymatic conversions or

  1. Analysis of Disulfide Bond Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, Ineke; Lamriben, Lydia; van Zadelhoff, Guus; Hebert, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    In this unit, protocols are provided for detection of disulfide bond formation in cultures of intact cells and in an in vitro translation system containing isolated microsomes or semi-permeabilized cells. First, the newly synthesized protein of interest is biosynthetically labeled with radioactive

  2. Shell formation and nuclear masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuker, A. P. [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Louis Pasteur, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)]. e-mail: Andres.Zuker@IReS.in2p3.fr

    2008-12-15

    We describe the basic mechanisms responsible for nuclear bulk properties and shell formation incorporated in the Duflo Zuker models. The emphasis is put on explaining why functionals of the occupancies can be so efficient in accounting for data with minimal computational effort. (Author)

  3. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  4. Exciton Formation in Disordered Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klochikhin, A.; Reznitsky, A.; Permogorov, S.

    1999-01-01

    Stationary luminescence spectra of disordered solid solutions can be accounted by the model of localized excitons. Detailed analysis of the long time decay kinetics of luminescence shows that exciton formation in these systems is in great extent due to the bimolecular reaction of separated carrie...

  5. Market formation and market selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The organization of markets is an important field of inquiry in modern economic theory. This monograph analyzes models which consider the formation and selection of markets. In these models, markets are organized by middlemen and used by traders. In Part I of the monograph, coalitions of middlemen

  6. Playing Games with Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Games can be great tools to engage reluctant learners and provide ongoing feedback to educators about how their lessons are "sticking." Cassie discusses how to use gamified formative assessments to measure different kinds of skills and looks at the different ways teachers can use games in the classroom--from out-of-the-box board games to…

  7. The Road to Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Keel, William C

    2007-01-01

    The formation of galaxies is one of the greatest puzzles in astronomy, the solution is shrouded in the depths of space and time, but has profound implications for the universe we observe today. The book discusses the beginnings of the process from cosmological observations and calculations, considers the broad features of galaxies that we need to explain and what we know of their later history. The author compares the competing theories for galaxy formation and considers the progress expected from new generations of powerful telescopes both on earth and in space. In this second edition the author has retained the observationally-based approach of the first edition, a feature which was particularly well-reviewed: Writing in Nature, Carlton Baugh noted in February 2003 that “It is refreshing, in a market dominated by theorists, to come across a book on galaxy formation written from an observational perspective. The Road to Galaxy Formation should prove to be a handy primer on observations for graduate student...

  8. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  9. DAC tries a new format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo; Emons, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has a somewhat different format this time. From now and on it is our ambition to invite a guest columnist to give her/his view on various matters related to Analytical Chemistry in Europe. This year we have invited Prof. Hendrik Emons at the Institute for Reference ...

  10. Genetic analysis of symbiosome formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovchinnikova, E.

    2012-01-01

    Endosymbiotic interactions form a fundament of life as we know it and are characterized by the formation of new specialized membrane compartments, in which the microbes are hosted inside living plant cells. A striking example is the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium

  11. Evolutionary dynamics of group formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Group formation is a quite ubiquitous phenomenon across different animal species, whose individuals cluster together forming communities of diverse size. Previous investigations suggest that, in general, this phenomenon might have similar underlying reasons across the interested species, despite genetic and behavioral differences. For instance improving the individual safety (e.g. from predators), and increasing the probability to get food resources. Remarkably, the group size might strongly vary from species to species, e.g. shoals of fishes and herds of lions, and sometimes even within the same species, e.g. tribes and families in human societies. Here we build on previous theories stating that the dynamics of group formation may have evolutionary roots, and we explore this fascinating hypothesis from a purely theoretical perspective, with a model using the framework of Evolutionary Game Theory. In our model we hypothesize that homogeneity constitutes a fundamental ingredient in these dynamics. Accordingly, we study a population that tries to form homogeneous groups, i.e. composed of similar agents. The formation of a group can be interpreted as a strategy. Notably, agents can form a group (receiving a 'group payoff'), or can act individually (receiving an 'individual payoff'). The phase diagram of the modeled population shows a sharp transition between the 'group phase' and the 'individual phase', characterized by a critical 'individual payoff'. Our results then support the hypothesis that the phenomenon of group formation has evolutionary roots.

  12. A Model of Partnership Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model of partnership formation. A set of agents wants to conduct some business or other activities. Agents may act alone or seek a partner for cooperation and need in the latter case to consider with whom to cooperate and how to share the profit in a collaborative and

  13. A model of partnership formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model of partnership formation. A number of agents want to conduct some business or other activities. Agents may act alone or seek a partner for cooperation and need in the latter case to consider with whom to cooperate and how to share the profit in a collaborative and

  14. Facial Prototype Formation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inn, Donald; And Others

    This study examined memory representation as it is exhibited in young children's formation of facial prototypes. In the first part of the study, researchers constructed images of faces using an Identikit that provided the features of hair, eyes, mouth, nose, and chin. Images were varied systematically. A series of these images, called exemplar…

  15. The EPRDATA Format: A Dialogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Henry Grady III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-08-18

    Recently the Los Alamos Nuclear Data Team has communicated certain issues of concern in relation to the new electron/photon/relaxation ACE data format as released in the eprdata12 library. In this document those issues are parsed, analyzed, and answered.

  16. Mantle dynamics following supercontinent formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Philip J.

    This thesis presents mantle convection numerical simulations of supercontinent formation. Approximately 300 million years ago, through the large-scale subduction of oceanic sea floor, continental material amalgamated to form the supercontinent Pangea. For 100 million years after its formation, Pangea remained relatively stationary, and subduction of oceanic material featured on its margins. The present-day location of the continents is due to the rifting apart of Pangea, with supercontinent dispersal being characterized by increased volcanic activity linked to the generation of deep mantle plumes. The work presented here investigates the thermal evolution of mantle dynamics (e.g., mantle temperatures and sub-continental plumes) following the formation of a supercontinent. Specifically, continental insulation and continental margin subduction are analyzed. Continental material, as compared to oceanic material, inhibits heat flow from the mantle. Previous numerical simulations have shown that the formation of a stationary supercontinent would elevate sub-continental mantle temperatures due to the effect of continental insulation, leading to the break-up of the continent. By modelling a vigorously convecting mantle that features thermally and mechanically distinct continental and oceanic plates, this study shows the effect of continental insulation on the mantle to be minimal. However, the formation of a supercontinent results in sub-continental plume formation due to the re-positioning of subduction zones to the margins of the continent. Accordingly, it is demonstrated that continental insulation is not a significant factor in producing sub-supercontinent plumes but that subduction patterns control the location and timing of upwelling formation. A theme throughout the thesis is an inquiry into why geodynamic studies would produce different results. Mantle viscosity, Rayleigh number, continental size, continental insulation, and oceanic plate boundary evolution are

  17. Inside-out planet formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    The compact multi-transiting planet systems discovered by Kepler challenge planet formation theories. Formation in situ from disks with radial mass surface density, Σ, profiles similar to the minimum mass solar nebula but boosted in normalization by factors ≳ 10 has been suggested. We propose that a more natural way to create these planets in the inner disk is formation sequentially from the inside-out via creation of successive gravitationally unstable rings fed from a continuous stream of small (∼cm-m size) 'pebbles', drifting inward via gas drag. Pebbles collect at the pressure maximum associated with the transition from a magnetorotational instability (MRI)-inactive ('dead zone') region to an inner MRI-active zone. A pebble ring builds up until it either becomes gravitationally unstable to form an ∼1 M ⊕ planet directly or induces gradual planet formation via core accretion. The planet may undergo Type I migration into the active region, allowing a new pebble ring and planet to form behind it. Alternatively, if migration is inefficient, the planet may continue to accrete from the disk until it becomes massive enough to isolate itself from the accretion flow. A variety of densities may result depending on the relative importance of residual gas accretion as the planet approaches its isolation mass. The process can repeat with a new pebble ring gathering at the new pressure maximum associated with the retreating dead-zone boundary. Our simple analytical model for this scenario of inside-out planet formation yields planetary masses, relative mass scalings with orbital radius, and minimum orbital separations consistent with those seen by Kepler. It provides an explanation of how massive planets can form with tightly packed and well-aligned system architectures, starting from typical protoplanetary disk properties.

  18. Consensus formation on coevolving networks: groups' formation and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, Balazs; Barrat, Alain

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of adaptivity on a social model of opinion dynamics and consensus formation. We analyse how the adaptivity of the network of contacts between agents to the underlying social dynamics affects the size and topological properties of groups and the convergence time to the stable final state. We find that, while on static networks these properties are determined by percolation phenomena, on adaptive networks the rewiring process leads to different behaviors: adaptive rewiring fosters group formation by enhancing communication between agents of similar opinion, though it also makes possible the division of clusters. We show how the convergence time is determined by the characteristic time of link rearrangement. We finally investigate how the adaptivity yields nontrivial correlations between the internal topology and the size of the groups of agreeing agents

  19. Stratigraphy and dissolution of the Rustler Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the physical stratigraphy of the Rustler Formation, because the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant will be constructed in salt beds that underlie this formation. Described are subdivisions of the formations, the major karst features, and a proposed method for the formation of Nash Draw. 2 refs., 2 figs

  20. ASDF: A new data format for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, P.; Droettboom, M.; Bray, E.

    2015-09-01

    We present the case for developing a successor format for the immensely successful FITS format. We first review existing alternative formats and discuss why we do not believe they provide an adequate solution. The proposed format is called the Advanced Scientific Data Format (ASDF) and is based on an existing text format, YAML, that we believe removes most of the current problems with the FITS format. An overview of the capabilities of the new format is given along with specific examples. This format has the advantage that it does not limit the size of attribute names (akin to FITS keyword names) nor place restrictions on the size or type of values attributes have. Hierarchical relationships are explicit in the syntax and require no special conventions. Finally, it is capable of storing binary data within the file in its binary form. At its basic level, the format proposed has much greater applicability than for just astronomical data.

  1. Track formation. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The principles and technical aspects of track formation in insulating solids are first described. The characteristics of dialectic track detection are discussed from the technical point of view: the nature of the detectors, the chemical treatment, the sensitivity and the environmental conditions of use. The applications are reviewed. The principle of each type of applied research is described and then the applications are listed. When used as a detector, nuclear tracks can provide valuable information in a number of fields: element content determination and wrapping, imaging, radiation dosimetry, environmental studies, technological uses and miscellaneous other applications. The track-formation process can also be used for making well-defined holes; this method allows other applications which are also described. Finally, some possible future applications are mentioned. (author)

  2. Singularities formation, structure, and propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Eggers, J

    2015-01-01

    Many key phenomena in physics and engineering are described as singularities in the solutions to the differential equations describing them. Examples covered thoroughly in this book include the formation of drops and bubbles, the propagation of a crack and the formation of a shock in a gas. Aimed at a broad audience, this book provides the mathematical tools for understanding singularities and explains the many common features in their mathematical structure. Part I introduces the main concepts and techniques, using the most elementary mathematics possible so that it can be followed by readers with only a general background in differential equations. Parts II and III require more specialised methods of partial differential equations, complex analysis and asymptotic techniques. The book may be used for advanced fluid mechanics courses and as a complement to a general course on applied partial differential equations.

  3. Othering, identity formation and agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Qvotrup Jensen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the potentials of the concept of othering to describe identity formation among ethnic minorities. First, it outlines the history of the concept, its contemporary use, as well as some criticisms. Then it is argued that young ethnic minority men in Denmark are subject to intersectional othering, which contains elements of exoticist fascination of the other. On the basis of ethnographic material, it is analysed how young marginalized ethnic minority men react to othering. Two types of reactions are illustrated: 1 capitalization on being positioned as the other, and 2 refusing to occupy the position of the other by disidentification and claims to normality. Finally, it is argued that the concept of othering is well suited for understanding the power structures as well as the historic symbolic meanings conditioning such identity formation, but problematic in terms of agency.

  4. Nuclear processing during star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted of the thermonuclear energy release expected during star formation. The destruction of primordial deuterium provides substantial amounts of energy at surprisingly low temperatures, and must be considered in any meaningful treatment of star formation carried to stages in which the internal temperature exceeds a few hundred thousand degrees. Significant energy generation from consumption of initial lithium requires higher temperatures, of the order of a few million degrees. Depletion of primordial beryllium and boron may never provide an important energy source. The approach to equilibrium of the carbon--nitrogen cycle is dominant at temperatures approaching those characteristic of the central regions of main sequence stars. The present calculation should serve as a useful guide in choosing those nuclear processes to be included in a more detailed study. 8 figures, 2 tables

  5. Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lone

    2011-01-01

    antibiotics, disinfectants and cleaning agents. Biofilms are therefore very difficult to eradicate, and an attractive approach to limit biofilm formation is to reduce bacterial adhesion. In this thesis it was shown that lowering the surface roughness had a greater effect on bacterial retention compared....... The ability to form biofilms, the amount of eDNA produced, and the importance of eDNA for biofilm formation or stability did not correlate and varied from strain to strain. Finally, a method was developed for immobilization of living bacteria for analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM is used...... for nanoscale visualisation and measurement of interaction forces of living cells under physiological conditions. The new immobilisation technique provides the practical platform needed to apply AFM for analysis of living bacteria....

  6. Coevolutionary modeling in network formation

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shyoukh, Ibrahim

    2014-12-03

    Network coevolution, the process of network topology evolution in feedback with dynamical processes over the network nodes, is a common feature of many engineered and natural networks. In such settings, the change in network topology occurs at a comparable time scale to nodal dynamics. Coevolutionary modeling offers the possibility to better understand how and why network structures emerge. For example, social networks can exhibit a variety of structures, ranging from almost uniform to scale-free degree distributions. While current models of network formation can reproduce these structures, coevolutionary modeling can offer a better understanding of the underlying dynamics. This paper presents an overview of recent work on coevolutionary models of network formation, with an emphasis on the following three settings: (i) dynamic flow of benefits and costs, (ii) transient link establishment costs, and (iii) latent preferential attachment.

  7. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  8. The dynamics of city formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J

    2009-04-01

    This paper examines city formation in a country whose urban population is growing steadily over time, with new cities required to accommodate this growth. In contrast to most of the literature there is immobility of housing and urban infrastructure, and investment in these assets is taken on the basis of forward-looking behavior. In the presence of these fixed assets cities form sequentially, without the population swings in existing cities that arise in current models, but with swings in house rents. Equilibrium city size, absent government, may be larger or smaller than is efficient, depending on how urban externalities vary with population. Efficient formation of cities with internalization of externalities involves local government intervention and borrowing to finance development. The paper explores the institutions required for successful local government intervention.

  9. Ion Formation from Organic Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-04

    contributed papers. The first of FAB. She described the was by K. Busch (Purdue Univ.) on characteristics of a good matrix, the internal energy effects...addi- by G. Cooks and Busch to describe tion, the likely role of the all "soft" ionization techniques. liquid matrix was to replenish Busch discussed...workshop dealt with ion formation ionization, and a localized, processes. The first paper was nonequilibrium thermal process. by H. Block ( Fritz Haber Insti

  10. Pattern Formation in Vertebrate Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-08

    with several modifications. Dreisch separated the firs t two cel l s of sea urchins by agi t ation, and the development of the s urviving cell s...the fate of a cell is a function of the position of the cell in the embryo has emerged as one of the main components of c urrent pattern formation...the relevance of s pecific divisions of the cyt oplasm during development. Driesch found that the single factor, calcium was necessary for deve

  11. The Black Hole Formation Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH(M ZAMS). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH(M ZAMS) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH(M ZAMS) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH(M ZAMS) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  12. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibble, T.W.B.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of a system of strings created at a phase transition early in the history of the universe is reviewed. The two possible end points are a string-dominated universe, which behaves much like a matter-dominated one, and a scaling solution, in which the persistence length of the system of strings scales with the horizon distance. The latter is the basis for a very attractive theory of galaxy formation. (Auth.)

  13. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH (M ZAMS ). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH (M ZAMS ) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH (M ZAMS ) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH (M ZAMS ) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment

  14. Pattern formation in optical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, C O; Larionova, Ye

    2007-01-01

    We review pattern formation in optical resonators. The emphasis is on 'particle-like' structures such as vortices or spatial solitons. On the one hand, similarities impose themselves with other fields of physics (condensed matter, phase transitions, particle physics, fluds/super fluids). On the other hand the feedback is led by the resonator mirrors to bi- and multi-stability of the spatial field structure, which is the basic ingredient for optical information processing. The spatial dimension or the 'parallelism' is the strength of optics compared to electronics (and will have to be employed to fully use the advantages optics offers in information processing). But even in the 'serial' processing tasks of telecoms (e.g. information buffering) spatial resonator solitons can do better than the schemes proposed so far-including 'slow light'. Pattern formation in optical resonators will likely be the key to brain-like information processing like cognition, learning and association; to complement the precise but limited algorithmic capabilities of electronic processing. But even in the short term it will be useful for solving serial optical processing problems. The prospects for technical uses of pattern formation in resonators are one motivation for this research. The fundamental similarities with other fields of physics, on the other hand, inspire transfer of concepts between fields; something that has always proven fruitful for gaining deeper insights or for solving technical problems

  15. The formation of star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.

    The ability of HST to resolve objects ten times smaller than possible from the ground has re-juvenated the study of young star clusters. A recurrent morphological theme found in nearby resolved systems is the observation of young (typically 1-10 Myr), massive (103 - 104 Msolar), compact (ρ≍105 Msolar pc-3) clusters which have evacuated the gas and dust from a spherical region around themselves. New stars are being triggered into formation along the edges of the envelopes, with pillars (similar to the Eagle Nebula) of molecular gas streaming away from the regions of star formation. The prototype for these objects is 30 Doradus. Another major theme has been the discovery of large numbers of young (typically 1-500 Myr), massive (103 - 108 Msolar), compact star clusters in merging, starbursting, and even some barred and spiral galaxies. The brightest of these clusters have all the attributes expected of protoglobular clusters, hence allowing us to study the formation of globular clusters in the local universe rather than trying to ascertain how they formed ≍14 Gyr ago. The prototype is the Antennae Galaxy.

  16. Formation of Outer Planets: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2003-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary formation, with emphasis on giant planets is presented. The most detailed models are based upon observation of our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believe to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. According to the prevailing core instability model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk disspates. The primary questions regarding the core instability model is whether planets with small cores can accrete gaseous enveloples within the lifetimes of gaseous protoplanetary disks. The main alternative giant planet formation model is the disk instability model, in which gaseous planets form directly via gravitational instabilities within protoplanetary disks. Formation of giant planets via gas instability has never been demonstrated for realistic disk conditions. Moreover, this model has difficulty explaining the supersolar abundances of heavy elements in Jupiter and Saturn, and it does not explain the orgin of planets like Uranus and Neptune.

  17. Star Formation in Tadpole Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casiana Muñoz-Tuñon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadpole Galaxies look like a star forming head with a tail structure to the side. They are also named cometaries. In a series of recent works we have discovered a number of issues that lead us to consider them extremely interesting targets. First, from images, they are disks with a lopsided starburst. This result is rmly  established with long slit spectroscopy in a nearby representative sample. They rotate with the head following the rotation pattern but displaced from the rotation center. Moreover, in a search for extremely metal poor (XMP galaxies, we identied tadpoles as the dominant shapes in the sample - nearly 80% of the local XMP galaxies have a tadpole morphology. In addition, the spatially resolved analysis of the metallicity shows the remarkable result that there is a metallicity drop right at the position of the head. This is contrary to what intuition would say and dicult to explain if star formation has happened from gas processed in the disk. The result could however be understood if the star formation is driven by pristine gas falling into the galaxy disk. If conrmed, we could be unveiling, for the rst time, cool  ows in action in our nearby world. The tadpole class is relatively frequent at high redshift - 10% of resolvable galaxies in the Hubble UDF but less than 1% in the local Universe. They are systems that could track cool ows and test models of galaxy formation.

  18. Coking pressure and fissure formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, S.; Patrick, J.W.; Steel, K.M.; Snape, C.E. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre SChEME

    2003-07-01

    Some coals, when carbonised for coke-making, lead to a build-up of pressure in the coke oven that results in damage to the oven walls. Coals that appear similar according to all commonly used assessment criteria for selecting coking coals can vary significantly in the amount of pressure they generate during carbonization. During the coking process fissures form in the coke, most characteristically in the direction of the thermal gradient extending from the oven wall to the centre of the charge. It has been shown that the extent of fissure formation varies significantly between different coals and blends. The pattern ranges form a few straight, unconnected fissures to an extensive network of fissures. Multi-directional, interconnected fissures would be much more efficient at releasing gases from the charge. But, as the fissure formation is associated with semicoke, whereas the gas release takes place as the coal devolatilises, there is doubt as to whether the two occurrences coincide in the oven. To make any case for a relation between fissuring and coking pressure, it needs to be shown that fissures are readily formed at an early stage of the carbonization and extend to the areas in the charge where gas continues to be evolved. The argument brought forward in this paper is that coals form characteristic fissure patterns on carbonization, and that this pattern can contribute to the prevention of coking pressure. The nature of the fissure formation can, in part, explain why some coals with high volatile contents do not build up internal gas pressure, whereas others, which release much less volatiles, do. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Formative flow in bedrock canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, J. G.; Kwoll, E.; Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In alluvial channels, it is widely accepted that river channel configuration is set by a formative flow that represents a balance between the magnitude and frequency of flood flows. The formative flow is often considered to be one that is just capable of filling a river channel to the top of its banks. Flows much above this formative flow are thought to cause substantial sediment transport and rearrange the channel morphology to accommodate the larger flow. This idea has recently been extended to semi-alluvial channels where it has been shown that even with bedrock exposed, the flows rarely exceed that required to entrain the local sediment cover. What constitutes a formative flow in a bedrock canyon is not clear. By definition, canyons have rock walls and are typically incised vertically, removing the possibility of the walls being overtopped, as can occur in an alluvial channel at high flows. Canyons are laterally constrained, have deep scour pools and often have width to maximum depth ratios approaching 1, an order of magnitude lower than alluvial channels. In many canyons, there are a sequence of irregularly spaced scour pools. The bed may have intermittent or seasonal sediment cover, but during flood flows the sediment bed is entrained leaving a bare bedrock channel. It has been suggested that canyons cut into weak, well-jointed rock may adjust their morphology to the threshold for block plucking because the rock bed is labile during exceptionally large magnitude flows. However, this hypothesis does not apply to canyons cut into massive crystalline rock where abrasion is the dominant erosion process. Here, we argue that bedrock canyon morphology is adjusted to a characteristic flow structure developed in bedrock canyons. We show that the deeply scoured canyon floor is adjusted to a velocity inversion that is present at low flows, but gets stronger at high flows. The effect is to increase boundary shear stresses along the scour pool that forms in constricted

  20. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  1. Advances in multicellular spheroids formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X; Hartanto, Y; Zhang, H

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional multicellular spheroids (MCSs) have a complex architectural structure, dynamic cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions and bio-mimicking in vivo microenvironment. As a fundamental building block for tissue reconstruction, MCSs have emerged as a powerful tool to narrow down the gap between the in vitro and in vivo model. In this review paper, we discussed the structure and biology of MCSs and detailed fabricating methods. Among these methods, the approach in microfluidics with hydrogel support for MCS formation is promising because it allows essential cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions in a confined space. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-30

    suspected of being the substrate of several forms of memory encoded by synapses in the forebrain of humans and other mammals. Work in the past year...of LTP will enhance the encoding of memory . Aniracetam , as noted, prolongs the open time of the AMPA receptor and in this way facilitates excitatory...121 t Iffw,,a" S. FUNO4NG mUMSERS Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation F 49620-92-0307 C (ci) b.q F Gary Lynch 7. Pf(RfO*INN ORGAMIZAMNIO NMMW(S

  3. Wormhole formation in dissolving fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, P.; Ladd, A. J. C.

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the dissolution of artificial fractures with three-dimensional, pore-scale numerical simulations. The fluid velocity in the fracture space was determined from a lattice Boltzmann method, and a stochastic solver was used for the transport of dissolved species. Numerical simulations were used to study conditions under which long conduits (wormholes) form in an initially rough but spatially homogeneous fracture. The effects of flow rate, mineral dissolution rate, and geometrical properties of the fracture were investigated, and the optimal conditions for wormhole formation were determined.

  4. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  5. Quality guidance and quality formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the quality guidance model of Steenkamp and van Trijp that includes consumer quality formation processes. Quality expectations and quality experiences are seen as antecedents of perceived overall product quality conceptual model is applied using LISREL to a data...... set on Danish butter cookies. Five plausible models of the relation between expectation, experience and perceived product quality are estimated. Finally one model is selected on the basis of three criteria: chi-square, RMSEA and AIC: The results show a model where expectations are indirectly related...... to perceived quality through experience. Udgivelsesdato: APR...

  6. Fragmentation during primordial star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jayanta

    Understanding the physics of the very first stars in the universe, the so-called Population III (or Pop III) stars, is crucial in determining how the universe evolved into what we observe today. In the standard model of Pop III star formation, the baryonic matter, mainly atomic hydrogen, collapses gravitationally into small Dark Matter (DM) minihalos. However, so far there is little understanding on how the thermal, dynamical and chemical evolution of the primordial gas depend on the initial configuration of the minihalos (for example, rotation of the unstable clumps inside minihalos, turbulence, formation of molecular hydrogen and cosmic variance of the minihalos). We use the modified version of the Gadget-2 code, a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, to follow the evolution of the collapsing gas in both idealized as well as more realistic minihalos. Unlike some earlier cosmological calculations, the implementation of sink particles allows us to follow the evolution of the accretion disk that builds up in the centre of each minihalo and fragments. We find that the fragmentation behavior depends on the adopted choice of three-body H2 formation rate coefficient. The increasing cooling rate during rapid conversion of the atomic to molecular hydrogen is offset by the heating due to gas contraction. We propose that the H2 cooling, the heating due to H2 formation and compressional heating together set a density and temperature structure in the disk that favors fragmentation. We also find that the cloud's initial degree of rotation has a significant effect on the thermal and dynamical evolution of the collapsing gas. Clouds with higher rotation exhibit spiral-arm-like structures that become gravitationally unstable to fragmentation on several scales. These type of clouds tend to fragment more and have lower accretion rates compared to their slowly rotating counterparts. In addition, we find that the distribution of specific angular

  7. Modularity in New Market Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Hang, Chang Chieh

    2017-01-01

    -powered two-wheeled vehicles (G2WVs) based (initially) on closed-system proprietary architectures and for electric-powered two-wheeled vehicles (E2WVs) based on open-system modular architectures. We draw on this comparison to suggest ways in which the use of the two different kinds of architectures...... the formation of an industrial base of assemblers and component suppliers, assisting new firms in building customer relationships, enabling more geographically diffused economic development within countries, and facilitating development of export markets. We also suggest directions for further research...

  8. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... for Eastern Jutland.  This process relies on the municipalities in Eastern Jutland reaching consensus on a common vision for the city region.   The key issue in spatial planning in Eastern Jutland is a conflict between preserving the high quality of landscape and maintaining the divide between the countryside...

  9. Towards Verification of Rydberg Positronium Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Eliot

    2017-01-01

    In this report I describe progress towards the formation of Rydberg positronium. Though more runs are required to gain statistical signifi- cance, there are promising signs that could signal Rydberg positronium formation.

  10. Relaxation phenomena during polyelectrolyte complex formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex formation is a well-studied subject in colloid science. Several types of complex formation have been studied, including PEMs, macroscopic polyelectrolyte complexes, soluble complexes and polyelectrolyte complex micelles. The chemical nature of the complex-forming

  11. FORMATE-BASED FLUIDS: FORMULATION AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Formate-based fluids has been successfully used in over hunders HPHT well operations since they introduced in field practice. They have many advantages when compared with conventional HPHT drilling and completion fluids such as: minimal formation damage, maintenance of additve properties at high temperatures, reduced hydraulic flow resistance, low potential for differential sticking, naturally lubricating, very low corrosion rates, biodegradable and pose little risk to the environment etc. Formate-based fluids can be applied during deep slim hole drilling, shale drilling, reservoir drilling, salt and gas hydrate formations drilling. The laboratory research was carried out to evaluate the rheological behavior of formate-based fluids as a function of temperature. Formate-based fluids were formulated using potassium formate brine, xanthan polymer, PAC, starch and calcium carbonate. Experimental results show that potassium formate improves the thermal stability of polymers.

  12. SAR polar format implementation with MATLAB.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Grant D.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2005-11-01

    Traditional polar format image formation for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) requires a large amount of processing power and memory in order to accomplish in real-time. These requirements can thus eliminate the possible usage of interpreted language environments such as MATLAB. However, with trapezoidal aperture phase history collection and changes to the traditional polar format algorithm, certain optimizations make MATLAB a possible tool for image formation. Thus, this document's purpose is two-fold. The first outlines a change to the existing Polar Format MATLAB implementation utilizing the Chirp Z-Transform that improves performance and memory usage achieving near realtime results for smaller apertures. The second is the addition of two new possible image formation options that perform a more traditional interpolation style image formation. These options allow the continued exploration of possible interpolation methods for image formation and some preliminary results comparing image quality are given.

  13. Satellite Formation Control Using Atmospheric Drag

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hajovsky, Blake B

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a linear quadratic terminal controller to reconfigure satellite formations using atmospheric drag actuated control while minimizing the loss of energy of the formation...

  14. Negative ion formation processes: A general review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs.

  15. Formative evaluation of handwriting quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Thorarinn; Karlsdottir, Ragnheidur

    2003-12-01

    A test developed for formative evaluation of handwriting quality is described and validated. The test is based on a domain of content for the handwriting skill defined in terms of the deviation of the writing in a handwriting specimen from the handwriting standard. A corresponding domain of elementary test items is defined in terms of the means and the variances of the deviations from the handwriting standard in shape, size, and position of each individual letter. The elementary items are scored on a dichotomous scale and cumulated into scores for letter items and a domain-referenced final score that can be interpreted as the fraction of the domain of content of the construct of handwriting quality that is mastered. Validation of the test was based on handwriting specimens from a school class of 23 children, tested in a longitudinal design from Grades 1 through 5. Coefficients of concurrent validity for final scores equal to .91, .86, .88, and .86 were obtained for Grades 1, 2, 3, and 5, respectively, using traits of the handwriting scored on an ordinal norm-referenced scale as criteria. Coefficients of intertest, intertask, intrascorer, and interscorer reliability for final scores equal to .87, .86, .94, and .80 were found, respectively, for the handwriting specimens from Grade 2. A survey of previously published handwriting quality tests indicates that most of them are not well suited for formative purposes although most of them were adequate for summative purposes.

  16. Tube Formation in Nanoscale Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chenglin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The formation of tubular nanostructures normally requires layered, anisotropic, or pseudo-layered crystal structures, while inorganic compounds typically do not possess such structures, inorganic nanotubes thus have been a hot topic in the past decade. In this article, we review recent research activities on nanotubes fabrication and focus on three novel synthetic strategies for generating nanotubes from inorganic materials that do not have a layered structure. Specifically, thermal oxidation method based on gas–solid reaction to porous CuO nanotubes has been successfully established, semiconductor ZnS and Nb2O5nanotubes have been prepared by employing sacrificial template strategy based on liquid–solid reaction, and an in situ template method has been developed for the preparation of ZnO taper tubes through a chemical etching reaction. We have described the nanotube formation processes and illustrated the detailed key factors during their growth. The proposed mechanisms are presented for nanotube fabrication and the important pioneering studies are discussed on the rational design and fabrication of functional materials with tubular structures. It is the intention of this contribution to provide a brief account of these research activities.

  17. Dark matter and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Masayuki

    1987-01-01

    We propose a hybrid model of universe for galaxy formation, that is, an Einstein- de Sitter universe dominated by two-component dark matter: massive neutrinos and cold dark matter. In this hybrid model, the first luminous objects are dwarf galaxies. The neutrino density fluctuations produce large-scale high density and low density regions, which consequently evolve to superclusters of galaxies and voids, respectively. Dwarf galaxies are formed preferentially in supercluster regions. In voids, the formation of dwarf galaxies is fairly suppressed by diffuse UV flux from QSOs, and instead a number of expanding clouds are born, which produce Lyα forest as seen in QSO spectra. Ordinary galaxies are expected to form as aggregations of dwarf galaxies. In this model, some galaxies are born also in voids, and they tend to evolve to spiral galaxies. Additionally, if the same number of globular clusters are formed in a dwarf, the specific globular cluster frequencies are expected to be much larger in ellipticals than in spirals. (author)

  18. Enthalpy of formation of zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Navrotsky, A.

    1992-01-01

    Using high-temperature solution calorimetry in molt 2PbO · B 2 O 3 , the enthalpy of reaction of the formation of zircon, ZrSiO 4 , from its constituent oxides has been determined: Δ 4 H 977 (ZrSiO 4 ) = -27.9 (±1.9) kJ/mol. With previously reported data for the heat contents of ZrO 2 SiO 2 and ZrSiO 4 and standard-state enthalpies of formation of ZrO 2 and SiO 2 , we obtain Δ f H 298 degrees. (ZrSiO 4 ) = -2034.2 (±3.1) kJ/mol and Δ t G 298 degrees (ZrSiO 4 ) = -1919.8 kJ/mol. The free energy value is in excellent agreement with a range previously estimated from solid-state reaction equilibria. At higher temperature also the data are in close agreement with existing data, though the data sets diverge somewhat with increasing T. In this paper the limitations of the data for predicting the breakdown temperature of zircon into its constituent oxides are discussed

  19. Factors Influencing New Business Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Oana Iacobuţă

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the creation of new businesses and to point out both the differences and the similarities existing between countries and groups of countries in terms of these influencing factors. We are mainly interested in the place Romania and Bulgaria have among the countries of the world from the perspective of entrepreneurial spirit and its influencing factors. To capture the level of business formation we use New business density from World Bank Doing business. Drawing on the existing literature we consider for our analysis several indicators related to economic environment such as GDP per capita, unemployment rate, inflation rate, the level of taxes, foreign direct investments and public debt and indicators describing the quality of governance. The research uses 2014 data for 67 countries, from all development categories, collected from Heritage Foundation database. The research results obtained with principal components analysis show that good governance results in higher levels of GDP per capita and income taxes and the increase of the level of business formation. Also, good governance leads to a decrease in inflation and unemployment. Furthermore, the hierarchical cluster analysis is used to identify groups of countries and to outline similarities and differences between them.

  20. Tube Formation in Nanoscale Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chenglin; Liu, Jun; Liu, Fei; Wu, Junshu; Gao, Kun; Xue, Dongfeng

    2008-12-01

    The formation of tubular nanostructures normally requires layered, anisotropic, or pseudo-layered crystal structures, while inorganic compounds typically do not possess such structures, inorganic nanotubes thus have been a hot topic in the past decade. In this article, we review recent research activities on nanotubes fabrication and focus on three novel synthetic strategies for generating nanotubes from inorganic materials that do not have a layered structure. Specifically, thermal oxidation method based on gas-solid reaction to porous CuO nanotubes has been successfully established, semiconductor ZnS and Nb(2)O(5) nanotubes have been prepared by employing sacrificial template strategy based on liquid-solid reaction, and an in situ template method has been developed for the preparation of ZnO taper tubes through a chemical etching reaction. We have described the nanotube formation processes and illustrated the detailed key factors during their growth. The proposed mechanisms are presented for nanotube fabrication and the important pioneering studies are discussed on the rational design and fabrication of functional materials with tubular structures. It is the intention of this contribution to provide a brief account of these research activities.

  1. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Computer simulation of bubble formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insepov, Z.; Bazhirov, T.; Norman, G.; Stegailov, V.

    2007-01-01

    Properties of liquid metals (Li, Pb, Na) containing nano-scale cavities were studied by atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD). Two atomistic models of cavity simulation were developed that cover a wide area in the phase diagram with negative pressure. In the first model, the thermodynamics of cavity formation, stability and the dynamics of cavity evolution in bulk liquid metals have been studied. Radial densities, pressures, surface tensions, and work functions of nano-scale cavities of various radii were calculated for liquid Li, Na, and Pb at various temperatures and densities, and at small negative pressures near the liquid-gas spinodal, and the work functions for cavity formation in liquid Li were calculated and compared with the available experimental data. The cavitation rate can further be obtained by using the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The second model is based on the stability study and on the kinetics of cavitation of the stretched liquid metals. A MD method was used to simulate cavitation in a metastable Pb and Li melts and determine the stability limits. States at temperatures below critical (T < 0.5 Tc) and large negative pressures were considered. The kinetic boundary of liquid phase stability was shown to be different from the spinodal. The kinetics and dynamics of cavitation were studied. The pressure dependences of cavitation frequencies were obtained for several temperatures. The results of MD calculations were compared with estimates based on classical nucleation theory. (authors)

  3. Planetesimal formation starts at the snow line

    OpenAIRE

    Drążkowska, J; Alibert, Y

    2017-01-01

    Context. The formation stage of planetesimals represents a major gap in our understanding of the planet formation process. Late-stage planet accretion models typically make arbitrary assumptions about planetesimal and pebble distribution, while dust evolution models predict that planetesimal formation is only possible at some orbital distances. Aims. We wish to test the importance of the water snow line in triggering the formation of the first planetesimals during the gas-rich phase of a p...

  4. Planetesimal formation starts at the snow line

    OpenAIRE

    Drazkowska, Joanna; Alibert, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Planetesimal formation stage represents a major gap in our understanding of the planet formation process. The late-stage planet accretion models typically make arbitrary assumptions about planetesimals and pebbles distribution while the dust evolution models predict that planetesimal formation is only possible at some orbital distances. We want to test the importance of water snow line for triggering formation of the first planetesimals during the gas-rich phase of protoplanetary disk, when c...

  5. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…

  6. Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxy Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    The formation of supermassive black holes (SMBH) is intimately related to galaxy formation, although precisely how remains a mystery. I speculate that formation of, and feedback from, SMBH may alleviate problems that have arisen in our understanding of the cores of dark halos of galaxies.

  7. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  8. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Halikova Je.A.; Ginijatullina D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  9. The void galaxy survey: Star formation properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beygu, B.; Kreckel, K.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Peletier, R.; van de Weygaert, R.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the star formation properties of 59 void galaxies as part of the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS). Current star formation rates are derived from H α and recent star formation rates from near-UV imaging. In addition, infrared 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer emission is

  10. Selective formation of tungsten nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bien Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a process for fabricating self-aligned tungsten (W nanowires with polycrystalline silicon core. Tungsten nanowires as thin as 10 nm were formed by utilizing polysilicon sidewall transfer technology followed by selective deposition of tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD using WF6 as the precursor. With selective CVD, the process is self-limiting whereby the tungsten formation is confined to the polysilicon regions; hence, the nanowires are formed without the need for lithography or for additional processing. The fabricated tungsten nanowires were observed to be perfectly aligned, showing 100% selectivity to polysilicon and can be made to be electrically isolated from one another. The electrical conductivity of the nanowires was characterized to determine the effect of its physical dimensions. The conductivity for the tungsten nanowires were found to be 40% higher when compared to doped polysilicon nanowires of similar dimensions.

  11. Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, R. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

  12. Restucturing the Project Work Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The chapter is based on an evaluation of a pedagogical experiment at Roskilde University, the Antology Experiment. The objective of the experiment was to develop and expand the framework for project work through the production of anthologies compiled collectively by a number of project groups. Th....... The organization was complex, the written product changed from project to article format, the students had to concentrate on working in their own project group as well as in the so-called clusters, and the form of exam was radically changed......The chapter is based on an evaluation of a pedagogical experiment at Roskilde University, the Antology Experiment. The objective of the experiment was to develop and expand the framework for project work through the production of anthologies compiled collectively by a number of project groups...

  13. The forensics of fulgurite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Pasek, Virginia D.

    2018-04-01

    Natural disasters such as forest fires can result in extensive and costly property damage. These events may be the result of a human error or system failure triggered by electrical discharge, and in such circumstances may form a fulgurite. Understanding fulgurites and their formation may be critical in determining the cause of the fire or other, shock-related event. Here we identify several distinguishing features of fulgurites formed in association with downed power lines, including the presence of melted conductors, transformation of quartz to cristobalite, and morphological differences including increased glass percentage and smaller internal voids. These features are consequences of how heat is transferred to and through a target rock material as it melts and forms a fulgurite, and are predicted from both first principles of diffusive heat transfer, and empirically-derived reaction kinetics for mineral transformations.

  14. The formation of postcolonial theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazare S. Rukundwa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to outline certain options and struggles, which gave rise to postcolonial theory. The author deals with various experiences of anti-slavery and anti-colonial movements in Western and tricontinental countries, comprising the development of postcolonial theory. It is argued that postcolonial theory provides a means of defiance by which any exploitative and discriminative practices, regardless of time and space, can be challenged. The article consists of a section in which terminology is clarified, secondly a discussion of the elements that functioned as justification of the formation of postcolonial theory, namely a humanitarian, economic, political, and religious justification. The role of feminism and anti-colonialism is discussed in the third instance, followed by a reflection on the concept “hybrid identities”.

  15. New Office Software course format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Always interested to anticipate your training needs, the Technical Training service is pleased to propose two new Office Software course formats : “Focus on... ” : On a monthly basis we will propose a theme such as “Sharepoint Collaboration Workspace” or “Word 2007” or “charts” etc. You will have to send us in advance your questions regarding the proposed topic and register for the course through our Training Catalogue. During the session, our trainer will answer all the questions received and participants will increase their knowledge thanks to the solutions discussed for everyone. The course will last two hours, from 09h00 to 11h00 - with open questions on the proposed topic at the end. “Office software Individual coaching”: If one or several particular topics cause you sleepless nights, you can get the help of our trainer who will come to your workplace for a multiple of 1-hour slots . All fields ...

  16. Cosmic setting for chondrule formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.J.; Scott, E.R.D.; Keil, K.

    1983-01-01

    Chondrules are igneous-textured, millimeter-sized, spherical to irregularly-shaped silicate objects which constitute the major component of most chondrites. There is agreement that chondrules were once molten. Models for chondrule origin can be divided into two categories. One involves a planetary setting, which envisages chondrules forming on the surfaces of parent bodies. Melting mechanisms include impact and volcanism. The other category is concerned with a cosmic setting in the solar nebula, prior to nebula formation. Aspects regarding the impact on planetary surfaces are considered, taking into account chondrule abundances, the abundancy of agglutinates on the moon, comminution, hypervelocity impact pits, questions of age, and chondrule compositions. Attention is also given to collisions during accretion, collisions between molten planetesimals, volcanism, and virtues of a nebular setting. 101 references

  17. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  18. Complexity of formation in holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Shira [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Marrochio, Hugo [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics & Astronomy and Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute,University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-01-16

    It was recently conjectured that the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state can be computed by evaluating the gravitational action on a bulk region known as the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We apply this complexity=action duality to evaluate the ‘complexity of formation’ (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.191301; 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.086006), i.e. the additional complexity arising in preparing the entangled thermofield double state with two copies of the boundary CFT compared to preparing the individual vacuum states of the two copies. We find that for boundary dimensions d>2, the difference in the complexities grows linearly with the thermal entropy at high temperatures. For the special case d=2, the complexity of formation is a fixed constant, independent of the temperature. We compare these results to those found using the complexity=volume duality.

  19. Thermal Behaviour of clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassoni, E.

    1985-01-01

    The programme carried out by ENEA to model the thermal-hydraulic-mechanical behaviour of the clay formations and to measure, in situ and in laboratory, the thermal properties of these rocks, is presented. An in situ heating experiment has been carried out in an open clay quarry in the area of Monterotondo, near Rome. The main goal of the experiment was to know the temperature field and the thermal effects caused by the high level radioactive waste disposed of in a clayey geological formation. The conclusions are as follows: - the thermal conduction codes are sufficiently accurate to forecast the temperature increases caused in the clay by the dissipation of the heat generated by high level radioactive waste; - the thermal conductivity deduced by means of the ''curve fitting'' method ranges from 0.015 to 0.017 W.cm -1 . 0 C -1 - the temperature variation associated with the transport of clay interstitial water caused by temperature gradient is negligible. A laboratory automated method has been designed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity in clay samples. A review of experimental data concerning thermomechanical effects in rocks as well as results of thermal experiments performed at ISMES on clays are presented. Negative thermal dilation has been found both in the elastic and plastic range under constant stress. Thermoplastic deformation appears ten times greater than the thermoelastic one. A mathematical model is proposed in order to simulate the above and other effects that encompass thermal-elastic-plastic-pore water pressure response of clays at high temperature and effective pressure with undrained and transient drainage conditions. Implementation of the two versions into a finite element computer code is described

  20. Bone formation in axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lories, Rik J; Haroon, Nigil

    2014-10-01

    The success of targeted therapies directed against tumor necrosis factor for patients with spondyloarthritis has shifted the focus of physicians and scientists towards the prevention of structural damage to the involved structures, in particular the sacroiliac joints and the spine, to avoid loss of function and disability. Structural damage to the skeleton as witnessed by radiography mainly consists of new bone formation potentially progressively leading to spine or joint ankylosis. This important long-term outcome parameter has been difficult to study, not alone because the time window for change may be long but also because human tissues with direct translational relevance are rarely available. Data from rodent models have identified growth factor signaling pathways as relevant targets. Both human and animal studies have tried to understand the link between inflammation and new bone formation. At the current moment, most evidence points towards a strong link between both but with the question still lingering about the sequence of events, disease triggers, and the interdependence of both features of disease. New discoveries such as a masterswitch T cell population that carries the IL23 receptor and the analysis of auto-antibodies directed again noggin and sclerostin are contributing to innovative insights into the pathophysiology of disease. Long-term data with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors also suggest that some window of opportunity may exist to inhibit structural disease progression. All these data provide support for a further critical analysis of the available datasets and boost research in the field. The introduction of novel disease definitions, in particular the characterization of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis patients, will likely be instrumental in our further understanding of structural damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Engram Formation in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Gebicke-Haerter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, engrams or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions.To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves a epigenetic changes, b altered neuronal activities and c changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP. However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal and a wave-like (glial computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular

  2. Uranium price formation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The modern uranium industry came into existence in 1946. Until 1966, its sole customer was the Atomic Energy Commission, whose needs for U 3 O 8 relative to industry capacity declined over the years. The development of the commercial market after 1965 coincided with a period of excess capacity and falling nominal and real prices. Gradually in 1973 and dramatically thereafter, market conditions changed and prices rose as utilities sought larger quantities of U 3 O 8 and longer term contracts. Questions about availability of long-run supplies were raised, given the known reserve base. The response of the supply of U 3 O 8 to incentives offered first by the AEC and later by the utilities in the context of new and developing market conventions is examined. The methodology used is microeconomic analysis, qualitatively applied to the history of price formation in the market. Because the study emphasizes the implications of the history of uranium price formation for forecasting supply response, the study presents many different kinds of data and evaluates their quality and appropriateness for forecasting. A simple, very-useful framework for analyzing the history of the market for U 3 O 8 was developed and used to describe supply responses in selected important periods of the industry's development. It is concluded that the response of supply of U 3 O 8 to rising prices or to expectations of demand growth has been impressively strong. The potential reserve inventory is large enough to meet the needs for nuclear power generation through the end of this century. The price necessary to induce producers to find and produce these reserves is uncertain, partly because of problems inherent in estimating long-run supply curves and partly because recent inflation has created major uncertainties about the cost of future supplies

  3. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  4. Translating mainframe computer data to spreadsheet format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnakis, T G

    1991-12-01

    The translation of mainframe-stored information in ASCII into spreadsheet format for use in Lotus 1-2-3 is explained. Details are presented on how to use the Data Parse command to create a translation template that tells Lotus 1-2-3 how to interpret a file written in ASCII. Lotus 1-2-3 can also translate some files in formats other than ASCII. It can translate files in the Data Interchange Format directly into its own format. Translating mainframe computer data into spreadsheet format is relatively simple and obviates the rekeying of those data.

  5. Improving the Formatting Tools of CDS Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    Caffaro, J; Pu Faltings, Pearl

    2006-01-01

    CDS Invenio is the web-based integrated digital library system developed at CERN. It is a strategical tool that supports the archival and open dissemination of documents produced by CERN researchers. This paper reports on my Master’s thesis work done on BibFormat, a module in CDS Invenio, which formats documents metadata. The goal of this project was to implement a completely new formatting module for CDS Invenio. In this report a strong emphasis is put on the user-centered design of the new BibFormat. The bibliographic formatting process and its requirements are discussed. The task analysis and its resulting interaction model are detailed. The document also shows the implemented user interface of BibFormat and gives the results of the user evaluation of this interface. Finally the results of a small usability study of the formats included in CDS Invenio are discussed.

  6. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling...... the listed requirements will ensure mitigating a number of risks of information loss. Thus WARC is the best choice for a package format in cases where these same risks are judged most important. Similar analysis will need to be carried out in cases where the requirements differ from the ones described here...

  7. Benzene formation in electronic cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Pankow

    Full Text Available The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" used to create "vaping" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG, glycerol (GL, benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine.Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM "pod" system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice, and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings. Benzene in the e-cigarette aerosols was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene formation was ND (not detected in the JUUL system. In the two tank systems benzene was found to form from propylene glycol (PG and glycerol (GL, and from the additives benzoic acid and benzaldehyde, especially at high power settings. With 50:50 PG+GL, for tank device 1 at 6W and 13W, the formed benzene concentrations were 1.9 and 750 μg/m3. For tank device 2, at 6W and 25W, the formed concentrations were ND and 1.8 μg/m3. With benzoic acid and benzaldehyde at ~10 mg/mL, for tank device 1, values at 13W were as high as 5000 μg/m3. For tank device 2 at 25W, all values were ≤~100 μg/m3. These values may be compared with what can be expected in a conventional (tobacco cigarette, namely 200,000 μg/m3. Thus, the risks from benzene will be lower from e-cigarettes than from conventional cigarettes. However, ambient benzene air concentrations in the U.S. have typically been 1 μg/m3, so that benzene has been named the largest single known cancer-risk air toxic in the U.S. For non-smokers, chronically repeated exposure to benzene from e-cigarettes at levels such as 100 or higher μg/m3 will not be of negligible risk.

  8. Benzene formation in electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F; Kim, Kilsun; McWhirter, Kevin J; Luo, Wentai; Escobedo, Jorge O; Strongin, Robert M; Duell, Anna K; Peyton, David H

    2017-01-01

    The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") used to create "vaping" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GL), benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine. Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM "pod" system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice), and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings. Benzene in the e-cigarette aerosols was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene formation was ND (not detected) in the JUUL system. In the two tank systems benzene was found to form from propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GL), and from the additives benzoic acid and benzaldehyde, especially at high power settings. With 50:50 PG+GL, for tank device 1 at 6W and 13W, the formed benzene concentrations were 1.9 and 750 μg/m3. For tank device 2, at 6W and 25W, the formed concentrations were ND and 1.8 μg/m3. With benzoic acid and benzaldehyde at ~10 mg/mL, for tank device 1, values at 13W were as high as 5000 μg/m3. For tank device 2 at 25W, all values were ≤~100 μg/m3. These values may be compared with what can be expected in a conventional (tobacco) cigarette, namely 200,000 μg/m3. Thus, the risks from benzene will be lower from e-cigarettes than from conventional cigarettes. However, ambient benzene air concentrations in the U.S. have typically been 1 μg/m3, so that benzene has been named the largest single known cancer-risk air toxic in the U.S. For non-smokers, chronically repeated exposure to benzene from e-cigarettes at levels such as 100 or higher μg/m3 will not be of negligible risk.

  9. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  10. String formation beyond leading colour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.

  11. Stages of neuronal network formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woiterski, Lydia; Claudepierre, Thomas; Luxenhofer, Robert; Jordan, Rainer; Käs, Josef A.

    2013-02-01

    Graph theoretical approaches have become a powerful tool for investigating the architecture and dynamics of complex networks. The topology of network graphs revealed small-world properties for very different real systems among these neuronal networks. In this study, we observed the early development of mouse retinal ganglion cell (RGC) networks in vitro using time-lapse video microscopy. By means of a time-resolved graph theoretical analysis of the connectivity, shortest path length and the edge length, we were able to discover the different stages during the network formation. Starting from single cells, at the first stage neurons connected to each other ending up in a network with maximum complexity. In the further course, we observed a simplification of the network which manifested in a change of relevant network parameters such as the minimization of the path length. Moreover, we found that RGC networks self-organized as small-world networks at both stages; however, the optimization occurred only in the second stage.

  12. New Office Software course format!

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Always keen to anticipate your  training needs, the Technical Training service is pleased to propose two new Office Software course formats: “Focus on... ”:  On a monthly basis we will propose a theme such as “Sharepoint Collaboration Workspace” or “Word 2007” or “charts”, etc.  You will be invited to send us in advance your questions regarding the proposed topic and register  for the course through our Training Catalogue. During the session, our trainer will answer all the questions received and participants will increase their knowledge thanks to the solutions discussed for everyone. The course will last two hours, from 9-00 to 11-00 a.m. - with open questions on the proposed topic at the end.   “Office software Individual coaching”: If one or more specific topics are causing you sleepless nights, you can get the help of our trainer who will ...

  13. New Office Software course format!

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Always keen to anticipate your  training needs, the Technical Training service is pleased to propose two new Office Software course formats: “Focus on... ”:  On a monthly basis we will propose a theme such as “Sharepoint Collaboration Workspace” or “Word 2007” or “charts”, etc.  You will be invited to send us in advance your questions regarding the proposed topic and register  for the course through our Training Catalogue. During the session, our trainer will answer all the questions received and participants will increase their knowledge thanks to the solutions discussed for everyone. The course will last two hours, from 9-00 to 11-00 a.m. - with open questions on the proposed topic at the end.   “Office software Individual coaching”: If one or more specific topics are causing you sleepless nights, you can get the help of our trainer who will ...

  14. Dispersal, settling and layer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, James R; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

    2011-07-01

    Motivated by examples in developmental biology and ecology, we develop a model for convection-dominated invasion of a spatial region by initially motile agents which are able to settle permanently. The motion of the motile agents and their rate of settling are affected by the local concentration of settled agents. The model can be formulated as a nonlinear partial differential equation for the time-integrated local concentration of the motile agents, from which the instantaneous density of settled agents and its long-time limit can be extracted. In the limit of zero diffusivity, the partial differential equation is of first order; for application-relevant initial and boundary-value problems, shocks arise in the time-integrated motile agent density, leading to delta-function components in the motile agent density. Furthermore, there are simple solutions for a model of successive layer formation. In addition some analytic results for a one-dimensional system with non-zero diffusivity can also be obtained. A case study, both with and without diffusion, is examined numerically. Some important predictions of the model are insensitive to the specific settling law used and the model offers insight into biological processes involving layered growth or overlapping generations of colonization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SPMHD simulations of Structure Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David J.; On, Alvina Y. L.; Wu, Kinwah; Kawata, Daisuke

    2018-02-01

    The intracluster medium of galaxy clusters is permeated by μ {G} magnetic fields. Observations with current and future facilities have the potential to illuminate the role of these magnetic fields play in the astrophysical processes of galaxy clusters. To obtain a greater understanding of how the initial seed fields evolve to the magnetic fields in the intracluster medium requires magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We critically assess the current Smoothed Particle Magneto-Hydrodynamics (SPMHD) schemes, especially highlighting the impact of a hyperbolic divergence cleaning scheme and artificial resistivity switch on the magnetic field evolution in cosmological simulations of the formation of a galaxy cluster using the N-body/SPMHD code GCMHD++. The impact and performance of the cleaning scheme and two different schemes for the artificial resistivity switch is demonstrated via idealized test cases and cosmological simulations. We demonstrate that the hyperbolic divergence cleaning scheme is effective at suppressing the growth of the numerical divergence error of the magnetic field and should be applied to any SPMHD simulation. Although the artificial resistivity is important in the strong field regime, it can suppress the growth of the magnetic field in the weak field regime, such as galaxy clusters. With sufficient resolution, simulations with divergence cleaning can reproduce observed magnetic fields. We conclude that the cleaning scheme alone is sufficient for galaxy cluster simulations, but our results indicate that the SPMHD scheme must be carefully chosen depending on the regime of the magnetic field.

  16. Formatting biopolymers using adjustable nanoconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Daniel; Shayegan, Marjan; Michaud, Francois; Henkin, Gil; Scott, Shane; Leslie, Sabrina

    Sensitive visualization and conformational control of long, delicate biopolymers present critical challenges to emerging biotechnologies and biophysical studies. Next-generation nanofluidic manipulation platforms strive to maintain the structural integrity of genomic DNA prior to analysis but can face challenges in device clogging, molecular breakage, and single-label detection. We address these challenges by integrating the Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) technique with a suite of nanotopographies embedded within thin-glass nanofluidic chambers. We gently load DNA polymers into open-face nanogrooves in linear, concentric circular, and ring array formats and perform imaging with single-fluorophore sensitivity. We use ring-shaped nanogrooves to access and visualize confinement-enhanced self-ligation of long DNA polymers. We use concentric circular nanogrooves to enable hour-long observations of polymers at constant confinement in a geometry which eliminates the confinement gradient which causes drift and can alter molecular conformations and interactions. Taken together, this work opens doors to myriad biophysical studies and biotechnologies which operate on the nanoscale.

  17. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, D.A.; Lawson, M.; Davis, C.L.; Ferreira, A.A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, G.S.; Lewan, M.D.; Martini, Anna M.; Tang, Y.; Schoell, M.; Sessions, A.L.; Eiler, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a “clumped isotope” technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yield formation temperatures consistent with their comparatively lower-temperature formational environments (<50°C). In systems where gases have migrated and other proxies for gas-generation temperature yield ambiguous results, methane clumped-isotope temperatures distinguish among and allow for independent tests of possible gas-formation models.

  18. Decentralized Control for Scalable Quadcopter Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative framework has been developed for teamwork of two quadcopter formations, each having its specified formation geometry, assigned task, and matching control scheme. Position control for quadcopters in one of the formations has been implemented through a Linear Quadratic Regulator Proportional Integral (LQR PI control scheme based on explicit model following scheme. Quadcopters in the other formation are controlled through LQR PI servomechanism control scheme. These two control schemes are compared in terms of their performance and control effort. Both formations are commanded by respective ground stations through virtual leaders. Quadcopters in formations are able to track desired trajectories as well as hovering at desired points for selected time duration. In case of communication loss between ground station and any of the quadcopters, the neighboring quadcopter provides the command data, received from the ground station, to the affected unit. Proposed control schemes have been validated through extensive simulations using MATLAB®/Simulink® that provided favorable results.

  19. Role of domain in pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seirin-Lee, Sungrim

    2017-06-01

    Pattern formation during development is one of the elegant self-organized phenomena that allow cells to regulate their functions. At all levels, from DNA to a tissue or organ, many developmental processes include the determination of cellular functions through pattern formation. To elucidate the mechanism underlying pattern formation, numerous mathematical models have been developed and applied. However, model simplification has resulted in the role of domains not being seriously considered in pattern formation. Here, we introduce a novel application of the phase-field method for analysis of chromatin dynamics, and a mathematical approach that includes domain information into a biochemical model of pattern formation. Using this new modeling method, here, we consider the role of nuclear and cellular cell shapes on pattern formation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  20. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  1. Formation and behaviour of organic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.; Koukkar, P.; Karjunen, T.; Sjoevall, H.

    2002-01-01

    The report presents experimental studies on the formation of organic iodine in severe reactor accidents. The analyses were performed to evaluate the amount of alkaline chemical needed for effective pH control of containment water during the accidents. The formation of organic iodine in solutions used in the filtered venting system and the absorption of iodine compounds in the solutions were studied. Experiments for the formation of organic iodine on painted surfaces were also performed. (au)

  2. Common communication format for bibliographic data exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gove, N.B.; Hughes, T.E.; Matiushin, G.D.; Turtanov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    Development of a format for use in the exchange of machine-readable bibliographic information between the USA and the USSR is discussed. ISO standards will be used, where relevant, for carrier format and character codes. Extensions to UNIMARC have been proposed for content designators to accommodate the needs of abstracting and indexing services. A common listing format, including a transliteration scheme, has been developed for test and check purposes.

  3. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This review has been made preliminary for the purpose of contribute to the plasma heating by ''negative ion based neutral beam injection'' in the magnetic confinement fusion reactor. A compilation includes the survey of the general processes of negative ion formation, the data of the cross section of H - ion formation and the neutralization of H - ion, and some of new processes of H - ion formation. The data of cross section are mainly experimental, but partly include the results of theoretical calculation. (author)

  4. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II.

    1984-03-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10 4 years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  5. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  6. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX; Marino, Marian [Houston, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Dombrowski, Robert James [Houston, TX; Jaiswal, Namit [Houston, TX

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  7. Is molecular gas necessary for star formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.

    2012-03-01

    On galactic scales, the surface density of star formation appears to be well correlated with the surface density of molecular gas. This has led many authors to suggest that there exists a causal relationship between the chemical state of the gas and its ability to form stars - in other words, the assumption that the gas must be molecular before star formation can occur. We test this hypothesis by modelling star formation within a dense cloud of gas with properties similar to a small molecular cloud using a series of different models of the chemistry, ranging from one in which the formation of molecules is not followed and the gas is assumed to remain atomic throughout, to one that tracks the formation of both H2 and CO. We find that the presence of molecules in the gas has little effect on the ability of the gas to form stars: star formation can occur just as easily in atomic gas as in molecular gas. At low densities (makeup, we find that the most important factor controlling the rate of star formation is the ability of the gas to shield itself from the interstellar radiation field. As this is also a prerequisite for the survival of molecules within the gas, our results support a picture in which molecule formation and the formation of cold gas are both correlated with the column density of the cloud - and thus its ability to shield itself - rather than being directly correlated with each other.

  8. An anti vimentin antibody promotes tube formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias Lindh; Møller, Carina Kjeldahl; Rasmussen, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    antibody technology, promotes tube formation of endothelial cells in a 2D matrigel assay. By binding vimentin, the antibody increases the tube formation by 21% after 5 hours of incubation. Addition of the antibody directly to cultured endothelial cells does not influence endothelial cell migration...... or proliferation. The enhanced tube formation can be seen for up to 10 hours where after the effect decreases. It is shown that the antibody-binding site is located on the coil 2 domain of vimentin. To our knowledge this is the first study that demonstrates an enhanced tube formation by binding vimentin in a 2D...

  9. Cellular chain formation in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on a novel structural phenotype in Escherichia coli biofilms: cellular chain formation. Biofilm chaining in E. coli K-12 was found to occur primarily by clonal expansion, but was not due to filamentous growth. Rather, chain formation was the result of intercellular......; type I fimbriae expression significantly reduced cellular chain formation, presumably by steric hindrance. Cellular chain formation did not appear to be specific to E coli K-12. Although many urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates were found to form rather homogeneous, flat biofilms, three isolates...

  10. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt T.O.B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets (TEPs observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs, the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger when young or accretion growth (being smaller when young. We present a survey, the main goal of which is to find and then characterise TEPs in very young open clusters.

  11. Star formation inside a galactic outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, R; Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Carniani, S; Gallagher, R; Cazzoli, S; Arribas, S; Belfiore, F; Bellocchi, E; Colina, L; Cresci, G; Ishibashi, W; Marconi, A; Mannucci, F; Oliva, E; Sturm, E

    2017-04-13

    Recent observations have revealed massive galactic molecular outflows that may have the physical conditions (high gas densities) required to form stars. Indeed, several recent models predict that such massive outflows may ignite star formation within the outflow itself. This star-formation mode, in which stars form with high radial velocities, could contribute to the morphological evolution of galaxies, to the evolution in size and velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component of galaxies, and would contribute to the population of high-velocity stars, which could even escape the galaxy. Such star formation could provide in situ chemical enrichment of the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium (through supernova explosions of young stars on large orbits), and some models also predict it to contribute substantially to the star-formation rate observed in distant galaxies. Although there exists observational evidence for star formation triggered by outflows or jets into their host galaxy, as a consequence of gas compression, evidence for star formation occurring within galactic outflows is still missing. Here we report spectroscopic observations that unambiguously reveal star formation occurring in a galactic outflow at a redshift of 0.0448. The inferred star-formation rate in the outflow is larger than 15 solar masses per year. Star formation may also be occurring in other galactic outflows, but may have been missed by previous observations owing to the lack of adequate diagnostics.

  12. New Particle Formation Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN; McMurry, PH [University of Minnesota

    2015-01-01

    The scientific foci of the New Particle Formation Study were the formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols and the impacts of newly formed particles on cloud processes. Specifically, we planned to: (1) to identify the species and mechanisms responsible for the initial steps of new particle formation, i.e., the formation of thermodynamically stable clusters; (2) investigate the role of acid-base chemistry in new particle growth through measurements of ammonia and amines as well as organic and inorganic acids in both atmospheric nanoparticles and the gas phase; (3) investigate the contribution of other surface area or volume-controlled processes to nanoparticle formation and growth; (4) create a comprehensive dataset related to new particle formation and growth that can be used as input for our own thermodynamic models as well as the modeling efforts by our Department of Energy (DOE) Aerosol Life Cycle working group collaborators; (5) characterize the increase of the number and activity of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) due to particle formation and growth; (6) determine the regional extent of new particle formation to address the role that atmospheric transport plays in determining the impacts, if any, of new particle formation on cloud number and properties.

  13. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford M.T. II

    1984-03-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of the observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding inter-cloud gas flows leading to non-linear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an intially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in congruent to 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ years and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several UCHII regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multiple dimensional calculations of coupled processes. The important non-linear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields.

  14. Formation of the giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions

  15. STAR FORMATION IN 30 DORADUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Spezzi, Loredana; Sirianni, Marco; Andersen, Morten; Paresce, Francesco; Panagia, Nino; Mutchler, Max; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard; Beccari, Giacomo; Balick, Bruce; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Calzetti, Daniela; Marcella Carollo, C.; Disney, Michael J.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Using observations obtained with the Wide-Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have studied the properties of the stellar populations in the central regions of 30 Dor in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations clearly reveal the presence of considerable differential extinction across the field. We characterize and quantify this effect using young massive main-sequence stars to derive a statistical reddening correction for most objects in the field. We then search for pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars by looking for objects with a strong (>4σ) Hα excess emission and find about 1150 of them over the entire field. Comparison of their location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with theoretical PMS evolutionary tracks for the appropriate metallicity reveals that about one-third of these objects are younger than ∼4 Myr, compatible with the age of the massive stars in the central ionizing cluster R 136, whereas the rest have ages up to ∼30 Myr, with a median age of ∼12 Myr. This indicates that star formation has proceeded over an extended period of time, although we cannot discriminate between an extended episode and a series of short and frequent bursts that are not resolved in time. While the younger PMS population preferentially occupies the central regions of the cluster, older PMS objects are more uniformly distributed across the field and are remarkably few at the very center of the cluster. We attribute this latter effect to photo-evaporation of the older circumstellar disks caused by the massive ionizing members of R 136.

  16. A Decentralized Approach to Formation Flight Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.G.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.; Verhagen, C.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an optimization-based cooperative planning system for the efficient routing and scheduling of flight formations. This study considers the use of formation flight as a means to reduce the overall fuel consumption of civil aviation in long-haul operations. It

  17. Distributed formation control for autonomous robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina Peinado, Hector Jesús

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses several theoretical and practical problems related to formation-control of autonomous robots. Formation-control aims to simultaneously accomplish the tasks of forming a desired shape by the robots and controlling their coordinated collective motion. This kind of robot

  18. Pedagogical Formation Education via Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Deniz; Genc, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the perceptions of the efficacy of curriculum development on the part of pedagogical formation students, their views regarding their professional attitudes, and their attitudes towards the pedagogical formation education they receive via distance education. The study sample includes 438 Near East…

  19. The early ISM and galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Current ideas about galaxy formation are reviewed, with particular attention to when and how it occurred, and what it might have looked like. It is argued that galaxy formation is more recent than originally predicted. Suggestions are presented as to how current observations of distant objects may be interpreted within the cold dark matter theory for the origin of structure.

  20. An introduction to the ENDF formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The ENDF Evaluated Nuclear Data Formats are used all over the world to encode nuclear data evaluations for use in research and nuclear technology. These lectures provide an introduction to the formats and how they are used in modern compilations of nuclear data. The introduction is also available on line, including more details and exercises. (author)

  1. Formative Assessment in the High School IMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Valerie A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how she uses formative assessments of information literacy skills in the high school IMC. As a result of informal observation and conversations with individual students--a form of formative assessment itself--the author learned that students were not using indexes to locate relevant information in nonfiction…

  2. On partially saturated formations of finite groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester-Bolinches, Adolfo; Calvo, Clara; Shemetkov, L A

    2007-01-01

    Various types of partially saturated formations and connections between them are considered. It is shown that partially saturated formations can be characterized as classes of finite groups with generalized central series. A theorem on the decomposition of an FG-module into a sum of two submodules with special properties is proved. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  3. Unit Monitors Manchester-Format Data Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit card converts data signals into convenient hexadecimal form for troubleshooting. Bus-monitoring unit converts data signals from Manchester II format used on data bus into hexadecimal format. Monitoring circuit causes hexadecimal words to display on video terminal, where test engineer compares them with hexadecimal records for troubleshooting. Circuit monitors one bus or two buses simultaneously.

  4. A Comparison of Conjoint Analysis Response Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin J. Boyle; Thomas P. Holmes; Mario F. Teisl; Brian Roe

    2001-01-01

    A split-sample design is used to evaluate the convergent validity of three response formats used in conjoint analysis experiments. WC investigate whether recoding rating data to rankings and choose-one formats, and recoding ranking data to choose one. result in structural models and welfare estimates that are statistically indistinguishable from...

  5. Implementation of Formative Assessment in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Elaina; Gilbreth, Stephen G.; Wynn, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    This report details the work defined by a doctoral team looking at the literacy and implementation of formative assessment in classrooms in Southwest Missouri. The mission of this project was to identify the formative assessment literacy levels and the degree of classroom implementation of these strategies in districts and the resulting…

  6. Combinations of partners’ joint venture formation motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, E.; Reuer, J.J.; Buckley, P.J.; Glaister, K.W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Prior research on joint venture (JV) formation often examines a single focal firm and assumes it has a single motive for collaboration. This study seeks to investigate how formation motives of partner firms are symmetrically coupled. It considers motives in the context of different

  7. Identity formation in the New Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Cromhout

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the book entitled Identity Formation in the New Testament (edited by Bengt Holmberg and Mikael Winninge, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2008. It is a collection of various articles using intertextuality, literary theory (and social identity approaches, gender studies and postcolonial theory when investigating identity formation in the New Testament.

  8. General certification procedure of formation organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the procedure dealing with the certification of formation organizations dispensing the formation and the risks prevention to the personnel of A or B category in nuclear facilities. This certification proves the organization ability to satisfy the ''F'' specification of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  9. Gas-Phase Infrared; JCAMP Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 35 NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared; JCAMP Format (PC database for purchase)   This data collection contains 5,228 infrared spectra in the JCAMP-DX (Joint Committee for Atomic and Molecular Physical Data "Data Exchange") format.

  10. Enhancing the Lecture: Revitalizing the Traditional Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonwell, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    The traditional lecture format of college courses can be enhanced by including active learning designed to further course goals of learning knowledge, developing skills, or fostering attitudes. Techniques suggested include using pauses, short writing periods, think-pair-share activities, formative quizzes, lecture summaries, and several assessment…

  11. Designing K-2 Formative Assessment Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristen E.; Goldenberg, E. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students' achievements of intended instructional outcomes. Formative assessment means assessment embedded in instruction. That definition was adopted in 2006 by the Council of Chief State…

  12. Computer-based feedback in formative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kleij, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Formative assessment concerns any assessment that provides feedback that is intended to support learning and can be used by teachers and/or students. Computers could offer a solution to overcoming obstacles encountered in implementing formative assessment. For example, computer-based assessments

  13. Salicylic acid electrooxidation. A surface film formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baturova, M.D.; Vedenjapin, A.; Baturova, M.M. [N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Weichgrebe, D.; Danilova, E.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Univ. of Hannover, Inst. of Water Quality and Waste Management Hannover (Germany); Skundin, A. [A.N. Frumkin Inst. of Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    A possibility to use electrochemical treatment for salicylic acid (SA) removal from waste water was studied. It was found that SA can be oxidized at platinum anode with formation of harmless products. Features of anodic process, in particular, formation of solid film on anode surface as well as properties of the film were investigated. (orig.)

  14. Teacher perspectives about using formative assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry; Clesham, Rose; Dolin, Jens

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines three different classroom teacher perspectives when using ASSIST-ME project formative assessment methods as described in the introductory chapter. The first ‘teacher perspective’ is about changes in teacher self-efficacies while using formative assessment methods as monitored...... by a pre- and post-teacher questionnaire. Teachers who tried the unfamiliar formative methods of assessment (see introductory book chapter for these methods) as well as their colleagues who did not were surveyed. The second ‘teacher perspective’ examines changes in teachers’ subjective theories while...... trying project-specific formative assessment methods in Czech Republic. Analyses are done through case studies and interviews. The final part of the chapter looks at teacher perspectives while using an Internet-based application to facilitate formative assessment. The teacher use of the application...

  15. Analysis of constituents of earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.; Grau, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of an earth formation is investigated by repetitively irradiating the formation with bursts of neutrons from a source and measuring an energy spectrum of the scattering gamma rays resulting from such irradiation e.g. by photomultiplier or solid state detector. The measured spectrum is thereafter analyzed by comparing it with a composite spectrum, made up of standard spectra, measured in a controlled environment, of constituents postulated to comprise the formation. As a result of such analysis, the proportions of the postulated constituents in the formation are determined. Since the measured spectrum is subject to degradation due to changes in the resolution of the detector, a filtering arrangement effects modification of the standard spectra in a manner which compensates for the changes in the detector and thereby provides for a more accurate determination of the constituents of the formation. Temperature is measured by sensor to compensate for temperature dependence of detector resolution. (author)

  16. XML-based DICOM data format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cong; Yao, Zhihong

    2010-04-01

    To enhance the readability, improve the structure, and facilitate the sharing of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) files, this research proposed one kind of XML-based DICOM data format. Because XML Schema offers great flexibility for expressing constraints on the content model of elements, we used it to describe the new format, thus making it consistent with the one originally defined by DICOM. Meanwhile, such schemas can be used in the creation and validation of the XML-encoded DICOM files, acting as a standard for data transmission and sharing on the Web. Upon defining the new data format, we started with representing a single data element and further improved the whole data structure with the method of modularization. In contrast to the original format, the new one possesses better structure without loss of related information. In addition, we demonstrated the application of XSLT and XQuery. All of the advantages mentioned above resulted from this new data format.

  17. Anther Wall Formation in Solanaceae Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARRIZO GARCÍA, CAROLINA

    2002-01-01

    Anther wall formation was studied in 32 species belonging to 27 genera of Solanaceae. Dicotyledonous and basic types of wall formation were observed, as well as several deviations due to subsequent periclinal divisions in the layers formed (middle layers and sometimes the endothecium). One type of wall formation was observed in each species. Some genera are uniform in their type of wall formation, while others are heterogeneous; a similar situation was observed at the tribal level. Summarizing all reported information on anther wall formation in the Solanaceae, 64 % of species show the basic type, while the remaining 36 % show the dicotyledonous type. Thus, neither type predominates, and no single type characterizes genera, tribes or the entire family. PMID:12451025

  18. Network Configuration Analysis for Formation Flying Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblock, Eric J.; Wallett, Thomas M.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of two networks to support autonomous multi-spacecraft formation flying systems is presented. Both systems are comprised of a ten-satellite formation, with one of the satellites designated as the central or 'mother ship.' All data is routed through the mother ship to the terrestrial network. The first system uses a TCP/EP over ATM protocol architecture within the formation, and the second system uses the IEEE 802.11 protocol architecture within the formation. The simulations consist of file transfers using either the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or the Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) Protocol. The results compare the IP queuing delay, IP queue size and IP processing delay at the mother ship as well as end-to-end delay for both systems. In all cases, using IEEE 802.11 within the formation yields less delay. Also, the throughput exhibited by SAFE is better than FTP.

  19. Managed Group Formation: An Approach to Team Formation in Policy Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Reed E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Managed group formation uses student personal value data and sociometric nomination to optimize the influence of work group formation on student learning. Resulting work group formations are used to enhance the effectiveness of traditional course content and to increase students' sensitization to important group process issues in business policy.…

  20. Influence of fluorosurfactants on hydrate formation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.U.; Jeong, K.E.; Chae, H.J.; Jeong, S.Y. [Korea Reasearch Inst. of Chemical Technology, Alternative Chemicals/Fuel Research Center, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates, or clathrates, are ice-like solids that forms when natural gas is in contact with liquid water or ice under high pressure and low temperature. There is significant interest in studying the storage and transportation of gas in the form of hydrates. However, a critical problem impacting the industrial application of gas hydrates for storage and transportation of natural gas is the slow formation rate of natural gas hydrate. Researchers have previously reported on the promotion effect of some additives on gas hydrate formation and hydrate gas content. Fluorosurfactants are significantly superior to nonfluorinated surfactants in wetting action, as well as stability in harsh environments, both thermal and chemical. This paper discussed an experimental investigation into the effects of fluorosurfactants with different ionic types on the formation of methane hydrate. The surfactants used were FSN-100 of DuPont Zonyl as non-ionic surfactant and FC-143 of DuPont as anionic surfactant. The paper discussed the experimental apparatus for methane hydrate formation. It also discussed hydrate formation kinetics and the series of hydrate formation experiments that were conducted in the presence of fluorosurfactants. Last, the paper explored the results of the study. It was concluded that anionic fluorosurfactant of FC-143 had a better promoting effect on methane hydrate formation compared with nonionic surfactant of FSN-100. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Engagements du sujet en formation professionnelle universitaire : dynamiques psychosociales des formateurs en formation DUFRES

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssières, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Les universités proposent des formations aux formateurs d'adultes. Nous présentons ici une recherche à propos de l'engagement en formation universitaire, effectuée à partir d'une analyse documentaire d'un panel d'écrits de 51 formateurs en début de formation DUFRES à l'Université Toulouse-le Mirail : formation continue s'adressant à des formateurs désirant accéder au titre de Responsable d'Actions de Formation. Notre problématique, de nature psychosociale, s'appuie sur une définition duale du...

  2. Planetesimal formation starts at the snow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drążkowska, J.; Alibert, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The formation stage of planetesimals represents a major gap in our understanding of the planet formation process. Late-stage planet accretion models typically make arbitrary assumptions about planetesimal and pebble distribution, while dust evolution models predict that planetesimal formation is only possible at some orbital distances. Aims: We wish to test the importance of the water snow line in triggering the formation of the first planetesimals during the gas-rich phase of a protoplanetary disk, when cores of giant planets have to form. Methods: We connected prescriptions for gas disk evolution, dust growth and fragmentation, water ice evaporation and recondensation, the transport of both solids and water vapor, and planetesimal formation via streaming instability into a single one-dimensional model for protoplanetary disk evolution. Results: We find that processes taking place around the snow line facilitate planetesimal formation in two ways. First, because the sticking properties between wet and dry aggregates change, a "traffic jam" inside of the snow line slows the fall of solids onto the star. Second, ice evaporation and outward diffusion of water followed by its recondensation increases the abundance of icy pebbles that trigger planetesimal formation via streaming instability just outside of the snow line. Conclusions: Planetesimal formation is hindered by growth barriers and radial drift and thus requires particular conditions to take place. The snow line is a favorable location where planetesimal formation is possible for a wide range of conditions, but not in every protoplanetary disk model, however. This process is particularly promoted in large cool disks with low intrinsic turbulence and an increased initial dust-to-gas ratio. The movie attached to Fig. 3 is only available at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Star-Formation Histories of MUSCEL Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jason; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Xuesong Wang, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    The MUSCEL program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies) uses combined ground-based/space-based data to determine the spatially resolved star-formation histories of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. LSB galaxies are paradoxical in that they are gas rich but have low star-formation rates. Here we present our observations and fitting technique, and the derived histories for select MUSCEL galaxies. It is our aim to use these histories in tandem with velocity fields and metallicity profiles to determine the physical mechanism(s) that give these faint galaxies low star-formation rates despite ample gas supplies.

  4. Carbon nanotube formation by laser direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Su, H.-C.; Tsai, C.-M.; Liu, K.-L.; Chen, G.-D.; Huang, R.-H.; Yew, T.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents carbon nanotube (CNT) formation by laser direct writing using 248 nm KrF excimer pulsed laser in air at room temperature, which was applied to irradiate amorphous carbon (a-C) assisted by Ni catalysts underneath for the transformation of carbon species into CNTs. The CNTs were synthesized under appropriate combination of laser energy density and a-C thickness. The growth mechanism and key parameters to determine the success of CNT formation were also discussed. The demonstration of the CNT growth by laser direct writing in air at room temperature opens an opportunity of in-position CNT formation at low temperatures

  5. Formation of nuclear security culture in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilyuk, V.Yi.; Gavrilyuk-Burakova, A.V.; Drapej, S.S.; Parkhomenko, V.V.; Proskuryin, D.V.; Romanova, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Issues of nuclear security culture formation are considered in the article. Information on establishing and activity of Working Group for formation and development of nuclear security culture being held during 2010 - 2013 is given. An issue of regulation of activity on formation and development of nuclear security culture is illustrated. Analysis of the survey results regarding efficiency assessment of the work aimed to form and develop of nuclear security culture of nuclear facilities is carried out. The results show that the nuclear security culture of the most of nuclear facilities in Ukraine has been formed and is at the stage of development

  6. Leader-Follower Formation Control for Quadrotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Falin; Chen, Jiemin; Liang, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Quadrotors are gaining an increasing interest in public and extensively explored in recent years. In many situations, a team of quadrotors is desired to operate in a certain shape, which is also called formation. In this paper, a linear PID controller is used to control each single quadrotor and a slide mode controller is adopted to solve the formation flying problem which employs the leader-follower structure. The formation simulations are run in the Matlab/Simulink environment to evaluate the performance of control laws.

  7. Extrasolar planets formation, detection and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    This latest, up-to-date resource for research on extrasolar planets covers formation, dynamics, atmospheres and detection. After a look at the formation of giant planets, the book goes on to discuss the formation and dynamics of planets in resonances, planets in double stars, atmospheres and habitable zones, detection via spectra and transits, and the history and prospects of ESPs as well as satellite projects.Edited by a renowned expert in solar system dynamics with chapters written by the leading experts in the method described -- from the US and Europe -- this is an ideal textbook for g

  8. Emissions and dioxins formation from waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes current knowledge on dioxins formation and emission from waste incinerators. The pertinent Italian law and effects on man health are dealt with, too. The picture of existing municipal incinerators is presented concerning both the actual emission levels and the monitored levels in the environment. Sampling and analysis systems of these organic chlorinated micro-pollutants and current theories on precursors, formation mechanisms, and influence of different parameters are also described. The last section deals with some of the techniques that can be used to reduce dioxins formation and emission from municipal incinerators. (author)

  9. Nuclear heating of oil-bearing formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alspaw, D.I.

    1981-01-01

    The invention reported consists of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel to obtain fission products which are packaged and emplaced in salt water underlying viscous oil formations. The heat generated is transferred to the oil formation by convection and the viscosity of the oil is decreased enabling recovery from a productioon well. Improvement over prior art consists in emplacing the fission-product packages in the water formation, hence preventing charring of the oil near the heat source. If charring does occur, recovery of petroleum becomes even more difficult than prior to the application of heat. (O.T.)

  10. Exploring the value of usability feedback formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    presented using five feedback formats. Our usability findings comprise 35 problems and 5 positive comments. Data suggest that feedback serves multiple purposes. Initially, feedback must convince developers about the relevance of a problem and convey an understanding of this. Feedback must next be easy...... working with the feedback to address the usability problems, there were no significant differences among the developers' ratings of the value of the different formats. This suggests that all of the formats may serve equally well as reminders in later stages of working with usability problems...

  11. Binary Modulation Formats in Optical Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tejkal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the binary modulation formats and their application in passive optical networks have been discussed. Passive optical networks are characterized by dividing the optical signal between several end users by using passive splitters, which added a significant attenuation to the network. The performance of the selected modulation formats, depending on the transmitter power in order to verify that there is no signal distortion, has been examined in our simulations. A minimal error rate of the system for each modulation format has been also examined. Finding a suitable modulation, which would allow extension of the distance and splitting ration in current passive optical networks, has been the main aim.

  12. Ejection of iron-bearing giant-impact fragments and the dynamical and geochemical influence of the fragment re-accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genda, Hidenori; Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Takanori; Ueno, Yuichiro; Ikoma, Masahiro

    2017-07-01

    The Earth was born in violence. Many giant collisions of protoplanets are thought to have occurred during the terrestrial planet formation. Here we investigated the giant impact stage by using a hybrid code that consistently deals with the orbital evolution of protoplanets around the Sun and the details of processes during giant impacts between two protoplanets. A significant amount of materials (up to several tens of percent of the total mass of the protoplanets) is ejected by giant impacts. We call these ejected fragments the giant-impact fragments (GIFs). In some of the erosive hit-and-run and high-velocity collisions, metallic iron is also ejected, which comes from the colliding protoplanets' cores. From ten numerical simulations for the giant impact stage, we found that the mass fraction of metallic iron in GIFs ranges from ∼1 wt% to ∼25 wt%. We also discussed the effects of the GIFs on the dynamical and geochemical characteristics of formed terrestrial planets. We found that the GIFs have the potential to solve the following dynamical and geochemical conflicts: (1) The Earth, currently in a near circular orbit, is likely to have had a highly eccentric orbit during the giant impact stage. The GIFs are large enough in total mass to lower the eccentricity of the Earth to its current value via their dynamical friction. (2) The concentrations of highly siderophile elements (HSEs) in the Earth's mantle are greater than what was predicted experimentally. Re-accretion of the iron-bearing GIFs onto the Earth can contribute to the excess of HSEs. In addition, Iron-bearing GIFs provide significant reducing agent that could transform primitive CO2-H2O atmosphere and ocean into more reducing H2-bearing atmosphere. Thus, GIFs are important for the origin of Earth's life and its early evolution.

  13. Fire whirlwind formation over flat terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; Gerald H. Updike

    1971-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that lead to the genesis of fire whirlwinds over flat terrain. Also presented is an estimate of the number of days one might expect to encounter meteorological conditions that permit such formations.

  14. Stochastic Models of Molecule Formation on Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven; Wirstroem, Eva

    2011-01-01

    We will present new theoretical models for the formation of molecules on dust. The growth of ice mantles and their layered structure is accounted for and compared directly to observations through simulation of the expected ice absorption spectra

  15. Volume Hologram Formation in SU-8 Photoresist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the mechanism of volume hologram formation in photosensitive polymers, light-induced material response is analyzed in commonly used epoxy-based negative photoresist Epon SU-8. For this purpose, time-resolved investigation of volume holographic grating growth is performed in the SU-8 based host–guest system and in the pure SU-8 material, respectively. The comparison of grating growth curves from doped and undoped system allows us to draw conclusions on the impact of individual components on the grating formation process. The successive formation of transient absorption as well as phase gratings in SU-8 is observed. Influence of exposure duration and UV flood cure on the grating growth are investigated. Observed volume holographic grating formation in SU-8 can be explained based on the generation and subsequent diffusion of photoacid as well as time-delayed polymerization of exposed and unexposed areas.

  16. MP3 the meaning of a format

    CERN Document Server

    Sterne, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Jonathan Sterne shows that understanding the historical meaning of the MP3, the world's most common format for recorded audio, involves rethinking the place of digital technologies in the broader universe of twentieth-century communication history.

  17. Simulating Precambrian banded iron formation diagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R.; K??hler, Inga; D. Swanner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Post-depositional diagenetic alteration makes the accurate interpretation of key precipitation processes in ancient sediments, such as Precambrian banded iron formations (BIFs), difficult. While microorganisms are proposed as key contributors to BIF deposition, the diagenetic transformation...

  18. Physics of star formation in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, F

    2002-01-01

    Begining with a historical introduction, ""Star Formation: The Early History"", this text then presents two long articles on ""Pre-Main-Sequence Evolution of Stars and Young Clusters"" and ""Observations of Young Stellar Objects"".

  19. Optimized Lift for Autonomous Formation Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental in-flight evaluations have demonstrated that the concept of formation flight can reduce fuel consumption of trailing aircraft by 10 percent. Armstrong...

  20. Septum formation of the lateral ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Hakan H.; Aldur, Mustafa M.; Tatar, I.; Tascioglu, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    In an MRI study examining anomalies of the septum pellucidum in 505 cases, we detected bilateral septum formation of the lateral ventricles in a 17-months-old-baby. In this study, we evaluate 505 (242 males and 263 females) patients referred to the Emaray Imaging Center, Ankara, Turkey with various prediagnoses. We specially selected all the cases from a non-psychotic population. We obtained MRI scans on a 1-Tesla imager (Picker International, Highland Heights, Ohio, USA), with slices of 5 and 6 mm thickness. In the axial and coronal sections, we observed septum formation laterally between the anterior horn and the ventricular body of the lateral ventricles. Radio opaque septum formations started from the caudate nucleus and stretched to the genu of the corpus callosum. There was a second septum formation between the posterior horn and the ventricular body of the right lateral ventricle. It started from the caudate nucleus and stretched to the cavum vergae. (author)

  1. The formation of citizens: the pediatrician's role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dioclécio Campos Júnior

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: In the light of the disclosed scientific evidence, the pediatrician emerges as the most differentiated professional to provide preventive and curative care indispensable to the skilled formation of a healthy citizen.

  2. Bauxite formation on Proterozoic bedrock of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsels, Dewany A.; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    Lateritic bauxite deposits in Suriname rest on a variety of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary parent rocks. Remnants of multiple planation surfaces with duricrusts that mark the tropical landscape are associated with recurrent episodes of bauxite formation since Late Cretaceous times.

  3. Formation Flying for Satellites and UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Garrick; Becker, Chris

    2015-01-01

    A formation monitoring and control system was developed utilizing mesh networking and decentralized control. Highlights of this system include low latency, seamless addition and removal of vehicles, network relay functionality, and the ability to run on a variety of hardware.

  4. Redetermination of nickel(II formate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with the previous structure determination of poly[diaquadi-μ-formato-nickel(II], [Ni(HCOO2(H2O2]n, based on Weissenberg film data [Krogmann & Mattes (1963. Z. Kristallogr. 118, 291–302], the current redetermination from modern CCD data revealed the positions of the H atoms, thus making a detailed description of the hydrogen-bonding pattern possible. Both Ni2+ cations in the crystal structure are located on inversion centres and are octahedrally coordinated. One Ni2+ cation is bound to six O atoms of six formate anions whereas the other Ni2+ cation is bound to four O atoms of water molecules and to two formate O atoms. In this way, the formate anions bridge the two types of Ni2+ cations into a three-dimensional framework. O—H...O hydrogen bonds of medium strength between water molecules and formate O atoms consolidate the packing.

  5. Colloidal Mineral Liquid Crystals. Formation & Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink op Reinink, A.B.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The central topic of this thesis is the formation, manipulation and characterization of colloidal mineral liquid crystals. Liquid crystals are liquids containing ordered anisometric particles. A range of liquid crystalline phases exists, from solely orientationally ordered nematic phases to

  6. The Role of Emotions in Delusion Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smurzyńska Adrianna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The text concerns the role of emotions in delusion formation. Provided are definitions from DSM-V and DSM-IV-R and the problems found in those definitions. One of them, the problem of delusion formation, is described when providing cognitive theories of delusions. The core of the paper is a presentation of the emotional and affective disorders in delusions, especially Capgras delusion and Cotard delusion. The author provides a comparison of the kinds of delusions and the conclusions taken from neuroimaging studies. As a result of the fact that an explanation of delusion formation focusing on emotional problems turns out to be insufficient, the author provides examples of the reasoning impairments which coexist with them. At the end of the article, some hypotheses are proposed concerning the role of emotions and reasoning in delusion formation and the relation between belief disorders and emotional disorders.

  7. Formation of soap bubbles by gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Maolei; Li, Min; Chen, Zhiyuan; Han, Jifeng; Liu, Dong

    2017-12-01

    Soap bubbles can be easily generated by various methods, while their formation process is complicated and still worth studying. A model about the bubble formation process was proposed in the study by Salkin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 077801 (2016)] recently, and it was reported that the bubbles were formed when the gas blowing velocity was above one threshold. However, after a detailed study of these experiments, we found that the bubbles could be generated in two velocity ranges which corresponded to the laminar and turbulent gas jet, respectively, and the predicted threshold was only effective for turbulent gas flow. The study revealed that the bubble formation was greatly influenced by the aerodynamics of the gas jet blowing to the film, and these results will help to further understand the formation mechanism of the soap bubble as well as the interaction between the gas jet and the thin liquid film.

  8. The formation of planets by disc fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the role that disc fragmentation plays in the formation of gas giant and terrestrial planets, and how this relates to the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars, and ultimately to the process of star formation. Protostellar discs may fragment, if they are massive enough and can cool fast enough, but most of the objects that form by fragmentation are brown dwarfs. It may be possible that planets also form, if the mass growth of a proto-fragment is stopped (e.g. if this fragment is ejected from the disc, or suppressed and even reversed (e.g by tidal stripping. I will discuss if it is possible to distinguish whether a planet has formed by disc fragmentation or core accretion, and mention of a few examples of observed exoplanets that are suggestive of formation by disc fragmentation.

  9. Inflow of atomic gas fuelling star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these ga......Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation...... in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion....

  10. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Microbiological processes in banded iron formation deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Kappler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Banded iron formations have been studied for decades, particularly regarding their potential as archives of the Precambrian environment. In spite of this effort, the mechanism of their deposition and, specifically, the role that microbes played in the precipitation of banded iron formation minerals......, remains unresolved. Evidence of an anoxic Earth with only localized oxic areas until the Great Oxidation Event ca 2·45 to 2·32 Ga makes the investigation of O2-independent mechanisms for banded iron formation deposition relevant. Recent studies have explored the long-standing proposition that Archean...... banded iron formations may have been formed, and diagenetically modified, by anaerobic microbial metabolisms. These efforts encompass a wide array of approaches including isotope, ecophysiological and phylogeny studies, molecular and mineral marker analysis, and sedimentological reconstructions. Herein...

  12. Team Formation and Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agogino, Adrian K; Tumer, Kagan

    2005-01-01

    .... Team formation presents a solution to this problem, where by joining other agents, an agent can significantly increase its knowledge about the environment and improve its chances of both optimizing...

  13. 4 dnja v drugom formate / Dmitri Babitshenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Babitshenko, Dmitri

    2007-01-01

    25.-28. okt. Teises Teatris toimuvast festivalist "Teine formaat 2. Sügishooaeg" (Drugoi format 2), mille programmis on muusikat, teatrietendusi, luulet, tantsulavastusi ja filme. Festivali organiseerija on Teise Teatri administraator Anastassia Kulkova

  14. Understanding coupling between bone resorption and formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Levin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldim; Kristensen, Helene Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    Bone remodeling requires bone resorption by osteoclasts, bone formation by osteoblasts, and a poorly investigated reversal phase coupling resorption to formation. Likely players of the reversal phase are the cells recruited into the lacunae vacated by the osteoclasts and presumably preparing...... these lacunae for bone formation. These cells, called herein reversal cells, cover >80% of the eroded surfaces, but their nature is not identified, and it is not known whether malfunction of these cells may contribute to bone loss in diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Herein, we combined...... physiological status. Their prevalence correlated with decreased trabecular bone volume and osteoid and osteoblast surfaces in postmenopausal osteoporosis. They were, however, virtually absent in primary hyperparathyroidism, in which the transition between bone resorption and formation occurs optimally...

  15. Right timing in formative program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jori; Freeman, Melissa; Roulston, Kathy

    2014-08-01

    Since many educational researchers and program developers have limited knowledge of formative evaluation, formative data may be underutilized during the development and implementation of an educational program. The purpose of this article is to explain how participatory, responsive, educative, and qualitative approaches to formative evaluation can facilitate a partnership between evaluators and educational researchers and program managers to generate data useful to inform program implementation and improvement. This partnership is critical, we argue, because it enables an awareness of when to take appropriate action to ensure successful educational programs or "kairos". To illustrate, we use examples from our own evaluation work to highlight how formative evaluation may facilitate opportune moments to (1) define the substance and purpose of a program, (2) develop understanding and awareness of the cultural interpretations of program participants, and (3) show the relevance of stakeholder experiences to program goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Star Formation in low mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang

    2018-01-01

    Our current hierarchical view of the universe asserts that the large galaxies we see today grew via mergers of numerous smaller galaxies. As evidenced by recent literature, the collective impact of these low mass galaxies on the universe is more substantial than previously thought. Studying the growth and evolution of these low mass galaxies is critical to our understanding of the universe as a whole. Star formation is one of the most important ongoing processes in galaxies. Forming stars is fundamental to the growth of a galaxy. One of the main goals of my thesis is to analyze the star formation in these low mass galaxies at different redshifts.Using the Hubble UltraViolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF), I investigate the star formation in galaxies at the peak of the cosmic star formation history using the ultraviolet (UV) light as a star formation indicator. Particularly, I measure the UV luminosity function (LF) to probe the volume-averaged star formation properties of galaxies at these redshifts. The depth of the UVUDF is ideal for a direct measurement of the faint end slope of the UV LF. This redshift range also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare UV to the "gold standard" of star formation indicators, namely the Hα nebular emission line. A joint analysis of the UV and Hα LFs suggests that, on average, the star formation histories in low mass galaxies (~109 M⊙) are more bursty compared to their higher mass counterparts at these redshifts.Complementary to the analysis of the average star formation properties of the bulk galaxy population, I investigate the details of star formation in some very bursty galaxies at lower redshifts selected from Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime Cam (SPLASH). Using a broadband color-excess selection technique, I identify a sample of low redshift galaxies with bright nebular emission lines in the Subaru-XMM Deep Field (SXDF) from the SPLASH-SXDF catalog. These galaxies are highly star forming and have

  17. The effect of anisotropy on galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, A.; Hensler, G.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional calculations of galaxy formation are presented. Gas and stars are taken into account as two distinct components interacting by star formation and stellar mass loss. While the gas is described by means of the Eulerian equation, the authors allow for an anisotropic velocity distribution among the stars by applying the collisionless Boltzmann equation. In the first model, the authors succeed in developing totally different stellar populations forming a halo and a disc. (author)

  18. Formation à l’évaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Fossati, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Cette étude de cas présente, pour une discipline précise, les sciences de la vie et de la terre, une démarche de formation à l’évaluation proposée à des professeurs de collège, dans le cadre d’un stage annuel de la MAFPEN (Mission académique de formation des personnels de l’Éducation nationale) de Versailles.

  19. Exciton formation and stability in semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggelkow, S.; Hoyer, W.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.

    2004-02-01

    The formation and stability of excitons in semiconductors is studied on the basis of a microscopic model that includes Coulomb interacting fermionic electrons and holes as well as phonons. Whereas quasiequilibrium calculations predict substantial exciton fractions coexisting with an electron-hole plasma at low temperatures and densities, dynamic calculations reveal that the exciton formation times under these conditions exceed the characteristic lifetimes. At elevated densities, good agreement between dynamical and quasiequilibrium calculations is obtained.

  20. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Grebel, Eva K.

    2000-01-01

    Properties of nearby dwarf galaxies are briefly discussed. Dwarf galaxies vary widely in their star formation histories, the ages of their subpopulations, and in their enrichment history. Furthermore, many dwarf galaxies show evidence for spatial variations in their star formation history; often in the form of very extended old populations and radial gradients in age and metallicity. Determining factors in dwarf galaxy evolution appear to be both galaxy mass and environment. We may be observi...

  1. Value Formation of Basic Anthropological Connectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    and their political value formations. In this regard, the interdisciplinary contribution of Psychology is to explore how humans as active participants can and will participate in handling such value tasks. The article presents a general, theoretical, political-psychological model, which unites precisely these two...... aspects: The political value formations of the basic anthropological conditions in human life, and the capability and will to participate in solving the subsequent value tasks....

  2. Planet formation and disk-planet interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kley, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    This review is based on lectures given at the 45th Saas-Fee Advanced Course 'From Protoplanetary Disks to Planet Formation' held in March 2015 in Les Diablerets, Switzerland. Starting with an overview of the main characterictics of the Solar System and extrasolar planets, we describe the planet formation process in terms of the sequential accretion scenario. First the growth processes of dust particles to planetesimals and subsequently to terrestrial planets or planetary cores are presented. ...

  3. Searching for Star Formation Beyond Reionization

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Dav'e, Romeel; Smith, John-David T.; Papovich, Casey; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2003-01-01

    The goal of searching back in cosmic time to find star formation during the epoch of reionization will soon be within reach. We assess the detectability of high-redshift galaxies by combining cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation, stellar evolution models appropriate for the first generations of stars, and estimates of the efficiency for Lyman alpha to escape from forming galaxies into the intergalactic medium. Our simulated observations show that Lyman alpha emission at z...

  4. REGIONAL LOGISTICS CENTER: FORMATION AND FUNCTIONING SPESIFIC

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Tkach; Iryna Voloshchuk

    2017-01-01

    In this article the essence of the definition of logistics centers is defined, the main provisions concerning the formation of the logistics center are defined. The formation of a logistic hub is analyzed. The structure of the transport-logistic center is proposed. The basic requirements for the location of the regional logistics center and the principles of its operation are determined. The financial and financial mechanism of a typical logistics center and their effective functioning are pr...

  5. Human Capital and New Firm Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Charlie; Backman, Mikaela

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact human capital has on new firm formation, traditionally expected to have a positive influence. Individuals are attracted to regions with a stimulating atmosphere and tend to stay within the same region. Since human capital is partly spatially bounded, the size of municipality accessibility to human capital is expected to have a larger impact than intra-regional and inter-regional interaction. The empirical analysis is based on data on new firm formation at th...

  6. Industrial policy formation in the Altai territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Borodin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the basic approaches to the current industrial policy, its substance, goals, methods and instruments of realization. Industrial policy classification is presented. Peculiarities of industrial policy formation at a regional level are considered. The estimate of the state of industrial production in the Altai territory and its competitiveness in various activities are assessed. The basic principles of industrial policy formation in the Altai territory and priorities of industrial production development are suggested.

  7. Framing doctoral supervision as formative assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie

    . In running courses for doctoral supervisors, one aspect that escapes attention when using these mental models is assessment, and such model can support new supervisors in reflecting on how to build autonomy. There is a body of research into the PhD examination, but this has not been translated into formative...... assessment during the PhD process. This proposal aims to fill that need by suggesting a mental model of supervision as formative assessment....

  8. Star formation histories of irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    We explore the star formation histories of a selection of irregular and spiral galaxies by using three parameters that sample the star formation rate (SFR) at different epochs: (1) the mass of a galaxy in the form of stars measures the SFR integrated over a galaxy's lifetime; (2) the blue luminosity is dominated primarily by stars formed over the past few billion years; and (3) Lyman continuum photon fluxes derived from Hα luminosities give the current ( 8 yr) SFR

  9. Formation and development of sperms in angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tatintseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermiogelnesis has been studied in a large number of Angiosperm species characterizing different levels of phylogenetic system. The formation and development of male gamets can be described as formation of sperm cells that undergo ontogenesis which stimulates changes up to full maturity of the pollen grain. The process of ontogenesis is aimed at creating a suitable delivery system by the pollen tube to a female gamete.

  10. Recognizing team formation in american football

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2014-01-01

    Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. Despite being the most popular sport in the United States, most American football game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takesmanyman hours per week. These two statistics are the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this chapter, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67%accuracy in classifying the offensive team’s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison.

  11. A uniform format for ocular imaging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H; Liebmann, J M; Uji, Y; Ritch, R

    1999-01-01

    To develop a uniform file format of ocular imaging data, including, but not limited to, ultrasound biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and nerve fiber analyzer, capable of being transmitted via Internet or intranet for collaborative research and telemedicine use. File filters were developed as dynamic link libraries (DLLs). These can read the original raw data format of each ocular imaging device. A data file format was also designed to describe these raw data uniformly in three different types of compression: noncompressed, run length compression, and differential pulse code modulation (DPCM). These three file formats were then tested in the following aspects: file size, speed of reading, and speed of writing. Run length compression failed to compress raw data, while DPCM compressed raw data successfully (DPCM. However, the actual time of reading and writing was fast enough (<0.6 s) for daily work regardless of file compression methods. The format designed has robust potential to be the standard file format for transmission of any ocular imaging raw data.

  12. Converting Taxonomic Descriptions to New Digital Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.--The majority of taxonomic descriptions is currently in print format. The majority of digital descriptions are in formats such as DOC, HTML, or PDF and for human readers. These formats do not convey rich semantics in taxonomic descriptions for computer-aided process. Newer digital formats such as XML and RDF accommodate semantic annotations that allow computers to process the rich semantics on human's behalf, thus open up opportunities for a wide range of innovative usages of taxonomic descriptions, such as searching in more precise and flexible ways, integrating with gnomic and geographic information, generating taxonomic keys automatically, and text data mining and information visualization etc. This paper discusses the challenges in automated conversion of multiple collections of descriptions to XML format and reports an automated system, MARTT. MARTT is a machine-learning system that makes use of training examples to tag new descriptions into XML format. A number of utilities are implemented as solutions to the challenges. The utilities are used to reduce the effort for training example preparation, to facilitate the creation of a comprehensive schema, and to predict system performance on a new collection of descriptions. The system has been tested with several plant and alga taxonomic publications including Flora of China and Flora of North America.

  13. Mechanics of formation of sawtooth chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Amitabh

    Formation of sawtooth chips was studied while machining case carburized 8620 steel (of varying degrees of hardness--upto Rc62), Titanium and Brass. Cutting forces were measured and an attempt was made to measure temperature during machining of case carburized 8620 steel. Conventional tool-chip thermocouple technique was modified to accommodate the effects due to design of Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) cutting inserts. The chips produced were examined under Optical Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope. A technique was developed for specimen preparation to study the microstructure of a non-etching white layer under a transmission electron microscope. All the experiments done during this study for an investigation into the root cause of a sawtooth chip formation suggest that a cyclic crack formation on the free surface side of the chip is responsible for the formation of the sawtooth chips; contrary to the widely accepted view of adiabatic shear being the root cause of the sawtooth chip formation. A Quick-Stop device was also used to determine the mechanism of the sawtooth chip formation. A new method of evaluating cutting ratio for the sawtooth chips is proposed and was verified experimentally.

  14. Quantitative dynamics of telomere bouquet formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Richards

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which homologous chromosomes pair during meiosis, as a prelude to recombination, has long been mysterious. At meiosis, the telomeres in many organisms attach to the nuclear envelope and move together to form the telomere bouquet, perhaps to facilitate the homologous search. It is believed that diffusion alone is not sufficient to account for the formation of the bouquet, and that some directed movement is also required. Here we consider the formation of the telomere bouquet in a wheat-rye hybrid both experimentally and using mathematical modelling. The large size of the wheat nucleus and wheat's commercial importance make chromosomal pairing in wheat a particularly interesting and important process, which may well shed light on pairing in other organisms. We show that, prior to bouquet formation, sister chromatid telomeres are always attached to a hemisphere of the nuclear membrane and tend to associate in pairs. We study a mutant lacking the Ph1 locus, a locus ensuring correct homologous chromosome pairing, and discover that bouquet formation is delayed in the wild type compared to the mutant. Further, we develop a mathematical model of bouquet formation involving diffusion and directed movement, where we show that directed movement alone is sufficient to explain bouquet formation dynamics.

  15. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  16. Output formatting in Apple-Soft Basic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navale, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Personal computers are being used extensively in various fields. BASIC is a very popular and widely used language in personal computers. Apple computer is one of the popular machines used for scientific and engineering applications. Presenting output from computers in a neat and easy to read form is very important. Languages like FORTRAN have utility command 'FORMAT' which takes care of the formatting of the output in user-defined form. In some versions of BASIC a PRINT USING facility is available but it is not as powerful as the FORTRAN statement 'FORMAT'. Applesoft basic does not have even this PRINT USING command. Programmers have to write their own program segments to handle output formatting in Applesoft BASIC. Generally, such user written programs are of limited use as they cannot be used easily with other programs. A general purpose and easily transportable subroutine in Applesoft BASIC is presented here for handling output formatting in user-defined structure. The subroutine is nearly as powerful as the FORMAT statement in FORTRAN. It can also be used in other versions of BASIC with very little modifications. 3 tables, 4 refs. (author)

  17. Image file formats: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, R H; Davidson, H C; Harnsberger, H R; Lauman, J R; Goede, P A

    2001-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the Internet for storage and display of World Wide Web-based teaching files, the available image file formats have remained relatively limited. The recently developed portable networks graphics (PNG) format is versatile and offers several advantages over the older Internet standard image file formats that make it an attractive option for digital teaching files. With the PNG format, it is possible to repeatedly open, edit, and save files with lossless compression along with gamma and chromicity correction. The two-dimensional interlacing capabilities of PNG allow an image to fill in from top to bottom and from right to left, making retrieval faster than with other formats. In addition, images can be viewed closer to the original settings, and metadata (ie, information about data) can be incorporated into files. The PNG format provides a network-friendly, patent-free, lossless compression scheme that is truly cross-platform and has many new features that are useful for multimedia and Web-based radiologic teaching. The widespread acceptance of PNG by the World Wide Web Consortium and by the most popular Web browsers and graphic manipulation software companies suggests an expanding role in the future of multimedia teaching file development.

  18. Networks for Autonomous Formation Flying Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblock, Eric J.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of three communications networks to support autonomous multi-spacecraft formation flying systems is presented. All systems are comprised of a ten-satellite formation arranged in a star topology, with one of the satellites designated as the central or "mother ship." All data is routed through the mother ship to the terrestrial network. The first system uses a TCP/lP over ATM protocol architecture within the formation the second system uses the IEEE 802.11 protocol architecture within the formation and the last system uses both of the previous architectures with a constellation of geosynchronous satellites serving as an intermediate point-of-contact between the formation and the terrestrial network. The simulations consist of file transfers using either the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or the Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) Protocol. The results compare the IF queuing delay, and IP processing delay at the mother ship as well as application-level round-trip time for both systems, In all cases, using IEEE 802.11 within the formation yields less delay. Also, the throughput exhibited by SAFE is better than FTP.

  19. Digital Forensics Formats: Seeking a Digital Preservation Storage Container Format for Web Archiving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhyong Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss archival storage container formats from the point of view of digital curation and preservation, an aspect of preservation overlooked by most other studies. Considering established approaches to data management as our jumping off point, we selected seven container format attributes that are core to the long term accessibility of digital materials. We have labeled these core preservation attributes. These attributes are then used as evaluation criteria to compare storage container formats belonging to five common categories: formats for archiving selected content (e.g. tar, WARC, disk image formats that capture data for recovery or installation (partimage, dd raw image, these two types combined with a selected compression algorithm (e.g. tar+gzip, formats that combine packing and compression (e.g. 7-zip, and forensic file formats for data analysis in criminal investigations (e.g. aff – Advanced Forensic File format. We present a general discussion of the storage container format landscape in terms of the attributes we discuss, and make a direct comparison between the three most promising archival formats: tar, WARC, and aff. We conclude by suggesting the next steps to take the research forward and to validate the observations we have made.

  20. Combined videofluoroscopy and manometry in the diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia: examination technique and preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappabianca, S; Reginelli, A; Monaco, L; Del Vecchio, L; Di Martino, N; Grassi, R

    2008-09-01

    Dysphagia is a symptom of different pathological conditions characterised by alteration of the swallowing mechanism, which may manifest at different levels. We report our experience in the evaluation of the swallowing mechanism with combined videofluoroscopy and manometric recordings. For the combined study, we used a Dyno Compact computerised system (Menfis Biomedical s.r.l., Bologna, Italy) equipped with: (1) graphics card for the management of ultrasonographic or radiological images; (2) A.VI.U.S. dedicated software package, which enables digital-quality recording (PAL/NTSC, composite video or S-Video) of the videofluoroscopy study in AVI format with 320 x 240 resolution and 25 Hz acquisition frequency. The delay introduced by the process of image digitalisation is in the order of 200 ms, so for analysis purposes, the images can be considered synchronised with the manometric recordings. The videomanometry study was performed with the administration of contrast material either in bolus form or diluted. Data were collected on a specifically designed grid for the evaluation of 46 videofluoroscopic items, of which 34 are derived from the laterolateral view (seven in the oral preparatory phase, 15 in the oral transport phase and 12 in the pharyngeal phase) and 12 in the anteroposterior view (six in the oral preparatory phase and six in the oropharyngeal phase). A positive finding for the individual parameters is expressed in a binary fashion. Manometric evaluation was based on 11 items divided into four major and seven minor criteria. Dynamic videofluoroscopy swallow study combined with concurrent manometry enabled the simultaneous recording of anatomical alterations and the functional data of oropharyngeal pressure, thus providing a picture of the anatomical, biomechanical and physiological conditions of swallowing and the manner of bolus propulsion and transit. An early and effective diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia means being able to effectively implement

  1. Free-format RPG IV the express guide to learning free format

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Focusing strictly on teaching free-format RPG programming methods, this book will help programmers wishing to upgrade their skills   This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything you need to know to write RPG IV in the free-format

  2. Star Cluster Structure from Hierarchical Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudic, Michael; Hopkins, Philip; Murray, Norman; Lamberts, Astrid; Guszejnov, David; Schmitz, Denise; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Young massive star clusters (YMCs) spanning 104-108 M⊙ in mass generally have similar radial surface density profiles, with an outer power-law index typically between -2 and -3. This similarity suggests that they are shaped by scale-free physics at formation. Recent multi-physics MHD simulations of YMC formation have also produced populations of YMCs with this type of surface density profile, allowing us to narrow down the physics necessary to form a YMC with properties as observed. We show that the shallow density profiles of YMCs are a natural result of phase-space mixing that occurs as they assemble from the clumpy, hierarchically-clustered configuration imprinted by the star formation process. We develop physical intuition for this process via analytic arguments and collisionless N-body experiments, elucidating the connection between star formation physics and star cluster structure. This has implications for the early-time structure and evolution of proto-globular clusters, and prospects for simulating their formation in the FIRE cosmological zoom-in simulations.

  3. Endoscopic laryngeal web formation for pitch elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer

    2007-02-01

    Endoscopic laryngeal web formation has been used to elevate the speaking voice, primarily in male to female transsexuals as part of gender reassignment intervention. The goal of this article is to review the literature regarding surgical treatment for pitch elevation and to describe a novel method of laryngeal web formation. The results of this technique are also reported in a series of six patients. All patients were assessed and treated at the St. Michael's Hospital Voice Disorders Clinic, a tertiary referral centre for voice disorders. Pre- and postoperative voice recordings, acoustic analysis, and videostroboscopic examinations were performed in this series. The acoustic data collected included isolated vowel samples, a reading task, and a modified voice range profile. The patients all underwent successful endoscopic web formation with a Gelfoam augmentation technique. The voice results collected at least 6 months after vocal fold web formation demonstrate a dramatic increase in the habitual speaking fundamental frequency. This new modification for endoscopic web formation has been shown to be a successful procedure for permanent elevation of pitch with little or no morbidity.

  4. Galaxy formation: internal mechanisms and cosmological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martig, Marie

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to galaxy formation and evolution in a cosmological context. Cosmological simulations have unveiled two main modes of galaxy growth: hierarchical growth by mergers and accretion of cold gas from cosmic filaments. However, these simulations rarely take into account small scale mechanisms, that govern internal evolution and that are a key ingredient to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Thanks to a new simulation technique that I have developed, I first studied the colors of galaxies, and in particular the reddening of elliptical galaxies. I showed that the gas disk in an elliptical galaxy could be stabilized against star formation because of the galaxy's stellar component being within a spheroid instead of a disk. This mechanism can explain the red colors of some elliptical galaxies that contain a gas disk. I also studied the formation of spiral galaxies: most cosmological simulations cannot explain the formation of Milky Way-like galaxies, i.e. with a large disk and a small bulge. I showed that this issue could be partly solved by taking into account in the simulations the mass loss from evolved stars through stellar winds, planetary nebulae and supernovae explosions. (author) [fr

  5. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  6. Star formation in evolving molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völschow, M.; Banerjee, R.; Körtgen, B.

    2017-09-01

    Molecular clouds are the principle stellar nurseries of our universe; they thus remain a focus of both observational and theoretical studies. From observations, some of the key properties of molecular clouds are well known but many questions regarding their evolution and star formation activity remain open. While numerical simulations feature a large number and complexity of involved physical processes, this plethora of effects may hide the fundamentals that determine the evolution of molecular clouds and enable the formation of stars. Purely analytical models, on the other hand, tend to suffer from rough approximations or a lack of completeness, limiting their predictive power. In this paper, we present a model that incorporates central concepts of astrophysics as well as reliable results from recent simulations of molecular clouds and their evolutionary paths. Based on that, we construct a self-consistent semi-analytical framework that describes the formation, evolution, and star formation activity of molecular clouds, including a number of feedback effects to account for the complex processes inside those objects. The final equation system is solved numerically but at much lower computational expense than, for example, hydrodynamical descriptions of comparable systems. The model presented in this paper agrees well with a broad range of observational results, showing that molecular cloud evolution can be understood as an interplay between accretion, global collapse, star formation, and stellar feedback.

  7. Formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Anaelle

    2009-01-01

    Stars form in molecular clouds, when they collapse and fragment to produce protostellar dense cores. These dense cores are then likely to contract under their own gravity, and form young protostars, that further evolve while accreting their circumstellar mass, until they reach the main sequence. The main goal of this thesis was to study the formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores. To do so, two main studies, described in this manuscript, were carried out. First, we studied the formation of protostellar cores by quantifying the impact of protostellar outflows on clustered star formation. We carried out a study of the protostellar outflows powered by the young stellar objects currently formed in the NGc 2264-C proto-cluster, and we show that protostellar outflows seem to play a crucial role as turbulence progenitors in clustered star forming regions, although they seem unlikely to significantly modify the global infall processes at work on clump scales. Second, we investigated the formation of multiple systems by core fragmentation, by using high - resolution observations that allow to probe the multiplicity of young protostars on small scales. Our results suggest that the multiplicity rate of protostars on small scales increase while they evolve, and thus favor dynamical scenarios for the formation of multiple systems. Moreover, our results favor magnetized scenarios of core collapse to explain the small-scale properties of protostars at the earliest stages. (author) [fr

  8. The accelerating pace of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Spencer; Chang, Philip

    2018-03-01

    We study the temporal and spatial distribution of star formation rates in four well-studied star-forming regions in local molecular clouds (MCs): Taurus, Perseus, ρ Ophiuchi, and Orion A. Using published mass and age estimates for young stellar objects in each system, we show that the rate of star formation over the last 10 Myr has been accelerating and is (roughly) consistent with a t2 power law. This is in line with previous studies of the star formation history of MCs and with recent theoretical studies. We further study the clustering of star formation in the Orion nebula cluster. We examine the distribution of young stellar objects as a function of their age by computing an effective half-light radius for these young stars subdivided into age bins. We show that the distribution of young stellar objects is broadly consistent with the star formation being entirely localized within the central region. We also find a slow radial expansion of the newly formed stars at a velocity of v = 0.17 km s-1, which is roughly the sound speed of the cold molecular gas. This strongly suggests the dense structures that form stars persist much longer than the local dynamical time. We argue that this structure is quasi-static in nature and is likely the result of the density profile approaching an attractor solution as suggested by recent analytic and numerical analysis.

  9. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  10. THE SPECIAL STATUS OF EXOGENOUS WORD-FORMATION WITHIN THE GERMAN WORD-FORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilyuk Sergey Aleksandrovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the properties of exogenous word-formation system taking into account the existence of two word-formation systems in modern German. On the basis of foreign research which reveal modern trends in German word-formation connected with the internationalization and the development of new European Latin language. The author defines key features of exogenous word-formation, i.e. foreign origin of wordformation units, unmotivated units, unmotivated interchange in base and affixes as well as limited distribution rules in combination with German word-formation. The article analyzes various approaches to word-division, as well as motivated and unmotivated interchange of consonants in bases and in affixes. Unmotivated interchange showcases a special status of the exogenous word-formation within German. Another item covered by the article is the issue of confix. The article has opinions of researchers about correctness of its separation and a list of its features. The author presents his definition of confix: a confix is a bound exogenous word-formation unit with a certain lexical and semantic meaning and joining other units directly or indirectly (through linking morpheme -o-, which is able to make a base. Moreover, some confixes are able to participate at word-combination and have unlimited distribution. So far, confix showcases the integration of exogenous word-formation and traditional German word-formation. The research proves the special status of exogenous word-formation in German. Its results can be used as a base for further analysis of co-existing word-formation systems in German and determination of their characteristic features.

  11. In situ oxidation of subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Li, Busheng [Houston, TX; Shen, Chonghui [Calgary, CA

    2011-01-11

    Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

  12. Linking the Scales of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, Daniela; and the LEGUS Team

    2018-01-01

    Understanding galaxy evolution requires understanding star formation and its dependence on the local environment, spanning the scales from individual stars to kpc–size structures. The physical conditions within galaxies determine the formation of stars, star clusters, and larger structures, and their subsequent evolution. Observations of external galaxies with the HST that include the UV have enabled the characterization of the young stellar populations with unprecedented accuracy and detail, thus aiding the census and description of those populations. We are now in a position to quantify the spatial distribution and clustering of young stars, and investigate the impact and imprint of the physical conditions of both the local and global environment on the formation and evolution of the multi-scale structures. This talk describes the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS), an HST Treasury programs aimed at investigating these issues using multi-color imaging, from the near-UV to the I, of a sample of fifty nearby galaxies.

  13. Hydrodynamics of primordial black hole formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadezhin, D. K.; Novikov, I. D.; Polnarev, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrodynamic picture of the formation of primordial black holes (PBH) at the early stages of expansion of the Universe is considered. It is assumed that close to singularity, expansion occurs in a quasi-isotropic way. Using an EVM, a spherically symmetrical nonlinear problem of the evolution of primary strong deviation from the Fridman solution was solved. What these deviations must be, so that the formation of PBH occurred was clarified. Attention was devoted to the role of pressure gradients. It is pointed out that at the moment of formation of PBH, only a small part of matter enters into it, primarily the component of perturbation. It is also pointed out that at this moment, the mass of PBH essentially is smaller than the mass considered within the cosmic horizon. The possibility of changing the mass of the PBH as a result of accretion is analyzed.

  14. FORMATIVE AND REFLECTIVE MODELS IN MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ioana CIOBANU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Compliance with the construct validity criteria is necessary for the correct assessment of the research in terms of quality and for further development of the marketing models. The identification of formative and reflective constructs as well as the correct testing of their validity and reliability are important methodological steps for marketing research as described in this article. The first part defines the reflective and the formative constructs and highlighst their particularities by analysing the theoretical criteria that differentiate them. In the second part of the study aspects of validity and trust for the formative and reflective constructs are presented as well as some empirical considerations from research literature regarding their measurement.

  15. Dust Evolution and the Formation of Planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnstiel, T.; Fang, M.; Johansen, A.

    2016-12-01

    The solid content of circumstellar disks is inherited from the interstellar medium: dust particles of at most a micrometer in size. Protoplanetary disks are the environment where these dust grains need to grow at least 13 orders of magnitude in size. Our understanding of this growth process is far from complete, with different physics seemingly posing obstacles to this growth at various stages. Yet, the ubiquity of planets in our galaxy suggests that planet formation is a robust mechanism. This chapter focuses on the earliest stages of planet formation, the growth of small dust grains towards the gravitationally bound "planetesimals", the building blocks of planets. We will introduce some of the key physics involved in the growth processes and discuss how they are expected to shape the global behavior of the solid content of disks. We will consider possible pathways towards the formation of larger bodies and conclude by reviewing some of the recent observational advances in the field.

  16. Whisker Formation On Galvanic Tin Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanyi A.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the effect of substrate composition, thickness of the tin electroplate and its morphology on pressure-induced tin whisker formation. Pure tin deposits of different thickness were obtained on a copper and brass substrates using methane sulfonic industrial bath. The deposits were compressed by a steel bearing ball forming imprint on the surface. The microstructure of tin whiskers obtained at the boundary of each imprint, their length and number were studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the most intensive formation and growth of whiskers was observed in the first two hours. In general, brass substrate was shown to be more prone to whisker formation than copper independently of the tin coating thickness. The results have been compared with industrial bright tin finish on control unit socket leads and proposals have been made as to modification of the production process in order to minimize the risk of whiskering.

  17. Heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P.; Frich, Lars Henrik; Sjøbjerg, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    the glenohumeral and/or the glenoacromial space. There was no correlation between shoulder pain and the development of ossification. Shoulders with grade III heterotopic bone formation had a limited range of active elevation compared with shoulders without or with only a milder lesion. Men and patients......The incidence and location of heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty were evaluated in 58 Neer Mark-II total shoulder replacements. One year after surgery, 45% had developed some ectopic ossification. In six shoulders (10%) the ossifications roentgenographically bridged...... with osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint were significantly disposed to the development of heterotopic bone. Heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty is frequent, but disabling heterotopic ossifications seem to be rare....

  18. Protostar formation in the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-08-01

    The nature of the first generation of stars in the universe remains largely unknown. Observations imply the existence of massive primordial stars early in the history of the universe, and the standard theory for the growth of cosmic structure predicts that structures grow hierarchically through gravitational instability. We have developed an ab initio computer simulation of the formation of primordial stars that follows the relevant atomic and molecular processes in a primordial gas in an expanding universe. The results show that primeval density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang can drive the formation of a tiny protostar with a mass 1% that of the Sun. The protostar is a seed for the subsequent formation of a massive primordial star.

  19. Formation of brine channels in sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Klaus; Thoms, Silke; Kutschan, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    Liquid salty micro-channels (brine) between growing ice platelets in sea ice are an important habitat for CO 2 -binding microalgaea with great impact on polar ecosystems. The structure formation of ice platelets is microscopically described and a phase field model is developed. The pattern formation during solidification of the two-dimensional interstitial liquid is considered by two coupled order parameters, the tetrahedricity as structure of ice and the salinity. The coupling and time evolution of these order parameters are described by a consistent set of three model parameters. They determine the velocity of the freezing process and the structure formation, the phase diagram, the super-cooling and super-heating region, and the specific heat. The model is used to calculate the short-time frozen micro-structures. The obtained morphological structure is compared with the vertical brine pore space obtained from X-ray computed tomography.

  20. Transmission Electron Microscopy Physics of Image Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohl, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation presents the theory of image and contrast formation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy. The principles of particle and wave optics of electrons are described. Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast. Also discussed are the kinematical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal-structure analysis and imaging of lattices and their defects. X-ray microanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods. Specimen damage and contamination by electron irradiation limits the resolution for biological and some inorganic specimens. This fifth edition includes discussion of recent progress, especially in the area of aberration correction and energy filtering; moreover, the topics introduced in the fourth edition have been updated. Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation is written f...

  1. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  2. Dual format algorithm for monostatic SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, LeRoy A.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2010-04-01

    The polar format algorithm for monostatic synthetic aperture radar imaging is based on a linear approximation of the differential range to a scatterer, which leads to spatially-variant distortion and defocus in the resultant image. While approximate corrections may be applied to compensate for these effects, these corrections are ad-hoc in nature. Here, we introduce an alternative imaging algorithm called the Dual Format Algorithm (DFA) that provides better isolation of the defocus effects and reduces distortion. Quadratic phase errors are isolated along a single dimension by allowing image formation to an arbitrary grid instead of a Cartesian grid. This provides an opportunity for more efficient phase error corrections. We provide a description of the arbitrary image grid and we show the quadratic phase error correction derived from a second-order Taylor series approximation of the differential range. The algorithm is demonstrated with a point target simulation.

  3. Formation and Assembly of Massive Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Stephen

    The formation of stars and star clusters is a major unresolved problem in astrophysics. It is central to modeling stellar populations and understanding galaxy luminosity distributions in cosmological models. Young massive clusters are major components of starburst galaxies, while globular clusters are cornerstones of the cosmic distance scale and represent vital laboratories for studies of stellar dynamics and stellar evolution. Yet how these clusters form and how rapidly and efficiently they expel their natal gas remain unclear, as do the consequences of this gas expulsion for cluster structure and survival. Also unclear is how the properties of low-mass clusters, which form from small-scale instabilities in galactic disks and inform much of our understanding of cluster formation and star-formation efficiency, differ from those of more massive clusters, which probably formed in starburst events driven by fast accretion at high redshift, or colliding gas flows in merging galaxies. Modeling cluster formation requires simulating many simultaneous physical processes, placing stringent demands on both software and hardware. Simulations of galaxies evolving in cosmological contexts usually lack the numerical resolution to simulate star formation in detail. They do not include detailed treatments of important physical effects such as magnetic fields, radiation pressure, ionization, and supernova feedback. Simulations of smaller clusters include these effects, but fall far short of the mass of even single young globular clusters. With major advances in computing power and software, we can now directly address this problem. We propose to model the formation of massive star clusters by integrating the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code into the Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE) framework, to work with existing stellar-dynamical and stellar evolution modules in AMUSE. All software will be freely distributed on-line, allowing

  4. Radiation hydrodynamics of super star cluster formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Benny Tsz Ho; Milos Milosavljevic

    2018-01-01

    Throughout the history of the Universe, the nuclei of super star clusters represent the most active sites for star formation. The high densities of massive stars within the clusters produce intense radiation that imparts both energy and momentum on the surrounding star-forming gas. Theoretical claims based on idealized geometries have claimed the dominant role of radiation pressure in controlling the star formation activity within the clusters. In order for cluster formation simulations to be reliable, numerical schemes have to be able to model accurately the radiation flows through the gas clumps at the cluster nuclei with high density contrasts. With a hybrid Monte Carlo radiation transport module we developed, we performed 3D radiation hydrodynamical simulations of super star cluster formation in turbulent clouds. Furthermore, our Monte Carlo radiation treatment provides a native capability to produce synthetic observations, which allows us to predict observational indicators and to inform future observations. We found that radiation pressure has definite, but minor effects on limiting the gas supply for star formation, and the final mass of the most massive cluster is about one million solar masses. The ineffective forcing was due to the density variations inside the clusters, i.e. radiation takes the paths of low densities and avoids forcing on dense clumps. Compared to a radiation-free control run, we further found that the presence of radiation amplifies the density variations. The core of the resulting cluster has a high stellar density, about the threshold required for stellar collisions and merging. The very massive star that form from the stellar merging could continue to gain mass from the surrounding gas reservoir that is gravitationally confined by the deep potential of the cluster, seeding the potential formation of a massive black hole.

  5. Study of Formation Mechanisms of Gas Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    Gas hydrates, which had been found in subsurface geological environments of deep-sea sediments and permafrost regions, are solid crystalline compounds of gas molecules and water. The estimated energy resources of hydrates are at least twice of that of the conventional fossil fuel in the world. Gas hydrates have a great opportunity to become a dominating future energy. In the past years, many laboratory experiments had been conducted to study chemical and thermodynamic characteristics of gas hydrates in order to investigate the formation and dissociation mechanisms of hydrates. However, it is difficult to observe the formation and dissociation of hydrates in a porous media from a physical experiment directly. The purpose of this study was to model the dynamic formation mechanisms of gas hydrate in porous media by reservoir simulation. Two models were designed for this study: 1) a closed-system static model with separated gas and water zones; this model was a hydrate equilibrium model to investigate the behavior of the formation of hydrates near the initial gas-water contact; and 2) an open-system dynamic model with a continuous bottom-up gas flow; this model simulated the behavior of gas migration and studied the formation of hydrates from flowed gas and static formation water in porous media. A phase behavior module was developed in this study for reservoir simulator to model the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior of hydrates. The thermodynamic equilibriums and chemical reactions were coupled with the phase behavior module to have functions modelling the formation and dissociation of hydrates from/to water and gas. The simulation models used in this study were validated from the code-comparison project proposed by the NETL. According to the modelling results of the closed-system static model, we found that predominated location for the formation of hydrates was below the gas-water contact (or at the top of water zone). The maximum hydrate saturation

  6. Landscape-geochemical factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batulin, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of landscape-geochemical factors on hydrogenic formation of uranium ores is considered. The primary attention is paid to finding reasons for hydrogeochemical background increase in the regions of arid climate. Problems of uranium distribution in alluvial landscapes, hydrogeochemical regime of ground waters, reflecting the effect of waters of the zone of aeration are revealed. Chemical composition of porous solutions in the zone of aeration, as well as historical geochemindstry of landscape a its role from the view point of uranium solution formation in the arid zone are considered [ru

  7. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  8. Thermally activated martensite formation in ferrous alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetometry was applied to investigate the formation of α/α´martensite in 13ferrous alloys during immersion in boiling nitrogen and during re-heating to room temperature at controlled heating rates in the range 0.0083-0.83 K s-1. Data showsthat in 3 of the alloys, those that form {5 5 7}γ...... martensite, no martensite developsduring cooling. For all investigated alloys, irrespective of the type of martensiteforming, thermally activated martensite develops during heating. The activationenergy for thermally activated martensite formation is in the range 8‒27 kJ mol-1and increases with the fraction...... of interstitial solutes in the alloy...

  9. Inorganic chemical precipitate formation payload design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Craig

    1988-01-01

    The Get Away Special payload to investigate the formation of inorganic precipitates (G-405) utilizes six transparent chemical reaction chambers to actively mix a dry powder with a liquid solution. At predetermined intervals the progress of the precipitate formation is photographed and stored as data. The precipitate particles will also be subject to post-flight analysis. The various tasks performed during the 14 hour duration of the experiment are initiated and monitored by a custom-built digital controller. The payload is currently scheduled as a backup payload for STS-29 with a possible launch date of January, 1989.

  10. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin [Houston, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  11. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation...... or a combination of the two have been studied. The use of polarization multiplexing (PolMux) to double the bit rate has also been investigated. The impact of transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion, self phase modulation and cross phase modulation has been investigated. The feasibility of multilevel...... modulation for network oriented scenarios has been demonstrated....

  12. Dityrosine formation is impaired by tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, S; Bernhard, G; Patrizia, R; Brigitte, M

    1992-10-15

    Using pure tyrosine and phosphotyrosine we have recently shown that phosphotyrosine is unable to form peroxidase catalyzed dimers (1989, FEBS Lett. 255, 395-397). In the present report, the effect of phosphotyrosine residues within a protein structure on dityrosine formation was studied using casein as a model protein. Dephosphorylation of casein resulted in a dose and time dependent increased synthesis of dityrosines following treatment with peroxidase/H2O2. The extent of crosslink formation was inversely related to the amount of phosphorylated tyrosine residues as quantitated by immunoblotting. Thus, phosphorylation of tyrosine residues could play a regulatory role in protein-crosslinking where dityrosine bonds are involved.

  13. Exopolysaccharide influence on acid gel formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yoanidu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Turbidimetric monitoring of milk coagulation was conducted in situ. Milk gel was produced by acidification with the use of three strains of starter culture. These strains were characterized by various acidification rate and exopolysaccharides (EPS production. The concentrations of EPS affect mostly the pH of gel formation (5.53 - low EPS – producing strain; 5.33 - medium EPS – producing strain; 5.46 - high EPS – producing strain whereas the time of gel formation depends on the various rate of acidification of all three strains.

  14. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  15. Functions in Free-Format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Written especially for programmers adopting a free-format style, this manual explores the role of functions in writing RPG IV programs. Demonstrating the potential of functions, many topics are explored such as details about existing RPG IV built-in functions, writing new functions, using ILE concepts to use C functions, and utilizing IBM API's functions. Explaining how to write small programs, either as sub-procedures or modules, and how to gather those parts together to make programs that are easy to write and maintain, this is a natural next step for programmers familiar with a free-format

  16. Dual format algorithm implementation with gotcha data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, LeRoy A.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2012-05-01

    The Dual Format Algorithm (DFA) is an alternative to the Polar Format Algorithm (PFA) where the image is formed first to an arbitrary grid instead of a Cartesian grid. The arbitrary grid is specifically chosen to allow for more efficient application of defocus and distortion corrections that occur due to range curvature. We provide a description of the arbitrary image grid and show that the quadratic phase errors are isolated along a single dimension of the image. We describe an application of the DFA to circular SAR data and analyze the image focus. For an example SAR dataset, the DFA doubles the focused image size of the PFA algorithm with post imaging corrections.

  17. Pratiques sociales en formation à distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Dussarps

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available L’abandon en formation ouverte et à distance (FOAD constitue un enjeu important tant pour les apprenants que pour les organismes de formation, que ce soit pour des raisons économiques, sociales, ou encore d’image de soi ou publique (Sauvé, 2012. L’un des éléments clés de l’abandon semble être la solitude vécue par les apprenants (Glikman, 2002, p. 242. Ce sentiment de solitude et l’abandon semblent peu dépendants de facteurs socio-démographiques (sexe, âge, etc. (Park et Choi, 2009. Face...

  18. Core Formation in Giant Gaseous Protoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Helled, Ravit; Schubert, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentation rates of silicate grains in gas giant protoplanets formed by disk instability are calculated for protoplanetary masses between 1 M_Saturn to 10 M_Jupiter. Giant protoplanets with masses of 5 M_Jupiter or larger are found to be too hot for grain sedimentation to form a silicate core. Smaller protoplanets are cold enough to allow grain settling and core formation. Grain sedimentation and core formation occur in the low mass protoplanets because of their slow contraction rate and l...

  19. Research of Self-Formation Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romas Petrauskas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lateral etching processes for the modeling of the geometry of self-formation nanostructures with Silvaco TCAD Athena program are analyzed. Self-formation nanostructures is modeled with different mask selectivity values equal to 2, 10, 40 and 100 with respect to the etching layer, with the etching duration of 0–180 s. The etching rates are constant – 1.33 nm/s. The analysis of the dependence of the etching systematic error on its thickness has been carried out. The computer modeled results are close to the ones produced by means of the application of the analytical calculation models by other authors.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Vélomobile Formations-in-Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2014-01-01

    seen to be together in a “mobile with”. This article reports on an investigation of some of the different vélomobile formations-in-action that involve specific arrangements of bodies on bikes and configurations of a “vélomobile with”. Video recordings of commuter and family bike rides using consumer...... and micro video cameras from multiangles were made to capture aural and visual features of the local organization of the ride from the participants’ perspective(s). Several phenomena are presented and discussed, including starting, stopping, and maintaining a vélomobile formation; singling up and tucking in...

  1. Multigenerational Perspectives on Family Formation Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2014-01-01

    The transformed opportunity structure individuals have experienced over the course of the 20th century has not only changed family life, but also led to increased educational requirements, higher expectations of social mobility in the labor market, and overall perceived prospects of a healthier...... of family formation behavior in the Danish context....... life. Moreover, presence of generational transmission of family formation behavior such as cohabitation, age at first marriage and childbearing has been widely documented. Thus, it has become more appropriate to approach family life events in a non-linear manner by emphasizing the existence of various...

  2. General certification procedure of formation organizations; Procedure generale de certification des organismes de formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document presents the procedure dealing with the certification of formation organizations dispensing the formation and the risks prevention to the personnel of A or B category in nuclear facilities. This certification proves the organization ability to satisfy the ''F'' specification of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  3. Formation Design Strategy for SCOPE High-Elliptic Formation Flying Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuichi

    2007-01-01

    The new formation design strategy using simulated annealing (SA) optimization is presented. The SA algorithm is useful to survey a whole solution space of optimum formation, taking into account realistic constraints composed of continuous and discrete functions. It is revealed that this method is not only applicable for circular orbit, but also for high-elliptic orbit formation flying. The developed algorithm is first tested with a simple cart-wheel motion example, and then applied to the formation design for SCOPE. SCOPE is the next generation geomagnetotail observation mission planned in JAXA, utilizing a formation flying techonology in a high elliptic orbit. A distinctive and useful heuristics is found by investigating SA results, showing the effectiveness of the proposed design process.

  4. Tribofilms: aspects of formation, stability and removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morina, Ardian; Neville, Anne [Institute of Engineering Thermofluids, Surfaces and Interfaces, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-21

    There has been much attention paid to the lubricant additives zinc dialkyldithiphosphate and molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate as the most commonly used antiwear/antioxidant and friction modifiers. The mechanism by which they function has been the subject of much research work. As a result of these efforts the tribofilms formed from the above additives are fully chemically characterized but understanding the physical properties and the dynamics of their formation, stability and removal is still not satisfactory and needs more research. This paper reviews the general characteristics of tribofilms formed from these additives in single component systems and also on their interactions as well as the current understanding of the dynamics of their formation. Experimental work is then presented alongside discussion of the literature to present a current status of understanding of the stability and the removal of tribofilms. The effect of temperature and additive interactions on the thickness of the steady state tribofilms, and consequently the effect on friction performance, is evaluated. The results of this study show that temperature and additive interactions play a significant role on the dynamic process of tribofilm formation as well as its chemical properties. This study also highlights the areas in which further development is needed to ensure progress in understanding of the tribofilm's formation and removal processes.

  5. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This contains a higher concentration of anionic impurities related to differences in the solubility of the original aluminium salts. The sulfate is retained in the gel to higher temperatures at which its eventual decomposition may lead to the formation of a reactive pore structure which facilitates the nucleation of -Al2O3.

  6. Molecular Genetics of Supernumerary Tooth Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Ping; Fan, Jiabing

    2011-01-01

    Summary Despite advances in the knowledge of tooth morphogenesis and differentiation, relatively little is known about the aetiology and molecular mechanisms underlying supernumerary tooth formation. A small number of supernumerary teeth may be a common developmental dental anomaly, while multiple supernumerary teeth usually have a genetic component and they are sometimes thought to represent a partial third dentition in humans. Mice, which are commonly used for studying tooth development, only exhibit one dentition, with very few mouse models exhibiting supernumerary teeth similar to those in humans. Inactivation of Apc or forced activation of Wnt/β(catenin signalling results in multiple supernumerary tooth formation in both humans and in mice, but the key genes in these pathways are not very clear. Analysis of other model systems with continuous tooth replacement or secondary tooth formation, such as fish, snake, lizard, and ferret, is providing insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying succesional tooth development, and will assist in the studies on supernumerary tooth formation in humans. This information, together with the advances in stem cell biology and tissue engineering, will pave ways for the tooth regeneration and tooth bioengineering. PMID:21309064

  7. Fibrin clot formation and lysis: basic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, JJ; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    consequently is an important substrate in the physiology of hemostasis. This review describes the components and processes involved in fibrin formation and fibrin degradation. Particular emphasis is put on the reactions involved in the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the polymerization of fibrin molecules...

  8. Azithromycin Retards Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Richard J.; Iglewski, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    Using a flow cell biofilm model, we showed that a sub-MIC of azithromycin (AZM) can delay but not inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and results in the development of a stable AZM resistance phenotype. Furthermore, mature biofilms were not affected by AZM. PMID:15583321

  9. Anilide formation from thioacids and perfluoroaryl azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Sheng; Fukumoto, Ryo; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2015-05-01

    A metal-free method for fast and clean anilide formation from perfluoroaryl azide and thioacid is presented. The reaction proved highly efficient, displaying fast kinetics, high yield, and good chemoselectivity. The transformation was compatible with various solvents and tolerant to a wide variety of functional groups, and it showed high performance in polar protic/aprotic media, including aqueous buffer systems.

  10. C-S Bond formation by

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 2. Transition metal-promoted synthesis of 2-aryl/heteroaryl-thioquinazoline: C-S Bond formation by “Chan-Lam Cross-Coupling” Reaction. SATYA KARUNA PULAKHANDAM NARESH KUMAR KATARI RAVI PRAKASH REDDY MANDA. Regular Article ...

  11. Mark formation modeling in optical rewritable recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusche, J.H.; Segal, A.; Vuik, C.; Urbach, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In optical rewritable recording media, such as the Blu-ray Disc, amorphous marks are formed on a crystalline background of a phase-change layer, by means of short, high power laser pulses. In order to improve this data storage concept, it is of great importance to understand the mark formation

  12. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Galaxies interactions and induced star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kennicutt Jr, Robert C; Barnes, JE

    1998-01-01

    The papers that make up this volume present a comprehensive review of the field of galaxy interaction. Galaxies are dynamic forces that evolve, interact, merge, blaze and reshape. This book offers a historical perspective and studies such topics as induced star formation.

  14. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hangyu, E-mail: hangyuz@uw.edu [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Rochet, Jean-Christophe [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Stanciu, Lia A. [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils.

  15. Study of particle track formation in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigrist, A.; Balzer, R.

    1988-02-01

    Energy loss (dE/dξ MeVcm 2 /mg) for track formation in a dielectric is determined for mica, tourmaline, fused quartz, quartz crystal, lithium niobate and beryllia is determined. The value dE/dξ of a track detector can be estimated from thermal conductivity [fr

  16. The dynamics of group formation among leeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eBisson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leeches exploring a new environment continuously meet each other and merge in temporary groups. After 2-3 hours, leeches become attracted to each other eventually forming a large and stable group. When their number is reduced, leeches remain solitary, behaving independently. Group formation is facilitated by body injection of serotonin (5-HT and the level of endogenous 5-HT is elevated in leeches forming a large group. In contrast, intravenous injection of 5-HT antagonists prevented injected leeches from joining a large group of conspecifics. When sensilla near the head were ablated or the supraesophageal ganglion disconnected, leeches remained solitary, but explored the environment swimming and crawling. These results suggest that group formation is initiated by a release of 5-HT triggered by sensilla stimulation and its dynamics can be explained by the establishment of a reinforcement dynamics, as observed during human group formation. As 5-HT affects social interactions also in humans, group formation in leeches and humans share a similar dynamics and hormonal control.

  17. Local induction of inflammation affects bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, M.; Kruyt, M. C.; Loozen, L.; Kragten, A. H M; Yuan, H.; Dhert, W. J.; Öner, F. C.; Alblas, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    To explore the influence of inflammatory processes on bone formation, we applied a new in vivo screening model. Confined biological pockets were first created in rabbits as a response to implanted bone cement discs. These biomembrane pockets were subsequently used to study the effects of

  18. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elstner, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Formation, isomerization, and derivatization of keggin tungstoaluminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer J. Cowan; Alan J. Bailey; Robert A. Heintz; Bao T. Do; Kenneth I. Hardcastle; Craig L. Hill; Ira A. Weinstock

    2001-01-01

    Trends in the stability of ¥á and ©¬-Keggin heteropolytungstates of the second-row main-group heteroatoms Al(III), Si(IV), and P(V) are elaborated by data that establish the roles of kinetic and thermodynamic control in the formation and isomerization of Keggin tungstoaluminates. Slow, room-temperature co-...

  20. Bag formation in three-quark chromostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By constructing explicit projection operators for the irreducible SU(n) representations, we demonstrate in the static quark limit, with the renormalization group improved effective Lagrangian, that bag formation occurs in the color singlet channel of the three-quark system. Non-linear but Abelian field equations are derived which, when solved, will allow the determination of an effective potential in this case

  1. Crack Formation in Grouted Annular Composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The objective of the present analysis is to identify the reason for extensive crack formation which occurred during an annulus grouting performance test, to evaluate possible consequences of the cracking, and to recommend measures to be taken in order to avoid similar problems in the future....

  2. Amyloid formation via supramolecular peptide assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roger A; Hayes, Stanley F; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Priola, Suzette A

    2007-06-19

    Amyloid fibrils have been classically defined as linear, nonbranched polymeric proteins with a cross beta-sheet structure and the ability to alter the optical properties of the amyloid-specific dye Congo Red. Mounting evidence suggests that soluble oligomeric peptide assemblies approximately 2-20 nm in diameter are critical intermediates in amyloid formation. Using a pathogenic prion protein peptide comprised of residues 23-144, we demonstrate that, under quiescent but not agitated conditions, much larger globular assemblies up to 1 mum in diameter are made. These globules precede fibril formation and directly interact with growing fibril bundles. Fibrils made via these large spherical peptide assemblies displayed a remarkable diversity of ultrastructural features. Fibrillization of the Abeta1-40 peptide under similar conditions yielded similar results, suggesting a mechanism of general amyloid formation that can proceed through intermediates much larger than those previously described. Our data suggest that simply changing the physical microenvironment can profoundly influence the mechanism of amyloid formation and yield fibrils with novel ultrastructural properties.

  3. Mucocele formation after frontal sinus obliteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, F. S.; van der Poel, N. A.; Freling, N. J. M.; Fokkens, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    A possible complication of frontal sinus obliteration with fat is the formation of mucoceles. We studied the prevalence of mucoceles as well as and the need for revision surgery. Retrospective case review of forty consecutive patients undergoing frontal sinus obliteration from September 1995 to

  4. Analcite formation in the Agades Region (Niger)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-06-01

    A study based mainly upon field mapping and drill cores examination, followed by a laboratory survey allows us to support a genetic hypothesis upon the formation of analcime in the 'Continental intercalaire' of Agades (Niger). Analcime could be generated from an early diagenesis of argillaceous sediments influenced by high soda content fossil waters inside confined continental sedimentary basins. (authors) [fr

  5. On the formation of Caldera’s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.

    1928-01-01

    In two previous publications (bibl. 1 and 2) I have brought the formation of calderas into relation with the gas phase, observed by Perret during the eruption of Vesuvius in 1906 (bibl. 3). In these papers I arrived at the conclusion that during the gas phase a cylinder is cored out, and that this

  6. Counteracting ring formation in rotary kilns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisaroni, M.; Sadi, R.; Lahaye, D.

    Avoiding the formation of rings in rotary kilns is an issue of primary concern to the cement production industry. We developed a numerical combustion model that revealed that in our case study rings are typically formed in zones of maximal radiative heat transfer. This local overheating causes the

  7. Macrovoids formation and light scattering of PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . On the other hand, if the hydrolysis temperature is higher, the macrovoids are likely to be open-type. Due to the formation of macrovoids, smaller than visible wavelengths, the light will disperse, and therefore, reduces the transmittance of the ...

  8. Does simvastatin stimulate bone formation in vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorev Michael

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins, potent compounds that inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver have been reported to induce bone formation, both in tissue culture and in rats and mice. To re-examine potential anabolic effects of statins on bone formation, we compared the activity of simvastatin (SVS to the known anabolic effects of PTH in an established model of ovariectomized (OVX Swiss-Webster mice. Methods Mice were ovariectomized at 12 weeks of age (T0, remained untreated for 5 weeks to allow development of osteopenia (T5, followed by treatment for 8 weeks (T13. Whole, trabecular and cortical femoral bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (micro CT. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS was used to detect the presence of SVS and its active metabolite, simvastatin β-hydroxy acid (SVS-OH in the mouse serum. Results Trabecular BV/TV at T13 was 4.2 fold higher in animals treated with PTH (80 micro-g/kg/day compared to the OVX-vehicle treated group (p in vivo study. Conclusions While PTH demonstrated the expected anabolic effect on bone, SVS failed to stimulate bone formation, despite our verification by LC/MS of the active SVS-OH metabolite in mouse serum. While statins have clear effects on bone formation in vitro, the formulation of existing 'liver-targeted' statins requires further refinement for efficacy in vivo.

  9. The Formation of Laborer's Movement in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Onozawa, Nitaya

    2002-01-01

    The formation of labore's movement in Thailand cannnot be viewed without regard to the development of capitalization.Thus this consists of two parts,the historical background of capitalization and organizing process of the labores'movement.Ⅰ.The Historical Background of Capitalization, The trend of number of hired laborers and the expansion of Thai industry will be discussed.According to change ...

  10. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form γ-Al2O3 at ~ 400°C but the formation of α-Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material ...

  11. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived ...

  12. Amyloid plaque formation precedes dendritic spine loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Tobias; Burgold, Steffen; Dorostkar, Mario M; Fuhrmann, Martin; Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M; Schmidt, Boris; Kretzschmar, Hans; Herms, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Amyloid-beta plaque deposition represents a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. While numerous studies have described dendritic spine loss in proximity to plaques, much less is known about the kinetics of these processes. In particular, the question as to whether synapse loss precedes or follows plaque formation remains unanswered. To address this question, and to learn more about the underlying kinetics, we simultaneously imaged amyloid plaque deposition and dendritic spine loss by applying two-photon in vivo microscopy through a cranial window in double transgenic APPPS1 mice. As a result, we first observed that the rate of dendritic spine loss in proximity to plaques is the same in both young and aged animals. However, plaque size only increased significantly in the young cohort, indicating that spine loss persists even many months after initial plaque appearance. Tracking the fate of individual spines revealed that net spine loss is caused by increased spine elimination, with the rate of spine formation remaining constant. Imaging of dendritic spines before and during plaque formation demonstrated that spine loss around plaques commences at least 4 weeks after initial plaque formation. In conclusion, spine loss occurs, shortly but with a significant time delay, after the birth of new plaques, and persists in the vicinity of amyloid plaques over many months. These findings hence give further hope to the possibility that there is a therapeutic window between initial amyloid plaque deposition and the onset of structural damage at spines.

  13. Theological Education and Character Formation in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents theological education and character formation in Nigerian Christianity. Some theologians and religious scholars do not offer any practical recipes in dealing with the major pressing problems of theological training for Christian ministry today in the 21st century Nigerian society. Some priests, lay workers ...

  14. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hangyu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils

  15. Macrovoids formation and light scattering of PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    ratures following the saturation of PMMA by methanol and ethanol, and distilled water as extractor. The effects of hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time on the macrovoids formation mechanism and the macrovoids morphology are also investigated. In the second part of the study, relationships between the transmittance ...

  16. Tidal flat landscape formation and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal flat landscape formation and evolution are closely related to the biotic and abiotic processes that take place in the intertidal environments. Extensive studies have been carried out on the relevant agents such as hydrodynamics, sediment transport and the related ecosystem (vegetation and

  17. Formative Assessment in Mathematics for Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Fhloinn, Eabhnat; Carr, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a range of formative assessment types for engineering mathematics, including in-class exercises, homework, mock examination questions, table quizzes, presentations, critical analyses of statistical papers, peer-to-peer teaching, online assessments and electronic voting systems. We provide practical tips for the…

  18. Syndrome of shperical enlightement (cavitary formation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Syndrome is characterized by spherical enlightement surrounded by a closed ring-shaped shadow. Such picture is created by the lung cavity. Intrasyndrome differential diagnosis of the cavitary formations in the lungs and differential diagnosis of restricted pneumothorax, intrapulmonary cavities are given. Ethiology, pathogenesis and pathomorphology of spherical enlightement syndrome, its clinical picture and investigation methods are discussed

  19. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  20. Modes, Genres, and Formats, Oh My!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culham, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The precision of terminology and language used with students can be a help or a hindrance to teaching writing. This article explores the writing instruction terms mode, genre, and format, and establishes the need for a common language to understand and apply them consistently across teachers and grades.

  1. The Formation of an Ecological Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biriukova, N. A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how realization of the ideas of humanistic pedagogy and psychology serves as the foundation for the development of value attitudes toward nature and the surrounding world, for the formation of a new type of ecological consciousness. It is obvious that the interaction between human civilization and the earth's…

  2. Formative Justice: The Regulative Principle of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Concepts of justice relevant to making personal and public decisions about education. Purpose: To clarify a concept of formative justice that persons and the public often ignore in making decisions about educational effort. Setting: "The windmills of your mind" Research Design: Reflective essay.…

  3. Formation of Aqueous Suspensions of Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloidal suspensions of C60, C70 and a derivative of C60, PCBM ([6,6]-Phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester) were produced by extended mixing in water. We examined the contribution of background solution chemistry (pH, ionic strength) on the formation kinetics of colloidal suspe...

  4. Coalition Formation in Games with Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montero, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies an extensive form game of coalition formation with random proposers in a situation where coalitions impose externalities on other players. It is shown that an agreement will be reached without delay provided that any set of coalitions profit from merging. Even under this strong

  5. Continuous formation of liturgy through social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Kruger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article researches two focal points, namely liturgical formation and the influence that social cognition has on liturgical formation. Within a South African context it is evident that Western liturgical traditions encounter African traditions and vice versa. This encounter is challenging because it creates new questions. The process of enculturation is prominent in recent research. The article refers to the process of social cognition as the manner in which people observe each other and try to make sense of other cultures and the people of those cultures. People’s cognition can be wrong, leading to distortions. The main research question for this investigation emanates from this possibility, namely: How does social cognition influence the process of liturgical formation? The authors first of all offer a descriptive– empirical vantage point to investigate this matter. Two local congregations were visited. The authors reflect on their own cognition, but also examine the cognition of the leaders through interviews. Based on the findings of this endeavour, normative perspectives are formulated from Acts 17:16–35 to highlight the role of cognition in liturgical formation. Throughout, the article includes consideration of the hermeneutic interaction between the various elements of this research and provides hermeneutic guidelines.

  6. Pattern formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsek, Matthew R.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria are capable of forming elaborate multicellular communities called biofilms. Pattern formation in biofilms depends on cell proliferation and cellular migration in response to the available nutrients and other external cues, as well as on self-generated intercellular signal molecules and t...

  7. Formatting Design Dialogues – Games and Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Messeter, Jörn; Binder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    . Next we look more closely at what constitutes game and play, we discuss other authors’ use of games in collaborative settings and finally we examine the board game as a particularly interesting game format. In the second part of the article we present and discuss two board games: the User Game...

  8. Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We theoretically study the formation of multiple dark photovoltaic soliton splitting in the quasi-steady-state and steady-state regimes under open-circuit conditions. We find that the initial width of the dark notch at the entrance face of the crystal is a key parameter for generating an even (or odd) number sequence of dark ...

  9. Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We theoretically study the formation of multiple dark photovoltaic soliton splitting in the quasi-steady-state and steady-state regimes under open-circuit conditions. We find that the initial width of the dark notch at the entrance face of the crystal is a key parameter for generating an even (or odd) number sequence of ...

  10. Star formation history written in spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the process of star formation is mapped from large to small scales, using the world's most advanced observatories. Discoveries of several young stars with peculiar environments are reported. Dynamics of circumstellar gas and dust are analyzed in a diverse ensemble of young stars. The

  11. Input Enhancement and L2 Question Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which form-focused instruction and corrective feedback (i.e., "input enhancement"), provided within a primarily communicative program, contribute to learners' accuracy in question formation. Study results are interpreted as evidence that input enhancement can bring about genuine changes in learners' interlanguage…

  12. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  13. Stellar Content and Star Formation Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Tosi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of irregular galaxies is examined from two points of view: on the one hand, models of galactic chemical evolution have been computed and their predictions compared with the corresponding observational data on the element abundances, and on the other hand, the results of a new method to derive the star formation history in the last 1 Gyr in nearby irregulars are presented.

  14. Towards team formation via automated planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muise, Christian; Dignum, Frank; Felli, Paolo; Miller, Tim; Pearce, Adrian R.; Sonenberg, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative problem solving involves four key phases: (1) finding potential members to form a team, (2) forming the team, (3) formulating a plan for the team, and (4) executing the plan. We extend recent work on multi-agent epistemic planning and apply it to the problem of team formation in a

  15. MyPlate, Children, and Formative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Roofe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning at the critical preschool level, preventing childhood obesity is a multifaceted challenge with health, economic, ethical, and social implications. In particular, increasing emphasis will be placed upon educating children and their caregivers about the USDA’s MyPlate model of good nutrition. To date, evidence-based efforts to teach preschool children nutrition facts and appropriate behaviors are limited, and developers of evidence-based practices do not appear to use formative-evaluation to an adequate extent. Crucial among these evaluations is assessing what the preschool child already knows about the MyPlate components (fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, and dairy. University researchers along with graduate students in nutrition and psychology conducted a review of current research regarding the use of MyPlate in early childhood education settings. Minimal empirical studies were found, indicating a need to expand the literature in the areas of MyPlate, early childhood nutrition education, and formative evaluation. In the current article, authors present the systematic review process of the scant knowledge that exists regarding formative evaluation research to document what preschool-age children already know about nutrition, suggest ways that this research base might be expanded, and advocate for the increased use of formative evaluation in both research and curriculum development.

  16. Formative assessment promotes learning in undergraduate clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Clinical clerkships, typically situated in environments lacking educational structure, form the backbone of undergraduate medical training. The imperative to develop strategies that enhance learning in this context is apparent. This study explored the impact of longitudinal bedside formative assessment on ...

  17. Triggered star formation in expanding shells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ehlerová, Soňa; Palouš, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 4 (2002), s. 1022-1026 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003705; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : interstellar medium * star formation * HI shells Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.671, year: 2002

  18. The triggered star formation in rotating disks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa; Elmegreen, B. G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 281, 1-2 (2002), s. 101-104 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003705; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : star formation * interstellar medium Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.383, year: 2002

  19. Dwarf galaxies : Important clues to galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E

    2003-01-01

    The smallest dwarf galaxies are the most straight forward objects in which to study star formation processes on a galactic scale. They are typically single cell star forming entities, and as small potentials in orbit around a much larger one they are unlikely to accrete much (if any) extraneous

  20. Skills and Regional Entrepreneurship Capital Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendonça, Joana; Grimpe, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    - and knowledge-intensive sectors. In this paper, we shed light on the skill base of a region in terms of its endowment with human capital and the composition, i.e. specialization or diversity, of skills. Moreover, we look at the context in which entrepreneurship capital formation takes place by focusing...

  1. Autonomous formation flying in low earth orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Amico, S.

    2010-01-01

    Formation flying is commonly identified as the collective usage of two or more cooperative spacecraft to exercise the function of a single monolithic virtual instrument. The distribution of tasks and payloads among fleets of coordinated smaller satellites offers the possibility to overcome the

  2. Formation of Ion Phase-Space Vortexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of ion phase space vortexes in the ion two stream region behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks are observed in a laboratory experiment. A detailed analysis demonstrates that the evolution of such vortexes is associated with ion-ion beam instabilities and a nonlinear equation for ...

  3. Triggered star formation and its consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shule; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.

    2014-11-01

    Star formation can be triggered by compression from wind or supernova-driven shock waves that sweep over molecular clouds. Because these shocks will likely contain processed elements, triggered star formation has been proposed as an explanation for short-lived radioactive isotopes (SLRIs) in the Solar system. Previous studies have tracked the triggering event to the earliest phases of collapse and have focused on the shock properties required for both successful star formation and mixing of SLRIs. In this paper, we use adaptive mesh refinement simulation methods, including sink particles, to simulate the full collapse and subsequent evolution of a stable Bonnor- Ebert sphere subjected to a shock and post-shock wind. We track the flow of the cloud material after a star (a sink particle) has formed. For non-rotating clouds, we find robust triggered collapse and little bound circumstellar material remaining around the post-shock collapsed core. When we add initial cloud rotation, we observe the formation of discs around the collapsed core which then interact with the post-shock flow. Our results indicate that these circumstellar discs are massive enough to form planets and are long lived, in spite of the ablation driven by post-shock-flow ram pressure. As a function of the initial conditions, we also track the time evolution of the accretion rates and particle mixing between the ambient wind and cloud material. The latter is maximized for cases of highest Mach number.

  4. Interstellar clouds and the formation of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfen, H.; Carlqvist, P.

    1977-12-01

    The 'pseudo-plasma formalism' which up to now has almost completely dominated theoretical astrophysics must be replaced by an experimentally based approach, involving the introduction of a number of neglected plasma phenomena, such as electric double layers, critical velocity, and pinch effect. The general belief that star light is the main ionizer is shown to be doubtful; hydromagnetic conversion of gravitational and kinetic energy may often be much more important. The revised plasma physics is applied to dark clouds and star formation. Magnetic fields do not necessarily counteract the contraction of a cloud, they may just as well 'pinch' the cloud. Magnetic compression may be the main mechanism for forming interstellar clouds and keeping them together. Star formation is due to an instability, but it is very unlikely that it has anything to do with the Jeans instablility. A reasonable mechanism is that the sedimentation of 'dust' (including solid bodies of different size) is triggering off a gravitationally assisted accretion. The study of the evolution of a dark cloud leads to a scenario of planet formation which is reconcilable with the results obtained from studies based on solar system data. This means that the new approach to cosmical plasma physics discussed logically leads to a consistent picture of the evolution of dark clouds and the formation of solar systems

  5. Studies of void formation in pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Glowinski, L.; Risbet, A.; Regnier, P.; Flament, J.L.; Levy, V.; Adda, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Recent experiments on the effect of gases on the final configuration of vacancy clustering (void or loop), and on the local effects at dislocations are described. The contribution of this data to a general knowledge of void formation will be discussed, and Monte Carlo calculations of swelling induced by irradiation with different particles presented [fr

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Quaternary Stereocenter Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Matcha, Kiran; Lutz, Martin; de Vries, Johannes G.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of beta,beta-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and

  7. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric quaternary stereocenter formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, A.L.; Matcha, K.; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; de Vries, J.G.; Minnaard, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient palladium catalyst is presented for the formation of benzylic quaternary stereocenters by conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to a variety of β,β-disubstituted carbocyclic, heterocyclic, and acyclic enones. The catalyst is readily prepared from PdCl2, PhBOX, and AgSbF6, and provides

  8. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    . In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  9. Liturgical Catechesis: Congregational Practice as Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. Byron

    1997-01-01

    Considers the defining role of ritual liturgical practices (hymn singing, prayer, sacred meal) in establishing and maintaining the faith of a religious community. Argues that liturgical practices (acting as formative and catechesis agents) are critical, constitutive, and normative for persons and communities of faith. (MJP)

  10. Hydrogeological evaluation of geological formations in Ashanti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, therefore, employed Geographical Information System to assess some of these hydrogeological parameters in the Ashanti Region using the ordinary kriging interpolation method. Data on 2,788 drilled boreholes in the region were used and the assessment focused on the various geological formations in the ...

  11. College Students' Understanding of Atmospheric Ozone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kristen E.; Brown, Shane A.; Chung, Serena H.; Jobson, B. Thomas; VanReken, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that high school and college students have a lack of conceptual understanding of global warming, ozone, and the greenhouse effect. Most research in this area used survey methodologies and did not include concepts of atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. This study investigates college students' understandings of atmospheric…

  12. Epigenetic Regulation of Memory Formation and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovkic, Iva B.; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C.; Sweatt, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of memories is a central goal of the neuroscience community. It is well regarded that an organism's ability to lastingly adapt its behavior in response to a transient environmental stimulus relies on the central nervous system's capability for structural…

  13. Simulation of Kinkband Formation in Fiber Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badri; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2010-01-01

    subroutine in ABAQUS/Standard for analyzing the kinkband formation in the fiber composites under compressive loading within the framework of large deformation kinematics. This computational model analyses the effects of misalignment on elastic plastic deformation under plane strain conditions based...

  14. Messenger RNA 3' end formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, A G

    2008-01-01

    Messenger RNA 3' end formation is an integral step in the process that gives rise to mature, translated messenger RNAs in eukaryotes. With this step, a pre-messenger RNA is processed and polyadenylated, giving rise to a mature mRNA bearing the characteristic poly(A) tract. The poly(A) tract is a fundamental feature of mRNAs, participating in the process of translation initiation and being the focus of control mechanisms that define the lifetime of mRNAs. Thus messenger RNA 3' end formation impacts two steps in mRNA biogenesis and function. Moreover, mRNA 3' end formation is something of a bridge that integrates numerous other steps in mRNA biogenesis and function. While the process is essential for the expression of most genes, it is also one that is subject to various forms of regulation, such that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gene expression may be modulated via the polyadenylation complex. In this review, the current status of understanding of mRNA 3' end formation in plants is discussed. In particular, the nature of mRNA 3' ends in plants is reviewed, as are recent studies that are beginning to yield insight into the functioning and regulation of plant polyadenylation factor subunits.

  15. Galaxy formation with radiative and chemical feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziani, L.; Salvadori, S.; Schneider, R.; Kawata, D.; de Bennassuti, M.; Maselli, A.

    Here we introduce GAMESH, a novel pipeline that implements self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback in a computational model of galaxy formation. By combining the cosmological chemical-evolution model GAMETE with the radiative transfer code CRASH, GAMESH can post-process realistic outputs of

  16. Group formation in early clinical project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge

    Research shows that getting involved is a key aspect of learning, and a way of getting involved is through study groups [1]. Forming groups are always a theme that is discussed, both amongst faculty and students. There is a different approach at different semesters regarding this formation, but l...

  17. 48 CFR 333.212-70 - Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under Rule 4. The Government Trial Attorney for this case is ______ (insert General Law Division, Office... Section 333.212-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 333.212-70 Formats. (a) Contracting...

  18. Meteorological influences on coastal new particle formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.; Buzorius, G.; O`Dowd, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    The meteorological situation at the midlatitude coastal station of Mace Head, Ireland, is described based on observations during the New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE) experiments in September 1998 and June 1999. Micrometeorological sensors were mounted near the

  19. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, Marit

    2002-07-01

    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the

  20. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the development of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how C. uda

  1. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  2. ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS FOR VOCAL FOLD POLYP FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAŠA GLUVAJIĆ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vocal fold polyp is one of the most common causes for hoarseness. Many different etiological factors contribute to vocal fold polyp formation. The aim of the study was to find out whether the etiological factors for polyp formation have changed in the last 30 years.Methods: Eighty-one patients with unilateral vocal fold polyp were included in the study. A control group was composed of 50 volunteers without voice problems who matched the patients by age and gender. The data about etiological factors and the findings of phoniatric examination were obtained from the patients' medical documentation and from the questionnaires for the control group. The incidence of etiological factors was compared between the two groups. The program SPSS, Version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The most frequent etiological factors were occupational voice load, GER, allergy and smoking. In 79% of patients 2 – 6 contemporary acting risk factors were found. Occupational voice load (p=0,018 and GER (p=0,004 were significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls. The other factors did not significantly influence the polyp formation.Conclusions: There are several factors involved simultaneously in the formation of vocal fold polyps both nowadays and 30 years ago. Some of the most common factors remain the same (voice load, smoking, others are new (GER, allergy, which is probably due to the different lifestyle and working conditions than 30 years ago. Occupational voice load and GER were significantly more frequently present in the patients with polyp than in the control group. Regarding the given results it is important to instruct workers with professional vocal load about etiological factors for vocal fold polyp formation.

  3. Fracture formation post impact on Enceladus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kathleen; Roberts, James

    2017-10-01

    Saturn’s small icy moon Enceladus was observed by the Cassini mission to have jets of ice and vapor emanating from its southern polar terrain (SPT), creating a plume. The fact that the activity is only observed in one region has not been well explained. Hypotheses include a regional sea beneath the SPT or a global ocean that is thicker beneath the SPT, which feeds a group of fractures observed there called the tiger stripes. As Enceladus orbits Saturn, stresses acting on the moon may open and close the fractures enabling interior volatiles to escape and form the plume. Here we investigate how these fractures could have formed and the activity begun. We propose that an impact could have either punctured through or caused substantial melt and fracturing in an ice shell connecting to a liquid layer below. Our goal is to determine whether a formation of fractures resembling the tiger stripes could emerge post-impact.Previous work by Roberts and Stickle (LPSC 2017, #1955) modeled an impact into an ice shell over an ocean and calculated penetration depth and melt temperatures and volumes through the shell thickness. Fracturing would occur during and after the impact, the crater would collapse, water would begin to refreeze and subsequent fluid exchange would occur. Working forward from a point after impact and as the ice shell begins refreezing, we performed finite element modeling to simulate the probable formation of fractures based on the resulting stress regime. Here we explore fracture formation for shells ranging from 1 km to 5 km thick (consistent with gravity and libration studies), to explore formation as the shell cools and thickens through time. We emplaced several fractures, penetrating either entirely or partially across the base to surface. Fracture interactions, tidal stress forcing with orbital true anomalies and ocean water pressurization are considered free parameters in the model. We present results for a number of parameter value combinations and

  4. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  5. Blood drop patterns: Formation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoyang; Zhang, Liyuan; Zang, Duyang; Shen, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The drying of a drop of blood or plasma on a solid substrate leads to the formation of interesting and complex patterns. Inter- and intra-cellular and macromolecular interactions in the drying plasma or blood drop are responsible for the final morphologies of the dried patterns. Changes in these cellular and macromolecular components in blood caused by diseases have been suspected to cause changes in the dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood, which could be used as simple diagnostic tools to identify the health of humans and livestock. However, complex physicochemical driving forces involved in the pattern formation are not fully understood. This review focuses on the scientific development in microscopic observations and pattern interpretation of dried plasma and whole blood samples, as well as the diagnostic applications of pattern analysis. Dried drop patterns of plasma consist of intricate visible cracks in the outer region and fine structures in the central region, which are mainly influenced by the presence and concentration of inorganic salts and proteins during drying. The shrinkage of macromolecular gel and its adhesion to the substrate surface have been thought to be responsible for the formation of the cracks. Dried drop patterns of whole blood have three characteristic zones; their formation as functions of drying time has been reported in the literature. Some research works have applied engineering treatment to the evaporation process of whole blood samples. The sensitivities of the resultant patterns to the relative humidity of the environment, the wettability of the substrates, and the size of the drop have been reported. These research works shed light on the mechanisms of spreading, evaporation, gelation, and crack formation of the blood drops on solid substrates, as well as on the potential applications of dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood in diagnosis. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Gas-Phase Formation of Methyl Formate in Hot Molecular Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Anne; Møllendal, Harald; Sekiguchi, Osamu; Uggerud, Einar; Roberts, Helen; Herbst, Eric; Viggiano, A. A.; Fridgen, Travis D.

    2004-08-01

    Methyl formate, HCOOCH3, is a well-known interstellar molecule prominent in the spectra of hot molecular cores. The current view of its formation is that it occurs in the gas phase from precursor methanol, which is synthesized on the surfaces of grain mantles during a previous colder era and evaporates while temperatures increase during the process of high-mass star formation. The specific reaction sequence thought to form methyl formate, the ion-molecule reaction between protonated methanol and formaldehyde followed by dissociative recombination of the protonated ion [HCO(H)OCH3]+, has not been studied in detail in the laboratory. We present here the results of both a quantum chemical study of the ion-molecule reaction between [CH3OH2]+ and H2CO as well as new experimental work on the system. In addition, we report theoretical and experimental studies for a variety of other possible gas-phase reactions leading to ion precursors of methyl formate. The studied chemical processes leading to methyl formate are included in a chemical model of hot cores. Our results show that none of these gas-phase processes produces enough methyl formate to explain its observed abundance.

  7. No effect of steroids on seroma formation after mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Mette; Axelsson, Christen Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Seroma formation is a common problem after breast surgery. Studies indicate that seroma formation is a result of the postoperative inflammatory process. Glucocorticoid inhibits the inflammatory response.......Seroma formation is a common problem after breast surgery. Studies indicate that seroma formation is a result of the postoperative inflammatory process. Glucocorticoid inhibits the inflammatory response....

  8. ASDF - A Modern Data Format for Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Lion; Smith, James; Lei, Wenjie; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Ruan, Youyi; Sales de Andrade, Elliot; Podhorszki, Norbert; Bozdag, Ebru; Tromp, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    Seismology as a science is driven by observing and understanding data and it is thus vital to make this as easy and accessible as possible. The growing volume of freely available data coupled with ever expanding computational power enables scientists to take on new and bigger problems. This evolution is to some part hindered as existing data formats have not been designed with it in mind. We present ASDF (http://seismic-data.org), the Adaptable Seismic Data Format, a novel, modern, and especially practical data format for all branches of seismology with particular focus on how it is incorporated into seismic full waveform inversion workflows. The format aims to solve five key issues: Efficiency: Fast I/O operations especially in high performance computing environments, especially limiting the total number of files. Data organization: Different types of data are needed for a variety of tasks. This results in ad hoc data organization and formats that are hard to maintain, integrate, reproduce, and exchange. Data exchange: We want to exchange complex and complete data sets. Reproducibility: Oftentimes just not existing but crucial to advance our science. Mining, visualization, and understanding of data: As data volumes grow, more complex, new techniques to query and visualize large datasets are needed. ASDF tackles these by defining a structure on top of HDF5 reusing as many existing standards (QuakeML, StationXML, PROV) as possible. An essential trait of ASDF is that it empowers the construction of completely self-describing data sets including waveform, station, and event data together with non-waveform data and a provenance description of everything. This for example for the first time enables the proper archival and exchange of processed or synthetic waveforms. To aid community adoption we developed mature tools in Python as well as in C and Fortran. Additionally we provide a formal definition of the format, a validation tool, and integration into widely used

  9. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  10. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carniani, Stefano, E-mail: sc888@mrao.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-16

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s), which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  11. Phase formation of physically associating polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Fumihiko

    1993-01-01

    Polymers exhibit a variety of condensed phases when some of their segments are capable of forming weak bonds which can be created and destroyed by thermal motion. Transition from one phase to another caused by such 'segment association' is reversible by the change of the temperature and the concentration, so that it is called 'reversible phase transition'. What types of reversible phase formation are possible for a given associative interaction? What is the most fundamental laws which govern the competition between molecular association and phase separation? This paper surveys, as typical examples of reversible phases, macroscopic phase separation, microphase formation, solvation, gelation, etc. from the unified point of view, and explores the possibility of new condensed phases caused by their mutual interference. (author)

  12. Modeling the Formation of Language: Embodied Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steels, Luc

    This chapter gives an overview of different experiments that have been performed to demonstrate how a symbolic communication system, including its underlying ontology, can arise in situated embodied interactions between autonomous agents. It gives some details of the Grounded Naming Game, which focuses on the formation of a system of proper names, the Spatial Language Game, which focuses on the formation of a lexicon for expressing spatial relations as well as perspective reversal, and an Event Description Game, which concerns the expression of the role of participants in events through an emergent case grammar. For each experiment, details are provided how the symbolic system emerges, how the interaction is grounded in the world through the embodiment of the agent and its sensori-motor processing, and how concepts are formed in tight interaction with the emerging language.

  13. Black holes, cooling flows and galaxy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, J A

    2005-03-15

    Central black holes in galaxies are now well established as a ubiquitous phenomenon, and this fact is important for theories of cosmological structure formation. Merging of galaxy haloes must preserve the proportionality between black hole mass and baryonic mass; the way in which this happens may help solve difficulties with existing ing models of galaxy formation, which suffer from excessive cooling and thus over- produce stars. Feedback from active nuclei may be the missing piece of the puzzle, regulating galaxy-scale cooling flows. Such a process now seems to be observed in cluster-scale cooling flows, where dissipation of sound waves generated by radio lobes can plausibly balance the energy lost in X-rays, at least in a time-averaged sense.

  14. Rheopathologic Consequence of Plasmodium vivax Rosette Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rou Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites dramatically alter the rheological properties of infected red blood cells. In the case of Plasmodium vivax, the parasite rapidly decreases the shear elastic modulus of the invaded RBC, enabling it to avoid splenic clearance. This study highlights correlation between rosette formation and altered membrane deformability of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes, where the rosette-forming infected erythrocytes are significantly more rigid than their non-rosetting counterparts. The adhesion of normocytes to the PvIRBC is strong (mean binding force of 440pN resulting in stable rosette formation even under high physiological shear flow stress. Rosetting may contribute to the sequestration of PvIRBC schizonts in the host microvasculature or spleen.

  15. Multiwavelength Mapping of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, Alvio; ESO Workshop

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of astronomical observation have dramatically increased over the last decade. Major satellites, like the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra and XMM Newton, are complemented by numerous large ground-based observatories, from 8m-10m optical telescopes to sub-mm and radio facilities. As a result, observational astronomy has access to virtually the whole electromagnetic spectrum of galaxies, even at high redshifts. Theoretical models of galaxy formation and cosmological evolution now face a serious challenge to match the plethora of observational data. In October 2003, over 170 astronomers from 15 countries met for a 4-day workshop to extensively illustrate and discuss all major observational projects and ongoing theoretical efforts to model galaxy formation and evolution. This volume contains the complete proceedings of this meeting and is therefore a unique and timely overview of the current state of research in this rapidly evolving field.

  16. Collective Identity Formation in Hybrid Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulongne, Romain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    on the literature on knowledge sharing across organizational boundaries, particularly the notions of transfer, translation and transformation, to examine in real time how knowledge sharing in a hybrid setting contributes (or not) to the emergence of a new collective identity at the interface of two heterogeneous......The present article examines the process of collective identity formation in the context of hybrid organizing. Empirically, we investigate hybrid organizing in a collaborative structure at the interface of two heterogeneous organizations in the domain of new renewable energies. We draw...... organizations. Our findings point to two factors that limit knowledge sharing and hence to new collective identity formation in a hybrid space: 1) ambiguous or multiple organizational roles and 2) strong identities of the collaborating organizations. These findings contribute to illuminating the initial...

  17. Kinetics of current formation in molecular diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Eh.G.; Leonov, V.A.; Shevchenko, E.V.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the kinetic theory of election transfer in low-dimensional molecular systems, the formation of transient and stationary currents in a system 'electrode l-molecule-electrode 2' (molecular diode) is studied for different regimes of charge transmission. In the framework of the HOMO-LUMO molecular model, a situation is considered where the current formation is initiated either by molecule photoexcitation or by change of interelectrode voltage bias. It is found that the distant (tunnel) inelastic electron transfer plays a crucial role in changing molecular electronic states and, as a result, in generating transmission channels for hopping (sequential) and distant (direct) current components. The effect of inelastic tunneling is especially pronounced in the condition of resonant electron transmission.

  18. REGIONAL LOGISTICS CENTER: FORMATION AND FUNCTIONING SPESIFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Tkach

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence of the definition of logistics centers is defined, the main provisions concerning the formation of the logistics center are defined. The formation of a logistic hub is analyzed. The structure of the transport-logistic center is proposed. The basic requirements for the location of the regional logistics center and the principles of its operation are determined. The financial and financial mechanism of a typical logistics center and their effective functioning are presented. It is proved that the most important component of the logistics center is transport. Key words: logistics centers, logistics, hub, distribution centers, transport and logistics centers, regional logistic centers, logistics complex, transport, transport-logistic system.

  19. Nanoscale Membrane Domain Formation Driven by Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes generate specific functions through compartmentalized regions such as cholesterol-enriched membrane nanodomains that host selected proteins. Despite the biological significance of nanodomains, details on their structure remain elusive. They cannot be observed via microscopic...... dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol - the "minimal standard" for nanodomain formation. The simulations reveal how cholesterol drives the formation of fluid cholesterol-rich nanodomains hosting hexagonally packed cholesterol-poor lipid nanoclusters, both of which show registration between the membrane leaflets....... The complex nanodomain substructure forms when cholesterol positions itself in the domain boundary region. Here cholesterol can also readily flip-flop across the membrane. Most importantly, replacing cholesterol with a sterol characterized by a less asymmetric ring region impairs the emergence of nanodomains...

  20. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.